WorldWideScience

Sample records for measured eddy diffusivities

  1. Measurement of heat and momentum eddy diffusivities in recirculating LMFBR outlet plenum flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, V.P.; Golay, M.W.

    1978-06-01

    An optical technique has been developed for the measurement of the eddy diffusivity of heat in a transparent flowing medium. The method uses a combination of two established measurement tools: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for the monitoring of turbulently fluctuating temperature and a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) for the measurement of turbulent velocity fluctuations. The technique is applied to the investigation of flow fields characteristic of the LMFBR outlet plenum. The study is accomplished using air as the working fluid in a small scale Plexiglas test section. Lows are introduced into both the 1 / 15 scale FFTF outlet plenum and the 3 / 80 scale CRBR geometry plenum at inlet Reynolds numbers of 22,000. Measurements of the eddy diffusivity of heat and the eddy diffusivity of momentum are performed at a total of 11 measurement stations. Significant differences of the turbulence parameters are found between the two geometries, and the higher chimney structure of the CRBR case is found to be the major cause of the distinction. Spectral intensity studies of the fluctuating electronic analog signals of velocity and temperature are also performed. Error analysis of the overall technique indicates an experimental error of 10% in the determination of the eddy diffusivity of heat and 6% in the evaluation of turbulent momentum viscosity. In general it is seen that the turbulence in the cases observed is not isotropic, and use of isotropic turbulent heat and momentum diffusivities in transport modelling would not be a valid procedure

  2. Turbulent eddy diffusion models in exposure assessment - Determination of the eddy diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuan; Ramachandran, Sandhya; Arnold, Susan; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2017-03-01

    The use of the turbulent eddy diffusion model and its variants in exposure assessment is limited due to the lack of knowledge regarding the isotropic eddy diffusion coefficient, D T . But some studies have suggested a possible relationship between D T and the air changes per hour (ACH) through a room. The main goal of this study was to accurately estimate D T for a range of ACH values by minimizing the difference between the concentrations measured and predicted by eddy diffusion model. We constructed an experimental chamber with a spatial concentration gradient away from the contaminant source, and conducted 27 3-hr long experiments using toluene and acetone under different air flow conditions (0.43-2.89 ACHs). An eddy diffusion model accounting for chamber boundary, general ventilation, and advection was developed. A mathematical expression for the slope based on the geometrical parameters of the ventilation system was also derived. There is a strong linear relationship between D T and ACH, providing a surrogate parameter for estimating D T in real-life settings. For the first time, a mathematical expression for the relationship between D T and ACH has been derived that also corrects for non-ideal conditions, and the calculated value of the slope between these two parameters is very close to the experimentally determined value. The values of D T obtained from the experiments are generally consistent with values reported in the literature. They are also independent of averaging time of measurements, allowing for comparison of values obtained from different measurement settings. These findings make the use of turbulent eddy diffusion models for exposure assessment in workplace/indoor environments more practical.

  3. Eddy diffusion coefficients and their upper limits based on application of the similarity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vlasov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The equation for the diffusion velocity in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere (MLT includes the terms for molecular and eddy diffusion. These terms are very similar. For the first time, we show that, by using the similarity theory, the same formula can be obtained for the eddy diffusion coefficient as the commonly used formula derived by Weinstock (1981. The latter was obtained by taking, as a basis, the integral function for diffusion derived by Taylor (1921 and the three-dimensional Kolmogorov kinetic energy spectrum. The exact identity of both formulas means that the eddy diffusion and heat transport coefficients used in the equations, both for diffusion and thermal conductivity, must meet a criterion that restricts the outer eddy scale to being much less than the scale height of the atmosphere. This requirement is the same as the requirement that the free path of molecules must be much smaller than the scale height of the atmosphere. A further result of this criterion is that the eddy diffusion coefficients Ked, inferred from measurements of energy dissipation rates, cannot exceed the maximum value of 3.2 × 106 cm2 s−1 for the maximum value of the energy dissipation rate of 2 W kg−1 measured in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere (MLT. This means that eddy diffusion coefficients larger than the maximum value correspond to eddies with outer scales so large that it is impossible to use these coefficients in eddy diffusion and eddy heat transport equations. The application of this criterion to the different experimental data shows that some reported eddy diffusion coefficients do not meet this criterion. For example, the large values of these coefficients (1 × 107 cm2 s−1 estimated in the Turbulent Oxygen Mixing Experiment (TOMEX do not correspond to this criterion. The Ked values inferred at high latitudes by Lübken (1997 meet this criterion for summer and winter polar data, but the Ked values for summer at low latitudes

  4. An atmospheric electrical method to determine the eddy diffusion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Atmospheric electrical profiles; electrode layer; ion–aerosol balance equations. ... eddy diffusion theory (K-theory) in our model equations. K-theory is appropriate for near neutral ...... limit of strong turbulent mixing; J. Geophys. Res.

  5. Vertical eddy diffusion as a key mechanism for removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the global surface oceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, R.; Jurado Cojo, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325788227; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467; Dachs, J.

    2013-01-01

    Here we estimate the importance of vertical eddy diffusion in removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the surface Ocean and assess its importance as a global sink. Measured water column profiles of PFOA were reproduced by assuming that vertical eddy diffusion in a 3-layer ocean model is the sole

  6. Local eddy current measurements in pulsed fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H. [SEPI-Electronica, ESIME-IPN, UPALM Edif. ' Z' . Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: jhespina@gmail.com; Groessinger, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    This work presents new eddy current measurements in pulsed fields. A commercial point pick-up coil is used to detect the induction signal along the radius of Cu and Al samples with cylindrical shape and diameters between 5 and 35 mm. Local eddy current measurements were performed on the surface of conducting materials due to the small dimensions of the coil. A simple electrical circuit, used as a model, is proposed to describe the local eddy current effect in pulsed fields. The proposed model allows to calculate the phase shift angle between the signal proportional to eddy currents and the applied external field in a pulsed field magnetometer.

  7. Studies of microstructured falling film reactor using Eddy diffusivity concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantu-Perez, A.; Al-Rawashdeh, M.I.M.; Hessel, V.; Gavriilidis, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. This work introduces a model for the absorption of CO2 in a falling film microreactor that incorporates staggered herringbone structures. The effect of the herringbone structures was incorporated into the model via a position dependent eddy diffusivity obtained from turbulent theory

  8. Vertical eddy diffusion as a key mechanism for removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the global surface oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jurado, Elena; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Dachs, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Here we estimate the importance of vertical eddy diffusion in removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the surface Ocean and assess its importance as a global sink. Measured water column profiles of PFOA were reproduced by assuming that vertical eddy diffusion in a 3-layer ocean model is the sole cause for the transport of PFOA to depth. The global oceanic sink due to eddy diffusion for PFOA is high, with accumulated removal fluxes over the last 40 years of 660 t, with the Atlantic Ocean accounting for 70% of the global oceanic sink. The global oceans have removed 13% of all PFOA produced to a depth greater than 100 m via vertical eddy diffusion; an additional 4% has been removed via deep water formation. The top 100 m of the surface oceans store another 21% of all PFOA produced (∼1100 t). Highlights: •Eddy diffusion has removed ∼660 t of PFOA from surface oceans over the last 40 years. •Atlantic Ocean accounts for 70% of the global oceanic sink of PFOA. •Vertical eddy diffusion has moved ∼13% of PFOA to oceans deeper than 100 m. •Around 4% of PFOA has been removed via deep water formation. •The top 100 m of global oceans contain ∼21% of historical PFOA production. -- Vertical eddy diffusion is an important removal process for hydrophilic organic pollutants such as PFOA from the surface ocean

  9. Eddy currents in pulsed field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepferling, M.; Groessinger, R.; Wimmer, A.; Taraba, M.; Scholz, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: One problem of pulsed field magnetometry is an error in magnetization, which appears in measurements of conducting samples. This error is due to eddy currents induced by a time varying field. To allow predictions how eddy currents exert influence on the hysteresis loop, systematic experimental and theoretical studies of pulsed field measurements of metallic samples were performed. The theoretical studies include analytical calculations as well as numerical ones using a 2D finite element software. In the measurements three physical parameters have been varied: i) the conductivity of the sample by using two different materials, in this case technical Cu and Al ii) size and shape of the sample by using cylinders, spheres and cuboids iii) the pulse duration of the external field by changing the capacitor battery from 8mF ( =9.1ms) to 24mF ( =15.7ms). The time dependence of the external field corresponds with a pulsed damped harmonic oscillation with a maximum value of 5.2T. The samples were studied in the as cast state (after machining) as well as after heat treatment. Theoretical calculations showed not only good agreement with the absolute values of the measured eddy current m agnetization , they also gave an explanation of the shape of the eddy current hysteresis and the dependence of the eddy current 'magnetization' on parameters as pulse duration of the external field and conductivity of the sample. (author)

  10. Advectional enhancement of eddy diffusivity under parametric disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2010-01-01

    Frozen parametric disorder can lead to the appearance of sets of localized convective currents in an otherwise stable (quiescent) fluid layer heated from below. These currents significantly influence the transport of an admixture (or any other passive scalar) along the layer. When the molecular diffusivity of the admixture is small in comparison to the thermal one, which is quite typical in nature, disorder can enhance the effective (eddy) diffusivity by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the molecular diffusivity. In this paper, we study the effect of an imposed longitudinal advection on the delocalization of convective currents, both numerically and analytically, and report a subsequent drastic boost of the effective diffusivity for weak advection.

  11. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  12. Investigating the Eddy Diffusivity Concept in the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypina, I.; Kirincich, A.; Lentz, S. J.; Sundermeyer, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    We test the validity, utility, and limitations of the lateral eddy diffusivity concept in a coastal environment through analyzing data from coupled drifter and dye releases within the footprint of a high-resolution (800 m) high-frequency radar south of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. Specifically, we investigate how well a combination of radar-based velocities and drifter-derived diffusivities can reproduce observed dye spreading over an 8-h time interval. A drifter-based estimate of an anisotropic diffusivity tensor is used to parameterize small-scale motions that are unresolved and under-resolved by the radar system. This leads to a significant improvement in the ability of the radar to reproduce the observed dye spreading. Our drifter-derived diffusivity estimates are O(10 m2/s), are consistent with the diffusivity inferred from aerial images of the dye taken using the quadcopter-mounted digital camera during the dye release, and are roughly an order of magnitude larger than diffusivity estimates of Okubo (O(1 m2/s)) for similar spatial scales ( 1 km). Despite the fact that the drifter-based diffusivity approach was successful in improving the ability of the radar to reproduce the observed dye spreading, the dispersion of drifters was, for the most part, not consistent with the diffusive spreading regime.

  13. Observational Inferences of Lateral Eddy Diffusivity in the Halocline of the Beaufort Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghello, Gianluca; Marshall, John; Cole, Sylvia T.; Timmermans, Mary-Louise

    2017-12-01

    Using Ekman pumping rates mediated by sea ice in the Arctic Ocean's Beaufort Gyre (BG), the magnitude of lateral eddy diffusivities required to balance downward pumping is inferred. In this limit—that of vanishing residual-mean circulation—eddy-induced upwelling exactly balances downward pumping. The implied eddy diffusivity varies spatially and decays with depth, with values of 50-400 m2/s. Eddy diffusivity estimated using mixing length theory applied to BG mooring data exhibits a similar decay with depth and range of values from 100 m2/s to more than 600 m2/s. We conclude that eddy diffusivities in the BG are likely large enough to balance downward Ekman pumping, arresting the deepening of the gyre and suggesting that eddies play a zero-order role in buoyancy and freshwater budgets of the BG.

  14. On the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Frost Considering Mass Diffusion and Eddy Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2010-01-01

    A physical model for the effective thermal conductivity of water frost is proposed for application to the full range of frost density. The proposed model builds on the Zehner-Schlunder one-dimensional formulation for porous media appropriate for solid-to-fluid thermal conductivity ratios less than about 1000. By superposing the effects of mass diffusion and eddy convection on stagnant conduction in the fluid, the total effective thermal conductivity of frost is shown to be satisfactorily described. It is shown that the effects of vapor diffusion and eddy convection on the frost conductivity are of the same order. The results also point out that idealization of the frost structure by cylindrical inclusions offers a better representation of the effective conductivity of frost as compared to spherical inclusions. Satisfactory agreement between the theory and the measurements for the effective thermal conductivity of frost is demonstrated for a wide range of frost density and frost temperature.

  15. Eddy diffusivity of quasi-neutrally-buoyant inertial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Afonso, Marco; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Gama, Sílvio M. A.; Mazzino, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the large-scale transport properties of quasi-neutrally-buoyant inertial particles carried by incompressible zero-mean periodic or steady ergodic flows. We show how to compute large-scale indicators such as the inertial-particle terminal velocity and eddy diffusivity from first principles in a perturbative expansion around the limit of added-mass factor close to unity. Physically, this limit corresponds to the case where the mass density of the particles is constant and close in value to the mass density of the fluid, which is also constant. Our approach differs from the usual over-damped expansion inasmuch as we do not assume a separation of time scales between thermalization and small-scale convection effects. For a general flow in the class of incompressible zero-mean periodic velocity fields, we derive closed-form cell equations for the auxiliary quantities determining the terminal velocity and effective diffusivity. In the special case of parallel flows these equations admit explicit analytic solution. We use parallel flows to show that our approach sheds light onto the behavior of terminal velocity and effective diffusivity for Stokes numbers of the order of unity.

  16. Understanding the Effects of Lower Boundary Conditions and Eddy Diffusion on the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, G.; Ridley, A. J.; Marsh, D. R.; Wu, C.; Paxton, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    The exchange of energy between lower atmospheric regions with the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system is not well understood. A number of studies have observed day-to-day and seasonal variabilities in the difference between data and model output of various IT parameters. It is widely speculated that the forcing from the lower atmosphere, variability in weather systems and gravity waves that propagate upward from troposphere into the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) may be responsible for these spatial and temporal variations in the IT region, but their exact nature is unknown. These variabilities can be interpreted in two ways: variations in state (density, temperature, wind) of the upper mesosphere or spatial and temporal changes in the small-scale mixing, or Eddy diffusion that is parameterized within the model.In this study, firstly, we analyze the sensitivity of the thermospheric and ionospheric states - neutral densities, O/N2, total electron content (TEC), peak electron density, and peak electron height - to various lower boundary conditions in the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM). We use WACCM-X and GSWM to drive the lower atmospheric boundary in GITM at 100 km, and compare the results with the current MSIS-driven version of GITM, analyzing which of these simulations match the measurements from GOCE, GUVI, CHAMP, and GPS-derived TEC best. Secondly, we analyze the effect of eddy diffusion in the IT system. The turbulence due to eddy mixing cannot be directly measured and it is a challenge to completely characterize its linear and non-linear effects from other influences, since the eddy diffusion both influences the composition through direct mixing and the temperature structure due to turbulent conduction changes. In this study we input latitudinal and seasonal profiles of eddy diffusion into GITM and then analyze the changes in the thermospheric and ionospheric parameters. These profiles will be derived from both WACC-X simulations

  17. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.

  18. Eddy correlation measurements in wet environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, R. H.; Migliori, L.; O Kane, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The lower Feale catchment is a low-lying peaty area of 200 km^2 situated in southwest Ireland that is subject to inundation by flooding. The catchment lies adjacent to the Feale River and is subject to tidal signals as well as runoff processes. Various mitigation strategies are being investigated to reduce the damage due to flooding. Part of the effort has required development of a detailed hydrologic balance for the study area which is a wet pasture environment with local field drains that are typically flooded. An eddy correlation system was installed in the summer of 2002 to measure components of the energy balance, including evapotranspiration, along with special sensors to measure other hydrologic variables particular to this study. Data collected will be essential for validation of surface flux models to be developed for this site. Data filtering is performed using a combination of software developed by the Boundary-Layer Group (BLG) at Oregon State University together with modifications made to this system for conditions at this site. This automated procedure greatly reduces the tedious inspection of individual records. The package of tests, developed by the BLG for both tower and aircraft high frequency data, checks for electronic spiking, signal dropout, unrealistic magnitudes, extreme higher moment statistics, as well as other error scenarios not covered by the instrumentation diagnostics built into the system. Critical parameter values for each potential error were developed by applying the tests to real fast response turbulent time series. Potential instrumentation problems, flux sampling problems, and unusual physical situations records are flagged for removal or further analysis. A final visual inspection step is required to minimize rejection of physically unusual but real behavior in the time series. The problems of data management, data quality control, individual instrumentation sensitivity, potential underestimation of latent and sensible heat

  19. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2(∗) -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed.

  20. Large-eddy simulation with accurate implicit subgrid-scale diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Koren (Barry); C. Beets

    1996-01-01

    textabstractA method for large-eddy simulation is presented that does not use an explicit subgrid-scale diffusion term. Subgrid-scale effects are modelled implicitly through an appropriate monotone (in the sense of Spekreijse 1987) discretization method for the advective terms. Special attention is

  1. Eddy Covariance Measurements of the Sea-Spray Aerosol Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.; Yelland, M. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Prytherch, J.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, almost all estimates of the sea-spray aerosol source flux have been inferred through various indirect methods. Direct estimates via eddy covariance have been attempted by only a handful of studies, most of which measured only the total number flux, or achieved rather coarse size segregation. Applying eddy covariance to the measurement of sea-spray fluxes is challenging: most instrumentation must be located in a laboratory space requiring long sample lines to an inlet collocated with a sonic anemometer; however, larger particles are easily lost to the walls of the sample line. Marine particle concentrations are generally low, requiring a high sample volume to achieve adequate statistics. The highly hygroscopic nature of sea salt means particles change size rapidly with fluctuations in relative humidity; this introduces an apparent bias in flux measurements if particles are sized at ambient humidity. The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) was developed specifically to make high rate measurements of aerosol size distributions for use in eddy covariance measurements, and the instrument and data processing and analysis techniques have been refined over the course of several projects. Here we will review some of the issues and limitations related to making eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray source flux over the open ocean, summarise some key results from the last decade, and present new results from a 3-year long ship-based measurement campaign as part of the WAGES project. Finally we will consider requirements for future progress.

  2. The dependence of the oceans MOC on mesoscale eddy diffusivities: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Scott, Jeffery R.; Romanou, Anastasia; Kelley, Maxwell; Leboissetier, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The dependence of the depth and strength of the ocean's global meridional overturning cells (MOC) on the specification of mesoscale eddy diffusivity (K) is explored in two ocean models. The GISS and MIT ocean models are driven by the same prescribed forcing fields, configured in similar ways, spun up to equilibrium for a range of K 's and the resulting MOCs mapped and documented. Scaling laws implicit in modern theories of the MOC are used to rationalize the results. In all calculations the K used in the computation of eddy-induced circulation and that used in the representation of eddy stirring along neutral surfaces, is set to the same value but is changed across experiments. We are able to connect changes in the strength and depth of the Atlantic MOC, the southern ocean upwelling MOC, and the deep cell emanating from Antarctica, to changes in K.

  3. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent piloted methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitsch, H.; Steiner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Lagrangian Flamelet Model is formulated as a combustion model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent jet diffusion flames. The model is applied in a large-eddy simulation of a piloted partially premixed methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D). The results of the simulation are compared to experimental data of the mean and RMS of the axial velocity and the mixture fraction and the unconditional and conditional averages of temperature and various species mass fractions, including CO and NO. All quantities are in good agreement with the experiments. The results indicate in accordance with experimental findings that regions of high strain appear in layer like structures, which are directed inwards and tend to align with the reaction zone, where the turbulence is fully developed. The analysis of the conditional temperature and mass fractions reveals a strong influence of the partial premixing of the fuel. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Determining Confounding Sensitivities In Eddy Current Thin Film Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, Ethan; Udpa, Lalita; Smith, James A.; Wachs, Katelyn

    2016-07-01

    Determining Confounding Sensitivities In Eddy Current Thin Film Measurements Ethan Gros, Lalita Udpa, Electrical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 James A. Smith, Experiment Analysis, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID 83415 Eddy current (EC) techniques are widely used in industry to measure the thickness of non-conductive films on a metal substrate. This is done using a system whereby a coil carrying a high-frequency alternating current is used to create an alternating magnetic field at the surface of the instrument's probe. When the probe is brought near a conductive surface, the alternating magnetic field will induce ECs in the conductor. The substrate characteristics and the distance of the probe from the substrate (the coating thickness) affect the magnitude of the ECs. The induced currents load the probe coil affecting the terminal impedance of the coil. The measured probe impedance is related to the lift off between coil and conductor as well as conductivity of the test sample. For a known conductivity sample, the probe impedance can be converted into an equivalent film thickness value. The EC measurement can be confounded by a number of measurement parameters. It is the goal of this research to determine which physical properties of the measurement set-up and sample can adversely affect the thickness measurement. The eddy current testing is performed using a commercially available, hand held eddy current probe (ETA3.3H spring loaded eddy probe running at 8 MHz) that comes with a stand to hold the probe. The stand holds the probe and adjusts the probe on the z-axis to help position the probe in the correct area as well as make precise measurements. The signal from the probe is sent to a hand held readout, where the results are recorded directly in terms of liftoff or film thickness. Understanding the effect of certain factors on the measurements of film thickness, will help to evaluate how accurate the ETA3.3H spring

  5. Natural radon as a limnological tracer for the study of vertical and horizontal eddy diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imboden, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radon-222 (half-life 3.8 d) has been used successfully as a geochemical tracer for vertical near bottom mixing in the ocean. The parent nuclide radium-226 (half-life 1600 a) occurs in far greater quantities in sediments than in the water column, thus providing a boundary source for emanation of radon. Vertical mixing in lakes may be of central importance for the evolution of chemical and biological processes. Most lakes pass through a stagnation period during which the euphotic zone continuously loses nutrients by sedimentation of plankton through the thermocline. The return flux of nutrients from the sediments through the hypolimnion and thermocline to the euphotic layer can only be understood and quantified if vertical mixing processes are known. The traditional means by which vertical eddy diffusion is calculated is the temperature method. However, temperature changes near the bottom of deep lakes are often too small to be measured. Among various (natural or man-made) geochemical tracers radon-222 seems to be especially suitable for the study of vertical mixing since its 'memory' of about one week very often allows measured activities to be interpreted in terms of a relatively simple steady-state model

  6. Eddy Current Flow Measurements in the FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Deborah L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Polzin, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makenas, Bruce J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent liquid metal reactor (LMR) to be designed, constructed, and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 400-MWt sodium-cooled, fast-neutron flux reactor plant was designed for irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Following shut down of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) project in 1983, FFTF continued to play a key role in providing a test bed for demonstrating performance of advanced fuel designs and demonstrating operation, maintenance, and safety of advanced liquid metal reactors. The FFTF Program provides valuable information for potential follow-on reactor projects in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, fuel design and performance, prototype testing, site construction, and reactor control and operations. This report provides HEDL-TC-1344, “ECFM Flow Measurements in the FFTF Using Phase-Sensitive Detectors”, March 1979.

  7. Critical role for mesoscale eddy diffusion in supplying oxygen to hypoxic ocean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Bianchi, Daniele; Pradal, Marie-Aude

    2013-10-01

    of the oceanic lateral eddy diffusion coefficient Aredi vary by more than an order of magnitude, ranging from less than a few hundred m2/s to thousands of m2/s. This uncertainty has first-order implications for the intensity of oceanic hypoxia, which is poorly simulated by the current generation of Earth System Models. Using satellite-based estimate of oxygen consumption in hypoxic waters to estimate the required diffusion coefficient for these waters gives a value of order 1000 m2/s. Varying Aredi across a suite of Earth System Models yields a broadly consistent result given a thermocline diapycnal diffusion coefficient of 1 × 10-5 m2/s.

  8. Energy balance constraints on gravity wave induced eddy diffusion in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, D. F.; Apruzese, J. P.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The constraints on turbulence improved by the mesospheric heat budget are reexamined, and the sufficiency of the theoretical evidence to support the hypothesis that the eddy Prandtl number is greater than one in the mesosphere is considered. The mesopause thermal structure is calculated with turbulent diffusion coefficients commonly used in chemical models and deduced from mean zonal wind deceleration. It is shown that extreme mesopause temperatures of less than 100 K are produced by the large net cooling. The results demonstrate the importance of the Prandtl number for mesospheric turbulence.

  9. Measuring methods of matrix diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Valkiainen, M.

    1988-03-01

    In Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of at large depths in crystalline bedrock. The radionuclides which are dissolved in the groundwater may be able to diffuse into the micropores of the porous rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the flowing water in the fractures. This phenomenon is called matrix diffusion. A review over matrix diffusion is presented in the study. The main interest is directed to the diffusion of non-sorbing species. The review covers diffusion experiments and measurements of porosity, pore size, specific surface area and water permeability

  10. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt......Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt...

  11. Large-eddy simulations of surface-induced turbulence and its implications to the interpretation of eddy-covariance measurements in heterogeneous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W.; Morin, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    We used the RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulations (RAFLES) to evaluate the sensitivity of eddy covariance measurements to land-surface discontinuity. While the sensitivity of eddy covariance measurements to surface heterogeneity is well known, it is, in most cases, no feasible to restrict measurements only to sites where the surface include undisturbed and homogeneous land cover over vast distances around the observation tower. The common approach to handle surface heterogeneity is to use a footprint model and reject observations obtained while the source of observed signal is from a mixture of land-use types, and maintain only measurements where the signal originates mostly from the land-use type of interest. We simulated two scenarios - measurements of fluxes from a small forest-surrounded lake, and measurements near a forest edge. These are two very common scenarios where measurements are bound to be affected by heterogeneity - measurements in small lakes, will, by definition, be in some non-negligible proximity or the lake edge; forest edges are common in any forest, near the forest patch edge but also around disturbed patches and forest gaps. We identify regions where the surface heterogeneity is creating persistent updraft or downdraft. A non-zero mean vertical wind is typically neglected in eddy-covariance measurements. We find that these circulations lead to both vertical and horizontal advection that cannot be easily measured by a single eddy-covariance tower. We identify downwind effects, which are well known, but also quantify the upwind effects. We find that surface-induced circulations may affect the flux measured from a tower up to several canopy heights ahead of the discontinuity. We used the High-resolution Volatile Organic Compound Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) model to determine the actual measurement footprints throughout the RAFLES domain. We estimated the land-cover type distribution of the source signal at different virtual

  12. Evaluations on Profiles of the Eddy Diffusion Coefficients through Simulations of Super Typhoons in the Northwestern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Chi Hung Fung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the eddy diffusion coefficients (also known as eddy diffusivity in the first-order turbulence closure schemes is important for the typhoon simulations, since the coefficients control the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and the latent heat flux, which are energy sources for the typhoon intensification. Profiles of the eddy diffusion coefficients in the YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL scheme are evaluated in the advanced research WRF (ARW system. Three versions of the YSU scheme (original, K025, and K200 are included in this study. The simulation results are compared with the observational data from track, center sea-level pressure (CSLP, and maximum surface wind speed (MWSP. Comparing with the original version, the K200 improves the averaged mean absolute errors (MAE of track, CSLP, and MWSP by 6.0%, 3.7%, and 23.1%, respectively, while the K025 deteriorates the averaged MAEs of track, CSLP, and MWSP by 25.1%, 19.0%, and 95.0%, respectively. Our results suggest that the enlarged eddy diffusion coefficients may be more suitable for super typhoon simulations.

  13. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, F.; Pocachard, J.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining of relevant diffusion coefficients is therefore of prime importance. A few techniques exist for in situ measurement of the quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve the situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  14. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, Ph.; Pocachard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining the relevant diffusion coefficients is, therefore, of prime importance. A few techniques exist for the in situ measurement of that quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve this situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  15. Eddy correlation measurements of oxygen uptake in deep ocean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Hume, A.

    2010-01-01

    .62 +/- 0.23 (SE, n = 7), 1.65 +/- 0.33 (n = 2), and 1.43 +/- 0.15 (n = 25) mmol m(-2) d(-1). The very good agreement between the eddy correlation flux and the chamber flux serves as a new, important validation of the eddy correlation technique. It demonstrates that the eddy correlation instrumentation......Abstract: We present and compare small sediment-water fluxes of O-2 determined with the eddy correlation technique, with in situ chambers, and from vertical sediment microprofiles at a 1450 m deep-ocean site in Sagami Bay, Japan. The average O-2 uptake for the three approaches, respectively, was 1...... available today is precise and can resolve accurately even very small benthic O-2 fluxes. The correlated fluctuations in vertical velocity and O-2 concentration that give the eddy flux had average values of 0.074 cm s(-1) and 0.049 mu M. The latter represents only 0.08% of the 59 mu M mean O-2 concentration...

  16. Air-tough: A fully 3-dimensional linking of atmosphere with soil using eddy diffusivity concept and V-TOUGH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazer, P. [Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In arid climates, evapotranspiration is a strongly-coupled thermodynamic process that is controlled by the interaction of the atmospheric boundary layer and the upper soil surface. Simulation of this process requires a fully-coupled thermodynamic multi-phase fluid-flow and energy-transport code. Such a code was developed in a previous investigation using V-TOUGH. The resulting efficient computer code, A-TOUGH, simulates the effect of dynamic atmospheric fluctuations on vapor movement between the soil and the atmosphere and the resulting moisture movement in the soil. However, the coupling between the atmosphere and soil employed eddy diffusivity which was only a function of time and not a function of space. In the present study the code is extended to allow spatial as well as temporal variation of eddy diffusivity.

  17. Immersed transient eddy current flow metering: a calibration-free velocity measurement technique for liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, N.; Stefani, F.

    2017-10-01

    Eddy current flow meters are widely used for measuring the flow velocity of electrically conducting fluids. Since the flow induced perturbations of a magnetic field depend both on the geometry and the conductivity of the fluid, extensive calibration is needed to get accurate results. Transient eddy current flow metering has been developed to overcome this problem. It relies on tracking the position of an impressed eddy current system that is moving with the same velocity as the conductive fluid. We present an immersed version of this measurement technique and demonstrate its viability by numerical simulations and a first experimental validation.

  18. Immersed transient eddy current flow metering: a calibration-free velocity measurement technique for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauter, N; Stefani, F

    2017-01-01

    Eddy current flow meters are widely used for measuring the flow velocity of electrically conducting fluids. Since the flow induced perturbations of a magnetic field depend both on the geometry and the conductivity of the fluid, extensive calibration is needed to get accurate results. Transient eddy current flow metering has been developed to overcome this problem. It relies on tracking the position of an impressed eddy current system that is moving with the same velocity as the conductive fluid. We present an immersed version of this measurement technique and demonstrate its viability by numerical simulations and a first experimental validation. (paper)

  19. Large eddy simulation of turbulent diffusion flame with hybrid fuel of CH4/H2 in various background conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungmin; Lee, Wook; Song, Han Ho; Kang, Seongwon

    2014-11-01

    A turbulent diffusion flame with hybrid fuel of methane and hydrogen is analyzed to investigate the effects of operating conditions on flame shape, rate of fuel consumption and pollutant formation. Various combinations of operating parameter, i.e. hydrogen concentration, background pressure and temperature, are examined in relatively high pressure and temperature conditions that can be found at the end of compression stroke in an internal combustion engine. A flamelet-progress variable approach (FPVA) and a dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) model are used for large eddy simulation (LES). A comparison with previous experiments and simulations in the standard condition shows a good agreement in the statistics of flow fields and chemical compositions, as well as in the resultant trends by similar parametric studies. As a result, the effects of added hydrogen are found to be consistent for most of the chemical species in the range of background pressure and temperature conditions. However, the flow fields of some species such as OH, NO, CO at a higher pressure and temperature state show a behavior different from the standard condition. Finally, hydrogen addition is shown to improve flame stability which is measured by the pressure fluctuations in all the tested conditions.

  20. A Method for Eddy Current Field Measurement in Permanent Magnet Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Rui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a widely used medical imaging technique. In MRI system, gradient magnetic fields are used to code spatial information. However, the fast-switching electric currents in the gradients coils used to generate gradient fields also induce vortex electric field, often referred as eddy current, in the surrounding metal conductors. In this paper, a method for eddy current field measurement was proposed. Based on the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction, an eddy current field measuring device was designed. Combining hardware acquisition and software processing, the eddy current field was obtained by subtracting the ideal gradient field from the magnetic field measured experimentally, whose waveform could be displayed in real time. The proposed method was verified by experimental results.

  1. USE OF RELAXED EDDY ACCUMULATION TO MEASURE BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGE OF ISOPRENE AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL TRACE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The micrometeorological flux measurement technique known as relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) holds promise as a powerful new tool for ecologists. The more popular eddy covariance (eddy correlation) technique requires the use of sensors that can respond at fast rates (10 Hz), and t...

  2. MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT EFFECTS IN BNL'S AGS BOOSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, K.A.; AHRENS, L.; GARDNER, C.; GLENN, J.W.; HARVEY, M.; MENG, W.; ZENO, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recent beam experiments at BNL's AGS Booster have enabled us to study in more detail the effects of eddy currents on the lattice structure and our control over the betatron tune. The Booster is capable of operating at ramp rates as high as 9 T/sec. At these ramp rates eddy currents in the vacuum chambers significantly alter the fields and gradients seen by the beam as it is accelerated. The Booster was designed with these effects in mind and to help control the field uniformity and linearity in the Booster Dipoles special vacuum chambers were designed with current windings to negate the affect of the induced eddy currents. In this report results from betatron tune measurements and eddy current simulations will be presented. We will then present results from modeling the accelerator using the results of the magnetic field simulations and compare these to the measurements

  3. Models for the cross flow and the turbulent eddy diffusivity in bundles of rods with helical spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel elements of a LMFBR type reactor consist of a bundle of rods wrapped by helical wires that work as spacers. The bundle of rods is surrounded by an hexagonal duct. Models for the channel cross flow and for the turbulent eddy diffusivity were developed. In conjunction with these models, the flow redistribution factors permit to estabish a determinist method to calculate the temperature distribution. The obtained results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with results given by other codes. Although these codes are based on much more complex models, the comparison was very satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  4. Vessel Eddy Current Measurement for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.; Marsala, R.

    2004-01-01

    A simple analog circuit that measures the NSTX axisymmetric eddy current distribution has been designed and constructed. It is based on simple circuit model of the NSTX vacuum vessel that was calibrated using a special axisymmetric eddy current code which was written so that accuracy was maintained in the vicinity of the current filaments. The measurement and the model have been benchmarked against data from numerous vacuum shots and they are in excellent agreement. This is an important measurement that helps give more accurate equilibrium reconstructions

  5. Integrating lysimeter drainage and eddy covariance flux measurements in a groundwater recharge model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Vicente; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    2015-01-01

    Field scale water balance is difficult to characterize because controls exerted by soils and vegetation are mostly inferred from local scale measurements with relatively small support volumes. Eddy covariance flux and lysimeters have been used to infer and evaluate field scale water balances...... because they have larger footprint areas than local soil moisture measurements.. This study quantifies heterogeneity of soil deep drainage (D) in four 12.5 m2 repacked lysimeters, compares evapotranspiration from eddy covariance (ETEC) and mass balance residuals of lysimeters (ETwbLys), and models D...

  6. Measurement by eddy currents of tube-antivibratory bar gap steam generators of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, E.; Bieth, M.; Floze, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    In steam generators tubes are maintained by AVB to limit vibrations amplitude induced by secondary fluid flow. After some years wear sometimes occurs. For gap measurement between tubes and AVB Framatome developed a method based on eddy current and using a probe rotating inside the tube [fr

  7. Comparison of Large Eddy Simulations of a convective boundary layer with wind LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Grønnegaard; Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the horizontal wind speed and of the standard deviation of vertical wind speed from Large Eddy Simulations of a convective atmospheric boundary layer are compared to wind LIDAR measurements up to 1400 m. Fair agreement regarding both types of profiles is observed only when...

  8. Eddy covariance methane measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, C.J.P.P.; Holzinger, R.; Vigano, I.; Goldstein, A.H.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    Long term methane flux measurements have been mostly performed with plant or soil enclosure techniques on specific components of an ecosystem. New fast response methane analyzers make it possible to use the eddy covariance (EC) technique instead. The EC technique is advantageous because it allows

  9. Investigation of wake interaction using full-scale lidar measurements and large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    dynamics flow solver, using large eddy simulation and fully turbulent inflow. The rotors are modelled using the actuator disc technique. A mutual validation of the computational fluid dynamics model with the measurements is conducted for a selected dataset, where wake interaction occurs. This validation...

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters...

  11. Eddy Covariance measurements of stable CO2 and H2O isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden-Behrens, Jelka; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of the stable isotope composition of CO2 and H2O fluxes (such as 13C, 18O and 2H in H2O and CO2) has provided valuable insights into ecosystem gas exchange. The approach builds on differences in the isotope signature of different ecosystem components that are primarily caused by the preference for or the discrimination against respective isotope species by important processes within the ecosystem (e.g. photosynthesis or leaf water diffusion). With the ongoing development of laser spectrometric methods, fast and precise measurements of isotopologue mixing ratios became possible, hence also enabling Eddy Covariance (EC) based approaches to directly measure the isotopic composition of CO2 and H2Ov net fluxes on ecosystem scale. During an eight month long measurement campaign in 2015, we plan to simultaneously measure CO2 and H2Ov isotopologue fluxes using an EC approach in a managed beech forest in Thuringia, Germany. For this purpose, we will use two different laser spectrometers for high frequency measurements of isotopic compositions: For H2Ov measurements, we will use an off axis cavity output water vapour isotope analyser (WVIA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) with 5 Hz response; and for CO2 measurements, we will use a quantum cascade laser-based system (QCLAS, Aerodyne Research Inc.) with thermoelectrically cooled detectors and up to 10 Hz measurement capability. The resulting continuous isotopologue flux measurements will be accompanied by intensive sampling campaigns on the leaf scale: Water from leaf, twig, soil and precipitation samples will be analysed in the lab using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. During data analysis we will put a focus on (i) the influence of carbon and oxygen discrimination on the isotopic signature of respective net ecosystem exchange, (ii) on the relationship between evapotranspiration and leaf water enrichment, and (iii) on the 18O exchange between carbon dioxide and water. At present, we already carried out extensive

  12. Eddy-covariance methane flux measurements over a European beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The role of forests in global methane (CH4) turnover is currently not well constrained, partially because of the lack of spatially integrative forest-scale measurements of CH4 fluxes. Soil chamber measurements imply that temperate forests generally act as CH4 sinks. Upscaling of chamber observations to the forest scale is however problematic, if the upscaling is not constrained by concurrent 'top-down' measurements, such as of the eddy-covariance type, which provide sufficient integration of spatial variations and of further potential CH4 flux components within forest ecosystems. Ongoing development of laser absorption-based optical instruments, resulting in enhanced measurement stability, precision and sampling speed, has recently improved the prospects for meaningful eddy-covariance measurements at sites with presumably low CH4 fluxes, hence prone to reach the flux detection limit. At present, we are launching eddy-covariance CH4 measurements at a long-running ICOS flux tower site (Hainich National Park, Germany), located in a semi natural, unmanaged, beech dominated forest. Eddy-covariance measurements will be conducted with a laser spectrometer for parallel CH4, H2Ov and CO2 measurements (FGGA, Los Gatos Research, USA). Independent observations of the CO2 flux by the FGGA and a standard Infrared Gas Analyser (LI-7200, LI-COR, USA) will allow to evaluate data quality of measured CH4 fluxes. Here, we want to present first results with a focus on uncertainties of the calculated CH4 fluxes with regard to instrument precision, data processing and site conditions. In future, we plan to compare eddy-covariance flux estimates to side-by-side turbulent flux observations from a novel eddy accumulation system. Furthermore, soil CH4 fluxes will be measured with four automated chambers situated within the tower footprint. Based on a previous soil chamber study at the same site, we expect the Hainich forest site to act as a CH4 sink. However, we hypothesize that our

  13. Eddy Covariance Method for CO2 Emission Measurements: CCS Applications, Principles, Instrumentation and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rod; Feese, Kristin

    2013-04-01

    The Eddy Covariance method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases, heat, and momentum between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are carefully characterized from single-point in-situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Since the early 1990s, this technique has been widely used by micrometeorologists across the globe for quantifying CO2 emission rates from various natural, urban and agricultural ecosystems [1,2], including areas of agricultural carbon sequestration. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries. In the last 3-5 years, advancements in instrumentation and software have reached the point when they can be effectively used outside the area of micrometeorology, and can prove valuable for geological carbon capture and sequestration, landfill emission measurements, high-precision agriculture and other non-micrometeorological industrial and regulatory applications. In the field of geological carbon capture and sequestration, the magnitude of CO2 seepage fluxes depends on a variety of factors. Emerging projects utilize eddy covariance measurement to monitor large areas where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to detect and quantify CO2 leakage, and to assure the efficiency of CO2 geological storage [3,4,5,6,7,8]. Although Eddy Covariance is one of the most direct and defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup, execution and data processing tailor-fit to a specific site and a project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created to introduce a novice to the conventional Eddy Covariance technique [9], and to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as graduate-level textbooks, flux networks guidelines, journals

  14. Eddy Covariance Measurements of Methane Flux at a Tropical Peat Forest in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Angela C. I.; Stoy, Paul C.; Hirata, Ryuichi; Musin, Kevin K.; Aeries, Edward B.; Wenceslaus, Joseph; Melling, Lulie

    2018-05-01

    Tropical biogenic sources are a likely cause of the recent increase in global atmospheric methane concentration. To improve our understanding of tropical methane sources, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure CH4 flux (FCH4) between a tropical peat forest ecosystem and the atmosphere in Malaysian Borneo over a 2-month period during the wet season. Mean daily FCH4 during the measurement period, on the order of 0.024 g C-CH4·m-2·day-1, was similar to eddy covariance FCH4 measurements from tropical rice agroecosystems and boreal fen ecosystems. A linear modeling analysis demonstrated that air temperature (Tair) was critical for modeling FCH4 before the water table breached the surface and that water table alone explained some 20% of observed FCH4 variability once standing water emerged. Future research should measure FCH4 on an annual basis from multiple tropical ecosystems to better constrain tropical biogenic methane sources.

  15. Oxygen optodes as fast sensors for eddy correlation measurements in aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Lindsay; Huettel, Markus; Berg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aquatic eddy-correlation technique can be used to noninvasively determine the oxygen exchange across the sediment-water interface by analyzing the covariance of vertical flow velocity and oxygen concentration in a small measuring volume above the sea bed. The method requires fast sensors...... that combine the advantages of noninvasive measurements and integration of fluxes over a large footprint area, using a relatively rugged and less expensive sensor....

  16. Measuring electric conductivity in liquid metals by eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, S.P.; Ostrovskij, O.I.; Grigoryan, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technique permitting to apply the method of vertiginous currents for investigation of electric conductivity of metal melts in the high temperature range is presented. Interferences affecting accuracy of measurements are specified and ways of their removing are pointed out. Scheme of measuring and design of the facility are described. Results of measuring electric resistance of liquid Fe, Co, Ni obtained for the first time by this method are presented. The data obtained agree with the results of measurements conducted by the method of the rotating magnetic field. Difference in absolute values of electric resistance in parallel experiments for each metal does not exceed 4%

  17. Diffusion and the self-measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holeček M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The familiar diffusion equation, ∂g/∂t = DΔg, is studied by using the spatially averaged quantities. A non-local relation, so-called the self-measurability condition, fulfilled by this equation is obtained. We define a broad class of diffusion equations defined by some "diffusion inequality", ∂g/∂t · Δg ≥ 0, and show that it is equivalent to the self-measurability condition. It allows formulating the diffusion inequality in a non-local form. That represents an essential generalization of the diffusion problem in the case when the field g(x, t is not smooth. We derive a general differential equation for averaged quantities coming from the self-measurability condition.

  18. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  19. Experimental measurements of the eddy current signal due to a flawed, conducting half space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.A.; Toomsawasdi, S.; Zaman, A.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on an experimental investigation in which the change in impedance of a practical multi-turn eddy current coil near a conducting half space is measured as a function of the conductivity and the lift-off distance. The results are compared in a qualitative fashion with the analytical results for a single-turn coil. Measurements are also made of the change in impedance due to a small void in the conducting half space as a function of both its depth and radial position. The results indicate that, at least in a qualitative fashion, the precisely derived analytical solutions adequately predict the general behavior of the change in complex impedance of an eddy current coil above a conducting ground plane as a function of lift-off distance. It is determined that the effect of a sub-surface void on the change in inductance of the test coil correlates well with theoretical calculations

  20. Temperature sensitivity study of eddy current and digital gauge probes for nuclear fuel rod oxide measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Faith R.; Lind, R. Paul; Smith, James A.

    2018-04-01

    Novel fuels are part of the nationwide effort to reduce the enrichment of Uranium for energy production. Performance of such fuels is determined by irradiating their surfaces. To test irradiated samples, the instrumentation must operate remotely. The plate checker used in this experiment at Idaho National Lab (INL) performs non-destructive testing on fuel rod and plate geometries with two different types of sensors: eddy current and digital thickness gauges. The sensors measure oxide growth and total sample thickness on research fuels, respectively. Sensor measurement accuracy is crucial because even 10 microns of error is significant when determining the viability of an experimental fuel. One parameter known to affect the eddy current and thickness gauge sensors is temperature. Since both sensor accuracies depend on the ambient temperature of the system, the plate checker has been characterized for these sensitivities. The manufacturer of the digital gauge probes has noted a rather large coefficient of thermal expansion for their linear scale. It should also be noted that the accuracy of the digital gauge probes are specified at 20°C, which is approximately 7°C cooler than the average hot-cell temperature. In this work, the effect of temperature on the eddy current and digital gauge probes is studied, and thickness measurements are given as empirical functions of temperature.

  1. An Extended Eddy-Diffusivity Mass-Flux Scheme for Unified Representation of Subgrid-Scale Turbulence and Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhihong; Kaul, Colleen M.; Pressel, Kyle G.; Cohen, Yair; Schneider, Tapio; Teixeira, João.

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale weather forecasting and climate models are beginning to reach horizontal resolutions of kilometers, at which common assumptions made in existing parameterization schemes of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection—such as that they adjust instantaneously to changes in resolved-scale dynamics—cease to be justifiable. Additionally, the common practice of representing boundary-layer turbulence, shallow convection, and deep convection by discontinuously different parameterizations schemes, each with its own set of parameters, has contributed to the proliferation of adjustable parameters in large-scale models. Here we lay the theoretical foundations for an extended eddy-diffusivity mass-flux (EDMF) scheme that has explicit time-dependence and memory of subgrid-scale variables and is designed to represent all subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, from boundary layer dynamics to deep convection, in a unified manner. Coherent up and downdrafts in the scheme are represented as prognostic plumes that interact with their environment and potentially with each other through entrainment and detrainment. The more isotropic turbulence in their environment is represented through diffusive fluxes, with diffusivities obtained from a turbulence kinetic energy budget that consistently partitions turbulence kinetic energy between plumes and environment. The cross-sectional area of up and downdrafts satisfies a prognostic continuity equation, which allows the plumes to cover variable and arbitrarily large fractions of a large-scale grid box and to have life cycles governed by their own internal dynamics. Relatively simple preliminary proposals for closure parameters are presented and are shown to lead to a successful simulation of shallow convection, including a time-dependent life cycle.

  2. Atmospheric diffusion wind tunnel with automatic measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S; Sakai, J; Murata, E

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel which permits estimates of atmospheric diffusion is described. Smoke from power plant smoke stacks, for example, can be simulated and traced to determine the manner of diffusion in the air as well as the grade of dilution. The wind tunnel is also capable of temperature controlled diffusion tests in which temperature distribution inside the wind tunnel is controlled. A minimum wind velocity of 10 cm can be obtained with accuracy within plus or minus 0.05 percent using a controlled direct current motor; diffusion tests are often made at low wind velocity. Fully automatic measurements can be obtained by using a minicomputer so that the operation and reading of the measuring instruments can be remotely controlled from the measuring chamber. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  3. Eddy-current flow rate meter for measuring sodium flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaak, J.

    1976-01-01

    For safety reasons flow rate meters for monitoring coolant flow rates are inserted in the core of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. These are so-called eddy-current flow rate meters which can be mounted directly above the fuel elements. In the present contribution the principle of measurement, the mechanical construction and the circuit design of the flow rate measuring device are described. Special problems and their solution on developing the measuring system are pointed out. Finally, results of measurement and experience with the apparatus in several experiments are reported, where also further possibilities of application were tested. (orig./TK) [de

  4. Entropy as a measure of diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir; Fatollahi, Amir H.; Khorrami, Mohammad; Shariati, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The time variation of entropy, as an alternative to the variance, is proposed as a measure of the diffusion rate. It is shown that for linear and time-translationally invariant systems having a large-time limit for the density, at large times the entropy tends exponentially to a constant. For systems with no stationary density, at large times the entropy is logarithmic with a coefficient specifying the speed of the diffusion. As an example, the large-time behaviors of the entropy and the variance are compared for various types of fractional-derivative diffusions.

  5. Entropy as a measure of diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir; Fatollahi, Amir H., E-mail: fath@alzahra.ac.ir; Khorrami, Mohammad, E-mail: mamwad@mailaps.org; Shariati, Ahmad, E-mail: shariati@mailaps.org

    2013-10-15

    The time variation of entropy, as an alternative to the variance, is proposed as a measure of the diffusion rate. It is shown that for linear and time-translationally invariant systems having a large-time limit for the density, at large times the entropy tends exponentially to a constant. For systems with no stationary density, at large times the entropy is logarithmic with a coefficient specifying the speed of the diffusion. As an example, the large-time behaviors of the entropy and the variance are compared for various types of fractional-derivative diffusions.

  6. Tube-AVB gap measurements using an eddy current rotating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badson, F.; Chiron, D.; Trumpff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The wears of tubes due to flow induced vibrations have been observed after a few years of operating PWR steam generators (SG). The vibration and wear are intimately related to the gap between tubes and anti-vibration bars (AVB's) located in the bundle. The authors report the development of an eddy current (EC) method for the measurement of this gap. The method is based on using an EC probe rotating in the tube. Since for each measurement zone the tube is interacting with two AVB's the use of a rotating EC probe is necessary to perform separate and accurate measurements of each tube-AVB gap

  7. Eddy diffusion coefficients in the coastal waters of north Andhra Pradesh and Orissa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, B.P.; Sarma, V.V.

    diffusion coefficients in coastal waters The unknown variables v and \\v can be f ound by solving the matrix. In the present work, the method of generalized inverse is used to solve the matrix to avoid any indeterminacy. Results and discussion Temperature... was constant (~24.3?C) and salinity fluctuates around 27.5 psu. Off Gopalpur (IV) strong inversion of 1.87? C was observed during the observational period. Temperature profiles at areas V and VI indicate 125 Mathematical Formulations: The two...

  8. Post-tensioning tendon force loss detection using low power pulsed eddy current measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Min; Lee, Jun; Sohn, Hoon

    2018-04-01

    In the field of bridge engineering, pre-fabrication of a bridge member and its construction in site have been issued and studied, which achieves improved quality and rapid construction. For integration of those pre-fabricated segments into a structural member (i.e., a concrete slab, girder and pier), post-tensioning (PT) technique is adopted utilizing a high-strength steel tendon, and an effective investigation of the remaining PT tendon force is essential to assure an overall structural integrity. This study proposes a pulsed eddy current based tendon force loss detection system. A compact eddy current sensor is designed to be installed on the surface of an anchor holding a steel PT tendon. The intensity of the induced eddy current varies with PT tendon force alteration due to the magnetostriction effect of a ferromagnetic material. The advantages of the proposed system are as follows: (1) low power consumption, (2) rapid inspection, and (3) simple installation. Its performance was validated experimentally in a full-scale lab test of a 3.3-m long, 15.2-mm diameter mono-tendon that was tensioned using a universal testing machine. Tendon force was controlled from 20 to 180 kN with 20 kN interval, and eddy current responses were measured and analyzed at each force condition. The proposed damage index and the amount of force loss of PT tendon were monotonically related, and an excessive loss as much as 30 % of an initially-introduced tendon force was successfully predicted.

  9. Measuring nanoparticle diffusion in an ABELtrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienerowitz, M.; Dienerowitz, F.; Börsch, M.

    2018-03-01

    Monitoring the Brownian motion of individual nanoscopic objects is key to investigate their transport properties and interactions with their close environment. Most techniques rely on transient diffusion through a detection volume or immobilisation, which restrict observation times or motility. We measure the diffusion coefficient and surface charge of individual nanoparticles and DNA molecules in an anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap (ABELtrap). This instrument is an active feedback trap confining the Brownian motion of a nanoparticle to the detection site by applying an electric field based on the particle’s current position. We simulate the Brownian motion of nanospheres in our sample geometry, including wall effects, due to partial confinement in the third dimension. The theoretically predicted values are in excellent agreement with our diffusion measurements in the ABELtrap. We also demonstrate the ABELtrap’s ability to measure varying sizes of DNA origami structures during denaturation.

  10. Feasibility of ultrasonic and eddy current methods for measurement of residual stress in shot peened metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrentyev, Anton I.; Stucky, Paul A.; Veronesi, William A.

