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Sample records for measured brain activity

  1. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  2. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Carmen; López, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Even if behavioral studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. This study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1), memory games (G2), and card games (G3). Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the test of the organization of free time measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007) and G3 (p = 0.034). G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p = 0.001). The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging.

  3. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRequena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Even if behavioural studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. Aim of this study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Methods: quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1, memory games (G2 and card games (G3. Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the Test of Organization of Free Time (TOFT measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007 and G3 (p = 0.034. G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p=0.001. The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Discussion. Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging.

  4. Decreased integration and information capacity in stroke measured by whole brain models of resting state activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Mohit H; Hacker, Carl D; Siegel, Josh S; Griffa, Alessandra; Hagmann, Patric; Deco, Gustavo; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    While several studies have shown that focal lesions affect the communication between structurally normal regions of the brain, and that these changes may correlate with behavioural deficits, their impact on brain's information processing capacity is currently unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that focal lesions decrease the brain's information processing capacity, of which changes in functional connectivity may be a measurable correlate. To measure processing capacity, we turned to whole brain computational modelling to estimate the integration and segregation of information in brain networks. First, we measured functional connectivity between different brain areas with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects (n = 26), and subjects who had suffered a cortical stroke (n = 36). We then used a whole-brain network model that coupled average excitatory activities of local regions via anatomical connectivity. Model parameters were optimized in each healthy or stroke participant to maximize correlation between model and empirical functional connectivity, so that the model's effective connectivity was a veridical representation of healthy or lesioned brain networks. Subsequently, we calculated two model-based measures: 'integration', a graph theoretical measure obtained from functional connectivity, which measures the connectedness of brain networks, and 'information capacity', an information theoretical measure that cannot be obtained empirically, representative of the segregative ability of brain networks to encode distinct stimuli. We found that both measures were decreased in stroke patients, as compared to healthy controls, particularly at the level of resting-state networks. Furthermore, we found that these measures, especially information capacity, correlate with measures of behavioural impairment and the segregation of resting-state networks empirically measured. This study shows that focal lesions affect the brain's ability to

  5. Simplified methods for in vivo measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in rodent brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, Michael R.; Sherman, Phillip S.; Snyder, Scott E.

    1999-01-01

    Simplified methods for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rodent brain were evaluated using N-[ 11 C]methylpiperidinyl propionate ([ 11 C]PMP) as an enzyme substrate. Regional mouse brain distributions were determined at 1 min (representing initial brain uptake) and 30 min (representing trapped product) after intravenous [ 11 C]PMP administration. Single time point tissue concentrations (percent injected dose/gram at 30 min), tissue concentration ratios (striatum/cerebellum and striatum/cortex ratios at 30 min), and regional tissue retention fractions (defined as percent injected dose 30 min/percent injected dose 1 min) were evaluated as measures of AChE enzymatic activity in mouse brain. Studies were carried out in control animals and after dosing with phenserine, a selective centrally active AChE inhibitor; neostigmine, a peripheral cholinesterase inhibitor; and a combination of the two drugs. In control and phenserine-treated animals, absolute tissue concentrations and regional retention fractions provide good measures of dose-dependent inhibition of brain AChE; tissue concentration ratios, however, provide erroneous conclusions. Peripheral inhibition of cholinesterases, which changes the blood pharmacokinetics of the radiotracer, diminishes the sensitivity of all measures to detect changes in central inhibition of the enzyme. We conclude that certain simple measures of AChE hydrolysis rates for [ 11 C]PMP are suitable for studies where alterations of the peripheral blood metabolism of the tracer are kept to a minimum

  6. Simplified methods for in vivo measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in rodent brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael R. E-mail: mkilbour@umich.edu; Sherman, Phillip S.; Snyder, Scott E

    1999-07-01

    Simplified methods for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rodent brain were evaluated using N-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidinyl propionate ([{sup 11}C]PMP) as an enzyme substrate. Regional mouse brain distributions were determined at 1 min (representing initial brain uptake) and 30 min (representing trapped product) after intravenous [{sup 11}C]PMP administration. Single time point tissue concentrations (percent injected dose/gram at 30 min), tissue concentration ratios (striatum/cerebellum and striatum/cortex ratios at 30 min), and regional tissue retention fractions (defined as percent injected dose 30 min/percent injected dose 1 min) were evaluated as measures of AChE enzymatic activity in mouse brain. Studies were carried out in control animals and after dosing with phenserine, a selective centrally active AChE inhibitor; neostigmine, a peripheral cholinesterase inhibitor; and a combination of the two drugs. In control and phenserine-treated animals, absolute tissue concentrations and regional retention fractions provide good measures of dose-dependent inhibition of brain AChE; tissue concentration ratios, however, provide erroneous conclusions. Peripheral inhibition of cholinesterases, which changes the blood pharmacokinetics of the radiotracer, diminishes the sensitivity of all measures to detect changes in central inhibition of the enzyme. We conclude that certain simple measures of AChE hydrolysis rates for [{sup 11}C]PMP are suitable for studies where alterations of the peripheral blood metabolism of the tracer are kept to a minimum.

  7. Effects of hypoglycemia on human brain activation measured with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Adam W; Heptulla, Rubina A; Driesen, Naomi; Flanagan, Daniel; Goldberg, Philip A; Jones, Timothy W; Rife, Fran; Sarofin, Hedy; Tamborlane, William; Sherwin, Robert; Gore, John C

    2006-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure the effects of acute hypoglycemia caused by passive sensory stimulation on brain activation. Visual stimulation was used to generate blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, which was monitored during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic and euglycemic clamp studies. Hypoglycemia (50 +/- 1 mg glucose/dl) decreased the fMRI signal relative to euglycemia in 10 healthy human subjects: the fractional signal change was reduced by 28 +/- 12% (P variations in blood glucose levels may modulate BOLD signals in the healthy brain.

  8. Measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in living brain by positron emission tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Central cholinergic neuronal system has been known to be related to learning and memory, and its deficit is found in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other degenerative disorders. Postmortem studies have shown that acetylcholinesterase (AChE), one of biochemical markers of central cholinergic nerve system, is consistently reduced in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Non-invasive mapping and/or measuring AChE activity in the living brain by positron emission tomography (PET) would be a useful tool for assessment of cholinergic dysfunction in AD and other disorders, and provide a direct method for validation of therapeutic efficacy of drugs, AChE inhibitors. We have challenged to measure AChE activity using tracers of substrate type, radiolabelled acetylcholine analogs, which are lipophilic enough to go across blood brain barrier and are metabolically trapped by AChE in the brain. The analogs designed, N-methylpiperidyl esters, were evaluated in terms of their metabolic rate and specificity against AChE. Studies examining the response to AChE activity showed metabolic accumulation of some analogs responded well to changes in cortical AChE activity in an animal model of AD. The study was further applied to living human by PET using [{sup 11}C]N-methylpiperidyl-4-acetate (MP4A), which was chosen on the basis of its reactivity and specificity suitable for the human cortical AChE. Regional cerebral metabolic rate of MP4A reflecting AChE activity was quantitatively determined using three compartment model analysis of dynamic PET data and the arterial input function obtained by TLC-radioluminography or plasma samples. The kinetic analyses showed that AChE activities estimated were well agree with those of postmortem examination in cerebral cortices and thalamus in healthy subjects, and that there was significant reduction of cortical AChE activity in patients with AD. The results suggest feasibility of the present method for

  9. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Amelia Kate; Craig, Emma Louise; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70-71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions.

  10. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Requena, Carmen; López, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Even if behavioral studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. Aim: This study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Methods: Quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1), ...

  11. Longitudinal, transcranial measurement of functional activation in the rat brain by diffuse correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Igor; Zirak, Peyman; Dragojević, Tanja; Castellvi, Clara; Durduran, Turgut; Justicia, Carles

    2017-10-01

    Neural activity is an important biomarker for the presence of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular alterations, and brain trauma; furthermore, it is a surrogate marker for treatment effects. These pathologies may occur and evolve in a long time-period, thus, noninvasive, transcutaneous techniques are necessary to allow a longitudinal follow-up. In the present work, we have customized noninvasive, transcutaneous, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to localize changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by neural activity. We were able to detect changes in CBF in the somatosensory cortex by using a model of electrical forepaw stimulation in rats. The suitability of DCS measurements for longitudinal monitoring was demonstrated by performing multiple sessions with the same animals at different ages (from 6 to 18 months). In addition, functional DCS has been cross-validated by comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the same animals in a subset of the time-points. The overall results obtained with transcutaneous DCS demonstrates that it can be utilized in longitudinal studies safely and reproducibly to locate changes in CBF induced by neural activity in the small animal brain.

  12. Measuring brain activity cycling (BAC) in long term EEG monitoring of preterm babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Nathan J; Palmu, Kirsi; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Measuring fluctuation of vigilance states in early preterm infants undergoing long term intensive care holds promise for monitoring their neurological well-being. There is currently, however, neither objective nor quantitative methods available for this purpose in a research or clinical environment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to develop quantitative measures of the fluctuation in vigilance states or brain activity cycling (BAC) in early preterm infants. The proposed measures of BAC were summary statistics computed on a frequency domain representation of the proportional duration of spontaneous activity transients (SAT%) calculated from electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings. Eighteen combinations of three statistics and six frequency domain representations were compared to a visual interpretation of cycling in the SAT% signal. Three high performing measures (band energy/periodogram: R = 0.809, relative band energy/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.711, g-statistic/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.638) were then compared to a grading of sleep wake cycling based on the visual interpretation of the amplitude-integrated EEG trend. These measures of BAC are conceptually straightforward, correlate well with the visual scores of BAC and sleep wake cycling, are robust enough to cope with the technically compromised monitoring data available in intensive care units, and are recommended for further validation in prospective studies. (paper)

  13. RLS adaptive filtering for physiological interference reduction in NIRS brain activity measurement: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Sun, J W; Rolfe, P

    2012-01-01

    The non-invasive measurement of cerebral functional haemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments is often affected by physiological interference. The suppression of this interference is crucial for reliable recovery of brain activity measurements because it can significantly affect the signal quality. In this study, we present a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for adaptive filtering to reduce the magnitude of the physiological interference component. To evaluate it, we implemented Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer slab model of a human adult head with a multidistance source–detector arrangement, of a short pair and a long pair, for NIRS measurement. We derived measurements by adopting different interoptode distances, which is relevant to the process of optimizing the NIRS probe configuration. Both RLS and least mean squares (LMS) algorithms were used to attempt the removal of physiological interference. The results suggest that the RLS algorithm is more capable of minimizing the effect of physiological interference due to its advantages of faster convergence and smaller mean squared error (MSE). The influence of superficial layer thickness on the performance of the RLS algorithm was also investigated. We found that the near-detector position is an important variable in minimizing the MSE and a short source–detector separation less than 9 mm is robust to superficial layer thickness variation. (paper)

  14. Web addiction in the brain: Cortical oscillations, autonomic activity, and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Campanella, Salvatore; Finocchiaro, Roberta

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Internet addiction (IA) was recently defined as a disorder tagging both the impulse control and the reward systems. Specifically, inhibitory deficits and reward bias were considered highly relevant in IA. This research aims to examine the electrophysiological correlates and autonomic activity [skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate] in two groups of young subjects (N = 25), with high or low IA profile [tested by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT)], with specific reference to gambling behavior. Methods Oscillatory brain activity (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma) and autonomic and behavioral measures [response times (RTs) and error rates (ERs)] were acquired during the performance of a Go/NoGo task in response to high-rewarding (online gambling videos and video games) or neutral stimuli. Results A better performance (reduced ERs and reduced RTs) was revealed for high IAT in the case of NoGo trials representing rewarding cues (inhibitory control condition), probably due to a "gain effect" induced by the rewarding condition. In addition, we also observed for NoGo trials related to gambling and video games stimuli that (a) increased low-frequency band (delta and theta) and SCR and (b) a specific lateralization effect (more left-side activity) delta and theta in high IAT. Discussion Both inhibitory control deficits and reward bias effect were considered to explain IA.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of human brain activity using pixel subtraction algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Myoung; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Seung Jin [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To develop an automated quantification program, which is called FALBA (Functional and Anatomical Labeling of Brain Activation), and to provide information on the brain centers, brain activity (%) and hemispheric lateralization index on the basis of a brain activation map obtained from functional MR imaging. The 3-dimensional activation MR images were processed by a statistical parametric mapping program (SPM99, The Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, University College London, UK) and MRIcro software (www.micro.com). The 3-dimensional images were first converted into 2-dimensional sectional images, and then overlapped with the corresponding T1-weighted images. Then, the image dataset was extended to -59 mm to 83 mm with a 2 mm slice-gap, giving 73 axial images. By using a pixeI subtraction method, the differences in the R, G, B values between the T1-weighted images and the activation images were extracted, in order to produce black and white (B/W) differentiation images, in which each pixel is represented by 24-bit R, G, B true colors. Subsequently, another pixel differentiation method was applied to two template images, namely one functional and one anatomical index image, in order to generate functional and anatomical differentiation images containing regional brain activation information based on the Brodmann's and anatomical areas, respectively. In addition, the regional brain lateralization indices were automatically determined, in order to evaluate the hemispheric predominance, with the positive (+) and negative (-) indices showing left and right predominance, respectively. The manual counting method currently used is time consuming and has limited accuracy and reliability in the case of the activated cerebrocortical regions. The FALBA program we developed was 240 times faster than the manual counting method: -10 hours for manual accounting and -2.5 minutes for the FALBA program using a Pentium IV processor. Compared with the FALBA program, the

  16. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of human brain activity using pixel subtraction algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Myoung; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Seung Jin

    2004-01-01

    To develop an automated quantification program, which is called FALBA (Functional and Anatomical Labeling of Brain Activation), and to provide information on the brain centers, brain activity (%) and hemispheric lateralization index on the basis of a brain activation map obtained from functional MR imaging. The 3-dimensional activation MR images were processed by a statistical parametric mapping program (SPM99, The Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, University College London, UK) and MRIcro software (www.micro.com). The 3-dimensional images were first converted into 2-dimensional sectional images, and then overlapped with the corresponding T1-weighted images. Then, the image dataset was extended to -59 mm to 83 mm with a 2 mm slice-gap, giving 73 axial images. By using a pixeI subtraction method, the differences in the R, G, B values between the T1-weighted images and the activation images were extracted, in order to produce black and white (B/W) differentiation images, in which each pixel is represented by 24-bit R, G, B true colors. Subsequently, another pixel differentiation method was applied to two template images, namely one functional and one anatomical index image, in order to generate functional and anatomical differentiation images containing regional brain activation information based on the Brodmann's and anatomical areas, respectively. In addition, the regional brain lateralization indices were automatically determined, in order to evaluate the hemispheric predominance, with the positive (+) and negative (-) indices showing left and right predominance, respectively. The manual counting method currently used is time consuming and has limited accuracy and reliability in the case of the activated cerebrocortical regions. The FALBA program we developed was 240 times faster than the manual counting method: -10 hours for manual accounting and -2.5 minutes for the FALBA program using a Pentium IV processor. Compared with the FALBA program, the manual

  17. Association of change in brain structure to objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Koster, A; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n = 352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline.......0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n = 352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline...

  18. Comparison of Brain Activity Correlating with Self-Report versus Narrative Attachment Measures during Conscious Appraisal of an Attachment Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Zimri S.; Zhang, Xian; Muran, J. Christopher; Winston, Arnold; Galynker, Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) has been the gold standard of attachment assessment, but requires special training. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) is a widely used self-report measure. We investigate how each correlates with brain activity during appraisal of subjects’ mothers. Methods: Twenty-eight women were scored on the AAI, RSQ, and mood measures. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects viewed their mothers in neutral-, valence-, and salience-rating conditions. We identified regions where contrasts in brain activity between appraisal and neutral viewing conditions correlated with each measure of attachment after covarying for mood. AAI and RSQ measures were then compared in terms of the extent to which regions of correlating brain activity overlapped with “default mode network” (DMN) vs. executive frontal network (EFN) masks and cortical vs. subcortical masks. Additionally, interactions with mood were examined. Results: Salience and valence processing associated with increased thalamo-striatal, posterior cingulate, and visual cortex activity. Salience processing decreased PFC activity, whereas valence processing increased left insula activity. Activity correlating with AAI vs. RSQ measures demonstrated significantly more DMN and subcortical involvement. Interactions with mood were observed in the middle temporal gyrus and precuneus for both measures. Conclusion: The AAI appears to disproportionately correlate with conscious appraisal associated activity in DMN and subcortical structures, while the RSQ appears to tap EFN structures more extensively. Thus, the AAI may assess more interoceptive, ‘core-self’-related processes, while the RSQ captures higher-order cognitions involved in attachment. Shared interaction effects between mood and AAI and RSQ-measures may suggest that processes tapped by each belong to a common system. PMID:27014022

  19. Invariant measures in brain dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarsky, Abraham; Gora, Pawel

    2006-01-01

    This note concerns brain activity at the level of neural ensembles and uses ideas from ergodic dynamical systems to model and characterize chaotic patterns among these ensembles during conscious mental activity. Central to our model is the definition of a space of neural ensembles and the assumption of discrete time ensemble dynamics. We argue that continuous invariant measures draw the attention of deeper brain processes, engendering emergent properties such as consciousness. Invariant measures supported on a finite set of ensembles reflect periodic behavior, whereas the existence of continuous invariant measures reflect the dynamics of nonrepeating ensemble patterns that elicit the interest of deeper mental processes. We shall consider two different ways to achieve continuous invariant measures on the space of neural ensembles: (1) via quantum jitters, and (2) via sensory input accompanied by inner thought processes which engender a 'folding' property on the space of ensembles

  20. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  1. Cross-sectional associations of objectively measured physical activity with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Tarp, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    .035). In girls, mean physical activity and MVPA were not associated with serum BDNF. Without adjustment for wear time, sedentary time was not associated with serum BDNF in either sex. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that higher physical activity is associated with lower serum BDNF in boys, but not in girls....... standardized procedures. RESULTS: With adjustment for age, pubertal status and body mass index, mean physical activity (counts per minute) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.013). Similarly, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 415 adolescents who participated in the 2015 follow...

  2. The reliability, validity, and feasibility of physical activity measurement in adults with traumatic brain injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; Moseley, Anne; Harmer, Alison; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with a Physical Disability (PASIPD) in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and estimate the proportion of the sample participants who fail to meet the World Health Organization guidelines for physical activity. A single-center observational study recruited a convenience sample of 30 community-based ambulant adults with severe TBI. Participants completed the PASIPD on 2 occasions, 1 week apart, and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X; ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, Florida) for the 7 days between these 2 assessments. The PASIPD test-retest reliability was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.92), and the correlation with the accelerometer ranged from too low to be meaningful (R = 0.09) to moderate (R = 0.57). From device-based measurement of physical activity, 56% of participants failed to meet the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. The PASIPD is a reliable measure of the type of physical activity people with severe TBI participate in, but it is not a valid measure of the amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity in which they engage. Accelerometers should be used to quantify moderate to vigorous physical activity in people with TBI.

  3. Cross-sectional associations of objectively measured physical activity with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo; Peijs, Lone; Bugge, Anna

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 415 adolescents who participated in the 2015 follow-up of the Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (the CHAMPS-study DK). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry monitors. Serum BDNF levels were analyzed using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthropometrics and pubertal status were measured using standardized procedures. With adjustment for age, pubertal status and body mass index, mean physical activity (counts per minute) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.013). Similarly, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.035). In girls, mean physical activity and MVPA were not associated with serum BDNF. Without adjustment for wear time, sedentary time was not associated with serum BDNF in either sex. These findings indicate that higher physical activity is associated with lower serum BDNF in boys, but not in girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PET with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose measures of local brain activity and memory in schizophrenia and in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Kling, A.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan has provided non-invasive measures of regional cerebral glucose utilization which are directly related with levels of functional activity in regions of the brain. The FDG technique was applied to the study of brain activity thought to be impaired in 6 chronic schizophrenics (SCH) and 6 depressed (D) patients in comparison with 6 healthy age-matched controls (C). Local cerebral metabolic rates of glucose utilization LCMRglc were determined for 8 regions in both left and right hemispheres and were expressed in reference to a person's mean CMRglc. Multivariate comparisons of the 16 measures showed no significant differences between the 3 groups; follow-up step-down analyses and t-tests failed to specify any regional or global LCMRglc reliable to separate patients from controls. They also did not differ in any of 18 multidimensional tests of memory and decision, except for lower delayed verbal recall in D patients. When both SCH and D were classified into those with CT large and those with CT small ventricles, there were no multivariate differences. Only partial LCMRglc separated large from small ventricle patients (F(1,7) = 6.12, p<0.042), but finding no multivariate significance makes this result questionable. The ventricular grouping of SCH alone may reveal a marginal difference in global CMRglc t(4) = 2.58, p<0.06, given a larger patient sample. In contrast to recent reports, indices to brain activity in schizophrenic and depressed patients do not seem to be abnormal

  5. Using Brain Activation (nir-HEG/Q-EEG) and Execution Measures (CPTs) in a ADHD Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Debora; Cueli, Marisol; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma; Rodríguez, Celestino

    2018-04-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a problem that impacts academic performance and has serious consequences that result in difficulties in scholastic, social and familial contexts. One of the most common problems in the identification of this disorder relates to the apparent over diagnosis of the disorder due to the absence of global protocols for assessment. The research group of School Learning, Difficulties and Academic Performance (ADIR) from the University of Oviedo, has developed a complete protocol that suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control for identifying ADHD more objectively. This protocol takes into consideration some of the hypothetical determinants of ADHD, including the relationship between activation of selected areas of the brain, and differences in performance on various aspects of executive functioning such as omissions, commissions or response times, using innovative tools of Continuous Performance Testing (based on Virtual Reality CPT and Traditional CPT) and brain activation measures (two different tools, based on Hemoencephalography- nirHEG; and Quantified Electroencephalography --Q-EEG, respectively). This model of assessment aims to provide an effective assessment of ADHD symptomatology in order to design an accurate intervention and make appropriate recommendations for parents and teachers.

  6. On the characterization of single-event related brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Khoram, Nafiseh; Zayane, Chadia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Djellouli, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    We propose an efficient numerical technique for calibrating the mathematical model that describes the singleevent related brain response when fMRI measurements are given. This method employs a regularized Newton technique in conjunction with a

  7. On the characterization of single-event related brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Khoram, Nafiseh

    2014-08-01

    We propose an efficient numerical technique for calibrating the mathematical model that describes the singleevent related brain response when fMRI measurements are given. This method employs a regularized Newton technique in conjunction with a Kalman filtering procedure. We have applied this method to estimate the biophysiological parameters of the Balloon model that describes the hemodynamic brain responses. Illustrative results obtained with both synthetic and real fMRI measurements are presented. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. The Analysis for Activations in the Brain during Hearing the Amplitude-Modulated Tone by fMRI Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Saito, Yoichi

    In audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response) is widely used. However, it shows low accuracy in low frequency band. Meanwhile, AMFR (Amplitude-Modulation-Following Response), the response during hearing an amplitude-modulated tone, has high frequency specificity and is brought to attention. As the first step to clinical application of AMFR, we investigated the activated areas in a brain when the subjects hear SAM tone (Sinusoidally Amplitude-Modulated tone) with both ears. We measured following two signals. One is the difference of BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal between hearing SAM tone vs. silence, the other is the difference of BOLD signal between hearing SAM tone vs. unmodulated tone. As a result, in the case of SAM vs. silence, the bilaterally auditory cortex (Broadmann Area 41, 42), the biratelally BA 10, left superior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were activated (pvs. unmodulated tone, the bilaterally superior frontal gyrus (BA 6) and precuneus (BA 7), neighboring area including the bilaterally inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), the bilaterally medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus were activated (p<0.021, uncorrected). Activations of visual perception due to eye-opened state were detected in some parts of activations. As a result, we inferred that modulated tone was recognized in the medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule was the part related to perception of amplitude-modulation.