    2000-01-01

    Shot peening is a well-known method for extending the fatigue life of metal components by introducing compressive residual stresses near their surfaces. The capability to nondestructively evaluate the near surface residual stress would greatly aid the assurance of proper fatigue life in shot-peened components. This paper presents preliminary results from a feasibility study examining the use of ultrasonic and eddy current NDE methods for residual stress measurement in components where the stress has been introduced by shot peening. With an ultrasonic method, a variation of ultrasonic surface wave speed with shot peening intensity was measured. Near surface conductivity was measured by eddy current methods. Since the effective penetration depth of both methods employed is inversely related to the excitation frequency, by making measurements at different frequencies, each method has the potential to provide the stress-depth profile. Experiments were conducted on aluminum specimens (alloy 7075-T7351) peened within the Almen peening intensity range of 4C to 16C. The experimental results obtained demonstrate a correlation between peening intensity and Rayleigh wave velocity and between peening intensity and conductivity. The data suggests either of the methods may be suitable, with limitations, for detecting unsatisfactory levels of shot peening. Several factors were found to contribute to the measured responses: surface roughness, near surface plastic deformation (cold work) and residual stress. The contribution of each factor was studied experimentally. The feasibility of residual stress determination from the measured data is discussed

  11. Eddy current proximity measurement of perpendicular tubes from within pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P. F. D.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel channels in CANDU® (CANada Deuterium Uranium) nuclear reactors consist of two non-concentric tubes; an inner pressure tube (PT) and a larger diameter calandria tube (CT). Up to 400 horizontally mounted fuel channels are contained within a calandria vessel, which also holds the heavy water moderator. Certain fuel channels pass perpendicularly over horizontally oriented tubes (nozzles) that are part of the reactor's liquid injection shutdown system (LISS). Due to sag, these fuel channels are at risk of coming into contact with the LISS nozzles. In the event of contact between the LISS nozzle and CT, flow-induced vibrations from within the moderator could lead to fretting and deformation of the CT. LISS nozzle proximity to CTs is currently measured optically from within the calandria vessel, but from outside the fuel channels. Measurement by an independent means would provide confidence in optical results and supplement cases where optical observations are not possible. Separation of PT and CT, known as gap, is monitored from within the PT using a transmit-receive eddy current probe. Investigation of the eddy current based gap probe as a tool to also measure proximity of LISS nozzles was carried out experimentally in this work. Eddy current response as a function of LISS-PT proximity was recorded. When PT-CT gap, PT wall thickness, PT resistivity and probe lift-off variations were not present this dependence could be used to determine the LISS-PT proximity. This method has the potential to provide LISS-CT proximity using existing gap measurement data. Obtaining LISS nozzle proximity at multiple inspection intervals could be used to provide an estimate of the time to LISS-CT contact, and thereby provide a means of optimizing maintenance schedules.

  12. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, K B

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada`s Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the `exclusion zone.` A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D{sub o}) for {sup 129}1 and {sup 14}C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D{sup i}) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs.

  13. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.B.

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the 'exclusion zone.' A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D o ) for 129 1 and 14 C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D i ) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs

  14. Measurement of the depth of narrow slotted sections in eddy current reference standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-gil; Ahn, Bongyoung; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2007-02-01

    The dimensions of the slots in eddy current (EC) reference standards are too narrow to be measured by general depth measurement methods such as the optical (laser) or stylus methods. However, measurement of the dimensions of the machined slots is a prerequisite to using the blocks as references. The present paper suggests a measurement method for the slotted section using an ultrasonic test. The width and depth of the slots measured in our study are roughly 0.1 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. The time of flight (TOF) of the ultrasonic wave was measured precisely. The ultrasonic velocity in the material of the EC reference standard was calculated with the measured values of the TOF and its thickness. Reflected waves from the tip of the slot and the bottom surface of the EC standard were successfully classified. Using this method we have successfully determined the depth of the slotted section.

  15. Model based optimization of driver-pickup separation for eddy current measurement of gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, G.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2018-04-01

    The fuel channels in CANDU® (CANada Deuterium Uranium) nuclear reactors consist of a pressure tube (PT) contained within a larger diameter calandria tube (CT). The separation between the tubes, known as the PT-CT gap, ensures PT hydride blisters, which could lead to potential cracking of the PT, do not develop. Therefore, accurate measurements are required to confirm that contact between PT and CT is not imminent. Gap measurement uses an eddy current probe. However this probe is sensitive to lift-off variations, which can adversely affect estimated gap. A validated analytical flat plate model of eddy current response to gap was used to examine the effect of driver-pickup spacing on lift-off and response to gap at a frequency of 4 kHz, which is used for in-reactor measurements. This model was compared against, and shown to have good agreement with, a COMSOL® finite element method (FEM) model. The optimum coil separation, which included the constraint of coil size, was found to be 11 mm, resulting in a phase response between lift-off and response to change in gap of 66°. This work demonstrates the advantages of using analytical models for optimizing coil designs for measurement of parameters that may negatively influence the outcome of an inspection measurement.

  16. Anisotropy in "isotropic diffusion" measurements due to nongaussian diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Olesen, Jonas Lynge; Ianuş, Andrada

    2017-01-01

    Designing novel diffusion-weighted NMR and MRI pulse sequences aiming to probe tissue microstructure with techniques extending beyond the conventional Stejskal-Tanner family is currently of broad interest. One such technique, multidimensional diffusion MRI, has been recently proposed to afford...... model-free decomposition of diffusion signal kurtosis into terms originating from either ensemble variance of isotropic diffusivity or microscopic diffusion anisotropy. This ability rests on the assumption that diffusion can be described as a sum of multiple Gaussian compartments, but this is often...

  17. Eddy covariance measurements of sea spray particles over the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Norris

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Most estimates of sea spray aerosol source functions have used indirect means to infer the rate of production as a function of wind speed. Only recently has the technology become available to make high frequency measurements of aerosol spectra suitable for direct eddy correlation determination of the sea spray particle flux. This was accomplished in this study by combining a newly developed fast aerosol particle counter with an ultrasonic anemometer which allowed for eddy covariance measurements of size-segregated particle fluxes. The aerosol instrument is the Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP – capable of measuring 8-channel size spectra for mean radii between 0.15 and 3.5 µm at 10 Hz. The first successful measurements were made during the Waves, Air Sea Fluxes, Aerosol and Bubbles (WASFAB field campaign in October 2005 in Duck (NC, USA. The method and initial results are presented and comparisons are made with recent sea spray source functions from the literature.

  18. Elucidating Carbon Exchange at the Regional Scale Via Airborne Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannun, R. A.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Newman, P. A.; Hanisco, T. F.; Diskin, G. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Nowak, J. B.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Noormets, A.; Vargas, R.; Clark, K. L.; Kustas, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    Direct flux observations from aircraft provide a unique tool for probing greenhouse gas (GHG) sources and sinks on a regional scale. Airborne eddy covariance, which relies on high-frequency, simultaneous measurements of fluctuations in concentration and vertical wind speed, is a robust method for quantifying surface-atmosphere exchange. We have assembled and flown an instrument payload onboard the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft capable of measuring CO2, CH4, H2O, and heat fluxes. Flights for the Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE) took place during September 2016 and May 2017 based out of Wallops Flight Facility, VA. Flight tracks covered a variety of ecosystems and land-use types in the Mid-Atlantic, including forests, croplands, and wetlands. Carbon fluxes are derived using eddy covariance and wavelet analysis. Our results show a strong drawdown of CO2 and near-zero CH4 emissions from crops and dry-land forest, but seasonally strong CH4 flux from wetland forest. CARAFE flux data will also be compared with observations from several flux towers along the flight path to complement the airborne measurements. We will further assess the effects of land surface type and seasonal variability in carbon exchange. Regional-scale flux observations from CARAFE supply a useful constraint for improving top-down and bottom up estimates of carbon sources and sinks.

  19. Eddy covarianace measurements in a hyper-arid and hyper-saline mangroves ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Marpu, P.; Molini, A.; Armstrong, P.

    2017-12-01

    The natural environment of mangroves provides a number of ecosystem services for improving water quality, supporting healthy fisheries, and protecting the coasts. Also, their carbon storage is larger than any other forest type. Several authors have recognized the importance of mangroves in global carbon cycles. However, energy, water and carbon exchanges between ecosystem and atmosphere are still not completely understood. Eddy covariance measurements are extremely valuable to understand the role of the unique stressors of costal ecosystems in gas exchange. In particular, periodic flooding and elevated soil pore water salinity influence land-atmosphere interactions. Despites the importance of flux measurements in mangroves forests, such in-situ observations are extremely rare. Our research team set up an eddy covariance tower in the Mangrove National Park of Abu Dhabi, UAE. The study site (24.4509° N, 54.4288° E) is located in a dwarf Avicennia marina ecosystem experiencing extremely high temperatures and salinity. CO2 and H2O exchanges are estimated and related to water level and salinity measurements. This unique dataset will shed some light on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide, on energy fluxes and on evapotranspiration rates for a halophyte ecosystem under severe salt-stress and high temperature.

  20. Measurement of fatigue crack growth using low-profile eddy-current sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchburn, R.J.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Burke, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Conformable spiral coils show promise as permanently mounted eddy-current sensors for the detection and monitoring of surface-breaking cracks in electrically conductive structures. Flexibility and a low profile (typically less than 0.5 mm) are key advantages that allow the sensors to be unobtrusively mounted on curved surfaces and beneath surface coatings. Furthermore, these sensors can be permanently mounted in areas that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach without significant disassembly. The sensors can be activated and interrogated using the same well-established electromagnetic measurement principles in eddy-current nondestructive inspection. A material test machine was used to grow through-thickness fatigue crack in a compact-tension specimen made from the aerospace-grade aluminium alloy AA2014. The growth of the crack was examined by measuring the small impedance changes of planar spiral-coil sensors attached to the specimen. The results indicate that permanently attached conformable spiral coils can be used to detect a deep crack once it has grown beneath the sensor, and then to monitor subsequent crack growth.

  1. Field intercomparison of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Haapanala, S.; Burba, G.; Vesala, T.

    2013-06-01

    Performances of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance measurements are assessed. The assessment and comparison was performed by analyzing eddy covariance data obtained during summer 2010 (1 April to 26 October) at a pristine fen, Siikaneva, Southern Finland. High methane fluxes with pronounced seasonality have been measured at this fen. The four participating methane gas analyzers are commercially available closed-path units TGA-100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., USA), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research, USA), G1301-f (Picarro Inc., USA) and an early prototype open-path unit Prototype-7700 (LI-COR Biosciences, USA). The RMT-200 functioned most reliably throughout the measurement campaign, during low and high flux periods. Methane fluxes from RMT-200 and G1301-f had the smallest random errors and the fluxes agree remarkably well throughout the measurement campaign. Cospectra and power spectra calculated from RMT-200 and G1301-f data agree well with corresponding temperature spectra during a high flux period. None of the gas analyzers showed statistically significant diurnal variation for methane flux. Prototype-7700 functioned only for a short period of time, over one month, in the beginning of the measurement campaign during low flux period, and thus, its overall accuracy and season-long performance were not assessed. The open-path gas analyzer is a practical choice for measurement sites in remote locations due to its low power demand, whereas for G1301-f methane measurements interference from water vapor is straightforward to correct since the instrument measures both gases simultaneously. In any case, if only the performance in this intercomparison is considered, RMT-200 performed the best and is the recommended choice if a new fast response methane gas analyzer is needed.

  2. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance measurements of organic compound fluxes from a subalpine forest using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A `virtual' disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC device was tested with field measurements of biogenic VOC fluxes at a subalpine forest site in the Rocky Mountains of the USA. A PTR-MS instrument was used as the VOC sensor. Daily peak emission fluxes of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were around 1.5, 1, 0.8 and 0.4 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. High pass filtering due to long sampling lines was investigated in laboratory experiments, and suggested that VOC losses in PTFA lines are generally governed by diffusion laws. Memory effects and surface reactions did not seem to play a dominant role. Model estimates of MBO fluxes compared well with measured fluxes. The results also suggest that latent heat and sensible heat fluxes are reasonably well correlated with VOC fluxes and could be used to predict variations in VOC emissions. The release of MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde resulted in significant change of tropospheric oxidant levels and a 10--40% increase in ozone levels, as inferred from a photochemical box model. We conclude that vDEC with a PTR-MS instrument is a versatile tool for simultaneous field analysis of multiple VOC fluxes.

  3. Quantitative estimation of defects from measurement obtained by remote field eddy current inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, M.E.; Fleury, G.

    1999-01-01

    Remote field eddy current technique is used for dimensioning grooves that may occurs in ferromagnetic pipes. This paper proposes a method to estimate the depth and the length of corrosion grooves from measurement of a pick-up coil signal phase at different positions close to the defect. Grooves dimensioning needs the knowledge of the physical relation between measurements and defect dimensions. So, finite element calculations are performed to obtain a parametric algebraic function of the physical phenomena. By means of this model and a previously defined general approach, an estimate of groove size may be given. In this approach, algebraic function parameters and groove dimensions are linked through a polynomial function. In order to validate this estimation procedure, a statistical study has been performed. The approach is proved to be suitable for real measurements. (authors)

  4. Monitoring ecosystem reclamation recovery using optical remote sensing: Comparison with field measurements and eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L; Baker, T; Carey, S K; Straker, J; Strilesky, S; Petrone, R

    2018-06-12

    Time series remote sensing vegetation indices derived from SPOT 5 data are compared with vegetation structure and eddy covariance flux data at 15 dry to wet reclamation and reference sites within the Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. This comprehensive analysis examines the linkages between indicators of ecosystem function and change trajectories observed both at the plot level and within pixels. Using SPOT imagery, we find that higher spatial resolution datasets (e.g. 10 m) improves the relationship between vegetation indices and structural measurements compared with interpolated (lower resolution) pixels. The simple ratio (SR) vegetation index performs best when compared with stem density-based indicators (R 2  = 0.65; p  0.02). Fluxes (net ecosystem production (NEP) and gross ecosystem production (GEP)) are most related to NDVI and SAVI when these are interpolated to larger 20 m × 20 m pixels (R 2  = 0.44-0.50; p  3 m 2  m -2 , making this index more appropriate for newly regenerating reclamation areas. For sites with LAI remote sensing in combination with field and eddy covariance data for monitoring and scaling of reclaimed and reference site productivity within and beyond the Oil Sands Region of western Canada. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diffusion measurement in ferrous infused gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahmatkesh, M. H.; Healy, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The compositions of Ferrous sulphate, Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Ferrous sulphate, Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye in solution of distilled water and sulphuric acid are two tissue-equivalent gel dosimeters. Ionizing radiation causes oxidation of Fe 2+ ion to Fe 3+ ions which diffuse through the gel matrix and blur the image of absorbed dose over a period of hours after irradiation. Materials and methods: 25 m M sulphuric acid, 0.4 mm ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.2 mm xylenol orange dye and 1% by weight agarose in distilled water named Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and 0.1 mm ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.1 mm xylenol orange dye, 50 mm sulphuric acid and 5% by weight gelatin in distilled water named Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye are used as two gel dosimeters. All chemicals were supplied by Sigma Ald ridge Company, Germany. The gels were poured in Perspex casts and were irradiated to a beam of X ray from linear accelerators or X ray machine. Results: In this study diffusion coefficients of Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters have been measured through a computer program for different temperature. The ferric ion diffusion coefficient (D) for the Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters were measured as (1.19.±0.03) x 10 -2 cm 2 .hr -1 and (0.83±0.03) x 10 -2 cm 2 .hr -1 respectively at room temperature. Conclusion: For both dosimeters the diffusion coefficients decreased with gel storage temperatures down to 6 d ig C . Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters have advantage of lower diffusion coefficient for a specified temperature

  6. Simulation of the transient eddy current measurement for the characterization of depth and conductivity of a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Weiying; Komura, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    A transient eddy current measurement method is presented to determine the thickness and conductivity of a conductive plate. The conductive plate is induced by an air-cored coil, the magnetic flux density along the axial is measured and the various signals corresponding to plates with different thickness and conductivity are calculated using a 3D transient eddy current simulator. Characteristic features are obtained from the transient response. A similarity-based modeling method is utilized in this study to estimate the thickness and conductivity of the conductive plate. (author)

  7. Seasonal variation of vertical eddy diffusivity in the troposphere, lower stratosphere and mesosphere over a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Narayana Rao

    Full Text Available Long-term VHF radar (53 MHz with 3° beam-width observations at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India, during the period from September 1995 to August 1999 are used to study monthly, seasonal and annual medians of vertical eddy diffusivity, K in the troposphere, lower stratosphere and mesosphere. First, the spectral width contribution due to non-turbulent effects has been removed for further analysis and the monthly, seasonal medians of K are calculated. The monthly median of K in the troposphere shows maximum and minimum in June-July and November-December, respectively. In general, large values of K are seen up to 10 km and then decrease with height. Larger values of K are observed during monsoon and post-monsoon than in winter and summer. In general, the maximum and minimum values of the annual median of K (in logarithmic values in the troposphere are found to be 0.25 and - 1.3 m2 s-1 respectively. In the mesosphere, the monthly median of K shows maximum and minimum during June-July and November-December, respectively, similar to the lower atmosphere. The value of K in the mesosphere becomes larger and it increases with height up to 75 km and again decreases above that height. The maximum values are seen during the summer, followed by equinoxes and a minimum during the winter. In general, the maximum and minimum values of K (in logarithmic values are found to be 0.7 and 0.3 m2 s-1, respectively, in the mesosphere. A comparison of Doppler spectral parameters in different beam directions shows anisotropy in both signal-to- noise ratio (SNR and spectral widths in the mesosphere, whereas it shows isotropy in SNR and anisotropy in the spectral widths in troposphere and lower stratosphere.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence; waves and tides

  8. Under-ice eddy covariance flux measurements of heat, salt, momentum, and dissolved oxygen in an artificial sea ice pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Else, B. G T; Rysgaard, S.; Attard, K.

    2015-01-01

    as one possible cause of the high fluxes. Momentum fluxes showed interesting correlations with ice growth and melt but were generally higher than expected. We concluded that with the exception of the conductivity sensor, the eddy covariance system worked well, and that useful information about turbulent......Turbulent exchanges under sea ice play a controlling role in ice mass balance, ice drift, biogeochemistry, and mixed layer modification. In this study, we examined the potential to measure under-ice turbulent exchanges of heat, salt, momentum, and dissolved oxygen using eddy covariance...... in an experimental sea ice facility. Over a 15-day period in January 2013, an underwater eddy covariance system was deployed in a large (500 m3) inground concrete pool, which was filled with artificial seawater and exposed to the ambient (−5 to −30 °C) atmosphere. Turbulent exchanges were measured continuously...

  9. Storage flux uncertainty impact on eddy covariance net ecosystem exchange measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Giacomo; Aubinet, Marc; Feigenwinter, Christian; Heinesch, Bernard; Lindroth, Anders; Mamadou, Ossénatou; Moderow, Uta; Mölder, Meelis; Montagnani, Leonardo; Rebmann, Corinna; Papale, Dario

    2017-04-01

    Complying with several assumption and simplifications, most of the carbon budget studies based on eddy covariance (EC) measurements, quantify the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) by summing the flux obtained by EC (Fc) and the storage flux (Sc). Sc is the rate of change of CO2, within the so called control volume below the EC measurement level, given by the difference in the instantaneous profiles of concentration at the beginning and end of the EC averaging period, divided by the averaging period. While cumulating over time led to a nullification of Sc, it can be significant at short time periods. The approaches used to estimate Sc fluxes largely vary, from measurements based only on a single sampling point (usually located at the EC measurement height) to measurements based on several sampling profiles distributed within the control volume. Furthermore, the number of sampling points within each profile vary, according to their height and the ecosystem typology. It follows that measurement accuracy increases with the sampling intensity within the control volume. In this work we use the experimental dataset collected during the ADVEX campaign in which Sc flux has been measured in three similar forest sites by the use of 5 sampling profiles (towers). Our main objective is to quantify the impact of Sc measurement uncertainty on NEE estimates. Results show that different methods may produce substantially different Sc flux estimates, with problematic consequences in case high frequency (half-hourly) data are needed for the analysis. However, the uncertainty on long-term estimates may be tolerate.

  10. An instrument to measure turbulent eddy fluxes in the atmosphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Rafkin; D. Banfield; R. Dissly; J. Silver; A. Stanton; E. Wilkinson; W. Massman; J. Ham

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent eddies in the planetary boundary layer of the terrestrial planet atmospheres are the primary mechanism by which energy, momentum, gasses, and aerosols are exchanged between the surface and the atmosphere [1]. The importance of eddies has long been recognized by the Earth atmospheric science community, and turbulent theory for Earth has a long history with a...

  11. Validation of the Eddy Viscosity and Lange Wake Models using Measured Wake Flow Characteristics Behind a Large Wind Turbine Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Bum Suk; Huh, Jong Chul [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Go, Young Jun [Hanjin Ind, Co., Ltd., Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The wake effects behind wind turbines were investigated by using data from a Met Mast tower and the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system for a wind turbine. The results of the wake investigations and predicted values for the velocity deficit based on the eddy viscosity model were compared with the turbulence intensity from the Lange model. As a result, the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity of the wake increased as the free stream wind speed decreased. In addition, the magnitude of the velocity deficit for the center of the wake using the eddy viscosity model was overestimated while the turbulence intensity from the Lange model showed similarities with measured values.

  12. LOW-POWER SOLUTION FOR EDDY COVARIANCE MEASUREMENTS OF METHANE FLUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T.; Burba, G. G.; Komissarov, A.; McDermitt, D. K.; Xu, L.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W. C.; Schedlbauer, J. L.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Riensche, B.; Allyn, D.

    2009-12-01

    Open-path analyzers offer a number of advantages for measuring methane fluxes, including undisturbed in-situ flux measurements, spatial integration using the Eddy Covariance approach, zero frequency response errors due to tube attenuation, confident water and thermal density terms from co-located fast measurements of water and sonic temperature, and possibility of remote and mobile solar-powered or small-generator-powered deployments due to lower power demands in the absence of a pump. The LI-7700 open-path methane analyzer is a VCSEL (vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser)-based instrument. It employs an open Herriott cell and measures levels of methane with RMS noise below 5 ppb at 10 Hz sampling in controlled laboratory conditions. The power consumption of the stand-alone LI-7700 in steady-state is about 8W, so it can be deployed in any methane-generating location of interest on a portable or mobile solar-powered tower, and it does not have to have grid power or permanent industrial generator. Eddy Covariance measurements of methane flux using the LI-7700 open-path methane analyzer were conducted in 2006-2009 in five ecosystems with contrasting weather and moisture conditions: (1) sawgrass wetland in the Florida Everglades; (2) coastal wetlands in an Arctic tundra; and (3) pacific mangroves in Mexico; (4) maize field and (5) ryegrass field in Nebraska. Methane co-spectra behaved in a manner similar to that of the co-spectra of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and air temperature, demonstrating that the LI-7700 adequately measured fluctuations in methane concentration across the whole spectrum of frequencies contributing to vertical atmospheric turbulent transport at the experimental sites. All co-spectra also closely followed the Kaimal model, and demonstrated good agreement with another methane co-spectrum obtained with a TDLS (Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscope; Unisearch Associates, Inc.) over a peatland. Overall, hourly methane fluxes ranged from near-zero at

  13. First measurements of H2O2 and organic peroxide surface fluces by the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valverde-Canossa, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Rappenglück, B.; Steinbrecher, R.; Klemm, O.; Schuster, G.; Moortgat, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    The relaxed eddy-accumulation (REA) technique was specially adapted to a high-performance liquid chromatographer (enzymatic method) and scrubbing coils to measure concentrations and fluxes of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides with a carbon chain C4, of which only methylhydroperoxide

  14. Carbon fluxes of surfaces vs. ecosystems. Advantages of measuring eddy covariance and soil respiration simultaneously in dry grassland ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Z.; Pintér, K.; Pavelka, Marian; Dařenová, Eva; Balogh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2011), s. 2523-2534 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : carbon fluxes * ecosystems * grassland ecoystems * measuring eddy covariance * soil respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  15. Validation of a Residual Stress Measurement Method by Swept High-Frequency Eddy Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a swept high-frequency eddy current (SHFEC) measurement method developed for electromagnetic nondestructive characterization of residual stresses in shot peened aerospace materials. In this approach, we regard shot-peened surfaces as modified surface layers of varying conductivity, and determine the conductivity deviation profile by inversion of the SHFEC data. The SHFEC measurement system consists of a pair of closely matched printed-circuit-board coils driven by laboratory instrument under software control. This provides improved sensitivity and high frequency performance compared to conventional coils, so that swept frequency EC measurements up to 50 MHz can be made to achieve the smallest skin depth of 80 μm for nickel-based superalloys. We devised a conductivity profile inversion procedure based on the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds. The main contribution of this paper is the methodology validation. Namely, the forward and inverse models were validated against measurements on artificial layer specimens consisting of metal films with different conductivities placed on a metallic substrate. The inversion determined the film conductivities which were found to agree with those measured using the direct current potential drop (DCPD) method

  16. Validation of a Residual Stress Measurement Method by Swept High-Frequency Eddy Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports on a swept high-frequency eddy current (SHFEC) measurement method developed for electromagnetic nondestructive characterization of residual stresses in shot peened aerospace materials. In this approach, we regard shot-peened surfaces as modified surface layers of varying conductivity, and determine the conductivity deviation profile by inversion of the SHFEC data. The SHFEC measurement system consists of a pair of closely matched printed-circuit-board coils driven by laboratory instrument under software control. This provides improved sensitivity and high frequency performance compared to conventional coils, so that swept frequency EC measurements up to 50 MHz can be made to achieve the smallest skin depth of 80 μm for nickel-based superalloys. We devised a conductivity profile inversion procedure based on the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds. The main contribution of this paper is the methodology validation. Namely, the forward and inverse models were validated against measurements on artificial layer specimens consisting of metal films with different conductivities placed on a metallic substrate. The inversion determined the film conductivities which were found to agree with those measured using the direct current potential drop (DCPD) method.

  17. Disjunct eddy covariance measurements of volatile organic compound fluxes using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipale, R.

    2011-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources, vegetation being the dominant source on a global scale. Some of these reactive compounds are deemed major contributors or inhibitors to aerosol particle formation and growth, thus making VOC measurements essential for current climate change research. This thesis discusses ecosystem scale VOC fluxes measured above a boreal Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland. The flux measurements were performed using the micrometeorological disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), which is an online technique for measuring VOC concentrations. The measurement, calibration, and calculation procedures developed in this work proved to be well suited to long-term VOC concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS. A new averaging approach based on running averaged covariance functions improved the determination of the lag time between wind and concentration measurements, which is a common challenge in DEC when measuring fluxes near the detection limit. The ecosystem scale emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone were substantial. These three oxygenated VOCs made up about half of the total emissions, with the rest comprised of monoterpenes. Contrary to the traditional assumption that monoterpene emissions from Scots pine originate mainly as evaporation from specialized storage pools, the DEC measurements indicated a significant contribution from de novo biosynthesis to the ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions. This thesis offers practical guidelines for long-term DEC measurements with PTR-MS. In particular, the new averaging approach to the lag time determination seems useful in the automation of DEC flux calculations. Seasonal variation in the monoterpene biosynthesis and the detailed structure of a revised hybrid algorithm, describing both de novo and pool emissions, should be determined in

  18. Eddy covariance measurements and parameterisation of traffic related particle emissions in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Mårtensson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban aerosol sources are important due to the health effects of particles and their potential impact on climate. Our aim has been to quantify and parameterise the urban aerosol source number flux F (particles m−2 s−1, in order to help improve how this source is represented in air quality and climate models. We applied an aerosol eddy covariance flux system 118.0 m above the city of Stockholm. This allowed us to measure the aerosol number flux for particles with diameters >11 nm. Upward source fluxes dominated completely over deposition fluxes in the collected dataset. Therefore, the measured fluxes were regarded as a good approximation of the aerosol surface sources. Upward fluxes were parameterised using a traffic activity (TA database, which is based on traffic intensity measurements. The footprint (area on the surface from which sources and sinks affect flux measurements, located at one point in space of the eddy system covered road and building construction areas, forests and residential areas, as well as roads with high traffic density and smaller streets. We found pronounced diurnal cycles in the particle flux data, which were well correlated with the diurnal cycles in traffic activities, strongly supporting the conclusion that the major part of the aerosol fluxes was due to traffic emissions. The emission factor for the fleet mix in the measurement area EFfm=1.4±0.1×1014 veh−1 km−1 was deduced. This agrees fairly well with other studies, although this study has an advantage of representing the actual effective emission from a mixed vehicle fleet. Emission from other sources, not traffic related, account for a F0=15±18×106 m−2 s−1. The urban aerosol source flux can then be written as F=EFfmTA+F0. In a second attempt to find a parameterisation, the friction velocity U* normalised with the average friction velocity has been included, F=EF . This parameterisation results in a somewhat reduced emission factor, 1.3×1014 veh

  19. Challenges and benefits on long-term eddy covariance measurements over lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesala, Timo; Golub, Malgorzata; Desai, Ankur; Heiskanen, Jouni; Provenzale, Maria; Rantakari, Miitta; Ojala, Anne; Mammarella, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) data on carbon dioxide fluxes is presently available on about 30 lakes but the time series are mostly short, order of one year. Longer EC series together with chamber measurements and appropriate auxiliary data on water column allow for more accurate estimates of the aquatic component in terrestrial carbon balance and analysis of the environmental controls. We discuss on challenges for long-term EC measurements over freshwater ecosystems and demonstrate the benefits of EC data for carbon cycle studies via examples from long-term sites EC sites in Finland. We discuss on the auxiliary measurements needed and the general design of the whole measurement set-up to get representative information. We discuss on challenges related to the CO2 flux partitioning for freshwater ecosystems and introduce a new method to estimate the net primary productivity (NPP) on EC data, which is superior to more traditional methods (bottle incubations, 14C technique) with a poor temporal resolution. Finally, we collected and analyzed CO2 fluxes from 19 globally distributed lakes and reservoirs representing six climate zones. The mean flux was c. 0.3 micro mole / m2 s. We applied a simple upscaling to the direct observations and ended up to the estimate which is about half of the current emission estimate for lentic systems.

  20. Eddy covariance flux measurements of biogenic VOCs during ECHO 2003 using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the AFO 2000 project ECHO, two PTR-MS instruments were operated in combination with sonic anemometers to determine biogenic VOC fluxes from a mixed deciduous forest site in North-Western Germany. The measurement site was characterised by a forest of inhomogeneous composition, complex canopy structure, limited extension in certain wind directions and frequent calm wind conditions during night time. The eddy covariance (EC technique was applied since it represents the most direct flux measurement approach on the canopy scale and is, therefore, least susceptible to these non-ideal conditions. A specific flux calculation method was used to account for the sequential multi-component PTR-MS measurements and allowing an individual delay time adjustment as well as a rigorous quality control based on cospectral analysis. The validated flux results are consistent with light and temperature dependent emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes from this forest, with average daytime emissions of 0.94 and 0.3µg m-2s-1, respectively. Emissions of methanol reached on average 0.087µg m-2s-1 during daytime, but fluxes were too small to be detected during night time. Upward fluxes of the isoprene oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR were also found, being two orders of magnitude lower than those of isoprene. Calculations with an analytical footprint model indicate that the observed isoprene fluxes correlate with the fraction of oaks within the footprints of the flux measurement.

  1. Automatic actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiniuk, Agnieszka; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Actinometric station is using for measuring solar of radiation. The results are helpful in determining the optimal position of solar panels relative to the Sun, especially in today's world, when the energy coming from the Sun and other alternative sources of energy become more and more popular. Polish climate does not provide as much energy as in countries in southern Europe, but it is possible to increase the amount of energy produced by appropriate arrangement of photovoltaic panels. There is the possibility of forecasting the amount of produced energy, the cost-effectiveness and profitability of photovoltaic installations. This implies considerable development opportunities for domestic photovoltaic power plants. This article presents description of actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement, which is equipped with pyranometer - thermopile temperature sensor, amplifier AD620, AD Converter ADS1110, microcontroller Atmega 16, SD card, GPS module and LCD screen.

  2. Continuous measurement of air-water gas exchange by underwater eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Pace, Michael L.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of gases, such as O2, CO2, and CH4, over the air-water interface is an important component in aquatic ecosystem studies, but exchange rates are typically measured or estimated with substantial uncertainties. This diminishes the precision of common ecosystem assessments associated with gas exchanges such as primary production, respiration, and greenhouse gas emission. Here, we used the aquatic eddy covariance technique - originally developed for benthic O2 flux measurements - right below the air-water interface (˜ 4 cm) to determine gas exchange rates and coefficients. Using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a fast-responding dual O2-temperature sensor mounted on a floating platform the 3-D water velocity, O2 concentration, and temperature were measured at high-speed (64 Hz). By combining these data, concurrent vertical fluxes of O2 and heat across the air-water interface were derived, and gas exchange coefficients were calculated from the former. Proof-of-concept deployments at different river sites gave standard gas exchange coefficients (k600) in the range of published values. A 40 h long deployment revealed a distinct diurnal pattern in air-water exchange of O2 that was controlled largely by physical processes (e.g., diurnal variations in air temperature and associated air-water heat fluxes) and not by biological activity (primary production and respiration). This physical control of gas exchange can be prevalent in lotic systems and adds uncertainty to assessments of biological activity that are based on measured water column O2 concentration changes. For example, in the 40 h deployment, there was near-constant river flow and insignificant winds - two main drivers of lotic gas exchange - but we found gas exchange coefficients that varied by several fold. This was presumably caused by the formation and erosion of vertical temperature-density gradients in the surface water driven by the heat flux into or out of the river that affected the turbulent

  3. Continuous measurement of air–water gas exchange by underwater eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Berg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of gases, such as O2, CO2, and CH4, over the air–water interface is an important component in aquatic ecosystem studies, but exchange rates are typically measured or estimated with substantial uncertainties. This diminishes the precision of common ecosystem assessments associated with gas exchanges such as primary production, respiration, and greenhouse gas emission. Here, we used the aquatic eddy covariance technique – originally developed for benthic O2 flux measurements – right below the air–water interface (∼ 4 cm to determine gas exchange rates and coefficients. Using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a fast-responding dual O2–temperature sensor mounted on a floating platform the 3-D water velocity, O2 concentration, and temperature were measured at high-speed (64 Hz. By combining these data, concurrent vertical fluxes of O2 and heat across the air–water interface were derived, and gas exchange coefficients were calculated from the former. Proof-of-concept deployments at different river sites gave standard gas exchange coefficients (k600 in the range of published values. A 40 h long deployment revealed a distinct diurnal pattern in air–water exchange of O2 that was controlled largely by physical processes (e.g., diurnal variations in air temperature and associated air–water heat fluxes and not by biological activity (primary production and respiration. This physical control of gas exchange can be prevalent in lotic systems and adds uncertainty to assessments of biological activity that are based on measured water column O2 concentration changes. For example, in the 40 h deployment, there was near-constant river flow and insignificant winds – two main drivers of lotic gas exchange – but we found gas exchange coefficients that varied by several fold. This was presumably caused by the formation and erosion of vertical temperature–density gradients in the surface water driven by the heat flux into or

  4. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Churchfield, Matthew; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  5. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot W.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-01-09

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  6. Thermal diffusivity effect in opto-thermal skin measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, P; Imhof, R E; Cui, Y; Ciortea, L I; Berg, E P

    2010-01-01

    We present our latest study on the thermal diffusivity effect in opto-thermal skin measurements. We discuss how thermal diffusivity affects the shape of opto-thermal signal, and how to measure thermal diffusivity in opto-thermal measurements of arbitrary sample surfaces. We also present a mathematical model for a thermally gradient material, and its corresponding opto-thermal signal. Finally, we show some of our latest experimental results of this thermal diffusivity effect study.

  7. Oxygen exchange and ice melt measured at the ice-water interface by eddy correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, M.H.; Koopmans, D.; Berg, P.

    2012-01-01

    heterotrophic with a daily gross primary production of 0.69 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1 and a respiration rate of ĝ̂'2.13 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1 leading to a net ecosystem metabolism of ĝ̂'1.45 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1. This application of the eddy correlation technique produced high temporal resolution O2 fluxes and ice melt......This study examined fluxes across the ice-water interface utilizing the eddy correlation technique. Temperature eddy correlation systems were used to determine rates of ice melting and freezing, and O2 eddy correlation systems were used to examine O2 exchange rates driven by biological and physical...

  8. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Li

    Full Text Available Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235 specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  9. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Weimin; Zeng, Weiqin; Chen, Guolong; Qiu, Zhongchao; Cao, Xinyuan; Gao, Xuanyi

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235) specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  10. Forest Ecosystem respiration estimated from eddy covariance and chamber measurements under high turbulence and substantial tree mortality from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, Heather N.; Frank, John M.; Bradford, John B.; Miles, Brianna L.; Massman, William J.; Parton, William J.; Ryan, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Eddy covariance nighttime fluxes are uncertain due to potential measurement biases. Many studies report eddy covariance nighttime flux lower than flux from extrapolated chamber measurements, despite corrections for low turbulence. We compared eddy covariance and chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration at the GLEES Ameriflux site over seven growing seasons under high turbulence (summer night mean friction velocity (u*) = 0.7 m s−1), during which bark beetles killed or infested 85% of the aboveground respiring biomass. Chamber-based estimates of ecosystem respiration during the growth season, developed from foliage, wood and soil CO2 efflux measurements, declined 35% after 85% of the forest basal area had been killed or impaired by bark beetles (from 7.1 ±0.22 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2005 to 4.6 ±0.16 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2011). Soil efflux remained at ~3.3 μmol m−2 s−1 throughout the mortality, while the loss of live wood and foliage and their respiration drove the decline of the chamber estimate. Eddy covariance estimates of fluxes at night remained constant over the same period, ~3.0 μmol m−2 s−1 for both 2005 (intact forest) and 2011 (85% basal area killed or impaired). Eddy covariance fluxes were lower than chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration (60% lower in 2005, and 32% in 2011), but the mean night estimates from the two techniques were correlated within a year (r2 from 0.18-0.60). The difference between the two techniques was not the result of inadequate turbulence, because the results were robust to a u* filter of > 0.7 m s−1. The decline in the average seasonal difference between the two techniques was strongly correlated with overstory leaf area (r2=0.92). The discrepancy between methods of respiration estimation should be resolved to have confidence in ecosystem carbon flux estimates.

  11. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions from a ponderosa pine forest measured by relaxed eddy accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Robert C.; Deventer, Malte Julian; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Warneke, Carsten; Ortega, John; Shen, Steve; Martinez, Luis; Koss, Abigail; Lerner, Brian M.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Smith, James N.; Guenther, Alex B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-11-01

    Alkenes are reactive hydrocarbons that influence local and regional atmospheric chemistry by playing important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The simplest alkene, ethene (ethylene), is a major plant hormone and ripening agent for agricultural commodities. The group of light alkenes (C2-C4) originates from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, but their biogenic sources are poorly characterized, with limited field-based flux observations. Here we report net ecosystem fluxes of light alkenes and isoprene from a semiarid ponderosa pine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique during the summer of 2014. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions have strong diurnal cycles, with median daytime fluxes of 123, 95, 39 and 17 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. The fluxes were correlated with each other, followed general ecosystem trends of CO2 and water vapor, and showed similar sunlight and temperature response curves as other biogenic VOCs. The May through October flux, based on measurements and modeling, averaged 62, 52, 24 and 18 µg m-2 h-1 for ethene, propene, butene and isoprene, respectively. The light alkenes contribute significantly to the overall biogenic source of reactive hydrocarbons: roughly 18 % of the dominant biogenic VOC, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The measured ecosystem scale fluxes are 40-80 % larger than estimates used for global emissions models for this type of ecosystem.

  12. Ecosystem Phenology from Eddy-covariance Measurements: Spring Photosynthesis in a Cool Temperate Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, P.; Moore, T. R.; Poon, D.; Seaquist, J.

    2005-12-01

    The onset and increase of spring photosynthetic flux of carbon dioxide is an important attribute of the carbon budget of northern ecosystems and we used eddy-covariance measurements from March to May over 5 years at the Mer Bleue ombrotrophic bog to establish the important controls. The onset of ecosystem photosynthesis (day-of-year from 86 to 101) was associated with the disappearance on the snow cover and there is evidence that photosynthesis can continue after a thin new snowfall. The growth of photosynthesis during the spring period was partially associated with light (daily photosynthetically active radiation) but primarily with temperature, with the strongest correlation being observed with peat temperature at a depth of 5 and 10 cm, except in one year in which there was a long snow cover. The vegetation comprises mosses, which are able to photosynthesize very early, evergreen shrubs, which appear dependent on soil warming, and deciduous shrubs, which leaf-out only in late spring. We observed changes in shrub leaf colour from brown to green and concomitant increases in foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations during the spring in this "evergreen" system. We analyzed MODIS images for periods of overlap of tower and satellite data and found a generally strong correlation, though the infrequent satellite measurements were unable to pick out the onset and timing of rapid growth of photosynthesis in this ecosystem.

  13. Scale Thickness Measurement of Steam Generator Tubing Using Eddy Current Signal of Bobbin Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Um, Ki Soo; Kim, Jae Dong

    2012-01-01

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear power plant and steam generator tubes are the pressure boundary between primary and secondary side, which makes them critical for nuclear safety. As the operating time of nuclear power plant increases, not only damage mechanisms but also scaled deposits on steam generator tubes are known to be problematic causing tube support flow hole blockage and heat fouling. The ability to assess the extent and location of scaled deposits on tubes became essential for management and maintenance of steam generator and eddy current bobbin data can be utilized to measure thickness of scale on tubes. In this paper, tube reference standards with various thickness of scaled deposit has been set up to provide information about the overall deposit condition of steam generator tubes, providing essential tool for steam generator management and maintenance to predict and prevent future damages. Also, methodology to automatically measure scale thickness on tubes has been developed and applied to field data to estimate overall scale amount.

  14. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one-third of global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analyzers, the instrumentation at many flux sites has been amended for these gases. However, the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatially and temporally uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best estimate from this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However, a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found, which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows one to determine CH4 emissions of cows on a pasture if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  15. Eddy covariance methane measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term methane flux measurements have been mostly performed with plant or soil enclosure techniques on specific components of an ecosystem. New fast response methane analyzers make it possible to use the eddy covariance (EC technique instead. The EC technique is advantageous because it allows continuous flux measurements integrating over a larger and more representative area including the complete ecosystem, and allows fluxes to be observed as environmental conditions change naturally without disturbance. We deployed the closed-path Fast Methane analyzer (FMA from Los Gatos Research Ltd and demonstrate its performance for EC measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation at the Blodgett Forest site in central California. The fluctuations of the CH4 concentration measured at 10 Hz appear to be small and their standard deviation is comparable to the magnitude of the signal noise (±5 ppbv. Consequently, the power spectra typically have a white noise signature at the high frequency end (a slope of +1. Nevertheless, in the frequency range important for turbulent exchange, the cospectra of CH4 compare very well with all other scalar cospectra confirming the quality of the FMA measurements are good for the EC technique. We furthermore evaluate the complications of combined open and closed-path measurements when applying the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL corrections (Webb et al., 1980 and the consequences of a phase lag between the water vapor and methane signal inside the closed path system. The results of diurnal variations of CH4 concentrations and fluxes are summarized and compared to the monthly results of process-based model calculations.

  16. Eddy covariance carbonyl sulfide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gerdel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The trace gas carbonyl sulfide (COS has lately received growing interest from the eddy covariance (EC community due to its potential to serve as an independent approach for constraining gross primary production and canopy stomatal conductance. Thanks to recent developments of fast-response high-precision trace gas analysers (e.g. quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometers, QCLAS, a handful of EC COS flux measurements have been published since 2013. To date, however, a thorough methodological characterisation of QCLAS with regard to the requirements of the EC technique and the necessary processing steps has not been conducted. The objective of this study is to present a detailed characterisation of the COS measurement with the Aerodyne QCLAS in the context of the EC technique and to recommend best EC processing practices for those measurements. Data were collected from May to October 2015 at a temperate mountain grassland in Tyrol, Austria. Analysis of the Allan variance of high-frequency concentration measurements revealed the occurrence of sensor drift under field conditions after an averaging time of around 50 s. We thus explored the use of two high-pass filtering approaches (linear detrending and recursive filtering as opposed to block averaging and linear interpolation of regular background measurements for covariance computation. Experimental low-pass filtering correction factors were derived from a detailed cospectral analysis. The CO2 and H2O flux measurements obtained with the QCLAS were compared with those obtained with a closed-path infrared gas analyser. Overall, our results suggest small, but systematic differences between the various high-pass filtering scenarios with regard to the fraction of data retained in the quality control and flux magnitudes. When COS and CO2 fluxes are combined in the ecosystem relative uptake rate, systematic differences between the high-pass filtering scenarios largely cancel out, suggesting that

  17. Eddy covariance carbonyl sulphide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdel, Katharina; Spielmann, Felix Maximilian; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2017-09-26

    The trace gas carbonyl sulphide (COS) has lately received growing interest in the eddy covariance (EC) community due to its potential to serve as an independent approach for constraining gross primary production and canopy stomatal conductance. Thanks to recent developments of fast-response high-precision trace gas analysers (e.g. quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometers (QCLAS)), a handful of EC COS flux measurements have been published since 2013. To date, however, a thorough methodological characterisation of QCLAS with regard to the requirements of the EC technique and the necessary processing steps has not been conducted. The objective of this study is to present a detailed characterization of the COS measurement with the Aerodyne QCLAS in the context of the EC technique, and to recommend best EC processing practices for those measurements. Data were collected from May to October 2015 at a temperate mountain grassland in Tyrol, Austria. Analysis of the Allan variance of high-frequency concentration measurements revealed sensor drift to occur under field conditions after an averaging time of around 50 s. We thus explored the use of two high-pass filtering approaches (linear detrending and recursive filtering) as opposed to block averaging and linear interpolation of regular background measurements for covariance computation. Experimental low-pass filtering correction factors were derived from a detailed cospectral analysis. The CO 2 and H 2 O flux measurements obtained with the QCLAS were compared against those obtained with a closed-path infrared gas analyser. Overall, our results suggest small, but systematic differences between the various high-pass filtering scenarios with regard to the fraction of data retained in the quality control and flux magnitudes. When COS and CO 2 fluxes are combined in the so-called ecosystem relative uptake rate, systematic differences between the high-pass filtering scenarios largely cancel out, suggesting that this

  18. A relaxed eddy accumulation system for measuring vertical fluxes of nitrous acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA system combined with a nitrous acid (HONO analyzer was developed to measure atmospheric HONO vertical fluxes. The system consists of three major components: (1 a fast-response sonic anemometer measuring both vertical wind velocity and air temperature, (2 a fast-response controlling unit separating air motions into updraft and downdraft samplers by the sign of vertical wind velocity, and (3 a highly sensitive HONO analyzer based on aqueous long path absorption photometry that measures HONO concentrations in the updrafts and downdrafts. A dynamic velocity threshold (±0.5σw, where σw is a standard deviation of the vertical wind velocity was used for valve switching determined by the running means and standard deviations of the vertical wind velocity. Using measured temperature as a tracer and the average values from two field deployments, the flux proportionality coefficient, β, was determined to be 0.42 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The REA system was deployed in two ground-based field studies. In the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex study in Bakersfield, California in summer 2010, measured HONO fluxes appeared to be upward during the day and were close to zero at night. The upward HONO flux was highly correlated to the product of NO2 and solar radiation. During the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX 2009 at Blodgett Forest, California in July 2009, the overall HONO fluxes were small in magnitude and were close to zero. Causes for the different HONO fluxes in the two different environments are briefly discussed.

  19. Eddy covariance flux measurements of gaseous elemental mercury using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Ashley M; Moore, Christopher W; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Kljun, Natascha; Obrist, Daniel

    2015-02-03

    A newly developed pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations at high temporal resolution (25 Hz) was used to successfully conduct the first eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of GEM. GEM is the main gaseous atmospheric form, and quantification of bidirectional exchange between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere is important because gas exchange is important on a global scale. For example, surface GEM emissions from natural sources, legacy emissions, and re-emission of previously deposited anthropogenic pollution may exceed direct primary anthropogenic emissions. Using the EC technique for flux measurements requires subsecond measurements, which so far has not been feasible because of the slow time response of available instrumentation. The CRDS system measured GEM fluxes, which were compared to fluxes measured with the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) and a dynamic flux chamber (DFC). Measurements took place near Reno, NV, in September and October 2012 encompassing natural, low-mercury (Hg) background soils and Hg-enriched soils. During nine days of measurements with deployment of Hg-enriched soil in boxes within 60 m upwind of the EC tower, the covariance of GEM concentration and vertical wind speed was measured, showing that EC fluxes over an Hg-enriched area were detectable. During three separate days of flux measurements over background soils (without Hg-enriched soils), no covariance was detected, indicating fluxes below the detection limit. When fluxes were measurable, they strongly correlated with wind direction; the highest fluxes occurred when winds originated from the Hg-enriched area. Comparisons among the three methods showed good agreement in direction (e.g., emission or deposition) and magnitude, especially when measured fluxes originated within the Hg-enriched soil area. EC fluxes averaged 849 ng m(-2) h(-1), compared to DFC fluxes of 1105 ng m(-2) h(-1) and MBR fluxes

  20. Evaluation of a lower-powered analyzer and sampling system for eddy-covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon E.; Sargent, Steve; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2018-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes measured using the eddy-covariance method capture the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of N2O emissions. Most closed-path trace-gas analyzers for eddy-covariance measurements have large-volume, multi-pass absorption cells that necessitate high flow rates for ample frequency response, thus requiring high-power sample pumps. Other sampling system components, including rain caps, filters, dryers, and tubing, can also degrade system frequency response. This field trial tested the performance of a closed-path eddy-covariance system for N2O flux measurements with improvements to use less power while maintaining the frequency response. The new system consists of a thermoelectrically cooled tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer configured to measure both N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2). The system features a relatively small, single-pass sample cell (200 mL) that provides good frequency response with a lower-powered pump ( ˜ 250 W). A new filterless intake removes particulates from the sample air stream with no additional mixing volume that could degrade frequency response. A single-tube dryer removes water vapour from the sample to avoid the need for density or spectroscopic corrections, while maintaining frequency response. This eddy-covariance system was collocated with a previous tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer model to compare N2O and CO2 flux measurements for two full growing seasons (May 2015 to October 2016) in a fertilized cornfield in Southern Ontario, Canada. Both spectrometers were placed outdoors at the base of the sampling tower, demonstrating ruggedness for a range of environmental conditions (minimum to maximum daily temperature range: -26.1 to 31.6 °C). The new system rarely required maintenance. An in situ frequency-response test demonstrated that the cutoff frequency of the new system was better than the old system (3.5 Hz compared to 2.30 Hz) and similar to that of a closed-path CO2 eddy-covariance system (4

  1. Annual cycle of methane emission from a boreal fen measured by the eddy covariance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, Janne.; Pihlatie, Mari; Haapanala, Sami; Vesala, Timo; Riutta, Terhi; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka

    2007-01-01

    The northern wetlands are one of the major sources of methane into the atmosphere. We measured annual methane emission from a boreal minerotrophic fen, Siikaneva, by the eddy covariance method. The average wintertime emissions were below 1 mg/m 2 /h, and the summertime emissions about 3.5 mg/m 2 /h. The water table depth did have any clear effect on methane emissions. During most of the year the emission depended on the temperature of peat below the water table. However, during the high and late summer the emission was independent on peat temperature as well. No diurnal cycle of methane flux was found. The total annual emission from the Siikaneva site was 12.6 g/m 2 . The emissions of the snow free period contributed 91% to the annual emission. The emission pulse during the snow melting period was clearly detectable but of minor importance adding only less than 3% to the annual emission. Over 20% of the carbon assimilated during the year as carbon dioxide was emitted as methane. Thus methane emission is an important component of the carbon balance of the Siikaneva fen. This indicates need of taking methane into account when studying carbon balances of northern fen ecosystems

  2. Long term measurement of lake evaporation using a pontoon mounted Eddy Covariance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, H. A.; McGloin, R.; McJannet, D.; Burn, S.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from water storages is essential for design of water management and allocation policy that aims to balance demands for water without compromising the sustainability of future water resources, particularly during periods of prolonged and severe drought. Precise measurement of evaporation from lakes and dams however, presents significant research challenges. These include design and installation of measurement platforms that can withstand a range of wind and wave conditions; accurate determination of the evaporation measurement footprint and the influence of changing water levels. In this paper we present results from a two year long deployment of a pontoon mounted Eddy Covariance (EC) system on a 17.2ha irrigation reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. The EC unit included a CSAT-3 sonic anemometer (Campbell Scientific, Utah, United States) and a Li-Cor CS7500 open-path H2O/CO2 infrared gas analyzer (LiCor, Nebraska, United States) at a height of 2.2m, a net radiometer (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands) at a height of 1.2m and a humidity and temperature probe (HMP45C,Vaisala, Finland) at 2.3m. The EC unit was controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR3000 data logger with flux measurements made at 10 Hz and block averaged values logged every 15 minutes. Power to the EC system was from mounted solar panels that charged deep cycle lead-acid batteries while communication was via a cellphone data link. The pontoon was fitted with a weighted central beam and gimbal ring system that allowed self-levelling of the instrumentation and minimized dynamic influences on measurements (McGowan et al 2010; Wiebe et al 2011). EC measurements were corrected for tilt errors using the double rotation method for coordinate rotation described by Wilczak et al. (2001). High and low frequency attenuation of the measured co-spectrum was corrected using Massman's (2000) method for estimating frequency response corrections, while measurements were

  3. Measurements of cesium and strontium diffusion in biotite gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Neretnieks, I.

    1988-01-01

    A significant retardation of radionuclides transported by flowing water from an underground repository can be expected if the nuclides are able to diffuse into the water filled micropores in the rock. This diffusion into the pores will also increase the surface available to interactions between the nuclides in the ground water and the rock material, such as sorption. To calculate the retardation, it is necessary to know the sorption properties and the diffusivities in the rock matrix for the radionuclides. Diffusion experiments with cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss samples have been performed. Both the transport of strontium and cesium through rock samples and the concentration profiles of cesium and strontium inside rock samples have been determined. The result shows that diffusion of cesium and strontium occurs in the rock material. A diffusion model has been used to evaluate the diffusivity. Both pore diffusion and surface diffusion had to be included in the model to give good agreement with the experimental data. If surface diffusion is not included in the model, the effective pore diffusivity that gives the best fit to the experimental data is found to be higher than expected from earlier measurement of iodide diffusion in the same type of rock material. This indicates that the diffusion of cesium and strontium (sorbing components) in rock material is caused by both pore diffusion and surface diffusion acting in parallel

  4. Diffusion measurements of cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Neretnieks, I.

    1985-01-01

    A significant retardation of radionuclides transported by flowing water from an underground repository can be expected if the nuclides are able to diffuse into the water filled micropores in the rock. This diffusion into the pores will also increase the surface available to interaction between the nuclides in the groundwater and the rock material, such as sorption. To calculate the retardation it is necessary to know the sorption properties and the diffusivities in the rock matrix for the radionuclides. Diffusion experiments with cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss samples have been performed. Both the transport of strontium and cesium through rock samples and the concentration profiles of cesium and strontium inside rock samples have been determined. The result show that diffusion of cesium and strontium occurs in the rock material. A diffusion model has been used to evaluate the diffusivity. Both pore diffusion and surface diffusion had to be included in the model to give good agreement with the experimental data. If surface diffusion is not included in the model, the effective pore diffusivity that gives the best fit to the experimental data is found to be higher than expected from earlier measurements of iodide diffusion in the same type of rock material. This indicates that the diffusion of cesium and strontium (sorbing components) in rock material is caused by both pore diffusion and surface diffusion acting in parallel. (author)

  5. Interferometric measurements of a dendritic growth front solutal diffusion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John A.; Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to measure solutal distributions in the diffusion layer produced during the vertical directional solidification (VDS) of an ammonium chloride - water (NH4Cl-H2O) solution. Interferometry was used to obtain concentration measurements in the 1-2 millimeter region defining the diffusion layer. These measurements were fitted to an exponential form to extract the characteristic diffusion parameter for various times after the start of solidification. The diffusion parameters are within the limits predicted by steady state theory and suggest that the effective solutal diffusivity is increasing as solidification progresses.

  6. Annular gap measurement between pressure tube and calandria tube by eddy current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhole, V.M.; Rastogi, P.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    In pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) major distinguishing feature is that there are number of identical fuel channels in the reactor core. Each channel consists of pressure tube of Zr-2.5 Nb or zircaloy-2 through which high temperature, high pressure primary coolant is passing. The pressure tube contains fuel. Surrounding the pressure tube there is low pressure, cool heavy water (moderator). The moderator is thermally separated from coolant by the tube which is nominally concentric with pressure tube called calandria tube. There are four garter springs in the annular gap between pressure tube and calandria tube. During the life of the reactor there are number of factors by which the pressure tube sags, most important factors are irradiation creep, thermal creep, fuel load etc. Because of the sag of pressure tube it can touch the calandria tube resulting in formation of cold spot. This leads to hydrogen concentration at that spot by which the material at that place becomes brittle and can lead to catastrophic failure of pressure tube. There is no useful access for measurement of annular gap either through the gas annular space or from exterior of calandria tube. So the annular gap was measured from inside surface of pressure tube which is accessible. Eddy current technique was used for finding the gap. The paper describe the details of split coil design of bobbin probe, selection of operating point on normalised impedance diagram by choosing frequency. Experimental results on full scale mock up, and actual gap measurement in reactor channel, are also given. (author). 7 figs

  7. Assessment of a relaxed eddy accumulation for measurements of fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds: Study over arable crops and a mature beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, M.W.; Clayborough, R.; Beswick, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system, based on the design by Beverland et al. (Journal of Geophysics Research 101 (D17) 22, 807-22, 815), for the measurement of biogenic VOC species was evaluated by intercomparison with an eddy correlation CO2 flux system over a mature deciduous beech canopy...... (Fagus Sylvatica) during the FOREXNOX program. Measurements from a site where winter wheat and barley (Hordeum Vulgare ann Triticum Aestivum) were being harvested are also presented. The system was inter-compared with two different eddy correlation systems for measuring CO2 fluxes. Good results were...

  8. Eddy current measurement of the thickness of top Cu film of the multilayer interconnects in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zilian; Meng, Yonggang; Zhao, Qian

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new eddy current method, named equivalent unit method (EUM), for the thickness measurement of the top copper film of multilayer interconnects in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, which is an important step in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. The influence of the underneath circuit layers on the eddy current is modeled and treated as an equivalent film thickness. By subtracting this equivalent film component, the accuracy of the thickness measurement of the top copper layer with an eddy current sensor is improved and the absolute error is 3 nm for sampler measurement.

  9. The application of an eddy diffusivity model to the dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and the calculation of cloud gamma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1981-05-01

    A model which has been applied successfully to the study of the mesoscale transport of sulphur compounds can be adapted for radionuclides released from nuclear power stations. Although more complicated than the conventional Gaussian plume models it has several important advantages including the better representation of dry deposition and the variation of dispersion parameters with height above the surface. Building entrainment can be included in a straightforward manner and an approximate method can be used to incorporate isotope-dependent deposition velocities. A new method of calculating cloud gamma exposure is described which is particularly suited to eddy diffusivity models. This model will be used as an alternative to Gaussian plume methods in the BNL safety code NECTAR. (author)

  10. Using eddy geopotential height to measure the western North Pacific subtropical high in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun

    2018-01-01

    The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is crucial to the East Asian summer climate, and geopotential height ( H) is widely used to measure the WPNSH. However, a rapidly rising trend of H in the future is projected by the models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Diagnoses based on the hypsometric equation suggest that more than 80% of the rise in H are attributable to zonal uniform warming. Because circulation is determined by the gradient of H rather than its absolute magnitude, the spatially uniform rising trend of H gives rise to difficulties when measuring the WNPSH with H. These difficulties include an invalid western boundary of WNPSH in the future and spurious information regarding long-term trends and interannual variability of WNPSH. Using CMIP5 model simulations and reanalysis data, the applicability of a metric based on eddy geopotential height ( H e ) to the warming climate is investigated. The results show that the H e metric outperforms the H metric under warming climate conditions. First, the mean state rainfall- H e relationship is more robust than the rainfall- H relationship. Second, the area, intensity, and western boundary indices of WNPSH can be effectively defined by the H e = 0-m contour in future warming climate scenarios without spurious trends. Third, the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is more closely related to the H e -based WNPSH indices. We recommend that the H e metric be adopted as an operational metric on the WNPSH under the current warming climate.

  11. A compact and stable eddy covariance set-up for methane measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. D. Hendriks

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Fast Methane Analyzer (FMA is assessed for its applicability in a closed path eddy covariance field set-up in a peat meadow. The FMA uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy combined with a highly specific narrow band laser for the detection of CH4 and strongly reflective mirrors to obtain a laser path length of 2–20×103 m. Statistical testing and a calibration experiment showed high precision (7.8×10−3 ppb and accuracy (<0.30% of the instrument, while no drift was observed. The instrument response time was determined to be 0.10 s. In the field set-up, the FMA is attached to a scroll pump and combined with a 3-axis ultrasonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer for measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour. The power-spectra and co-spectra of the instruments were satisfactory for 10 Hz sampling rates.

    Due to erroneous measurements, spikes and periods of low turbulence the data series consisted for 26% of gaps. Observed CH4 fluxes consisted mainly of emission, showed a diurnal cycle, but were rather variable over. The average CH4 emission was 29.7 nmol m−2 s−1, while the typical maximum CH4 emission was approximately 80.0 nmol m−2 s−1 and the typical minimum flux was approximately 0.0 nmol m−2 s−1. The correspondence of the measurements with flux chamber measurements in the footprint was good and the observed CH4 emission rates were comparable with eddy covariance CH4 measurements in other peat areas.

    Additionally, three measurement techniques with lower sampling frequencies were simulated, which might give the possibility to measure CH4 fluxes without an external pump and save energy. Disjunct eddy covariance appeared to be the most reliable substitute for 10 Hz eddy covariance, while relaxed eddy accumulation gave

  12. Eddy covariance flux measurements of ammonia by high temperature chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A system for fast ammonia (NH3 measurements with chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS based on a commercial Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS is presented. It uses electron transfer reaction as ionisation pathway and features a drift tube of polyetheretherketone (PEEK and silica-coated steel. Heating the instrumental inlet and the drift tube to 180 °C enabled an effective time resolution of ~1 s and made it possible to apply the instrument for eddy covariance (EC measurements. EC fluxes of NH3 were measured over two agricultural fields in Oensingen, Switzerland, following fertilisations with cattle slurry. Air was aspirated close to a sonic anemometer at a flow of 100 STP L min−1 and was directed through a 23 m long 1/2" PFA tube heated to 150 °C to an air-conditioned trailer where the gas was sub-sampled from the large bypass stream. This setup minimised damping of fast NH3 concentration changes between the sampling point and the actual measurement. High-frequency attenuation loss of the NH3 fluxes of 20 to 40% was quantified and corrected for using an empirical ogive method. The instrumental NH3 background signal showed a minor interference with H2O which was characterised in the laboratory. The resulting correction of the NH3 flux after slurry spreading was less than 1‰. The flux detection limit of the EC system was about 5 ng m−2 s−1 while the accuracy of individual flux measurements was estimated 16% for the high-flux regime during these experiments. The NH3 emissions after broad spreading of the slurry showed an initial maximum of 150 μg m−2 s−1 with a fast decline in the following hours.

  13. Representation of physiological drought at ecosystem level based on model and eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Novick, K. A.; Song, C.; Zhang, Q.; Hwang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Drought and heat waves are expected to increase both in frequency and amplitude, exhibiting a major disturbance to global carbon and water cycles under future climate change. However, how these climate anomalies translate into physiological drought, or ecosystem moisture stress are still not clear, especially under the co-limitations from soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water. In this study, we characterized the ecosystem-level moisture stress in a deciduous forest in the southeastern United States using the Coupled Carbon and Water (CCW) model and in-situ eddy covariance measurements. Physiologically, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) as an atmospheric water demand indicator largely controls the openness of leaf stomata, and regulates atmospheric carbon and water exchanges during periods of hydrological stress. Here, we tested three forms of VPD-related moisture scalars, i.e. exponent (K2), hyperbola (K3), and logarithm (K4) to quantify the sensitivity of light-use efficiency to VPD along different soil moisture conditions. The sensitivity indicators of K values were calibrated based on the framework of CCW using Monte Carlo simulations on the hourly scale, in which VPD and soil water content (SWC) are largely decoupled and the full carbon and water exchanging information are held. We found that three K values show similar performances in the predictions of ecosystem-level photosynthesis and transpiration after calibration. However, all K values show consistent gradient changes along SWC, indicating that this deciduous forest is less responsive to VPD as soil moisture decreases, a phenomena of isohydricity in which plants tend to close stomata to keep the leaf water potential constant and reduce the risk of hydraulic failure. Our study suggests that accounting for such isohydric information, or spectrum of moisture stress along different soil moisture conditions in models can significantly improve our ability to predict ecosystem responses to future

  14. Measuring evapotranspiration using an eddy covariance system over the Albany Thicket of the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwate, O.; Mantel, Sukhmani K.; Palmer, Anthony R.; Gibson, Lesley A.

    2016-10-01

    Determining water and carbon fluxes over a vegetated surface is important in a context of global environmental changes and the fluxes help in understanding ecosystem functioning. Pursuant to this, the study measured evapotranspiration (ET) using an eddy covariance (EC) system installed over an intact example of the Albany Thicket (AT) vegetation in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Environmental constraints to ET were also assessed by examining the response of ET to biotic and abiotic factors. The EC system comprised of an open path Infrared Gas Analyser and Sonic anemometer and an attendant weather station to measure bi-meteorological variables. Post processing of eddy covariance data was conducted using EddyPro software. Quality assessment of fluxes was also performed and rejected and missing data were filled using the method of mean diurnal variations (MDV). Much of the variation in ET was accounted for by the leaf area index (LAI, p water storage capacity of the vegetation and the possibility of vegetation accessing ground water. Most of the net radiation was consumed by sensible heat flux and this means that ET in the area is essentially water limited since abundant energy was available to drive turbulent transfers of energy. Understanding the environmental constraints to ET is crucial in predicting the ecosystem response to environmental forces such as climate change.

  15. Quality analysis applied on eddy covariance measurements at complex forest sites using footprint modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rebmann, C.; Göckede, M.; Foken, T.; Aubinet, M.; Aurela, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C.; Buchmann, N.; Carrara, A.; Cescatti, A.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Elbers, J. A.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Guyon, D.; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Knohl, A.; Laurila, T.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Markkanen, T.; Miglietta, F.; Moncrieff, J.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Nardino, M.; Ourcival, J.-M.; Rambal, S.; Rannik, Ü.; Rotenberg, E.; Sedlák, Pavel; Unterhuber, G.; Vesala, T.; Yakir, D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, - (2005), s. 121-141 ISSN 0177-798X Grant - others:Carboeuroflux(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Eddy covariance * Quality assurance * Quality control * Footprint modelling * Heterogeneity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.295, year: 2005

  16. Sediment-water gas exchange in two Swedish lakes measured by Eddy Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokic, J.; Sahlee, E.; Brand, A.; Sobek, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lake sediments are hotspots for carbon (C) cycling, acting both as sinks and sources through C burial and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. The fate of this CO2 in the water column is controlled by bottom water turbulence, a factor not accounted for in current estimates of sediment CO2 fluxes. This study is aimed to quantify the turbulent CO2 flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) by measuring the oxygen (O2) flux with the non-invasive Eddy Correlation (EC) method that combines measurements of 3D velocity (ADV) and O2 fluctuations with a microsensor. Using the metabolic relation (respiratory quotient, RQ) of O2 and CO2 derived from a sediment incubation experiment we present the first estimates of turbulent lake sediment CO2 flux from two boreal lakes in Sweden (Erssjön and Erken, 0.07 km2 and 23.7 km2 respectively). Only ~10 % of the total dataset was extracted for flux calculations due to poor signal-to-noise ratio in the velocity and O2 signals. The sediment in Lake Erssjön was both consuming and producing O2, related to bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. Mean O2 flux was -0.19 and 0.17 μmol O2 m-2 sec-1, comparing to 0.04 μmol O2 m-2 sec-1 derived from the sediment incubation experiment. Fluxes for Lake Erken are still to be determined. Experimentally derived RQ of the both lake sediments were close to unity implying that in-situ CO2 fluxes are of similar magnitude as O2 fluxes, varying between -0.15 and 0.18 μmol C m-2 sec-1. The first measurement of turbulent sediment O2 flux and estimate of turbulent CO2 flux from a small boreal lake show higher and more variable fluxes than previously found in experimental studies. The low amount of data extracted for flux calculations (~10%) point towards the difficulties in EC measurement in low-turbulence environments. On-going work focuses on the turbulence structure in lakes and its influence on the gas fluxes at the SWI.

  17. Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerbonne, John

    2010-12-12

    We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335-357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question.

  18. Eddy covariance measurements of greenhouse gases from a restored and rewetted raised bog ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Christen, A.; Black, T. A.; Johnson, M. S.; Ketler, R.; Nesic, Z.; Merkens, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Wetlands act as a major long-term storage of carbon by sequestrating carbon-dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Meanwhile, they can emit significant amounts of methane (CH4) due to anaerobic microbial decomposition. The Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA) is recognized as one of Canada's largest undeveloped natural areas retained within an urban area. Historically, it has been substantially reduced in size and degraded by peat mining and agriculture. Since 2005, the bog has been declared a conservancy area, and the restoration efforts in BBECA focus on rewetting the disturbed ecosystems to promote a transition back to a raised bog. A pilot study measured CH4, CO2 and N2O exchanges in 2014 and concluded to monitor CO2, CH4 fluxes continuously. From the perspective of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, CO2 sequestered in bog needs to be protected and additional CO2 and CH4 emissions due to land-cover change need to be reduced by wise management. In this study, we measured the growing-season (June-September) fluxes of CO2 and CH4 exchange using eddy covariance (EC). A floating platform with an EC system for both CO2 (closed-path) and CH4 (open-path) began operation in June 2015. During the growing-season, gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) averaged 5.87 g C m-2 day-1 and 2.02 g C m-2 day-1, respectively. The magnitude of GEP and Re were lower than in previous studies of pristine northern peatlands. The daily average CH4 emission was 0.99 (±1.14) g C m-2 day-1 and it was higher than in most previous studies. We also characterized how environmental factors affected the seasonal dynamics of these exchanges in this disturbed peatland. Our measurements showed that soil temperature and soil water content were major drivers of seasonal changes of GHG fluxes. The daily average GHG warming potential (GWP) of the emissions in the growing seasons (from CO2 and CH4

  19. Measurement of Solute Diffusion Behavior in Fractured Waste Glass Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through fractured media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminants transport at many hazardous waste disposal sites. No methods for earlier measurements are available for the characterization of diffusion in fractured glass blocks. We report here the use of time-lag diffusion experimental method to assess the diffusion behavior of three different solutes (Cs, Sr and Pentafluoro Benzoic Acid or PFBA) in fractured, immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) glass forms. A fractured media time-lag diffusion experimental apparatus that allows the measurement of diffusion coefficients has been designed and built for this purpose. Use of time-lag diffusion method, a considerably easier experimental method than the other available methods, was not previously demonstrated for measuring diffusion in any fractured media. Hydraulic conductivity, porosity and diffusion coefficients of a solute were experimentally measured in fractured glass blocks using this method for the first time. Results agree with the range of properties reported for similar rock media earlier, indicating that the time-lag experimental method can effectively characterize the diffusion coefficients of fractured ILAW glass media

  20. Forest ecosystem respiration estimated from eddy covariance and chamber measurements under high turbulence and substantial tree mortality from bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, Heather N; Frank, John M; Bradford, John B; Miles, Brianna L; Massman, William J; Parton, William J; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    Eddy covariance nighttime fluxes are uncertain due to potential measurement biases. Many studies report eddy covariance nighttime flux lower than flux from extrapolated chamber measurements, despite corrections for low turbulence. We compared eddy covariance and chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration at the GLEES Ameriflux site over seven growing seasons under high turbulence [summer night mean friction velocity (u*) = 0.7 m s(-1)], during which bark beetles killed or infested 85% of the aboveground respiring biomass. Chamber-based estimates of ecosystem respiration during the growth season, developed from foliage, wood, and soil CO2 efflux measurements, declined 35% after 85% of the forest basal area had been killed or impaired by bark beetles (from 7.1 ± 0.22 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in 2005 to 4.6 ± 0.16 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in 2011). Soil efflux remained at ~3.3 μmol m(-2) s(-1) throughout the mortality, while the loss of live wood and foliage and their respiration drove the decline of the chamber estimate. Eddy covariance estimates of fluxes at night remained constant over the same period, ~3.0 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for both 2005 (intact forest) and 2011 (85% basal area killed or impaired). Eddy covariance fluxes were lower than chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration (60% lower in 2005, and 32% in 2011), but the mean night estimates from the two techniques were correlated within a year (r(2) from 0.18 to 0.60). The difference between the two techniques was not the result of inadequate turbulence, because the results were robust to a u* filter of >0.7 m s(-1). The decline in the average seasonal difference between the two techniques was strongly correlated with overstory leaf area (r(2) = 0.92). The discrepancy between methods of respiration estimation should be resolved to have confidence in ecosystem carbon flux estimates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Measurement of chemical diffusion coefficients in liquid binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keita, M.; Steinemann, S.; Kuenzi, H.U.

    1976-01-01

    New measurements of the chemical diffusion coefficient in liquid binary alloys are presented. The wellknown geometry of the 'capillary-reservoir' is used and the concentration is obtained from a resistivity measurement. The method allows to follow continuously the diffusion process in the liquid state. A precision of at least 10% in the diffusion coefficient is obtained with a reproductibility better than 5%. The systems Hg-In, Al-Sn, Al-Si have been studied. Diffusion coefficients are obtained as a function of temperature, concentration, and geometrical factors related to the capillary (diameter, relative orientation of density gradient and gravity). (orig.) [de

  2. Local carbon diffusion coefficient measurement in the S-1 spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, R.M.; Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Chu, T.K.; Paul, S.F.; Yamada, M.

    1988-10-01

    The local carbon diffusion coefficient was measured in the S - 1 spheromak by detecting the radial spread of injected carbon impurity. The radial impurity density profile is determined by the balance of ionization and diffusion. Using measured local electron temperature T/sub e/ and density n/sub e/, the ionization rate is determined from which the particle diffusion coefficient is inferred. The results found in this work are consistent with Bohm diffusion. The absolute magnitude of D/sub /perpendicular// was determined to be (4/approximately/6) /times/ D/sub Bohm/. 25 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Multitracer method of diffusion measurement in chromium-manganese steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudala, J.; Stegowski, Z.; Gilewicz-Wolter, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an application of multitracer method to diffusion measurement in Cr-Mn steels. Radioisotope tracers of chromium 51 Cr, manganese 54 Mn and iron 59 Fe were used simultaneously in the diffusion process, Gamma-spectrum measurement and the proper analysis enabled evaluation of concentration distribution for each tracer. As a new tool, artificial neural networks (ANN) method was used for spectrum analysis. The proper solution of the diffusion model was applied to the experimental tracers' distribution data and diffusion coefficients were determined. (author)

  4. Using Riverboat-Mounted Eddy Covariance for Direct Measurements of Air-water Gas Exchange in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. D.; Freitas, H.; Read, E.; Goulden, M. L.; Rocha, H.

    2007-12-01

    Gas evasion from Amazonian rivers and lakes to the atmosphere has been estimated to play an important role in the regional budget of carbon dioxide (Richey et al., 2002) and the global budget of methane (Melack et al., 2004). These flux estimates were calculated by combining remote sensing estimates of inundation area with water-side concentration gradients and gas transfer rates (piston velocities) estimated primarily from floating chamber measurements (footprint ~1 m2). The uncertainty in these fluxes was large, attributed primarily to uncertainty in the gas exchange parameterization. Direct measurements of the gas exchange coefficient are needed to improve the parameterizations in these environments, and therefore reduce the uncertainty in fluxes. The micrometeorological technique of eddy covariance is attractive since it is a direct measurement of gas exchange that samples over a much larger area than floating chambers, and is amenable to use from a moving platform. We present eddy covariance carbon dioxide exchange measurements made using a small riverboat in rivers and lakes in the central Amazon near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Water-side carbon dioxide concentration was measured in situ, and the gas exchange coefficient was calculated. We found the piston velocity at a site on the Amazon River to be similar to existing ocean-based parameterizations, whereas the piston velocity at a site on the Tapajos River was roughly a factor 5 higher. We hypothesize that the enhanced gas exchange at the Tapajos site was due to a shallow upwind fetch. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of boat-based eddy covariance on these rivers, and also the utility of a mobile platform to investigate spatial variability of gas exchange.

  5. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crop cultivation may focus more on low grade and marginal lands in order to avoid competition with food production for land and water resources. However, in many regions, this would require improvements in plant water-use efficiency that are beyond the physiological capacity of most C3 and C4 bioenergy crop candidates. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, such as Agave tequiliana, can combine high above-ground productivity with as little as 20% of the water demand of C3 and C4 crops. This is achieved through temporal separation of carboxylase activities, with stomata opening at night to allow gas exchange and minimise transpirational losses. Previous studies have employed 'bottom-up' methodologies to investigate carbon (C) accumulation and productivity in Agave, by scaling leaf-level gas exchange and titratable acidity (TA) with leaf area index or maximum productivity. We used the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify ecosystem-scale gas exchange over an Agave plantation in Mexico ('top-down' approach). Measurements were made over 252 days, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 displayed a CAM rhythm that alternated from a net C sink at night to a net C source during the day and partitioned canopy fluxes (gross C assimilation, FA,EC) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. The projected ecosystem C balance indicated that the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24 g C m-2 y-1, comprising cumulative soil respiration of 692 ± 7 g C m-2 y-1 and FA,EC of -1025 ± 25 g C m-2 y-1. EC-estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg ha-1 y-1. Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 and persisted almost unchanged after 70 days of drought conditions. Our results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of drought avoidance employed by Agave

  6. Evaluation of a lower-powered analyzer and sampling system for eddy-covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes measured using the eddy-covariance method capture the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of N2O emissions. Most closed-path trace-gas analyzers for eddy-covariance measurements have large-volume, multi-pass absorption cells that necessitate high flow rates for ample frequency response, thus requiring high-power sample pumps. Other sampling system components, including rain caps, filters, dryers, and tubing, can also degrade system frequency response. This field trial tested the performance of a closed-path eddy-covariance system for N2O flux measurements with improvements to use less power while maintaining the frequency response. The new system consists of a thermoelectrically cooled tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer configured to measure both N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The system features a relatively small, single-pass sample cell (200 mL that provides good frequency response with a lower-powered pump ( ∼  250 W. A new filterless intake removes particulates from the sample air stream with no additional mixing volume that could degrade frequency response. A single-tube dryer removes water vapour from the sample to avoid the need for density or spectroscopic corrections, while maintaining frequency response. This eddy-covariance system was collocated with a previous tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer model to compare N2O and CO2 flux measurements for two full growing seasons (May 2015 to October 2016 in a fertilized cornfield in Southern Ontario, Canada. Both spectrometers were placed outdoors at the base of the sampling tower, demonstrating ruggedness for a range of environmental conditions (minimum to maximum daily temperature range: −26.1 to 31.6 °C. The new system rarely required maintenance. An in situ frequency-response test demonstrated that the cutoff frequency of the new system was better than the old system (3.5 Hz compared to 2.30 Hz and similar to that of a closed

  7. Comparison of radon diffusion coefficients measured by transient-diffusion and steady-state laboratory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwarf, D.R.; Nielson, K.K.; Rich, D.C.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-11-01

    A method was developed and used to determine radon diffusion coefficients in compacted soils by transient-diffusion measurements. A relative standard deviation of 12% was observed in repeated measurements with a dry soil by the transient-diffusion method, and a 40% uncertainty was determined for moistures exceeding 50% of saturation. Excellent agreement was also obtained between values of the diffusion coefficient for radon in air, as measured by the transient-diffusion method, and those in the published literature. Good agreement was also obtained with diffusion coefficients measured by a steady-state method on the same soils. The agreement was best at low moistures, averaging less than ten percent difference, but differences of up to a factor of two were observed at high moistures. The comparison of the transient-diffusion and steady-state methods at low moistures provides an excellent verification of the theoretical validity and technical accuracy of these approaches, which are based on completely independent experimental conditions, measurement methods and mathematical interpretations

  8. Continuous Eddy Covariance Measurements of N2O Emissions and Controls from an Intensively Grazed Dairy Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L. A.; Liang, L. L.; Wall, A.; Campbell, D.

    2017-12-01

    New Zealand's greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is disproportionally dominated by methane and nitrous oxide which account for 54% of emissions. These GHGs are derived from pastoral agriculture that supports dairying and meat production. To date, most studies on quantifying or mitigating agricultural N2O emissions have used flux chamber measurements. Recent advances in detector technology now means that routine field-to-farm scale measurements of N2O emissions might be possible using the eddy covariance technique. In late 2016, we established an eddy covariance tower that measured N2O emissions from a dairy farm under year-round grazing. An Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to measure N2O, CH4 and H2O concentration at 10 Hz and housed in a weatherproof and insulated enclosure (0.9 m ´ 1.2 m) and powered by mains power (240 VAC). The enclosure maintained a stable setpoint temperature (30±0.2°C) by using underground cooling pipes, fans and recirculating instrument heat. QCL (true 10 Hz digital) and CSAT3B sonic anemometer high frequency data are aligned using Network Time Protocol and EddyPro covariance maximisation during flux processing. Fluxes generally integrated over about 6-8 ha. Stable summertime baseline N2O fluxes (FN2O) were around 12-24 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1 (0.5-1.0 nmol N2O m-2 s-1). Grazing by cows during dry summer resulted in only modest increases in FN2O to 24-48 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1 (1.0-2.0 nmol N2O m-2 s-1). However, the first rain events after grazing resulted in large, short-lived (1-3 days) FN2O pulses reaching peaks of 144-192 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1 (6-8 nmol N2O m-2 s-1). During these elevated N2O emissions, FN2O displayed a significant diurnal signal, with peak fluxes mid-afternoon which was best explained by variation in shallow soil temperature in summer. In winter (both cooler and wetter) FN2O were not as easily explained on a daily basis but were generally greater than summer. Throughout the year, FN2O was strongly dependent on water filled

  9. Comparison of eddy covariance and modified Bowen ratio methods for measuring gas fluxes and implications for measuring fluxes of persistent organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Bolinius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces; however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulate the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method, field studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met, then the performance of the MBR method is neither strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.

  10. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  11. Chamber and Diffusive Based Carbon Flux Measurements in an Alaskan Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkman, E.; Oechel, W. C.; Zona, D.

    2013-12-01

    consumption, whereas chamber and eddy covariance methodologies only document net production from the surface. Also, the capability to measure spring, summer and fall chamber fluxes, and to continuously determine year-round CO2 and CH4 fluxes under even the most extreme weather conditions, allows an unprecedented level of data continuity and local spatial coverage. Comparison to a nearby eddy covariance tower measuring CO2 and CH4 fluxes with an LGR Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer add additional power to this set of measurements. Thus, inter-comparison between diffusive, chamber, and tower-based carbon fluxes should lend much insight into the spatial and temporal controls on carbon cycling in this ecosystem.

  12. Dimensional measurements and eddy currents control of the sheath integrity for a set of irradiated candu fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, G.; Man, I.

    2015-01-01

    During irradiation in the nuclear reactor, fuel elements undergo dimensional and structural changes, and changes of sheath surface condition as well, which can lead to damages and even loss of integrity. This paper presents the results of dimensional measurements and of examination technique with eddy currents for three fuel elements of an irradiated CANDU fuel bundle. One of the fuel elements (FE), which is studied in detail, presented a crack about 40 mm long. The purpose of these nondestructive examination techniques is to determine those parameters that characterize the behavior and performance of nuclear fuel operation. This paper contains images of defects and interpretations of the causes of their occurrence. (authors)

  13. DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS DURING PERVAPORATION THROUGH A ZEOLITE MEMBRANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isotopic-transient technique was used to directly measure diffusion times of H2O, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone in pure and binary mixture feeds transporting through a zeolite membrane under steady-state pervaporation conditions. Diffusivities can be determ...

  14. Methane eddy covariance flux measurements from a low flying aircraft: Bridging the scale gap between local and regional emissions estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayres, D. S.; Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E. J.; Kochendorfer, J.; Wilkerson, J.; Anderson, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic contains a large reservoir of organic matter stored in permafrost and clathrates. Varying geology and hydrology across the Arctic, even on small scales, can cause large variability in surface carbon fluxes and partitioning between methane and carbon dioxide. This makes upscaling from point source measurements such as small flux towers or chambers difficult. Ground based measurements can yield high temporal resolution and detailed information about a specific location, but due to the inaccessibility of most of the Arctic to date have only made measurements at very few sites. In August 2013, a small aircraft, flying low over the surface (5-30 m), and carrying an air turbulence probe and spectroscopic instruments to measure methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, water vapor and their isotopologues, flew over the North Slope of Alaska. During the six flights multiple comparisons were made with a ground based Eddy Covariance tower as well as three region surveys flights of fluxes over three areas each approximately 2500 km2. We present analysis using the Flux Fragment Method and surface landscape classification maps to relate the fluxes to different surface land types. We show examples of how we use the aircraft data to upscale from a eddy covariance tower and map spatial variability across different ecotopes.

  15. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  16. Modeling dendrite density from magnetic resonance diffusion measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Kroenke, CD; Østergaard, Leif

    2007-01-01

    in this model: (i) the dendrites and axons, which are modeled as long cylinders with two diffusion coefficients, parallel (DL) and perpendicular (DT) to the cylindrical axis, and (ii) an isotropic monoexponential diffusion component describing water diffusion within and across all other structures, i.......e., in extracellular space and glia cells. The model parameters are estimated from 153 diffusion-weighted images acquired from a formalin-fixed baboon brain. A close correspondence between the data and the signal model is found, with the model parameters consistent with literature values. The model provides......Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides a noninvasive tool to probe tissue microstructure. We propose a simplified model of neural cytoarchitecture intended to capture the essential features important for water diffusion as measured by NMR. Two components contribute to the NMR signal...

  17. Ecosystem water use efficiency of norway spruce monoculture from eddy-covariance and ecophysiological measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Slípková, Romana; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 951, č. 1 (2012), s. 301-308 ISSN 0567-7572. [International Workshop On Sap Flow /8./. Volterra, 08.05.2011-12.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : eddy-covariance * evaporation * Picea abies * sap flow * transpiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Strong low-pass filtering effects on water vapour flux measurements with closed-path eddy correlation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba; Flyvbjerg, Henrik K.

    2007-01-01

    datasets for this substantial measurement error. In contrast to earlier studies, a large number of spectra and raw data have been used in the analysis to define the low-pass filtering characteristic of the EC system. This revealed that the cut-off frequency of the closed-path EC system for water vapour......Turbulent water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy correlation (EC) systems are unintentionally low-pass filtered by the system in a manner that varies with environmental conditions. Why and how is described here. So is the practical method that systematically corrects long-term flux...... concentration measurements decreases exponentially with increasing relative humidity. After correction for this unintended filtering, the fluxes are consistent with CO2 and H2O fluxes that were measured with an open-path sensor at the same time. The correction of water vapour flux measurements over a Beech...

  19. Suitability of quantum cascade laser spectroscopy for CH4 and N2O eddy covariance flux measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Vermeulen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A quantum cascade laser spectrometer was evaluated for eddy covariance flux measurements of CH4 and N2O using three months of continuous measurements at a field site. The required criteria for eddy covariance flux measurements including continuity, sampling frequency, precision and stationarity were examined. The system operated continuously at a dairy farm on peat grassland in the Netherlands from 17 August to 6 November 2006. An automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for the infrared detector was employed to provide unattended operation of the system. The electronic sampling frequency was 10 Hz, however, the flow response time was 0.08 s, which corresponds to a bandwidth of 2 Hz. A precision of 2.9 and 0.5 ppb Hz−1/2 was obtained for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Accuracy was assured by frequent calibrations using low and high standard additions. Drifts in the system were compensated by using a 120 s running mean filter. The average CH4 and N2O exchange was 512 ngC m−2 s−1 (2.46 mg m−2 hr−1 and 52 ngN m−2 s−1 (0.29 mg m−2 hr−1. Given that 40% of the total N2O emission was due to a fertilizing event.

  20. Direct measurement of VOC diffusivities in tree tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baduru, K.K.; Trapp, Stefan; Burken, Joel G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent discoveries in the phytoremediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) show that vapor-phase transport into roots leads to VOC removal from the vadose zone and diffusion and volatilization out of plants is an important fate following uptake. Volatilization to the atmosphere constitutes one...... in numerous vegetation−VOC interactions, including the phytoremediation of soil vapors and dissolved aqueous-phase contaminants. The diffusion of VOCs through freshly excised tree tissue was directly measured for common groundwater contaminants, chlorinated compounds such as trichloroethylene, perchloroethene......, and tetrachloroethane and aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and methyl tert-butyl ether. All compounds tested are currently being treated at full scale with tree-based phytoremediation. Diffusivities were determined by modeling the diffusive transport data with a one-dimensional diffusive flux model...

  1. Effects of transient bottom water currents and oxygen concentrations on benthic exchange rates as assessed by eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Moritz; Glud, Ronnie N.; Doris, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Eddy correlation (EC) measurements in the benthic boundary layer (BBL) allow estimating benthic O2 uptake from a point distant to the sediment surface. This noninvasive approach has clear advantages as it does not disturb natural hydrodynamic conditions, integrates the flux over a large foot-print...... area and allows many repetitive flux measurements. A drawback is, however, that the measured flux in the bottom water is not necessarily equal to the flux across the sediment-water interface. A fundamental assumption of the EC technique is that mean current velocities and mean O2 concentrations...... in the bottom water are in steady state, which is seldom the case in highly dynamic environments like coastal waters. Therefore, it is of great importance to estimate the error introduced by nonsteady state conditions. We investigated two cases of transient conditions. First, the case of transient O2...

  2. Comparison of ecosystem water flux measured with the Eddy covariance- and the direct xylem sap flux method in a mountainous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanicki, G; Geissbuehler, P; Siegwolf, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The Eddy covariance technique allows to measure different components of turbulent air fluxes, including the flow of water vapour. Sap flux measurements determine directly the water flow in tree stems. We compared the water flux just above the crowns of trees in a forest by the technique of Eddy covariance and the water flux by the xylem sap flux method. These two completely different approaches showed a good qualitative correspondence. The correlation coefficient is 0.8. With an estimation of the crown diameter of the measured tree we also find a very good quantitative agreement. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Using eddy covariance to measure the dependence of air-sea CO2 exchange rate on friction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Sebastian; Miller, Scott D.; Smith, Murray J.; Bell, Thomas G.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Ward, Brian

    2018-03-01

    Parameterisation of the air-sea gas transfer velocity of CO2 and other trace gases under open-ocean conditions has been a focus of air-sea interaction research and is required for accurately determining ocean carbon uptake. Ships are the most widely used platform for air-sea flux measurements but the quality of the data can be compromised by airflow distortion and sensor cross-sensitivity effects. Recent improvements in the understanding of these effects have led to enhanced corrections to the shipboard eddy covariance (EC) measurements.Here, we present a revised analysis of eddy covariance measurements of air-sea CO2 and momentum fluxes from the Southern Ocean Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. We show that it is possible to significantly reduce the scatter in the EC data and achieve consistency between measurements taken on station and with the ship underway. The gas transfer velocities from the EC measurements correlate better with the EC friction velocity (u*) than with mean wind speeds derived from shipboard measurements corrected with an airflow distortion model. For the observed range of wind speeds (u10 N = 3-23 m s-1), the transfer velocities can be parameterised with a linear fit to u*. The SOAP data are compared to previous gas transfer parameterisations using u10 N computed from the EC friction velocity with the drag coefficient from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) model version 3.5. The SOAP results are consistent with previous gas transfer studies, but at high wind speeds they do not support the sharp increase in gas transfer associated with bubble-mediated transfer predicted by physically based models.

  4. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4) is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  5. The Role of Cold Work in Eddy Current Residual Stress Measurements in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.; Nagy, P. B.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that eddy current methods can be adapted to residual stress measurement in shot-peened nickel-base superalloys. However, experimental evidence indicates that the piezoresistivity effect is simply not high enough to account for the observed apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) increase. At the same time, X-ray diffraction data indicates that 'cold work' lingers even when the residual stress is fully relaxed and the excess AECC is completely gone. It is impossible to account for both observations with a single coherent explanation unless we assume that instead of a single 'cold work' effect, there are two varieties of cold work; type-A and type-B. Type-A cold work (e.g., changes in the microscopic homogeneity of the material) is not detected by X-ray diffraction as it does not significantly affect the beam width, but causes substantial conductivity change and exhibits strong thermal relaxation. Type-B cold work (e.g., dislocations) is detected by X-ray, but causes little or no conductivity change and exhibits weak thermal relaxation. Based on the assumption of two separate cold-work variables and that X-ray diffraction results indicate the presence of type-B, but not type-A, all observed phenomena can be explained. If this working hypothesis is proven right, the separation of residual stress and type-A cold work is less critical because they both relax much earlier and much faster than type-B cold work

  6. Radon-222 measurements aboard an airplane for the description of atmospheric diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Radon-222 is absorbed aboard an airplane in tubes filled with 50 g of selected charcoal and cooked in Dewars by carbon dioxide and freon. After air collection at different heights up to 5 km, the tubes are evacuated and heated in the laboratory for desorption of the gas molecules and for transfer into a decay chamber covered with zinc-sulfide serving as a scintillator for the detection of alpha activity from radon-222 and its daughters. In general, the measurements show an exponential decrease of the concentration up to 5 km in height, if there is no cloud layer. The height for a reduction by a factor of two is about 900 meters. Assuming a constant diffusion coefficient K 0 up to 5 km, the measurements yield a K 0 of approximately 3.7 x 10 4 cm 2 s -1 . For flights in stratiform clouds a decrease is observed of the concentration up to a certain height, then radon-222 is again increasing or remains constant. This must be explained with respect to the meteorological situation. Assuming only a constant value for K 0 between the different flying heights, it was possible to appraise the development of the eddy diffusion coefficient with height

  7. Measuring Charge Carrier Diffusion in Coupled Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2013-06-25

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for inexpensive, room-temperature-, and solution-processed optoelectronic devices. A high carrier diffusion length is desirable for many CQD device applications. In this work we develop two new experimental methods to investigate charge carrier diffusion in coupled CQD solids under charge-neutral, i.e., undepleted, conditions. The methods take advantage of the quantum-size-effect tunability of our materials, utilizing a smaller-bandgap population of quantum dots as a reporter system. We develop analytical models of diffusion in 1D and 3D structures that allow direct extraction of diffusion length from convenient parametric plots and purely optical measurements. We measure several CQD solids fabricated using a number of distinct methods and having significantly different doping and surface ligand treatments. We find that CQD materials recently reported to achieve a certified power conversion efficiency of 7% with hybrid organic-inorganic passivation have a diffusion length of 80 ± 10 nm. The model further allows us to extract the lifetime, trap density, mobility, and diffusion coefficient independently in each material system. This work will facilitate further progress in extending the diffusion length, ultimately leading to high-quality CQD solid semiconducting materials and improved CQD optoelectronic devices, including CQD solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Modelling carbon and water exchange of a grazed pasture in New Zealand constrained by eddy covariance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Rutledge, Susanna; Kuijper, Isoude A; Mudge, Paul L; Puche, Nicolas; Wall, Aaron M; Roach, Chris G; Schipper, Louis A; Campbell, David I

    2015-04-15

    We used two years of eddy covariance (EC) measurements collected over an intensively grazed dairy pasture to better understand the key drivers of changes in soil organic carbon stocks. Analysing grazing systems with EC measurements poses significant challenges as the respiration from grazing animals can result in large short-term CO2 fluxes. As paddocks are grazed only periodically, EC observations derive from a mosaic of paddocks with very different exchange rates. This violates the assumptions implicit in the use of EC methodology. To test whether these challenges could be overcome, and to develop a tool for wider scenario testing, we compared EC measurements with simulation runs with the detailed ecosystem model CenW 4.1. Simulations were run separately for 26 paddocks around the EC tower and coupled to a footprint analysis to estimate net fluxes at the EC tower. Overall, we obtained good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the comparison of evapotranspiration rates, with model efficiency of 0.96 for weekly averaged values of the validation data. For net ecosystem productivity (NEP) comparisons, observations were omitted when cattle grazed the paddocks immediately around the tower. With those points omitted, model efficiencies for weekly averaged values of the validation data were 0.78, 0.67 and 0.54 for daytime, night-time and 24-hour NEP, respectively. While not included for model parameterisation, simulated gross primary production also agreed closely with values inferred from eddy covariance measurements (model efficiency of 0.84 for weekly averages). The study confirmed that CenW simulations could adequately model carbon and water exchange in grazed pastures. It highlighted the critical role of animal respiration for net CO2 fluxes, and showed that EC studies of grazed pastures need to consider the best approach of accounting for this important flux to avoid unbalanced accounting. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bastelberger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas–particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4 is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities < 10−14 cm2 s−1 at temperatures < 15 °C. The temperature dependence is strong, suggesting a diffusion activation energy of about 300 kJ mol−1. We conclude that atmospheric volatile organic compounds can be subject to severe diffusion limitations in viscous organic aerosol particles. This may enable an important long-range transport mechanism for organic material, including pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs.

  10. A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.

    2012-12-01

    The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. We have developed and validated a new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE). This system is built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are taken quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, the internal pressures of which are regulated by a moving piston. The MEDEE system was designed to be operated either on the ground or aboard an aircraft. It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. To validate the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. Both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes showed a good agreement with EC fluxes in terms of correlation. The determination coefficients (R2) were 0.93 and 0.91 for DEC and SDEC latent heat fluxes, respectively. For DEC and SDEC CO2 fluxes R2 was 0.69 in both cases. The conditions of low fluxes experienced during the campaign impaired the comparison of the different techniques especially for CO2 flux measurements. Linear regression analysis showed an 14% underestimation of DEC fluxes for both CO2 and latent heat compared to EC fluxes. A first field campaign, focusing on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, was carried out to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the south-east of France. The measured standard emission rate was in the lower range of reported values in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted through ground-based and airborne campaigns in the coming years.

  11. Eddy Covariance Measurements of Methane Flux at Remote Sites with New Low-Power Lightweight Fast Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liukang; Burba, George; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Zona, Donatella; McDermitt, Dayle K.; Anderson, Tyler; Oberbauer, Steven; Oechel, Walter; Komissarov, Anatoly; Riensche, Brad

    2010-05-01

    Majority of natural methane production happens at remote unpopulated areas in ecosystems with little or no infrastructure or easily available grid power, such as arctic and boreal wetlands, tropical mangroves, etc. Present approaches for direct measurements of CH4 fluxes rely on fast closed-path analyzers, which have to work under significantly reduced pressures, and require powerful pumps and grid power. Power and labor demands may be reasons why CH4 flux is often measured at locations with good infrastructure and grid power, and not with high CH4 production. An instrument was developed to allow Eddy Covariance measurements of CH4 flux with power consumption 30-150 times below presently available technologies. This instrument, LI-7700, uses proposed extremely low-power technology would allows placing methane Eddy Covariance stations in the middle of the source (wetland, rice paddy, forest, etc.) in the absence of the grid power. This could significantly expand the Eddy Covariance CH4 flux measurements coverage, and possibly, significantly improve the budget estimates of world CH4 emissions and budget. Various prototypes of the LI-7700 were field-tested for three seasons at the remote site in middle of Everglades National Park (Florida, USA) using solar panels, at three stationary and several mobile sites during three seasons at remote Arctic wetlands near Barrow (Alaska, USA), in the tropical mangroves near La Paz (Mexico) using portable generator, and in bare agricultural field near Mead (Nebraska, USA) during 2005 through 2010. Latest data on CH4 concentration, co-spectra and fluxes, and latest details of instrumental design are examined in this presentation. Overall, hourly methane fluxes ranged from near-zero at night to about 4 mg m-2 h-1 in midday in arctic tundra. Observed fluxes were within the ranges reported in the literature for a number of wetlands in North America, including the Everglades wetlands. Diurnal patterns were similar to those measured by

  12. Diffusivity and electrical resistivity measurements in rock matrix around fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, H.; Uusheimo, K.

    1989-12-01

    Microfracturing of rock matrix around permeable fractures was studied experimentally from drill core samples around major fractures. The methods used were diffusion measurements using a 36 Cl-tracer and electrical resistivity measurements. Rock samples were from the Romuvaara investigation site, the granite specimen around a partially filled carbonate fracture (KR4/333 m) and gneiss specimen around a slickenside fracture (KR1/645 m). A consistent difference of one to two orders of magnitude in the levels of the methods with regard to the effective diffusion coefficients for Cl - -ion was found, the electrical resistivity measurement giving higher values. On the basis of the diffusion measurements the diffusion porosities could be calculated but these remained one to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for granitic rocks using the water saturation method. A possible reason for these differences could have been the low, in some cases 0.004 M NaC1-concentration in the diffusion experiments vs. the 1 M NaCl-concentration used in the electrical resistivity measurements. Due to the small number of specimens and cross sectional areas of only 2 cm 2 , rock inhomogeneity effects were significant making the interpretation of the results somewhat troublesome. Porosities on fracture surfaces seemed to be higher than in the deeper, more intact rock matrix

  13. VOC flux measurements using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation GC-FID system in urban Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Schade, G.; Boedeker, I.

    2008-12-01

    Houston experiences higher ozone production rates than most other major cities in the US, which is related to high anthropogenic VOC emissions from both area/mobile sources (car traffic) and a large number of petrochemical facilities. The EPA forecasts that Houston is likely to still violate the new 8-h NAAQS in 2020. To monitor neighborhood scale pollutant fluxes, we established a tall flux tower installation a few kilometers north of downtown Houston. We measure energy and trace gas fluxes, including VOCs from both anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in the urban surface layer using eddy covariance and related techniques. Here, we describe a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID used for VOC flux measurements, including first results. Ambient air is sampled at approximately 15 L min-1 through a 9.5 mm OD PFA line from 60 m above ground next to a sonic anemometer. Subsamples of this air stream are extracted through an ozone scrubber and pushed into two Teflon bag reservoirs, from which they are transferred to the GC pre-concentration units consisting of carbon-based adsorption traps encapsulated in heater blocks for thermal desorption. We discuss the performance of our system and selected measurement results from the 2008 spring and summer seasons in Houston. We present diurnal variations of the fluxes of the traffic tracers benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during different study periods. Typical BTEX fluxes ranged from -0.36 to 3.10 mg m-2 h-1 for benzene, and -0.47 to 5.04 mg m-2 h-1 for toluene, and exhibited diurnal cycles with two dominant peaks related to rush-hour traffic. A footprint analysis overlaid onto a geographic information system (GIS) will be presented to reveal the dominant emission sources and patterns in the study area.

  14. Airborne measurements of turbulent trace gas fluxes and analysis of eddy structure in the convective boundary layer over complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasel, M.; Kottmeier, Ch.; Corsmeier, U.; Wieser, A.

    2005-03-01

    Using the new high-frequency measurement equipment of the research aircraft DO 128, which is described in detail, turbulent vertical fluxes of ozone and nitric oxide have been calculated from data sampled during the ESCOMPTE program in the south of France. Based on airborne turbulence measurements, radiosonde data and surface energy balance measurements, the convective boundary layer (CBL) is examined under two different aspects. The analysis covers boundary-layer convection with respect to (i) the control of CBL depth by surface heating and synoptic scale influences, and (ii) the structure of convective plumes and their vertical transport of ozone and nitric oxides. The orographic structure of the terrain causes significant differences between planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights, which are found to exceed those of terrain height variations on average. A comparison of boundary-layer flux profiles as well as mean quantities over flat and complex terrain and also under different pollution situations and weather conditions shows relationships between vertical gradients and corresponding turbulent fluxes. Generally, NO x transports are directed upward independent of the terrain, since primary emission sources are located near the ground. For ozone, negative fluxes are common in the lower CBL in accordance with the deposition of O 3 at the surface. The detailed structure of thermals, which largely carry out vertical transports in the boundary layer, are examined with a conditional sampling technique. Updrafts mostly contain warm, moist and NO x loaded air, while the ozone transport by thermals alternates with the background ozone gradient. Evidence for handover processes of trace gases to the free atmosphere can be found in the case of existing gradients across the boundary-layer top. An analysis of the size of eddies suggests the possibility of some influence of the heterogeneous terrain in mountainous area on the length scales of eddies.

  15. Beam diffusion measurements using collimator scans in the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valentino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The time evolution of beam losses during a collimator scan provides information on halo diffusion and population. This is an essential input for machine performance characterization and for the design of collimation systems. Beam halo measurements in the CERN Large Hadron Collider were conducted through collimator scrapings in a dedicated beam study for the first time at 4 TeV. Four scans were performed with two collimators, in the vertical plane for beam 1 and horizontally for beam 2, before and after bringing the beams into collisions. Inward and outward steps were performed. A diffusion model was used to interpret the observed loss rate evolution in response to the collimator steps. With this technique, diffusion coefficients were estimated as a function of betatron oscillation amplitude from approximately 3 to 7 standard deviations of the transverse beam distribution. A comparison of halo diffusion and core emittance growth rates is also presented.

  16. Beam diffusion measurements using collimator scans in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, Gianluca; Bruce, Roderik; Burkart, Florian; Previtali, Valentina; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Stancari, Giuliov; Valishev, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The time evolution of beam losses during a collimator scan provides information on halo diffusion and population. This is an essential input for machine performance characterization and for the design of collimation systems. Beam halo measurements in the CERN Large Hadron Collider were conducted through collimator scrapings in a dedicated beam study for the first time at 4 TeV. Four scans were performed with two collimators, in the vertical plane for beam 1 and horizontally for beam 2, before and after bringing the beams into collisions. Inward and outward steps were performed. A diffusion model was used to interpret the observed loss rate evolution in response to the collimator steps. With this technique, diffusion coefficients were estimated as a function of betatron oscillation amplitude from approximately 3 to 7 standard deviations of the transverse beam distribution. A comparison of halo diffusion and core emittance growth rates is also presented.

  17. Near DC eddy current measurement of aluminum multilayers using MR sensors and commodity low-cost computer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Alexander R.

    2002-06-01

    Low Frequency Eddy Current (EC) probes are capable of measurement from 5 MHz down to DC through the use of Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors. Choosing components with appropriate electrical specifications allows them to be matched to the power and impedance characteristics of standard computer connectors. This permits direct attachment of the probe to inexpensive computers, thereby eliminating external power supplies, amplifiers and modulators that have heretofore precluded very low system purchase prices. Such price reduction is key to increased market penetration in General Aviation maintenance and consequent reduction in recurring costs. This paper examines our computer software CANDETECT, which implements this approach and permits effective probe operation. Results are presented to show the intrinsic sensitivity of the software and demonstrate its practical performance when seeking cracks in the underside of a thick aluminum multilayer structure. The majority of the General Aviation light aircraft fleet uses rivets and screws to attach sheet aluminum skin to the airframe, resulting in similar multilayer lap joints.