  9. A DAQ-Device-Based Continuous Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy System for Measuring Human Functional Brain Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is getting more and more popular as a neuroimaging technique. The fNIRS instrument can be used to measure local hemodynamic response, which indirectly reflects the functional neural activities in human brain. In this study, an easily implemented way to establish DAQ-device-based fNIRS system was proposed. Basic instrumentation components (light sources driving, signal conditioning, sensors, and optical fiber of the fNIRS system were described. The digital in-phase and quadrature demodulation method was applied in LabVIEW software to distinguish light sources from different emitters. The effectiveness of the custom-made system was verified by simultaneous measurement with a commercial instrument ETG-4000 during Valsalva maneuver experiment. The light intensity data acquired from two systems were highly correlated for lower wavelength (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = 0.92, P < 0.01 and higher wavelength (r = 0.84, P < 0.01. Further, another mental arithmetic experiment was implemented to detect neural activation in the prefrontal cortex. For 9 participants, significant cerebral activation was detected in 6 subjects (P < 0.05 for oxyhemoglobin and in 8 subjects (P < 0.01 for deoxyhemoglobin.

  10. Towards understanding the differences between reading on paper and screen: measuring attention changes in brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-intrusive experimentation and measurements can be obtained from the latest neuroscience scanning techniques and technologies. Such technologies are now quite affordable and could possibly be used for the reading process research in information and communication sciences. The research experiment focuses on measuring the changes in attention while reading the text on different media (devices. The pilot experiment showed that cheap and easy to use brainwave measuring devices can be used for testing reading processes by measuring attention (concentration. The results revealed that a reading medium (device affects the level of attention and suggested that less attention is needed to read from paper compared to any size or type of screen. Reading books (in a foreign language can mostly be considered neutral on the attention level scale (slightly shifted towards 53 on a 1-100 scale.

  11. Effects of green and black tea consumption on brain wave activities in healthy volunteers as measured by a simplified Electroencephalogram (EEG): A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Edward J; Abadi, Awatf M; Abadi, Saad A

    2016-06-01

    Tea has been associated with many mental benefits, such as attention enhancement, clarity of mind, and relaxation. These psychosomatic states can be measured in terms of brain activity using an electroencephalogram (EEG). Brain activity can be assessed either during a state of passive activity or when performing attention tasks and it can provide useful information about the brain's state. This study investigated the effects of green and black consumption on brain activity as measured by a simplified EEG, during passive activity. Eight healthy volunteers participated in the study. The EEG measurements were performed using a two channel EEG brain mapping instrument - HeadCoach™. Fast Fourier transform algorithm and EEGLAB toolbox using the Matlab software were used for data processing and analysis. Alpha, theta, and beta wave activities were all found to increase after 1 hour of green and black tea consumption, albeit, with very considerable inter-individual variations. Our findings provide further evidence for the putative beneficial effects of tea. The highly significant increase in theta waves (P by 'from field to shelf practices'.

  12. Tinnitus perception and distress is related to abnormal spontaneous brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tinnitus perception are not well understood. Surprisingly, there have been no group studies comparing abnormalities in ongoing, spontaneous neuronal activity in individuals with and without tinnitus perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that the spontaneous neuronal activity of a group of individuals with tinnitus (n = 17 is characterised by a marked reduction in alpha (8-12 Hz power together with an enhancement in delta (1.5-4 Hz as compared to a normal hearing control group (n = 16. This pattern was especially pronounced for temporal regions. Moreover, correlations with tinnitus-related distress revealed strong associations with this abnormal spontaneous activity pattern, particularly in right temporal and left frontal areas. Overall, effects were stronger for the alpha than for the delta frequency band. A data stream of 5 min, recorded with a whole-head neuromagnetometer under a resting condition, was sufficient to extract the marked differences. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, there are arguments that the regional pattern of abnormal spontaneous activity we found could reflect a tinnitus-related cortical network. This finding, which suggests that a neurofeedback approach could reduce the adverse effects of this disturbing condition, could have important implications for the treatment of tinnitus.

  13. Effect of flavones on rat brain and lung matrix metalloproteinase activity measured by film in-situ zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, K; Tateoka, N; Ando, H; Yoshizaki, F

    2005-04-01

    We have evaluated the inhibitory activity of flavone, nobiletin, and heptamethoxyflavone on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the rat. MMP in 9000-g supernatant fraction of lung homogenate was activated by p-aminophenyl mercuric acetate (APMA), and gelatinolytic activity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Coomassie staining. This activity should be related to MMP-2 and/or MMP-9 and was confirmed by gelatin zymography. Fluorescent-conjugated collagen used as a substrate for collagenolytic activity wasinvestigated by SDS-PAGE also. The film in-situ zymography method was applied to rat brain and lung tissue in the same manner. Flavone and nobiletin inhibited the APMA-stimulated gelatinolytic activity and also the collagenolytic activity by more than 75%. The film in-situ zymography method indicated that these compounds might be potent inhibitors of MMP, suggesting the specific inhibition of localized MMP in brain hippocampus and/or lung terminal bronchioles, which may contribute to the prevention of some types of brain disease or cancer invasion and metastasis.

  14. Measurement of {sup 11}C-raclopride binding in micropig brain with high and low specific activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Eo, Jae Seon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    In vitro, a saturation hyperbola or Scatchard plot is applied for the determination of receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). Simillary, Bmax and Kd could be obtained in vivo by performing two or more PET experiments with high and low specific activities (SA). To measure these parameters, the binding potential (BP) of 11C-raclopride for striatal D2 receptor in micropig brain at high and low SA was measured in this study. A normal male PWG micropig (weight: 38 kg, age: 24 months) was used in this study. The animals were anesthetized with ketamine (2 mL/10 kg, i.m.) and xylazine (1mL/10kg, i.m.), and placed in a supine position. Dynamic PET data was acquired for 60 min after injection of 11C-raclopride (2.5 mCi) through the catheter placed in a femoral vein. High SA and low SA (6.8 uCi/nmol) PET and T1 SPGR MRI scans were performed. MR image was co-registered to the static PET images and ROIs were drawn on striatum and cerebellum to obtain the time activity curve. The BP in striatum was computed by both the Lammertsma and Logan reference tissue methods using cerebellum tissue input function. BP parametric images were also generated using the Logan method. The value of striatum BP was 1.46/0.32 (high SA / low SA) and 1.34/0.31 in Lammertsma and Logan methods, respectively. The D2 occupancy by the cold raclopride was approximately 78% in micropig striatum. The Logan BP parametric image visualized well the change of receptor occupancy between the two scans. In this study, BP values at high and low SA and their percent change estimated by the two different methods were correlated well. This preliminary result suggests that the experimental procedures established in this study would be useful for the quantification of the density of D2 receptor and affinity in the micropig brain.

  15. The Reliability, Validity, and Feasibility of Physical Activity Measurement in Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassett, L.; Moseley, A.; Harmer, A.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with a Physical Disability (PASIPD) in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and estimate the proportion of the sample participants who fail to meet the World Health Organization guidelines

  16. Immunocapture-based fluorometric assay for the measurement of neprilysin-specific enzyme activity in brain tissue homogenates and cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miners, J.S.; Verbeek, M.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kehoe, P.G.; Love, S.

    2008-01-01

    Neprilysin, a zinc-metalloendopeptidase, has important roles in the physiology and pathology of many diseases such as hypertension, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We have developed an immunocapture assay to measure the specific enzyme activity of neprilysin in brain tissue homogenates and

  17. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling......Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  18. Brain Activities and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Emel

    2002-01-01

    There are close relationships between brain activities and educational technology. Brain is very important and so complicated part in our bodies. From long time scientists pay attention to that part and did many experiments, but they just reached little information like a drop in the sea. However from time to time they gave us some light to…

  19. Using Brain Electrical Activity Mapping to Diagnose Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torello, Michael, W.; Duffy, Frank H.

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience assumes that measurement of brain electrical activity should relate to cognition. Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM), a non-invasive technique, is used to record changes in activity from one brain area to another and is 80 to 90 percent successful in classifying subjects as dyslexic or normal. (MT)

  20. Towards a physiology-based measure of pain: patterns of human brain activity distinguish painful from non-painful thermal stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin E Brown

    Full Text Available Pain often exists in the absence of observable injury; therefore, the gold standard for pain assessment has long been self-report. Because the inability to verbally communicate can prevent effective pain management, research efforts have focused on the development of a tool that accurately assesses pain without depending on self-report. Those previous efforts have not proven successful at substituting self-report with a clinically valid, physiology-based measure of pain. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and support vector machine (SVM learning can be jointly used to accurately assess cognitive states. Therefore, we hypothesized that an SVM trained on fMRI data can assess pain in the absence of self-report. In fMRI experiments, 24 individuals were presented painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli. Using eight individuals, we trained a linear SVM to distinguish these stimuli using whole-brain patterns of activity. We assessed the performance of this trained SVM model by testing it on 16 individuals whose data were not used for training. The whole-brain SVM was 81% accurate at distinguishing painful from non-painful stimuli (p<0.0000001. Using distance from the SVM hyperplane as a confidence measure, accuracy was further increased to 84%, albeit at the expense of excluding 15% of the stimuli that were the most difficult to classify. Overall performance of the SVM was primarily affected by activity in pain-processing regions of the brain including the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, primary motor cortex, and cingulate cortex. Region of interest (ROI analyses revealed that whole-brain patterns of activity led to more accurate classification than localized activity from individual brain regions. Our findings demonstrate that fMRI with SVM learning can assess pain without requiring any communication from the person being tested. We outline tasks that should be

  1. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  2. Fueling and Imaging Brain Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Dienel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.

  3. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  4. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as ..... on the brain and nervous system of humans as handlers and ... environment may be at higher health risk in that their internal ...

  5. Measuring Emotion Regulation with Single Dry Electrode Brain Computer Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C.N.; Irrmischer, M.; Guo, Y.; Friston, K.; Faisal, A.; Hill, S.; Peng, H.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless brain computer interfaces (BCI’s) are promising for new intelligent applications in which emotions are detected by measuring brain activity. Applications, such as serious games and video game therapy, are measuring and using the user’s emotional state in order to determine the intensity

  6. Association of change in brain structure to objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Domelen, Dane R Van; Brychta, Robert J; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sverrisdottir, Johanna E; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Johannsson, Erlingur; Chen, Kong Y; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n=352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline and 5-year change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) to active and sedentary behavior (SB) measured at the end of the 5-year period by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days. More GM (β=0.11; p=0.044) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) at baseline was associated with more total physical activity (TPA). Also, when adjusting for baseline values, the 5-year change in GM (β=0.14; p=0.0037) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) was associated with TPA. The 5-year change in WM was associated with SB (β=-0.11; p=0.0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of Brain Activity during Phonological Familiarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, S.; Van der Linden, M.; Collette, F.; Laureys, S.; Poncelet, M.; Degueldre, C.; Delfiore, G.; Luxen, A.; Salmon, E.

    2005-01-01

    We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were either of high (HF) or low (LF) phonotactic frequency. After familiarization, we observed, for both word and nonword conditions, decreased…

  8. Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Marion E.

    Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

  9. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Hyldig, Tino; Bidstrup, F.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...... min of exercise; P

  10. Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  14. Effects of short-term piano training on measures of finger tapping, somatosensory perception and motor-related brain activity in patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Pinto A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Alves-Pinto,1 Stefan Ehrlich,2 Gordon Cheng,2 Varvara Turova,1 Tobias Blumenstein,1 Renée Lampe1 1Research Unit of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation for Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics and Cerebral Palsy, Department of Orthopaedics, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 2Chair for Cognitive Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Abstract: Playing a musical instrument demands the integration of sensory and perceptual information with motor processes in order to produce a harmonic musical piece. The diversity of brain mechanisms involved and the joyful character of playing an instrument make musical instrument training a potential vehicle for neurorehabilitation of motor skills in patients with cerebral palsy (CP. This clinical condition is characterized by motor impairments that can affect, among others, manual function, and limit severely the execution of basic daily activities. In this study, adolescents and adult patients with CP, as well as a group of typically developing children learned to play piano for 4 consecutive weeks, having completed a total of 8 hours of training. For ten of the participants, learning was supported by a special technical system aimed at helping people with sensorimotor deficits to better discriminate fingers and orient themselves along the piano keyboard. Potential effects of piano training were assessed with tests of finger tapping at the piano and tests of perception of vibratory stimulation of fingers, and by measuring neuronal correlates of motor learning in the absence of and after piano training. Results were highly variable especially among participants with CP. Nevertheless, a significant effect of training on the ability to perceive the localization of vibrations over fingers was found. No effects of training on the performance of simple finger tapping sequences at the piano or on motor

  15. [Physical activity: positive impact on brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Kalron, Alon

    2008-03-01

    The central nervous system has a unique capability of plasticity that enables a single neuron or a group of neurons to undergo functional and constructional changes that are important to learning processes and for compensation of brain damage. The current review aims to summarize recent data related to the effects of physical activity on brain plasticity. In the last decade it was reported that physical activity can affect and manipulate neuronal connections, synaptic activity and adaptation to new neuronal environment following brain injury. One of the most significant neurotrophic factors that is critical for synaptic re-organization and is influenced by physical activity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The frequency of physical activity and the intensity of exercises are of importance to brain remodeling, support neuronal survival and positively affect rehabilitation therapy. Physical activity should be employed as a tool to improve neural function in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from neurological damage.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of brain activity associated with visual sexual arousal in males and females: 3.0 tesIa functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Eun, Sung Jong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Park, Kwang Sung

    2004-01-01

    The present study utilized 3.0 Tesla functional MR imaging to identify and quantify the activated brain regions associated with visually evoked sexual arousal, and also to discriminate the gender differences between the cortical activation patterns in response to sexual stimuli. A total of 24 healthy, right-handed volunteers, 14 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23), with normal heterosexual function underwent functional MRI on a 3.0T MR scanner (Forte, Isole technique, Korea). The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 3- minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 1-minute rest. The fMRI data was obtained from 20 slices (5 mm slice thickness, no gap) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line on the sagittal plane, giving a total of 2,100 images. The brain activation maps and the resulting quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping program, SPM 99. The mean-activated images were obtained from each individual activation map using one sampled t-test. The FALBA program, which is a new algorithm based on the pixel differentiation method, was used to identify and quantify the brain activation and lateralization indices with respect to the functional and anatomical terms. In both male and female volunteers, significant brain activation showed in the limbic areas of the parahippocampal gyrus, septal area, cingulate gyrus and thalamus. It is interesting to note that the septal areas gave a relatively lower activation ratio with high brain activities. On the contrary, the putamen, insula cortex, and corpus callosum gave a higher activation ratio with low brain activities. In particular, brain activation in the septal area, which was not reported in the previous fMRI studies under 1.5 Tesla, represents a distinct finding of this study using 3.0T MR scanner. The overall lateralization index of activation shows left predominance (LI= 35.3%) in

  17. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of brain activity associated with visual sexual arousal in males and females: 3.0 tesIa functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Eun, Sung Jong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Park, Kwang Sung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    The present study utilized 3.0 Tesla functional MR imaging to identify and quantify the activated brain regions associated with visually evoked sexual arousal, and also to discriminate the gender differences between the cortical activation patterns in response to sexual stimuli. A total of 24 healthy, right-handed volunteers, 14 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23), with normal heterosexual function underwent functional MRI on a 3.0T MR scanner (Forte, Isole technique, Korea). The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 3- minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 1-minute rest. The fMRI data was obtained from 20 slices (5 mm slice thickness, no gap) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line on the sagittal plane, giving a total of 2,100 images. The brain activation maps and the resulting quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping program, SPM 99. The mean-activated images were obtained from each individual activation map using one sampled t-test. The FALBA program, which is a new algorithm based on the pixel differentiation method, was used to identify and quantify the brain activation and lateralization indices with respect to the functional and anatomical terms. In both male and female volunteers, significant brain activation showed in the limbic areas of the parahippocampal gyrus, septal area, cingulate gyrus and thalamus. It is interesting to note that the septal areas gave a relatively lower activation ratio with high brain activities. On the contrary, the putamen, insula cortex, and corpus callosum gave a higher activation ratio with low brain activities. In particular, brain activation in the septal area, which was not reported in the previous fMRI studies under 1.5 Tesla, represents a distinct finding of this study using 3.0T MR scanner. The overall lateralization index of activation shows left predominance (LI= 35.3%) in

  18. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation maps appear more (diffusively distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness, complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix, and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity. To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70% and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  19. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of 3 H 2 O formed during the conversion of [1 beta- 3 H]androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats

  20. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  1. Shaping of neuronal activity through a Brain Computer Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Valero-Aguayo, Luis; Silva-Sauer, Leandro; Velasco-Alvarez, Ricardo; Ron-Angevin, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal responses are human actions which can be measured by an EEG, and which imply changes in waves when neurons are synchronized. This activity could be changed by principles of behaviour analysis. This research tests the efficacy of the behaviour shaping procedure to progressively change neuronal activity, so that those brain responses are adapted according to the differential reinforcement of visual feedback. The Brain Computer Interface (BCI) enables us to record the EEG in real ti...

  2. Structural imaging measures of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-09-01

    During the course of normal aging, biological changes occur in the brain that are associated with changes in cognitive ability. This review presents data from neuroimaging studies of primarily "normal" or healthy brain aging. As such, we focus on research in unimpaired or nondemented older adults, but also include findings from lifespan studies that include younger and middle aged individuals as well as from populations with prodromal or clinically symptomatic disease such as cerebrovascular or Alzheimer's disease. This review predominantly addresses structural MRI biomarkers, such as volumetric or thickness measures from anatomical images, and measures of white matter injury and integrity respectively from FLAIR or DTI, and includes complementary data from PET and cognitive or clinical testing as appropriate. The findings reveal highly consistent age-related differences in brain structure, particularly frontal lobe and medial temporal regions that are also accompanied by age-related differences in frontal and medial temporal lobe mediated cognitive abilities. Newer findings also suggest that degeneration of specific white matter tracts such as those passing through the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum may also be related to age-related differences in cognitive performance. Interpretation of these findings, however, must be tempered by the fact that comorbid diseases such as cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's disease also increase in prevalence with advancing age. As such, this review discusses challenges related to interpretation of current theories of cognitive aging in light of the common occurrence of these later-life diseases. Understanding the differences between "Normal" and "Healthy" brain aging and identifying potential modifiable risk factors for brain aging is critical to inform potential treatments to stall or reverse the effects of brain aging and possibly extend cognitive health for our aging society.

  3. Brain connectivity measures: computation and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article computation and comparison of causality measures which are used in determination of brain connectivity patterns is investigated. Main analyzed examples included published computation and comparisons of Directed Transfer Function ‐ DTF and Partial Directed Coherence ‐ PDC. It proved that serious methodology mistakes were involved in measure computations and comparisons. It is shown that the neighborhood of zero is of accented importance in such evaluations and that the issues of semantic stability have to be treated with more attention. Published results on the relationship of these two important measures are partly unstable with small changes of zero threshold and pictures of involved brain structures deduced from the cited articles have to be corrected. Analysis of the operators involved in evaluation and comparisons is given with suggestions for their improvement and complementary additional actions.

  4. Brain oscillations and BIS/BAS (behavioral inhibition/activation system) effects on processing masked emotional cues. ERS/ERD and coherence measures of alpha band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Mazza, Guido

    2009-11-01

    Alpha brain oscillation modulation was analyzed in response to masked emotional facial expressions. In addition, behavioural activation (BAS) and behavioural inhibition systems (BIS) were considered as an explicative factor to verify the effect of motivational significance on cortical activity. Nineteen subjects were submitted to an ample range of facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral). The results demonstrated that anterior frontal sites were more active than central and posterior sites in response to facial stimuli. Moreover, right-side responses varied as a function of emotional types, with an increased right-frontal activity for negative emotions. Finally, whereas higher BIS subjects generated a more right hemisphere activation for some negative emotions (such as fear, anger, and surprise), Reward-BAS subjects were more responsive to positive emotion (happiness) within the left hemisphere. Valence and potential threatening power of facial expressions were considered to elucidate these cortical differences.

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  8. Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

  9. BRAIN NETWORKS. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-06-12

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L.; Naumann, Eva A.; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E.; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M.B.; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open source atlas containing molecular labels and anatomical region definitions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/MAPK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This MAP-Mapping (Mitogen Activated Protein kinase – Mapping) assay is technically simple, fast, inexpensive, and data analysis is completely automated. Since MAP-Mapping is performed on fish that are freely swimming, it is applicable to nearly any stimulus or behavior. We demonstrate the utility of our high-throughput approach using hunting/feeding, pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors. PMID:26778924

  11. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Naumann, Eva A; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M B; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-11-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open-source atlas containing molecular labels and definitions of anatomical regions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole-brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP)-mapping assay is technically simple, and data analysis is completely automated. Because MAP-mapping is performed on freely swimming fish, it is applicable to studies of nearly any stimulus or behavior. Here we demonstrate our high-throughput approach using pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli, as well as hunting and feeding. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  14. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  15. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-08-29

    Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported.

  16. Measurements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Klein, Anders Bue; Vinberg, Maj

    2007-01-01

    Although numerous studies have dealt with changes in blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), methodological issues about BDNF measurements have only been incompletely resolved. We validated BDNF ELISA with respect to accuracy, reproducibility and the effect of storage and repeated freezing...... (18.6+/-1.3 ng/ml versus 16.5+/-1.4 ng/ml), and showed a right-skewed BDNF concentration distribution. No association between whole blood BDNF concentrations and thrombocyte count, age, or BDNF genotype was found. In conclusion, the BDNF ELISA assay determines whole blood BDNF accurately and with high...