  18. Assertion based verification methodology for HDL designs of primary sodium pump speed and eddy current flow measurement systems of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.K.; Menon, Saritha P.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing complexity and size of digital designs, functional verification has become a huge challenge. The validation and testing process accounts for a significant percentage of the overall development effort and cost for electronic systems. Many studies have shown that up to 70% of the design development time and resources are spent on functional verification. Functional errors manifest themselves very early in the design flow, and unless they are detected upfront, they can result in severe consequences - both financially and from a safety viewpoint. This paper covers the various types of verification methodologies and focuses on Assertion Based Verification Methodology for HDL designs, taking as case studies, the Primary Sodium Pump Speed and Eddy Current Flow Measurement Systems of PFBR. (author)

  19. Methane and CO2 fluxes of moving point sources - Beyond or within the limits of eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Münger, Andreas; Ammann, Christof

    2014-05-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used for CO2 and energy exchange measurements over different ecosystems. For some years, it has been also becoming widely used to investigate CH4 and N2O exchange over ecosystems including grazing systems. EC measurements represent a spatially integrated flux over an upwind area (footprint). Whereas for extended homogenous areas EC measurements work well, the animals in a grazing system are a challenge as they represent moving point sources that create inhomogeneous conditions in space and time. The main issues which have to be taken into account when applying EC flux measurements over a grazed system are: i) In the presence of animals the high time resolution concentration measurements show large spikes in the signal. These spikes may be filtered/reduced by standard quality control software in order to avoid wrong measurements. ii) Data on the position of the animals relative to the flux footprint is needed to quantify the contribution of the grazing animals to the measured flux. For one grazing season we investigated the ability of EC flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of the grazing animals to the CH4 and CO2 exchange over pasture systems. For this purpose, a field experiment with a herd of twenty dairy cows in a full-day rotational grazing system was carried out on the Swiss central plateau. Net CH4 and CO2 exchange of the pasture system was measured continuously by the eddy covariance technique (Sonic Anemometer HS-50, Gill Instruments Ltd; FGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.). To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux, the position of the individual cows was recorded using GPS (5 s time resolution) on each animal. An existing footprint calculation tool (ART footprint tool) was adapted and CH4 emissions of the cows were calculated. CH4 emissions from cows could be used as a tracer to investigate the quality of the evaluation of the EC data, since the background exchange of

  20. A theoretical analysis of the response of an air-cored eddy current coil for remote oxide thickness measurements on reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1979-10-01

    It is shown how the impedance of an air-cored eddy current coil in close proximity to an oxidised steel component may be calculated. Representative values were selected for the oxide thickness, lift off, operating frequency, conductivities and permeabilities of the oxide coating and steel base. The values of these parameters in the calculations were allowed to vary between suitable limits to quantify the effect of each one on coil impedance. The results of the calculations are used to determine the most suitable conditions for the measurement of oxide thickness on steel components using an air-cored eddy current probe. (author)

  1. Use of glow discharge in measurement of diffusion profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Guy

    1976-05-01

    The composition of a glow discharge plasma is a good image of the composition of the surface being erroded without fusion. The depth of metal eated away is a linear function of time in 10 to 60μ range, that is too say between 2 and 20 minutes after lightning of the lamp. So measuring the emission of the discharge is function of time gives the diffusion profile of elements either by measuring instantaneous signal or by integrating during short periods of time for weak concentration. Examples of application for diffusion of N 2 and C in steel will be given [fr

  2. Pulsed neutron method for diffusion, slowing down, and reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    An outline is given on the principles of the pulsed neutron method for the determination of thermal neutron diffusion parameters, for slowing-down time measurements, and for reactivity determinations. The historical development is sketched from the breakthrough in the middle of the nineteen fifties and the usefulness and limitations of the method are discussed. The importance for the present understanding of neutron slowing-down, thermalization and diffusion are point out. Examples are given of its recent use for e.g. absorption cross section measurements and for the study of the properties of heterogeneous systems

  3. Measuring the diffusion of innovative health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, A; Goodman, R M; McLeroy, K R; Davis, S; Koch, G

    1992-01-01

    Once a health promotion program has proven to be effective in one or two initial settings, attempts may be made to transfer the program to new settings. One way to conceptualize the transference of health promotion programs from one locale to another is by considering the programs to be innovations that are being diffused. In this way, diffusion of innovation theory can be applied to guide the process of program transference. This article reports on the development of six questionnaires to measure the extent to which health promotion programs are successfully disseminated: Organizational Climate, Awareness-Concern, Rogers's Adoption Variables, Level of Use, Level of Success, and Level of Institutionalization. The instruments are being successfully used in a study of the diffusion of health promotion/tobacco prevention curricula to junior high schools in North Carolina. The instruments, which measure the four steps of the diffusion process, have construct validity since they were developed within existing theories and are derived from the work of previous researchers. No previous research has attempted to use instruments like these to measure sequentially the stages of the diffusion process.

  4. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  5. Measurements and theoretical calculations of diffused radiation and atmosphere lucidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelece, I.; Iljins, U.; Ziemelis, I.

    2009-01-01

    Align with other environment friendly renewable energy sources solar energy is widely used in the world. Also in Latvia solar collectors are used. However, in Latvia because of its geographical and climatic conditions there are some specific features in comparison with traditional solar energy using countries. These features lead to the necessity to pay more attention to diffused irradiance. Another factor affecting the received irradiance of any surface is lucidity of atmosphere. This factor has not been studied in Latvia yet. This article deals with evaluation of diffused irradiance, and also of lucidity of atmosphere. The diffused irradiance can be measured directly or as a difference between the global irradiance and the beam one. The lucidity of atmosphere can be calculated from the measurements of both global and beam irradiance, if the height of the sun is known. Therefore, measurements of both global and beam irradiance have been carried out, and the diffused irradiance calculated as a difference between the global irradiance and the beam one. For measuring of the global irradiance the dome solarimeter has been used. For measuring of the direct irradiance tracking to sun pirheliometer has been used. The measurements were performed in Riga from October 2008 till March 2009. The measurements were executed automatically after every 5 minutes. The obtained results have been analyzed taking into account also the data on nebulosity from the State agency Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency. Also efforts to calculate theoretically the diffused irradiance from the height of the sun and the data of the nebulosity have been done. These calculated values have been compared with the measured ones. Good accordance is obtained. (author)

  6. Eddy Covariance Measurements Over a Maize Field: The Contribution of Minor Flux Terms to the Energy Balance Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, J.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of energy balance closure is a long-standing problem in eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The energy balance equation is defined as Rn - G = H + λE, where Rn is net radiation, G is the ground heat flux, H is the sensible heat flux and λE is the latent heat flux. In most cases of energy imbalance, either Rn is overestimated or the ground heat and turbulent fluxes are underestimated. Multiple studies have shown that calculations, incorrect instrument installation/calibration and measurement errors alone do not entirely account for this imbalance. Rather, research is now focused on previously neglected sources of heat storage in the soil, biomass and air beneath the EC station. This project examined the potential of five "minor flux terms" - soil heat storage, biomass heat storage, energy consumption by photosynthesis, air heat storage and atmospheric moisture change, to further close the energy balance gap. Eddy covariance measurements were conducted at a maize (Zea mays) field in southwest Germany during summer 2014. Soil heat storage was measured for six weeks at 11 sites around the field footprint. Biomass and air heat storage were measured for six subsequent weeks at seven sites around the field footprint. Energy consumption by photosynthesis was calculated using the CO2 flux data. Evapotranspiration was calculated using the water balance method and then compared to the flux data processed with three post-closure methods: the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux and the Bowen ratio post-closure methods. An energy balance closure of 66% was achieved by the EC station measurements over the entire investigation period. During the soil heat flux campaign, EC station closure was 74.1%, and the field footprint soil heat storage contributed 3.3% additional closure. During the second minor flux term measurement period, closure with the EC station data was 91%. Biomass heat storage resulted in 1.1% additional closure, the photosynthesis flux closed the gap

  7. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F.C.; Bulk, van de W.C.M.; Elbers, J.A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimise the effect of varying

  8. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements : the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F. C.; Van Den Bulk, W. C M; Elbers, J. A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimise the effect of varying

  9. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F. C.; Van Den Bulk, W. C. M.; Elbers, J. A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimize the effect of varying

  10. A comparison of methane emission measurements using eddy covariance and manual and automated chamber-based techniques in Tibetan Plateau alpine wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingfei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Guangshuai; Song, Weimin; Huang, Yao; Li, Sheng-Gong; Liang, Naishen; Tang, Yanhong; He, Jin-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Comparing of different CH 4 flux measurement techniques allows for the independent evaluation of the performance and reliability of those techniques. We compared three approaches, the traditional discrete Manual Static Chamber (MSC), Continuous Automated Chamber (CAC) and Eddy Covariance (EC) methods of measuring the CH 4 fluxes in an alpine wetland. We found a good agreement among the three methods in the seasonal CH 4 flux patterns, but the diurnal patterns from both the CAC and EC methods differed. While the diurnal CH 4 flux variation from the CAC method was positively correlated with the soil temperature, the diurnal variation from the EC method was closely correlated with the solar radiation and net CO 2 fluxes during the daytime but was correlated with the soil temperature at nighttime. The MSC method showed 25.3% and 7.6% greater CH 4 fluxes than the CAC and EC methods when measured between 09:00 h and 12:00 h, respectively. -- Highlights: •Chamber and eddy covariance methods showed similar seasonal CH 4 flux patterns. •Chamber and eddy covariance methods showed different diurnal CH 4 flux patterns. •Static chamber methods gave a higher magnitude of CH 4 flux. -- The chamber-based methods and the eddy covariance method showed similar seasonal CH 4 flux patterns, but the manual static chamber method resulted in a higher CH 4 flux measurement

  11. Measurement of the diffusion length of thermal neutrons inside graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaud, A.; Beauge, R.; Fauquez, H.; De Laboulay, H.; Mercier, C.; Vautrey, L.

    1948-11-01

    The diffusion length of thermal neutrons inside a given industrial graphite is determined by measuring the neutron density inside a parallelepipedal piling up of graphite bricks (2.10 x 2.10 x 2.442 m). A 3.8 curies (Ra α → Be) source is placed inside the parallelepipedal block of graphite and thin manganese detectors are used. Corrections are added to the unweighted measurements to take into account the effects of the damping of supra-thermal neutrons in the measurement area. These corrections are experimentally deduced from the differential measurements made with a cadmium screen interposed between the source and the first plane of measurement. An error analysis completes the report. The diffusion length obtained is: L = 45.7 cm ± 0.3. The average density of the graphite used is 1.76 and the average apparent density of the piling up is 1.71. (J.S.)

  12. Eddy covariance measurement of the spatial heterogeneity of surface energy exchanges over Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, M.; McGowan, H. A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Coral reefs cover 2.8 to 6.0 x 105 km2 of the Earth's surface and are warm, shallow regions that are believed to contribute enhanced sensible and latent heat to the atmosphere, relative to the surrounding ocean. To predict the impact of climate variability on coral reefs and their weather and climate including cloud, winds, rainfall patterns and cyclone genesis, accurate parameterisation of air-sea energy exchanges over coral reefs is essential. This is also important for the parameterisation and validation of regional to global scale forecast models to improve prediction of tropical and sub-tropical marine and coastal weather. Eddy covariance measurements of air-sea fluxes over coral reefs are rare due to the complexities of installing instrumentation over shallow, tidal water. Consequently, measurements of radiation and turbulent flux data for coral reefs have been captured remotely (satellite data) or via single measurement sites downwind of coral reefs (e.g. terrestrial or shipboard instrumentation). The resolution of such measurements and those that have been made at single locations on reefs may not capture the spatial heterogeneity of surface-atmosphere energy exchanges due to the different geomorphic and biological zones on coral reefs. Accordingly, the heterogeneity of coral reefs with regard to substrate, benthic communities and hydrodynamic processes are not considered in the characterization of the surface radiation energy flux transfers across the water-atmosphere interface. In this paper we present a unique dataset of concurrent in situ eddy covariance measurements made on instrumented pontoons of the surface energy balance over different geomorphic zones of a coral reef (shallow reef flat, shallow and deep lagoons). Significant differences in radiation transfers and air-sea turbulent flux exchanges over the reef were highlighted, with higher Bowen ratios over the shallow reef flat. Increasing wind speed was shown to increase flux divergence between

  13. High-Temperature Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertermann, M.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Whittington, A. G.; Spera, F. J.; Zayac, J.

    2005-12-01

    Transport of heat in geologically relevant materials is of great interest because of its key role in heat transport, magmatism and volcanic activity on Earth. To better understand the thermal properties of magmatic materials at high temperatures, we measured the thermal diffusivity of four synthetic end-member silicate glasses with the following compositions: albite (NaAlSi3O8), orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8), and diopside (CaMgSi2O6). Thermal diffusivity measurements were conducted with the laser-flash technique and data were acquired from room temperature to a maximum temperature near 1100°C, depending on the glass transition temperature. The presence of sub-mm sized bubbles in one of the orthoclase samples had no discernable effect on measured diffusivities. At room temperature, the three feldspar-type glasses have thermal diffusivity (D) values of 0.58-0.61 mm2/s, whereas the diopside glass has 0.52 mm2/s. With increasing temperature, D decreases by 5-10% (relative) for all samples and becomes virtually constant at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures, the anorthite and diopside glasses exhibit significant drops in thermal diffusivity over a 50-100°C interval, correlating with previously published heat capacity changes near the glass transition for these compositions. For anorthite, D (in mm2/s) decreases from 0.48 at 750-860°C to 0.36 at 975-1075°C; for diopside, D changes from 0.42 at 630-750°C to 0.30 at 850-910°C, corresponding to relative drops of 24 and 29%, respectively. Albite and orthoclase glasses do not exhibit this change and also lack significant changes in heat capacity near the glass transition. Instead, D is constant at 400-800°C for albite, and for orthoclase values go through a minimum at 500-600°C before increasing slightly towards 1100°C but it never exceeds the room temperature D. Our data on thermal diffusivity correlate closely with other thermophysical properties. Thus, at least in case of simple

  14. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator (ZnS(Ag)) and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current ({approx gt} 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model.

  15. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, Rejean Louis [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current (≳ 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model.

  16. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current (approx-gt 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model

  17. Inferring 222Rn soil fluxes from ambient 222Rn activity and eddy covariance measurements of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. van der Laan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new methodology, which we call Single Pair of Observations Technique with Eddy Covariance (SPOT-EC, to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn from tower-based observations of 222Rn activity concentration, CO2 mole fractions and direct CO2 flux measurements from eddy covariance. For specific events, the regional (222Rn surface flux is calculated from short-term changes in ambient (222Rn activity concentration scaled by the ratio of the mean CO2 surface flux for the specific event to the change in its observed mole fraction. The resulting 222Rn surface emissions are integrated in time (between the moment of observation and the last prior background levels and space (i.e. over the footprint of the observations. The measurement uncertainty obtained is about ±15 % for diurnal events and about ±10 % for longer-term (e.g. seasonal or annual means. The method does not provide continuous observations, but reliable daily averages can be obtained. We applied our method to in situ observations from two sites in the Netherlands: Cabauw station (CBW and Lutjewad station (LUT. For LUT, which is an intensive agricultural site, we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.29 ± 0.02 atoms cm−2 s−1 with values  > 0.5 atoms cm−2 s−1 to the south and south-east. For CBW we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.63 ± 0.04 atoms cm−2 s−1. The highest values were observed to the south-west, where the soil type is mainly river clay. For both stations good agreement was found between our results and those from measurements with soil chambers and two recently published 222Rn soil flux maps for Europe. At both sites, large spatial and temporal variability of 222Rn surface fluxes were observed which would be impractical to measure with a soil chamber. SPOT-EC, therefore, offers an important new tool for estimating regional-scale 222Rn surface fluxes. Practical applications furthermore include

  18. Thermal Diffusivity Measurements in Edible Oils using Transient Thermal Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. Carbajal.; Pérez, J. L. Jiménez.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Martín-Martínez, E. San.

    2006-11-01

    Time resolved thermal lens (TL) spectrometry is applied to the study of the thermal diffusivity of edible oils such as olive, and refined and thermally treated avocado oils. A two laser mismatched-mode experimental configuration was used, with a He Ne laser as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for a transient thermal lens. The results showed that virgin olive oil has a higher thermal diffusivity than for refined and thermally treated avocado oils. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the quality of edible oils, which is very important in the food industry. The thermal diffusivity results for virgin olive oil, obtained from this technique, agree with those reported in the literature.

  19. Net ecosystem exchange and energy fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique in a western Siberian bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alekseychik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies of ecosystem–atmosphere exchange involving eddy covariance data have been conducted in Siberia, with none in the western Siberian middle taiga. This work provides the first estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2 and energy budgets in a typical bog of the western Siberian middle taiga based on May–August measurements in 2015. The footprint of measured fluxes consisted of a homogeneous mixture of tree-covered ridges and hollows with the vegetation represented by typical sedges and shrubs. Generally, the surface exchange rates resembled those of pine-covered bogs elsewhere. The surface energy balance closure approached 100 %. Net CO2 uptake was comparatively high, summing up to 202 gC m−2 for the four measurement months, while the Bowen ratio was seasonally stable at 28 %. The ecosystem turned into a net CO2 source during several front passage events in June and July. The periods of heavy rain helped keep the water table at a sustainably high level, preventing a usual drawdown in summer. However, because of the cloudy and rainy weather, the observed fluxes might rather represent the special weather conditions of 2015 than their typical magnitudes.

  20. NMR diffusion and relaxation measurements of organic molecules adsorbed in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjerdaaker, Lars

    2002-01-01

    a bipolar form of the pulsed field gradient has proved to be an efficient method for both reducing the cross-term between the applied and internal gradient and reducing the eddy current dead time. Without the use of a bipolar sequence, the measured diffusivities are likely to be underestimated. In order to get sufficient attenuation of the signal a stimulated-echo sequence together with magnetic field gradients have been used. It was then possible to increase the z-storage period to compensate for insufficient gradient strength. However, the employed diffusion probe and gradient power supply are able to generate magnetic field gradients that make the z-storage period unnecessary. In this work we also present a spin-echo analogue to the 13-interval PFGSTE sequence presented by Cotts et al., a so-called 11-interval bipolar PFGSE sequence. Conclusions: The molecular dynamics of four organic adsorbates confined in porous materials have been investigated. The confinement gives rise to substantial changes in the phase behaviour and molecular dynamics. From the line shape of the confined substances a narrow-line component superimposed on a broad resonance is observed at temperatures well below the transition point of the bulk material. This narrow-line component is, in the freezing region, attributed to the surface layer and the undercooled liquid in the smaller pores that remains unfrozen. In the low-temperature region, the narrow-line component corresponds to the surface layer, while the broad component originates from the crystalline phase at the centre of the pores. The persistent surface layer does not appear to crystallize at all, and a relatively high diffusion rate of this liquid-like phase is observed over a wide temperature range, even well below the transition point of the bulk material. However, with decreasing temperature T2 of the molecules in the surface layer becomes shorter and the contribution to the NMR signal decreases gradually. For pivalic acid and

  1. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  2. Characteristics of Laser Flash Technique for Thermal Diffusivity Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D. G.; Kim, H. M.; Hong, G. P

    2008-08-15

    In relation to selection of thermal conductivity measurement technology, various thermal conductivity measurement technique are investigated for characteristics of each technique and it's measurable range. For the related laser flash techniques, various technical characteristics are reviewed and discussed. Especially, Parker adiabatic model are reviewed because of importance for basic theory of the thermal diffusivity determination. Finite pulse time effect, heat loss effect and non-uniform heating effect, which are main technical factors for laser flash technique, are considered. Finally, characteristics of constituent elements for laser flash measurement system are reviewed and investigated in detail.

  3. Retrieval of convective boundary layer wind field statistics from radar profiler measurements in conjunction with large eddy simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Scipión

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The daytime convective boundary layer (CBL is characterized by strong turbulence that is primarily forced by buoyancy transport from the heated underlying surface. The present study focuses on an example of flow structure of the CBL as observed in the U.S. Great Plains on June 8, 2007. The considered CBL flow has been reproduced using a numerical large eddy simulation (LES, sampled with an LES-based virtual boundary layer radar (BLR, and probed with an actual operational radar profiler. The LES-generated CBL flow data are then ingested by the virtual BLR and treated as a proxy for prevailing atmospheric conditions. The mean flow and turbulence parameters retrieved via each technique (actual radar profiler, virtual BLR, and LES have been cross-analyzed and reasonable agreement was found between the CBL wind parameters obtained from the LES and those measured by the actual radar. Averaged vertical velocity variance estimates from the virtual and actual BLRs were compared with estimates calculated from the LES for different periods of time. There is good agreement in the estimates from all three sources. Also, values of the vertical velocity skewness retrieved by all three techniques have been inter-compared as a function of height for different stages of the CBL evolution, showing fair agreement with each other. All three retrievals contain positively skewed vertical velocity structure throughout the main portion of the CBL. Radar estimates of the turbulence kinetic energy (eddy dissipation rate (ε have been obtained based on the Doppler spectral width of the returned signal for the vertical radar beam. The radar estimates were averaged over time in the same fashion as the LES output data. The agreement between estimates was generally good, especially within the mixing layer. Discrepancies observed above the inversion layer may be explained by a weak turbulence signal in particular flow configurations. The virtual BLR produces voltage

  4. [Measurement of CO diffusion capacity (II): Standardization and quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R; de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H

    2015-08-01

    The diffusion capacity is the technique that measures the ability of the respiratory system for gas exchange, thus allowing a diagnosis of the malfunction of the alveolar-capillary unit. The most important parameter to assess is the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO). New methods are currently being used to measure the diffusion using nitric oxide (NO). There are other methods for measuring diffusion, although in this article the single breath technique is mainly referred to, as it is the most widely used and best standardized. Its complexity, its reference equations, differences in equipment, inter-patient variability and conditions in which the DLCO is performed, lead to a wide inter-laboratory variability, although its standardization makes this a more reliable and reproductive method. The practical aspects of the technique are analyzed, by specifying the recommendations to carry out a suitable procedure, the calibration routine, calculations and adjustments. Clinical applications are also discussed. An increase in the transfer of CO occurs in diseases in which there is an increased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries, such as in the polycythemia and pulmonary hemorrhage. There is a decrease in DLCO in patients with alveolar volume reduction or diffusion defects, either by altered alveolar-capillary membrane (interstitial diseases) or decreased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries (pulmonary embolism or primary pulmonary hypertension). Other causes of decreased or increased DLCO are also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Uncertainty in eddy covariance measurements and its application to physiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.Y. Hollinger; A.D. Richardson; A.D. Richardson

    2005-01-01

    Flux data are noisy, and this uncertainty is largely due to random measurement error. Knowledge of uncertainty is essential for the statistical evaluation of modeled andmeasured fluxes, for comparison of parameters derived by fitting models to measured fluxes and in formal data-assimilation efforts. We used the difference between simultaneous measurements from two...

  6. Field comparison of an eddy accumulation and an aerodynamic-gradient system for measuring pesticide volatilization fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, M.; Desjardina, R.; Rochette, P.; Pattey, E.; Selber, J.; Glotfelty, D.

    1993-01-01

    The field experiment reported here applied the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique to the measurement of triallate (TA) and trifluralin (TF) volatilization from fallow soil. A critical analysis of the REA system used in this experiment is done, and the fluxes are compared to those obtained by the aerodynamic-gradient (AG) technique. The measured cumulative volatilization losses, corrected for the effective upwind source area (footprint), for the AG system were higher than with the REA system. The differences between the methods over the first 5 days of the experiment were 27 and 13% for TA and TF, respectively. A mass balance based on the amount of parent compounds volatilized from soil during the first 5 days of the experiment showed a 110 and 70% and a 79 and 61% accountability for triallate and trifluralin by the AG and REA methods, respectively. These results also show that the non-footprint-corrected AG flux values underestimated the volatilization flux by approximately 16%. The footprint correction model used in this experiment does not presently have the capability of accounting for changes in atmospheric stability. However, these values still provide an indication of the most likely upwind area affecting the evaporative flux estimations. The soil half-lives for triallate and trifluralin were 9.8 and 7.0 days, respectively. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  7. Combining eddy-covariance measurements and Penman-Monteith type models to estimate evapotranspiration of flooded and aerobic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Arianna; Masseroni, Daniele; Gharsallah, Olfa; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    and the size of the footprint area at each monitoring time step (30-min). Two sets of half-hourly ET values, each one concerning one of the two treatments, were therefore obtained, each one comprising about 10-15% of the daytime time steps over the whole agricultural season. To confirm the reliability of the measured ET fluxes, the energy balance closure was computed for the two fields and resulted in an imbalance lower than 10% for both the irrigation treatments. The two eddy covariance data-sets were then used to calibrate three Penman-Monteith type models: one for the estimation of the rice crop transpiration (T), the second for the soil evaporation (ES), and the third for the evaporation from the water covering the soil in the case of flooded rice fields (EH20). Models were implemented using the available agro-meteorological data detected over the rice canopies and the periodically measured values of crop parameters (leaf area index, crop height). Finally, the calibrated models were used to compute the complete hourly ET data series for the three irrigation regimes.

  8. Rapid Measurement and Correction of Phase Errors from B0 Eddy Currents: Impact on Image Quality for Non-Cartesian Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Ethan K.; Klaers, Jessica L.; Samsonov, Alexey A.; Kijowski, Richard; Block, Walter F.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Cartesian imaging sequences and navigational methods can be more sensitive to scanner imperfections that have little impact on conventional clinical sequences, an issue which has repeatedly complicated the commercialization of these techniques by frustrating transitions to multi-center evaluations. One such imperfection is phase errors caused by resonant frequency shifts from eddy currents induced in the cryostat by time-varying gradients, a phenomemon known as B0 eddy currents. These phase errors can have a substantial impact on sequences that use ramp sampling, bipolar gradients, and readouts at varying azimuthal angles. We present a method for measuring and correcting phase errors from B0 eddy currents and examine the results on two different scanner models. This technique yields significant improvements in image quality for high-resolution joint imaging on certain scanners. The results suggest that correction of short time B0 eddy currents in manufacturer provided service routines would simplify adoption of non-Cartesian sampling methods. PMID:22488532

  9. Permeability estimation from NMR diffusion measurements in reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, M; Brancolini, A; Gossenberg, P

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that in restricted geometries, such as in porous media, the apparent diffusion coefficient (D) of the fluid depends on the observation time. From the time dependence of D, interesting information can be derived to characterise geometrical features of the porous media that are relevant in oil industry applications. In particular, the permeability can be related to the surface-to-volume ratio (S/V), estimated from the short time behaviour of D(t), and to the connectivity of the pore space, which is probed by the long time behaviour of D(t). The stimulated spin-echo pulse sequence, with pulsed magnetic field gradients, has been used to measure the diffusion coefficients on various homogeneous and heterogeneous sandstone samples. It is shown that the petrophysical parameters obtained by our measurements are in good agreement with those yielded by conventional laboratory techniques (gas permeability and electrical conductivity). Although the diffusing time is limited by T1, eventually preventing an observation of the real asymptotic behaviour, and the surface-to-volume ratio measured by nuclear magnetic resonance is different from the value obtained by BET because of the different length scales probed, the measurement remains reliable and low-time consuming.

  10. A whole-air relaxed eddy accumulation measurement system for sampling vertical vapour exchange of elemental mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Sommar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus relying on relaxed eddy accumulation (REA methodology has been designed and developed for continuous-field measurements of vertical Hg0 fluxes over cropland ecosystems. This micro-meteorological technique requires sampling of turbulent eddies into up- and downdraught channels at a constant flow rate and accurate timing, based on a threshold involving the sign of vertical wind component (w. The fully automated system is of a whole-air type drawing air at a high velocity to the REA sampling apparatus and allowing for the rejection of samples associated with w-fluctuations around zero. Conditional sampling was executed at 10-Hz resolution on a sub-stream by two fast-response three-way solenoid switching valves connected in parallel to a zero Hg0 air supply through their normally open ports. To suppress flow transients resulting from switching, pressure differentials across the two upstream ports of the conditional valves were minimised using a control unit. The Hg0 concentrations of the up- and downdraught channel were sequentially (each by two consecutive 5-minute gas samples determined after enhancement collection onto gold traps by an automated cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (CVAFS instrument. A protocol of regular reference sampling periods was implemented during field campaigns to continuously adjust for bias that may exist between the two conditional sampling channels. Using a 5-minute running average was conditional threshold, nearly-constant relaxation coefficients (β s of ~0.56 were determined during two bi-weekly field deployments when turbulence statistics were assured for good quality, in accordance with previously reported estimates. The fully developed REA-CVAFS system underwent Hg0 flux field trial runs at a winter wheat cropland located in the North China Plain. Over a 15-d period during early May 2012, dynamic, often bi-directional, fluxes were observed during the course of a day with a tendency of

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshita, T.; Oka, M.; Imon, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mimori, Y.; Nakamura, S. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    We measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI in the cerebral white matter of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and age-matched normal subjects. In PSP, ADC in the prefrontal and precentral white matter was significantly higher than in controls. There was no significant difference in signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The ADC did correlate with signal intensity. The distribution of the elevation of ADC may be the consequence of underlying pathological changes, such as neurofibrillary tangles or glial fibrillary tangles in the cortex. Our findings suggest that ADC measurement might be useful for demonstrating subtle neuropathological changes. (orig.)

  12. Cumulant expansions for measuring water exchange using diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lipeng; Nilsson, Markus; Lasič, Samo; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Rathi, Yogesh

    2018-02-01

    The rate of water exchange across cell membranes is a parameter of biological interest and can be measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). In this work, we investigate a stochastic model for the diffusion-and-exchange of water molecules. This model provides a general solution for the temporal evolution of dMRI signal using any type of gradient waveform, thereby generalizing the signal expressions for the Kärger model. Moreover, we also derive a general nth order cumulant expansion of the dMRI signal accounting for water exchange, which has not been explored in earlier studies. Based on this analytical expression, we compute the cumulant expansion for dMRI signals for the special case of single diffusion encoding (SDE) and double diffusion encoding (DDE) sequences. Our results provide a theoretical guideline on optimizing experimental parameters for SDE and DDE sequences, respectively. Moreover, we show that DDE signals are more sensitive to water exchange at short-time scale but provide less attenuation at long-time scale than SDE signals. Our theoretical analysis is also validated using Monte Carlo simulations on synthetic structures.

  13. Estimation of diffuse from measured global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    A data set of quality controlled radiation observations from stations scattered throughout Australia was formed and further screened to remove residual doubtful observations. It was then divided into groups by solar elevation, and used to find average relationships for each elevation group between relative global radiation (clearness index - the measured global radiation expressed as a proportion of the radiation on a horizontal surface at the top of the atmosphere) and relative diffuse radiation. Clear-cut relationships were found, which were then fitted by polynomial expressions giving the relative diffuse radiation as a function of relative global radiation and solar elevation. When these expressions were used to estimate the diffuse radiation from the global, the results had a slightly smaller spread of errors than those from an earlier technique given by Spencer. It was found that the errors were related to cloud amount, and further relationships were developed giving the errors as functions of global radiation, solar elevation, and the fraction of sky obscured by high cloud and by opaque (low and middle level) cloud. When these relationships were used to adjust the first estimates of diffuse radiation, there was a considerable reduction in the number of large errors

  14. Experiments with eddy currents: the eddy current brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Manuel I

    2004-01-01

    A moderate-cost experimental setup is presented to help students to understand some qualitative and quantitative aspects of eddy currents. The setup operates like an eddy current brake, a device commonly used in heavy vehicles to dissipate kinetic energy by generating eddy currents. A set of simple experiments is proposed to measure eddy current losses and to relate them to various relevant parameters. Typical results for each of the experiments are presented, and comparisons with theoretical predictions are included. The experiments, which are devoted to first-year undergraduate students, deal also with other pedagogically relevant topics in electricity and magnetism, such as basic laws, electrical measurement techniques, the sources of the magnetic field and others

  15. Long-term measurement of terpenoid flux above a Larix kaempferi forest using a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Tani, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Ueyama, Masahito

    2014-02-01

    Terpenoids emitted from forests contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols and affect the carbon budgets of forest ecosystems. To investigate seasonal variation in terpenoid flux involved in the aerosol formation and carbon budget, we measured the terpenoid flux of a Larix kaempferi forest between May 2011 and May 2012 by using a relaxed eddy accumulation method. Isoprene was emitted from a fern plant species Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the forest floor and monoterpenes from the L. kaempferi. α-Pinene was the dominant compound, but seasonal variation of the monoterpene composition was observed. High isoprene and monoterpene fluxes were observed in July and August. The total monoterpene flux was dependent on temperature, but several unusual high positive fluxes were observed after rain fall events. We found a good correlation between total monoterpene flux and volumetric soil water content (r = 0.88), and used this correlation to estimate monoterpene flux after rain events and calculate annual terpenoid emissions. Annual carbon emission in the form of total monoterpenes plus isoprene was determined to be 0.93% of the net ecosystem exchange. If we do not consider the effect of rain fall, carbon emissions may be underestimated by about 50%. Our results suggest that moisture conditions in the forest soil is a key factor controlling the monoterpene emissions from the forest ecosystem.

  16. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U S terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Richardson, Andrew [Harvard University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory; Davis, Ken J. [Pennsylvania State University; Hollinger, D. [USDA Forest Service; Wharton, Sonia [University of California, Davis; Falk, Matthias [University of California, Davis; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha [University of California, Davis; Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katulk, Gabriel G. [Duke University; Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State University; Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska; Suyker, A. E. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Sun, G. [USDA Forest Service; McNulty, Steven G. [USDA Forest Service; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University; Bolstad, Paul V [University of Minnesota; Burns, Sean [University of Colorado, Boulder; Monson, Russell K. [University of Colorado, Boulder; Curtis, Peter [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Drake, Bert G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Foster, David R. [Harvard University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Hadley, Julian L. [Harvard University; Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Martin, Timothy A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Meyers, Tilden [NOAA, Oak Ridge, TN; Oechel, Walter C. [San Diego State University; Schmid, H. P. [Indiana University; Scott, Russell L. [USDA ARS; Torn, Margaret S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2011-01-01

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63 pg C yr 1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1 km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr 1 over the period 2001 2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by 20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

  17. Annual balances of CH4 and N2O from a managed fen meadow using eddy covariance flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrier-Uijl, A.P.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Kroon, P.S.; Hensen, A.; Jonker, H.J.J.

    2010-10-01

    Annual terrestrial balances of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are presented for a managed fen meadow in the Netherlands for 2006, 2007 and 2008, using eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. Annual emissions derived from different methods are compared. The most accurate annual CH4 flux is achieved by gap filling EC fluxes with an empirical multivariate regression model, with soil temperature and mean wind velocity as driving variables. This model explains about 60% of the variability in observed daily CH4 fluxes. Annual N2O emissions can be separated into background emissions and event emissions due to fertilization. The background emission is estimated using a multivariate regression model also based on EC flux data, with soil temperature and mean wind velocity as driving variables. The event emissions are estimated using emission factors. The minimum direct emission factor is derived for six fertilization events by subtracting the background emission, and the IPCC default emission factor of 1% is used for the other events. In addition, the maximum direct emission factors are determined for the six events without subtracting the background emission. The average direct emission factor ranges from 1.2 to 2.8%, which is larger than the IPCC default value. Finally, the total terrestrial greenhouse gas balance is estimated at 16 Mg ha -1 year -1 in CO2-equivalents with contributions of 30, 25 and 45% by CO2, CH4 and N2O, respectively.

  18. Anomalous diffusion measured by a twice-refocused spin echo pulse sequence: analysis using fractional order calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Srinivasan, Girish; Magin, Richard L; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe

    2011-05-01

    To theoretically develop and experimentally validate a formulism based on a fractional order calculus (FC) diffusion model to characterize anomalous diffusion in brain tissues measured with a twice-refocused spin-echo (TRSE) pulse sequence. The FC diffusion model is the fractional order generalization of the Bloch-Torrey equation. Using this model, an analytical expression was derived to describe the diffusion-induced signal attenuation in a TRSE pulse sequence. To experimentally validate this expression, a set of diffusion-weighted (DW) images was acquired at 3 Tesla from healthy human brains using a TRSE sequence with twelve b-values ranging from 0 to 2600 s/mm(2). For comparison, DW images were also acquired using a Stejskal-Tanner diffusion gradient in a single-shot spin-echo echo planar sequence. For both datasets, a Levenberg-Marquardt fitting algorithm was used to extract three parameters: diffusion coefficient D, fractional order derivative in space β, and a spatial parameter μ (in units of μm). Using adjusted R-squared values and standard deviations, D, β, and μ values and the goodness-of-fit in three specific regions of interest (ROIs) in white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid, respectively, were evaluated for each of the two datasets. In addition, spatially resolved parametric maps were assessed qualitatively. The analytical expression for the TRSE sequence, derived from the FC diffusion model, accurately characterized the diffusion-induced signal loss in brain tissues at high b-values. In the selected ROIs, the goodness-of-fit and standard deviations for the TRSE dataset were comparable with the results obtained from the Stejskal-Tanner dataset, demonstrating the robustness of the FC model across multiple data acquisition strategies. Qualitatively, the D, β, and μ maps from the TRSE dataset exhibited fewer artifacts, reflecting the improved immunity to eddy currents. The diffusion-induced signal attenuation in a TRSE pulse sequence

  19. Mixing ratios and eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds from an urban canopy (Manchester, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixing ratios and fluxes of six selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured above the city of Manchester (UK during the summer of 2006. A proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer was used for the measurement of mixing ratios, and fluxes were calculated from these using both the disjunct and the virtual disjunct eddy covariance techniques. The two flux systems, which operated in alternate half hours, showed good agreement, with R2 values ranging between 0.74 and 0.9 for the individual analytes. On average, fluxes measured in the disjunct mode were approximately 20% lower than those measured in the virtual mode. This difference is due to both the dampening of the VOC signal by the disjunct flux sampler and carry over from one sample to the next. Correcting for these effects reduced the difference to less than 7%. Observed fluxes are thought to be largely controlled by anthropogenic sources, with vehicle emissions the major contributor. However, both evaporative and biogenic emissions may account for some of the VOCs present. Concentrations and fluxes of the oxygenated compounds were highest on average, ranging between 0.15 to 1 mg m−2 h−1; the fluxes of aromatic compounds were lower, between 0.12 to 0.28 mg m−2 h−1. The observed fluxes were up-scaled to give city wide emission estimates for each compound and the results compared to estimates made by the National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI for the same flux footprint. Fluxes of toluene and benzene compared most closely differing by approximately 50%, while in contrast the oxygenated fluxes were found to be between 3.6–6.3 times larger than the annual average predicted by the NAEI.

  20. Four-year measurement of methane flux over a temperate forest with a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, A.; Kosugi, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Hamotani, K.; Takahashi, K.; Iwata, H.; Itoh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are generally assumed to be an atmospheric methane (CH4) sink (Le Mer and Roger, 2001). However, under Asian monsoon climate, forests are subject to wide spatiotemporal range in soil water status, where forest soils often became water-saturated condition heterogeneously. In such warm and humid conditions, forests may act as a CH4 source and/or sink with considerable spatiotemporal variations. Micrometeorological methods such as eddy covariance (EC) method continuously measure spatially-representative flux at a canopy scale without artificial disturbance. In this study, we measured CH4 fluxes over a temperate forest during four-year period using a CH4 analyzer based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy detection with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method (Hamotani et al., 1996, 2001). We revealed the amplitude and seasonal variations of canopy-scale CH4 fluxes. The REA method is the attractive alternative to the EC method to measure trace-gas flux because it allows the use of analyzers with an optimal integration time. We also conducted continuous chamber measurements on forest floor to reveal spatial variations in soil CH4 fluxes and its controlling processes. The observations were made in an evergreen coniferous forest in central Japan. The site has a warm temperate monsoon climate with wet summer. Some wetlands were located in riparian zones along streams within the flux footprint area. For the REA method, the sonic anemometer (SAT-550, Kaijo) was mounted on top of the 29-m-tall tower and air was sampled from just below the sonic anemometer to reservoirs according to the direction of vertical wind velocity (w). After accumulating air for 30 minutes, the air in the reservoirs was pulled into a CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-840, Li-Cor) and a CH4 analyzer (FMA-200, Los Gatos Research). Before entering the analyzers, the sampled air was dried using a gas dryer (PD-50 T-48; Perma Pure Inc.). The REA flux is obtained from the difference in the mean concentrations

  1. Seasonal rates of benthic primary production in a Greenland fjord measured by aquatic eddy correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Attard, Karl; Glud, Ronnie; McGinnis, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    -quality multiple-day EC data sets document the presence of a year-round productive benthic phototrophic community. The shallow-water sites were on average autotrophic during the spring and summer months, up to 43.6 mmol O2 m22 d21, and heterotrophic or close to metabolic balance during the autumn and winter....... Substantial benthic gross primary production (GPP) was measured year-round. The highest GPP rates were measured during the spring, up to 5.7 mmol O2 m22 h21 (136.8 mmol O2 m22 d21), and even at low light levels (, 80 mmol quanta m22 s21) during late autumn and winter we measured rates of up to 1.8 mmol O2 m22...

  2. First direct measurements of formaldehyde flux via eddy covariance: implications for missing in-canopy formaldehyde sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. DiGangi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observations of formaldehyde (HCHO flux measured via eddy covariance, as well as HCHO concentrations and gradients, as observed by the Madison Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument during the BEACHON-ROCS 2010 campaign in a rural, Ponderosa Pine forest northwest of Colorado Springs, CO. A median noon upward flux of ~80 μg m−2 h−1 (~24 pptv m s−1 was observed with a noon range of 37 to 131 μg m−2 h−1. Enclosure experiments were performed to determine the HCHO branch (3.5 μg m-2 h−1 and soil (7.3 μg m−2 h−1 direct emission rates in the canopy. A zero-dimensional canopy box model, used to determine the apportionment of HCHO source and sink contributions to the flux, underpredicted the observed HCHO flux by a factor of 6. Simulated increases in concentrations of species similar to monoterpenes resulted in poor agreement with measurements, while simulated increases in direct HCHO emissions and/or concentrations of species similar to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol best improved model/measurement agreement. Given the typical diurnal variability of these BVOC emissions and direct HCHO emissions, this suggests that the source of the missing flux is a process with both a strong temperature and radiation dependence.

  3. Portable diffusion battery. It's application to measuring aerosol size characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.

    1972-01-01

    A miniature portable cluster-tube diffusion battery for measurement of the size and size distribution of submicron aerosols (1-100 nm) is described. A series of commercially available Collimated Holes Structures are mounted in sleeves with O-rings so that aerosol penetration can be measured at a number of outlets along the series. The CHS are stainless-steel discs of several different diameters and thicknesses, containing a large number of nearly circular holes. The actual length of the apparatus is about 2 ft but the equivalent length is 3.25 mi. Calculated curves of penetration versus particle size are used to evaluate size distribution and show that the equivalent size frequently reported from one measurement with a rectangular diffusion battery is practically meaningless. The value depends as much on the characteristics and mode of the operation of the diffusion battery as on the aerosol; the longer the battery and the lower the air flow, the greater the equivalent size will appear to be. Graphical plots of the cumulative size distribution of room aerosol and silver aerosol are illustrated for large battery and miniature battery measurements and appear to be in close agreement. Measurements on radon daughters in uranium mines with the miniature batteries show activity median diameters from 0.1 to 0.17 micron, with standard deviations from 2 to 4. Two similar measurements made in the laboratory on room air tagged with about 50 pCi/l radon daughters show activity median diameters of 0.15 and 0.17 micron, with geometric standard deviations of 2.2 and 2.6, respectively

  4. Eddy flux and leaf level measurements of biogeni VOC emissions from Mopane woodland of Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenberg, J.P.; Guenter, A.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Hewwit, C.N.; James, A.E.; Owen, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions were measured in a mopane woodland near Maun, Botswana in January–February 2001 as part of SAFARI 2000. This landscape is comprised of more than 95% of one woody plant species, Colophospermum mopane (Caesalpinaceae). Mopane woodlands extend over a

  5. An assessment of the precision and confidence of aquatic eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donis, Daphne; Holtappels, Moritz; Noss, Christian

    2015-01-01

    facility with well-constrained hydrodynamics. These observations are used to review data processing procedures and to recommend improved deployment methods, thus improving the precision, reliability, and confidence of EC measurements. Specifically, this study demonstrates that 1) the alignment of the time...... series based on maximum cross correlation improved the precision of EC flux estimations; 2) an oxygen sensor with a response time of

  6. Dead Sea evaporation by eddy covariance measurements vs. aerodynamic, energy budget, Priestley-Taylor, and Penman estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Nied, Manuela; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kleffmann, Jörg; Kottmeier, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake, located in an arid environment. Evaporation is the key component of the Dead Sea water budget and accounts for the main loss of water. So far, lake evaporation has been determined by indirect methods only and not measured directly. Consequently, the governing factors of evaporation are unknown. For the first time, long-term eddy covariance measurements were performed at the western Dead Sea shore for a period of 1 year by implementing a new concept for onshore lake evaporation measurements. To account for lake evaporation during offshore wind conditions, a robust and reliable multiple regression model was developed using the identified governing factors wind velocity and water vapour pressure deficit. An overall regression coefficient of 0.8 is achieved. The measurements show that the diurnal evaporation cycle is governed by three local wind systems: a lake breeze during daytime, strong downslope winds in the evening, and strong northerly along-valley flows during the night. After sunset, the strong winds cause half-hourly evaporation rates which are up to 100 % higher than during daytime. The median daily evaporation is 4.3 mm d-1 in July and 1.1 mm d-1 in December. The annual evaporation of the water surface at the measurement location was 994±88 mm a-1 from March 2014 until March 2015. Furthermore, the performance of indirect evaporation approaches was tested and compared to the measurements. The aerodynamic approach is applicable for sub-daily and multi-day calculations and attains correlation coefficients between 0.85 and 0.99. For the application of the Bowen ratio energy budget method and the Priestley-Taylor method, measurements of the heat storage term are inevitable on timescales up to 1 month. Otherwise strong seasonal biases occur. The Penman equation was adapted to calculate realistic evaporation, by using an empirically gained linear function for the heat storage term, achieving correlation coefficients between 0

  7. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of depleted uranium metal microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humrickhouse-Helmreich, Carissa J.; Corbin, Rob; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2014-03-01

    The high void space of nuclear fuels composed of homogeneous uranium metal microspheres may allow them to achieve ultra-high burnup by accommodating fuel swelling and reducing fuel/cladding interactions; however, the relatively low thermal conductivity of microsphere nuclear fuels may limit their application. To support the development of microsphere nuclear fuels, an apparatus was designed in a glovebox and used to measure the apparent thermal diffusivity of a packed bed of depleted uranium (DU) microspheres with argon fill in the void spaces. The developed Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA) recorded radial temperature changes due to an initial heat pulse from a central thin-diameter cartridge heater. Using thermocouple positions and time-temperature data, the apparent thermal diffusivity was calculated. The thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was calculated based on the thermal diffusivity from the CHTA, known material densities and specific heat capacities, and an assumed 70% packing density based on prior measurements. Results indicate that DU metal microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer even in a low oxygen environment. At 500 °C, the thermal conductivity of the DU metal microsphere bed was 0.431 ± 0.0560 W/m-K compared to the literature value of approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal.

  8. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of depleted uranium metal microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse-Helmreich, Carissa J., E-mail: carissahelmreich@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 337 Zachry Engineering Center, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Corbin, Rob, E-mail: rcorbin@terrapower.com [TerraPower, LLC, 330 120th Ave NE, Suite 100, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); McDeavitt, Sean M., E-mail: mcdeavitt@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 337 Zachry Engineering Center, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The high void space of nuclear fuels composed of homogeneous uranium metal microspheres may allow them to achieve ultra-high burnup by accommodating fuel swelling and reducing fuel/cladding interactions; however, the relatively low thermal conductivity of microsphere nuclear fuels may limit their application. To support the development of microsphere nuclear fuels, an apparatus was designed in a glovebox and used to measure the apparent thermal diffusivity of a packed bed of depleted uranium (DU) microspheres with argon fill in the void spaces. The developed Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA) recorded radial temperature changes due to an initial heat pulse from a central thin-diameter cartridge heater. Using thermocouple positions and time–temperature data, the apparent thermal diffusivity was calculated. The thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was calculated based on the thermal diffusivity from the CHTA, known material densities and specific heat capacities, and an assumed 70% packing density based on prior measurements. Results indicate that DU metal microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer even in a low oxygen environment. At 500 °C, the thermal conductivity of the DU metal microsphere bed was 0.431 ± 0.0560 W/m-K compared to the literature value of approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal.

  9. Photographic measurements of the diffuse light in the coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.; Kormendy, J.

    1977-01-01

    The diffuse background light in the Coma cluster is measured using isodensity tracings of B, G, V, and R photographic plates taken with the Palomar 1.2-m Schmidt telescope. The isodensity contours are calibrated using the star profile derived by Kormendy (1973). Between 4 and 14 arc min from the center, the surface brightness of the diffuse light decreases from approximately 26 to approximately 28 G magnitudes arc sec -2 . The total magnitude in this annulus is G = 11.22, which is approximately 45 percent of the light in galaxies alone, or approximately 30 percent of the total. This does little to alleviate the ''missing mass'' problem. The isodensity contours and the equivalent profile of the diffuse light closely parallel the distribution of light in galaxies, implying no strong mass segregation. However, the background light appears to be bluer than the galaxies. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the background consists of stars tidally stripped from galaxies, which generally become bluer at larger radii. The present technique is very different from methods used in the past. Comparison of a variety of measurements shows that a reasonably consistent body of data on the background light now exists

  10. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of depleted uranium metal microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humrickhouse-Helmreich, Carissa J.; Corbin, Rob; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    The high void space of nuclear fuels composed of homogeneous uranium metal microspheres may allow them to achieve ultra-high burnup by accommodating fuel swelling and reducing fuel/cladding interactions; however, the relatively low thermal conductivity of microsphere nuclear fuels may limit their application. To support the development of microsphere nuclear fuels, an apparatus was designed in a glovebox and used to measure the apparent thermal diffusivity of a packed bed of depleted uranium (DU) microspheres with argon fill in the void spaces. The developed Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA) recorded radial temperature changes due to an initial heat pulse from a central thin-diameter cartridge heater. Using thermocouple positions and time–temperature data, the apparent thermal diffusivity was calculated. The thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was calculated based on the thermal diffusivity from the CHTA, known material densities and specific heat capacities, and an assumed 70% packing density based on prior measurements. Results indicate that DU metal microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer even in a low oxygen environment. At 500 °C, the thermal conductivity of the DU metal microsphere bed was 0.431 ± 0.0560 W/m-K compared to the literature value of approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal

  11. On the coupled use of sapflow and eddy covariance measurements: environmental impacts on the evapotranspiration of an heterogeneous - wild olives based - Sardinian ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreli, Matteo; Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram

    2015-04-01

    Sapflow and eddy covariance techniques are attractive methods for evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. We demonstrated that in Mediterranean ecosystems, characterized by an heterogeneous spatial distribution of different plant functional types (PFT) such as grass and trees, the combined use of these techniques becomes essential for the actual ET estimates. Indeed, during the dry summers these water-limited heterogeneous ecosystems are typically characterized by a simple dual PFT system with strong-resistant woody vegetation and bare soil, since grass died. An eddy covariance - micrometeorological tower has been installed over an heterogeneous ecosystem at the Orroli site in Sardinia (Italy) from 2003. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: wild olives, different shrubs and herbaceous species, which died during the summer. Where patchy land cover leads and the surface fluxes from different cover are largely different, ET evaluation may be not robust enough and eddy covariance method hypothesis are not anymore preserved. In these conditions the sapflow measurements, performed by thermodissipation probes, provide robust estimates of the transpiration from woody vegetation. Through the coupled use of the sapflow sensor observations, a 2D footprint model of the eddy covariance tower and high resolution satellite images for the estimate of the foot print land cover map, the eddy covariance measurements can be correctly interpreted, and ET components (bare soil evaporation and woody vegetation transpiration) can be separated. Based on the Granier technique, 33 thermo-dissipation probes have been built and 6 power regulators have been assembled to provide a constant current of 3V to the sensors. The sensors have been installed at the Orroli site into 15 wild olives clumps with different characteristics in terms of tree size, exposition to wind and solar radiation and soil depth. The sap flow sensors outputs are analyzed to estimate

  12. Argon Diffusion Measured in Rhyolite Melt at 100 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, N.; Edwards, P. M.; Watkins, J. M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Argon diffusivity (D_{Ar} ) controls the rate and length scale of argon exchange between melt and gas phases and is used as a parameter to model noble gas fractionation during magma degassing. D_{Ar} may also be useful in geochronology to estimate the distribution of excess (non-radiogenic) atmospheric argon in lavas. Our measurements of D_{Ar} in molten anhydrous rhyolite near 1000 °C and 100 MPa add to the existing dataset. Using a rapid-quench cold seal pressure apparatus we exposed cylindrical charges drilled from a Miocene rhyolite flow near Buck Mtn., CA to a pure argon atmosphere resulting in a gradually lengthening argon concentration gradient between the saturated surface and the argon poor interior. Argon concentration was measured by electron microprobe along radial transects from the center to the surface of bisected samples. D_{Ar} was calculated for each transect by fitting relative argon concentration (as a function of distance from the surface) to Green's function (given each experiment's specific temperature, pressure and runtime). Variability (σ = 1.202{μm }^{2} /s) was smaller than in previous studies, but still greater than what is likely due to analytical or experimental uncertainty. We observed a symmetric geometric bias in the distribution of argon in our samples, possibly related to advective redistribution of argon accompanying the deformation of cylindrical charges into spheroids driven by surface tension. Average diffusivity, D_{Ar} = 4.791{μm }^{2} /s, is close to the predicted value, D_{Ar} = {μm }^{2} /s ( σ_{ \\bar{x} } = 1.576 {μm }^{2} /s), suggesting that Behrens and Zhang's (2001) empirical model is valid for anhydrous rhyolite melts to relatively higher temperatures and lower pressures. Behrens, H. and Y. Zhang (2001). "Ar diffusion in hydrous silicic melts: implications for volatile diffusion mechanisms and fractionation." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 192: 363-376.

  13. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  14. Diagnostic value of structural and diffusion imaging measures in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Lee

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many studies have attempted to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls by machine learning using structural or functional MRI. We included both structural and diffusion MRI (dMRI and performed random forest (RF and support vector machine (SVM in this study. Methods: We evaluated the performance of classifying schizophrenia using RF method and SVM with 504 features (volume and/or fractional anisotropy and trace from 184 brain regions. We enrolled 47 patients and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and resampled our data into a balanced dataset using a Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique method. We randomly permuted the classification of all participants as a patient or healthy control 100 times and ran the RF and SVM with leave one out cross validation for each permutation. We then compared the sensitivity and specificity of the original dataset and the permuted dataset. Results: Classification using RF with 504 features showed a significantly higher rate of performance compared to classification by chance: sensitivity (87.6% vs. 47.0% and specificity (95.9 vs. 48.4% performed by RF, sensitivity (89.5% vs. 48.0% and specificity (94.5% vs. 47.1% performed by SVM. Conclusions: Machine learning using RF and SVM with both volume and diffusion measures can discriminate patients with schizophrenia with a high degree of performance. Further replications are required. Keywords: Classification, Diffusion MRI, Random forest, Support vector machine, Schizophrenia

  15. Measuring Restriction Sizes Using Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews a new concept in magnetic resonance as applied to cellular and biological systems. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be used to infer information about restriction sizes of samples being measured. The measurements rely on the apparent diffusion coefficient changing with diffusion times as measurements move from restricted to free diffusion regimes. Pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE measurements are limited in the ability to shorten diffusion times and thus are limited in restriction sizes which can be probed. Oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE measurements could provide shorter diffusion times so smaller restriction sizes could be probed.

  16. Comparative CO{sub 2} flux measurements by eddy covariance technique using open- and closed-path gas analysers over the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Fumiyoshi (Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Atmosphere and Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)), Email: fkondo@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tsukamoto, Osamu (Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan))

    2012-04-15

    Direct comparison of airsea CO{sub 2} fluxes by open-path eddy covariance (OPEC) and closed-path eddy covariance (CPEC) techniques was carried out over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Previous studies over oceans have shown that the CO{sub 2} flux by OPEC was larger than the bulk CO{sub 2} flux using the gas transfer velocity estimated by the mass balance technique, while the CO{sub 2} flux by CPEC agreed with the bulk CO{sub 2} flux. We investigated a traditional conflict between the CO{sub 2} flux by the eddy covariance technique and the bulk CO{sub 2} flux, and whether the CO{sub 2} fluctuation attenuated using the closed-path analyser can be measured with sufficient time responses to resolve small CO{sub 2} flux over oceans. Our results showed that the closed-path analyser using a short sampling tube and a high volume air pump can be used to measure the small CO{sub 2} fluctuation over the ocean. Further, the underestimated CO{sub 2} flux by CPEC due to the attenuated fluctuation can be corrected by the bandpass covariance method; its contribution was almost identical to that of H{sub 2}O flux. The CO{sub 2} flux by CPEC agreed with the total CO{sub 2} flux by OPEC with density correction; however, both of them are one order of magnitude larger than the bulk CO{sub 2} flux

  17. Comparative CO2 flux measurements by eddy covariance technique using open- and closed-path gas analysers over the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiyoshi Kondo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct comparison of air–sea CO2 fluxes by open-path eddy covariance (OPEC and closed-path eddy covariance (CPEC techniques was carried out over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Previous studies over oceans have shown that the CO2 flux by OPEC was larger than the bulk CO2 flux using the gas transfer velocity estimated by the mass balance technique, while the CO2 flux by CPEC agreed with the bulk CO2 flux. We investigated a traditional conflict between the CO2 flux by the eddy covariance technique and the bulk CO2 flux, and whether the CO2 fluctuation attenuated using the closed-path analyser can be measured with sufficient time responses to resolve small CO2 flux over oceans. Our results showed that the closed-path analyser using a short sampling tube and a high volume air pump can be used to measure the small CO2 fluctuation over the ocean. Further, the underestimated CO2 flux by CPEC due to the attenuated fluctuation can be corrected by the bandpass covariance method; its contribution was almost identical to that of H2O flux. The CO2 flux by CPEC agreed with the total CO2 flux by OPEC with density correction; however, both of them are one order of magnitude larger than the bulk CO2 flux.

  18. Eddy Current COPV Overwrap and Liner Thickness Measurement System and Data Analysis for 40-Inch Kevlar COPVs SN002 and SN027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the health assessment of flight spare 40in diameter Kevlar composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) SN002 and SN027 an eddy current characterization of the composite and liner thickness change during pressurization was requested under WSTF-TP-1085-07.A, "Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System P/N MC282-0082-0101 S/N 002 and Orbital Maneuvering System P/N MC282-0082-001 S/N 027 COPV Health Assessment." The through the thickness strains have been determined to be an important parameter in the analysis of the reliability and likelihood of stress rupture failure. Eddy current techniques provide a means to measure these thicknesses changes based upon the change in impedance of an eddy current sensor mounted on the exterior of the vessel. Careful probe and technique design have resulted in the capability to independently measure the liner and overwrap thickness changes to better than +/- 0.0005 in. at each sensor location. Descriptions of the inspection system and test results are discussed.

  19. Measurement of neutron diffusion length in heavy concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, D.

    2007-04-01

    Using an aluminium sampler filled with heavy concrete the neutron diffusion length was determined, measuring thermal and fast neutrons over the whole beam hole with various threshold detectors using gold samples. These calculations should describe the neutron distribution in the whole concrete shield of the reactor and contribute to the investigation of the activation of the concrete shield using reactor parameters like operating time, power and neutron flux. Instrumentation, activation and positioning of the samples in the beam hole of the TRIGA Mark II reactor are described. (nevyjel)

  20. Measurements of the angular distribution of diffuse irradiance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Dragsted, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Advanced solar resource assessment and forecasting is necessary for optimal solar energy utilization. In order to investigate the short-term resource variability, for instance caused by clouds it is necessary to investigate how clouds affect the solar irradiance, including the angular distribution...... of the solar irradiance. The investigation is part of the Danish contribution to the taskforce 46 within the International Energy Agency and financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The investigation focuses on the distribution of the diffuse solar irradiance and is based on horizontal measurements of the solar...

  1. Experimental measurement of electron heat diffusivity in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.; Jahns, G.L.

    1976-06-01

    The electron temperature perturbation produced by internal disruptions in the center of the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK) is followed with a multi-chord soft x-ray detector array. The space-time evolution is found to be diffusive in character, with a conduction coefficient larger by a factor of 2.5 - 15 than that implied by the energy containment time, apparently because it is a measurement for the small group of electrons whose energies exceed the cut-off energy of the detectors

  2. Eddy covariance measurements with a new fast-response, enclosed-path analyzer: Spectral characteristics and cross-system comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Novick; J. Walker; W.S. Chan; A. Schmidt; C. Sobek; J.M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    A new class of enclosed path gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance applications combines the advantages of traditional closed-path systems (small density corrections, good performance in poor weather) and open-path systems (good spectral response, low power requirements), and permits estimates of instantaneous gas mixing ratio. Here, the extent to which these...

  3. Diffuse optical tomography using semiautomated coregistered ultrasound measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Atahar; Vavadi, Hamed; Uddin, K. M. Shihab; Zhu, Quing

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has demonstrated huge potential in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. DOT image reconstruction guided by ultrasound (US) improves the diffused light localization and lesion reconstruction accuracy. However, DOT reconstruction depends on tumor geometry provided by coregistered US. Experienced operators can manually measure these lesion parameters; however, training and measurement time are needed. The wide clinical use of this technique depends on its robustness and faster imaging reconstruction capability. This article introduces a semiautomated procedure that automatically extracts lesion information from US images and incorporates it into the optical reconstruction. An adaptive threshold-based image segmentation is used to obtain tumor boundaries. For some US images, posterior shadow can extend to the chest wall and make the detection of deeper lesion boundary difficult. This problem can be solved using a Hough transform. The proposed procedure was validated from data of 20 patients. Optical reconstruction results using the proposed procedure were compared with those reconstructed using extracted tumor information from an experienced user. Mean optical absorption obtained from manual measurement was 0.21±0.06 cm-1 for malignant and 0.12±0.06 cm-1 for benign cases, whereas for the proposed method it was 0.24±0.08 cm-1 and 0.12±0.05 cm-1, respectively.

  4. Cartographic modeling of heterogeneous landscape for footprint analysis of Eddy Covariance Measurements (Central Forest and Central Chernozem reserves, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Daniil

    2014-05-01

    The topographical, soil and vegetation maps of FLUXNET study areas are widely used for interpretation of eddy covariance measurements, for calibration of biogeochemical models and for making regional assessments of carbon balance. The poster presents methodological problems and results of ecosystem mapping using GIS, remote sensing, statistical and field methods on the example of two RusFluxNet sites in the Central Forest (33° E, 56°30'N) and Central Chernozem (36°10' E, 51°36'N) reserves. In the Central Forest reserve tacheometric measurements were used for topographical and peat surveys of bogged sphagnum spruce forest of 20-hectare area. Its common borders and its areas affected by windfall were determined. The supplies and spatial distribution of organic matter were obtained. The datasets of groundwater monitoring measurements on ten wells were compared with each other and the analysis of spatial and temporal groundwater variability was performed. The map of typical ecosystems of the reserve and its surroundings was created on the basis of analysis of multi-temporal Landsat images. In the Central Chernozem reserve the GNSS topographical survey was used for flux tower footprint mapping (22 ha). The features of microrelief predetermine development of different soils within the footprint. Close relationship between soil (73 drilling site) and terrain attributes (DEM with 2.5 m) allowed to build maps of soils and soil properties: carbon content, bulk density, upper boundary of secondary carbonates. Position for chamber-based soil respiration measurements was defined on the basis of these maps. The detailed geodetic and soil surveys of virgin lands and plowland were performed in order to estimate the effect of agrogenic processes such as dehumification, compaction and erosion on soils during the whole period of agricultural use of Central Chernozem reserve area and around. The choice of analogous soils was based on the similarity of their position within the

  5. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Surface Measurement of Liver Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan H; Reistad, Nina; Brange, Hannes; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Sturesson, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Liver parenchymal injuries such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can lead to increased morbidity and liver failure after liver resection. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical measuring method that is fast, convenient, and established. DRS has previously been used on the liver with an invasive technique consisting of a needle that is inserted into the parenchyma. We developed a DRS system with a hand-held probe that is applied to the liver surface. In this study, we investigated the impact of the liver capsule on DRS measurements and whether liver surface measurements are representative of the whole liver. We also wanted to confirm that we could discriminate between tumor and liver parenchyma by DRS. The instrumentation setup consisted of a light source, a fiber-optic contact probe, and two spectrometers connected to a computer. Patients scheduled for liver resection due to hepatic malignancy were included, and DRS measurements were performed on the excised liver part with and without the liver capsule and alongside a newly cut surface. To estimate the scattering parameters and tissue chromophore volume fractions, including blood, bile, and fat, the measured diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to an analytical model. In total, 960 DRS spectra from the excised liver tissue of 18 patients were analyzed. All factors analyzed regarding tumor versus liver tissue were significantly different. When measuring through the capsule, the blood volume fraction was found to be 8.4 ± 3.5%, the lipid volume fraction was 9.9 ± 4.7%, and the bile volume fraction was 8.2 ± 4.6%. No differences could be found between surface measurements and cross-sectional measurements. In measurements with/without the liver capsule, the differences in volume fraction were 1.63% (0.75-2.77), -0.54% (-2.97 to 0.32), and -0.15% (-1.06 to 1.24) for blood, lipid, and bile, respectively. This study shows that it is possible to manage DRS

  6. Intercomparison of six fast-response sensors for the eddy-covariance flux measurement of nitrous oxide over agricultural grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemitz, Eiko; Famulari, Daniela; Ibrom, Andreas; Vermeulen, Alex; Hensen, Arjan; van den Bulk, Pim; Loubet, Benjamin; Laville, Patricia; Mammarella, Ivan; Haapanala, Sami; Lohila, Annalea; Laurila, Tuomas; Eva, Rabot; Laborde, Marie; Cowan, Nicholas; Anderson, Margaret; Helfter, Carole

    2015-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most important greenhouse gas and its terrestrial budget remains poorly constraint, with bottom up and top down estimates of country emissions often disagreeing by more than a factor of two. Whilst the measurements of the biosphere / atmosphere exchange of CO2 with micrometeorological methods is commonplace, emissions of CH4 and N2O are more commonly measured with enclosure techniques due to limitations in fast-response sensors with good signal-to-noise characteristics. Recent years have seen the development of a range of instruments based on optical spectroscopy. This started in the early 1990s with instruments based on lead salt lasers, which had temperamental long-term characteristics. More recent developments in quantum cascade lasers has lead to increasingly stable instruments, initially based on pulsed, later on continuous wave lasers. Within the context of the European FP7 Infrastructure Project InGOS ('Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System'), we conducted an intercomparison of six fast response sensors for N2O: three more or less identical instruments based on off-axis Integrated Cavity Optical Spectrocopy (ICOS) (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and three instruments based on quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometry (Aerodyne Research Inc.): one older generation pulsed instrument (p-QCL) and two of the latest generation of compact continuous wave instruments (cw-QCL), operating at two different wavelengths. One of the ICOS instruments was operated with an inlet drier. In addition, the campaign was joined by a relaxed eddy-accumulation system linked to a FTIR spectrometer (Ecotech), a gradient system based on a home-built slower QCL (INRA Orleans) and a fast chamber system. Here we present the results of the study and a detailed examination of the various corrections and errors of the different instruments. Overall, with the exception of the older generation QCL, the average fluxes based on the different fast

  7. Measuring the Effects of Disturbance & Climate on the CO2 & Energy Exchange of Ponderosa Pine Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly E. Law; Larry Mahrt

    2007-01-05

    The goal is to quantify and understand the influence of climate and disturbance on ecosystem processes and thus net carbon uptake by forests. The objective is to combine tower and ground-based observations to quantify the effects of disturbance on processes controlling carbon storage and CO{sub 2} and energy exchange in varying climatic conditions. Specific objectives are: (1) Investigate the effects of logging and fire on carbon storage and carbon dioxide and energy exchange in chronosequences of ponderosa pine, using consistent methodology; (2) Determine key environmental factors controlling carbon storage and carbon dioxide and energy exchange in these forests through a combination of measurements and process modeling; and (3) Assess spatial variation of the concentrations and transport in complex terrain. The eddy covariance method is used for measurements of CO2, water vapor, and energy exchanges in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests (burned in 2002 wildfire, 10 year-old stand, 90 year-old mature stand). The mature stand has been an AmeriFlux site since 2000 (following previous flux sites in young and old stands initiated in 1996). In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, a large suite of biological processes and ecosystem properties are determined for the purpose of developing independent forest carbon budgets and NEP estimates; these include photosynthesis, stand respiration, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes, annual litterfall, foliar chemistry, and bole increment, and soil organic matter among other parameters. The measurements are being integrated and evaluated with two ecosystem models (BIOME-BGC and SPA). Such analyses are needed to assess regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgets. The results will contribute scientific understanding of carbon processes, and will provide comprehensive data sets for forest managers and those preparing national carbon inventories to use in assessments of carbon sequestration in relation to interannual climate

  8. Surface fluxes of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O measured by the eddy correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, M.; Laurila, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution by ozone has been recognized as a regional problem of the first priority. The acute effects on plants have been documented across Europe, and experimental evidence for chronic and subtle effects is growing. To protect crops and trees UN-ECE has defined the concept of critical levels for ozone. The concept is, however, still developing, and new research findings are needed to improve its scientific basis. O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are both important greenhouse gases and their exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere is therefore a subject of growing interest. The eddy correlation technique is a new micrometeorological method to measure fluxes on the ecosystem scale. In this method the high-frequency fluctuating components of the vertical wind velocity and, for example, the concentration, are measured and correlated to give a direct measurement of the flux F{sub c} = w{sup `}c{sup `}, where the primes denote deviations from mean values. Perhaps the most difficult requirement in flux measurements with the eddy correlation technique is the need for fast-response sensors. The sampling should be done at a frequency no lower than 5 Hz. In addition general micro- meteorological requirements exist regarding statistical stationarity and horizontal homogeneity. Eddy correlation measurements can be used to study ozone deposition velocities and the net carbon balance within the related physiological processes of the ecosystem. In this study the turbulent fluxes of these gases were measured in Finland by this direct method above a forest for the first time. Fluxes were studied in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest

  9. Surface fluxes of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O measured by the eddy correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, M; Laurila, T [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Air pollution by ozone has been recognized as a regional problem of the first priority. The acute effects on plants have been documented across Europe, and experimental evidence for chronic and subtle effects is growing. To protect crops and trees UN-ECE has defined the concept of critical levels for ozone. The concept is, however, still developing, and new research findings are needed to improve its scientific basis. O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are both important greenhouse gases and their exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere is therefore a subject of growing interest. The eddy correlation technique is a new micrometeorological method to measure fluxes on the ecosystem scale. In this method the high-frequency fluctuating components of the vertical wind velocity and, for example, the concentration, are measured and correlated to give a direct measurement of the flux F{sub c} = w{sup `}c{sup `}, where the primes denote deviations from mean values. Perhaps the most difficult requirement in flux measurements with the eddy correlation technique is the need for fast-response sensors. The sampling should be done at a frequency no lower than 5 Hz. In addition general micro- meteorological requirements exist regarding statistical stationarity and horizontal homogeneity. Eddy correlation measurements can be used to study ozone deposition velocities and the net carbon balance within the related physiological processes of the ecosystem. In this study the turbulent fluxes of these gases were measured in Finland by this direct method above a forest for the first time. Fluxes were studied in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest

  10. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; McGinnis, B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs

  11. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  12. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.

    2010-06-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented and new correlations for in-plane relative permeability of water and air are established. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  14. Quantum trajectories and measurements in continuous time. The diffusive case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    This course-based monograph introduces the reader to the theory of continuous measurements in quantum mechanics and provides some benchmark applications. The approach chosen, quantum trajectory theory, is based on the stochastic Schroedinger and master equations, which determine the evolution of the a-posteriori state of a continuously observed quantum system and give the distribution of the measurement output. The present introduction is restricted to finite-dimensional quantum systems and diffusive outputs. Two appendices introduce the tools of probability theory and quantum measurement theory which are needed for the theoretical developments in the first part of the book. First, the basic equations of quantum trajectory theory are introduced, with all their mathematical properties, starting from the existence and uniqueness of their solutions. This makes the text also suitable for other applications of the same stochastic differential equations in different fields such as simulations of master equations or dynamical reduction theories. In the next step the equivalence between the stochastic approach and the theory of continuous measurements is demonstrated. To conclude the theoretical exposition, the properties of the output of the continuous measurement are analyzed in detail. This is a stochastic process with its own distribution, and the reader will learn how to compute physical quantities such as its moments and its spectrum. In particular this last concept is introduced with clear and explicit reference to the measurement process. The two-level atom is used as the basic prototype to illustrate the theory in a concrete application. Quantum phenomena appearing in the spectrum of the fluorescence light, such as Mollow's triplet structure, squeezing of the fluorescence light, and the linewidth narrowing, are presented. Last but not least, the theory of quantum continuous measurements is the natural starting point to develop a feedback control theory in

  15. Unsaturated soil moisture drying and wetting diffusion coefficient measurements in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTTransient moisture flow in an unsaturated soil in response to suction changes is controlled by the unsaturated moisture diffusion coefficient. The moisture diffusion coefficient can be determined by measuring suction profiles over time. The l...

  16. Measurements of the Fe3+ diffusion coefficient in Fricke Xylenol gel using optical density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonato de Oliveira, Lucas; Sampaio, Francisco Glaildo Almeida; Moreira, Marcos Vasques; Almeida, Adelaide de

    2014-01-01

    In Fricke dosimetry, optical density measurements are performed some time after dosimeter irradiation. Values of the diffusion coefficient of Fe 3+ in Fricke Xylenol gel (FXG) are necessary for determining the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose from measurements of the optical density. Five sets of FXG dosimeters, kept at different constant temperatures, were exposed to collimated 6 MV photons. The optical density profile, proportional to the Fe 3+ concentration, at the boundary between irradiated and non-irradiated parts of each dosimeter was measured periodically over a period of 60 h. By comparing the experimental data with a function that accounts for the unobserved initial concentration profile of Fe 3+ in the FXG, we obtained diffusion coefficients 0.30±0.05, 0.40±0.05, 0.50±0.05, 0.60±0.05 and 0.80±0.05 mm 2 /h for the temperatures 283.0±0.5, 286.0±0.5, 289.0±0.5, 292.0±0.5, and 296.0±0.5 K, respectively. The activation energy of Fe 3+ diffusion in the gel, 0.54±0.06 eV, was determined from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients. - Highlights: • A new analytical method to determine diffusion coefficients of ions in gels is proposed. • The method is applied for measurements of the diffusion coefficients of Fe 3+ ions in a Fricke gel dosimeter. • Activation energy of the Fe 3+ ions in the gel was found to be 0.54 ±0.06 eV

  17. Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm 2 /s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm 2 /s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site

  18. Surface Conductance of Five Different Crops Based on 10 Years of Eddy-Covariance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Spank

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Penman-Monteith (PM equation is a state-of-the-art modelling approach to simulate evapotranspiration (ET at site and local scale. However, its practical application is often restricted by the availability and quality of required parameters. One of these parameters is the canopy conductance. Long term measurements of evapotranspiration by the eddy-covariance method provide an improved data basis to determine this parameter by inverse modelling. Because this approach may also include evaporation from the soil, not only the ‘actual’ canopy conductance but the whole surface conductance (gc$g_{c}$ is addressed. Two full cycles of crop rotation with five different crop types (winter barley, winter rape seed, winter wheat, silage maize, and spring barley have been continuously monitored for 10 years. These data form the basis for this study. As estimates of gc$g_{c}$ are obtained on basis of measurements, we investigated the impact of measurements uncertainties on obtained values of gc$g_{c }$. Here, two different foci were inspected more in detail. Firstly, the effect of the energy balance closure gap (EBCG on obtained values of gc$g_{c}$ was analysed. Secondly, the common hydrological practice to use vegetation height (hc$h_{c}$ to determine the period of highest plant activity (i.e., times with maximum gc$g_{c}$ concerning CO2-exchange and transpiration was critically reviewed. The results showed that hc$h_{c}$ and gc$g_{c}$ do only agree at the beginning of the growing season but increasingly differ during the rest of the growing season. Thus, the utilisation of hc$h_{c}$ as a proxy to assess maximum gc$g_{c}$ (gc,max$g_{c,\\text{max}}$ can lead to inaccurate estimates of gc,max$g_{c,\\text{max}}$ which in turn can cause serious shortcomings in simulated ET. The light use efficiency (LUE is superior to hc$h_{c}$ as a proxy to determine periods with maximum gc$g_{c}$. Based on this proxy, crop specific estimates of gc

  19. Eddy current seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-11-01

    The paper presents the fifth symposium in the series of Eddy Current Seminars, held in Abingdon, 1988. The meeting included a discussion on three-dimensional eddy current formulations, as well as thirteen contributed papers on computational electromagnetics. Of the thirteen papers, two papers on eddy currents in tokamaks were selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  20. Measurements of integrated direct, diffuse and global ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utrillas, M.P.; Pedrós, R.; Gandía, S.; Gómez-Amo, J.L.; Estellés, V.; Martínez-Lozano, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first multiyear set of simultaneous measurements of the global ultraviolet-B radiation and its two components: direct and diffuse. The measurements have been taken with four YES-UVB-1 radiometers: two radiometers to measure the diffuse radiation, one provided with a shadow band and the other with a shadow disk on a Sun tracker; a radiometer to measure the global horizontal radiation; and a Sun-tracking radiometer to measure the direct radiation with an especially designed radiance collimator. The diffuse minute-values measured with both instruments agree within a coefficient correlation of 1.00. The diffuse component represents at least 50% of the global UVB (ultraviolet-B) radiation. The minute values of global UVB irradiance obtained by adding the direct and diffuse components concur with the measured global irradiance. Therefore, the measurement of the direct irradiance enables the estimation of the diffuse component, and gives an insight into the factors that affect its value, especially aerosols. - Highlights: • Simultaneous measurements of global, direct and diffuse UVB (ultraviolet-B) radiation. • The diffuse minute-values are at least 50% of the global ones. • The diffuse measurements are highly correlated to the aerosol load. • The sum of direct + diffuse radiation concur with the measured global.

  1. Diffusion measurements in binary liquid mixtures by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that Raman spectroscopy allows determination of the molar fractions in mixtures subjected to molecular diffusion. Spectra of three binary systems, benzene/n-hexane, benzene/cyclohexane, and benzene/ acetone, were obtained during vertical (exchange) diffusion at several different heights...... in the literature were found, even in a thermostatically controlled diffusion cell, recording spectra through circulating water. For the system benzene/acetone, the determined diffusion coefficients were in good agreement with the literature data. The limitations of the Raman method are discussed...

  2. Comparison of Landfill Methane Oxidation Measured Using Stable Isotope Analysis and CO2/CH4 Fluxes Measured by the Eddy Covariance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Chanton, J.; McDermitt, D. K.; Li, J.; Green, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Methane plays a critical role in the radiation balance and chemistry of the atmosphere. Globally, landfill methane emission contributes about 10-19% of the anthropogenic methane burden into the atmosphere. In the United States, 18% of annual anthropogenic methane emissions come from landfills, which represent the third largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions, behind enteric fermentation and natural gas and oil production. One uncertainty in estimating landfill methane emissions is the fraction of methane oxidized when methane produced under anaerobic conditions passes through the cover soil. We developed a simple stoichiometric model to estimate methane oxidation fraction when the anaerobic CO2 / CH4 production ratio is known, or can be estimated. The model predicts a linear relationship between CO2 emission rates and CH4 emission rates, where the slope depends on anaerobic CO2 / CH4 production ratio and the fraction of methane oxidized, and the intercept depends on non-methane-dependent oxidation processes. The model was tested using carbon dioxide emission rates (fluxes) and methane emission rates (fluxes) measured using the eddy covariance method over a one year period at the Turkey Run landfill in Georgia, USA. The CO2 / CH4 production ratio was estimated by measuring CO2 and CH4 concentrations in air sampled under anaerobic conditions deep inside the landfill. We also used a mass balance approach to independently estimate fractional oxidation based on stable isotope measurements (δ13C of methane) of gas samples taken from deep inside the landfill and just above the landfill surface. Results from the two independent methods agree well. The model will be described and methane oxidation will be discussed in relation to wind direction, location at the landfill, and age of the deposited refuse.

  3. Diffusion weighted imaging and estimation of prognosis using apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun, E-mail: aysunbalc@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, State Hospital, Eski Cami district, Hastane street, N:1, 59300, Tekirdag (Turkey); Simsek, Mehmet Masum, E-mail: radyoloji@haydapasanumune.gov.tr [Department of Radiology, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Tibbiye street, Uskudar 34200, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: Estimation of the prognosis of infarction by using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Methods: 23 patients having acute stroke symptoms with verified infarction in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this study. Their MRI studies were performed between 6 and 12 h after the onset of their symptoms and were repeated on the fifth day. The infarction volumes were calculated by using DWI and the patients were divided into two groups as the ones having an expansion in the infarction area (group 1, n = 16) and the others having no expansion in the infarction area (group 2, n = 7). Quantitative ADC values were estimated. The groups were compared in terms of the ADC values on ADC maps obtained from DWI, performed during the between 6 and 12 h from the onset of the symptoms, referring to the core of the infarction (ADC{sub IC}), ischemic penumbra (ADC{sub P}) and the nonischemic parenchymal tissue (ADC{sub N}). P values < 0.05 were accepted to be statistically significant. Results: During the between 6 and 12 h mean infarction volume calculated by DWI was 23.3 cm{sup 3} for group 1 patients (ranging from 1.1 to 68.6) and this was found to be 40.3 cm{sup 3} (ranging from 1.8 to 91.5) on the fifth day. For the group 2 patients these values were found to be 42.1 cm{sup 3} (ranging from 1 to 94.7) and 41.9 (ranging from 1 to 94.7) for the same intervals respectively. A significant statistical result was failed to be demonstrated between the mean ADC{sub IC} and ADC{sub N} values (p = 0.350 and p = 0.229 respectively). However the comparison of the ADC{sub P} values between the groups was found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). When the differences between the ADC{sub P} and ADC{sub IC} and ADC{sub N} and ADC{sub P} were compared the results proved to be statistically significant (p = 0.038 and p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions: We believe that ADC results that would be obtained from

  4. Diffusion weighted imaging and estimation of prognosis using apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Korcan Aysun; Simsek, Mehmet Masum

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimation of the prognosis of infarction by using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Methods: 23 patients having acute stroke symptoms with verified infarction in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this study. Their MRI studies were performed between 6 and 12 h after the onset of their symptoms and were repeated on the fifth day. The infarction volumes were calculated by using DWI and the patients were divided into two groups as the ones having an expansion in the infarction area (group 1, n = 16) and the others having no expansion in the infarction area (group 2, n = 7). Quantitative ADC values were estimated. The groups were compared in terms of the ADC values on ADC maps obtained from DWI, performed during the between 6 and 12 h from the onset of the symptoms, referring to the core of the infarction (ADC IC ), ischemic penumbra (ADC P ) and the nonischemic parenchymal tissue (ADC N ). P values 3 for group 1 patients (ranging from 1.1 to 68.6) and this was found to be 40.3 cm 3 (ranging from 1.8 to 91.5) on the fifth day. For the group 2 patients these values were found to be 42.1 cm 3 (ranging from 1 to 94.7) and 41.9 (ranging from 1 to 94.7) for the same intervals respectively. A significant statistical result was failed to be demonstrated between the mean ADC IC and ADC N values (p = 0.350 and p = 0.229 respectively). However the comparison of the ADC P values between the groups was found to be highly significant (p P and ADC IC and ADC N and ADC P were compared the results proved to be statistically significant (p = 0.038 and p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions: We believe that ADC results that would be obtained from the core and the penumbra of the infarction area will be beneficial in the estimation of the infarction prognosis and in the planning of a treatment protocol.

  5. On the use of the Webb-Pearman-Leuning theory for closed-path eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2007-01-01

    We consider an imperfection of real closed-path eddy correlation systems-the decoupling of the water vapour and CO2 concentrations-with respect to the application of the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL) theory. It is described why and how the current application of the WPL theory needs to be adapted...... into account, over-corrected the annual flux by 21%, or 31 g m(-2) yr(-1), to which the decoupling effect contributed with 7%. We suggest either converting the raw data point-by-point to mixing ratios or using the uncorrected covariances of water vapour mole fractions with the vertical wind velocity that were...

  6. Measuring groundwater transport through lake sediments by advection and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornett, R.J.; Risto, B.A.; Lee, D.R.

    1989-08-01

    A method for estimating low rates of groundwater inflow and outflow through the bottom sediments of surface waters was developed and tested. A one-dimensional advection-diffusion model was fitted to measured pore water profiles of two nonreactive solutes, tritiated water and chloride, and the advection rate was calculated by a nonlinear least squares technique. Using 3 H profiles measured 0-0.5 m below the sediment-water interface, rates of groundwater advection into a lake through interbedded sands and gyttja were estimated to be about 1.0 m/year. In midlake locations underlain by soft organic gyttja, rates of advection were much lower (<0.1 m/year). Knowledge of the rate and direction of groundwater flow substantially altered the interpretation of pore water profiles within the sediments and the fluxes of solutes. This technique can be used to estimate flow rates less than 2 m/annum with minimal disturbance, without enclosing the sediments in a container, in a diversity of systems. (author)

  7. Impact of time-of-day on diffusivity measures of brain tissue derived from diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cibu; Sadeghi, Neda; Nayak, Amrita; Trefler, Aaron; Sarlls, Joelle; Baker, Chris I; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2018-06-01

    Diurnal fluctuations in MRI measures of structural and functional properties of the brain have been reported recently. These fluctuations may have a physiological origin, since they have been detected using different MRI modalities, and cannot be explained by factors that are typically known to confound MRI measures. While preliminary evidence suggests that measures of structural properties of the brain based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fluctuate as a function of time-of-day (TOD), the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Here, we used a longitudinal within-subjects design to investigate the impact of time-of-day on DTI measures. In addition to using the conventional monoexponential tensor model to assess TOD-related fluctuations, we used a dual compartment tensor model that allowed us to directly assess if any change in DTI measures is due to an increase in CSF/free-water volume fraction or due to an increase in water diffusivity within the parenchyma. Our results show that Trace or mean diffusivity, as measured using the conventional monoexponential tensor model tends to increase systematically from morning to afternoon scans at the interface of grey matter/CSF, most prominently in the major fissures and the sulci of the brain. Interestingly, in a recent study of the glymphatic system, these same regions were found to show late enhancement after intrathecal injection of a CSF contrast agent. The increase in Trace also impacts DTI measures of diffusivity such as radial and axial diffusivity, but does not affect fractional anisotropy. The dual compartment analysis revealed that the increase in diffusivity measures from PM to AM was driven by an increase in the volume fraction of CSF-like free-water. Taken together, our findings provide important insight into the likely physiological origins of diurnal fluctuations in MRI measurements of structural properties of the brain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Modeling mesoscale eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    Mesoscale eddies are not resolved in coarse resolution ocean models and must be modeled. They affect both mean momentum and scalars. At present, no generally accepted model exists for the former; in the latter case, mesoscales are modeled with a bolus velocity u∗ to represent a sink of mean potential energy. However, comparison of u∗(model) vs. u∗ (eddy resolving code, [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]) has shown that u∗(model) is incomplete and that additional terms, "unrelated to thickness source or sinks", are required. Thus far, no form of the additional terms has been suggested. To describe mesoscale eddies, we employ the Navier-Stokes and scalar equations and a turbulence model to treat the non-linear interactions. We then show that the problem reduces to an eigenvalue problem for the mesoscale Bernoulli potential. The solution, which we derive in analytic form, is used to construct the momentum and thickness fluxes. In the latter case, the bolus velocity u∗ is found to contain two types of terms: the first type entails the gradient of the mean potential vorticity and represents a positive contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy; the second type of terms, which is new, entails the velocity of the mean flow and represents a negative contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy, or equivalently, a backscatter process whereby a fraction of the mesoscale potential energy is returned to the original reservoir of mean potential energy. This type of terms satisfies the physical description of the additional terms given by [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]. The mesoscale flux that enters the momentum equations is also contributed by two types of terms of the same physical nature as those entering the thickness flux. The potential vorticity flux is also shown to contain two types of terms: the first is of the gradient-type while the other terms entail the velocity of the mean flow. An expression is derived for the mesoscale

  9. Remote field eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M.

    2001-03-01

    The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included

  10. Eddy currents in accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper covers the main eddy current effects in accelerator magnets - field modification (time delay and field quality) and resistive power losses. In the first part, starting from the Maxwell equations, a basic understanding of the processes is given and explained with examples of simple geometry and time behaviour. Useful formulas are derived for an analytic estimate of the size of the effects. In the second part the effects in real magnets are analysed and described in comparison with numerical and measured results. Finally, based on the previous parts, design recommendations are given regarding how to minimize eddy current effects.

  11. Eddy current inspection of tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauza, J. L. R.; Herrero, J.; Diaz, J.

    1966-01-01

    The Experimental research work carried out to develop a Eddy current testing equipment is described. Search coils with ferrite or air cores were used and the obtained results are discussed. Valuable information was gained from a improved channel in which a direct measure of the defect and the reference signal phase difference is obtained. Artificial defect used to evaluate resolution and sensitivity were produced by electro-machining and mechanical means. Finned SAP tubing was tested in a routine basis with the described equipment and the results plotted. Basic and theoretical considerations on the Eddy current testing technique are given in the last section of this report. (Author)

  12. Some notes on experiments measuring diffusion of sorbed nuclides through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    Various experimental techniques for measuring the important parameters governing diffusion of sorbed nuclides through water-saturated porous media are described, and the particular parameters obtained from each technique are discussed. Recent experiments in which diffusive transport takes place more rapidly than expected are reviewed. The author recommends that through-transport diffusion experiments are the most satisfactory method of determining whether this arises from surface diffusion of sorbed nuclides. (author)

  13. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; D'Aquila, D.M.; McGinnis, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm system installed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was tested extensively at critical facilities located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The ability of the neutron scintillator radiation detection units to respond to a minimum accident of concern as defined in Standard ANSI/ANS-83.-1986 was demonstrated. Detector placement and the established trip point are based on shielding calculations performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and criticality specialists at the Portsmouth plant. Based on these experiments and calculations, a detector trip point of 5 mrad/h in air is used. Any credible criticality accident is expected to produce neutron radiation fields >5 mrad/h in air at one or more radiation alarm locations. Each radiation alarm location has a cluster of three detectors that employs a two-out-of-three alarm logic. Earlier work focused on testing the alarm logic latching circuitry. This work was directed toward measurements involving the actual audible alarm signal delivered

  14. Development of a new diffuse near-infrared food measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Piao, Renguan

    2006-11-01

    Industries from agriculture to petrochemistry have found near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis useful for quality control and quantitative analysis of materials and products. The general chemical, polymer chemistry, petrochemistry, agriculture, food and textile industries are currently using NIR spectroscopic methods for analysis. In this study, we developed a new sort NIR instrument for food measuring. The instrument consists of a light source, 12 filters to the prismatic part. The special part is that we use a mirror to get two beams of light. And two PbS detectors were used. One detector collected the radiation of one light beam directly and the value was set as the standard instead the standard white surface. Another light beam irradiate the sample surface, and the diffuse light was collected by another detector. The value of the two detectors was compared and the absorbency was computed. We tested the performance of the NIR instrument in determining the protein and fat content of milk powder. The calibration showed the accuracy of the instrument in practice.

  15. Measuring Evapotranspiration of five Alley Cropping systems in Germany using the Eddy-Covariance- and Bowen-Ratio Energy-Balance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar

  16. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.; Wang, C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions

  17. Continuous Flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) Method of Measuring Size-Resolved Sea-Salt Particle Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Royalty, T. M.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Petters, M. D.; Reed, R.; Weinstein, J.; Hook, D.; Wiener, R.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate representation of aerosols in climate models requires direct ambient measurement of the size- and composition-dependent particle production fluxes. Here we present the design, testing, and analysis of data collected through the first instrument capable of measuring hygroscopicity-based, size-resolved particle fluxes using a continuous-flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) technique. The different components of the instrument were extensively tested inside the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerosol Test Facility for sea-salt and ammoniums sulfate particle fluxes. The new REA system design does not require particle accumulation, therefore avoids the diffusional wall losses associated with long residence times of particles inside the air collectors of the traditional REA devices. The Hy-Res REA system used in this study includes a 3-D sonic anemometer, two fast-response solenoid valves, two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), and a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA). A linear relationship was found between the sea-salt particle fluxes measured by eddy covariance and REA techniques, with comparable theoretical (0.34) and measured (0.39) proportionality constants. The sea-salt particle detection limit of the Hy-Res REA flux system is estimated to be 6x105 m-2s-1. For the conditions of ammonium sulfate and sea-salt particles of comparable source strength and location, the continuous-flow Hy-Res REA instrument was able to achieve better than 90% accuracy of measuring the sea-salt particle fluxes. In principle, the instrument can be applied to measure fluxes of particles of variable size and distinct hygroscopic properties (i.e., mineral dust, black carbon, etc.).

  18. Optimal determination of the parameters controlling biospheric CO{sub 2} fluxes over Europe using eddy covariance fluxes and satellite NDVI measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, Tuula [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Research; Ciais, Philippe; Moulin, Cyril [UMR CEA-CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Chevillard, Anne [CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). DPRE/SERGD/LEIRPA

    2004-04-01

    Ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux measurements using the eddy covariance method were compared with the biospheric CO{sub 2} exchange estimates of a regional scale atmospheric model. The model described the seasonal patterns quite well, but underestimated the amplitude of the fluxes, especially at the northern sites. Two model parameters, photosynthetic efficiency for light use and Q{sub 10} for soil respiration, were re-evaluated on a diurnal and seasonal basis using the results from flux measurements. In most cases the photosynthetic efficiency was higher than the earlier estimate. The resulting flux was very sensitive to the value of photosynthetic efficiency, while changes in Q{sub 10} did not have a significant effect.

  19. Light diffuseness metric, part 2 : Describing, measuring and visualizing the light flow and diffuseness in three-dimensional spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a way to simultaneously measure the light density, light vector and diffuseness of the light field using a cubic illumination meter based on the spherical harmonics representation of the light field. This approach was applied to six light probe images of natural scenes and four real

  20. Permeability and Diffusion Coefficients of Single Methyl Lactate Enantiomers in Nafion® and Cellophane Membranes Measured in Diffusion Cell.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovorka, Š.; Randová, A.; Borbášová, T.; Sysel, P.; Vychodilová, Hana; Červenková Šťastná, Lucie; Brožová, Libuše; Žitka, Jan; Storch, Jan; Kačírková, Marie; Drašar, P.; Izák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, JAN 28 (2016), s. 322-332 ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : diffusion coefficient measurement * permeability * nafion * cellophane * chirality of polymer membrane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  1. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Spaces with high occupant densities result in high heat gains and need for relatively high air change rate.By means of traditional mechanical ventilation diffusers it becomes a challenge to supply large amountsof fresh air into the space without creating a local discomfort for occupants. One...... comfort numerically. Results of our investigations have shown that diffuse ceiling inlet is a suitable solution for the spaceswith high density occupancy. The results have shown that transient calculations using Large Eddy Simulation models can predict well temperatures and velocity magnitude of air flow...

  2. Eddie Rocket's Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Vahter, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Eddie Rocket's Franchise - Setting up a franchise restaurant in Helsinki. TIIVISTELMÄ: Eddie Rocket's on menestynyt amerikkalaistyylinen 1950-luvun ”diner” franchiseravintolaketju Irlannista. Ravintoloita on perustettu viimeisen 18 vuoden aikana 28 kappaletta Irlantiin ja Isoon Britanniaan sekä yksi Espanjaan. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tutkia onko Eddie Rocket'silla potentiaalia menestyä Helsingissä, Suomessa. Tutkimuskysymystä on lähestytty toimiala-analyysin, markkinatutkimuksen j...

  3. Thermal diffusivity measurement by lock-in photothermal shadowgraph method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, A. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Ciudad de México 11500 (Mexico); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alvarado, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Ciudad de México 11500 (Mexico); Laboratory for Soft Matter and Biophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Heverlee B-3001 (Belgium); Cabrera, H. [Centro Multidisciplinario de Ciencias, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, IVIC, Mérida 5101, Venezuela and SPIE-ICTP Anchor Research in Optics Program Lab, International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, Trieste (Italy); Calderón, A.; Marín, E., E-mail: emarinm@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Ciudad de México 11500 (Mexico)

    2016-04-28

    Here, we present a novel application of the shadowgraph technique for obtaining the thermal diffusivity of an opaque solid sample, inspired by the orthogonal skimming photothermal beam deflection technique. This new variant utilizes the shadow projected by the sample when put against a collimated light source. The sample is then heated periodically by another light beam, giving rise to thermal waves, which propagate across it and through its surroundings. Changes in the refractive index of the surrounding media due to the heating distort the shadow. This phenomenon is recorded and lock-in amplified in order to determine the sample's thermal diffusivity.

  4. Measuring minority-carrier diffusion length using a Kelvin probe force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikler, R.; Fried, N.; Meoded, T.; Rosenwaks, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on Kelvin probe force microscopy for measuring minority-carrier diffusion length in semiconductors is described. The method is based on measuring the surface photovoltage between the tip of an atomic force microscope and the surface of an illuminated semiconductor junction. The photogenerated carriers diffuse to the junction and change the contact potential difference between the tip and the sample, as a function of the distance from the junction. The diffusion length L is then obtained by fitting the measured contact potential difference using the minority-carrier continuity equation. The method was applied to measurements of electron diffusion length in GaP pn and Schottky junctions. The measured diffusion length was found to be ∼2 μm, in good agreement with electron beam induced current measurements

  5. In vivo magnetic resonance diffusion measurement in the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C; Frederiksen, J

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of water self-diffusion in the brain in 25 patients with multiple sclerosis was performed by magnetic resonance imaging. Quantitative diffusion measurements were obtained using single spin-echo pulse sequences with pulsed magnetic field gradients of different magnitude. Twenty......-two of these patients also underwent measurement of the transverse relaxation time (T2). Only one plaque was evaluated in each patient. Based on prior knowledge, 12 plaques were classified as being 3 mo or less in age, and 7 plaques were classified as being more than 3 mo old. In all 25 plaques, water self......-diffusion was found to be higher than in apparently normal white matter. Furthermore, water self-diffusion was found to be higher in acute plaques compared with chronic plaques. Finally, a slight tendency toward a relationship between the diffusion capability and T2 was found. We believe that an increased diffusion...

  6. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  7. Eddy covariance measurements with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry: a new approach to chemically resolved aerosol fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Farmer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although laboratory studies show that biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs yield substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA, production of biogenic SOA as indicated by upward fluxes has not been conclusively observed over forests. Further, while aerosols are known to deposit to surfaces, few techniques exist to provide chemically-resolved particle deposition fluxes. To better constrain aerosol sources and sinks, we have developed a new technique to directly measure fluxes of chemically-resolved submicron aerosols using the high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS in a new, fast eddy covariance mode. This approach takes advantage of the instrument's ability to quantitatively identify both organic and inorganic components, including ammonium, sulphate and nitrate, at a temporal resolution of several Hz. The new approach has been successfully deployed over a temperate ponderosa pine plantation in California during the BEARPEX-2007 campaign, providing both total and chemically resolved non-refractory (NR PM1 fluxes. Average deposition velocities for total NR-PM1 aerosol at noon were 2.05 ± 0.04 mm s−1. Using a high resolution measurement of the NH2+ and NH3+ fragments, we demonstrate the first eddy covariance flux measurements of particulate ammonium, which show a noon-time deposition velocity of 1.9 ± 0.7 mm s−1 and are dominated by deposition of ammonium sulphate.

  8. Flow structures in large-angle conical diffusers measured by PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, L.; Nielsen, N.F.

    2004-01-01

    Flow in two different conical diffusers with large opening angles (30° and 18°) have been measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measurements were done in a cross section just after the exit of the diffuser. The Reynolds number was 100000 based on upstream diameter...

  9. Measuring Advection and Diffusion of Colloids in Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, Michael H.G.; Ghosh, Somnath; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of colloids in shear flow can be challenging because of the superposition of diffusion and advection. We present a method that separates the two motions, starting from the time-dependent particle coordinates. The restriction of the tracking to flow lanes and the

  10. A Riemannian scalar measure for diffusion tensor images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astola, L.J.; Fuster, A.; Florack, L.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We study a well-known scalar quantity in Riemannian geometry, the Ricci scalar, in the context of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), which is an emerging non-invasive medical imaging modality. We derive a physical interpretation for the Ricci scalar and explore experimentally its significance in DTI.

  11. Accurate photopyroelectric measurements of thermal diffusivity of (semi)liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadarlat, D.; Neamtu, C.; Surducan, E.; Sahraoui, A.H.; Longuemart, S.; Bicanic, D.

    2002-01-01

    The back photopyroelectric (PPE) configuration, with opaque sample and thermally thick sample and sensor, was applied in order to obtain room temperature values of the thermal diffusivity of some (semi)liquid materials. The methodology is based on a sample's thickness scan, and not on a frequency

  12. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  13. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into 'active' drill hole methods, and 'passive' indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial 'leak' of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm -1 , temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  14. Effective diffusion coefficient of radon in concrete, theory and method for field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culot, M.V.J.; Olson, H.G.; Schiager, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A linear diffusion model serves as the basis for determination of an effective radon diffusion coefficient in concrete. The coefficient was needed to later allow quantitative prediction of radon accumulation within and behind concrete walls after application of an impervious radon barrier. A resolution of certain discrepancies noted in the literature in the use of an effective diffusion coefficient to model diffusion of a radioactive gas through a porous medium is suggested. An outline of factors expected to affect the concrete physical structure and the effective diffusion coefficient of radon through it is also presented. Finally, a field method for evaluating effective radon diffusion coefficients in concrete is proposed and results of measurements performed on a concrete foundation wall are compared with similar published values of gas diffusion coefficients in concrete. (author)

  15. Comparing laser-based open- and closed-path gas analyzers to measure methane fluxes using the eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detto, Matteo; Verfaillie, Joseph; Anderson, Frank; Xu, Liukang; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Closed- and open-path methane gas analyzers are used in eddy covariance systems to compare three potential methane emitting ecosystems in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (CA, USA): a rice field, a peatland pasture and a restored wetland. The study points out similarities and differences of the systems in field experiments and data processing. The closed-path system, despite a less intrusive placement with the sonic anemometer, required more care and power. In contrast, the open-path system appears more versatile for a remote and unattended experimental site. Overall, the two systems have comparable minimum detectable limits, but synchronization between wind speed and methane data, air density corrections and spectral losses have different impacts on the computed flux covariances. For the closed-path analyzer, air density effects are less important, but the synchronization and spectral losses may represent a problem when fluxes are small or when an undersized pump is used. For the open-path analyzer air density corrections are greater, due to spectroscopy effects and the classic Webb–Pearman–Leuning correction. Comparison between the 30-min fluxes reveals good agreement in terms of magnitudes between open-path and closed-path flux systems. However, the scatter is large, as consequence of the intensive data processing which both systems require.

  16. Eddy covariance and biometric measurements show that a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China is a carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xuehai; Jin, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yiping; Sha, Liqing; Liu, Yuntong; Song, Qinghai; Zhou, Wenjun; Liang, Naishen; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Leiming; Zhou, Ruiwu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Shubin; Li, Peiguang

    2017-02-01

    Savanna ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, there is a gap in our understanding of carbon fluxes in the savanna ecosystems of Southeast Asia. In this study, the eddy covariance technique (EC) and the biometric-based method (BM) were used to determine carbon exchange in a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China. The BM-based net ecosystem production (NEP) was 0.96 tC ha-1 yr-1. The EC-based estimates of the average annual gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) were 6.84, 5.54, and -1.30 tC ha-1 yr-1, respectively, from May 2013 to December 2015, indicating that this savanna ecosystem acted as an appreciable carbon sink. The ecosystem was more efficient during the wet season than the dry season, so that it represented a small carbon sink of 0.16 tC ha-1 yr-1 in the dry season and a considerable carbon sink of 1.14 tC ha-1 yr-1 in the wet season. However, it is noteworthy that the carbon sink capacity may decline in the future under rising temperatures and decreasing rainfall. Consequently, further studies should assess how environmental factors and climate change will influence carbon-water fluxes.