  17. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

    2014-03-13

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

  18. Visual short term memory related brain activity predicts mathematical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Neural activity in the reward-related brain regions predicts implicit self-esteem: A novel validity test of psychological measures using neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Kennedy, Kate; Fitzjohn, Alexander; Sedikides, Constantine; Shibata, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-01

    Self-esteem, arguably the most important attitudes an individual possesses, has been a premier research topic in psychology for more than a century. Following a surge of interest in implicit attitude measures in the 90s, researchers have tried to assess self-esteem implicitly to circumvent the influence of biases inherent in explicit measures. However, the validity of implicit self-esteem measures remains elusive. Critical tests are often inconclusive, as the validity of such measures is examined in the backdrop of imperfect behavioral measures. To overcome this serious limitation, we tested the neural validity of the most widely used implicit self-esteem measure, the implicit association test (IAT). Given the conceptualization of self-esteem as attitude toward the self, and neuroscience findings that the reward-related brain regions represent an individual's attitude or preference for an object when viewing its image, individual differences in implicit self-esteem should be associated with neural signals in the reward-related regions during passive-viewing of self-face (the most obvious representation of the self). Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on functional MRI (fMRI) data, we demonstrate that the neural signals in the reward-related regions were robustly associated with implicit (but not explicit) self-esteem, thus providing unique evidence for the neural validity of the self-esteem IAT. In addition, both implicit and explicit self-esteem were related, although differently, to neural signals in regions involved in self-processing. Our finding highlights the utility of neuroscience methods in addressing fundamental psychological questions and providing unique insights into important psychological constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the possible role of oxidative stress in permethrin neurotoxicity and to evaluate the protective effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) was found to ...

  1. Brain volume measurement using three-dimensional magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to validate accurate measurement method of human brain volume using three dimensional (3D) MRI data on a workstation, and to establish optimal correcting method of human brain volume on diagnosis of brain atrophy. 3D MRI data were acquired by fast SPGR sequence using 1.5 T MR imager. 3D MRI data were segmented by region growing method and 3D image was displayed by surface rendering method on the workstation. Brain volume was measured by the volume measurement function of the workstation. In order to validate the accurate measurement method, phantoms and a specimen of human brain were examined. Phantom volume was measured by changing the lower level of threshold value. At the appropriate threshold value, percentage of error of phantoms and the specimen were within 0.6% and 0.08%, respectively. To establish the optimal correcting method, 130 normal volunteers were examined. Brain volumes corrected with height weight, body surface area, and alternative skull volume were evaluated. Brain volume index, which is defined as dividing brain volume by alternative skull volume, had the best correlation with age (r=0.624, p<0.05). No gender differences was observed in brain volume index in contrast to in brain volume. The clinical usefulness of this correcting method for brain atrophy diagnosis was evaluated in 85 patients. Diagnosis by 2D spin echo MR images was compared with brain volume index. Diagnosis of brain atrophy by 2D MR image was concordant with the evaluation by brain volume index. These results indicated that this measurement method had high accuracy, and it was important to set the appropriate threshold value. Brain volume index was the appropriate indication for evaluation of human brain volume, and was considered to be useful for the diagnosis of brain atrophy. (author)

  2. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  3. Individual Variability in Brain Activity: A Nuisance or an Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Grafton, Scott T; Miller, Michael B

    2008-12-01

    Functional imaging research has been heavily influenced by results based on population-level inference. However, group average results may belie the unique patterns of activity present in the individual that ordinarily are considered random noise. Recent advances in the evolution of MRI hardware have led to significant improvements in the stability and reproducibility of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) measurements. These enhancements provide a unique opportunity for closer examination of individual patterns of brain activity. Three objectives can be accomplished by considering brain scans at the individual level; (1) Mapping functional anatomy at a fine grained analysis; (2) Determining if an individual scan is normative with respect to a reference population; and (3) Understanding the sources of intersubject variability in brain activity. In this review, we detail these objectives, briefly discuss their histories and present recent trends in the analyses of individual variability. Finally, we emphasize the unique opportunities and challenges for understanding individual differences through international collaboration among Pacific Rim investigators.

  4. Brain function measurement using optical topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Optical topography is a completely non-invasive method to image the high brain function with the near infrared spectroscopy, does not need the restriction of human behavior for imaging and thereby is applicable even for infants. The principle is based on irradiation of the near infrared laser beam with the optical-fiber onto the head surface and detection with the fiber of the reflection, of which spectroscopy for blood-borne hemoglobin gives the local cerebral homodynamics related with the nerve activity. The infrared laser beam of 1-10 mW is found safe on direct irradiation to the human body. The topography is applicable in the fields of clinical medicine like internal neurology (an actual image of the activated Broca's and Welnicke's areas at writing is presented), neurosurgery, psychiatry and pedriatric neurology, of developmental cognitive neuroscience, of educational science and of communication. ''MIT Technology Reviews'' mentions that this technique is one of 4 recent promising innovative techniques in the world. (N.I.)

  5. Relationship between changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity and brain edema after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity and brain edema after injury in rats.   Methods: The brain injury models were made by using a free-falling body. The treatment model was induced by means of injecting AP5 into lateral ventricle before brain injury; water contents in brain cortex were measured with dry-wet method; and NMDA receptor activity was detected with a radio ligand binding assay.   Results: The water contents began to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 6 hours after brain injury. The maximal binding (Bmax) of NMDA receptor increased significantly at 15 minutes and reached the peak at 30 minutes, then decreased gradually and had the lowest value 6 hours after brain injury. Followed the treatment with AP5, NMDA receptor activity in the injured brain showed a normal value; and the water contents were lower than that of AP5-free injury group 24 hours after brain injury.   Conclusions: It suggests that excessive activation of NMDA receptor may be one of the most important factors to induce the secondary cerebral impairments, and AP5 may protect the brain from edema after brain injury.

  6. Association Between Brain Activation and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2018-04-13

    The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response. This association was significantly attenuated by a novel task signal regression (TSR) procedure, indicating that task performance enhances lFCD and ALFF in activated regions. We also show that lFCD predicts BOLD activation patterns, as was recently shown for other functional connectivity metrics, which corroborates that resting functional connectivity architecture impacts brain activation responses. Thus, our findings indicate a common source for BOLD responses, ALFF and lFCD, which is consistent with the neurovascular origin of local hemodynamic synchrony presumably reflecting coordinated fluctuations in neuronal activity. This study also supports the development of task-evoked functional connectivity density mapping.

  7. Comparison of brain activation to purposefully activate a tool in healthy subjects and brain tumor patients using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Hyodo, Akio; Sugimoto, Koichi; Tsuchida, Yukihiro; Yonaha, Hirokatsu; Ito, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional organization of the human brain involved in tool-manipulation. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers and two brain tumor patients during two tool-manipulation tasks: simulated tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Simulation), and tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Real). Subjects performed the experiment without watching the tasks. Bilateral pre-supplementary motor areas, bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes, right ventral premotor area, right calcarine sulcus, and cerebellar vermis were activated during Real but not during Simulation tasks in healthy volunteers. In addition, brain tumor patients activated the prefrontal areas. Our results suggest that the human brain mechanisms for tool-manipulation have a neural-network comprised of presupplementary motor area, ventral premotor area, and bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes. In the patients with brain dusfurction diee to tumors, activation at the prefrontal area provided function compensation without motor paralysis. (author)

  8. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  9. In vivo measurements of brain glucose transport using the reversible michaelis-menten model and simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow changes during hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, I.-Y.; Lee, S.-P.; Kim, S.-G.; Gruetter, R.

    2001-01-01

    Glucose is the major substrate that sustains normal brain function. When the brain glucose concentration approaches zero, glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier becomes rate limiting for metabolism during, for example, increased metabolic activity and hypoglycemia. Steady-state brain glucose concentrations in α-chloralose anesthetized rats were measured noninvasively as a function of plasma glucose. The relation between brain and plasma glucose was linear at 4.5 to 30 mmol/L plasma ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  14. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

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  1. Brain activation associated with pride and shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lilian; Kaffenberger, Tina; Herwig, Uwe; Brühl, Annette B

    2014-01-01

    Self-referential emotions such as shame/guilt and pride provide evaluative information about persons themselves. In addition to emotional aspects, social and self-referential processes play a role in self-referential emotions. Prior studies have rather focused on comparing self-referential and other-referential processes of one valence, triggered mostly by external stimuli. In the current study, we aimed at investigating the valence-specific neural correlates of shame/guilt and pride, evoked by the remembrance of a corresponding autobiographical event during functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied. The task comprised a negative (shame/guilt), a positive (pride) and a neutral condition (expecting the distractor). Each condition was initiated by a simple cue, followed by the remembrance and finished by a distracting picture. Pride and shame/guilt conditions both activated typical emotion-processing circuits including the amygdala, insula and ventral striatum, as well as self-referential brain regions such as the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Comparing the two emotional conditions, emotion-processing circuits were more activated by pride than by shame, possibly due to either hedonic experiences or stronger involvement of the participants in positive self-referential emotions due to a self-positivity bias. However, the ventral striatum was similarly activated by pride and shame/guilt. In the whole-brain analysis, both self-referential emotion conditions activated medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate regions, corresponding to the self-referential aspect and the autobiographical evocation of the respective emotions. Autobiographically evoked self-referential emotions activated basic emotional as well as self-referential circuits. Except for the ventral striatum, emotional circuits were more active with pride than with shame.

  2. Use of brain electrical activity for the identification of hematomas in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel F; Chabot, Robert; Mould, W Andrew; Morgan, Timothy; Naunheim, Rosanne; Sheth, Kevin N; Chiang, William; Prichep, Leslie S

    2013-12-15

    This study investigates the potential clinical utility in the emergency department (ED) of an index of brain electrical activity to identify intracranial hematomas. The relationship between this index and depth, size, and type of hematoma was explored. Ten minutes of brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage in 38 adult patients with traumatic hematomas (CT scan positive) and 38 mild head injured controls (CT scan negative) in the ED. The volume of blood and distance from recording electrodes were measured by blinded independent experts. Brain electrical activity data were submitted to a classification algorithm independently developed traumatic brain injury (TBI) index to identify the probability of a CT+traumatic event. There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and type of hematoma, or distance of the bleed from recording sites. A significant correlation was found between TBI-Index and blood volume. The sensitivity to hematomas was 100%, positive predictive value was 74.5%, and positive likelihood ratio was 2.92. The TBI-Index, derived from brain electrical activity, demonstrates high accuracy for identification of traumatic hematomas. Further, this was not influenced by distance of the bleed from the recording electrodes, blood volume, or type of hematoma. Distance and volume limitations noted with other methods, (such as that based on near-infrared spectroscopy) were not found, thus suggesting the TBI-Index to be a potentially important adjunct to acute assessment of head injury. Because of the life-threatening risk of undetected hematomas (false negatives), specificity was permitted to be lower, 66%, in exchange for extremely high sensitivity.

  3. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

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    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  16. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  17. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  18. Consciousness as a global property of brain dynamic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Guevara, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    We seek general principles of the structure of the cellular collective activity associated with conscious awareness. Can we obtain evidence for features of the optimal brain organization that allows for adequate processing of stimuli and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness? Analyzing brain recordings in conscious and unconscious states, we followed initially the classic approach in physics when it comes to understanding collective behaviours of systems composed of a myriad of units: the assessment of the number of possible configurations (microstates) that the system can adopt, for which we use a global entropic measure associated with the number of connected brain regions. Having found maximal entropy in conscious states, we then inspected the microscopic nature of the configurations of connections using an adequate complexity measure and found higher complexity in states characterized not only by conscious awareness but also by subconscious cognitive processing, such as sleep stages. Our observations indicate that conscious awareness is associated with maximal global (macroscopic) entropy and with the short time scale (microscopic) complexity of the configurations of connected brain networks in pathological unconscious states (seizures and coma), but the microscopic view captures the high complexity in physiological unconscious states (sleep) where there is information processing. As such, our results support the global nature of conscious awareness, as advocated by several theories of cognition. We thus hope that our studies represent preliminary steps to reveal aspects of the structure of cognition that leads to conscious awareness.

  19. Localizing Brain Activity from Multiple Distinct Sources via EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dassios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important question arousing in the framework of electroencephalography (EEG is the possibility to recognize, by means of a recorded surface potential, the number of activated areas in the brain. In the present paper, employing a homogeneous spherical conductor serving as an approximation of the brain, we provide a criterion which determines whether the measured surface potential is evoked by a single or multiple localized neuronal excitations. We show that the uniqueness of the inverse problem for a single dipole is closely connected with attaining certain relations connecting the measured data. Further, we present the necessary and sufficient conditions which decide whether the collected data originates from a single dipole or from numerous dipoles. In the case where the EEG data arouses from multiple parallel dipoles, an isolation of the source is, in general, not possible.

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  1. Physical activity, fitness, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Niskanen, Eini; Aaltonen, Sari; Mutikainen, Sara; Wikgren, Jan; Heikkilä, Kauko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tarkka, Ina M; Kujala, Urho M

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of the present study (FITFATTWIN) was to investigate how physical activity level is associated with body composition, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in young adult male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity. From a population-based twin cohort, we systematically selected 10 young adult male monozygotic twin pairs (age range, 32-36 yr) discordant for leisure time physical activity during the past 3 yr. On the basis of interviews, we calculated a mean sum index for leisure time and commuting activity during the past 3 yr (3-yr LTMET index expressed as MET-hours per day). We conducted extensive measurements on body composition (including fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), glucose homeostasis including homeostatic model assessment index and insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, calculated from glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test), and whole brain magnetic resonance imaging for regional volumetric analyses. According to pairwise analysis, the active twins had lower body fat percentage (P = 0.029) and homeostatic model assessment index (P = 0.031) and higher Matsuda index (P = 0.021) compared with their inactive co-twins. Striatal and prefrontal cortex (subgyral and inferior frontal gyrus) brain gray matter volumes were larger in the nondominant hemisphere in active twins compared with those in inactive co-twins, with a statistical threshold of P physical activity is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and modulation of striatum and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume, independent of genetic background. The findings may contribute to later reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and mobility limitations.

  2. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  3. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  4. Measurement of brain pH with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, R.B.; Alpert, N.M.; Ackerman, R.H.; Wechsler, L.R.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Correia, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    With positron emission tomography (PET) it is now possible to measure local brain pH noninvasively in humans. The application of PET to the determination of pH is relatively new, so only a handful of papers on the subject have appeared in print. This chapter reviews the current strategies for measuring brain pH with PET, discuss methodological problems, and present initial results

  5. Measurement of P-31 MR relaxation times and concentrations in human brain and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, K.; Naruse, S.; Hubesch, B.; Gober, I.; Lawry, T.; Boska, M.; Matson, G.B.; Weiner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of high-energy phosphates and pH were made in human brain and brain tumors using P-31 MR imaging. Using a Philips Gyroscan 1.5-T MRMRS, MR images were used to select a cuboidal volume of interest and P-31 MR spectra were obtained from that volume using the ISIS technique. An external quantitation standard was used. T 1 s were measured by inversion recovery. Quantitative values for metabolites were calculated using B 1 field plot of the head coil. The results for normal brain phosphates are as follows; adenosine triphosphate, 2.2 mM; phosphocreatin, 5.3 mM; inorganic phosphate, 1.6 mM. Preliminary studies with human brain tumors show a decrease of all phosphate compounds. These experiments are the first to quantitate metabolites in human brain

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    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

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    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

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  19. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of higher brain activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui He; Wang Yunjiu; Chen Runsheng; Tang Xiaowei.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs) exhibit small differences in the magnetic resonance signal intensity in positions corresponding to focal areas of brain activation. These signal are caused by variation in the oxygenation state of the venous vasculature. Using this non-invasive and dynamic method, it is possible to localize functional brain activation, in vivo, in normal individuals, with an accuracy of millimeters and a temporal resolution of seconds. Though a series of technical difficulties remain, fMRI is increasingly becoming a key method for visualizing the working brain, and uncovering the topographical organization of the human brain, and understanding the relationship between brain and the mind

  20. Visual image reconstruction from human brain activity: A modular decoding approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoichi; Uchida, Hajime; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-aki; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Morito, Yusuke; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    Brain activity represents our perceptual experience. But the potential for reading out perceptual contents from human brain activity has not been fully explored. In this study, we demonstrate constraint-free reconstruction of visual images perceived by a subject, from the brain activity pattern. We reconstructed visual images by combining local image bases with multiple scales, whose contrasts were independently decoded from fMRI activity by automatically selecting relevant voxels and exploiting their correlated patterns. Binary-contrast, 10 x 10-patch images (2 100 possible states), were accurately reconstructed without any image prior by measuring brain activity only for several hundred random images. The results suggest that our approach provides an effective means to read out complex perceptual states from brain activity while discovering information representation in multi-voxel patterns.

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

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  5. Theoretical background and experimental measurements of human brain noise intensity in perception of ambiguous images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Hramov, Alexander E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical approach associated with an experimental technique to quantitatively characterize cognitive brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. Based on the developed theoretical background and the obtained experimental data, we introduce the concept of effective noise intensity characterizing cognitive brain activity and propose the experimental technique for its measurement. The developed theory, using the methods of statistical physics, provides a solid experimentally approved basis for further understanding of brain functionality. The rather simple way to measure the proposed quantitative characteristic of the brain activity related to the interpretation of ambiguous images will hopefully become a powerful tool for physicists, physiologists and medics. Our theoretical and experimental findings are in excellent agreement with each other.

  6. Using human brain activity to guide machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ruth C; Scheirer, Walter J; Cox, David D

    2018-03-29

    Machine learning is a field of computer science that builds algorithms that learn. In many cases, machine learning algorithms are used to recreate a human ability like adding a caption to a photo, driving a car, or playing a game. While the human brain has long served as a source of inspiration for machine learning, little effort has been made to directly use data collected from working brains as a guide for machine learning algorithms. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm of "neurally-weighted" machine learning, which takes fMRI measurements of human brain activity from subjects viewing images, and infuses these data into the training process of an object recognition learning algorithm to make it more consistent with the human brain. After training, these neurally-weighted classifiers are able to classify images without requiring any additional neural data. We show that our neural-weighting approach can lead to large performance gains when used with traditional machine vision features, as well as to significant improvements with already high-performing convolutional neural network features. The effectiveness of this approach points to a path forward for a new class of hybrid machine learning algorithms which take both inspiration and direct constraints from neuronal data.

  7. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  11. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Strandberg, Karin; Malm, Jan

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as nov...

  12. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  13. Brain regions activated by the passive processing of visually- and auditorily-presented words measured by averaged PET images of blood flow change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Posner, M.I.; Raichle, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    A limited number of regions specific to input modality are activated by the auditory and visual presentation of single words. These regions include primary auditory and visual cortex, and modality-specific higher order region that may be performing computations at a word level of analysis

  14. Physiological and psychological individual differences influence resting brain function measured by ASL perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M; Coen, S J; Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q; Williams, S C R; Alsop, D C; Fukudo, S; O'Gorman, R L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of physiological and/or psychological inter-individual differences on the resting brain state have not been fully established. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in basal autonomic tone and positive and negative personality dimensions on resting brain activity. Whole-brain resting cerebral perfusion images were acquired from 32 healthy subjects (16 males) using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Resting autonomic activity was assessed using a validated measure of baseline cardiac vagal tone (CVT) in each individual. Potential associations between the perfusion data and individual CVT (27 subjects) and personality score (28 subjects) were tested at the level of voxel clusters by fitting a multiple regression model at each intracerebral voxel. Greater baseline perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum was associated with lower CVT. At a corrected significance threshold of p individual autonomic tone and psychological variability influence resting brain activity in brain regions, previously shown to be associated with autonomic arousal (dorsal ACC) and personality traits (amygdala, caudate, etc.) during active task processing. The resting brain state may therefore need to be taken into account when interpreting the neurobiology of individual differences in structural and functional brain activity.

  15. On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2007-01-01

    The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail

  16. Finer discrimination of brain activation with local multivariate distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The organization of human brain function is diverse on different spatial scales.Various cognitive states are alwavs represented as distinct activity patterns across the specific brain region on fine scales.Conventional univariate analysis of functional MRI data seeks to determine how a particular cognitive state is encoded in brain activity by analyzing each voxel separately without considering the fine-scale patterns information contained in the local brain regions.In this paper,a local multivariate distance mapping(LMDM)technique is proposed to detect the brain activation and to map the fine-scale brain activity patterns.LMDM directly represents the local brain activity with the patterns across multiple voxels rather than individual voxels,and it employs the multivariate distance between different patterns to discriminate the brain state on fine scales.Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that LMDM technique can dramatically increase the sensitivity of the detection for the fine-scale brain activity pettems which contain the subtle information of the experimental conditions.

  17. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed-Al-Mahfuz, Md; Islam, Md Rabiul; Hirose, Keikichi; Molla, Md Khademul Islam

    2013-06-05

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  18. Measuring dynamic process of working memory training with functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed the functional brain networks and graphic theory method to measure the effect of working memory training on the neural activities. 12 subjects were recruited in this study, and they did the same working memory task before they had been trained and after training. We architected functional brain networks based on EEG coherence and calculated properties of brain networks to measure the neural co-activities and the working memory level of subjects. As the result, the internal connections in frontal region decreased after working memory training, but the connection between frontal region and top region increased. And the more small-world feature was observed after training. The features observed above were in alpha (8-13 Hz and beta (13-30 Hz bands. The functional brain networks based on EEG coherence proposed in this paper can be used as the indicator of working memory level.

  19. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, X.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aarts, R.M.; Haakma, R.; Fonseca, P.; Rolink, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by

  20. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  1. Non-invasive measurement of brain glycogen by NMR spectroscopy and its application to the study of brain metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Nolawit; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.; Öz, Gülin

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen is the reservoir for glucose in the brain. Beyond the general agreement that glycogen serves as an energy source in the central nervous system, its exact role in brain energy metabolism has yet to be elucidated. Experiments performed in cell and tissue culture and animals have shown that glycogen content is affected by several factors including glucose, insulin, neurotransmitters, and neuronal activation. The study of in vivo glycogen metabolism has been hindered by the inability to measure glycogen non-invasively, but in the past several years, the development of a non-invasive localized 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method has enabled the study of glycogen metabolism in the conscious human. With this technique, 13C-glucose is administered intravenously and its incorporation into and wash-out from brain glycogen is tracked. One application of this method has been to the study of brain glycogen metabolism in humans during hypoglycemia: data have shown that mobilization of brain glycogen is augmented during hypoglycemia and, after a single episode of hypoglycemia, glycogen synthesis rate is increased, suggesting that glycogen stores rebound to levels greater than baseline. Such studies suggest glycogen may serve as a potential energy reservoir in hypoglycemia and may participate in the brain's adaptation to recurrent hypoglycemia and eventual development of hypoglycemia unawareness. Beyond this focused area of study, 13C NMR spectroscopy has a broad potential for application in the study of brain glycogen metabolism and carries the promise of a better understanding of the role of brain glycogen in diabetes and other conditions. PMID:21732401

  2. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic changes in brain activity during prism adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves; Spiridon, Mona; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-07

    Prism adaptation does not only induce short-term sensorimotor plasticity, but also longer-term reorganization in the neural representation of space. We used event-related fMRI to study dynamic changes in brain activity during both early and prolonged exposure to visual prisms. Participants performed a pointing task before, during, and after prism exposure. Measures of trial-by-trial pointing errors and corrections allowed parametric analyses of brain activity as a function of performance. We show that during the earliest phase of prism exposure, anterior intraparietal sulcus was primarily implicated in error detection, whereas parieto-occipital sulcus was implicated in error correction. Cerebellum activity showed progressive increases during prism exposure, in accordance with a key role for spatial realignment. This time course further suggests that the cerebellum might promote neural changes in superior temporal cortex, which was selectively activated during the later phase of prism exposure and could mediate the effects of prism adaptation on cognitive spatial representations.