  17. Eddy covariance and biometric measurements show that a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China is a carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xuehai; Jin, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yiping; Sha, Liqing; Liu, Yuntong; Song, Qinghai; Zhou, Wenjun; Liang, Naishen; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Leiming; Zhou, Ruiwu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Shubin; Li, Peiguang

    2017-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, there is a gap in our understanding of carbon fluxes in the savanna ecosystems of Southeast Asia. In this study, the eddy covariance technique (EC) and the biometric-based method (BM) were used to determine carbon exchange in a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China. The BM-based net ecosystem production (NEP) was 0.96 tC ha−1 yr−1. The EC-based estimates of the average annual gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) were 6.84, 5.54, and −1.30 tC ha−1 yr−1, respectively, from May 2013 to December 2015, indicating that this savanna ecosystem acted as an appreciable carbon sink. The ecosystem was more efficient during the wet season than the dry season, so that it represented a small carbon sink of 0.16 tC ha−1 yr−1 in the dry season and a considerable carbon sink of 1.14 tC ha−1 yr−1 in the wet season. However, it is noteworthy that the carbon sink capacity may decline in the future under rising temperatures and decreasing rainfall. Consequently, further studies should assess how environmental factors and climate change will influence carbon-water fluxes. PMID:28145459

  18. Methods of evaluation of accuracy with multiple essential parameters for eddy current measurement of pressure tube to calandria tube gap in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokralla, S., E-mail: shaddy.shokralla@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, IMS NDE Projects, Ajax, Ontario (Canada); Krause, T.W., E-mail: thomas.krause@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The purpose of inspection qualification of a particular inspection system is to show that it meets applicable inspection specification requirements. Often a requirement of the inspection system is that it meets a particular accuracy. In the case of a system with multiple inputs accompanied by additional influential parameters, calculation of the system's output accuracy can be formidable. Measurement of pressure-tube to calandria tube gap in CANDU reactors using an eddy current based technique is presented as a particular example of a system where multiple essential parameters combine to generate a final uncertainty for the inspection system. This paper outlines two possible methods of calculating such a system's accuracy, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. (author)

  19. Estimation of the thermal diffusion coefficient in fusion plasmas taking frequency measurement uncertainties into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Berkel, M; Hogeweij, G M D; Van den Brand, H; De Baar, M R; Zwart, H J; Vandersteen, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the estimation of the thermal diffusivity from perturbative experiments in fusion plasmas is discussed. The measurements used to estimate the thermal diffusivity suffer from stochastic noise. Accurate estimation of the thermal diffusivity should take this into account. It will be shown that formulas found in the literature often result in a thermal diffusivity that has a bias (a difference between the estimated value and the actual value that remains even if more measurements are added) or have an unnecessarily large uncertainty. This will be shown by modeling a plasma using only diffusion as heat transport mechanism and measurement noise based on ASDEX Upgrade measurements. The Fourier coefficients of a temperature perturbation will exhibit noise from the circular complex normal distribution (CCND). Based on Fourier coefficients distributed according to a CCND, it is shown that the resulting probability density function of the thermal diffusivity is an inverse non-central chi-squared distribution. The thermal diffusivity that is found by sampling this distribution will always be biased, and averaging of multiple estimated diffusivities will not necessarily improve the estimation. Confidence bounds are constructed to illustrate the uncertainty in the diffusivity using several formulas that are equivalent in the noiseless case. Finally, a different method of averaging, that reduces the uncertainty significantly, is suggested. The methodology is also extended to the case where damping is included, and it is explained how to include the cylindrical geometry. (paper)

  20. Assessing the net effect of long-term drainage on a permafrost ecosystem through year-round eddy-covariance flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, F.; Heimann, M.; Goeckede, M.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost regions in the Northern high latitudes play a key role in the carbon budget of the earth system because of their massive carbon reservoir and the uncertain feedback processes with future climate change. For an improved understanding of mechanisms and drivers dominating permafrost carbon cycling, more observations in high-latitude regions are needed. Particularly the contribution of wintertime fluxes to the annual carbon budget and the impact of disturbances on biogeochemical and biogeophysical ecosystem properties, and the resulting modification of the carbon cycle, have rarely been studied to date. In summer of 2013, we established a new eddy-covariance station for continuous, year-round monitoring of carbon fluxes and their environmental drivers near Cherskii in Northeast Siberia (68.75°N, 161.33°E). Parts of the observation area have been disturbed by drainage since 2004, altering the soil water conditions in a way that is expected for degrading ice-rich permafrost under a warming climate. With two eddy-covariance towers running in parallel over the disturbed (drained) area and a reference area nearby, respectively, we can directly infer the disturbance effect on the carbon cycle budgets and the dominating biogeochemical mechanisms. This study presents findings based on 16 months of continuous eddy-covariance CO2 flux measurements (July 2013 - October 2014) for both observation areas. At both towers, we observed systematic, non-zero flux contributions outside the growing seasons that significantly altered annual CO2 budgets. A direct comparison of fluxes between the two disturbance regimes indicates a net reduction of the sink strength for CO2 in the disturbed area during the growing season, mostly caused by reduced CO2 uptake with low water levels in late summer. Moreover, shifts in soil temperatures and snow cover caused by reduced soil water levels result in lower net CO2 emissions during the winter at the drained area, which is partly

  1. Inverse anisotropic diffusion from power density measurements in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monard, François; Bal, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of an anisotropic diffusion tensor γ = (γ ij ) 1⩽i,j⩽2 from knowledge of internal functionals of the form γ∇u i · ∇u j with u i for 1 ⩽ i ⩽ I solutions of the elliptic equation ∇ · γ∇u i = 0 on a two-dimensional bounded domain with appropriate boundary conditions. We show that for I = 4 and appropriately chosen boundary conditions, γ may uniquely and stably be reconstructed from such internal functionals, which appear in coupled-physics inverse problems involving the ultrasound modulation of electrical or optical coefficients. Explicit reconstruction procedures for the diffusion tensor are presented and implemented numerically. (paper)

  2. Eddy current testing with high penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [de

  3. Measurement of diffusion length of thermal neutrons in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    2007-04-01

    The diffusion length of neutrons with a medium energy < 0.025 eV in concrete were determined using 4π-β detector and gamma detectors. Then it was possible to determine how deep can neutrons penetrate diverse concrete construction parts in a reactor in operation, with this method the dismantling process of a reactor can be planned in terms of what parts can be removed without danger and what parts can be assumed still are activated. (nevyjel)

  4. Exciton diffusion coefficient measurement in ZnO nanowires under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatini, Fabrice; Pernot, Julien

    2018-03-01

    In semiconductor nanowires (NWs) the exciton diffusion coefficient can be determined using a scanning electron microscope fitted with a cathodoluminescence system. High spatial and temporal resolution cathodoluminescence experiments are needed to measure independently the exciton diffusion length and lifetime in single NWs. However, both diffusion length and lifetime can be affected by the electron beam bombardment during observation and measurement. Thus, in this work the exciton lifetime in a ZnO NW is measured versus the electron beam dose (EBD) via a time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiment with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. The behavior of the measured exciton lifetime is consistent with our recent work on the EBD dependence of the exciton diffusion length in similar NWs investigated under comparable SEM conditions. Combining the two results, the exciton diffusion coefficient in ZnO is determined at room temperature and is found constant over the full span of EBD.

  5. Rapid yet accurate measurement of mass diffusion coefficients by phase shifting interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Zhi Xiong; Komiya, A

    1999-01-01

    The technique of using a phase-shifting interferometer is applied to the study of diffusion in transparent liquid mixtures. A quick method is proposed for determining the diffusion coefficient from the measurements of the location of fringes on a grey level picture. The measurement time is very short (within 100 s) and a very small transient diffusion field can be observed and recorded accurately with a rate of 30 frames per second. The measurement can be completed using less than 0.12 cc of solutions. The influence of gravity on the measurement of the diffusion coefficient is eliminated in the present method. Results on NaCl-water diffusion systems are presented and compared with the reference data. (author)

  6. Measurements of brain microstructure and connectivity with diffusion MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Po Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By probing direction-dependent diffusivity of water molecules, diffusion MRI has shown its capability to reflect the microstructural tissue status and to estimate the neural orientation and pathways in the living brain. This approach has supplied novel insights into in-vivo human brain connections. By detecting the connection patterns, anatomical architecture and structural integrity between cortical regions or subcortical nuclei in the living human brain can be easily identified. It thus opens a new window on brain connectivity studies and disease processes. During the past years, there is a growing interest in exploring the connectivity patterns of the human brain. Specifically, the utilities of noninvasive neuroimaging data and graph theoretical analysis have provided important insights into the anatomical connections and topological pattern of human brain structural networks in vivo. Here, we review the progress of this important technique and the recent methodological and application studies utilizing graph theoretical approaches on brain structural networks with structural MRI and diffusion MRI.

  7. Noninvasive measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels for adjustment of diffusion capacity measured during pulmonary function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Anne M; Stimpson, Claudia L; Scott, Karen L; Hampson, Neil B

    2007-12-01

    The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (D(LCO)) is commonly measured during pulmonary function testing (PFT). Although adjustment of the measured D(LCO) for an elevated baseline carboxyhemoglobin level is recommended, carboxyhemoglobin is not routinely measured, which may reduce the accuracy of D(LCO) measurements. We sought to assess the utility of routine carboxyhemoglobin measurement and subsequent D(LCO) correction in patients referred for PFT. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive PFT results, including D(LCO) assessment. We used a pulse CO-oximeter (recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration) to noninvasively measure baseline carboxyhemoglobin (S(pCO)). We used simple descriptive statistics to compare the S(pCO) values. In subjects with elevated S(pCO) (> 2%) we adjusted the percent-of-predicted D(LCO). Interpretation of D(LCO) was categorized according to the American Thoracic Society classification scheme for respiratory impairment. The self-reported smokers had higher average S(pCO) than did self-reported nonsmokers (1.6% vs 3.5%, p carboxyhemoglobin is easy to perform during PFT. When precise measurement of D(LCO) is important, noninvasive measurement of carboxyhemoglobin may be of value. If routine S(pCO) measurement is considered, the highest yield is among current smokers.

  8. Chambers versus Relaxed Eddy Accumulation: an intercomparison study of two methods for short-term measurements of biogenic CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, Alina; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Chmura, Lukasz; Necki, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    The presented work is a part of comprehensive study aimed at thorough characterization of carbon cycle in the urban environment of Krakow, southern Poland. In the framework of this study two independent methods were employed to quantify biogenic CO2 flux in the city: (i) closed chambers, and (ii) Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA). The results of a three-day intensive intercomparison campaign performed in July 2013 and utilizing both measurement methods are reported here. The chamber method is a widely used approach for measurements of gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The system implemented in this study consisted of a single chamber operating in a closed-dynamic mode, combined with Vaisala CarboCAP infrared CO2 sensor in a mobile setup. An alternative flux measurement method, covering larger area is represented by REA, which is a modification of the eddy covariance method. It consists of a 3D anemometer (Gill Windmaster Pro) and the system collecting updraft and downdraft samples to 5-litre Tedlar bags. The CO2 mixing ratios in the collected samples are measured by Picarro G2101i analyzer. The setup consists of two sets of bags so that the sampling can be performed continuously with 15-min temporal resolution. A 48-hectares open meadow located close the city center was chosen as a test site for comparison of the two methods of CO2 flux measurements outlined above. In the middle of the meadow a 3-metre high tripod was installed with the anemometer and REA inlet system. For a period of 46 hours the system was measuring net CO2 flux from the surrounding area. A meteorological conditions and intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also recorded. In the same time, CO2 flux from several points around the REA inlet was measured with the chamber system, resulting in 93 values for both respiration and net CO2 flux. Chamber results show rather homogenous distribution of the soil CO2 flux (the mean value equal to 40.9 ± 2.2 mmol/m2h), with

  9. Measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient in paediatric mitochondrial encephalopathy cases and a comparison of parenchymal changes associated with the disease using follow-up diffusion coefficient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Fatma, E-mail: afatmauysal@gmail.com [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Çakmakçı, Handan, E-mail: handan.cakmakci@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Yiş, Uluç, E-mail: ulucyis@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Ellidokuz, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaellidokuz@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Medical Statistics, Izmir (Turkey); Hız, Ayşe Semra, E-mail: aysesemrahiz@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: To reveal the contribution of MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalopathy (ME) and to evaluate the parenchymal changes associated with this disease in the involved parenchymal areas using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameter. Methods: Ten patients who had undergone MRI and DWI analysis with a pre-diagnosis of neurometabolic disease, and who were subsequently diagnosed with ME in laboratory and/or genetic studies, were included in our study. ADC values were compared with a control group composed of 20 patients of similar age with normal brains. Evaluations involved measurements made in 20 different areas determined on the ADC map. The dominance or contribution of ADC coefficient measurements to the conventional sequences was compared with the controls. Results: In the first examination, an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was detected in six cases and diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three patients. While an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was demonstrated in four cases, there was diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three cases in the control examinations. Conclusions: DWI provides information that complements conventional MRI sequences in the diagnosis of ME.

  10. Surface energy balance of an extensive green roof as quantified by full year eddy-covariance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinger, Jannik; Weber, Stephan

    2017-01-15

    Green roofs are discussed as a promising type of green infrastructure to lower heat stress in cities. In order to enhance evaporative cooling, green roofs should ideally have similar Bowen ratio (β=sensible heat flux/latent heat flux) characteristics such as rural sites, especially during summer periods with high air temperatures. We use the eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify the energy balance of an 8600m 2 extensive, non-irrigated green roof at the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Germany over a full annual cycle. To understand the influence of water availability on green roof-atmosphere energy exchange, we studied dry and wet periods and looked into functional relationships between leaf area, volumetric water content (VWC) of the substrate, shortwave radiation and β. The surface energy balance was dominated by turbulent heat fluxes in comparison to conductive substrate heat fluxes. The Bowen ratio was slightly below unity on average but highly variable due to ambient meteorology and substrate water availability, i.e. β increased to 2 in the summer season. During dry periods mean daytime β was 3, which is comparable to typical values of urban instead of rural sites. In contrast, mean daytime β was 0.3 during wet periods. Following a summer wet period the green roof maximum daily evapotranspiration (ET) was 3.3mm, which is a threefold increase with respect to the mean summer ET. A multiple regression model indicated that the substrate VWC at the present site has to be >0.11m 3 m -3 during summer high insolation periods (>500Wm -2 ) in order to maintain favourable green roof energy partitioning, i.e. mid-day βurban green roofs can be significantly optimised by using sustainable irrigation approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Homogeneous data-reprocessing and full synthesis of eddy-flux measurements in French terrestrial ecosytems : 1999 - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreaux, V.; Ceschia, E.; Delpierre, N.; Dufrêne, E.; Joffre, R.; Klumpp, K.; Berveiller, D.; Loustau, D.; Limousin, J. M.; Ourcival, J. M.; Brut, A.; Darsonville, O.; Lafont, S.; Piquemal, K.; Longdoz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The attribution of the significant inter-annual variability of long lived greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes, between edaphic, meteorological variables and ecosystem management parameters - independently or in interaction, evolving as a long term drift or as extreme events - remains uncertain. Our research aims to quantify the potential impact of climatic drifts or anthropogenic and meteorological events on ecosystem-atmosphere exchanges of French sites by analyzing the long series (at least continuous 9 years, between 1996 and 2015) of eddy covariance (EC) fluxes. We firstly performed a homogeneously repost-processing of the raw EC data across 5 sites: three forest ecosystems (deciduous broad-leaved FR-Fon, evergreen broadleaved FR-Pue, and evergreen coniferous FR-Br), one extensive grassland (FR-Lq2) and one cropland (FR-Aur). These data, in terms of net ecosystem exchanges (NEE), gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) were put together with the corresponding climatic and edaphic data and with the carbon stock inventory for an homogeneous statistical analysis and comparative interpretations. The standard protocol, excluding any Nakai's corrections, helped to reduce the influence of the methodology and experimental design on the temporal and spatial variability. The methodology adopted finally used 35% on average of flux data for all sites. Based on the first analysis of reprocessed data from the forests, no significant long term evolution of NEE, Reco and GPP through the studied periods despite [CO2] increase and long term change observed in environmental parameters. Combining all years, a respiration limitation at high air temperature was observed on the forest sites, with a LAI dependency for deciduous ecosystems, and REW dependency for evergreen southern sites. A dominant effect of air vapor stress, compared to edaphic stress was observed on GPP response to PPFD in the deciduous northern forest, significantly decreasing with VPD increase.

  12. Combined measurement of surface, grain boundary and lattice diffusion coefficients on olivine bi-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Katharina; Dohmen, Ralf; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion along interface and grain boundaries provides an efficient pathway and may control chemical transport in rocks as well as their mechanical strength. Besides the significant relevance of these diffusion processes for various geologic processes, experimental data are still very limited (e.g., Dohmen & Milke, 2010). Most of these data were measured using polycrystalline materials and the formalism of LeClaire (1951) to fit integrated concentration depth profiles. To correctly apply this formalism, certain boundary conditions of the diffusion problem need to be fulfilled, e.g., surface diffusion is ignored, and furthermore the lattice diffusion coefficient has to be known from other studies or is an additional fitting parameter, which produces some ambiguity in the derived grain boundary diffusion coefficients. We developed an experimental setup where we can measure the lattice and grain boundary diffusion coefficients simultaneously but independent and demonstrate the relevance of surface diffusion for typical grain boundary diffusion experiments. We performed Mg2SiO4 bicrystal diffusion experiments, where a single grain boundary is covered by a thin-film of pure Ni2SiO4 acting as diffusant source, produced by pulsed laser deposition. The investigated grain boundary is a 60° (011)/[100]. This specific grain boundary configuration was modeled using molecular dynamics for comparison with the experimental observations in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both, experiment and model are in good agreement regarding the misorientation, whereas there are still some disagreements regarding the strain fields along the grain boundary that are of outmost importance for the strengths of the material. The subsequent diffusion experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 800° and 1450° C. The inter diffusion profiles were measured using the TEMs energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA

  13. In vivo measurement of water self diffusion in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O; Ring, P

    1987-01-01

    A new pulse sequence for in vivo diffusion measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is introduced. The pulse sequence was tested on phantoms to evaluate the accuracy, reproducibility and inplane variations. The sensitivity of the sequence was tested by measuring the self diffusion...... coefficient of water with different temperatures. This phantom study showed that the water self diffusion could be measured accurately and that the inplane deviation was less than +/- 10 per cent. Seven healthy volunteers were studied with a 10 mm thick slice through the lateral ventricles, clear differences...... between grey and white matter as well as regional differences within the white matter were seen. In two patients with infarction, alternations in water self diffusion were seen in the region of the infarct. Likewise, pronounced changes in brain water self diffusion were observed in a patient with benign...

  14. The Shannon entropy as a measure of diffusion in multidimensional dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, C. M.; Cincotta, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we introduce two new estimators of chaotic diffusion based on the Shannon entropy. Using theoretical, heuristic and numerical arguments, we show that the entropy, S, provides a measure of the diffusion extent of a given small initial ensemble of orbits, while an indicator related with the time derivative of the entropy, S', estimates the diffusion rate. We show that in the limiting case of near ergodicity, after an appropriate normalization, S' coincides with the standard homogeneous diffusion coefficient. The very first application of this formulation to a 4D symplectic map and to the Arnold Hamiltonian reveals very successful and encouraging results.

  15. Direct measurement of time dependent diffusion for Ag and Au under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Pil Sun; Jo, Han Yeol; Kim, Tae Kyeong [Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Time-dependent diffusion for Ag and Au metal atoms was measured using the scanning tunneling microscope break-junction technique in ambient conditions. We observed that Ag contacts do not form long single-atomic chains compared to Au contacts during the elongation of each metal electrode, and Ag atoms diffuse more quickly than Au atoms after metal contact rupture. This is consistent with previous results of molecular dynamic simulations. Further, we found a correlation between diffusion length and the evolution time on an atomic scale to reveal the time-dependent diffusion for Ag and Au metal atoms.

  16. Simulations of anomalous ion diffusion in experimentally measured turbulent potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seidl, Jakub; Krlín, Ladislav; Pánek, Radomír; Pavlo, Pavol; Stöckel, Jan; Svoboda, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2009), s. 399-407 ISSN 1434-6060. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/23rd./. Prague, 16.06.2008-19.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044; GA AV ČR IAA100430502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma turbulence * Lévy-walk * anomalous diffusion * plasma impurities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2009 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn8041u48795847m/

  17. Analysis and correction of gradient nonlinearity bias in apparent diffusion coefficient measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarenko, Dariya I; Ross, Brian D; Chenevert, Thomas L

    2014-03-01

    Gradient nonlinearity of MRI systems leads to spatially dependent b-values and consequently high non-uniformity errors (10-20%) in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements over clinically relevant field-of-views. This work seeks practical correction procedure that effectively reduces observed ADC bias for media of arbitrary anisotropy in the fewest measurements. All-inclusive bias analysis considers spatial and time-domain cross-terms for diffusion and imaging gradients. The proposed correction is based on rotation of the gradient nonlinearity tensor into the diffusion gradient frame where spatial bias of b-matrix can be approximated by its Euclidean norm. Correction efficiency of the proposed procedure is numerically evaluated for a range of model diffusion tensor anisotropies and orientations. Spatial dependence of nonlinearity correction terms accounts for the bulk (75-95%) of ADC bias for FA = 0.3-0.9. Residual ADC non-uniformity errors are amplified for anisotropic diffusion. This approximation obviates need for full diffusion tensor measurement and diagonalization to derive a corrected ADC. Practical scenarios are outlined for implementation of the correction on clinical MRI systems. The proposed simplified correction algorithm appears sufficient to control ADC non-uniformity errors in clinical studies using three orthogonal diffusion measurements. The most efficient reduction of ADC bias for anisotropic medium is achieved with non-lab-based diffusion gradients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Diffusivity measurements in some organic solvents by a gas-liquid diaphragm cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, R.J.; Littel, R.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases In liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process Is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  19. Diffusivity Measurements in Some Organic Solvents by a Gas-Liquid Diaphragm Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Rob J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1992-01-01

    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases in liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  20. A Simple Educational Method for the Measurement of Liquid Binary Diffusivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicholas P.; de Beer, Martin P.; Williamson, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    A simple low-cost experiment has been developed for the measurement of the binary diffusion coefficients of liquid substances. The experiment is suitable for demonstrating molecular diffusion to small or large undergraduate classes in chemistry or chemical engineering. Students use a cell phone camera in conjunction with open-source image…

  1. Estimation and prediction of convection-diffusion-reaction systems from point measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, D.

    2008-01-01

    Different procedures with respect to estimation and prediction of systems characterized by convection, diffusion and reactions on the basis of point measurement data, have been studied. Two applications of these convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) systems have been used as a case study of the

  2. Fusion product measurements of the local ion thermal diffusivity in the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Lovberg, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Measurement of the gradient of the d-d fusion rate profile in an ohmic PLT plasma is used to deduce the gradient of the ion temperature and, thus, the local ion thermal diffusivity through an energy balance analysis. The inferred ion diffusivity is consistent with neoclassical theory

  3. Eddy covariance N2O flux measurements at low flux rates: results from the InGOS campaign in a Danish willow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brümmer, Christian; Hensen, Arjan; van Asperen, Hella; Carter, Mette S.; Gasche, Rainer; Famulari, Daniela; Kutsch, Werner; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils are characterised by their high spatial and temporal variability. The fluxes depend on the availability of the substrates for nitrification and denitrification and soil physical and chemical conditions that control the metabolic microbial activity. The sporadic nature of the fluxes and their high sensitivity to alterations of the soil climate put very high demands on measurement approaches. Laser spectroscopy enables accurate and fast response detection of atmospheric N2O concentrations and is used for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. Alternatively N2O fluxes can be measured with chambers together with high precision analysers. Differences in the measurement approaches and system designs are expected to have a considerable influence on the accuracy of the flux estimation. This study investigates how three different eddy covariance systems perform in a situation of low N2O fluxes from a flat surface. Chamber flux measurements with differing chamber and analyser designs are used for comparison. In April 2013, the EU research infrastructure project InGOS (http://www.ingos-infrastructure.eu/) organised a campaign of N2O flux measurements in a willow plantation close to the Risø Campus of the Technical University of Denmark. The willow field was harvested in February 2013 and received mineral fertiliser equivalent to 120 kg N ha-1 before the campaign started. Three different eddy covariance systems took part in the campaign: two Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL) based systems and one Los Gatos Research off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (ICOS) system for N2O and CO. The sonic anemometers were all installed at 2 m height above the bare ground. Gill R3 type sonic anemometers were used with QCL systems and a Gil HS-50 with the ICOS system. The 10 Hz raw data were analysed with group specific softwares and procedures. The local conditions in the exceptionally cold and dry spring 2013 did not lead to large N2O flux

  4. Measurement and Analysis of the Diffusible Hydrogen in Underwater Wet Welding Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusible hydrogen in steel weldments is one of the main reasons that led to hydrogen assisted cracking. In this paper, the results of literatures survey and preliminary tests of the diffusible hydrogen in underwater wet welding joint were presented. A fluid-discharge method of for measuring the diffusible hydrogen in weldment was introduced in detail. Two kinds of underwater welding electrode diffusible hydrogen are 26.5 mL/100g and 35.5 mL/100g by fluid-discharge method, which are high levels. The diffusible hydrogen of underwater welding is higher than atmospheric welding, and the result is closely related to welding material. The best way to control the diffusible hydrogen is adjusting welding material and improving fluidity of slag.

  5. Separate measurement of local diffusion coefficients in grain boundaries and in adjacent regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotsman, S.M.; Kajgorodov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    A new measuring technique is presented that allows one separate determination of grain boundary width and local diffusion coefficients. With the use of the technique presented phenomenological description is accompished for time and temperature dependences of relative and absolute level populations in a zone of preferential intercrystalline diffusion. Local diffusion coefficients obtained for the upper temperature limit of applicability of the technique proposed are in a good agreement with values calculated form coordinate distribution of atoic probes. Local diffusion coefficients determined at lower temperatures essentially differ from those calculated assuming that suction coefficient is equal to a coefficient of volume diffusion. Experimental dta are given for diffusion parameters in Ag, Pd and W polycrystals. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. High resolution eddy current microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M. A.; Jarvis, S. P.; Tokumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample. To achieve a high sensitivity, we used a cantilever with an FeNdBLa particle mounted on the tip. Resistivity measurements are demonstrated on a silicon test structure with a staircase doping profile. Regions with resistivities of 0.0013, 0.0041, and 0.022 Ω cm are clearly resolved with a lateral resolution of approximately 180 nm. For this range of resistivities, the eddy current induced damping is found to depend linearly on the sample resistivity.

  7. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2017-01-01

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain “dead time” at initial measurement....... These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the “micropipette interfacial area-expansion method” was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion...... for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2 ± 0.8 × 10−6 cm2/s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, “single microdroplet catching method”, to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet...

  9. The Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Conductor and Insulator by Photodeflection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achathongsuk, U.; Rittidach, T.; Tipmonta, P.; Kijamnajsuk, P.; Chotikaprakhan, S.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate thermal diffusivities of high thermal diffusivity bulk material as well as low thermal diffusivity bulk material by using many types of fluid such as Ethyl alcohol and water. This method is studied by measuring amplitude and phase of photodeflection signal in various frequency modulations. The experimental setup consists of two laser lines: 1) a pump laser beams through a modulator, varied frequency, controlled by lock-in amplifier and focused on sample surface by lens. 2) a probe laser which parallels with the sample surface and is perpendicular to the pump laser beam. The probe laser deflection signal is obtained by a position sensor which controlled by lock-in amplifier. Thermal diffusivity is calculated by measuring the amplitude and phase of the photodeflection signal and compared with the thermal diffusivity of a standard value. The thermal diffusivity of SGG agrees well with the literature but the thermal diffusivity of Cu is less than the literature value by a factor of ten. The experiment requires further improvement to measure the thermal diffusivity of Cu. However, we succeed in using ethyl alcohol as the coupling medium instead of CCl4 which is highly toxic.

  10. A multi-slice sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Langxiang; Hu, Jinliang; Geng, Yongliang; Zhu, Chunao; Zhang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The long capillary and shear-cell techniques are traditionally used for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Inspired by the idea of the shear-cell method, we have built a multi-slice sliding cell device for inter-diffusion measurements in liquid metals. The device is designed based on a linear sliding movement rather than a rotational shearing as used in the traditional shear-cell method. Compared with the normal shear-cell method, the present device is a more compact setup thus easier to handle. Also, it is expected to be easier to monitor with X-rays or neutrons if used in in situ experiments. A series of benchmark time-dependent diffusion experiments in Al-Cu melts carried out with the present technique reveal that accurate diffusion constants can be achieved only after a sufficient time. For short annealing times, the initial shearing process causing convective flow dominates the measurement and leads to an increase of the measured diffusion coefficient by a factor three. The diffusion data obtained for Al-Cu liquids are consistent with the most accurate data measured by the in situ X-ray radiography method under well controlled conditions of no temperature gradient or other perturbation. High accuracy and easy handling as well as superior adaptability make the present technique suitable for diffusion studies in liquid metals.

  11. Interaction between lactose and cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions as seen by diffusion coefficients measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verissimo, Luis M.P.; Gomes, Joselaine C.S.; Romero, Carmen; Esteso, Miguel A.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Diffusion coefficients of aqueous systems containing lactose and cadmium chloride. ► Influence of the lactose on the diffusion of cadmium chloride. ► Interactions between Cd 2+ and lactose. -- Abstract: Diffusion coefficients of an aqueous system containing cadmium chloride 0.100 mol · dm −3 and lactose at different concentrations at 25 °C have been measured, using a conductimetric cell and an automatic apparatus to follow diffusion. The cell relies on an open-ended capillary method and a conductimetric technique is used to follow the diffusion process by measuring the resistance of a solution inside the capillaries, at recorded times. From these results and by ab initio calculations, it was possible to obtain a better understanding of the effect of lactose on transport of cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions

  12. Hanford 67-series: a volume of atmospheric field diffusion measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickola, P.W.

    1977-11-01

    This volume documents atmospheric diffusion experiments carried out at the Hanford reservation during the period 1967 to 1973. A total of 103 tracer releases during 54 release periods is tabulated. Multi-tracer releases (generally from different elevations) were made during most of the experimental periods. Release heights varied from ground level to an elevation of 111 m. Tracers were sampled simultaneously on as many as 10 arcs at distances of up to 12.8 km from the tracer release point. As many as 718 field sampling locations were employed during some of the experiments. Vertical profiles of concentration were monitored on towers during 23 of the 54 release periods. Concurrent vertical profiles of mean temperature, of mean wind speed and direction, and of direction standard deviation are also tabled for elevations up to 122 m

  13. Spectral Analysis and Computation of Effective Diffusivities in Space-time Periodic Incompressible Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    diffusive tracer fluxes, directed normal to the tracer gradient [64], are generally equivalent to antisymmetric components in the effective diffusivity...tensor D∗, while the symmetric part of D∗ represents irreversible diffusive effects [83, 87, 39] directed down the tracer gradient . The mixing of eddy...provides an operational calculus in Hilbert space which yields powerful integral representations involving the Stieltjes measures displayed in equation

  14. Choice of reference measurements affects quantification of long diffusion time behaviour using stimulated echoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Michiel; Mollink, Jeroen; Lam, Wilfred W; Kinchesh, Paul; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Smart, Sean C; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate how reference data affect the quantification of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in long diffusion time measurements with diffusion-weighted stimulated echo acquisition mode (DW-STEAM) measurements, and to present a modification to avoid contribution from crusher gradients in DW-STEAM. For DW-STEAM, reference measurements at long diffusion times have significant b 0 value, because b = 0 cannot be achieved in practice as a result of the need for signal spoiling. Two strategies for acquiring reference data over a range of diffusion times were considered: constant diffusion weighting (fixed-b 0 ) and constant gradient area (fixed-q 0 ). Fixed-b 0 and fixed-q 0 were compared using signal calculations for systems with one and two diffusion coefficients, and experimentally using data from postmortem human corpus callosum samples. Calculations of biexponential diffusion decay show that the ADC is underestimated for reference images with b > 0, which can induce an apparent time-dependence for fixed-q 0 . Restricted systems were also found to be affected. Experimentally, the exaggeration of the diffusion time-dependent effect under fixed-q 0 versus fixed-b 0 was in a range predicted theoretically, accounting for 62% (longitudinal) and 35% (radial) of the time dependence observed in white matter. Variation in the b-value of reference measurements in DW-STEAM can induce artificial diffusion time dependence in ADC, even in the absence of restriction. Magn Reson Med 79:952-959, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  15. Performance of STICS model to predict rainfed corn evapotranspiration and biomass evaluated for 6 years between 1995 and 2006 using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes and ancillary measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Jégo, Guillaume; Bourgeois, Gaétan

    2010-05-01

    Verifying the performance of process-based crop growth models to predict evapotranspiration and crop biomass is a key component of the adaptation of agricultural crop production to climate variations. STICS, developed by INRA, was part of the models selected by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to be implemented for environmental assessment studies on climate variations, because of its built-in ability to assimilate biophysical descriptors such as LAI derived from satellite imagery and its open architecture. The model prediction of shoot biomass was calibrated using destructive biomass measurements over one season, by adjusting six cultivar parameters and three generic plant parameters to define two grain corn cultivars adapted to the 1000-km long Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Its performance was then evaluated using a database of 40 years-sites of corn destructive biomass and yield. In this study we evaluate the temporal response of STICS evapotranspiration and biomass accumulation predictions against estimates using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes. The flux tower was located in an experimental farm south of Ottawa and measurements carried out over corn fields in 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2006. Daytime and nighttime fluxes were QC/QA and gap-filled separately. Soil respiration was partitioned to calculate the corn net daily CO2 uptake, which was converted into dry biomass. Out of the six growing seasons, three (1995, 1998, 2002) had water stress periods during corn grain filling. Year 2000 was cool and wet, while 1996 had heat and rainfall distributed evenly over the season and 2006 had a wet spring. STICS can predict evapotranspiration using either crop coefficients, when wind speed and air moisture are not available, or resistance. The first approach provided higher prediction for all the years than the resistance approach and the flux measurements. The dynamic of evapotranspiration prediction of STICS was very good for the growing seasons without

  16. Finite element approximation for time-dependent diffusion with measure-valued source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seidman, T.; Gobbert, M.; Trott, D.; Kružík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2012), s. 709-723 ISSN 0029-599X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : measure-valued source * diffusion equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-finite element approximation for time - dependent diffusion with measure-valued source.pdf

  17. A method to calibrate a solar pyranometer for measuring reference diffuse irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Accurate pyranometer calibrations, traceable to internationally recognized standards, are critical for solar irradiance measurements. One calibration method is the component summation, where the pyranometers are calibrated outdoors under clear sky conditions, and the reference global solar irradiance is calculated as the sum of two reference components, the diffuse and subtended beam solar irradiances. The beam component is measured with pyrheliometers traceable to the World Radiometric Reference, while there is no internationally recognized reference for the diffuse component. In the absence of such a reference, we present a method to consistently calibrate pyranometers for measuring the diffuse component with an estimated uncertainty of {+-} (3% of reading +1 W/m{sup 2}). The method is based on using a modified shade/unshade method, and pyranometers with less than 1 W/m{sup 2} thermal offset errors. We evaluated the consistency of our method by calibrating three pyranometers four times. Calibration results show that the responsivity change is within {+-} 0.52% for the three pyranometers. We also evaluated the effect of calibrating pyranometers unshaded, then using them shaded to measure diffuse irradiance. We calibrated three unshaded pyranometers using the component summation method. Their outdoor measurements of clear sky diffuse irradiance, from sunrise to sundown, showed that the three calibrated pyranometers can be used to measure the diffuse irradiance to within {+-} 1.4 W/m{sup 2} variation from the reference irradiance. (author)

  18. Glucocorticoid treatment of brain tumor patients: changes of apparent diffusion coefficient values measured by MR diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamikawa, Sosuke; Kono, Kinuko; Nakayama, Keiko; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Takahiko; Inoue, Yuichi; Nishio, Akimasa; Hara, Mitsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCC) generally are administered to patients with brain tumors to relieve neurological symptoms by decreasing the water content in a peritumoral zone of edema. We hypothesized that diffusion imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values could detect subtle changes of water content in brain tumors and in peritumoral edema after GCC therapy. The study consisted of 13 patients with intra-axial brain tumor, and ADC was measured in the tumor, within peritumoral edema, and in normal white matter remote from the tumor before and after GCC therapy. ADC also was measured in normal white matter in four control patients with no intracranial disease who were treated with GCC for other indications. Conventional MR images showed no visually evident interval change in tumor size or the extent of peritumoral edema in any subject after GCC therapy, which nonetheless resulted in a decrease in mean ADC of 7.0% in tumors (P 0.05, not significant) and 5.8% in normal white matter (P<0.05). In patients with no intracranial disease, GCC therapy decreased mean ADC in white matter by 5.4% (P<0.05). ADC measurement can demonstrate subtle changes in the brain after GCC therapy that cannot be observed by conventional MR imaging. Measurement of ADC proved to be a sensitive means of assessing the effect of GCC therapy, even in the absence of visually discernible changes in conventional MR images. (orig.)

  19. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  20. Eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Young Kil

    2004-02-01

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants

  1. Momentum, sensible heat and CO2 correlation coefficient variability: what can we learn from 20 years of continuous eddy covariance measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Heinesch, Bernard; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Long-term data series of carbon dioxide and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere become more and more numerous. Long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good understanding of measurement conditions during the investigated period. Independently of climate drivers, measurements may indeed be influenced by measurement conditions themselves subjected to long-term variability due to vegetation growth or set-up changes. The present research refers to the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) an ICOS candidate site located in a mixed forest (beech, silver fir, Douglas fir, Norway spruce) in the Belgian Ardenne. Fluxes of momentum, carbon dioxide and sensible heat have been continuously measured there by eddy covariance for more than 20 years. During this period, changes in canopy height and measurement height occurred. The correlation coefficients (for momemtum, sensible heat and CO2) and the normalized standard deviations measured for the past 20 years at the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) were analysed in order to define how the fluxes, independently of climate conditions, were affected by the surrounding environment evolution, including tree growth, forest thinning and tower height change. A relationship between canopy aerodynamic distance and the momentum correlation coefficient was found which is characteristic of the roughness sublayer, and suggests that momentum transport processes were affected by z-d. In contrast, no relationship was found for sensible heat and CO2 correlation coefficients, suggesting that the z-d variability observed did not affect their turbulent transport. There were strong differences in these coefficients, however, between two wind sectors, characterized by contrasted stands (height differences, homogeneity) and different hypotheses were raised to explain it. This study highlighted the importance of taking the surrounding environment variability into account in order to ensure the spatio

  2. Relative distance between tracers as a measure of diffusivity within moving aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönisch, Wolfram; Zaburdaev, Vasily

    2018-02-01

    Tracking of particles, be it a passive tracer or an actively moving bacterium in the growing bacterial colony, is a powerful technique to probe the physical properties of the environment of the particles. One of the most common measures of particle motion driven by fluctuations and random forces is its diffusivity, which is routinely obtained by measuring the mean squared displacement of the particles. However, often the tracer particles may be moving in a domain or an aggregate which itself experiences some regular or random motion and thus masks the diffusivity of tracers. Here we provide a method for assessing the diffusivity of tracer particles within mobile aggregates by measuring the so-called mean squared relative distance (MSRD) between two tracers. We provide analytical expressions for both the ensemble and time averaged MSRD allowing for direct identification of diffusivities from experimental data.

  3. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, Sergio; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Fedorov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E A =1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D 0  = 0.53(×2.1±1) cm 2 s −1 that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  4. Thermal Diffusivity Measurement for p-Si and Ag/p-Si by Photoacoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohammed Jabbar; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Zakaria, Azmi

    2015-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity (TD) of p-Si and Ag/p-Si samples were measured by photoacoustic technique using open photoacoustic cell (OPC). The samples were annealed by heating them at 960, 1050, 1200, and 1300 °C for 3 h in air. The thermal diffusivity of Ag-coated samples was obtained by fitting the photoacoustic experimental data to the thermally thick equation for Rosencwaig and Gersho (RG) theory. For the single layer samples, the thermal diffusivity can be obtained by fitting as well as by obtaining the critical frequency f c . In this study, the thermal diffusivity of the p-Si samples increased with increasing the annealing temperature. The thermal diffusivity of the Ag/p-Si samples, after reaching the maximum value of about 2.73 cm2/s at a temperature of 1200 °C, decreased due to the silver complete melt in the surface of the silicon.

  5. Thermal diffusivity measurement for p-Si and Ag/p-Si by photoacoustic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Mohammed Jabbar; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Zakaria, Azmi, E-mail: mohammed55865@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti PutraMalaysia (UPM), Serdang (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    Thermal diffusivity (TD) of p-Si and Ag/p-Si samples were measured by photoacoustic technique using open photoacoustic cell (OPC). The samples were annealed by heating them at 960, 1050, 1200, and 1300 °C for 3 h in air. The thermal diffusivity of Ag-coated samples was obtained by fitting the photoacoustic experimental data to the thermally thick equation for Rosencwaig and Gersho (RG) theory. For the single layer samples, the thermal diffusivity can be obtained by fitting as well as by obtaining the critical frequency f{sub c.} In this study, the thermal diffusivity of the p-Si samples increased with increasing the annealing temperature. The thermal diffusivity of the Ag/p-Si samples, after reaching the maximum value of about 2.73 cm{sup 2}/s at a temperature of 1200 °C, decreased due to the silver complete melt in the surface of the silicon. (author)

  6. Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Hou, Yijun; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mesoscale eddies and the structure of the surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area were examined using in-situ CTD data, Argo float data, and multi-satellite remote sensing data collected from May to August 2009. The results show that vigorous water exchange between Kuroshio water and South China Sea (SCS) water began to emerge over the 200 m water column throughout the strait. Based on an objective definition of surface currents, float A69 tracked an anti-cyclonic eddy southwest of Taiwan Island under a Lagrangian current measurement. The salinity inside the anti-cyclonic eddy was higher than in typical SCS water but lower than in Kuroshio mainstream water, indicating that this eddy was induced by Kuroshio frontal intrusion through the Luzon Strait and into the SCS. From hydrographic data, we propose that continuous horizontal diffusion with high-salinity characteristics in the subsurface layer could extend to 119°E or even further west. The high-temperature filament, large positive sea level anomaly and clockwise geostrophic current all confirmed the existence of this warm eddy in May and June. A strongly negative wind stress curl maintained the eddy until it died. The surface flow field during July and August was rather complicated. Float A83 described an east-west orientated shuttle run in the 20°N section that was not reported by previous studies. At the same time, float A80 indicated a Kuroshio bend into the north-central region of Luzon Strait but it did not cross 120.5°E. The water mass rejoining the Kuroshio mainstream from the southern tip of Taiwan Island was less saline, indicating an entrainment of water from SCS by the Kuroshio bend.

  7. The role of diffusion measurements in the study of crystal lattice defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidson, G V

    1965-07-15

    Measurements of atomic mobility in solids are frequently of direct interest to those concerned with the design, development and utilization of materials in engineering. Increasing attention, however, is currently devoted to an under standing of such properties in terms of the occurrence and nature of point and line defects in the crystals. This paper reviews some recent diffusion studies conducted at C.R,N.L. that provide, in addition to data of interest in nuclear technology, a means of gaining some insight into the more fundamental nature of the lattice defects occurring in the materials. The systems discussed are (i) self diffusion in the high temperature phase of pure zirconium (ii) solute diffusion in lead and (iii) interdiffusion of aluminum and zirconium The unusual and at present incompletely understood results described in (i) are briefly reviewed. Evidence is given to suggest that diffusion occurs either through a dense dislocation network produced as a result of a martensitic phase transformation, or, alternatively, by excess vacancies introduced into the crystal by impurities. In (ii) the extraordinarily rapid diffusion of noble metal solutes in high purity lead single crystals will be discussed n terms of the state of solution of the solute atoms. It will be shown that their diffusion behaviour can be understood by assuming that a fraction f{sub i} of the dissolved solute atoms occupy interstitial sites, The measured diffusion coefficient D{sub m} is related to the interstitial diffusion coefficient by D{sub m} = f{sub i} D{sub i}. In (iii) the formation and rapid growth of single intermetallic compound ZrAl{sub 3} in the diffusion zone formed between pure zirconium and pure aluminum is described and the diffusion mechanism is interpreted in terms of the structure of the compound lattice. The results indicate that ZrAl{sub 3} forms a defect lattice, leading to the relatively rapid migration of aluminum atoms. (author)

  8. Eddy Current Assessment of Engineered Components Containing Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ray T.; Hoppe, Wally; Pierce, Jenny

    2009-03-01

    The eddy current approach has been used to assess engineered components containing nanofibers. Five specimens with different programmed defects were fabricated. A 4-point collinear probe was used to verify the electrical resistivity of each specimen. The liftoff component of the eddy current signal was used to test two extreme cases with different nano contents. Additional eddy current measurements were also used in detecting a missing nano layer simulating a manufacturing process error. The results of this assessment suggest that eddy current liftoff measurement can be a useful tool in evaluating the electrical properties of materials containing nanofibers.

  9. Fractional order analysis of Sephadex gel structures: NMR measurements reflecting anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Neuberger, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G.

    2011-12-01

    We report the appearance of anomalous water diffusion in hydrophilic Sephadex gels observed using pulse field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR diffusion data was collected using a Varian 14.1 Tesla imaging system with a home-built RF saddle coil. A fractional order analysis of the data was used to characterize heterogeneity in the gels for the dynamics of water diffusion in this restricted environment. Several recent studies of anomalous diffusion have used the stretched exponential function to model the decay of the NMR signal, i.e., exp[-( bD) α], where D is the apparent diffusion constant, b is determined the experimental conditions (gradient pulse separation, durations and strength), and α is a measure of structural complexity. In this work, we consider a different case where the spatial Laplacian in the Bloch-Torrey equation is generalized to a fractional order model of diffusivity via a complexity parameter, β, a space constant, μ, and a diffusion coefficient, D. This treatment reverts to the classical result for the integer order case. The fractional order decay model was fit to the diffusion-weighted signal attenuation for a range of b-values (0 < b < 4000 s mm -2). Throughout this range of b values, the parameters β, μ and D, were found to correlate with the porosity and tortuosity of the gel structure.

  10. New limit theorems for regular diffusion processes with finite speed measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Zanten (Harry)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe derive limit theorems for diffusion processes that have a finite speed measure. First we prove a number of asymptotic properties of the density $rho_t = dmu_t /dmu$ of the empirical measure $mu_t$ with respect to the normalized speed measure $mu$. These results are then used to derive

  11. Method for measurement of radon diffusion and solubility in solid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andreas; Weber, Uli; Dickmann, Jannis; Breckow, Joachim; van Beek, Patrick; Schardt, Dieter; Kraft, Gerhard; Fournier, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    In order to study the permeation i.e. the diffusion and solubility of radon gas in biological material, a new setup was constructed and a novel analysis was applied to obtain diffusion and solubility coefficients. Thin slabs of solid materials were installed between detector housing and the surrounding radon exposure chamber of 50 Ls volume. In this setup radon can diffuse through thin test samples into a cylindrical volume of 5 mm height and 20 mm diameter and reach an α-particle detector. There the 5.49 MeV α-decay of the penetrating radon atoms is measured by a silicon surface barrier detector. The time dependent activities inside the small detector volume are recorded after injection of a known radon activity concentration into the outer chamber. Analyzing the time behavior of the integral α-activity from radon in the small vessel, both, the diffusion coefficient and solubility of the test material can be determined, based on a new mathematical model of the diffusion process concerning the special boundary conditions given by the experimental setup. These first measurements were intended as proof of concept for the detection system and the data analysis. Thin polyethylene foils (LDPE) were selected as material for the diffusion measurements and the results were in agreement with data from literature. In further measurements, we will concentrate on biological material like bone, fat and other tissues.

  12. Inter-atomic force constants of BaF{sub 2} by diffuse neutron scattering measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Takashi, E-mail: sakuma@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Makhsun,; Sakai, Ryutaro [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Xianglian [College of Physics and Electronics Information, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Takahashi, Haruyuki [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Hitachi 316-8511 (Japan); Basar, Khairul [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Igawa, Naoki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Danilkin, Sergey A. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2015-04-16

    Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on BaF{sub 2} crystals was performed at 10 K and 295 K. Oscillatory form in the diffuse scattering intensity of BaF{sub 2} was observed at 295 K. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of F-F atoms were obtained from the analysis of oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity. The force constants among neighboring atoms in BaF{sub 2} were determined and compared to those in ionic crystals and semiconductors.

  13. Ionic diffusion in quartz studied by transport measurements, SIMS and atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartbaeva, Asel; Wells, Stephen A; Redfern, Simon A T; Hinton, Richard W; Reed, Stephen J B

    2005-01-01

    Ionic diffusion in the quartz-β-eucryptite system is studied by DC transport measurements, SIMS and atomistic simulations. Transport data show a large transient increase in ionic current at the α-β phase transition of quartz (the Hedvall effect). The SIMS data indicate two diffusion processes, one involving rapid Li + motion and the other involving penetration of Al and Li atoms into quartz at the phase transition. Atomistic simulations explain why the fine microstructure of twin domain walls in quartz near the transition does not hinder Li + diffusion

  14. Chapter 9: Experimental measurements of the diffusion area of neutrons in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; McCulloch, D.B.

    1963-01-01

    This report describes measurements of the diffusion area of neutrons in a solid graphite exponential stack, and in a stack containing cylindrical air channels of 4.5 in. diameter, arranged on a square lattice of 8 in. pitch. The resulting diffusion area ratios are compared with the theoretical predictions of a number of authors. The diffusion area ratios deduced from a pair of experiments in which the orientation of the air channels with respect to the source-plane is changed are found to be in agreement with those deduced from experiments in which the stack size is changed but a constant air channel orientation maintained. (author)

  15. Surface-atmosphere exchange of ammonia over peatland using QCL-based eddy-covariance measurements and inferential modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöll, Undine; Brümmer, Christian; Schrader, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure ammonia concentratio...

  16. Measurement of the local particle diffusion coefficient in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Levinton, F.M.

    1987-02-01

    Local impurity particle diffusion coefficients have been measured in a low temperature plasma by the injection of test particles at the center of the plasma. The injection is accomplished by a high voltage discharge between two small graphite electrodes on a probe. The probe can be located anywhere in the plasma. The diffusion is observed spectroscopically. An analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution of the CII radiation from the carbon discharge can determine the parallel and perpendicular diffusion of the impurity ions. Results with the diagnostic have been obtained in the Proto S-1/C spheromak. The measured value of the diffusion coefficient in the afterglow plasma is in good agreement with classical predictions

  17. Interferometric measurement of a diffusion coefficient: comparison of two methods and uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riquelme, Rodrigo; Lira, Ignacio; Perez-Lopez, Carlos; Rayas, Juan A; RodrIguez-Vera, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Two methods to measure the diffusion coefficient of a species in a liquid by optical interferometry were compared. The methods were tested on a 1.75 M NaCl aqueous solution diffusing into water at 26 deg. C. Results were D = 1.587 x 10 -9 m 2 s -1 with the first method and D = 1.602 x 10 -9 m 2 s -1 with the second method. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the possible dispersion of these results. The standard uncertainties were found to be of the order of 0.05 x 10 -9 m 2 s -1 with both methods. We found that the value of the diffusion coefficient obtained by either method is very sensitive to the magnification of the optical system, and that if diffusion is slow the measurement of time does not need to be very accurate

  18. Observation of structural universality in disordered systems using bulk diffusion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Antonios; Novikov, Dmitry S.; Fieremans, Els; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2017-12-01

    We report on an experimental observation of classical diffusion distinguishing between structural universality classes of disordered systems in one dimension. Samples of hyperuniform and short-range disorder were designed, characterized by the statistics of the placement of micrometer-thin parallel permeable barriers, and the time-dependent diffusion coefficient was measured by NMR methods over three orders of magnitude in time. The relation between the structural exponent, characterizing disorder universality class, and the dynamical exponent of the diffusion coefficient is experimentally verified. The experimentally established relation between structure and transport exemplifies the hierarchical nature of structural complexity—dynamics are mainly determined by the universality class, whereas microscopic parameters affect the nonuniversal coefficients. These results open the way for noninvasive characterization of structural correlations in porous media, complex materials, and biological tissues via a bulk diffusion measurement.

  19. Cardiac fiber orientation in goat measured with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, L.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.; Nicolaij, K.; Arts, M.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    We therefore hypothesize that fiber reorientation could be a local adaptive mechanism by which the strain distribution across the cardiac wall is homogenized. To test this hypothesis we measured fiber orientation in normal goat hearts and in goat hearts in which the mechanical load was locally

  20. A method to measure the diffusion coefficient by neutron wave propagation for limited samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1986-03-01

    A study has been made of the use of the neutron wave and pulse propagation method for measurement of thermal neutron diffusion parameters. Earlier works an homogenous and heterogeneous media are reviewed. A new method is sketched for the determination of the diffusion coefficient for samples of limited size. The principle is to place a relatively thin slab of the material between two blocks of a medium with known properties. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. (author)

  1. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of tissue oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircan-Kucuksayan, A; Canpolat, M; Uyuklu, M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) is a useful parameter for medical applications. A spectroscopic method has been developed to detect pathologic tissues, due to a lack of normal blood circulation, by measuring StO 2 . In this study, human blood samples with different levels of oxygen saturation have been prepared and spectra were acquired using an optical fiber probe to investigate the correlation between the oxygen saturation levels and the spectra. A linear correlation between the oxygen saturation and ratio of the intensities (760 nm to 790 nm) of the spectra acquired from blood samples has been found. In a validation study, oxygen saturations of the blood samples were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements with an error of 2.9%. It has also been shown that the linear dependence between the ratio and the oxygen saturation of the blood samples was valid for the blood samples with different hematocrits. Spectra were acquired from the forearms of 30 healthy volunteers to estimate StO 2 prior to, at the beginning of, after 2 min, and at the release of total vascular occlusion. The average StO 2 of a forearm before and after the two minutes occlusion was significantly different. The results suggested that optical reflectance spectroscopy is a sensitive method to estimate the StO 2 levels of human tissue. The technique developed to measure StO 2 has potential to detect ischemia in real time. (paper)

  2. Calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Long, Zhen; Zhao, Liang; Ma, Weibin

    2012-01-01

    Correlations for calculating diffuse solar radiation can be classified into models with global solar radiation (H-based method) and without it (Non-H method). The objective of the present study is to compare the performance of H-based and Non-H methods for calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements. The comparison is carried out at eight meteorological stations in China focusing on the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation. Based on statistical error tests, the results show that the Non-H method that includes other readily available meteorological elements gives better estimates. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Non-H method is more appropriate than the H-based one for calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements. -- Highlights: ► Methods for calculating diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements are investigated. ► Diffuse solar radiation models can be classified into two groups according to global solar radiation. ► Two approaches are compared at the eight meteorological stations in China. ► The method without global solar radiation is recommended.

  3. Methodical study of nitrous oxide eddy covariance measurements using quantum cascade laser spectrometery over a Swiss forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eugster

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured at the Lägeren CarboEurope IP flux site over the multi-species mixed forest dominated by European beech and Norway spruce. Measurements were carried out during a four-week period in October–November 2005 during leaf senescence. Fluxes were measured with a standard ultrasonic anemometer in combination with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer that measured N2O, CO2, and H2O mixing ratios simultaneously at 5 Hz time resolution. To distinguish insignificant fluxes from significant ones it is proposed to use a new approach based on the significance of the correlation coefficient between vertical wind speed and mixing ratio fluctuations. This procedure eliminated roughly 56% of our half-hourly fluxes. Based on the remaining, quality checked N2O fluxes we quantified the mean efflux at 0.8±0.4 μmol m−2 h−1 (mean ± standard error. Most of the contribution to the N2O flux occurred during a 6.5-h period starting 4.5 h before each precipitation event. No relation with precipitation amount could be found. Visibility data representing fog density and duration at the site indicate that wetting of the canopy may have as strong an effect on N2O effluxes as does below-ground microbial activity. It is speculated that above-ground N2O production from the senescing leaves at high moisture (fog, drizzle, onset of precipitation event may be responsible for part of the measured flux.

  4. Multiplexed measurement of protein diffusion in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with SPIM-FCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struntz, Philipp; Weiss, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Quantifying the diffusion behavior of proteins in different environments, e.g. on cellular membranes, is a key step in uncovering the vital action of protein networks in living organisms. While several established techniques for local diffusion measurements exist, the life sciences are currently in need of a multiplexed, i.e. spatially parallelized, data acquisition that allows for obtaining diffusion maps with high spatiotemporal resolution. Following this demand, the combination of camera-based single-plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has recently emerged as a promising approach. So far, SPIM-FCS has mainly been used to assess the diffusion of soluble particles and proteins in vitro and in culture cells, but due to a particularly low photobleaching and -toxicity the method is also well applicable to developmental organisms. Here, we have probed the performance of SPIM-FCS on an established developmental model organism, the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we have quantified the diffusion of the peripheral membrane protein PLC1δ 1 in the embryo’s cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. As a result, we were able to derive diffusion maps of PLC1δ 1 in both compartments in multiple individuals, showing the spatially varying diffusion coefficients across the embryo. Our data also report on the dissociation kinetics of PLC1δ 1 from the plasma membrane, hence underlining that SPIM-FCS can be used to explore key features of peripheral membrane proteins in fragile developmental model organisms.

  5. How to measure atomic diffusion processes in the sub-nanometer range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Gupta, M.; Gutberlet, T.; Stahn, J.; Bruns, M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-diffusion of the atomic constituents in the solid state is a fundamental transport process that controls various materials properties. With established methods of diffusivity determination it is only possible to measure diffusion processes on a length scale down to 10 nm at corresponding diffusivities of 10 -23 m 2 s -1 . However, for complex materials like amorphous or nano-structured solids the given values are often not sufficient for a proper characterization. Consequently, it is necessary to detect diffusion length well below 1 nm. Here, we present the method of neutron reflectometry on isotope multilayers. For two model systems, an amorphous semiconductor and an amorphous metallic alloy, the efficiency of this method is demonstrated to detect minimum diffusion lengths of only 0.6-0.7 nm. It is further shown that diffusivities can be derived which are more than two orders of magnitude lower than those obtainable with conventional methods. Prospects of this method in order to solve actual kinetic problems in materials science are given

  6. PIV measurements in a compact return diffuser under multi-conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, L; Lu, W G; Shi, W D

    2013-01-01

    Due to the complex three-dimensional geometries of impellers and diffusers, their design is a delicate and difficult task. Slight change could lead to significant changes in hydraulic performance and internal flow structure. Conversely, the grasp of the pump's internal flow pattern could benefit from pump design improvement. The internal flow fields in a compact return diffuser have been investigated experimentally under multi-conditions. A special Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) test rig is designed, and the two-dimensional PIV measurements are successfully conducted in the diffuser mid-plane to capture the complex flow patterns. The analysis of the obtained results has been focused on the flow structure in diffuser, especially under part-load conditions. The vortex and recirculation flow patterns in diffuser are captured and analysed accordingly. Strong flow separation and back flow appeared at the part-load flow rates. Under the design and over-load conditions, the flow fields in diffuser are uniform, and the flow separation and back flow appear at the part-load flow rates, strong back flow is captured at one diffuser passage under 0.2Q des

  7. PIV measurements in a compact return diffuser under multi-conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Lu, W. G.; Shi, W. D.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the complex three-dimensional geometries of impellers and diffusers, their design is a delicate and difficult task. Slight change could lead to significant changes in hydraulic performance and internal flow structure. Conversely, the grasp of the pump's internal flow pattern could benefit from pump design improvement. The internal flow fields in a compact return diffuser have been investigated experimentally under multi-conditions. A special Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) test rig is designed, and the two-dimensional PIV measurements are successfully conducted in the diffuser mid-plane to capture the complex flow patterns. The analysis of the obtained results has been focused on the flow structure in diffuser, especially under part-load conditions. The vortex and recirculation flow patterns in diffuser are captured and analysed accordingly. Strong flow separation and back flow appeared at the part-load flow rates. Under the design and over-load conditions, the flow fields in diffuser are uniform, and the flow separation and back flow appear at the part-load flow rates, strong back flow is captured at one diffuser passage under 0.2Qdes.

  8. Measurement of lateral charge diffusion in thick, fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcher, Armin; Bebek, Christopher J.; Kolbe, William F.; Maurath, Dominic; Prasad, Valmiki; Uslenghi, Michela; Wagner, Martin

    2004-06-30

    Lateral charge diffusion in back-illuminated CCDs directly affects the point spread function (PSF) and spatial resolution of an imaging device. This can be of particular concern in thick, back-illuminated CCDs. We describe a technique of measuring this diffusion and present PSF measurements for an 800 x 1100, 15 mu m pixel, 280 mu m thick, back-illuminated, p-channel CCD that can be over-depleted. The PSF is measured over a wavelength range of 450 nm to 650 nm and at substrate bias voltages between 6 V and 80 V.

  9. Measurement of molecular diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide and methane in heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Y.; Tharanivasan, A.K.; Yang, C. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Vapour extraction (VAPEX) is a solvent-based thermal recovery process which is considered to be a viable process for recovering heavy oil. In order to develop a solvent-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operation, it is necessary to know the rate and extent of oil mobilization by the solvent. The molecular diffusion coefficient of solvent gas in heavy oil must be known. In this study, the pressure decay method was used to measure the molecular diffusivity of a gas solvent in heavy oil by monitoring the decaying pressure. The pressure decay method is a non-intrusive method in which physical contact is made between the gas solvent and the heavy oil. The pressure versus time data are measured until the heavy oil reaches complete saturation. The diffusion coefficient can be determined from the measured data and a mathematical model. In this study, the molecular diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide-heavy oil and methane-heavy oil systems were measured and compared. The experiments were performed in closed high-pressure cells at constant reservoir temperature. An analytical solution was also obtained to predict the pressure in the gas phase and for the boundary conditions at the solvent-heavy oil interface for each solvent. Solvent diffusivity was determined by finding the best match of the numerically predicted and experimentally measured pressures.

  10. Fe and N diffusion in nitrogen-rich FeN measured using neutron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: mgupta@csr.ernet.in. Abstract. Grazing incidence neutron reflectometry provides an opportunity to measure the depth profile of a thin film sample with a resolution <1 nm, in a non-destructive way. In this way the diffusion across the interfaces can also be measured. In addition, neutrons have contrast among the ...

  11. Experimental Setup for Measuring Diffusive and Advective Transport of Radon through Building Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, van der M.; Graaf, van der E.R.; Meijer, de R.J.; Wit, de M.H.; Hendriks, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  12. Thermal diffusivity measurements with a photothermal method of fusion solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Fabri, L.; Ferrari, A.; Sibilia, C.; Alvani, C.; Casadio, S.

    1989-01-01

    The Photothermal Deflection method is employed in thermal diffusivity measurements. A theoretical analysis is performed to reduce the influence of arbitrary parameters. Measurements on gamma-lithium aluminate samples as a function of temperatures are performed. (author). 5 refs.; 4 figs

  13. A cool-temperate young larch plantation as a net methane source - A 4-year continuous hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation and chamber measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Masahito; Yoshikawa, Kota; Takagi, Kentaro

    2018-07-01

    Upland forests are thought to be methane (CH4) sinks due to oxidation by methanotrophs in aerobic soils. However, CH4 budget for upland forests are not well quantified at the ecosystem scale, when possible CH4 sources, such as small wet areas, exists in the ecosystem. Here, we quantified CH4 fluxes in a cool-temperate larch plantation based on four-year continuous measurements using the hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA) method and dynamic closed chambers with a laser-based analyzer. After filling data gaps for half-hourly data using machine-learning-based regressions, we found that the forest acted as a net CH4 source at the canopy scale: 30 ± 11 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2014, 56 ± 8 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2015, 154 ± 5 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2016, and 132 ± 6 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2017. Hotspot emissions from the edge of the pond could strongly contribute to the canopy-scale emissions. The magnitude of the hotspot emissions was 10-100 times greater than the order of the canopy-scale and chamber-based CH4 fluxes at the dry soils. The high temperatures with wet conditions stimulated the hotspot emissions, and thus induced canopy-scale CH4 emissions in the summer. Understanding and modeling the dynamics of hotspot emissions are important for quantifying CH4 budgets of upland forests. Micrometeorological measurements at various forests are required for revisiting CH4 budget of upland forests.

  14. Variability of non-Gaussian diffusion MRI and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) measurements in the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iima, Mami; Kataoka, Masako; Kanao, Shotaro; Kawai, Makiko; Onishi, Natsuko; Koyasu, Sho; Murata, Katsutoshi; Ohashi, Akane; Sakaguchi, Rena; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-01-01

    We prospectively examined the variability of non-Gaussian diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) measurements with different numbers of b-values and excitations in normal breast tissue and breast lesions. Thirteen volunteers and fourteen patients with breast lesions (seven malignant, eight benign; one patient had bilateral lesions) were recruited in this prospective study (approved by the Internal Review Board). Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed with 16 b-values (0-2500 s/mm2 with one number of excitations [NEX]) and five b-values (0-2500 s/mm2, 3 NEX), using a 3T breast MRI. Intravoxel incoherent motion (flowing blood volume fraction [fIVIM] and pseudodiffusion coefficient [D*]) and non-Gaussian diffusion (theoretical apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] at b value of 0 sec/mm2 [ADC0] and kurtosis [K]) parameters were estimated from IVIM and Kurtosis models using 16 b-values, and synthetic apparent diffusion coefficient (sADC) values were obtained from two key b-values. The variabilities between and within subjects and between different diffusion acquisition methods were estimated. There were no statistical differences in ADC0, K, or sADC values between the different b-values or NEX. A good agreement of diffusion parameters was observed between 16 b-values (one NEX), five b-values (one NEX), and five b-values (three NEX) in normal breast tissue or breast lesions. Insufficient agreement was observed for IVIM parameters. There were no statistical differences in the non-Gaussian diffusion MRI estimated values obtained from a different number of b-values or excitations in normal breast tissue or breast lesions. These data suggest that a limited MRI protocol using a few b-values might be relevant in a clinical setting for the estimation of non-Gaussian diffusion MRI parameters in normal breast tissue and breast lesions.

  15. Experimental hot-wire measurements in a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinarbasi, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the flow physics in a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser. For this reason three component hot wire measurements in the vaneless space and vane region of a low speed centrifugal compressor are presented. A low speed compressor with a 19 bladed backswept impeller and diffuser with 16 wedge vanes were used. The measurements were made at three inter-vane positions and are presented as mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and flow angle distributions. The flow entering the diffuser closely resembles the classic jet-wake flow characteristic of centrifugal impeller discharges. A strong upstream influence of the diffuser vanes is observed which results in significant variations in flow quantities between the vane-to-vane locations. The circumferential variations due to the passage and blade wakes rapidly mix out in the vaneless space, although some variations are still discernible in the vaned region. The impeller blade wakes mix out rapidly within the vaneless space and more rapidly than in an equivalent vaneless diffuser. Although the flow is highly non uniform in velocity at the impeller exit, there is no evidence in the results of any separation from the diffuser vanes

  16. Measurement of the ion temperature in a diffuse theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koichi; Watanabe, Yukio; Ogi, Sukeomi; Sumikawa, Toshio; Akazaki, Masanori

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of helium ion spectra was observed, and the ion temperature of theta pinch plasma was obtained. The apparatus for the measurement consists of a spectroscope, a photomultiplier and an oscilloscope. The time variation of initial plasma density was obtained. The doppler broadening of the spectra was observed in case of the plasma density of 2 x 10 13 /cm 3 and 3 x 10 12 /cm 3 . The analyses of the spectra gave the ion temperature. The double temperature distribution was seen. The temperature of the low temperature part was 5 to 9 electron-volt, and that of the high temperature part several hundred electron-volt. The high temperature is caused by the thermalization of particles accelerated by the magnetic piston. The decay of high temperature ions is due to the charge exchange with the neutral particles. The time of the highest temperature corresponds to the time at which the luminescent layer reaches to the central axis. (Kato, T.)

  17. Laboratory measurements of radon diffusion through multilayered cover systems for uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.; Rich, D.C.; Nederhand, F.A.; Sandquist, G.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of radon fluxes and radon concentration profiles were conducted to characterize the effectiveness of multilayer cover systems for uranium tailings. The cover systems utilized soil and clay materials from proposed disposal sites for the Vitro, Durango, Shiprock, Grand Junction and Riverton tailings piles. Measured radon fluxes were in reasonable agreement with values predicted by multilayer diffusion theory. Results obtained by using air-filled porosities in the diffusion calculations were similar to those obtained by using total porosities. Measured diffusion coefficients were a better basis for predicting radon fluxes than were correlations of diffusion coefficient with moisture or with air porosity. Radon concentration profiles were also fitted by equations for multilayer diffusion in the air-filled space. Layer-order effects in the multilayer cover systems were examined and estimated to amount to 10 to 20 percent for the systems tested. Quality control measurements in support of the multilayer diffusion tests indicated that moisture absorption was not a significant problem in radon flux sampling with charcoal canisters, but that the geometry of the sampler was critical. The geometric design of flux-can samplers was also shown to be important. Enhanced radon diffusion along the walls of the test columns was examined and was found to be insignificant except when the columns had been physically disturbed. Additional moisture injected into two test columns decreased the radon flux, as expected, but appeared to migrate into surrounding materials or to be lost by evaporation. Control of moisture content and compaction in the test columns appeared to be the critical item affecting the accuracies of the experiments

  18. PIV Measurements of Flows around the Wind Turbines with a Flanged-Diffuser Shroud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiko Toshimitsu; Koutarou Nishikawa; Wataru Haruki; Shinichi Oono; Manabu Takao; Yuji Ohya

    2008-01-01

    The wind turbines with a flanged-diffuser shroud -so called "wind lens turbine"- are developed as one of high performance wind turbines by Ohya et al. In order to investigate the flow characteristics and flow acceleration, the paper presents the flow velocity measurements of a long-type and a compact-type wind turbines with a flanged-diffuser shroud by particle image velocimetry. In the case of the long type wind turbine, the velocity vec-tors of the inner flow field of the diffuser for turbine blades rotating and no blades rotating are presented at Rey-nolds number, 0.9x105. Furthermore the flow fields between with and without rotating are compared. Through the PIV measurement results, one can realize that the turbine blades rotating affects as suppress the disturbance and the flow separation near the inner wall of the diffuser. The time average velocity vectors are made on the av-erage of the instantaneous velocity data. There are two large vortices in downstream region of the diffuser. One vortex behind the flange acts as suck in wind to the diffuser and raise the inlet flow velocity. Another large vortex appears in downstream. It might be act as blockage vortex of main flow. The large blockage vortex is not clear in the instantaneous velocity vectors, however it exists clearly in the time average flow field. The flow field around the wind turbine with a compact-type flanged-diffuser shroud is also investigated. The flow pattern behind the flange of the compact-type turbine is the same as the long-type one. It means that the effect of flow acceleration is caused by the unsteady vortices behind the flange. The comparison with CFD and PIV results of meridional time-average streamlines after the compact-type diffuser is also presented.

  19. Nocturnal carbon efflux: reconciliation of eddy covariance and chamber measurements using an alternative to the u*-threshold filtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsel, Eva Van.; Leuning, Ray; Cleugh, Helen A.; Suni, Tanja; Keith, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Micro meteorological measurements made on single towers often underestimate nighttime respiration of terrestrial ecosystems because they cannot account for vertical and horizontal advection, thereby causing systematic errors in estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange. We show that there is a maximum in the sum of the turbulent flux and change in storage of CO 2 in the early evening, R max , that is in close agreement with concurrent and independent estimates of net carbon exchange from soil and plant chambers. We hypothesize that the peak occurs because there is a time delay between the onset of radiative cooling and the development of temperature gradients that are strong enough to initiate thermally-driven horizontal and vertical flows that remove the stored CO 2 . We propose taking advantage of this time delay to develop relationships between R max and soil temperature and moisture. The new parameterization leads to realistic values of nighttime respiration, and therefore to improved estimates of net ecosystem exchange

  20. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  1. Matrix diffusion studies by electrical conductivity methods. Comparison between laboratory and in-situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Y.; Neretnieks, I.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional laboratory diffusion experiments in rock material are time consuming, and quite small samples are generally used. Electrical conductivity measurements, on the other hand, provide a fast means for examining transport properties in rock and allow measurements on larger samples as well. Laboratory measurements using electrical conductivity give results that compare well to those from traditional diffusion experiments. The measurement of the electrical resistivity in the rock surrounding a borehole is a standard method for the detection of water conducting fractures. If these data could be correlated to matrix diffusion properties, in-situ diffusion data from large areas could be obtained. This would be valuable because it would make it possible to obtain data very early in future investigations of potentially suitable sites for a repository. This study compares laboratory electrical conductivity measurements with in-situ resistivity measurements from a borehole at Aespoe. The laboratory samples consist mainly of Aespoe diorite and fine-grained granite and the rock surrounding the borehole of Aespoe diorite, Smaaland granite and fine-grained granite. The comparison shows good agreement between laboratory measurements and in-situ data

  2. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F. C.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Elbers, J. A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-06-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimise the effect of varying turbulent conditions. The moderate CH4 fluxes observed at the location, of the order of 25 nmol m-2 s-1, provided a suitable signal for testing the instruments' performance. Generally, all analysers tested were able to quantify the concentration fluctuations at the frequency range relevant for turbulent exchange and were able to deliver high-quality data. The tested cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) instruments from Picarro, models G2311-f and G1301-f, were superior to other CH4 analysers with respect to instrumental noise. As an open-path instrument susceptible to the effects of rain, the LI-COR LI-7700 achieved lower data coverage and also required larger density corrections; however, the system is especially useful for remote sites that are restricted in power availability. In this study the open-path LI-7700 results were compromised due to a data acquisition problem in our data-logging setup. Some of the older closed-path analysers tested do not measure H2O concentrations alongside CH4 (i.e. FMA1 and DLT-100 by Los Gatos Research) and this complicates data processing since the required corrections for dilution and spectroscopic interactions have to be based on external information. To overcome this issue, we used H2O mole fractions measured by other gas analysers, adjusted them with different methods and then applied them to correct the CH4 fluxes. Following this procedure we estimated a bias of the order of 0.1 g (CH4) m-2 (8% of the measured mean flux) in the processed and corrected CH4 fluxes on a monthly scale due to missing H2O concentration measurements. Finally, cumulative CH4 fluxes over 14 days from three closed-path gas analysers, G2311-f (Picarro Inc

  3. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of biomaterials measured with self-heated thermistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvano, J. W.; Cochran, J. R.; Diller, K. R.

    1985-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental method to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of biomaterials. Self-heated thermistor probes, inserted into the tissue of interest, are used to deliver heat as well as to monitor the rate of heat removal. An empirical calibration procedure allows accurate thermal-property measurements over a wide range of tissue temperatures. Operation of the instrument in three media with known thermal properties shows the uncertainty of measurements to be about 2%. The reproducibility is 0.5% for the thermal-conductivity measurements and 2% for the thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thermal properties were measured in dog, pig, rabbit, and human tissues. The tissues included kidney, spleen, liver, brain, heart, lung, pancreas, colon cancer, and breast cancer. Thermal properties were measured for 65 separate tissue samples at 3, 10, 17, 23, 30, 37, and 45°C. The results show that the temperature coefficient of biomaterials approximates that of water.

  4. Diffusion measurement of intraplaque hemorrhage and intramural hematoma using diffusion weighted MRI at 3T in cervical artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Bin [The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi (China); Yang, Li [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wang, Guangbin; Shi, Honglu; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Huihua [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China)

    2016-10-15

    To assess the difference between carotid haemorrhagic plaque and non-haemorrhagic plaque by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to evaluate carotid intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH) and intramural hematoma (IMH) of cervical artery dissection with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement. Fifty-one symptomatic patients underwent 3.0-T carotid MR imaging, including conventional sequences, three-dimensional (3D) magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence, and DWI. Thirty-nine patients with carotid plaque and eight patients with IMH of cervical artery dissection were finally included. The groups of hemorrhagic plaque, non-hemorrhagic plaque and IMH were divided according to 3D MPRAGE sequence. ADC values of different groups were measured, and t tests were performed. The mean ADC values of hemorrhagic plaques, non-hemorrhagic plaque and IMH were (1.284 ± 0.327) x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s, (1.766 ± 0.477) x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s, and (0.563 ± 0.119) x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The mean ADC values of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic regions in the hemorrhagic plaque group were (0.985 ± 0.376) x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s and (1.480 ± 0.465) x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The differences between the hemorrhagic plaque and non-hemorrhagic plaque, hemorrhagic region and non-hemorrhagic region in hemorrhagic plaque, and the hemorrhagic region in the hemorrhagic plaque and IMH of artery dissection were significant (P < 0.05). DWI may be a useful complement to conventional MR imaging for identifying haemorrhage of carotid plaques and differentiate IMHs from IPH. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion measurement of intraplaque hemorrhage and intramural hematoma using diffusion weighted MRI at 3T in cervical artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Bin; Yang, Li; Wang, Guangbin; Shi, Honglu; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Huihua; Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie

    2016-01-01

    To assess the difference between carotid haemorrhagic plaque and non-haemorrhagic plaque by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to evaluate carotid intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH) and intramural hematoma (IMH) of cervical artery dissection with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement. Fifty-one symptomatic patients underwent 3.0-T carotid MR imaging, including conventional sequences, three-dimensional (3D) magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence, and DWI. Thirty-nine patients with carotid plaque and eight patients with IMH of cervical artery dissection were finally included. The groups of hemorrhagic plaque, non-hemorrhagic plaque and IMH were divided according to 3D MPRAGE sequence. ADC values of different groups were measured, and t tests were performed. The mean ADC values of hemorrhagic plaques, non-hemorrhagic plaque and IMH were (1.284 ± 0.327) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (1.766 ± 0.477) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and (0.563 ± 0.119) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. The mean ADC values of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic regions in the hemorrhagic plaque group were (0.985 ± 0.376) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s and (1.480 ± 0.465) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. The differences between the hemorrhagic plaque and non-hemorrhagic plaque, hemorrhagic region and non-hemorrhagic region in hemorrhagic plaque, and the hemorrhagic region in the hemorrhagic plaque and IMH of artery dissection were significant (P < 0.05). DWI may be a useful complement to conventional MR imaging for identifying haemorrhage of carotid plaques and differentiate IMHs from IPH. (orig.)

  6. Experimental Determination of Drug Diffusion Coefficients in Unstirred Aqueous Environments by Temporally Resolved Concentration Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Cagno, Massimiliano Pio; Clarelli, Fabrizio; Vabenø, Jon

    2018-01-01

    or the need for dedicated instrumentation. In this work, a simple but reliable method based on time resolved concentration measurements by UV-visible spectroscopy in an unstirred aqueous environment was developed. This method is based on spectroscopic measurement of the variation of the local concentration...... characteristics (i.e. ionic strength and presence of complexing agents) on the diffusivity. The method can be employed in any research laboratory equipped with a standard UV-visible spectrophotometer, and could become a useful and straightforward tool in order to characterize diffusion coefficients...

  7. Inter-comparison of Flux-Gradient and Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods for Measuring Ammonia Flux Above a Corn Canopy in Central Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. J.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.; Lichiheb, N.; Heuer, M.; Myles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a precursor to fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient atmosphere. Agricultural activities represent over 80% of anthropogenic emissions of NH3 in the United States. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers contribute > 50% of total NH3 emissions in central Illinois. The U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board has called for improved methods to measure, model, and report atmospheric NH3 concentrations and emissions from agriculture. High uncertainties in the temporal and spatial distribution of NH3 emissions contribute to poor performance of air quality models in predicting ambient PM concentrations. This study reports and compares NH­3 flux measurements of differing temporal resolution obtained with two methods: relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and flux-gradient (FG). REA and FG systems were operated concurrently above a corn canopy at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) Energy Farm during the 2014 corn-growing season. The REA system operated during daytime, providing average fluxes over four-hour sampling intervals, where time resolution was limited by detection limit of denuders. The FG system employed a cavity ring-down spectrometer, and was operated continuously, reporting 30 min flux averages. A flux-footprint evaluation was used for quality control, resulting in 1,178 qualified FG measurements, 82 of which were coincident with REA measurements. Similar emission trends were observed with both systems, with peak NH3 emission observed one week after fertilization. For all coincident samples, mean NH3 flux was 205 ± 300 ng-N-m2s-1 and 110 ± 256 ng-N-m2s-1 as measured with REA and FG, respectively, where positive flux indicates emission. This is the first reported inter-comparison of REA and FG methods as used for quantifying NH3 fluxes from cropland. Preliminary analysis indicates the improved temporal resolution and continuous sampling enabled by FG allow for the identification of emission pulses

  8. Evaluation of an on-line methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes by eddy-covariance with a PTR-TOF-Qi-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Buysse, Pauline; Lafouge, Florence; Ciuraru, Raluca; Decuq, Céline; Zurfluh, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Field scale flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are essential for improving our knowledge of VOC emissions from ecosystems. Many VOCs are emitted from and deposited to ecosystems. Especially less known, are crops which represent more than 50% of French terrestrial surfaces. In this study, we evaluate a new on-line methodology for measuring VOC fluxes by Eddy Covariance with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS. Measurements were performed at the ICOS FR-GRI site over a crop using a 30 m long high flow rate sampling line and an ultrasonic anemometer. A Labview program was specially designed for acquisition and on-line covariance calculation: Whole mass spectra ( 240000 channels) were acquired on-line at 10 Hz and stored in a temporary memory. Every 5 minutes, the spectra were mass-calibrated and normalized by the primary ion peak integral at 10 Hz. The mass spectra peaks were then retrieved from the 5-min averaged spectra by withdrawing the baseline, determining the resolution and using a multiple-peak detection algorithm. In order to optimize the peak detection algorithm for the covariance, we determined the covariances as the integrals of the peaks of the vertical-air-velocity-fluctuation weighed-averaged-spectra. In other terms, we calculate , were w is the vertical component of the air velocity, Sp is the spectra, t is time, lag is the decorrelation lag time and denotes an average. The lag time was determined as the decorrelation time between w and the primary ion (at mass 21.022) which integrates the contribution of all reactions of VOC and water with the primary ion. Our algorithm was evaluated by comparing the exchange velocity of water vapor measured by an open path absorption spectroscopy instrument and the water cluster measured with the PTRQi-TOF-MS. The influence of the algorithm parameters and lag determination is discussed. This study was supported by the ADEME-CORTEA COV3ER project (http://www6.inra.fr/cov3er).

  9. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen Ming-Hsu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations and no rotation, in association with averaging periods of 15 - 480 min, were applied to compute surface heat and water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance approach. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC watershed, located in central Taiwan. For no rotation and double rotation approaches, an adequate averaging period of 15 or 30 min was suggested for better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. For the planar-fit rotation approach, an adequate averaging period of 60 or 120 min was recommended, and a typical averaging period of 30 min is not superior to that of 60 or 120 min in terms of better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. The Ogive function analysis revealed that the energy closure was improved with the increase of averaging time by capturing sensible heat fluxes at low-frequency ranges during certain midday hours at LHC site. Seasonal variations of daily energy closure fractions, high in dry season and low in wet season, were found to be associated with the surface dryness and strength of turbulent development. The mismatching of flux footprint areas among flux sensors was suggested as the cause of larger CF variations during the dry seasons as that indicated by the footprint analysis showing scattered source areas. During the wet season, the underestimation of turbulent fluxes by EC observations at the LHC site was attributed to weak turbulence developments as the source area identified by the footprint analysis was closer to the flux tower than those scattered in dry season.

  10. Thermal Diffusivity Measurement for Thermal Spray Coating Attached to Substrate Using Laser Flash Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Endo, Satoshi; Baba, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshio; Kojima, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Akira; Ono, Fumio

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings are used as heat and wear shields of gas turbine blades. There is a strong need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of coating for thermal design and use. The thermal conductivity of a bulk material is obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density above room temperature in many cases. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are unique for a given material because they are sensitive to the structure of the material. Therefore, it is important to measure them in each sample. However it is difficult to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of coatings because coatings are attached to substrates. In order to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of a coating attached to the substrate, we have examined the laser flash method with the multilayer model on the basis of the response function method. We carried out laser flash measurements in layered samples composed of a CoNiCrAlY bond coating and a 8YSZ top coating by thermal spraying on a Ni-based superalloy substrate. It was found that the procedure using laser flash method with the multilayer model is useful for the thermal diffusivity evaluation of a coating attached to a substrate.

  11. Assessment and quantification of sources of variability in breast apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements at diffusion weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, E.; Waugh, S.; Priba, L.; Davis, Z.; Crowe, E.; Vinnicombe, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Inter-scan errors have minimal contribution to ADC measurement variability. • Intra-observer measures of ADC values in breast cancer are excellent. • ADC measures in whole tumour are more reproducible than minimum ADC measures. • ADC measurement error is most influenced by multiple readers. - Abstract: Purpose: Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements are increasingly used for assessing breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy although little data exists on ADC measurement reproducibility. The purpose of this work was to investigate and characterise the magnitude of errors in ADC measures that may be encountered in such follow-up studies- namely scanner stability, scan–scan reproducibility, inter- and intra- observer measures and the most reproducible measurement of ADC. Methods: Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the prospective study of healthy volunteers and written consent acquired for the retrospective study of patient images. All scanning was performed on a 3.0-T MRI scanner. Scanner stability was assessed using an ice-water phantom weekly for 12 weeks. Inter-scan repeatability was assessed across two scans of 10 healthy volunteers (26–61 years; mean: 44.7 years). Inter- and intra-reader analysis repeatability was measured in 52 carcinomas from clinical patients (29–70 years; mean: 50.0 years) by measuring the whole tumor ADC value on a single slice with maximum tumor diameter (ADC S ) and the ADC value of a small region of interest (ROI) on the same slice (ADC min ). Repeatability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of repeatability (CoR). Results: Scanner stability contributed 6% error to phantom ADC measurements (0.071 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s; mean ADC = 1.089 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s). The measured scan-scan CoR in the volunteers was 0.122 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s, contributing an error of 8% to the mean measured values (ADC scan1 = 1.529 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s; ADC scan

  12. Assessment and quantification of sources of variability in breast apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements at diffusion weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, E., E-mail: ytteb84@hotmail.com [Breast Imaging Department, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY (United Kingdom); Waugh, S., E-mail: shelley.waugh@nhs.net [Department of Medical Physics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY (United Kingdom); Department of Clinical Radiology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY (United Kingdom); Priba, L., E-mail: lpriba@nhs.net [Department of Medical Physics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY (United Kingdom); Davis, Z., E-mail: zoedavis@doctors.org.uk [Breast Imaging Department, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY (United Kingdom); Crowe, E., E-mail: e.crowe@nhs.net [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S., E-mail: s.vinnicombe@dundee.ac.uk [Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Inter-scan errors have minimal contribution to ADC measurement variability. • Intra-observer measures of ADC values in breast cancer are excellent. • ADC measures in whole tumour are more reproducible than minimum ADC measures. • ADC measurement error is most influenced by multiple readers. - Abstract: Purpose: Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements are increasingly used for assessing breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy although little data exists on ADC measurement reproducibility. The purpose of this work was to investigate and characterise the magnitude of errors in ADC measures that may be encountered in such follow-up studies- namely scanner stability, scan–scan reproducibility, inter- and intra- observer measures and the most reproducible measurement of ADC. Methods: Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the prospective study of healthy volunteers and written consent acquired for the retrospective study of patient images. All scanning was performed on a 3.0-T MRI scanner. Scanner stability was assessed using an ice-water phantom weekly for 12 weeks. Inter-scan repeatability was assessed across two scans of 10 healthy volunteers (26–61 years; mean: 44.7 years). Inter- and intra-reader analysis repeatability was measured in 52 carcinomas from clinical patients (29–70 years; mean: 50.0 years) by measuring the whole tumor ADC value on a single slice with maximum tumor diameter (ADC{sub S}) and the ADC value of a small region of interest (ROI) on the same slice (ADC{sub min}). Repeatability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of repeatability (CoR). Results: Scanner stability contributed 6% error to phantom ADC measurements (0.071 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; mean ADC = 1.089 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s). The measured scan-scan CoR in the volunteers was 0.122 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, contributing an error of 8% to the mean measured values (ADC

  13. Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models applied to Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2013-01-01

    The linear k−ε eddy viscosity model and modified versions of two existing nonlinear eddy viscosity models are applied to single wind turbine wake simulations using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code. Results are compared with field wake measurements. The nonlinear models give better results...

  14. Accuracy analysis of the thermal diffusivity measurement of molten salts by stepwise heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshio; Furukawa, Kazuo

    1976-11-01

    The stepwise heating method for measuring thermal diffusivity of molten salts is based on the electrical heating of a thin metal plate as a plane heat source in the molten salt. In this method, the following estimations on error are of importance: (1) thickness effect of the metal plate, (2) effective length between the plate and a temperature measuring point and (3) effect of the noise on the temperature rise signal. In this report, a measuring apparatus is proposed and measuring conditions are suggested on the basis of error estimations. The measurements for distilled water and glycerine were made first to test the performance; the results agreed well with standard values. The thermal diffusivities of molten NaNO 3 at 320-380 0 C and of molten Li 2 BeF 4 at 470-700 0 C were measured. (auth.)

  15. Using a simple apparatus to measure direct and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation at remote locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Cruse

    Full Text Available Plant canopy interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR drives carbon dioxide (CO2, water and energy cycling in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Quantifying intercepted PAR requires accurate measurements of total incident PAR above canopies and direct beam and diffuse PAR components. While some regional data sets include these data, e.g. from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program sites, they are not often applicable to local research sites because of the variable nature (spatial and temporal of environmental variables that influence incoming PAR. Currently available instrumentation that measures diffuse and direct beam radiation separately can be cost prohibitive and require frequent adjustments. Alternatively, generalized empirical relationships that relate atmospheric variables and radiation components can be used but require assumptions that increase the potential for error. Our goal here was to construct and test a cheaper, highly portable instrument alternative that could be used at remote field sites to measure total, diffuse and direct beam PAR for extended time periods without supervision. The apparatus tested here uses a fabricated, solar powered rotating shadowband and other commercially available parts to collect continuous hourly PAR data. Measurements of total incident PAR had nearly a one-to-one relationship with total incident radiation measurements taken at the same research site by an unobstructed point quantum sensor. Additionally, measurements of diffuse PAR compared favorably with modeled estimates from previously published data, but displayed significant differences that were attributed to the important influence of rapidly changing local environmental conditions. The cost of the system is about 50% less than comparable commercially available systems that require periodic, but not continual adjustments. Overall, the data produced using this apparatus indicates that this instrumentation has the

  16. Large-eddy simulation, atmospheric measurement and inverse modeling of greenhouse gas emissions at local spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottrott, Anders Andelman

    non-volatile switching of magnetization would be more promising for information storage or MERAM devices with lower energy consumption and the magnetic state can be further controlled by voltage impulse. In this work, we first study the equivalent of direct and converse magnetoelectric effects. The resonant direct and converse magnetoelectric (ME) effects have been investigated experimentally and theoretically in FeGa/PZT/FeGa sandwich laminate composites. The frequency responses of direct and converse magnetoelectric effects were measured under the same electric and magnetic bias conditions. The resonant direct ME effect (DME) occurs at an antiresonance frequency, while resonant converse ME effect (CME) occurs at a resonance frequency. The antiresonance and resonance frequencies have close but different values under identical bias conditions. The magnitudes of resonant effective ME coefficients for direct and converse ME effects are also not equal. Based on different sets of constitutive equations of the materials for DME and CME, a new model was developed to describe the frequency response of DME and CME in laminate composite, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Inequivalence of resonant ME effects is ascribed to the different mechanical and electrical boundary conditions for DME and CME. On the other hand, similar bias E and H field dependence was observed for both DME and CME resonance frequencies and resonant coefficients, indicating consistency between DME and CME effects. In the study of the frequency response of DME and CME, the linear piezoelectric effect is used. However, this linear piezoelectric effect in converse magnetoelectric coupling would lead to "butter-fly" like magnetization vs. electric field curve which leads to a "volatile" behavior in magnetic memory system. In the presented study, a unique ferroelastic switching pathway in ferroelectric substrates is utilized to produce two distinct, reversible and stable lattice strain

  17. Interview with Eddie Reisch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    Eddie Reisch is currently working as a policy advisor for Te Reo Maori Operational Policy within the Student Achievement group with the Ministry of Education in New Zealand, where he has implemented and led a range of e-learning initiatives and developments, particularly the Virtual Learning Network (VLN). He is regarded as one of the leading…

  18. A new technique to measure fission-product diffusion coefficients in UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, W.H.; Verrall, R.A.; Bushby, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new out-reactor technique for the measurement of fission-product diffusion rates in UO 2 . The technique accurately simulates in-reactor fission-fragment effects: a thermal diffusion that is due to localized mixing in the fission track, radiation-enhanced diffusion that is due to point-defect creation by fission fragments, and bubble resolution. The technique utilizes heavy-ion accelerators - low energy (40 keV to 1 MeV) for fission-product implantation, high energy (72 MeV) to create fission-fragment damage effects, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for measuring the depth profile of the implanted species. Preliminary results are presented from annealing tests (not in the 72 MeV ion flux) at 1465 deg. C and 1650 deg. C at low and high concentrations of fission products. (author)

  19. Measurements of Plasma Expansion due to Background Gas in the Electron Diffusion Gauge Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Kyle A.; Paul, Stephen F.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    The expansion of pure electron plasmas due to collisions with background neutral gas atoms in the Electron Diffusion Gauge (EDG) experiment device is observed. Measurements of plasma expansion with the new, phosphor-screen density diagnostic suggest that the expansion rates measured previously were observed during the plasma's relaxation to quasi-thermal-equilibrium, making it even more remarkable that they scale classically with pressure. Measurements of the on-axis, parallel plasma temperature evolution support the conclusion

  20. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Gura Sadovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE’s success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE’s direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists.

  1. Electroluminescence pulse shape and electron diffusion in liquid argon measured in a dual-phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2018-02-05

    We report the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant in liquid argon with the DarkSide-50 dual-phase time projection chamber. The measurement is performed at drift electric fields of 100 V/cm, 150 V/cm, and 200 V/cm using high statistics $^{39}$Ar decays from atmospheric argon. We derive an expression to describe the pulse shape of the electroluminescence signal (S2) in dual-phase TPCs. The derived S2 pulse shape is fit to events from the uppermost portion of the TPC in order to characterize the radial dependence of the signal. The results are provided as inputs to the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant DL, which we find to be (4.12 $\\pm$ 0.04) cm$^2$/s for a selection of 140keV electron recoil events in 200V/cm drift field and 2.8kV/cm extraction field. To study the systematics of our measurement we examine datasets of varying event energy, field strength, and detector volume yielding a weighted average value for the diffusion constant of (4.09 $\\pm$ 0.09) cm$^2$ /s. The measured longitudinal diffusion constant is observed to have an energy dependence, and within the studied energy range the result is systematically lower than other results in the literature.

  2. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David

    2014-01-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy......% greater than eddy covariance measurements. We suggest possible reasons for this difference and provide recommendations for further research for improving measurements of surface energy fluxes over small water bodies using eddy covariance and scintillometry. Key Points Source areas for Eddy covariance...... and scintillometry were on the water surface Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements Scintillometer estimates of latent heat flux were greater than eddy covariance...

  3. On copper diffusion in silicon measured by glow discharge mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modanese, Chiara; Gaspar, Guilherme; Arnberg, Lars; Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2014-11-01

    Copper contamination occurs frequently in silicon for photovoltaic applications due to its very fast diffusion coupled with a low solid solubility, especially at room temperature. The combination of these properties exerts a challenge on the direct analysis of Cu bulk concentration in Si by sputtering techniques like glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). This work aims at addressing the challenges in quantitative analysis of fast diffusing elements in Si matrix by GDMS. N-type, monocrystalline (Czochralski) silicon samples were intentionally contaminated with Cu after solidification and consequently annealed at 900 °C to ensure a homogeneous distribution of Cu in the bulk. The samples were quenched after annealing to control the extent of the diffusion to the surface prior to the GDMS analyses, which were carried out at different time intervals from within few minutes after cooling onward. The Cu profiles were measured by high-resolution GDMS operating in a continuous direct current mode, where the integration step length was set to ∼0.5 μm over a total sputtered depth of 8-30 μm. The temperature of the samples during the GDMS analyses was also measured in order to evaluate the diffusion. The Cu contamination of n-type Si samples was observed to be highly material dependent. The practical impact of Cu out-diffusion on the calculation of the relative sensitivity factor (RSF) of Cu in Si is discussed.

  4. Non-destructive measurement methods for large scale gaseous diffusion process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.L.; Hagenauer, R.C.; McGinnis, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Two measurement methods have been developed to measure non-destructively uranium hold-up in gaseous diffusion plants. These methods include passive neutron and passive γ ray measurements. An additional method, high resolution γ ray spectroscopy, provides supplementary information about additional γ ray emitting isotopes, γ ray correction factors, 235 U/ 234 U ratios and 235 U enrichment. Many of these methods can be used as a general purpose measurement technique for large containers of uranium. Measurement applications for these methods include uranium hold-up, waste measurements, criticality safety and nuclear accountability

  5. Turbulent fluxes by "Conditional Eddy Sampling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebicke, Lukas

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent flux measurements are key to understanding ecosystem scale energy and matter exchange, including atmospheric trace gases. While the eddy covariance approach has evolved as an invaluable tool to quantify fluxes of e.g. CO2 and H2O continuously, it is limited to very few atmospheric constituents for which sufficiently fast analyzers exist. High instrument cost, lack of field-readiness or high power consumption (e.g. many recent laser-based systems requiring strong vacuum) further impair application to other tracers. Alternative micrometeorological approaches such as conditional sampling might overcome major limitations. Although the idea of eddy accumulation has already been proposed by Desjardin in 1972 (Desjardin, 1977), at the time it could not be realized for trace gases. Major simplifications by Businger and Oncley (1990) lead to it's widespread application as 'Relaxed Eddy Accumulation' (REA). However, those simplifications (flux gradient similarity with constant flow rate sampling irrespective of vertical wind velocity and introduction of a deadband around zero vertical wind velocity) have degraded eddy accumulation to an indirect method, introducing issues of scalar similarity and often lack of suitable scalar flux proxies. Here we present a real implementation of a true eddy accumulation system according to the original concept. Key to our approach, which we call 'Conditional Eddy Sampling' (CES), is the mathematical formulation of conditional sampling in it's true form of a direct eddy flux measurement paired with a performant real implementation. Dedicated hardware controlled by near-real-time software allows full signal recovery at 10 or 20 Hz, very fast valve switching, instant vertical wind velocity proportional flow rate control, virtually no deadband and adaptive power management. Demonstrated system performance often exceeds requirements for flux measurements by orders of magnitude. The system's exceptionally low power consumption is ideal

  6. The measurement problem on classical diffusion process: inverse method on stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerelle, M.; Iost, A.

    2004-01-01

    In a high number of diffusive systems, measures are processed to calculate material parameters such as diffusion coefficients, or to verify the accuracy of mathematical models. However, the precision of the parameter determination or of the model relevance depends on the location of the measure itself. The aim of this paper is first to analyse, for a mono-dimensional system, the precision of the measure in relation with its location by an inverse problem algorithm and secondly to examine the physical meaning of the results. Statistical mechanic considerations show that, passing over a time-distance criterion, measurement becomes uncertain whatever the initial conditions. The criterion proves that this chaotic mode is related to the production of anti-entropy at a mesoscopique scale that is in violation to quantum theory about measurement

  7. Measuring the temperature dependent thermal diffusivity of geomaterials using high-speed differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Heat diffusion in the Earth's crust is critical to fundamental geological processes, such as the cooling of magma, heat dissipation during and following transient heating events (e.g. during frictional heating along faults), and to the timescales of contact metamorphosis. The complex composition and multiphase nature of geomaterials prohibits the accurate modeling of thermal diffusivities and measurements over a range of temperatures are sparse due to the specialized nature of the equipment and lack of instrument availability. We present a novel method to measure the thermal diffusivity of geomaterials such as minerals and rocks with high precision and accuracy using a commercially available differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). A DSC 404 F1 Pegasus® equipped with a Netzsch high-speed furnace was used to apply a step-heating program to corundum single crystal standards of varying thicknesses. The standards were cylindrical discs of 0.25-1 mm thickness with 5.2-6 mm diameter. Heating between each 50 °C temperature interval was conducted at a rate of 100 °C/min over the temperature range 150-1050 °C. Such large heating rates induces temperature disequilibrium in the samples used. However, isothermal segments of 2 minutes were used during which the temperature variably equilibrated with the furnace between the heating segments and thus the directly-measured heat-flow relaxed to a constant value before the next heating step was applied. A finite-difference 2D conductive heat transfer model was used in cylindrical geometry for which the measured furnace temperature was directly applied as the boundary condition on the sample-cylinder surfaces. The model temperature was averaged over the sample volume per unit time and converted to heat-flow using the well constrained thermal properties for corundum single crystals. By adjusting the thermal diffusivity in the model solution and comparing the resultant heat-flow with the measured values, we obtain a model

  8. Measurement of the thermal diffusivity on ceramics and metals using the laser flash method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumm, J.; Sauseng, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: In the past few decades measurement of the thermophysical properties such as thermal expansion, specific heat, thermal diffusivity or thermal conductivity has become increasingly important for industrial applications. One example is the optimization of the heat transfer in industrial assemblies used for automotive or space applications. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of all components exposed to high and/or sub-ambient temperatures or large temperature gradients should be accurately known. Another well known example is the characterization of materials such as graphite used in nuclear reactors. Furthermore, analysis of solid and liquid metals is of paramount importance for the simulation of casting processes using finite element software programs. Thermal barrier coatings (zirconia) are used more and more often for high-temperature turbine blades. Reducing the thermal conductivity and the heat transfer through such coatings usually allows higher working temperatures and therefore higher efficiency of the gas turbine. These examples clearly demonstrate the need of instrumentation for the accurate measurement of the required thermophysical properties. The laser flash method has been developed to become one of the most commonly used techniques for the measurement of the thermal diffusivity of various kinds of solids and liquids. Easy sample preparation, small sample dimensions, fast measurement times and high accuracy are only some of the advantages of this non-destructive measurement technique. In addition, temperature dependent measurements can easily be realized. Since the development of the method by Parker et al. new routines for processing of the raw data have been established. Analytical mathematical descriptions were found to compensate for heat loss and finite pulse effects. Using modern personal computers and non-linear regression routines, mathematical models can be used to fit the raw data, yielding improved results for thermal

  9. Spatially Resolved Two-Color Diffusion Measurements in Human Skin Applied to Transdermal Liposome Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained by mu......; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.461....

  10. Comparison of measured and satellite-derived spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients for the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.

    The results of study comparing the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients Kd(Lambda) measured in the Arabian Sea with those derived from the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) using three algorithms, of which two are empirical...

  11. Measurements of diffusive sublayer thicknesses in the ocean by alabaster dissolution, and their implications for the measurements of benthic fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, Peter H.; Anderson, Robert F.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Bowles, Walter

    1991-06-01

    Fluxes of reactive chemical species across the sediment-water interface can profoundly influence the dominant biogeochemical cycles in the worlds ocean. However, reliable in-situ measurements of benthic fluxes of many reactive species cannot be carried out without adjustment of stirring rates inside benthic flux chambers to match boundary layer conditions prevailing outside. A simple method to compare flow levels consists of measurements of gypsum dissolution rates inside benthic chambers and on the seafloor. The measurement of the diffusion-controlled dissolution rate of gypsum allows the estimation of the diffusive sublayer thickness and the time-averaged bottom stress on the seafloor. This method had previously been intercalibrated with the stress sensor method in flumes and inside benthic chambers. We describe here free-vehicle deployments of alabaster plates on the bottom of the ocean which gave results consistent with hydrodynamic theory. Errors in the calculated diffusive sublayer thicknesses were estimated to be about 10-15% for typical deployment conditions in the ocean. Current velocities 5 m off the bottom, which were measured concurrently during two deployments, allowed for comparisons with hydrodynamic predictions of diffusive sublayer thicknesses. The values obtained this way agreed within 15%. The measured mass transfer velocity was found to correlate with the plate dimension L, to the power of ⅓. This confirms the theoretical procedure for extrapolating to infinite plate size when calculating the sublayer impedance of solute fluxes from sediments (where L is large). Typical values of diffusive sublayer thicknesses, corrected to infinite plate size, were 1200 μm for current velocities, U100, of 2 cm s-1, and 500 μm at 8 cm s-1. Furthermore, values of friction velocities calculated from alabaster dissolution were compared with those using stress sensors. Gypsum plate values of u* were 0 and 30% lower than skin friction values of u*, at u* values

  12. Diffusion abnormalities of the uncinate fasciculus in Alzheimer's disease: diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis using a new method to measure the core of the tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, Hasina; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Osamu; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Ohtomo, Kuni; Aoki, Shigeki; Sato, Noriko; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Arima, Kunimasa; Furuta, Nobuo; Uno, Masatake; Hirai, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to determine diffusion abnormalities in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) using a new method for measuring the core of the tract. We studied 19 patients with AD and 19 age-matched control subjects who underwent MRI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTT of the UF was generated. The mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the core of the tract were measured after voxelized tract shape processing. Student's t-test was used to compare results between patients with AD and controls. Intraobserver correlation tests were also performed. FA was significantly lower (P 0.93 for measured FA and r > 0.92 for measured MD. Our results suggest that FA reflects progression of AD-related histopathological changes in the UF of the white matter and may represent a useful biological index in monitoring AD. Diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis with voxelized tract shape processing to measure the core of the tract may be a sensitive tool for evaluation of diffusion abnormalities of white matter tracts in AD. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of through-thickness thermal diffusivity of thermoplastics using thermal wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Mellinger, A.

    2015-04-01

    Thermo-physical properties, such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat are important quantities that are needed to interpret and characterize thermoplastic materials. Such characterization is necessary for many applications, ranging from aerospace engineering to food packaging, electrical and electronic industry and medical science. In this work, the thermal diffusivity of commercially available polymeric films is measured in the thickness direction at room temperature using thermal wave method. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental values.

  14. Procedures and apparatus for measuring diffusion and distribution coefficients in compacted clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, H B

    1993-12-01

    Diffusion and distribution coefficients are needed to assess the migration of radionuclides through the compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. This report describes the techniques used to measure these coefficients. Both steady-state and transient diffusion experiments are discussed. The procedures used to prepare the clay plug, assemble the cell, conduct the experiment and calculate the results are described. In addition, methods for obtaining distribution coefficients for radionuclides on both loose and compacted clays are discussed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  15. Derivation of Inter-Atomic Force Constants of Cu2O from Diffuse Neutron Scattering Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Makhsun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutron scattering intensity from Cu2O compound has been measured at 10 K and 295 K with High Resolution Powder Diffractometer at JRR-3 JAEA. The oscillatory diffuse scattering related to correlations among thermal displacements of atoms was observed at 295 K. The correlation parameters were determined from the observed diffuse scattering intensity at 10 and 295 K. The force constants between the neighboring atoms in Cu2O were estimated from the correlation parameters and compared to those of Ag2O

  16. Measurement of the diffusion length of thermal neutrons in the beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koechlin, J.C.; Martelly, J.; Duggal, V.P.

    1955-01-01

    The diffusion length of thermal neutrons in the beryllium oxide has been obtained while studying the spatial distribution of the neutrons in a massive parallelepiped of this matter placed before the thermal column of the reactor core of Saclay. The mean density of the beryllium oxide (BeO) is 2,95 gr/cm 3 , the mean density of the massif is 2,92 gr/cm 3 . The value of the diffusion length, deducted of the done measures, is: L = 32,7 ± 0,5 cm (likely gap). Some remarks are formulated about the influence of the spectral distribution of the neutrons flux used. (authors) [fr

  17. Procedures and apparatus for measuring diffusion and distribution coefficients in compacted clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, H.B.

    1993-12-01

    Diffusion and distribution coefficients are needed to assess the migration of radionuclides through the compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. This report describes the techniques used to measure these coefficients. Both steady-state and transient diffusion experiments are discussed. The procedures used to prepare the clay plug, assemble the cell, conduct the experiment and calculate the results are described. In addition, methods for obtaining distribution coefficients for radionuclides on both loose and compacted clays are discussed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs

  18. Evaluation of Systematic and Random Error in the Measurement of Equilibrium Solubility and Diffusion Coefficient for Liquids in Polymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuely, Wendel

    2001-01-01

    A standardized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) desorption method for measuring the equilibrium solubility and diffusion coefficient of toxic contaminants with polymers was further developed and evaluated...