  4. Network-dependent modulation of brain activity during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Global cerebral blood flow changes measured by brain perfusion SPECT immediately after whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtawa, Nobuyuki; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Hosono, Makoto; Takahashi, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    Whole brain irradiation (WBI) is still a major treatment option for patients with metastatic brain tumor despite recent advances in chemotherapy and newer techniques of radiation therapy. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) of changes induced by whole brain radiation is not fully investigated, and the aim of the study was to measure CBF changes non-invasively with brain perfusion SPECT to correlate with treatment effect or prognosis. Total of 106 patients underwent WBI during April 1998 to March 2002. Both brain MRI and brain perfusion SPECT could be performed before (less than 1 week before or less than 10 Gy of WBI) and immediately after (between 1 week before and 2 weeks after the completion of WBI) the therapy in 17 of these patients. They, 10 men and 7 women, all had metastatic brain tumor with age range of 45 to 87 (mean of 61.4) years. Tc-99m brain perfusion agent (HMPAO in 4, ECD in 13) was rapidly administered in a 740-MBq dose to measure global and regional CBF according to Matsuda's method, which based on both Patlak plot and Lassens' linearity correction. Brain MRI was used to measure therapeutic response according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification as complete remission (CR), partial response (PR), no change (NC), and progressive disease (PD). Survival period was measured from the completion of WBI. Mean global CBF was 40.6 and 41.5 ml/100 g/min before and immediately after the WBI, respectively. Four patients increased (greater than 10%) their global mean CBF, 10 unchanged (less than 10% increase or decrease), and 3 decreased after the WBI. The WBI achieved CR in none, PR in 8, NC in 6, and PD in 3 on brain MRI. Change in global mean CBF (mean±SD) was significantly larger in PR (4.3±2.0 ml/100 g/min, p=0.002) and in NC (-0.1±4.5) than in PD (-3.9±6.4, P=0.002, P=0.016, respectively). Survival was not significantly (p>0.05) different among the patients with CR (20 weeks), NC (48 weeks), and PD (21 weeks). Change in global CBF and survival was

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of 133 Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors. (author)

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-10-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of /sup 133/Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors.

  8. Electrical measurement of sweat activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronstad, Christian; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Gjein, Gaute E; Fosse, Erik; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2008-01-01

    A multichannel logger for long-term measurements of sweat activity is presented. The logger uses skin surface electrodes for unipolar admittance measurements in the stratum corneum. The logger is developed with emphasis on clinical use. The portability of the logger enables recording of sweat activity under circumstances such as daily errands, exercise and sleep. Measurements have been done on 24 healthy volunteers during relaxation and exercise with heart rate monitoring. Recordings of sweat activity during sleep have been done on two healthy subjects. Early results show good agreement with the literature on sweating physiology and electrodermal activity. Results are presented showing measurements related to physical exercise, dermatomes, distribution of sweat glands and sympathetic activity. This study examines the normal sweating patterns for the healthy population, and we present results with the first 24 healthy volunteers. Comparing these results with similar measurements on hyperhidrosis patients will make it possible to find the most useful parameters for diagnosis and treatment evaluation

  9. Measurement of human blood brain barrier integrity using 11C-inulin and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshihiko; Iio, Masaaki; Tsukiyama, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 11 C-inulin was demonstrated to be applicable to the clinical measurement of blood brain barrier permeability and cerebral interstitial fluid volume. Kinetic data were analyzed by application of a two compartment model, in which blood plasma and interstitial fluid spaces constitute the compartments. The blood activity contribution was subtracted from the PET count with the aid of the 11 CO inhalation technique. The values we estimated in a human brain were in agreement with the reported values obtained for animal brains by the use of 14 C-inulin. (orig.)

  10. The Brain and Learning: Examining the Connection between Brain Activity, Spatial Intelligence, and Learning Outcomes in Online Visual Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyangsook

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 2D and 3D visual presentation styles, both still frame and animation, on subjects' brain activity measured by the amplitude of EEG alpha wave and on their recall to see if alpha power and recall differ significantly by depth and movement of visual presentation style and by spatial intelligence. In addition,…

  11. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electric field encephalography for brain activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versek, Craig William; Frasca, Tyler; Zhou, Jianlin; Chowdhury, Kaushik; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2018-05-11

    Objective - We describe an early-stage prototype of a new wireless electrophysiological sensor system, called NeuroDot, which can measure neuroelectric potentials and fields at the scalp in a new modality called Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG). We aim to establish the physical validity of the EFEG modality, and examine some of its properties and relative merits compared to EEG. Approach - We designed a wireless neuroelectric measurement device based on the Texas Instrument ADS1299 Analog Front End platform and a sensor montage, using custom electrodes, to simultaneously measure EFEG and spatially averaged EEG over a localized patch of the scalp (2cm x 2cm). The signal properties of each modality were compared across tests of noise floor, Berger effect, steady-state Visually Evoked Potential (ssVEP), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and others. In order to compare EFEG to EEG modalities in the frequency domain, we use a novel technique to compute spectral power densities and derive narrow-band SNR estimates for ssVEP signals. A simple binary choice brain-computer-interface (BCI) concept based on ssVEP is evaluated. Also, we present examples of high quality recording of transient Visually Evoked Potentials and Fields (tVEPF) that could be used for neurological studies. Main results - We demonstrate the capability of the NeuroDot system to record high quality EEG signals comparable to some recent clinical and research grade systems on the market. We show that the locally-referenced EFEG metric is resistant to certain types of movement artifacts. In some ssVEP based measurements, the EFEG modality shows promising results, demonstrating superior signal to noise ratios than the same recording processed as an analogous EEG signal. We show that by using EFEG based ssVEP SNR estimates to perform a binary classification in a model BCI, the optimal information transfer rate (ITR) can be raised from 15 to 30 bits per minute - though these preliminary results are likely

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  14. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regul...

  15. Brain activity and cognitive transition during childhood: A longitudinal event-related brain potential study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauder, J.E.A.; Molenaar, P.C.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relation between brain activation and cognitive development using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and a longitudinal design. 5 yr old females performed a visual recognition ('oddball') task and an experimental analogue of the Piagetian conservation of liquid quantity task At three

  16. Measuring and Reconstructing the Brain at the Synaptic Scale: Towards a Biofidelic Human Brain in silico

    OpenAIRE

    NeuroData; CE, Priebe; Burns, R.; RJ, Vogelstein

    2015-01-01

    Vogelstein JT, Priebe CE, Burns R, Vogelstein RJ, Lichtman J. Measuring and Reconstructing the Brain at the Synaptic Scale: Towards a Biofidelic Human Brain in silico. DARPA Neural Engineering, Science and Technology Forum, 2010

  17. Measurement and imaging of brain function using MRI, MEG, and TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iramina, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews functional imaging techniques in neuroscience such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional MRI (fMRI), magnetoencephalogray (MEG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). fMRI and MEG allow the neuronal activity of the brain to be measured non-invasively. MEG detects an electrical activity as neuronal activity, while, fMRI detects a hemodynamic response as neuronal activity. TMS is the application of a brief magnetic pulse or a train of pulses to the skull, which results in the induction of a local electric current in the underlying surface of the brain, thereby producing a localized axonal depolarization. As a non-invasive and effective method to make reversible lesions in the human brain, TMS has a long and successful history. All of these techniques have major potential for applications in the neuroscience and medicine. (author)

  18. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamagchii, Kechiro; Lassen, Anders; Ring, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Yamaguchi, K., Lassen, A. And Ring, P. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging. Abstract at ESMRMB98 European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology, Geneva, Sept 17-20, 1998 Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre University Hospital...

  19. Acupuncture inhibits cue-induced heroin craving and brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinghui; Song, Xiaoge; Li, Chuanfu; Xu, Chunsheng; Li, Xiliang; Lu, Qi

    2012-11-25

    Previous research using functional MRI has shown that specific brain regions associated with drug dependence and cue-elicited heroin craving are activated by environmental cues. Craving is an important trigger of heroin relapse, and acupuncture may inhibit craving. In this study, we performed functional MRI in heroin addicts and control subjects. We compared differences in brain activation between the two groups during heroin cue exposure, heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point (ST36) without twirling of the needle, and heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle. Heroin cue exposure elicited significant activation in craving-related brain regions mainly in the frontal lobes and callosal gyri. Acupuncture without twirling did not significantly affect the range of brain activation induced by heroin cue exposure, but significantly changed the extent of the activation in the heroin addicts group. Acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle significantly decreased both the range and extent of activation induced by heroin cue exposure compared with heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture without twirling of the needle. These experimental findings indicate that presentation of heroin cues can induce activation in craving-related brain regions, which are involved in reward, learning and memory, cognition and emotion. Acupuncture at the Zusanli point can rapidly suppress the activation of specific brain regions related to craving, supporting its potential as an intervention for drug craving.

  20. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  1. On brain activity mapping: insights and lessons from Brain Decoding Project to map memory patterns in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z; Li, Meng; Osan, Remus; Chen, Guifen; Lin, Longnian; Wang, Phillip Lei; Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta; Zhu, Dajiang; Liu, Tianming; Zhao, Fang; Kuang, Hui

    2013-09-01

    The BRAIN project recently announced by the president Obama is the reflection of unrelenting human quest for cracking the brain code, the patterns of neuronal activity that define who we are and what we are. While the Brain Activity Mapping proposal has rightly emphasized on the need to develop new technologies for measuring every spike from every neuron, it might be helpful to consider both the theoretical and experimental aspects that would accelerate our search for the organizing principles of the brain code. Here we share several insights and lessons from the similar proposal, namely, Brain Decoding Project that we initiated since 2007. We provide a specific example in our initial mapping of real-time memory traces from one part of the memory circuit, namely, the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We show how innovative behavioral tasks and appropriate mathematical analyses of large datasets can play equally, if not more, important roles in uncovering the specific-to-general feature-coding cell assembly mechanism by which episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and imagination are generated and organized. Our own experiences suggest that the bottleneck of the Brain Project is not only at merely developing additional new technologies, but also the lack of efficient avenues to disseminate cutting edge platforms and decoding expertise to neuroscience community. Therefore, we propose that in order to harness unique insights and extensive knowledge from various investigators working in diverse neuroscience subfields, ranging from perception and emotion to memory and social behaviors, the BRAIN project should create a set of International and National Brain Decoding Centers at which cutting-edge recording technologies and expertise on analyzing large datasets analyses can be made readily available to the entire community of neuroscientists who can apply and schedule to perform cutting-edge research.

  2. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  3. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Katherina Schoen; Cornelia Hummel; Pengfei Han; Jonathan Warr; Thomas Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving careful...

  4. Changing patterns of brain activation during maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, J D; Gold, J M; Esposito, G; Ostrem, J L; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    1998-05-18

    Recent research has found that patterns of brain activation involving the frontal cortex during novel task performance change dramatically following practice and repeat performance. Evidence for differential left vs. right frontal lobe activation, respectively, during episodic memory encoding and retrieval has also been reported. To examine these potentially related issues regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 15 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) during the naive and practiced performance of a maze task paradigm. SPM analysis indicated a largely right-sided, frontal lobe activation during naive performance. Following training and practice, performance of the same maze task elicited a more posterior pattern of rCBF activation involving posterior cingulate and precuneus. The change in the pattern of rCBF activation between novel and practiced task conditions agrees with results found in previous studies using repeat task methodology, and indicates that the neural circuitry required for encoding novel task information differs from that required when the same task has become familiar and information is being recalled. The right-sided preponderance of activation during naive performance may relate to task novelty and the spatially-based nature of the stimuli, whereas posterior areas activated during repeat performance are those previously found to be associated with visuospatial memory recall. Activation of these areas, however, does not agree with previously reported findings of left-sided activation during verbal episodic memory encoding and right-sided activation during retrieval, suggesting different neural substrates for verbal and visuospatial processing within memory. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  6. Interleukin 6 modulates acetylcholinesterase activity of brain neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarencon, D.; Multon, E.; Galonnier, M.; Estrade, M.; Fournier, C.; Mathieu, J.; Mestries, J.C.; Testylier, G.; Fatome, M.

    1995-01-01

    Classically, radiation injuries results in a peripheral inflammatory process, and we have previously observed an early systemic interleukin 6 (IL-6) release following whole-body irradiation. Besides, we have demonstrated an early decrease of rat or primate brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity a gamma exposure. The object of the present study is to find possible IL-6 systemic effects on the brain AChE activity. We show that, though intravenous (i.v.) or intra-cerebro-ventricular (ICV) injection of IL-6 can induce a drop in rat brain AChE activity, this cytokine induces only a slight decrease of the AChE release in cultured brain cells. (author)

  7. The effects of physical activity on brain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eThomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic activity is a powerful stimulus for improving mental health and for generating structural changes in the brain. We review the literature documenting these structural changes and explore exactly where in the brain these changes occur as well as the underlying substrates of the changes including neural, glial, and vasculature components. Aerobic activity has been shown to produce different types of changes in the brain. The presence of novel experiences or learning is an especially important component in how these changes are manifest. We also discuss the distinct time courses of structural brain changes with both aerobic activity and learning as well as how these effects might differ in diseased and elderly groups.

  8. Males and females differ in brain activation during cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily C; Willson, Morgan C; Wilman, Alan H; Dave, Sanjay; Silverstone, Peter H

    2006-04-01

    To examine the effect of gender on regional brain activity, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a motor task and three cognitive tasks; a word generation task, a spatial attention task, and a working memory task in healthy male (n = 23) and female (n = 10) volunteers. Functional data were examined for group differences both in the number of pixels activated, and the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) magnitude during each task. Males had a significantly greater mean activation than females in the working memory task with a greater number of pixels being activated in the right superior parietal gyrus and right inferior occipital gyrus, and a greater BOLD magnitude occurring in the left inferior parietal lobe. However, despite these fMRI changes, there were no significant differences between males and females on cognitive performance of the task. In contrast, in the spatial attention task, men performed better at this task than women, but there were no significant functional differences between the two groups. In the word generation task, there were no external measures of performance, but in the functional measurements, males had a significantly greater mean activation than females, where males had a significantly greater BOLD signal magnitude in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the right inferior parietal lobe, and the cingulate. In neither of the motor tasks (right or left hand) did males and females perform differently. Our fMRI findings during the motor tasks were a greater mean BOLD signal magnitude in males in the right hand motor task, compared to females where males had an increased BOLD signal magnitude in the right inferior parietal gyrus and in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In conclusion, these results demonstrate differential patterns of activation in males and females during a variety of cognitive tasks, even though performance in these tasks may not vary, and also that variability in performance may not

  9. System for optimizing activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Optimization procedures make it possible to perform committed activation investigations, reduce the number of experiments, make them less laborious, and increase their productivity. Separate mathematical functions were investigated for given optimization conditions, and these enable numerical optimal parameter values to be established only in the particular cases of specific techniques and mathematical computer programs. In the known mathematical models insufficient account is taken of the variety and complexity of real nuclide mixtures, the influence of background radiation, and the wide diversity of activation measurement conditions, while numerical methods for solving the optimization problem fail to reveal the laws governing the variations of the activation parameters and their functional interdependences. An optimization method was proposed in which was mainly used to estimate the time intervals for activation measurements of a mononuclide, binary or ternary nuclide mixture. However, by forming a mathematical model of activation processes it becomes possible to extend the number of nuclides in the mixture and to take account of the influence of background radiation and the diversity of the measurement alternatives. The analytical expressions and nomograms obtained can be used to determine the number of measurements, their minimum errors, their sensitivities when estimating the quantity of the tracer nuclide, the permissible quantity of interfering nuclides, the permissible background radiation intensity, and the flux of activating radiation. In the worker described herein these investigations are generalized to include spectrally resolved detection of the activation effect in the presence of the tracer and the interfering nuclides. The analytical expressions are combined into a system from which the optimal activation parameters can be found under different given conditions

  10. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…

  12. Pacing and awareness: brain regulation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A M; Polman, R C J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this current opinion article is to provide a contemporary perspective on the role of brain regulatory control of paced performances in response to exercise challenges. There has been considerable recent conjecture as to the role of the brain during exercise, and it is now broadly accepted that fatigue does not occur without brain involvement and that all voluntary activity is likely to be paced at some level by the brain according to individualised priorities and knowledge of personal capabilities. This article examines the role of pacing in managing and distributing effort to successfully accomplish physical tasks, while extending existing theories on the role of the brain as a central controller of performance. The opinion proposed in this article is that a central regulator operates to control exercise performance but achieves this without the requirement of an intelligent central governor located in the subconscious brain. It seems likely that brain regulation operates at different levels of awareness, such that minor homeostatic challenges are addressed automatically without conscious awareness, while larger metabolic disturbances attract conscious awareness and evoke a behavioural response. This supports the view that the brain regulates exercise performance but that the interpretation of the mechanisms underlying this effect have not yet been fully elucidated.

  13. Principal tools for exploring the brain and mapping its activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.; Mashaal, M.

    1996-01-01

    The electro-encephalography (EEG), magneto-encephalography (MEG), scanner, positron computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and NMR imaging are the main methods used to explore human brain and to do a mapping of its activity. These methods are described into details (principle, visualization, uses, advantages, disadvantages). They can be useful to detect the possible anomalies of the human brain. (O.M.)

  14. MR brain volumetric measurements are predictive of neurobehavioral impairment in the HIV-1 transgenic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Rafael; Muthusamy, Siva; Wakim, Paul G; Sinharay, Sanhita; Lentz, Margaret R; Reid, William C; Hammoud, Dima A

    2018-01-01

    HIV infection is known to be associated with brain volume loss, even in optimally treated patients. In this study, we assessed whether dynamic brain volume changes over time are predictive of neurobehavorial performance in the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, a model of treated HIV-positive patients. Cross-sectional brain MRI imaging was first performed comparing Tg and wild type (WT) rats at 3 and 19 months of age. Longitudinal MRI and neurobehavioral testing of another group of Tg and WT rats was then performed from 5 to 23 weeks of age. Whole brain and subregional image segmentation was used to assess the rate of brain growth over time. We used repeated-measures mixed models to assess differences in brain volumes and to establish how predictive the volume differences are of specific neurobehavioral deficits. Cross-sectional imaging showed smaller whole brain volumes in Tg compared to WT rats at 3 and at 19 months of age. Longitudinally, Tg brain volumes were smaller than age-matched WT rats at all time points, starting as early as 5 weeks of age. The Tg striatal growth rate delay between 5 and 9 weeks of age was greater than that of the whole brain. Striatal volume in combination with genotype was the most predictive of rota-rod scores and in combination with genotype and age was the most predictive of total exploratory activity scores in the Tg rats. The disproportionately delayed striatal growth compared to whole brain between 5 and 9 weeks of age and the role of striatal volume in predicting neurobehavioral deficits suggest an important role of the dopaminergic system in HIV associated neuropathology. This might explain problems with motor coordination and executive decisions in this animal model. Smaller brain and subregional volumes and neurobehavioral deficits were seen as early as 5 weeks of age, suggesting an early brain insult in the Tg rat. Neuroprotective therapy testing in this model should thus target this early stage of development, before brain

  15. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  16. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Robert H

    2015-09-19

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized.

  17. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  18. Applications of brain blood flow imaging in behavioral neurophysiology: cortical field activation hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The 133 xenon intracarotid method for rCBF measurements has been a very useful method for functional mapping and functional dissection of the cerebral cortex in humans. With this method it has been shown that different types of cortical information treatment activate different cortical areas and furthermore that sensory and motor functions of the cerebral cortex could be dissected into anatomical and informational subcomponents by behavioral manipulations. The brain organizes its own activity. One of the principles of organization was that the brain could recruit in advance cortical fields that were expected to participate in a certain type of information operation. During brain work in awake human beings the cerebral cortex was activated in fields that, projected on the cerebral surface, most often had a size greater than 3 CM 2 . Such activated fields appeared no matter which type of information processing was going on in the brain: during planning and execution of voluntary movements, during preparation for sensory information processing, and during sensory information processing, as well as during cognitive brain work and retrieval of specific memories. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cortical field activation was the physiological manifestation of normal brain work in awake humans

  19. Applications of brain blood flow imaging in behavioral neurophysiology: cortical field activation hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 133/xenon intracarotid method for rCBF measurements has been a very useful method for functional mapping and functional dissection of the cerebral cortex in humans. With this method it has been shown that different types of cortical information treatment activate different cortical areas and furthermore that sensory and motor functions of the cerebral cortex could be dissected into anatomical and informational subcomponents by behavioral manipulations. The brain organizes its own activity. One of the principles of organization was that the brain could recruit in advance cortical fields that were expected to participate in a certain type of information operation. During brain work in awake human beings the cerebral cortex was activated in fields that, projected on the cerebral surface, most often had a size greater than 3 CM/sup 2/. Such activated fields appeared no matter which type of information processing was going on in the brain: during planning and execution of voluntary movements, during preparation for sensory information processing, and during sensory information processing, as well as during cognitive brain work and retrieval of specific memories. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cortical field activation was the physiological manifestation of normal brain work in awake humans.

  20. Listening to humans walking together activates the social brain circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.

  1. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  2. Different methods of measuring ADC values in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Youping; Sheng Junkang; Zhang Caiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate better method of measuring ADC values of normal brain, and provide reference for further research. Methods: Twenty healthy people's MR imaging were reviewed. All of them underwent routine MRI scans and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and ADC maps were reconstructed on work station. Six regions of interest (ROI) were selected for each object, the mean ADC values were obtained for each position on DWI and ADC maps respectively. Results: On the anisotropic DWI map calculated in the hypothalamus, ADC M , ADC P , ADC S values were no significant difference (P>0.05), in the frontal white matter and internal capsule hindlimb, there was a significant difference (P ave value exist significant difference to direct measurement on the anisotropic (isotropic) ADC map (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diffusion of water in the frontal white matter and internal capsule are anisotropic, but it is isotropic in the hypothalamus; different quantitative methods of diffusion measurement of 4ADC values have significant difference, but ADC values calculated through the DWI map is more accurate, quantitative diffusion study of brain tissue should also consider the diffusion measurement method. (authors)

  3. Brain activation associated with deep brain stimulation causing dissociation in a patient with Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Jacobs, Filip; Van der Linden, Chris; Caemaert, Jacques; Audenaert, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Dissociation involves a disruption in the integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment. Attempts at localizing dissociative responses have yielded contradictory results regarding brain activation, laterality, and regional involvement. Here, we used a single-day split-dose activation paradigm with single photon emission computed tomography and 99m-Tc ethylcysteinatedimer as a brain perfusion tracer in a patient with Tourette's syndrome undergoing bilateral high-frequency thalamic stimulation for the treatment of tics who developed an alternate personality state during right thalamic stimulation. We documented increased regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral prefrontal and left temporal brain areas during the alternate identity state. We conclude that our findings support the temporal lobe as well as the frontolimbic disconnection hypotheses of dissociation.