  19. Measurement of pore diffusion in catalytic materials. Report 1997-07-01--1997-12-31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, Dennis; Barbesta, Fabio; Foresti, Laura; Thevenin, Philippe; Bjoernbom, Pehr; Jaeraas, Sven [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2000-05-01

    This report covers the work during the period (97-07-01--97-12-31) of NUTEK project P10313-1 'Measurement of pore diffusion in catalytic materials'. The project was carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology - Chemical Technology at Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan. The performance of heterogeneous catalysts is strongly dependent of the combined rate of pore diffusion and chemical reaction. In order to describe correctly the interactions between physical and chemical phenomena in porous media, it is necessary to know the effective values of the diffusion coefficients in the catalyst. Existing mathematical correlations of the diffusivity coefficients may give misleading results so there is a need to determine those values experimentally. Literature studies and previous work in this laboratory have shown that pulse chromatography is to prefer as a fast and reliable method to measure effective diffusivities. In this study, the pulse chromatographic technique was used to determine the effective diffusivity in commercial cylindrical ring-shaped catalysts in order to validate and further develop this technique. The pellets, approximately 5-mm long, were mounted axially side by side and a dense polymer was shrunk at the outer wall, fastening the catalyst particles in a column of arbitrary length and with a rigid structure. The value of the diffusivity coefficient was determined by matching the experimental response curve by the theoretical one, solved numerically in the time domain using the finite difference method. Two types of model equations relating the transport processes occurring in the column were derived. In both models the stationary phase was treated as homogeneous and the axial diffusion in it was neglected. The more rigorous, or two dimensional model, accounted for radial diffusion in the gas phase, while in the simpler, or one dimensional model, the solute in the gas phase was averaged in terms of a local mean concentration

  20. Measurements of VOC fluxes by Eddy-covariance with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS over a mature wheat crop near Paris: Evaluation of data quality and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Pauline; Loubet, Benjamin; Ciuraru, Raluca; Lafouge, Florence; Zurfluh, Olivier; Gonzaga-Gomez, Lais; Fanucci, Olivier; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Decuq, Céline; Gros, Valérie; Sarda, Roland; Zannoni, Nora

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes exchanged by terrestrial ecosystems is of large interest because of their influence on the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere including aerosols and oxidants. Latest developments in the techniques for detecting, identifying and measuring VOC fluxes have considerably improved the abilities to get reliable estimates. Among these, the eddy-covariance (EC) methodology constitutes the most direct approach, and relies on both well-established principles (Aubinet et al. 2000) and a sound continuously worldwide improving experience. The combination of the EC methodology with the latest proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) device, the PTR-Qi-TOF-MS, which allows the identification and quantification of more than 500 VOC at high frequency, now provides a very powerful and precise tool for an accurate quantification of VOC fluxes on various types of terrestrial ecosystems. The complexity of the whole methodology however demands that several data quality requirements are fulfilled. VOC fluxes were measured by EC with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS (national instrument within the ANAEE-France framework) for one month and a half over a mature wheat crop near Paris (FR-GRI ICOS site). Most important emissions (by descending order) were observed from detected compounds with mass-over-charge (m/z) ratios of 33.033 (methanol), 45.033 (acetaldehyde), 93.033 (not identified yet), 59.049 (acetone), and 63.026 (dimethyl sulfide or DMS). Emissions from higher-mass compounds, which might be due to pesticide applications at the beginning of our observation period, were also detected. Some compounds were also seen to deposit (e.g. m/z 47.013, 71.085, 75.044, 83.05) while others exhibited bidirectional fluxes (e.g. m/z 57.07, 69.07). Before analyzing VOC flux responses to meteorological and crop development drivers, a data quality check was performed which included (i) uncertainty analysis of mass and concentration

  1. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zanotelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio of net primary production (NPP over gross primary production (GPP, is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global GPP estimates with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, NPP and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010. We applied a measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard, both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on a yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m−2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m−2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruit: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71

  2. Eddy covariance flux measurements confirm extreme CH4 emissions from a Swiss hydropower reservoir and resolve their short-term variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas budgets quantified via land-surface eddy covariance (EC flux sites differ significantly from those obtained via inverse modeling. A possible reason for the discrepancy between methods may be our gap in quantitative knowledge of methane (CH4 fluxes. In this study we carried out EC flux measurements during two intensive campaigns in summer 2008 to quantify methane flux from a hydropower reservoir and link its temporal variability to environmental driving forces: water temperature and pressure changes (atmospheric and due to changes in lake level. Methane fluxes were extremely high and highly variable, but consistently showed gas efflux from the lake when the wind was approaching the EC sensors across the open water, as confirmed by floating chamber flux measurements. The average flux was 3.8 ± 0.4 μg C m−2 s−1 (mean ± SE with a median of 1.4 μg C m−2 s−1, which is quite high even compared to tropical reservoirs. Floating chamber fluxes from four selected days confirmed such high fluxes with 7.4 ± 1.3 μg C m−2 s−1. Fluxes increased exponentially with increasing temperatures, but were decreasing exponentially with increasing atmospheric and/or lake level pressure. A multiple regression using lake surface temperatures (0.1 m depth, temperature at depth (10 m deep in front of the dam, atmospheric pressure, and lake level was able to explain 35.4% of the overall variance. This best fit included each variable averaged over a 9-h moving window, plus the respective short-term residuals thereof. We estimate that an annual average of 3% of the particulate organic matter (POM input via the river is sufficient to sustain these large CH4 fluxes. To compensate the global warming potential associated with the CH4 effluxes from this hydropower reservoir a 1.3 to 3.7 times larger terrestrial area with net carbon dioxide uptake is needed if a European-scale compilation of grasslands, croplands and forests is taken as reference. This

  3. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy-covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotelli, D.; Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Tagliavini, M.

    2012-10-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE) is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global estimates of gross primary production with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, net primary production (NPP) and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010). We applied a~measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross-check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m-2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m-2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruits: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls) contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71 ± 0.09, was higher than the previously suggested

  4. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotelli, D.; Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Tagliavini, M.

    2013-05-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), the ratio of net primary production (NPP) over gross primary production (GPP), is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global GPP estimates with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, NPP and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010). We applied a measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard, both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on a yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m-2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m-2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruit: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls) contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71 ± 0.12, was higher

  5. Peptide self-association in aqueous trifluoroethanol monitored by pulsed field gradient NMR diffusion measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Shenggen [Biomolecular Research Institute (Australia); Howlett, Geoffrey J. [University of Melbourne, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Australia); Norton, Raymond S. [Biomolecular Research Institute (Australia)

    2000-02-15

    Defining the self-association state of a molecule in solution can be an important step in NMR-based structure determination. This is particularly true of peptides, where there can be a relatively small number of long-range interactions and misinterpretation of an intermolecular NOE as an intramolecular contact can have a dramatic influence on the final calculated structure. In this paper, we have investigated the use of translational self-diffusion coefficient measurements to detect self-association in aqueous trifluoroethanol of three peptides which are analogues of the C-terminal region of human neuropeptide Y. Experimentally measured diffusion coefficients were extrapolated to D{sup 0}, the limiting value as the peptide concentration approaches zero, and then converted to D{sub 20,w}, the diffusion coefficient after correction for temperature and the viscosity of the solvent. A decrease in D{sub 20,w} of about 16% was found for all three peptides in aqueous TFE (30% by volume) compared with water, which is in reasonable agreement with the expected decrease upon dimerisation, the presence of which was indicated by sedimentation equilibrium measurements. Apparent molecular masses of these peptides in both solutions were also calculated from their diffusion coefficients and similar results were obtained. Several potential internal standards, including acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide and dioxane, were assessed as monitors of solution viscosity over a range of trifluoroethanol concentrations. Compared with independent measurements of viscosity, acetonitrile was the most accurate standard among these four. The practical limitations of a quantitative assessment of peptide self-association from translational diffusion coefficients measured by PFGNMR, including the calculation of apparent molecular mass, are also discussed.

  6. An extended laser flash technique for thermal diffusivity measurement of high-temperature materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, F.; Khodadadi, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of thermal diffusivity data for high-temperature materials (solids and liquids) is very important in analyzing a number of processes, among them solidification, crystal growth, and welding. However, reliable thermal diffusivity versus temperature data, particularly those for high-temperature liquids, are still far from complete. The main measurement difficulties are due to the presence of convection and the requirement for a container. Fortunately, the availability of levitation techniques has made it possible to solve the containment problem. Based on the feasibility of the levitation technology, a new laser flash technique which is applicable to both levitated liquid and solid samples is being developed. At this point, the analysis for solid samples is near completion and highlights of the technique are presented here. The levitated solid sample which is assumed to be a sphere is subjected to a very short burst of high power radiant energy. The temperature of the irradiated surface area is elevated and a transient heat transfer process takes place within the sample. This containerless process is a two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction problem. Due to the nonlinearity of the radiative plus convective boundary condition, an analytic solution cannot be obtained. Two options are available at this point. Firstly, the radiation boundary condition can be linearized, which then accommodates a closed-form analytic solution. Comparison of the analytic curves for the temperature rise at different points to the experimentally-measured values will then provide the thermal diffusivity values. Secondly, one may set up an inverse conduction problem whereby experimentally obtained surface temperature history is used as the boundary conditions. The thermal diffusivity can then be elevated by minimizing the difference between the real heat flux boundary condition (radiation plus convection) and the measurements. Status of an experimental study directed at measuring the

  7. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  8. Direct measurement of gaseous activities by diffusion-in long proportional counter method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Wu, Y.; Aratani, T.; Uritani, A.; Mori, C.

    1993-01-01

    Direct measurement of gaseous activities by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method) was studied. The measuring time without end effect was estimated by observing the behavior of 37 Ar in the counter and was long enough to carry out the accurate activity measurement. The correction for wall effect was also examined on the basis of the measured and calculated correction factors. Among the tested gases of methane, P10 gas and propane, P10 gas was made clear to be a suitable counting gas for the DLPC method because of good diffusion properties and small wall effect. This method is quite effective for standardization of gaseous activities used for tracer experiments and calibration works of radioactive gas monitoring instruments. (orig.)

  9. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  10. Development of an Automated Diffusion Scrubber-Conductometry System for Measuring Atmospheric Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bok Young; Lee, Chong Keun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    A semi-continuous and automated method for quantifying atmospheric ammonia at the parts per billion level has been developed. The instrument consists of a high efficiency diffusion scrubber, an electrolytic on-line anion exchange device, and a conductivity detector. Water soluble gases in sampled air diffuse through the porous membrane and are absorbed in an absorbing solution. Interferences are eliminated by using an anion exchange devises. The electrical conductivity of the solution is measured without chromatographic separation. The collection efficiency was over 99%. Over the 0-200 ppbv concentration range, the calibration was linear with r"2 = 0.99. The lower limit of detection was 0.09 ppbv. A parallel analysis of Seoul air over several days using this method and a diffusion scrubber coupled to an ion chromatography system showed acceptable agreement, r"2 = 0.940 (n = 686). This method can be applied for ambient air monitoring of ammonia

  11. Development of an Automated Diffusion Scrubber-Conductometry System for Measuring Atmospheric Ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Young; Lee, Chong Keun; Lee, Dong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    A semi-continuous and automated method for quantifying atmospheric ammonia at the parts per billion level has been developed. The instrument consists of a high efficiency diffusion scrubber, an electrolytic on-line anion exchange device, and a conductivity detector. Water soluble gases in sampled air diffuse through the porous membrane and are absorbed in an absorbing solution. Interferences are eliminated by using an anion exchange devises. The electrical conductivity of the solution is measured without chromatographic separation. The collection efficiency was over 99%. Over the 0-200 ppbv concentration range, the calibration was linear with r{sup 2} = 0.99. The lower limit of detection was 0.09 ppbv. A parallel analysis of Seoul air over several days using this method and a diffusion scrubber coupled to an ion chromatography system showed acceptable agreement, r{sup 2} = 0.940 (n = 686). This method can be applied for ambient air monitoring of ammonia.

  12. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in hydrocephalus measured by MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Gjerris, F

    1994-01-01

    We used MR imaging to measure the apparent brain water self-diffusion in 5 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), in 2 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and in 8 age-matched controls. In all patients with NPH significant elevations of the apparent diffusion coefficients...... white matter, and in one patient reexamined one year after surgery, ADCs were unchanged in nearly all brain regions. The increased ADC values in hydrocephalus patients may be caused by factors such as changes in myelin-associated bound water, increased Virchow-Robin spaces, and increased extracellular...... brain water fraction. For further studies of brain water diffusion in hydrocephalus patients, echo-planar imaging techniques with imaging times of a few seconds may be valuable....

  13. A cryostatic setup for the low-temperature measurement of thermal diffusivity with the photothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Liakhou, G.; Li Voti, R.; Paoloni, S.; Sibilia, C.; Sparvieri, N.

    1995-01-01

    A cryostatic setup is described to perform photothermal deflection measurements from room temperature to 77 K. The setup uses gaseous nitrogen as a medium where the photodeflection is produced. The ability of the system to work is demonstrated presenting some measurements of thermal diffusivity of high-temperature superconductor samples and of yttrium-iron garnets with variable aluminum content. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. Nanotechnology knowledge diffusion: measuring the impact of the research networking and a strategy for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Hsinchun; Larson, Catherine A.; Roco, Mihail C.

    2014-09-01

    Given the global increase in public funding for nanotechnology research and development, it is even more important to support projects with promising return on investment. A main return is the benefit to other researchers and to the entire field through knowledge diffusion, invention, and innovation. The social network of researchers is one of the channels through which this happens. This study considers the scientific publication network in the field of nanotechnology, and evaluates how knowledge diffusion through coauthorship and citations is affected in large institutions by the location and connectivity of individual researchers in the network. The relative position and connectivity of a researcher is measured by various social network metrics, including degree centrality, Bonacich Power centrality, structural holes, and betweenness centrality. Leveraging the Cox regression model, we analyzed the temporal relationships between knowledge diffusion and social network measures of researchers in five leading universities in the United States using papers published from 2000 to 2010. The results showed that the most significant effects on knowledge diffusion in the field of nanotechnology were from the structural holes of the network and the degree centrality of individual researchers. The data suggest that a researcher has potential to perform better in knowledge creation and diffusion on boundary-spanning positions between different communities and when he or she has a high level of connectivity in the knowledge network. These observations may lead to improved strategies in planning, conducting, and evaluating multidisciplinary nanotechnology research. The paper also identifies the researchers who made most significant contributions to nanotechnology knowledge diffusion in the networks of five leading U.S. universities.

  15. Reducing the Impact of Electroconductivity and the Gap between the Pipe and the Transducer at Measuring Thickness of Electroconductive Pipe Walls using the Eddy-Current Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimov Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a dual-frequency method for reducing the impact of changes in the gap size between the eddy-current transducer and the pipe, as well as the pipe electrical conductivity on the eddy-current thickness gauge readings. A block-diagram of the dual-frequency eddycurrent thickness gauge is proposed for light-alloy drill pipes. The amplitude and signal phase dependencies on the wall thickness in the range from 6 to 17 mm and the gap in the range from 0 to 13.5 mm were studied, the results are presented. The digital signal processing algorithms based on the piecewise-linear approximation of low-frequency and high-frequency signal phase dependencies on the wall thickness are proposed. It is shown that the proposed correction algorithms can reduce the error caused by variations of electrical conductivity and the gap between the transducer and the pipe.

  16. Eddy energy separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhutdinov, R.Kh.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An eddy energy separator is proposed which contains a chamber with nozzle input of compressed air and sleeves for cold and hot streams. In order to increase productivity, the chamber is cylindrical and the nozzle input is arranged along its axis. Coaxially to the input, there is an adaptor forming an annular channel with its end arranged in an angle to the axis of the chamber. The nozzle input and the adaptor are installed with the possibility of relative movement.

  17. Eddy Powell 1939 - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    We were saddened to learn that Eddy Powell had passed away on Saturday 26 July after a long illness. Eddy had so many friends at CERN and made such a contribution to the Organisation that it is impossible that his passing goes without comment. Eddy was born in England on 4 August 1939 and, after serving his apprenticeship with the U.K. Ministry of Defence, he joined CERN in September 1965. As an electrical design draftsman with the Synchro-cyclotron Division he played an important role in the upgrades of that machine in the early 1970's, particularly on the RF systems and later on the development of the ISOLDE facility. This brought him into close contact with many of the technical support services in CERN and, unlike many of his compatriots, he acquired a remarkably good fluency in French. Always inquisitive on the physics carried out at CERN, he spent a great deal of time learning from physicists and engineers at all levels. When he felt sufficiently confident he became a CERN Guide for general public visit...

  18. A transient divided-bar method for simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Nielsen, Søren Bom; Balling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    and volumetric heat capacity, and thereby also thermal diffusivity, are measured simultaneously. As the density of samples is easily determined independently, specific heat capacity may also be determined. Finite element formulation provides a flexible forward solution for heat transfer across the bar...... and thermal properties are estimated by inverse Monte Carlo modelling. This methodology enables a proper quantification of experimental uncertainties on measured thermal properties. The developed methodology was applied to laboratory measurements of various materials, including a standard ceramic material......-3 %, and for diffusivity uncertainty may be reduced to about 3-5 %. The main uncertainty originates from the presence of thermal contact resistance associated with the internal interfaces of the bar. They are not resolved during inversion, and it is highly important that they are minimized by careful sample preparation....

  19. Direct measurement of Cu surface self-diffusion on a checked surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, Jacques; Peix, Roger; Perraillon, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    A radiotracer technique ( 64 Cu) was developed to measure surface diffusion on copper surfaces of total impurity concentration not exceeding some 10 -3 monolayers. The apparatus used consists of a slow electron diffraction device, an Auger analysis spectrometer (CMA), an ion gun and an evaporation device assembled in an ultra-vacuum chamber holding a residual pressure below 10 -10 Torr. A sample handler enables the surface studied to be positioned in front of each of these instruments. During the diffusion treatment the chemical composition of the surface is checked intermittently, and afterwards the spread of the deposit is measured outside the ultravacuum chamber. Slices several microns thick are removed and dissolved separately in dishes containing HNO 3 . The activity is then measured with a flow counter [fr

  20. Long term carbon dioxide exchange above a mixed forest in the Belgian Ardennes: evaluation of different approaches to deduce total ecosystem respiration from Eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Elisabeth; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The general aim of this research is to analyze inter annual variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes exchanged by a mixed forest located at the Vielsalm experimental site in Belgium. At this site, CO2 flux measurements started in 1996 and are still going on. Thirteen complete years of measurements are thus available. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) inter annual variability may be driven by gross primary productivity (GPP) or Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), which should thus be both quantified. Using flux partitioning methods, TER is deduced from NEE measurements. GPP is then obtained by subtracting TER from NEE. Initially, a robust estimation of TER is required. This work seeks to compare two independent approaches to assess TER in order to quantify the implications on inter-annual variability. The comparison was performed on twelve complete years. TER estimates can be deduced by extrapolating to the whole day NEE measurements taken during selected night or day periods. In both case, the extrapolation is performed by using a respiration response to temperature. The first approach, referred as the night-time approach, consisted in calculating TER using a temperature response function derived from night-time data sets (Reichstein et al., 2005). The second approach, referred as the daytime approach, consisted in assessing TER from the intercept of the NEE/Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) response (Wohlfahrt et al., 2005). For each approach, different modalities were compared: the use of long term (annual) or short term (15 days) data sets for the night-time approach and the use of different types of regression for the daytime approach. In addition, the impact of the temperature choice was studied for each of the approaches. For the night-time approach, main results showed that air temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration derived from annual data did not reflect the short-term air temperature sensitivity. Vielsalm is a summer active ecosystem

  1. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmucci, S., E-mail: spalmucci@sirm.org; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-15

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm{sup 2}/sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to

  2. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmucci, S.; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm 2 /sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to investigate better

  3. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in a moving phantom simulating linear respiratory motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwee, Thomas C; Takahara, Taro; Muro, Isao; Van Cauteren, Marc; Imai, Yutaka; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Mali, Willem P T M; Luijten, Peter R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simulated linear respiratory motion on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Six rectangular test tubes (14 × 92 mm) filled with either water, tomato ketchup, or mayonnaise were positioned in a box containing agarose gel. This box was connected to a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, capable of inducing periodic linear motion in the long-axis direction of the magnetic bore (23-mm stroke). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed for both the static and moving phantoms, and ADC measurements were made in the six test tubes in both situations. In the three test tubes whose long axes were parallel to the direction of motion, ADCs agreed well between the moving and static phantom situations. However, in two test tubes that were filled with fluids that had a considerably lower diffusion coefficient than the surrounding agarose gel, and whose long axes were perpendicular to the direction of motion, the ADCs agreed poorly between the moving and static phantom situations. ADC measurements of large homogeneous structures are not affected by linear respiratory motion. However, ADC measurements of inhomogeneous or small structures are affected by linear respiratory motion due to partial volume effects.

  4. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in a moving phantom simulating linear respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, T.C.; Takahara, Taro; Nievelstein, R.A.J.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Luijten, P.R.; Muro, Isao; Imai, Yutaka; Cauteren, M. Van

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simulated linear respiratory motion on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Six rectangular test tubes (14 x 92 mm) filled with either water, tomato ketchup, or mayonnaise were positioned in a box containing agarose gel. This box was connected to a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, capable of inducing periodic linear motion in the long-axis direction of the magnetic bore (23-mm stroke). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed for both the static and moving phantoms, and ADC measurements were made in the six test tubes in both situations. In the three test tubes whose long axes were parallel to the direction of motion, ADCs agreed well between the moving and static phantom situations. However, in two test tubes that were filled with fluids that had a considerably lower diffusion coefficient than the surrounding agarose gel, and whose long axes were perpendicular to the direction of motion, the ADCs agreed poorly between the moving and static phantom situations. ADC measurements of large homogeneous structures are not affected by linear respiratory motion. However, ADC measurements of inhomogeneous or small structures are affected by linear respiratory motion due to partial volume effects. (author)

  5. Measurements of the electron particle diffusion coefficient with the JET multichannel reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sips, A.C.C.; Haas, J.C.M. de; Costley, A.E.; Prentice, R.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental determinations of the cross-field particle diffusion coefficient (D p ) are important in studies of transport in tokamak plasmas. D p has been determined from measurements of density perturbations following a sawtooth collapse, oscillating gas puff, and injected high velocity pellets. In each case the density changes have been measured using multichord interferometry and D p is obtained with an accuracy of typically 20%. In this paper, we present our most recent measurements of D p . The experimental data are compared with the prediction of a comprehensive numerical transport model which includes both outward going and inward going density pulses. (author) 8 refs., 6 figs

  6. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  7. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.

  8. Semi-empirical approach for calibration of CR-39 detectors in diffusion chambers for radon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra A, P.; Lopez H, M. E. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, San Miguel Lima 32 (Peru); Palacios F, D.; Sajo B, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 89000 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Valdivia, P., E-mail: ppereyr@pucp.edu.pe [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru s/n, Rimac, Lima 25 (Peru)

    2016-10-15

    Simulated and measured calibration of PADC detectors is given for cylindrical diffusion chambers employed in environmental radon measurements. The method is based on determining the minimum alpha energy (E{sub min}), average critical angle (<Θ{sub c}>), and fraction of {sup 218}Po atoms; the volume of the chamber (f{sub 1}), are compared to commercially available devices. Radon concentration for exposed detectors is obtained from induced track densities and the well-established calibration coefficient for NRPB monitor. Calibration coefficient of a PADC detector in a cylindrical diffusion chamber of any size is determined under the same chemical etching conditions and track analysis methodology. In this study the results of numerical examples and comparison between experimental calibration coefficients and simulation purpose made code. Results show that the developed method is applicable when uncertainties of 10% are acceptable. (Author)

  9. Drift tube measurements of mobilities and longitudinal diffusion coefficients of ions in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelf, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The zero-field mobilities of Br - and NH 4+ in O 2 were determined as a function of gas temperature in a high pressure drift tube mass spectrometer. The mobilities and longitudinal diffusion coefficients of the ion-gas combinations Br - in Ne and Kr, Li + in Xe, and Tl/ + in Kr and Xe were determined as a function of E/N, where E is the electric field strength and N is the gas number density in a low pressure drift tube mass spectrometer. The measured longitudinal diffusion coefficients were used for a test and comparison of the generalized Einstein relations of Viehland-Mason and Waldman-Mason theories. The measured mobilities of Br - in Kr and Tl/ + in Kr were used in an iterative-inversion scheme from which the ion-neutral interaction potentials were determined

  10. Diffusion length measurements in bulk and epitaxially grown 3-5 semiconductors using charge collection microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities were measured in GaAs diodes and InP finished solar cells. The basic techniques used was charge collection microscopy also known as electron beam induced current (EBIC). The normalized currents and distances from the pn junction were read directly from the calibrated curves obtained while using the line scan mode in an SEM. These values were then equated to integral and infinite series expressions resulting from the solution of the diffusion equation with both extended generation and point generation functions. This expands previous work by examining both thin and thick samples. The surface recombination velocity was either treated as an unknown in a system of two equations, or measured directly using low e(-) beam accelerating voltages. These techniques give accurate results by accounting for the effects of surface recombination and the finite size of the generation volume.

  11. Techniques for Ultra-high Magnetic Field Gradient NMR Diffusion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Eric E.; Mitrovic, Vesna F.; Calder, Edward S.; Will Thomas, G.; Halperin, William P.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Moulton, William G.

    2001-03-01

    We report on development and application of techniques for ultraslow diffusion coefficient measurements through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in high magnetic field gradients. We have performed NMR experiments in a steady fringe field gradient of 175 T/m from a 23 T resistive Bitter magnet, as well as in a gradient of 42 T/m from an 8 T superconducting magnet. New techniques to provide optimum sensitivity in these experiments are described. To eliminate parasitic effects of the temporal instability of the resistive magnet, we have introduced a passive filter: a highly conductive cryogen-cooled inductive shield. We show experimental demonstration of such a shield’s effect on NMR performed in the Bitter magnet. For enhanced efficiency, we have employed “frequency jumping” in our spectrometer system. Application of these methods has made possible measurements of diffusion coefficients as low as 10-10 cm^2/s, probing motion on a 250 nm length scale.

  12. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants

  13. A technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    High T(sub c) superconducting electrical current leads and ground straps will be used in cryogenic coolers in future NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. These superconducting samples are long, thin leads with a typical diameter of two millimeters. A longitudinal method is developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of candidate materials for this application. This technique uses a peltier junction to supply an oscillatory heat wave into one end of a sample and will use low mass thermocouples to follow the heat wave along the sample. The thermal diffusivity is calculated using both the exponential decay of the heat wave and the phase shift to the wave. Measurements are performed in a cryostat between 10 K and room temperature

  14. Semi-empirical approach for calibration of CR-39 detectors in diffusion chambers for radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra A, P.; Lopez H, M. E.; Palacios F, D.; Sajo B, L.; Valdivia, P.

    2016-10-01

    Simulated and measured calibration of PADC detectors is given for cylindrical diffusion chambers employed in environmental radon measurements. The method is based on determining the minimum alpha energy (E min ), average critical angle (<Θ c >), and fraction of 218 Po atoms; the volume of the chamber (f 1 ), are compared to commercially available devices. Radon concentration for exposed detectors is obtained from induced track densities and the well-established calibration coefficient for NRPB monitor. Calibration coefficient of a PADC detector in a cylindrical diffusion chamber of any size is determined under the same chemical etching conditions and track analysis methodology. In this study the results of numerical examples and comparison between experimental calibration coefficients and simulation purpose made code. Results show that the developed method is applicable when uncertainties of 10% are acceptable. (Author)

  15. Measurement of exhalation and diffusion parameters of radon in solids by plastic track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Haffez, A.-F.; Hunyadi, I.; Toth-Szilagyi, M.

    1986-01-01

    There are large discrepancies in data available in the literature for the exhalation and diffusion behaviour of radon in various materials. Therefore there is a need for more studies in this field. For this purpose we have developed and used track methods to measure mass and areal exhalation rates of radon from different fly ashes and sand. In addition, methods were also developed to determine the diffusion length of radon and the porosity of materials. For getting the radon emanation coefficient we have applied the autoradiographic method and the ''can-technique'' for determining the real and effective radium contents. The disturbing effect expected from the geometry of measuring cans and samples is discussed. Relations are derived for the correction of such effect.

  16. Measurement of shear-induced diffusion of red blood cells using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianbo; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Li, Baoqiang; Fu, Buyin; Sakadzic, Sava; Carp, Stefan A.; Lee, Jonghwan; Boas, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic Light Scattering-Optical Coherence Tomography (DLS-OCT) takes the advantages of using DLS to measure particle flow and diffusion within an OCT resolution-constrained 3D volume, enabling the simultaneous measurements of absolute RBC velocity and diffusion coefficient with high spatial resolution. In this work, we applied DLS-OCT to measure both RBC velocity and the shear-induced diffusion coefficient within penetrating venules of the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice. Blood flow laminar profile measurements indicate a blunted laminar flow profile, and the degree of blunting decreases with increasing vessel diameter. The measured shear-induced diffusion coefficient was proportional to the flow shear rate with a magnitude of 0.1 to 0.5 × 10-6 mm2 . These results provide important experimental support for the recent theoretical explanation for why DCS is dominantly sensitive to RBC diffusive motion.

  17. Self-diffusion measurements in heterogeneous systems using NMR pulsed field gradient technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heink, W.; Kaerger, J.; Walter, A.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental pecularities of the NMR pulsed field gradient technique are critical surveyed in its application to zeolite adsorbate adsorbent systems. After a presentation of the different transport parameters accessible by this technique, the consequences of the existence of inner field gradients being inherent to heterogeneous systems are analyzed. Experimental conditions and consequences of an application of pulsed field gradients of high intensity which are necessary for the measurement of small intracrystalline self-diffusion coefficients, are discussed. Gradient pulses of 0.15 Tcm -1 with pulse widths of 2 ms maximum and relative deviations of less than 0.01 per mille can be realized. Since for a number of adsorbate adsorbent systems a distinct dependence of the intracrystalline self-diffusion coeffcients on adsorbate concentration is observed, determination of zeolite pore fiiling factor is of considerable importance for the interpretation of the diffusivities obtained. It is demonstrated that also this information can be obtained by NMR technique in a straightforward way with a mean error of less than 5 to 10 %. Applying this new method and using an optimum experimental device as described, pore filling factor dependences of the self-diffusion coefficients of alkanes in NaX zeolites can be followed over more than two orders of magnitude. (author)

  18. Shear-induced diffusion of red blood cells measured with dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianbo; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Li, Baoqiang; Fu, Buyin; Sakadzic, Sava; Carp, Stefan A; Lee, Jonghwan; Boas, David A

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of intravascular microscopic dynamics, such as absolute blood flow velocity, shear stress and the diffusion coefficient of red blood cells (RBCs), are fundamental in understanding the blood flow behavior within the microcirculation, and for understanding why diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow are dominantly sensitive to the diffusive motion of RBCs. Dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography (DLS-OCT) takes the advantages of using DLS to measure particle flow and diffusion within an OCT resolution-constrained three-dimensional volume, enabling the simultaneous measurements of absolute RBC velocity and diffusion coefficient with high spatial resolution. In this work, we applied DLS-OCT to measure both RBC velocity and the shear-induced diffusion coefficient within penetrating venules of the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice. Blood flow laminar profile measurements indicate a blunted laminar flow profile and the degree of blunting decreases with increasing vessel diameter. The measured shear-induced diffusion coefficient was proportional to the flow shear rate with a magnitude of ~0.1 to 0.5 × 10 -6  mm 2 . These results provide important experimental support for the recent theoretical explanation for why DCS is dominantly sensitive to RBC diffusive motion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Quantitation of chemical exchange rates using pulsed-field-gradient diffusion measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrec, Michael; Prestegard, James H.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to the quantitation of chemical exchange rates is presented, and its utility is illustrated with application to the exchange of protein amide protons with bulk water. The approach consists of a selective-inversion exchange HMQC experiment in which a short spin echo diffusion filter has been inserted into the exchange period. In this way, the kinetics of exchange are encoded directly in an apparent diffusion coefficient which is a function of the position of the diffusion filter in the pulse sequence. A detailed theoretical analysis of this experiment indicates that, in addition to the measurement of simple exchange rates, the experiment is capable of measuring the effect of mediated exchange, e.g. the transfer of magnetization from bulk water to an amide site mediated by an internal bound water molecule or a labile protein side-chain proton in fast exchange with bulk water. Experimental results for rapid water/amide exchange in acyl carrier protein are shown to be quantitatively consistent with the exchange rates measured using a selective-inversion exchange experiment

  20. Methodology for using prompt gamma activation analysis to measure the binary diffusion coefficient of a gas in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Biegalski, Steve R.; Deinert, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Prompt gamma activation analysis is used to study gas diffusion in a porous system. ► Diffusion coefficients are determined using prompt gamma activation analysis. ► Predictions concentrations fit experimental measurements with an R 2 of 0.98. - Abstract: Diffusion plays a critical role in determining the rate at which gases migrate through porous systems. Accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients are essential if gas transport is to be accurately modeled and better techniques are needed that can be used to measure these coefficients non-invasively. Here we present a novel method for using prompt gamma activation analysis to determine the binary diffusion coefficients of a gas in a porous system. Argon diffusion experiments were conducted in a 1 m long, 10 cm diameter, horizontal column packed with a SiO 2 sand. The temporal variation of argon concentration within the system was measured using prompt gamma activation analysis. The binary diffusion coefficient was obtained by comparing the experimental data with the predictions from a numerical model in which the diffusion coefficient was varied until the sum of square errors between experiment and model data was minimized. Predictions of argon concentration using the optimal diffusivity fit experimental measurements with an R 2 of 0.983.

  1. Radial diffusion with outer boundary determined by geosynchronous measurements: Storm and post-storm intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, F.; Haines, P.; Hudson, M.; Kress, B.; Freidel, R.; Kanekal, S.

    2007-12-01

    Work is underway by several groups to quantify diffusive radial transport of radiation belt electrons, including a model for pitch angle scattering losses to the atmosphere. The radial diffusion model conserves the first and second adiabatic invariants and breaks the third invariant. We have developed a radial diffusion code which uses the Crank Nicholson method with a variable outer boundary condition. For the radial diffusion coefficient, DLL, we have several choices, including the Brautigam and Albert (JGR, 2000) diffusion coefficient parameterized by Kp, which provides an ad hoc measure of the power level at ULF wave frequencies in the range of electron drift (mHz), breaking the third invariant. Other diffusion coefficient models are Kp-independent, fixed in time but explicitly dependent on the first invariant, or energy at a fixed L, such as calculated by Elkington et al. (JGR, 2003) and Perry et al. (JGR, 2006) based on ULF wave model fields. We analyzed three periods of electron flux and phase space density (PSD) enhancements inside of geosynchronous orbit: March 31 - May 31, 1991, and July 2004 and Nov 2004 storm intervals. The radial diffusion calculation is initialized with a computed phase space density profile for the 1991 interval using differential flux values from the CRRES High Energy Electron Fluxmeter instrument, covering 0.65 - 7.5 MeV. To calculate the initial phase space density, we convert Roederer L* to McIlwain's L- parameter using the ONERA-DESP program. A time averaged model developed by Vampola1 from the entire 14 month CRRES data set is applied to the July 2004 and Nov 2004 storms. The online CRESS data for specific orbits and the Vampola-model flux are both expressed in McIlwain L-shell, while conversion to L* conserves phase space density in a distorted non-dipolar magnetic field model. A Tsyganenko (T04) magnetic field model is used for conversion between L* and L. The outer boundary PSD is updated using LANL GEO satellite fluxes

  2. Parameterized and resolved Southern Ocean eddy compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Mads B.; Jochum, Markus; Nuterman, Roman

    2018-04-01

    The ability to parameterize Southern Ocean eddy effects in a forced coarse resolution ocean general circulation model is assessed. The transient model response to a suite of different Southern Ocean wind stress forcing perturbations is presented and compared to identical experiments performed with the same model in 0.1° eddy-resolving resolution. With forcing of present-day wind stress magnitude and a thickness diffusivity formulated in terms of the local stratification, it is shown that the Southern Ocean residual meridional overturning circulation in the two models is different in structure and magnitude. It is found that the difference in the upper overturning cell is primarily explained by an overly strong subsurface flow in the parameterized eddy-induced circulation while the difference in the lower cell is mainly ascribed to the mean-flow overturning. With a zonally constant decrease of the zonal wind stress by 50% we show that the absolute decrease in the overturning circulation is insensitive to model resolution, and that the meridional isopycnal slope is relaxed in both models. The agreement between the models is not reproduced by a 50% wind stress increase, where the high resolution overturning decreases by 20%, but increases by 100% in the coarse resolution model. It is demonstrated that this difference is explained by changes in surface buoyancy forcing due to a reduced Antarctic sea ice cover, which strongly modulate the overturning response and ocean stratification. We conclude that the parameterized eddies are able to mimic the transient response to altered wind stress in the high resolution model, but partly misrepresent the unperturbed Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation and associated heat transports.

  3. EDDIE RICKENBACKER: RACETRACK ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Lewis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Edward V. (Eddie Rickenbacker (1890-1973 is best remembered for hisrecord as a combat pilot in World War I, in which he shot down 26 Germa naircraft and won fame as America’s "Ace of Aces." From 1934 until 1963 he was general manager, president, and board chairman of Eastern Air Lines, which was for a time the most profitable air carrier in the United States. This paper shows how Rickenbacker’s fiercely entrepreneurial style of management was born in his early involvement in the automobile industry, and particularly in his career as an automobile racing driver from 1909 through 1916.

  4. Eddy turbulence parameters inferred from radar observations at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vlasov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant electron density striations, neutral temperatures 27 K above nominal, and intense wind shear were observed in the E-region ionosphere over the Jicamarca Radio Observatory during an unusual event on 26 July 2005 (Hysell et al., 2007. In this paper, these results are used to estimate eddy turbulence parameters and their effects. Models for the thermal balance in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere and the charged particle density in the E region are developed here. The thermal balance model includes eddy conduction and viscous dissipation of turbulent energy as well as cooling by infrared radiation. The production and recombination of ions and electrons in the E region, together with the production and transport of nitric oxide, are included in the plasma density model. Good agreement between the model results and the experimental data is obtained for an eddy diffusion coefficient of about 1×103 m2/s at its peak, which occurs at an altitude of 107 km. This eddy turbulence results in a local maximum of the temperature in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere and could correspond either to an unusually high mesopause or to a double mesosphere. Although complicated by plasma dynamic effects and ongoing controversy, our interpretation of Farley-Buneman wave phase velocity (Hysell et al., 2007 is consistent with a low Brunt-Väisälä frequency in the region of interest. Nitric oxide transport due to eddy diffusion from the lower thermosphere to the mesosphere causes electron density changes in the E region whereas NO density modulation due to irregularities in the eddy diffusion coefficient creates variability in the electron density.

  5. Eddy turbulence parameters inferred from radar observations at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vlasov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant electron density striations, neutral temperatures 27 K above nominal, and intense wind shear were observed in the E-region ionosphere over the Jicamarca Radio Observatory during an unusual event on 26 July 2005 (Hysell et al., 2007. In this paper, these results are used to estimate eddy turbulence parameters and their effects. Models for the thermal balance in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere and the charged particle density in the E region are developed here. The thermal balance model includes eddy conduction and viscous dissipation of turbulent energy as well as cooling by infrared radiation. The production and recombination of ions and electrons in the E region, together with the production and transport of nitric oxide, are included in the plasma density model. Good agreement between the model results and the experimental data is obtained for an eddy diffusion coefficient of about 1×103 m2/s at its peak, which occurs at an altitude of 107 km. This eddy turbulence results in a local maximum of the temperature in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere and could correspond either to an unusually high mesopause or to a double mesosphere. Although complicated by plasma dynamic effects and ongoing controversy, our interpretation of Farley-Buneman wave phase velocity (Hysell et al., 2007 is consistent with a low Brunt-Väisälä frequency in the region of interest. Nitric oxide transport due to eddy diffusion from the lower thermosphere to the mesosphere causes electron density changes in the E region whereas NO density modulation due to irregularities in the eddy diffusion coefficient creates variability in the electron density.

  6. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  7. Histogram analysis of diffusion measures in clinically isolated syndromes and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chunshui; Lin Fuchun; Liu Yaou; Duan Yunyun; Lei Hao; Li Kuncheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of our study were to employ diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis to determine the presence of occult damage in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), to compare its severity with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to determine correlations between DTI histogram measures and clinical and MRI indices in these two diseases. Materials and methods: DTI scans were performed in 19 CIS and 19 RRMS patients and 19 matched healthy volunteers. Histogram analyses of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were performed in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT), normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (NAGM). Correlations were analyzed between these measures and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, T 2 WI lesion volumes (LV) and normalized brain tissue volumes (NBTV) in CIS and RRMS patients. Results: Significant differences were found among CIS, RRMS and control groups in the NBTV and most of the DTI histogram measures of the NABT, NAWM and NAGM. In CIS patients, some DTI histogram measures showed significant correlations with LV and NBTV, but none of them with EDSS. In RRMS patients, however, some DTI histogram measures were significantly correlated with LV, NBTV and EDSS. Conclusion: Occult damage occurs in both NAGM and NAWM in CIS, but the severity is milder than that in RRMS. In CIS and RRMS, the occult damage might be related to both T2 lesion load and brain tissue atrophy. Some DTI histogram measures might be useful for assessing the disease progression in RRMS patients

  8. Determination of malignancy and characterization of hepatic tumor type with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient and intravoxel incoherent motion-derived measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblas, Sabrina; Wagner, Mathilde; Leitao, Helena S; Daire, Jean-Luc; Sinkus, Ralph; Vilgrain, Valérie; Van Beers, Bernard E

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) determined with 3 b values and the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters in the determination of malignancy and characterization of hepatic tumor type. Seventy-six patients with 86 solid hepatic lesions, including 8 hemangiomas, 20 lesions of focal nodular hyperplasia, 9 adenomas, 30 hepatocellular carcinomas, 13 metastases, and 6 cholangiocarcinomas, were assessed in this prospective study. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired with 11 b values to measure the ADCs (with b = 0, 150, and 500 s/mm) and the IVIM-derived parameters, namely, the pure diffusion coefficient and the perfusion-related diffusion fraction and coefficient. The diffusion parameters were compared between benign and malignant tumors and between tumor types, and their diagnostic value in identifying tumor malignancy was assessed. The apparent and pure diffusion coefficients were significantly higher in benign than in malignant tumors (benign: 2.32 [0.87] × 10 mm/s and 1.42 [0.37] × 10 mm/s vs malignant: 1.64 [0.51] × 10 mm/s and 1.14 [0.28] × 10 mm/s, respectively; P coefficients provided similar accuracy in assessing tumor malignancy (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.770 and 0.723, respectively). In the multigroup analysis, the ADC was found to be significantly higher in hemangiomas than in hepatocellular carcinomas, metastases, and cholangiocarcinomas. In the same manner, it was higher in lesions of focal nodular hyperplasia than in metastases and cholangiocarcinomas. However, the pure diffusion coefficient was significantly higher only in hemangiomas versus hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinomas. Compared with the ADC, the diffusion parameters derived from the IVIM model did not improve the determination of malignancy and characterization of hepatic tumor type.

  9. Thermal diffusivity measurements between 0 0C and 2000 0C: application to UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Craeynest, J.C.; Weilbacher, J.C.; Lallement, R.

    1969-01-01

    We have built two types of apparatus to measure the thermal diffusivity of ceramic fuels. The first apparatus, based on Angstrom's method, operates between 0 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Satisfactory results have been obtained for iron, nickel and molybdenum. The other apparatus, based on Cowan's method, operates between 1000 deg. C and 2000 deg. C on thin slabs. The thermal conductivity of UO 2 has been measured from 0 deg. C to 2000 deg. C. There is a good agreement between our results and the well known values for UO 2 . (authors) [fr

  10. Flow characteristics of guide vane of diffuser pump by PIV measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Young Ho; Choi, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Lee, H.

    2000-01-01

    The present experimental study is focused on the application of multi-point simultaneous measurement by PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) to guide vane region within a diffuser pump. Various different kinds of clearance were selected as experimental conditions. Optimized cross correlation identification to obtain velocity vectors was implemented with direct calculation of correlation coefficients. Fine optical setup important in PIV performance is arranged for the accurate PIV measurement of high-speed complex flow. Various flow patterns are represented quantitatively at the stator passages

  11. Diffuse and localized reflectance measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Omar S.; Wu, Xiaomao; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen

    2001-05-01

    We conducted visible/near infrared optical measurements on the forearm of human subjects using a commercial diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, and a breadboard temperature- controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer. Calibration relationships were established between skin reflectance signal and reference blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, or hematocrit values (Hct). These were then used to predict Hb and Hct values from optical measurement in a cross validation analysis. Different linear least- squares models for the prediction of Hb and Hct are presented and shows the ability to predict both. It was possible to screen prospective blood donors with low Hb concentration. It was possible to predict anemic subjects in the limited prospective blood donor population.

  12. IN-SITU MEASURING METHOD OF RADON AND THORON DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Yakovleva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple and valid in-situ measurement method of effective diffusion coefficient of radon and thoron in soil and other porous materials was designed. The analysis of numerical investigation of radon and thoron transport in upper layers of soil revealed that thoron flux density from the earth surface does not depend on soil gas advective velocity and varies only with diffusion coefficient changes. This result showed the advantages of thoron using versus radon using in the suggested method. The comparison of the new method with existing ones previously developed. The method could be helpful for solving of problems of radon mass-transport in porous media and gaseous exchange between soil and atmosphere.

  13. Experimental Measurement of Self-Diffusion in a Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    the calculation of the self-diffusion constant through the Green- Kubo integral of hΔvxðtÞiþ=hΔvxð0Þiþ over the scaled time. Overall, the estimate of... Kubo relation D ¼ Z ∞ 0 ZðtÞdt; which describes the long-time mean-square displacement of a given particle through D ¼ limt→∞hjrðtÞ − rð0Þj2i=6t [25...ion VAF, the self-diffusion coefficient D may be calculated from our measurements. As is normally the case with calculations of this type, proper

  14. MRI measurements of water diffusion: impact of region of interest selection on ischemic quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsunar, Yelda; Koseoglu, Kutsi; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Koroshetz, Walter; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ADC heterogeneity on region of interest (ROI) measurement of isotropic and anisotropic water diffusion in acute (<12 h) cerebral infarctions. Methods and materials: Full diffusion tensor images were retrospectively analyzed in 32 patients with acute cerebral infarction. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in ischemic lesions and in the corresponding contralateral, normal appearing brain by using four ROIs for each patient. The 2x2 pixel square ROIs were placed in the center, the lateral rim and the medial rim of the infarction. In addition, the whole volume of the infarction was measured using a free hand method. Each ROI value obtained from the ischemic lesion was normalized using contralateral normal ROI values. Results: The localization of the ROIs in relation to the ischemic lesion significantly affected ADC measurement (P<0.01, using Friedman test), but not FA measurement (P=0.25). Significant differences were found between ADC values of the center of the infarction versus whole volume (P<0.01), and medial rim versus whole volume of infarction (P<0.001) with variation of relative ADC values up to 11%. The differences of absolute ADC for these groups were 22 and 23%, respectively. The lowest ADC was found in the center, followed by medial rim, lateral rim and whole volume of infarction. Conclusion: ADC quantification may provide variable results depending on ROI method. The ADC and FA values, obtained from the center of infarction tend to be lower compared to the periphery. The researchers who try to compare studies or work on ischemic quantification should be aware of these differences and effects

  15. Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helene; Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Conditional structures, or eddies, in turbulent flows are discussed with special attention to electrostatic turbulence in plasmas. The potential variation of these eddies is obtained by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is satisfied in a reference point. The resulting...

  16. Eddy current manual, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecco, V.S.; Van Drunen, G.; Sharp, F.L.

    1984-09-01

    This report on eddy current testing is divided into three sections: (a) Demonstration of Basic Principles, (b) Practical (Laboratory) Tests and, (c) Typical Certification Questions. It is intended to be used as a supplement to ΣEddy Current Manual, Volume 1Σ (AECL-7523) during CSNDT Foundation Level II and III courses

  17. Measurement of the diffusion length of thermal neutrons inside graphite; Mesure de la longueur de diffusion des neutrons thermiques dans le graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertaud, A; Beauge, R; Fauquez, H; De Laboulay, H; Mercier, C; Vautrey, L

    1948-11-01

    The diffusion length of thermal neutrons inside a given industrial graphite is determined by measuring the neutron density inside a parallelepipedal piling up of graphite bricks (2.10 x 2.10 x 2.442 m). A 3.8 curies (Ra {alpha} {yields} Be) source is placed inside the parallelepipedal block of graphite and thin manganese detectors are used. Corrections are added to the unweighted measurements to take into account the effects of the damping of supra-thermal neutrons in the measurement area. These corrections are experimentally deduced from the differential measurements made with a cadmium screen interposed between the source and the first plane of measurement. An error analysis completes the report. The diffusion length obtained is: L = 45.7 cm {+-} 0.3. The average density of the graphite used is 1.76 and the average apparent density of the piling up is 1.71. (J.S.)

  18. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  19. GEM: a dynamic tracking model for mesoscale eddies in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Yang; Sun, Liang; Lin, Sheng-Fu

    2016-12-01

    The Genealogical Evolution Model (GEM) presented here is an efficient logical model used to track dynamic evolution of mesoscale eddies in the ocean. It can distinguish between different dynamic processes (e.g., merging and splitting) within a dynamic evolution pattern, which is difficult to accomplish using other tracking methods. To this end, the GEM first uses a two-dimensional (2-D) similarity vector (i.e., a pair of ratios of overlap area between two eddies to the area of each eddy) rather than a scalar to measure the similarity between eddies, which effectively solves the "missing eddy" problem (temporarily lost eddy in tracking). Second, for tracking when an eddy splits, the GEM uses both "parent" (the original eddy) and "child" (eddy split from parent) and the dynamic processes are described as the birth and death of different generations. Additionally, a new look-ahead approach with selection rules effectively simplifies computation and recording. All of the computational steps are linear and do not include iteration. Given the pixel number of the target region L, the maximum number of eddies M, the number N of look-ahead time steps, and the total number of time steps T, the total computer time is O(LM(N + 1)T). The tracking of each eddy is very smooth because we require that the snapshots of each eddy on adjacent days overlap one another. Although eddy splitting or merging is ubiquitous in the ocean, they have different geographic distributions in the North Pacific Ocean. Both the merging and splitting rates of the eddies are high, especially at the western boundary, in currents and in "eddy deserts". The GEM is useful not only for satellite-based observational data, but also for numerical simulation outputs. It is potentially useful for studying dynamic processes in other related fields, e.g., the dynamics of cyclones in meteorology.

  20. Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the

  1. Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, M.; Molina-Concha, M.B.; El-Kissi, N.; Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH 4 electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH 4 at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH 4 at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H 2 bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H 2 bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders

  2. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurement in Mediastinal Lymphadenopathies: Differentiation between Benign and Malignant Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Emre Ustabasioglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to prospectively assess the diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurement in the differentiation of benign and malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Materials and Methods: The study included 63 consecutive patients (28 women, 35 men; mean age 59.3 years with 125 mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Echoplanar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the mediastinum was performed with b-factors of 0 and 600 mm2/s before mediastinoscopy and mediastinotomy, and ADC values were measured. The ADC values were compared with the histological results, and statistical analysis was done. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean ADC value of malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy (1.030 ± 0.245 × 10−3 mm2/s was significantly lower (P < 0.05 when compared to benign lymphadenopathies (1.571 ± 0.559 × 10−3 mm2/s. For differentiating malignant from benign mediastinal lymphadenopathy, the best result was obtained when an ADC value of 1.334 × 10−3 mm2/s was used as a threshold value; area under the curve 0.848, accuracy 78.4%, sensitivity 66%, specificity of 86%, positive predictive value 76.7%, and negative predictive value of 79.2%. Interobserver agreement was excellent for ADC measurements. Conclusions: ADC measurements could be considered an important supportive method in differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathies.

  3. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  4. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in hydrocephalus measured by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gideon, P.; Thomsen, C.; Gjerris, F.; Soerensen, P.S.; Henriksen, O.

    1994-01-01

    We used MR imaging to measure the apparent brain water self-diffusion in 5 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), in 2 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and in 8 agematched controls. In all patients with NPH significant elevations of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of brain water were found within periventricular white matter, in the corpus callosum, in the internal capsule, within cortical gray matter, and in cerebrospinal fluid, whereas normal ADCs were found within the basal ganglia. In 2 patients with HPH elevated ADCs were found most prominently within white matter and in one patient reexamined one year after surgery. ADCs were unchanged in nearly all brain regions. The increased ADC values in hydrocephalus patients may be caused by factors such as changes in myelin-associated bound water, increased Virchow-Robin spaces, and increased extracellular brain water fraction. For further studies of brain water diffusion in hydrocephalus patients, echo-planar imaging techniques with imaging times of a few seconds may be valuable. (orig.)

  5. Measurements of diffusion parameters of methanol on gamma-irradiated polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pietro P.J.C.G.P.O.; Araujo, Elmo