  4. Development of positron tracer for in vivo estimation of brain MAO-B activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Osamu; Tominaga, Toshiyoshi; Fukuda, Nobuo; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Yamasaki, Toshio

    1984-01-01

    Both the specificity and the measurable range of enzyme activity of this method were found to be much dependent upon the enzymatic properties of substrate-tracer. The measurable range of brain enzyme activity was found to be from zero to the maximum value which was dependent upon two factors; the elimination rate of substratetracer from the brain (Ksub(el)) and the Vsub(max)/Ksub(m) value of substrate. The detectable range of changes in enzyme activity can be made wider by using another substrate as a tracer which has a lower Vsub(max)/Ksub(m) value or larger Ksub(el) value. The specificity can be also favorably designed by selection of substrate with various enzymatic or physico-chemical properties as a tracer. N, N-dimethyl phenylethylamine (DMPEA) was selected as a substrate-tracer for the estimation of brain MAO-B activity. Very high accumulation of radioactivity into mouse brain at 1 min after intravenous injection of 11 C-DMPEA, and a long-term retention of radioactivity in the brain were observed. 11 C-DMPEA seemed to be metabolized to 11 C-dimethylamine by brain MAO, and be trapped by the blood-brain barrier. When various dosage of 1-deprenyl (a specific MAO-B inhibitor) were pretreated, brain radioactivity at 1 hr after injection of 11 C-DMPEA significantly decreased in a dosage (1-deprenyl)-dependent way, while pretreatment with clorgyline (a specific MAO-A inhibitor) had no effect. This decrease in radioactivity might be due to the decrease of the production rate of labeled metabolite ( 11 C-dimethylamine) in the brain. The relationship between the radioactivity remaining at 1 hr after injection and MAO-B activity remaining in the brain was quite paralle. 11 C-DMPEA seems to be a specific radiotracer for the external detection of alterations in MAO-B activity in the brain with a fair sensitivity. (J.P.N.)

  5. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dor Vadas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking, the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities.Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking. Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen (b HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen. Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance.Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment (p < 0.001 for both. Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment (p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part.Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  6. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Eugene Jung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization, but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ, an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMR. Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from .76 to .79, and two factors (Implementation and Learning were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientifific - r = .26 and Writing - r = .31 respectively, suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe. The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus. We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination

  7. PET measurements od dopaminergic pathways in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlmutter, J.S. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, Anatomy and Neurobiology; Moerlein, S.M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology

    1999-06-01

    Position emission tomography (PET) measurements of dopaminergic pathways have revealed several new insights into the role of dopamine in the pathophysiology and pharmacology of brain diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia and schizophrenia. PET studies of regional blood flow of metabolism identifies sites of regional pathology. Drug-induced changes in flow or metabolism indicate the function of dopamine-mediated pathways. Measurements of radioligand binding 'in vivo' with PET reveals abnormalities associated with specific diseases and the actions of various drugs that effect the dopaminergic system. Finally, PET measurements of the uptake of analogues of levodopa provide clues to the function of dopamine pathways potentially important for diagnosis and treatment of disease like PD.

  8. Changes in reward-induced brain activation in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Soelch, C; Chevalley, A F; Künig, G; Missimer, J; Magyar, S; Mino, A; Schultz, W; Leenders, K L

    2001-10-01

    Many studies indicate a role of the cerebral dopaminergic reward system in addiction. Motivated by these findings, we examined in opiate addicts whether brain regions involved in the reward circuitry also react to human prototypical rewards. We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) during a visuo-spatial recognition task with delayed response in control subjects and in opiate addicts participating in a methadone program. Three conditions were defined by the types of feedback: nonsense feedback; nonmonetary reinforcement; or monetary reward, received by the subjects for a correct response. We found in the control subjects rCBF increases in regions associated with the meso-striatal and meso-corticolimbic circuits in response to both monetary reward and nonmonetary reinforcement. In opiate addicts, these regions were activated only in response to monetary reward. Furthermore, nonmonetary reinforcement elicited rCBF increases in limbic regions of the opiate addicts that were not activated in the control subjects. Because psychoactive drugs serve as rewards and directly affect regions of the dopaminergic system like the striatum, we conclude that the differences in rCBF increases between controls and addicts can be attributed to an adaptive consequence of the addiction process.

  9. Psychoacoustic Tinnitus Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress Show Different Associations with Oscillatory Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenhol, Tobias; Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Delb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The phantom auditory perception of subjective tinnitus is associated with aberrant brain activity as evidenced by magneto- and electroencephalographic studies. We tested the hypotheses (1) that psychoacoustically measured tinnitus loudness is related to gamma oscillatory band power, and (2) that tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress are related to distinct brain activity patterns as suggested by the distinction between loudness and distress experienced by tinnitus patients. Furthermore, we explored (3) how hearing impairment, minimum masking level, and (4) psychological comorbidities are related to spontaneous oscillatory brain activity in tinnitus patients. Methods and Findings Resting state oscillatory brain activity recorded electroencephalographically from 46 male tinnitus patients showed a positive correlation between gamma band oscillations and psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness determined with the reconstructed tinnitus sound, but not with the other psychoacoustic loudness measures that were used. Tinnitus-related distress did also correlate with delta band activity, but at electrode positions different from those associated with tinnitus loudness. Furthermore, highly distressed tinnitus patients exhibited a higher level of theta band activity. Moreover, mean hearing loss between 0.125 kHz and 16 kHz was associated with a decrease in gamma activity, whereas minimum masking levels correlated positively with delta band power. In contrast, psychological comorbidities did not express significant correlations with oscillatory brain activity. Conclusion Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1), but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness. Results also support

  10. Acyl-CoA synthetase activity links wild-type but not mutant a-Synuclein to brain arachidonate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Mikhail; Rosenberger, Thad; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2006-01-01

    Because alpha-synuclein (Snca) has a role in brain lipid metabolism, we determined the impact that the loss of alpha-synuclein had on brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) metabolism in vivo using Snca-/- mice. We measured [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 incorporation and turnover kinetics in brain phospholipids using......, our data demonstrate that alpha-synuclein has a major role in brain 20:4n-6 metabolism through its modulation of endoplasmic reticulum-localized acyl-CoA synthetase activity, although mutant forms of alpha-synuclein fail to restore this activity....

  11. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W.; Weng, Timothy B.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. PMID:26493108

  13. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J M; Ramsey, N; Rutten, G J

    2015-12-01

    Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MRI can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on the ratio between left and right brain activity in a specific region associated with language. Nearly all fMRI language studies show language-related activity in both hemispheres, and as a result the LI shows a large range of values. The clinical significance of the variation in language laterality as measured with the LI is still under debate. In this study, we tested two hypotheses in relation to the LI, measured in Broca's region, and it's right hemisphere homologue: 1: the level of activity in Broca's and it's right hemisphere homologue is mirrored for subjects with an equal but opposite LI; 2: the whole brain language activation pattern differs between subjects with an equal but opposite LI. One hundred sixty-three glioma and meningioma patients performed a verb generation task as part of a standard clinical protocol. We calculated the LI in the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, referred to as Broca's region from here on. In our database, 21 patients showed right lateralized activity, with a moderate average level (-0.32). A second group of 21 patients was selected from the remaining group, for equal but opposite LI (0.32). We compared the level and distribution of activity associated with language production in the left and right hemisphere in these two groups. Patients with left sided laterality showed a significantly higher level of activity in Broca's region than the patients with right sided laterality. However, both groups showed no difference in level of activity in Broca's homologue region in the right hemisphere. Also, we did not see any difference in the pattern of activity between patients with left

  14. Managing Brain Extracellular K(+) during Neuronal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Stoica, Anca; MacAulay, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K(+) from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity. Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoform combinations in K(+) management in the central nervous system might...... understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease....

  15. Brain activation during micturition in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Bertil F.M.; Sturms, Leontien M.; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Experiments in the cat have led to a concept of how the CNS controls micturition. In a previous study this concept was tested in a PET study in male volunteers, It was demonstrated that specific brainstem and forebrain areas are activated during micturition, It was unfortunate that this study did

  16. Brain activation studies with PET and functional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan). Biomedical Imaging Research Center; Sadato, Norihiro [Okazaki National Research Inst., Aichi (Japan). National Inst. for Physiological Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Application of PET and functional MRI in brain activation studies is reviewed. 3D-PET images obtained repeatedly after intravenous injection of about 370 MBq of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O can detect a faint blood flow change in the brain. Functional MRI can also detect the blood flow change in the brain due to blood oxygen level-dependent effect. Echo-planar imaging is popular in MRI with 1.5 or 3 T. Images are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping with correction of cerebral regions, anatomical normalization and statistics. PET data give the blood flow change by the H{sub 2}{sup 15}O incorporation into the brain and MRI data, by the scarce tissue oxygen consumption despite the change. Actual images during the cognition task-performance and of frequent artifacts are given. PET is suitable for studies of brain functions like sensibility and emotion and functional MRI, like cortex functions and clinical practices in identification of functional regions prior to surgery and evaluation of functional recovery of damaged brain. (K.H.)

  17. Brain activation studies with PET and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2002-01-01

    Application of PET and functional MRI in brain activation studies is reviewed. 3D-PET images obtained repeatedly after intravenous injection of about 370 MBq of H 2 15 O can detect a faint blood flow change in the brain. Functional MRI can also detect the blood flow change in the brain due to blood oxygen level-dependent effect. Echo-planar imaging is popular in MRI with 1.5 or 3 T. Images are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping with correction of cerebral regions, anatomical normalization and statistics. PET data give the blood flow change by the H 2 15 O incorporation into the brain and MRI data, by the scarce tissue oxygen consumption despite the change. Actual images during the cognition task-performance and of frequent artifacts are given. PET is suitable for studies of brain functions like sensibility and emotion and functional MRI, like cortex functions and clinical practices in identification of functional regions prior to surgery and evaluation of functional recovery of damaged brain. (K.H.)

  18. Optical mapping of prefrontal brain connectivity and activation during emotion anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Yun; Lu, Feng-Mei; Hu, Zhishan; Zhang, Juan; Yuan, Zhen

    2018-09-17

    Accumulated neuroimaging evidence shows that the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is activated during emotion anticipation. The aim of this work is to examine the brain connectivity and activation differences in dlPFC between the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses were first assessed for all subjects during the performance of various emotion anticipation tasks. And then small-world analysis was performed, in which the small-world network indicators including the clustering coefficient, average path length, average node degree, and measure of small-world index were calculated for the functional brain networks associated with the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation, respectively. We discovered that compared to negative and neutral emotion anticipation, the positive one exhibited enhanced brain activation in the left dlPFC. Although the functional brain networks for the three emotion anticipation cases manifested the small-world properties regarding the clustering coefficient, average path length, average node degree, and measure of small-world index, the positive one showed significantly higher clustering coefficient and shorter average path length than those from the neutral and negative cases. Consequently, the small-world network indicators and brain activation in dlPPC were able to distinguish well between the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  20. Participation in leisure activities during brain injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jennifer; Braithwaite, Helen; Gustafsson, Louise; Griffin, Janelle; Collier, Ann Maree; Fletcher, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    To describe and compare pre- and post-injury leisure activities of individuals receiving brain injury rehabilitation and explore levels of leisure participation and satisfaction. Cross-sectional descriptive study incorporating a survey of current and past leisure activities. Questionnaires were completed by 40 individuals with an acquired brain injury receiving inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation. Shortened Version of the Nottingham Leisure Questionnaire and Changes in Leisure Questionnaire (developed for this study). Leisure participation declined following injury, particularly in social leisure activities. Pre-injury activities with high rates of discontinued or decreased participation were driving, going to pubs and parties, do-it-yourself activities and attending sports events. Inpatient participants generally attributed decreased participation to the hospital environment, whereas outpatient participants reported this predominantly as a result of disability. Post-injury levels of perceived leisure satisfaction were significantly lower for the inpatient group compared to pre-injury, but not for the outpatient group. Uptake of some new leisure activities was reported post-injury, however not at the rate to which participation declined. Leisure participation decreases during brain injury rehabilitation compared to pre-injury levels. Re-engagement in relevant, age-appropriate leisure activities needs to be addressed during rehabilitation to improve participation in this domain.

  1. Multimodal Imaging of Human Brain Activity: Rational, Biophysical Aspects and Modes of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowska, Katarzyna; Müller-Putz, Gernot; Kaiser, Vera; Astolfi, Laura; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemieux, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Until relatively recently the vast majority of imaging and electrophysiological studies of human brain activity have relied on single-modality measurements usually correlated with readily observable or experimentally modified behavioural or brain state patterns. Multi-modal imaging is the concept of bringing together observations or measurements from different instruments. We discuss the aims of multi-modal imaging and the ways in which it can be accomplished using representative applications. Given the importance of haemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in current multi-modal imaging applications, we also review some of the basic physiology relevant to understanding their relationship. PMID:19547657

  2. Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Amber M; Van Lare, Jennifer; Zielinski, Brandon; Halpern, Andrea R; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2009-02-25

    Music consists of sound sequences that require integration over time. As we become familiar with music, associations between notes, melodies, and entire symphonic movements become stronger and more complex. These associations can become so tight that, for example, hearing the end of one album track can elicit a robust image of the upcoming track while anticipating it in total silence. Here, we study this predictive "anticipatory imagery" at various stages throughout learning and investigate activity changes in corresponding neural structures using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anticipatory imagery (in silence) for highly familiar naturalistic music was accompanied by pronounced activity in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and premotor areas. Examining changes in the neural bases of anticipatory imagery during two stages of learning conditional associations between simple melodies, however, demonstrates the importance of fronto-striatal connections, consistent with a role of the basal ganglia in "training" frontal cortex (Pasupathy and Miller, 2005). Another striking change in neural resources during learning was a shift between caudal PFC earlier to rostral PFC later in learning. Our findings regarding musical anticipation and sound sequence learning are highly compatible with studies of motor sequence learning, suggesting common predictive mechanisms in both domains.

  3. Changes in reward-induced brain activation in opiate addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Soelch, C; Chevalley, AF; Kunig, G; Missimer, J; Magyar, S; Mino, A; Schultz, W; Leenders, KL

    2001-01-01

    Many studies indicate a role of the cerebral dopaminergic reward system in addiction. Motivated by these findings, we examined in opiate addicts whether brain regions involved in the reward circuitry also react to human prototypical rewards. We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with

  4. Human brain activation during sexual stimulation of the penis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, [No Value; Holstege, G; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2005-01-01

    Penile sensory information is essential for reproduction, but almost nothing is known about how sexually salient inputs from the penis are processed in the brain. We used positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during various stages of male sexual performance.

  5. Laterality of Brain Activation for Risk Factors of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction- impulsivity and craving-but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse. From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere. Percent asymmetries were calculated (R-L/R+L) across studies for each area. For impulsivity, most activation peaks favored the right hemisphere. Overall, the percent difference was 32% (Χ2 = 16.026; p laterality into consideration is a missed opportunity in designing studies and gaining insight into the etiology of drug abuse and pathways for treatment.

  6. Reactivity of dogs' brain oscillations to visual stimuli measured with non-invasive electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Studying cognition of domestic dogs has gone through a renaissance within the last decades. However, although the behavioral studies of dogs are beginning to be common in the field of animal cognition, the neural events underlying cognition remain unknown. Here, we employed a non-invasive electroencephalography, with adhesive electrodes attached to the top of the skin, to measure brain activity of from 8 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris while they stayed still to observe photos of dog and human faces. Spontaneous oscillatory activity of the dogs, peaking in the sensors over the parieto-occipital cortex, was suppressed statistically significantly during visual task compared with resting activity at the frequency of 15-30 Hz. Moreover, a stimulus-induced low-frequency (~2-6 Hz suppression locked to the stimulus onset was evident at the frontal sensors, possibly reflecting a motor rhythm guiding the exploratory eye movements. The results suggest task-related reactivity of the macroscopic oscillatory activity in the dog brain. To our knowledge, the study is the first to reveal non-invasively measured reactivity of brain electrophysiological oscillations in healthy dogs, and it has been based purely on positive operant conditional training, without the need for movement restriction or medication.

  7. Microglial Inflammasome Activation in Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie W; Gajavelli, Shyam; Spurlock, Markus S; Andreoni, Cody; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Bullock, M Ross; Keane, Robert W; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2018-04-02

    Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is a significant cause of death and disability in the United States. Inflammasomes are one of the key regulators of the interleukin (IL)-1β mediated inflammatory responses after traumatic brain injury. However, the contribution of inflammasome signaling after PTBI has not been determined. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham procedures or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and sacrificed at various time-points. Tissues were assessed by immunoblot analysis for expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and components of the inflammasome: apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), and gasdermin-D (GSDMD). Specific cell types expressing inflammasome proteins also were evaluated immunohistochemically and assessed quantitatively. After PBBI, expression of IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, ASC, XIAP, and NLRP3 peaked around 48 h. Brain protein lysates from PTBI animals showed pyroptosome formation evidenced by ASC laddering, and also contained increased expression of GSDMD at 48 h after injury. ASC-positive immunoreactive neurons within the perilesional cortex were observed at 24 h. At 48 h, ASC expression was concentrated in morphologically activated cortical microglia. This expression of ASC in activated microglia persisted until 12 weeks following PBBI. This is the first report of inflammasome activation after PBBI. Our results demonstrate cell-specific patterns of inflammasome activation and pyroptosis predominantly in microglia, suggesting a sustained pro-inflammatory state following PBBI, thus offering a therapeutic target for this type of brain injury.

  8. The impact of verbal framing on brain activity evoked by emotional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisley, Michael A; Campbell, Alana M; Larson, Jenna M; Naftz, Andrea E; Regnier, Jesse T; Davalos, Deana B

    2011-12-01

    Emotional stimuli generally command more brain processing resources than non-emotional stimuli, but the magnitude of this effect is subject to voluntary control. Cognitive reappraisal represents one type of emotion regulation that can be voluntarily employed to modulate responses to emotional stimuli. Here, the late positive potential (LPP), a specific event-related brain potential (ERP) component, was measured in response to neutral, positive and negative images while participants performed an evaluative categorization task. One experimental group adopted a "negative frame" in which images were categorized as negative or not. The other adopted a "positive frame" in which the exact same images were categorized as positive or not. Behavioral performance confirmed compliance with random group assignment, and peak LPP amplitude to negative images was affected by group membership: brain responses to negative images were significantly reduced in the "positive frame" group. This suggests that adopting a more positive appraisal frame can modulate brain activity elicited by negative stimuli in the environment.

  9. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances. We compared activations generated by three food and three non-food odorants matching in terms of intensity, pleasantness and trigeminal qualities. We observed that for our mixed sample of 30 hungry and satiated participants, food odors generated significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (right and left, insula (right, and putamen (right than non-food odors. Among hungry subjects, regardless of the odor type, we found significant activation in the ventral tegmental area in response to olfactory stimulation. As our stimuli were matched in terms of various perceptual qualities, this result suggests that edibility of an odor source indeed generates specific activation in dopaminergic brain areas.

  10. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates of online gaming addiction through evaluation of the brain areas associated with the cue-induced gaming urge. Ten participants with online gaming addiction and 10 control subjects without online gaming addiction were tested. They were presented with gaming pictures and the paired mosaic pictures while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. The contrast in blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals when viewing gaming pictures and when viewing mosaic pictures was calculated with the SPM2 software to evaluate the brain activations. Right orbitofrontal cortex, right nucleus accumbens, bilateral anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus were activated in the addicted group in contrast to the control group. The activation of the region-of-interest (ROI) defined by the above brain areas was positively correlated with self-reported gaming urge and recalling of gaming experience provoked by the WOW pictures. The results demonstrate that the neural substrate of cue-induced gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction is similar to that of the cue-induced craving in substance dependence. The above-mentioned brain regions have been reported to contribute to the craving in substance dependence, and here we show that the same areas were involved in online gaming urge/craving. Thus, the results suggest that the gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction and craving in substance dependence might share the same neurobiological mechanism.

  11. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.

  12. Time course of brain activation elicited by basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot, Pascal; Sequeira, Henrique

    2013-11-13

    Whereas facial emotion recognition protocols have shown that each discrete emotion has a specific time course of brain activation, there is no electrophysiological evidence to support these findings for emotional induction by complex pictures. Our objective was to specify the differences between the time courses of brain activation elicited by feelings of happiness and, with unpleasant pictures, by feelings of disgust and sadness. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the watching of high-arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System, selected to induce specific emotions. In addition to a classical arousal effect on late positive components, we found specific ERP patterns for each emotion in early temporal windows (emotion to be associated with different brain processing after 140 ms, whereas happiness and sadness differed in ERPs elicited at the frontal and central sites after 160 ms. Our findings highlight the limits of the classical averaging of ERPs elicited by different emotions inside the same valence and suggest that each emotion could elicit a specific temporal pattern of brain activation, similar to those observed with emotional face recognition.

  13. Brain activity modification produced by a single radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation pulse: a new tool for neuropsychiatric treatments. Preliminary fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagna A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna1 1Department of Neuro-Psycho-Physio Pathology, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Purpose: Radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation technology with its treatment protocols has shown efficacy in various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this work was to highlight the mechanisms by which these positive effects are achieved. The current study was conducted to determine whether a single 500-millisecond radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC brain stimulation pulse (BSP, applied to the ear, can effect a modification of brain activity that is detectable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers, six females and four males, underwent fMRI during a simple finger-tapping motor task before and after receiving a single 500-millisecond REAC-BSP. Results: The fMRI results indicate that the average variation in task-induced encephalic activation patterns is lower in subjects following the single REAC pulse. Conclusion: The current report demonstrates that a single REAC-BSP is sufficient to modulate brain activity in awake subjects, able to be measured using fMRI. These initial results open new perspectives into the understanding of the effects of weak and brief radio pulses upon brain activity, and provide the basis for further indepth studies using REAC-BSP and fMRI. Keywords: fMRI, brain stimulation, brain modulation, REAC, neuropsychiatric treatments

  14. Can earth's magnetic micropulsations induce brain activities modifications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Altair Souza de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We present in this paper preliminary study on which level earth's magnetic micro pulsations might interact with human brain activities. Magnetic micro pulsations are magnetospheric plasma wave Eigenmodes that are generated at the earth's magnetosphere and, via magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling induce ionospheric currents, and this ionospheric current pattern creates surface geomagnetic perturbations, which induce earth's surface electrical currents, and they are easily detected by earth's based magnetometers. These Eigenmodes are basically of Alfven type, and can be generated, for instance, by magnetic storms, situation where they are more intense and, in principle, might be felt by a more sensible human brain. Here, we also show how the modes are generated and present theirs basic physical properties. Finally, we compare the magnetic field level at the brain with the micro pulsation magnetic intensity. (author)

  15. Measurement of tritiated norepinephrine metabolism in intact rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, M.; Kowalik, S.; Barkai, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the study of NE metabolism in the intact rat brain is described. The method involves ventriculocisternal perfusion of the adult male rat with artificial CSF containing [ 3 H]NE. Radioactivity in the perfusate associated with NE and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), 3,4-dihydroxphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and normetanephrine (NMN) is separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After 80 min the radioactivity in the perfusate reaches an apparent steady-state. Analysis of the steady-state samples shows higher activity in the fractions corresponding to DHPG and MHPG than in those corresponding to DOMA and VMA, confirming glycol formation as the major pathway of NE metabolism in rat brain. Pretreatment with an MAO inhibitor (tranylcypromine) results in a marked decrease in the deaminated metabolites DHPG and MHPG and a concurrent increase in NMN. The results indicate this to be a sensitive procedure for the in vivo determination of changes in NE metabolism. (Auth.)

  16. A comparative study of linear measurement of the brain and three-dimensional measurement of brain volume using CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, K.; Iwasaki, N.; Takeya, T.; Takita, H.

    1993-01-01

    Parameters of linear measurement were compared with actual brain volume to assess the significance of linear measurements as indices of atrophy in 31 neurologically normal children and 22 neurologically abnormal children. Brain volume was established by means of an image-analyzing system using contiguous CT scans. The parameters or indices estimated were: (1) the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres, (2) the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres, (3) the maximum frontal subarachnoid space, (4) the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure, (5) the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure, (6) Evans' ratio, (7) the maximum width of the third ventricle, (8) the cella media index, (9) the maximum width of the fourth ventricle. In neurologically normal children, the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres, the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres, the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure and the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure correlated significantly with the combined volume (CV) of both hemipheres and basal ganglia. In particular, the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres and the maximum longitudinal length of both hemispheres had a high correlation. In neurologically abnormal children the maximum transverse width of both hemispheres and the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure were significantly correlated with the CV of both hemispheres and basal ganglia. (orig.)

  17. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid; Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities. Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking). Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a) normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen) (b) HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen). Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance. Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment ( p Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment ( p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part). Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  18. MRI volume measurement of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Yasuhiro; Abe, Tetsuo; Asai, Kunihiko; Okubo, Yoshirou; Toru, Michio.

    1996-01-01

    The T1-weighted images of whole-brain three-dimensional MRI (thickness, 3 mm; interval, 3 mm) were obtained from schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy volunteers. Detailed volumetric measurement of each part in the brain was carried out. As the result, the volume of both ventricles and third ventriculus cerebri in the schizophrenic group was significantly larger than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed in terms of the volume of the bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral body of caudate nucleus division and right temporal lobe. The volume of bilateral hippocampus and left temporal lobe of the schizophrenic group was significantly smaller than that of the control group. Negative correlation was observed between symptoms and the right temporal lobe volume (r=-0.41) in the schizophrenic group. In the schizophrenic group, morphological abnormality was admitted in the hippocampus, ventriculus cerebri and left temporal lobe. The morphological abnormality of the right temporal lobe seemed to involve the expression of negative symptoms. (S.Y.)

  19. Highly Crumpled All-Carbon Transistors for Brain Activity Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Wei, Wenjing; Li, Xinming; Cao, Anyuan; Cao, Yanping; Fang, Ying

    2017-01-11

    Neural probes based on graphene field-effect transistors have been demonstrated. Yet, the minimum detectable signal of graphene transistor-based probes is inversely proportional to the square root of the active graphene area. This fundamentally limits the scaling of graphene transistor-based neural probes for improved spatial resolution in brain activity recording. Here, we address this challenge using highly crumpled all-carbon transistors formed by compressing down to 16% of its initial area. All-carbon transistors, chemically synthesized by seamless integration of graphene channels and hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube electrodes, maintained structural integrity and stable electronic properties under large mechanical deformation, whereas stress-induced cracking and junction failure occurred in conventional graphene/metal transistors. Flexible, highly crumpled all-carbon transistors were further verified for in vivo recording of brain activity in rats. These results highlight the importance of advanced material and device design concepts to make improvements in neuroelectronics.

  20. Mapping brain activity with flexible graphene micro-transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Benno M.; Tort-Colet, Núria; Guimerà-Brunet, Anton; Weinert, Julia; Rousseau, Lionel; Heimann, Axel; Drieschner, Simon; Kempski, Oliver; Villa, Rosa; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.; Garrido, Jose A.

    2017-06-01

    Establishing a reliable communication interface between the brain and electronic devices is of paramount importance for exploiting the full potential of neural prostheses. Current microelectrode technologies for recording electrical activity, however, evidence important shortcomings, e.g. challenging high density integration. Solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs), on the other hand, could overcome these shortcomings if a suitable transistor material were available. Graphene is particularly attractive due to its biocompatibility, chemical stability, flexibility, low intrinsic electronic noise and high charge carrier mobilities. Here, we report on the use of an array of flexible graphene SGFETs for recording spontaneous slow waves, as well as visually evoked and also pre-epileptic activity in vivo in rats. The flexible array of graphene SGFETs allows mapping brain electrical activity with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), suggesting that this technology could lay the foundation for a future generation of in vivo recording implants.

  1. Frontal brain activation in young children during picture book reading with their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgi, S; Loo, K K; Mizuike, C

    2010-02-01

    This study was to measure changes in frontal brain activation in young children during picture book reading with their mothers. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 15 young Japanese children (eight girls and seven boys, mean age 23.1 +/- 3.4). Two experimental tasks were presented as follows: Task 1 (picture book reading with their mothers); Task 2 (viewing of book-on-video). Duration of task stimulus was 180-sec and the 60-sec interval was filled. Brain activation was measured using an optical topography system. Significant increases in oxy-Hb were observed in both right and left frontal areas in response to Task 1 compared with Task 2. There were significant correlations between child's brain activity and mothers' and children's verbal-nonverbal behaviours. There was greater frontal lobe activation in children when they were engaged in a picture book reading task with their mothers, as opposed to passive viewing of a videotape in which the story was read to them. Social and verbal engagement of the mother in reading picture books with her young child may mediate frontal brain activity in the child.

  2. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoling; Guan, Qiaobing; Wan, Lihong; Yi, Yahui; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected). Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002). Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN.

  3. Effects of endosulfan on brain acetylcholinesterase activity in juvenile bluegill sunfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Hiran M.; Arends, Dane A.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of endosulfan upon brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in juvenile blue gill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Based on exposure durations of 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and 1 week at 1.0 μg/L (just below the LC50 of 1.2 μg/L for this species), step-wise decreases in AChE activity were noted, corresponding to 0%, 3.57%, 12.65%, 14.23%, 16.31%, and 3.11% inhibition, respectively. Total brain protein concentrations were measured to test the accuracy of the Ache data with no significant anomalies. The duration of exposure was related to the reduction in the AChE activities which reflected the biotoxicity of endosulfan. The changes in the AChE activities will certainly affect the normal behavior of the juvenile blue gill which is detrimental to their very existence in the natural habitat

  4. On initial Brain Activity Mapping of episodic and semantic memory code in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z; Li, Meng; Osan, Remus; Chen, Guifen; Lin, Longian; Wang, Phillip Lei; Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta; Zhu, Dajiang; Liu, Tianming; Zhao, Fang; Kuang, Hui

    2013-10-01

    It has been widely recognized that the understanding of the brain code would require large-scale recording and decoding of brain activity patterns. In 2007 with support from Georgia Research Alliance, we have launched the Brain Decoding Project Initiative with the basic idea which is now similarly advocated by BRAIN project or Brain Activity Map proposal. As the planning of the BRAIN project is currently underway, we share our insights and lessons from our efforts in mapping real-time episodic memory traces in the hippocampus of freely behaving mice. We show that appropriate large-scale statistical methods are essential to decipher and measure real-time memory traces and neural dynamics. We also provide an example of how the carefully designed, sometime thinking-outside-the-box, behavioral paradigms can be highly instrumental to the unraveling of memory-coding cell assembly organizing principle in the hippocampus. Our observations to date have led us to conclude that the specific-to-general categorical and combinatorial feature-coding cell assembly mechanism represents an emergent property for enabling the neural networks to generate and organize not only episodic memory, but also semantic knowledge and imagination. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia…

  6. Rapid Modulation of Aromatase Activity in the Vertebrate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry D. Charlier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous steroid hormones, including 17β-estradiol (E2, activate rapid and transient cellular, physiological, and behavioral changes in addition to their well-described genomic effects. Aromatase is the key-limiting enzyme in the production of estrogens, and the rapid modulation of this enzymatic activity could produce rapid changes in local E2 concentrations. The mechanisms that might mediate such rapid enzymatic changes are not fully understood but are currently under intense scrutiny. Recent studies in our laboratory indicate that brain aromatase activity is rapidly inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration resulting from potassium-induced depolarization or from the activation of glutamatergic receptors. Phosphorylating conditions also reduce aromatase activity within minutes, and this inhibition is blocked by the addition of multiple protein kinase inhibitors. This rapid modulation of aromatase activity by phosphorylating conditions is a general mechanism observed in different cell types and tissues derived from a variety of species, including human aromatase expressed in various cell lines. Phosphorylation processes affect aromatase itself and do not involve changes in aromatase protein concentration. The control of aromatase activity by multiple kinases suggests that several amino acids must be concomitantly phosphorylated to modify enzymatic activity but site-directed mutagenesis of several amino acids alone or in combination has not to date revealed the identity of the targeted residue(s. Altogether, the phosphorylation processes affecting aromatase activity provide a new general mechanism by which the concentration of estrogens can be rapidly altered in the brain.

  7. Quantum measurement and the mind-brain connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that quantum measurements do pose a problem, within the context created by the fundamental aim of science, which is identified as the construction of a cohesive, comprehensive, and rationally coherent idea of the nature of the world in which we live. Models of nature are divided into two classes: (1), those in which there is a selection process that, for any possible measurement, would, if that measurement were to be performed, pick out one single outcome, and, (2), all others. It is proved that any model of class that reproduces the predictions of quantum theory must violate the condition that there be no faster-than-light influences of any kind. This result is used to motivate the study of models in which unitary evolution is maintained and there is no selection of unique outcomes. A consideration of ontic probabilities, historical records, and the form of the mind-brain connection leads to an elaboration of the Everett many-worlds interpretation that appears to provide the basis of satisfactory solution of the measurement problem. 18 refs

  8. Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Babiloni, Claudio; Sijben, John W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the life span, the brain is a metabolically highly active organ that uses a large proportion of total nutrient and energy intake. Furthermore, the development and repair of neural tissue depend on the proper intake of essential structural nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Therefore, what we eat, or refrain from eating, may have an important impact on our cognitive ability and mental performance. Two of the key areas in which diet is thought to play an important role are in optimizing neurodevelopment in children and in preventing neurodegeneration and cognitive decline during aging. From early development to aging, brain imaging can detect structural, functional, and metabolic changes in humans and modifications due to altered nutrition or to additional nutritional supplementation. Inclusion of imaging measures in clinical studies can increase understanding with regard to the modification of brain structure, metabolism, and functional endpoints and may provide early sensitive measures of long-term effects. In this symposium, the utility of existing brain imaging technologies to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in humans is described. Examples of current research showing the utility of these markers are reviewed.

  9. Spontaneous brain network activity: Analysis of its temporal complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangor Pedersen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The brain operates in a complex way. The temporal complexity underlying macroscopic and spontaneous brain network activity is still to be understood. In this study, we explored the brain’s complexity by combining functional connectivity, graph theory, and entropy analyses in 25 healthy people using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging. We calculated the pairwise instantaneous phase synchrony between 8,192 brain nodes for a total of 200 time points. This resulted in graphs for which time series of clustering coefficients (the “cliquiness” of a node and participation coefficients (the between-module connectivity of a node were estimated. For these two network metrics, sample entropy was calculated. The procedure produced a number of results: (1 Entropy is higher for the participation coefficient than for the clustering coefficient. (2 The average clustering coefficient is negatively related to its associated entropy, whereas the average participation coefficient is positively related to its associated entropy. (3 The level of entropy is network-specific to the participation coefficient, but not to the clustering coefficient. High entropy for the participation coefficient was observed in the default-mode, visual, and motor networks. These results were further validated using an independent replication dataset. Our work confirms that brain networks are temporally complex. Entropy is a good candidate metric to explore temporal network alterations in diseases with paroxysmal brain disruptions, including schizophrenia and epilepsy. In recent years, connectomics has provided significant insights into the topological complexity of brain networks. However, the temporal complexity of brain networks still remains somewhat poorly understood. In this study we used entropy analysis to demonstrate that the properties of network segregation (the clustering coefficient and integration (the participation coefficient are temporally complex

  10. Contributions of Glycogen to Astrocytic Energetics during Brain Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 mol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K+ level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound. PMID:24515302

  11. Contributions of glycogen to astrocytic energetics during brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2015-02-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 μmol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K(+) level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound.

  12. Distinct Patterns of Brain Activity Characterise Lexical Activation and Competition in Spoken Word Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Jensen, O.; Schoffelen, J.M.; Bonnefond, M.

    2014-01-01

    According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography

  13. Simultaneous measurement of glucose blood–brain transport constants and metabolic rate in rat brain using in-vivo 1H MRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral glucose consumption and glucose transport across the blood–brain barrier are crucial to brain function since glucose is the major energy fuel for supporting intense electrophysiological activity associated with neuronal firing and signaling. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to measure the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) and glucose transport constants (KT: half-saturation constant; Tmax: maximum transport rate) are of importance for understanding glucose transport mechanism and neuroenergetics under various physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, a novel approach able to simultaneously measure CMRglc, KT, and Tmax via monitoring the dynamic glucose concentration changes in the brain tissue using in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and in plasma after a brief glucose infusion was proposed and tested using an animal model. The values of CMRglc, Tmax, and KT were determined to be 0.44±0.17 μmol/g per minute, 1.35±0.47 μmol/g per minute, and 13.4±6.8 mmol/L in the rat brain anesthetized with 2% isoflurane. The Monte-Carlo simulations suggest that the measurements of CMRglc and Tmax are more reliable than that of KT. The overall results indicate that the new approach is robust and reliable for in-vivo measurements of both brain glucose metabolic rate and transport constants, and has potential for human application. PMID:22714049

  14. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  15. Behavioral inhibition and activation systems in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina G; Rapport, Lisa J; Meachen, Sarah-Jane; Hanks, Robin A; Lumley, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Personality has been linked to cognitive appraisal and health outcomes; however, research specific to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been sparse. Gray's theory of behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) offers a neurobiologic view of personality that may be especially relevant to neurobehavioral change associated with TBI. The present study examined theoretical and psychometric issues of using the BIS/BAS scale among adults with TBI as well as BIS/BAS personality correlates of TBI. Research Method/Design: Eighty-one adults with complicated-mild to severe TBI and 76 of their significant others (SOs) participated. Measures included the BIS/BAS scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Awareness Questionnaire. Among adults with TBI, BIS/BAS internal consistency reliabilities were similar to those found in normative samples of adults without TBI. The TBI group endorsed significantly higher BAS than did the SO group, and injury severity was positively correlated to BAS. The SO group showed expected patterns of correlation between personality and affect; positive affect was associated with BAS, and negative affect with BIS. In contrast, in the TBI group, BAS was positively correlated to both positive and negative affect. Impaired awareness of abilities moderated the intensity of relationships between BIS/BAS and affect. TBI was associated with relatively intensified BAS (approach behavior) but not BIS (avoidance behavior). The observed pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of TBI-related personality change and with theory regarding the independence of the BIS and BAS systems. The BIS/BAS scale shows promise as a personality measure in TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat brain during experimental epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netopilova, M; Drsata, J [Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, 50005 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Haugvicova, R; Kubova, H; Mares, P [Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic)

    1998-07-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity was studied rat brain parts in a pilocarpine model of epileptic seizures. An increased enzyme activity was found in hippocampus a cerebellum during the acute phase of seizures, while the cortex and cerebellum showed increased GAD activity in the chronic phase of the process. Systematic administration of pilocarpine to rats induces status epilepticus. The aim of this research was to find out if seizures induced by pilocarpine are connected changes in glutamate decarboxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. GAD was assayed by means of radiometric method using {sup 14}C-carboxyl-labelled glutamate and measurement of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} radioactivity. Obtained results suggest that pilocarpine seizures are connected with changes of GAD activity in individual parts of rat brain. (authors)

  17. Glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat brain during experimental epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netopilova, M.; Drsata, J.; Haugvicova, R.; Kubova, H.; Mares, P.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity was studied rat brain parts in a pilocarpine model of epileptic seizures. An increased enzyme activity was found in hippocampus a cerebellum during the acute phase of seizures, while the cortex and cerebellum showed increased GAD activity in the chronic phase of the process. Systematic administration of pilocarpine to rats induces status epilepticus. The aim of this research was to find out if seizures induced by pilocarpine are connected changes in glutamate decarboxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. GAD was assayed by means of radiometric method using 14 C-carboxyl-labelled glutamate and measurement of 14 CO 2 radioactivity. Obtained results suggest that pilocarpine seizures are connected with changes of GAD activity in individual parts of rat brain. (authors)

  18. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.

  19. Hierarchical anatomical brain networks for MCI prediction: revisiting volumetric measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Zhou

    Full Text Available Owning to its clinical accessibility, T1-weighted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been extensively studied in the past decades for prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The volumes of gray matter (GM, white matter (WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the most commonly used measurements, resulting in many successful applications. It has been widely observed that disease-induced structural changes may not occur at isolated spots, but in several inter-related regions. Therefore, for better characterization of brain pathology, we propose in this paper a means to extract inter-regional correlation based features from local volumetric measurements. Specifically, our approach involves constructing an anatomical brain network for each subject, with each node representing a Region of Interest (ROI and each edge representing Pearson correlation of tissue volumetric measurements between ROI pairs. As second order volumetric measurements, network features are more descriptive but also more sensitive to noise. To overcome this limitation, a hierarchy of ROIs is used to suppress noise at different scales. Pairwise interactions are considered not only for ROIs with the same scale in the same layer of the hierarchy, but also for ROIs across different scales in different layers. To address the high dimensionality problem resulting from the large number of network features, a supervised dimensionality reduction method is further employed to embed a selected subset of features into a low dimensional feature space, while at the same time preserving discriminative information. We demonstrate with experimental results the efficacy of this embedding strategy in comparison with some other commonly used approaches. In addition, although the proposed method can be easily generalized to incorporate other metrics of regional similarities, the benefits of using Pearson correlation in our application are reinforced by the experimental

  20. Home Reading Environment and Brain Activation in Preschool Children Listening to Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, John S; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Mendelsohn, Alan L; DeWitt, Tom; Holland, Scott K

    2015-09-01

    Parent-child reading is widely advocated to promote cognitive development, including in recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics to begin this practice at birth. Although parent-child reading has been shown in behavioral studies to improve oral language and print concepts, quantifiable effects on the brain have not been previously studied. Our study used blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between home reading environment and brain activity during a story listening task in a sample of preschool-age children. We hypothesized that while listening to stories, children with greater home reading exposure would exhibit higher activation of left-sided brain regions involved with semantic processing (extraction of meaning). Nineteen 3- to 5-year-old children were selected from a longitudinal study of normal brain development. All completed blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging using an age-appropriate story listening task, where narrative alternated with tones. We performed a series of whole-brain regression analyses applying composite, subscale, and individual reading-related items from the validated StimQ-P measure of home cognitive environment as explanatory variables for neural activation. Higher reading exposure (StimQ-P Reading subscale score) was positively correlated (P eco-bio-developmental models of emergent literacy. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Intra-cranial recordings of brain activity during language production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais eLlorens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings in the neurophysiology of language production have provided a detailed description of the brain network underlying this behavior, as well as some indications about the timing of operations. Despite their invaluable utility, these data generally suffer from limitations either in terms of temporal resolution, or in terms of spatial localization. In addition, studying the neural basis of speech is complicated by the presence of articulation artifacts such as electro-myographic activity that interferes with the neural signal. These difficulties are virtually absent in a powerful albeit much less frequent methodology, namely the recording of intra-cranial brain activity (iEEG. Such recordings are only possible under very specific clinical circumstances requiring functional mapping before brain surgery, most notably patients that suffer for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Here we review the research conducted with this methodology in the field of language production, with explicit consideration of its advantages and drawbacks. The available evidence is shown to be diverse, both in terms of the tasks and cognitive processes tested and in terms of the brain localizations being studied. Still, the review provides valuable information for characterizing the dynamics of the neural events occurring in the language production network. Following modality specific activities (in auditory or visual cortices, there is a convergence of activity in superior temporal sulcus, which is a plausible neural correlate of phonological encoding processes. Later, between 500 and 800 ms, inferior frontal gyrus (around Broca's area is involved. Peri-rolandic areas are recruited in the two modalities relatively early (200-500 ms window, suggesting a very early involvement of (pre- motor processes. We discuss how some of these findings may be at odds with conclusions drawn from available meta-analysis of language production.

  2. Spontaneous brain activity as a biomarker for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anhøj, Simon Jesper; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: One of the most direct ways to get insight into the functional organization of the human brain is to measure the BOLD-signal with fMRI during rest. This signal is not a random signal but is highly organized in several functional networks (RSN's) believed to be a fundamental...... function of the brain. Very few studies have investigated RSN's in Antipsychotic Naïve First Episode patients (ANFE). In this study we wanted to investigate the potential of using the RSN’s as a biomarker for schizophrenia and for effect of treatment in ANFE patients. Especially, we wanted to test...... subjects were scanned and re-scanned with 10 min resting state fMRI. The analysis contains 50 patients and 50 controls at baseline and 35 patients and 35 controls at follow up. The methods used to measure the functional connectivity are Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (ALFF), a seed-based approach...

  3. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Partial volume correction and image segmentation for accurate measurement of standardized uptake value of grey matter in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Gonca; Torigian, Drew; Basu, Sandip; Houseni, Mohamed; Zhuge, Ying; Rubello, Domenico; Udupa, Jayaram; Alavi, Abass

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to explore a novel quantitative method [based upon an MRI-based image segmentation that allows actual calculation of grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes] for overcoming the difficulties associated with conventional techniques for measuring actual metabolic activity of the grey matter. We included four patients with normal brain MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET scans (two women and two men; mean age 46±14 years) in this analysis. The time interval between the two scans was 0-180 days. We calculated the volumes of grey matter, white matter and CSF by using a novel segmentation technique applied to the MRI images. We measured the mean standardized uptake value (SUV) representing the whole metabolic activity of the brain from the F-FDG-PET images. We also calculated the white matter SUV from the upper transaxial slices (centrum semiovale) of the F-FDG-PET images. The whole brain volume was calculated by summing up the volumes of the white matter, grey matter and CSF. The global cerebral metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV with total brain volume. The whole brain white matter metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV for the white matter by the white matter volume. The global cerebral metabolic activity only reflects those of the grey matter and the white matter, whereas that of the CSF is zero. We subtracted the global white matter metabolic activity from that of the whole brain, resulting in the global grey matter metabolism alone. We then divided the grey matter global metabolic activity by grey matter volume to accurately calculate the SUV for the grey matter alone. The brain volumes ranged between 1546 and 1924 ml. The mean SUV for total brain was 4.8-7. Total metabolic burden of the brain ranged from 5565 to 9617. The mean SUV for white matter was 2.8-4.1. On the basis of these measurements we generated the grey matter SUV, which ranged from 8.1 to 11.3. The

  5. Information-geometric measures estimate neural interactions during oscillatory brain states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin eNie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of functional network structures among multiple neurons is essential to understanding neural information processing. Information geometry (IG, a theory developed for investigating a space of probability distributions has recently been applied to spike-train analysis and has provided robust estimations of neural interactions. Although neural firing in the equilibrium state is often assumed in these studies, in reality, neural activity is non-stationary. The brain exhibits various oscillations depending on cognitive demands or when an animal is asleep. Therefore, the investigation of the IG measures during oscillatory network states is important for testing how the IG method can be applied to real neural data. Using model networks of binary neurons or more realistic spiking neurons, we studied how the single- and pairwise-IG measures were influenced by oscillatory neural activity. Two general oscillatory mechanisms, externally driven oscillations and internally induced oscillations, were considered. In both mechanisms, we found that the single-IG measure was linearly related to the magnitude of the external input, and that the pairwise-IG measure was linearly related to the sum of connection strengths between two neurons. We also observed that the pairwise-IG measure was not dependent on the oscillation frequency. These results are consistent with the previous findings that were obtained under the equilibrium conditions. Therefore, we demonstrate that the IG method provides useful insights into neural interactions under the oscillatory condition that can often be observed in the real brain.

  6. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C. J.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J. J.; van Dijk, B. W.; Postma, T. J.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activity

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of large-scale brain activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Jeremy

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some

  8. Methods of measuring metabolism during surgery in humans: focus on the liver-brain relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battezzati, Alberto; Bertoli, Simona

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to review recent advances in setting methods and models for measuring metabolism during surgery in humans. Surgery, especially solid organ transplantation, may offer unique experimental models in which it is ethically acceptable to gain information on difficult problems of amino acid and protein metabolism. Two areas are reviewed: the metabolic study of the anhepatic phase during liver transplantation and brain microdialysis during cerebral surgery. The first model offers an innovative approach to understand the relative role of liver and extrahepatic organs in gluconeogenesis, and to evaluate whether other organs can perform functions believed to be exclusively or almost exclusively performed by the liver. The second model offers an insight to intracerebral metabolism that is closely bound to that of the liver. The recent advances in metabolic research during surgery provide knowledge immediately useful for perioperative patient management and for a better control of surgical stress. The studies during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation have showed that gluconeogenesis and glutamine metabolism are very active processes outside the liver. One of the critical organs for extrahepatic glutamine metabolism is the brain. Microdialysis studies helped to prove that in humans there is an intense trafficking of glutamine, glutamate and alanine among neurons and astrocytes. This delicate network is influenced by systemic amino acid metabolism. The metabolic dialogue between the liver and the brain is beginning to be understood in this light in order to explain the metabolic events of brain damage during liver failure.

  9. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, th...

  10. Co-occurring anxiety influences patterns of brain activity in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Anna S; Heller, Wendy; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Warren, Stacie L; Sutton, Bradley P; Banich, Marie T; Miller, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    Brain activation associated with anhedonic depression and co-occurring anxious arousal and anxious apprehension was measured by fMRI during performance of an emotion word Stroop task. Consistent with EEG findings, depression was associated with rightward frontal lateralization in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but only when anxious arousal was elevated and anxious apprehension was low. Activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was also reduced for depression under the same conditions. In contrast, depression was associated with more activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (dorsal ACC and rostral ACC) and the bilateral amygdala. Results imply that depression, particularly when accompanied by anxious arousal, may result in a failure to implement top-down processing by appropriate brain regions (left DLPFC, right IFG) due to increased activation in regions associated with responding to emotionally salient information (right DLPFC, amygdala).

  11. Time use and physical activity in a specialised brain injury rehabilitation unit: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; Wong, Siobhan; Sheaves, Emma; Daher, Maysaa; Grady, Andrew; Egan, Cara; Seeto, Carol; Hosking, Talia; Moseley, Anne

    2018-04-18

    To determine what is the use of time and physical activity in people undertaking inpatient rehabilitation in a specialised brain injury unit. To determine participants' level of independence related to the use of time and physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional observation study. Fourteen people [mean (SD) age 40 (15) years] with brain injuries undertaking inpatient rehabilitation. Participants were observed every 12 minutes over 5 days (Monday to Friday from 7:30 am until 7:30 pm) using a behaviour mapping tool. Observation of location, people present, body position and activity engaged in (both therapeutic and nontherapeutic). Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were determined for each participant. Participants spent a large part of their time alone (34%) in sedentary positions (83%) and in their bedrooms (48%) doing non-therapeutic activities (78%). There was a positive relationship between a higher level of independence (higher FIM score) and being observed in active body positions (r=0.60; p=0.03) and participating in physically active therapeutic activities (r=0.53; p=0.05). Similar to stroke units, inpatients in a specialised brain injury unit spend large parts of the day sedentary, alone and doing non-therapeutic activities. Strategies need to be evaluated to address this problem, particularly for people with greater physical dependence.

  12. Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thut, Gregor; Bergmann, Til Ole; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online...... and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned......Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension...

  13. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  14. Neurofeedback Tunes Scale-Free Dynamics in Spontaneous Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, T; Frewen, P; Théberge, J; Michela, A; Kluetsch, R; Mueller, A; Candrian, G; Jetly, R; Vuilleumier, P; Lanius, R A

    2017-10-01

    Brain oscillations exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs), which reflect the regularity of their fluctuations: low values representing more random (decorrelated) while high values more persistent (correlated) dynamics. LRTCs constitute supporting evidence that the brain operates near criticality, a state where neuronal activities are balanced between order and randomness. Here, healthy adults used closed-loop brain training (neurofeedback, NFB) to reduce the amplitude of alpha oscillations, producing a significant increase in spontaneous LRTCs post-training. This effect was reproduced in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, where abnormally random dynamics were reversed by NFB, correlating with significant improvements in hyperarousal. Notably, regions manifesting abnormally low LRTCs (i.e., excessive randomness) normalized toward healthy population levels, consistent with theoretical predictions about self-organized criticality. Hence, when exposed to appropriate training, spontaneous cortical activity reveals a residual capacity for "self-tuning" its own temporal complexity, despite manifesting the abnormal dynamics seen in individuals with psychiatric disorder. Lastly, we observed an inverse-U relationship between strength of LRTC and oscillation amplitude, suggesting a breakdown of long-range dependence at high/low synchronization extremes, in line with recent computational models. Together, our findings offer a broader mechanistic framework for motivating research and clinical applications of NFB, encompassing disorders with perturbed LRTCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Brain Activity in Patients With Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Detected by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyuna, Asanori; Kise, Norimoto; Hiratsuka, Munehisa; Kondo, Shunsuke; Uehara, Takayuki; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Ganaha, Akira; Suzuki, Mikio

    2017-05-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is considered a focal dystonia. However, the detailed pathophysiology of SD remains unclear, despite the detection of abnormal activity in several brain regions. The aim of this study was to clarify the pathophysiological background of SD. This is a case-control study. Both task-related brain activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging by reading the five-digit numbers and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measured by 150 T2-weighted echo planar images acquired without any task were investigated in 12 patients with adductor SD and in 16 healthy controls. The patients with SD showed significantly higher task-related brain activation in the left middle temporal gyrus, left thalamus, bilateral primary motor area, bilateral premotor area, bilateral cerebellum, bilateral somatosensory area, right insula, and right putamen compared with the controls. Region of interest voxel FC analysis revealed many FC changes within the cerebellum-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex loop in the patients with SD. Of the significant connectivity changes between the patients with SD and the controls, the FC between the left thalamus and the left caudate nucleus was significantly correlated with clinical parameters in SD. The higher task-related brain activity in the insula and cerebellum was consistent with previous neuroimaging studies, suggesting that these areas are one of the unique characteristics of phonation-induced brain activity in SD. Based on FC analysis and their significant correlations with clinical parameters, the basal ganglia network plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SD. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent resetting of the cerebral oxygen/glucose uptake ratio by brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Hasselbalch, S G; Hagemann, L P

    1995-01-01

    fraction of the activation-induced excess glucose uptake. These data confirm earlier reports that brain activation can induce resetting of the cerebral oxygen/glucose consumption ratio, and indicate that the resetting persists for a long period after cerebral activation has been terminated and physiologic......Global cerebral blood flow (CBF), global cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen (CMRO2), and for glucose (CMRglc), and lactate efflux were measured during rest and during cerebral activation induced by the Wisconsin card sorting test. Measurements were performed in healthy volunteers using the Kety......-Schmidt technique. Global CMRO2 was unchanged during cerebral activation, whereas global CBF and global CMRglc both increased by 12%, reducing the molar ratio of oxygen to glucose consumption from 6.0 during baseline conditions to 5.4 during activation. Data obtained in the period following cerebral activation...

  17. Changes in spontaneous brain activity in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Zhang, Min-Ming; Zheng, Xu-Ning; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Wang, Jue

    2013-08-09

    Resting state brain activity can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of the present study was (a) to investigate abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in early PD patients using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method and (b) to demonstrate the potential of using changes in abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity for monitoring the progression of PD during its early stages. Seventeen early PD patients were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared with seventeen gender- and age-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI scans using a 1.5T General Electric Signa Excite II scanner. The MRI scan protocol included whole-brain volumetric imaging using a 3D inversion recovery prepared (IR-Prep) fast spoiled gradient-echo pulse sequence and 2D multi-slice (22 axial slices covering the whole brain) resting-state fMRI using an echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Images were analyzed in SPM5 together with a ReHo algorithm using the in-house software program REST. A corrected threshold of pbrain regions, including the left cerebellum, left parietal lobe, right middle temporal lobe, right sub-thalamic nucleus areas, right superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), right precuneus lobe, left MFG and left IPL. Additionally, significantly reduced ReHo was also observed in the early PD patients in the following brain regions: the left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus, right anterior cingulum, and bilateral lingual gyrus. Moreover, in PD patients, ReHo in the left putamen was negatively correlated with the UPDRS scores (r=-0.69). These results indicate that the abnormal resting state spontaneous brain activity associated with patients with early PD can be revealed by Reho analysis. Copyright

  18. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanping Wang,1,2 Xiaoling Zhang,2 Qiaobing Guan,2 Lihong Wan,2 Yahui Yi,2 Chun-Feng Liu1 1Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 2Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected. Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002. Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN. Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, resting fMRI, brain, chronic pain, local connectivity

  19. Comparison of one-, two-, and three-dimensional measurements of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, K E; Patronas, N; Aikin, A A; Albert, P S; Balis, F M

    2001-09-19

    End points for assessing drug activity in brain tumors are determined by measuring the change in tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relative to a pretreatment or best-response scan. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) tumor measurements have been used, but one-dimensional (1D) measurements have recently been proposed as an alternative. Because software to estimate three-dimensional (3D) tumor volume from digitized MRI images is available, we compared all three methods of tumor measurement for childhood brain tumors and clinical outcome. Tumor size from 130 MRI scans from 32 patients (32 baseline and 98 follow-up scans, for a total of 130 scans; median, three scans per patient; range, two to 18 scans) was measured by each method. Tumor-response category (partial response, minor response, stable disease, or progressive disease) was determined from the percentage change in tumor size between the baseline or best-response scan and follow-up scans. Time to clinical progression was independently determined by chart review. All statistical tests were two-sided. Concordances between 1D and 2D, 1D and 3D, and 2D and 3D were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 67% to 99%), 61% (95% CI = 47% to 75%), and 66% (95% CI = 52% to 80%), respectively, on follow-up scans. Concordances for 1D and 3D and for 2D and 3D were statistically significantly lower than the concordance for 1D and 2D (Ptumors in the minor response and progressive-disease categories. Median times to progression measured by the 1D, 2D, and 3D methods were 154, 105, and 112 days, respectively, compared with 114 days based on neurologic symptoms and signs (P = .09 for overall comparison). Detection of partial responses was not influenced by the measurement method, but estimating time to disease progression may be method dependent for childhood brain tumors.

  20. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with hemifacial spasm: a resting-state functional MRI study.

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    Ye Tu

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been used to detect the alterations of spontaneous neuronal activity in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, but rarely in hemifacial spasm (HFS, a nervous system disorder. We used resting-state fMRI with regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis to investigate changes in spontaneous brain activity of patients with HFS and to determine the relationship of these functional changes with clinical features. Thirty patients with HFS and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Compared with controls, HFS patients had significantly decreased ReHo values in left middle frontal gyrus (MFG, left medial cingulate cortex (MCC, left lingual gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus (STG and right precuneus; and increased ReHo values in left precentral gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right brainstem, and right cerebellum. Furthermore, the mean ReHo value in brainstem showed a positive correlation with the spasm severity (r = 0.404, p = 0.027, and the mean ReHo value in MFG was inversely related with spasm severity in HFS group (r = -0.398, p = 0.028. This study reveals that HFS is associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activity in brain regions most involved in motor control and blinking movement. The disturbances of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ReHo measurements may provide insights into the neurological pathophysiology of HFS.

  1. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

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    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  2. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  3. An 'integrative neuroscience' perspective on ADHD: linking cognition, emotion, brain and genetic measures with implications for clinical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-10-01

    There remains a translational gap between research findings and their implementation in clinical practice that applies to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to other major disorders of brain health in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Research studies have identified potential 'markers' to support diagnostic, functional assessment and treatment decisions, but there is little consensus about these markers. Of these potential markers, cognitive measures of thinking functions, such as sustaining attention and associated electrical brain activity, show promise in complementing the clinical management process. Emerging evidence highlights the relevance of emotional, as well as thinking, functions to ADHD. Here, we outline an integrative neuroscience framework for ADHD that offers one means to bring together cognitive measures of thinking functions with measures of emotion, and their brain and genetic correlates. Understanding these measures and the relationships between them is a first step towards the development of tools that will help to assess the heterogeneity of ADHD, and aid in tailoring treatment choices.

  4. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  5. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Mark; Rees, Adrian; Vuong, Quoc C

    2015-01-01

    The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we used amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only, or auditory-visual (AV) trials in the fMRI scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent) or different modulation rates (AV incongruent). Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for AV integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.

  6. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eLaing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we use amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only or auditory-visual (AV trials in the scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent or different modulation rates (AV incongruent. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for auditory-visual integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.

  7. Brain activation to facial expressions in youth with PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Amy S; Carrion, Victor; Kletter, Hilit; Karchemskiy, Asya; Weems, Carl F; Reiss, Allan

    2012-05-01

    This study examined activation to facial expressions in youth with a history of interpersonal trauma and current posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) compared to healthy controls (HC). Twenty-three medication-naive youth with PTSS and 23 age- and gender-matched HC underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing fearful, angry, sad, happy, and neutral faces. Data were analyzed for group differences in location of activation, as well as timing of activation during the early versus late phase of the block. Using SPM5, significant activation (P effect of group was identified. Activation from selected clusters was extracted to SPSS software for further analysis of specific facial expressions and temporal patterns of activation. The PTSS group showed significantly greater activation than controls in several regions, including the amygdala/hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and less activation than controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These group differences in activation were greatest during angry, happy, and neutral faces, and predominantly during the early phase of the block. Post hoc analyses showed significant Group × Phase interactions in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Traumatic stress may impact development of brain regions important for emotion processing. Timing of activation may be altered in youth with PTSS. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults

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    Pär Flodin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64–78 years were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL. Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA, as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness

  9. Classification of types of stuttering symptoms based on brain activity.

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    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT whole-word repetitions (WWR should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type.

  10. Classification of Types of Stuttering Symptoms Based on Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type. PMID:22761887

  11. Evaluation of the 11CO2 positron emission tomographic method for measuring brain pH. I. pH changes measured in states of altered PCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, R.B.; Alpert, N.M.; Babikian, V.; Weise, S.; Correia, J.A.; Ackerman, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The 11 CO 2 method for measuring local brain pH with positron emission tomography (PET) has been experimentally evaluated, testing the adequacy of the kinetic model and the ability of the method to measure changes in brain pH. Plasma and tissue time/activity curves measured during and following continuous inhalation of 11 CO 2 were fit with a kinetic model that includes effects of tissue pH, blood flow, and fixation of CO 2 into compounds other than dissolved gas and bicarbonate ions. For each of ten dogs, brain pH was measured with PET at two values of PaCO 2 (range 21-67 mm Hg). The kinetic model fit the data well during both inhalation and washout of the label, with residual root mean square (RMS) deviations of the model from the measurements consistent with the statistical quality of the PET data. Brain pH calculated from the PET data shows a linear variation with log(PaCO 2 ). These results were in good agreement with previously reported measurements of brain pH, both in absolute value and in variation with PCO 2 . The interpretation of these pH values in normal and pathological states is discussed

  12. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  13. Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

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    Ilke eOztekin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Proactive interference (PI, in which irrelevant information from prior learning disrupts memory performance, is widely viewed as a major cause of forgetting. However, the hypothesized spontaneous recovery (i.e. automatic retrieval of interfering information presumed to be at the base of PI remains to be demonstrated directly. Moreover, it remains unclear at what point during learning and/or retrieval interference impacts memory performance. In order to resolve these open questions, we employed a machine-learning algorithm to identify distributed patterns of brain activity associated with retrieval of interfering information that engenders PI and causes forgetting. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an item recognition task. We induced PI by constructing sets of three consecutive study lists from the same semantic category. The classifier quantified the magnitude of category-related activity at encoding and retrieval. Category-specific activity during retrieval increased across lists, consistent with the category information becoming increasingly available and producing interference. Critically, this increase was correlated with individual differences in forgetting and the deployment of frontal lobe mechanisms that resolve interference. Collectively, these findings suggest that distributed patterns of brain activity pertaining to the interfering information during retrieval contribute to forgetting. The prefrontal cortex mediates the relationship between the spontaneous recovery of interfering information at retrieval and individual differences in memory performance.

  14. Intrinsic resting-state activity predicts working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong

    2013-12-01

    Although resting-state brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also predict task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-state and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-state activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-state activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-state activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-state activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can predict subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Measurements of brain microstructure and connectivity with diffusion MRI

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    Ching-Po Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By probing direction-dependent diffusivity of water molecules, diffusion MRI has shown its capability to reflect the microstructural tissue status and to estimate the neural orientation and pathways in the living brain. This approach has supplied novel insights into in-vivo human brain connections. By detecting the connection patterns, anatomical architecture and structural integrity between cortical regions or subcortical nuclei in the living human brain can be easily identified. It thus opens a new window on brain connectivity studies and disease processes. During the past years, there is a growing interest in exploring the connectivity patterns of the human brain. Specifically, the utilities of noninvasive neuroimaging data and graph theoretical analysis have provided important insights into the anatomical connections and topological pattern of human brain structural networks in vivo. Here, we review the progress of this important technique and the recent methodological and application studies utilizing graph theoretical approaches on brain structural networks with structural MRI and diffusion MRI.

  16. Testosterone is inversely related to brain activity during emotional inhibition in schizophrenia.

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    Ans Vercammen

    Full Text Available Sex steroids affect cognitive function as well as emotion processing and regulation. They may also play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the effects of sex steroids on cognition and emotion-related brain activation in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone relates to brain activation in men with schizophrenia compared to healthy men during cognitive-emotional processing. We assessed brain activation in 18 men with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy men during an emotional go/no-go task using fMRI and measured total serum testosterone levels on the same morning. We performed an ROI analysis to assess the relationship between serum testosterone and brain activation, focusing on cortical regions involved the emotional go/no-go task. Slower RT and reduced accuracy was observed when participants responded to neutral stimuli, while inhibiting responses to negative stimuli. Healthy men showed a robust increase in activation of the middle frontal gyrus when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli, but there was no significant association between activation and serum testosterone level in healthy men. Men with schizophrenia showed a less pronounced increase in activation when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli; however, they did show a strong inverse association between serum testosterone level and activation of the bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left insula. Additionally, increased accuracy during inhibition of response to negative words was associated with both higher serum testosterone levels and decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus in men with schizophrenia only. We conclude that endogenous hormone levels, even within the normal range, may play an enhanced modulatory role in determining the neural and behavioural response during cognitive-emotional processing in schizophrenia.

  17. Measuring Glial Metabolism in Repetitive Brain Trauma and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    stages of repetitive brain trauma as well. Current methods of measure brain glutamate using proton spectroscopy is not specific to different cell...covering a representative range of clinical cases: a young female , young male , middle-aged male (all healthy volunteers) and a male patient with...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0412 TITLE: Measuring Glial Metabolism in Repetitive Brain Trauma and Alzheimer’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  18. Reversible brain shrinkage in abstinent alcoholics, measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroth, G.; Naegele, T.; Klose, U.; Petersen, D.; Mann, K.

    1988-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the intracranial CSF volume was compared before and after 5 weeks of confirmed abstinence in 9 alcohol-dependent patients. All patients showed a highly significant reduction in CSF volume in accordance with reexpansion of the brain after alcohol abstinence. T2 values for white matter, estimated by linear regression from 16 echoes of a CPGM sequence, however, showed no significant increase such as occurs in rehydration. This indicates, that alcohol-induced reversible brain atrophy cannot be attributed to fluctuation of free water in the brain only.

  19. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Carlson, Synnove; Vuontela, Virve; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking), divided attention (i.e., dua...

  20. [Measurement of the blood flow in various areas of the rat brain by means of microspheres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroo, J; Gerber, G B

    1976-01-01

    A method is described to measure regional blood flow in different structures of the rat brain. Microspheres (15 micron) are injected, the brain is sectioned, stained for myeline, radioautographs are prepared and the microspheres in the different structures are counted. The values obtained for different brain structures are counted. The values obtained for different brain regions (cortex, corpus callosum, thalamus hipocampus, hypothalamic region, colliculi, cerebellum, pons, medulla) compare well with those published by others on larger animals. In rats fed 1% of lead from birth, higher blood flow is found in the cortex and a lower one in the interior part of the brain compared to controls.

  1. Association of the interleukin 1 beta gene and brain spontaneous activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liying

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the rs1143627 polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β gene moderates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-measured brain regional activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Eighty older participants (47 with aMCI and 33 healthy controls were recruited for this study. All of the participants were genotyped for variant rs1143627 in the IL1B gene and were scanned using resting-state fMRI. Brain activity was assessed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. Results aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions, including decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior temporal lobe and the middle temporal lobe, and increases in the occipital cortex (calcarine, parietal cortex (Pcu and cerebellar cortex. The regions associated with an interaction of group X genotypes of rs1143627 C/T were the parietal cortex (left Pcu, frontal cortex (left superior, middle, and medial gyrus, right anterior cingulum, occipital cortex (left middle lobe, left cuneus and the bilateral posterior lobes of the cerebellum. Regarding the behavioral significance, there were significant correlations between ALFF in different regions of the brain and with the cognitive scores of each genotype group. Conclusions The present study provided evidence that aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions. Specifically, the rs1143627 C/T polymorphism of the IL1B gene may modulate regional spontaneous brain activity in aMCI patients.

  2. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J. M.; Ramsey, N.; Rutten, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MM can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on

  3. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain

  4. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  5. Visual attention modulates brain activation to angry voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2011-06-29

    In accordance with influential models proposing prioritized processing of threat, previous studies have shown automatic brain responses to angry prosody in the amygdala and the auditory cortex under auditory distraction conditions. However, it is unknown whether the automatic processing of angry prosody is also observed during cross-modal distraction. The current fMRI study investigated brain responses to angry versus neutral prosodic stimuli during visual distraction. During scanning, participants were exposed to angry or neutral prosodic stimuli while visual symbols were displayed simultaneously. By means of task requirements, participants either attended to the voices or to the visual stimuli. While the auditory task revealed pronounced activation in the auditory cortex and amygdala to angry versus neutral prosody, this effect was absent during the visual task. Thus, our results show a limitation of the automaticity of the activation of the amygdala and auditory cortex to angry prosody. The activation of these areas to threat-related voices depends on modality-specific attention.

  6. Patterns recognition of electric brain activity using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Pchelintseva, S. V.; Runnova, A. E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2017-04-01

    An approach for the recognition of various cognitive processes in the brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. On the basis of developed theoretical background and the experimental data, we propose a new classification of oscillating patterns in the human EEG by using an artificial neural network approach. After learning of the artificial neural network reliably identified cube recognition processes, for example, left-handed or right-oriented Necker cube with different intensity of their edges, construct an artificial neural network based on Perceptron architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness in the pattern recognition of the EEG in the experimental.

  7. LSD-induced entropic brain activity predicts subsequent personality change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A V; Kaelen, M; Lövdén, M; Nilsson, J; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2016-09-01

    Personality is known to be relatively stable throughout adulthood. Nevertheless, it has been shown that major life events with high personal significance, including experiences engendered by psychedelic drugs, can have an enduring impact on some core facets of personality. In the present, balanced-order, placebo-controlled study, we investigated biological predictors of post-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) changes in personality. Nineteen healthy adults underwent resting state functional MRI scans under LSD (75µg, I.V.) and placebo (saline I.V.). The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was completed at screening and 2 weeks after LSD/placebo. Scanning sessions consisted of three 7.5-min eyes-closed resting-state scans, one of which involved music listening. A standardized preprocessing pipeline was used to extract measures of sample entropy, which characterizes the predictability of an fMRI time-series. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate drug-induced shifts in brain entropy and their relationship with the observed increases in the personality trait openness at the 2-week follow-up. Overall, LSD had a pronounced global effect on brain entropy, increasing it in both sensory and hierarchically higher networks across multiple time scales. These shifts predicted enduring increases in trait openness. Moreover, the predictive power of the entropy increases was greatest for the music-listening scans and when "ego-dissolution" was reported during the acute experience. These results shed new light on how LSD-induced shifts in brain dynamics and concomitant subjective experience can be predictive of lasting changes in personality. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3203-3213, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Three-dimensional sonographic measurement of normal fetal brain volume during the second half of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Roelfsema; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); S.M. Boito; J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This study was undertaken to develop a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound method of measuring fetal brain volume. Study design: Serial 3D sonographic measurements of fetal brain volume were made in 68 normal singleton pregnancies at 18 to 34 weeks of gestation. A comparison

  9. Brain activity and desire for internet video game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathological gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. PMID:21220070

  10. Brain activity and desire for Internet video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling. This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathologic gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal

  11. A preliminary report on the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging with simultaneous urodynamics to record brain activity during micturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krhut, Jan; Tintera, Jaroslav; Holý, Petr; Zachoval, Roman; Zvara, Peter

    2012-08-01

    We mapped brain activity during micturition using functional magnetic resonance imaging with simultaneous recording of urodynamic properties during slow bladder filling and micturition. We evaluated 12 healthy female volunteers 20 to 68 years old. Eight subjects could urinate while supine. Meaningful data were obtained on 6 of these subjects. Brain activity was recorded continuously during bladder filling and micturition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements made during the micturition phase were used for the final analysis. Using group statistics we identified clusters of brain activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus during micturition. At the individual level we also observed activation in the upper pontine region, thalamus and posterior cingulum. In subjects unable to void brain activation was documented in the frontal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus but not in the pons, thalamus or anterior cingulate gyrus. In 5 subjects we identified a relevant pattern of brain activity during the terminal portion of the filling phase when the patient reported a strong desire to urinate. This new protocol allows for the localization of brain structures that are active during micturition. Data suggest that additional validation studies are needed. Future studies will test modifications that include more detailed monitoring of bladder sensation, stratifying subjects based on age and gender, and increasing the number of data points by adding subjects and the number of micturitions recorded in a single subject. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression and activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator system in canine primary brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossmeisl JH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available John H Rossmeisl,1–3 Kelli Hall-Manning,4 John L Robertson,1,3,5 Jamie N King,1,2 Rafael V Davalos,3,5 Waldemar Debinski,3 Subbiah Elankumaran6,† 1Veterinary and Comparative Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, 2Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, 3The Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, NC, 4Virginia Tech Animal Laboratory Services, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA†The authors regret to advise of the passing of Dr Subbiah Elankumaran prior to publicationBackground: The expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein family member, and the activity of its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, have been associated with the invasive and metastatic potentials of a variety of human brain tumors through their regulation of extracellular matrix degradation. Domesticated dogs develop naturally occurring brain tumors that share many clinical, phenotypic, molecular, and genetic features with their human counterparts, which has prompted the use of the dogs with spontaneous brain tumors as models to expedite the translation of novel brain tumor therapeutics to humans. There is currently little known regarding the role of the uPA system in canine brain tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of uPAR and the activity of uPA in canine brain tumors as justification for the development of uPAR-targeted brain tumor therapeutics in dogs.Methods: We investigated the expression of uPAR in 37 primary canine brain tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real

  13. Brain network activation as a novel biomarker for the return-to-play pathway following sport-related brain injury: A prospective case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Kiefer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescent athletes are at a higher risk for concussion than adults, and also experience longer recovery times and increased associated symptoms. It has also recently been demonstrated that multiple, seemingly mild concussions may result in exacerbated and prolonged neurologic deficits. Objective assessments and return to play criteria are needed to reduce risk and morbidity associated with concussive events in these populations. Recent research has pushed to study the use of electroencephalography as an objective measure of brain injury. In the present case study, we present a novel approach that examines event related potentials via a brain network activation (BNA analysis as a biomarker of concussion and recovery. Specifically, changes in BNA scores as indexed through this approach, offer a potential indicator of neurological health as the BNA assessment qualitatively and quantitatively indexes the network dynamics associated with brain injury. Objective tools such as these support accurate and efficient assessment of brain injury and may offer a useful step in categorizing the temporal and spatial changes in brain activity following concussive blows, as well as the functional connectivity of brain networks, associated with concussion.

  14. PREDICTING APHASIA TYPE FROM BRAIN DAMAGE MEASURED WITH STRUCTURAL MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G.; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery. Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients’ aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  15. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro measurements of optical properties of porcine brain using a novel compact device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yavari, N

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available describes measurements of the optical properties of porcine brain tissue using novel instrumentation for simultaneous absorption and scattering characterisation of small turbid samples. Integrating sphere measurements are widely used as a reference method...

  17. Caspase Activation in Fetal Rat Brain Following Experimental Intrauterine Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharangpani, Aditi; Takanohashi, Asako; Bell, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine inflammation has been implicated in developmental brain injuries, including the development of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy (CP). Previous studies in our rat model of intrauterine inflammation demonstrated apoptotic cell death in fetal brains within the first 5 days after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to mothers and eventual dysmyelination. Cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases, or caspases, are proteins involved with apoptosis through both intracellular (intrinsic pathway) and extracellular (extrinsic pathway) mechanisms. We hypothesized that cell death in our model would occur mainly via activation of the extrinsic pathway. We further hypothesized that Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, would be increased and the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) would be detectable. Pregnant rats were injected intracervically with LPS at E15 and immunoblotting, immunohistochemical and immunoprecipitation analyses were performed. The presence of the activated form of the effector caspase (caspase-3) was observed 24 h after LPS administration. Caspase activity assays demonstrated rapid increases in (i) caspases-9 and -10 within 1 h, (ii) caspase-8 at 2 h and (iii) caspase-3 at 4 h. At 24 h after LPS, activated caspase-3+/Fas+ cells were observed within the developing white matter. Lastly, the DISC complex (caspase-8, Fas and Fas-associated Death Domain (FADD)) was observed within 30 min by immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis in our model occurs via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, and activation of Fas may play a role. Understanding the mechanisms of cell death in models of intrauterine inflammation may affect development of future strategies to mitigate these injuries in children. PMID:18289516

  18. A balance of activity in brain control and reward systems predicts self-regulatory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B; Chen, Pin-Hao A; Huckins, Jeremy F; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2017-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging work has shown that increased reward-related activity following exposure to food cues is predictive of self-control failure. The balance model suggests that self-regulation failures result from an imbalance in reward and executive control mechanisms. However, an open question is whether the relative balance of activity in brain systems associated with executive control (vs reward) supports self-regulatory outcomes when people encounter tempting cues in daily life. Sixty-nine chronic dieters, a population known for frequent lapses in self-control, completed a food cue-reactivity task during an fMRI scanning session, followed by a weeklong sampling of daily eating behaviors via ecological momentary assessment. We related participants' food cue activity in brain systems associated with executive control and reward to real-world eating patterns. Specifically, a balance score representing the amount of activity in brain regions associated with self-regulatory control, relative to automatic reward-related activity, predicted dieters' control over their eating behavior during the following week. This balance measure may reflect individual self-control capacity and be useful for examining self-regulation success in other domains and populations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail: nadja@iq.usp.br

    2015-06-15

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  20. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de

    2015-01-01

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin

  1. The differences of brain cortical activation between superficial pain and deep pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Ushida, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Shinichirou; Tani, Toshikazu; Morio, Kazuo; Sasaki, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Shigeki

    2006-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) technology, we investigated the difference of pain related brain cortical activation derived from noxious stimulation to the skin and muscular tissue. Ten healthy volunteers who have no history of brain vascular disease were enrolled in this study. A cutaneous pain was provoked by isotonic (0.9%) saline injection into intra-dermal space on right lower leg through 24G plastic catheter, and a muscle pain was provoked by hypertonic (3%) saline injection into right tibialis anterior muscle. We used event-related FMRI to measure brain activity during each injection. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to quantify pain intensity and unpleasantness, and pain quality was assessed with several verbal descriptions. Pain unpleasantness rating was higher in the muscle pain compared to the cutaneous pain, despite the same pain intensity rating. The cutaneous pain had more acute pain onset than the muscle pain. Pain duration after stimulation was short in the cutaneous pain, but long in the muscle pain. The extent of the painful region tended to be larger with the muscle pain, but there was no statistical significance. Evoked FMRI response from the cutaneous pain showed distinct brain activation in the inferior and superior parietal cortex (BA: Brodmann area 5/7/40), primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2), insula, supplementary motor area (SMA, BA6), posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum. On the other hand, FMRI response from muscle pain showed distinct brain activation mainly in the contralateral insula. These results suggest that the parietal lobe including the S1 is the essential area for cognition of sharp and well-localized pain conditions such as cutaneous pain, and may not be essential for cognition of diffuse pain derived from muscular tissue. (author)

  2. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bültmann, Eva; Nägele, Thomas; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Klose, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic.

  3. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltmann, Eva; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Naegele, Thomas; Klose, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic. (orig.)

  4. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueltmann, Eva; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Naegele, Thomas [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiological University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Klose, Uwe [University of Tuebingen, Section of Experimental MR of the CNS, Department of Neuroradiology, Radiological University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of activity of radioactive gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Renhong; Lei Jiarong; Wen Dezhi; Cheng Jing; Zheng Hui

    2005-10-01

    A set of standard instrument system with their accessories for the measurement of activity of radioactive gas have been developed. The specifications and performances of the system have been tested and examined. The conventional true values of activity of radioactive gas have been measured and its uncertainty has been assessed. The technique of the dissemination of the measurement of activity of radioactive gas has been researched. The specification and performance of the whole set of apparatus meet the requirements of the relational standard, critra, regulation, it can be regard as a work standard for the measurement of activity of radioactive gas in CAEP. (authors)

  6. Brain catalase activity inhibition as well as opioid receptor antagonism increases ethanol-induced HPA axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2004-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that brain catalase activity is involved in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol. Recent data suggest that participation of this enzymatic system in some ethanol effects could be mediated by the endogenous opioid system. The present study assessed whether brain catalase has a role in ethanol-induced activation of the HPA axis, a neuroendocrine system modulated by the endogenous opioid neurotransmission. Swiss male mice received an intraperitoneal injection of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg), and 0 to 20 hr after this administration, animals received an ethanol (0-4 g/kg; intraperitoneally) challenge. Thirty, 60, or 120 min after ethanol administration, plasma corticosterone levels were determined immunoenzymatically. In addition, we tested the effects of 45 mg/kg of cyanamide (another catalase inhibitor) and 0 to 2 mg/kg of naltrexone (nonselective opioid receptor antagonist) on ethanol-induced enhancement in plasma corticosterone values. The present study revealed that AT boosts ethanol-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, it did not affect corticosterone values when measured after administration of saline, cocaine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or morphine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The catalase inhibitor cyanamide (45 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) also increased ethanol-related plasma corticosterone levels. These effects of AT and cyanamide on ethanol-induced corticosterone values were observed under treatment conditions that decreased significantly brain catalase activity. Indeed, a significant correlation between effects of catalase manipulations on both variables was found. Finally, we found that the administration of naltrexone enhanced the levels of plasma corticosterone after the administration of saline or ethanol. This study shows that the inhibition of brain catalase increases ethanol-induced plasma corticosterone levels. Results are

  7. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A. Dorothea; Otten, Leun J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual ...

  8. A balancing act of the brain: activations and deactivations driven by cognitive load

    OpenAIRE

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Johnson, Janice; Morris, Drew; Taylor, Margot J

    2013-01-01

    The majority of neuroimaging studies focus on brain activity during performance of cognitive tasks; however, some studies focus on brain areas that activate in the absence of a task. Despite the surge of research comparing these contrasted areas of brain function, their interrelation is not well understood. We systematically manipulated cognitive load in a working memory task to examine concurrently the relation between activity elicited by the task versus activity during control conditions. ...

  9. Optimal use of EEG recordings to target active brain areas with transcranial electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Koessler, Laurent; Norcia, Anthony M; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-08-15

    To demonstrate causal relationships between brain and behavior, investigators would like to guide brain stimulation using measurements of neural activity. Particularly promising in this context are electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), as they are linked by a reciprocity principle which, despite being known for decades, has not led to a formalism for relating EEG recordings to optimal stimulation parameters. Here we derive a closed-form expression for the TES configuration that optimally stimulates (i.e., targets) the sources of recorded EEG, without making assumptions about source location or distribution. We also derive a duality between TES targeting and EEG source localization, and demonstrate that in cases where source localization fails, so does the proposed targeting. Numerical simulations with multiple head models confirm these theoretical predictions and quantify the achieved stimulation in terms of focality and intensity. We show that constraining the stimulation currents automatically selects optimal montages that involve only a few (4-7) electrodes, with only incremental loss in performance when targeting focal activations. The proposed technique allows brain scientists and clinicians to rationally target the sources of observed EEG and thus overcomes a major obstacle to the realization of individualized or closed-loop brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Information properties of morphologically complex words modulate brain activity during word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Tero; Hultén, Annika; Lehtonen, Minna; Lagus, Krista; Salmelin, Riitta

    2018-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of the reading process point to functionally distinct stages in word recognition. Yet, current understanding of the operations linked to those various stages is mainly descriptive in nature. Approaches developed in the field of computational linguistics may offer a more quantitative approach for understanding brain dynamics. Our aim was to evaluate whether a statistical model of morphology, with well-defined computational principles, can capture the neural dynamics of reading, using the concept of surprisal from information theory as the common measure. The Morfessor model, created for unsupervised discovery of morphemes, is based on the minimum description length principle and attempts to find optimal units of representation for complex words. In a word recognition task, we correlated brain responses to word surprisal values derived from Morfessor and from other psycholinguistic variables that have been linked with various levels of linguistic abstraction. The magnetoencephalography data analysis focused on spatially, temporally and functionally distinct components of cortical activation observed in reading tasks. The early occipital and occipito-temporal responses were correlated with parameters relating to visual complexity and orthographic properties, whereas the later bilateral superior temporal activation was correlated with whole-word based and morphological models. The results show that the word processing costs estimated by the statistical Morfessor model are relevant for brain dynamics of reading during late processing stages. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Clinical Relevance of Brain Volume Measures in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Stefano, Nicola; Airas, Laura; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with an inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathology. Axonal loss and neurodegeneration occurs early in the disease course and may lead to irreversible neurological impairment. Changes in brain volume, observed from the earliest stage of MS...... therefore have important clinical implications affecting treatment decisions, with several clinical trials now demonstrating an effect of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) on reducing brain volume loss. In clinical practice, it may therefore be important to consider the potential impact of a therapy...

  12. Intellectual function, activities of daily living and computerized tomography of the brain in geriatric demented patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Fumiaki; Ogura, Chikara; Kishimoto, Akira; Okubo, Masayo; Imamoto, Atsushi [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine; Tsuchie, Harutaka; Sugihara, Kanichiro; Fujii, Shozo

    1984-09-01

    Thirty eight patients of geriatric dementia (mean age 74.9 years) were examined by computerized tomography (CT) and their intellectual functions and activities of daily living (ADL) were evaluated. CT was evaluated by both visual assessment method and direct measuring method. Intellectual function was evaluated by Jikei University dementia rating scale. ADL was evaluated by both Hasegawa's rating scale and Sengoku's rating scale. Results were as follows: significant influence by age was observed in intellectual functions and ADL of subjects above 75 years old. There were good correlations between the higher intellectual function, the better grooming and hygiene, and less needs of nursing care. The severe brain atrophy evaluated by the visual assessment method was correlated with the depressed level of intellectual function. When brain atrophy is mild despite high degree of dementia, reexamination should be made to explore somatic diseases inducing depression of mental activity. It also should be noted that sex and age difference is important in studying geriatric patients.

  13. Superoxide radical formation, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activity in the brain of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanimirovic, D.; Ivanovic, L.; Simovic, M.; Cernak, I.; Savic, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the forebrain cortex, basal ganglia and hippocampus of irradiated rats (whole body, X-ray, 9 Gy), nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) reduction was measured as a probe of superoxide radical formation 1 hr, 6 hrs, 24 hrs and 72 hrs after irradiation. Increased superoxide radical formation was found in parallel with increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and marked decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) activity which is the most pronounced in basal ganglia. The results indicate that in the postradiation period disproportion among free radical production and capacity of brain antioxidative system occurs. This disbalance is more expressed in the brain regions known as selective vulnerable (basal ganglia, hippocampus). (author). 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  14. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates the hippocampus and other regions involved in brain reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Yang, Julia; Volkow, Nora D; Telang, Frank; Ma, Yeming; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T; Tomasi, Dardo; Thanos, Panayotis K; Fowler, Joanna S

    2006-10-17

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying overeating in obesity are not understood. Here, we assessed the neurobiological responses to an Implantable Gastric Stimulator (IGS), which induces stomach expansion via electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve to identify the brain circuits responsible for its effects in decreasing food intake. Brain metabolism was measured with positron emission tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in seven obese subjects who had the IGS implanted for 1-2 years. Brain metabolism was evaluated twice during activation (on) and during deactivation (off) of the IGS. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was obtained to measure the behavioral components of eating (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating). The largest difference was in the right hippocampus, where metabolism was 18% higher (P drug craving in addicted subjects (orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum) suggests that similar brain circuits underlie the enhanced motivational drive for food and drugs seen in obese and drug-addicted subjects, respectively.

  15. Perspective and agency during video gaming influences spatial presence experience and brain activation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havranek Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The experience of spatial presence (SP, i.e., the sense of being present in a virtual environment, emerges if an individual perceives himself as 1 if he were actually located (self-location and 2 able to act in the virtual environment (possible actions. In this study, two main media factors (perspective and agency were investigated while participants played a commercially available video game. Methods The differences in SP experience and associated brain activation were compared between the conditions of game play in first person perspective (1PP and third person perspective (3PP as well as between agency, i.e., active navigation of the video game character (active, and non-agency, i.e., mere passive observation (passive. SP was assessed using standard questionnaires, and brain activation was measured using electroencephalography (EEG and sLORETA source localisation (standard low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Results Higher SP ratings were obtained in the 1PP compared with the 3PP condition and in the active compared with the passive condition. On a neural level, we observed in the 1PP compared with the 3PP condition significantly less alpha band power in the parietal, the occipital and the limbic cortex. In the active compared with the passive condition, we uncovered significantly more theta band power in frontal brain regions. Conclusion We propose that manipulating the factors perspective and agency influences SP formation by either directly or indirectly modulating the ego-centric visual processing in a fronto-parietal network. The neuroscientific results are discussed in terms of the theoretical concepts of SP.

  16. Brain activity during auditory and visual phonological, spatial and simple discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2013-02-16

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure human brain activity during tasks demanding selective attention to auditory or visual stimuli delivered in concurrent streams. Auditory stimuli were syllables spoken by different voices and occurring in central or peripheral space. Visual stimuli were centrally or more peripherally presented letters in darker or lighter fonts. The participants performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task in either modality. Within each modality, we expected a clear distinction between brain activations related to nonspatial and spatial processing, as reported in previous studies. However, within each modality, different tasks activated largely overlapping areas in modality-specific (auditory and visual) cortices, as well as in the parietal and frontal brain regions. These overlaps may be due to effects of attention common for all three tasks within each modality or interaction of processing task-relevant features and varying task-irrelevant features in the attended-modality stimuli. Nevertheless, brain activations caused by auditory and visual phonological tasks overlapped in the left mid-lateral prefrontal cortex, while those caused by the auditory and visual spatial tasks overlapped in the inferior parietal cortex. These overlapping activations reveal areas of multimodal phonological and spatial processing. There was also some evidence for intermodal attention-related interaction. Most importantly, activity in the superior temporal sulcus elicited by unattended speech sounds was attenuated during the visual phonological task in comparison with the other visual tasks. This effect might be related to suppression of processing irrelevant speech presumably distracting the phonological task involving the letters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  18. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  19. Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heidi; White, Matthew P; Greicius, Michael D; Waelde, Lynn C; Spiegel, David

    2017-08-01

    Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis. We selected 57 of 545 healthy subjects with very high or low hypnotizability using two hypnotizability scales. All subjects underwent four conditions in the scanner: rest, memory retrieval, and two different hypnosis experiences guided by standard pre-recorded instructions in counterbalanced order. Seeds for the ECN, SN, and DMN were left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), respectively. During hypnosis there was reduced activity in the dACC, increased functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC;ECN) and the insula in the SN, and reduced connectivity between the ECN (DLPFC) and the DMN (PCC). These changes in neural activity underlie the focused attention, enhanced somatic and emotional control, and lack of self-consciousness that characterizes hypnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Gender differences in brain activation on a mental rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2012-10-01

    Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process.

  1. Brain-specific transcriptional regulator T-brain-1 controls brain wiring and neuronal activity in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Nan eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available T-brain-1 (TBR1 is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1–/– mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Human genetic studies have identified TBR1 as a high-confidence risk factor for ASDs. Because only one allele of the TBR1 gene is mutated in these patients, Tbr1+/– mice serve as a good genetic mouse model to explore the mechanism by which de novo TBR1 mutation leads to ASDs. Although neuronal migration and axonal projection defects of cerebral cortex are the most prominent phenotypes in Tbr1–/– mice, these features are not found in Tbr1+/– mice. Instead, inter- and intra-amygdalar axonal projections and NMDAR expression and activity in amygdala are particularly susceptible to Tbr1 haploinsufficiency. The studies indicated that both abnormal brain wiring (abnormal amygdalar connections and excitation/inhibition imbalance (NMDAR hypoactivity, two prominent models for ASD etiology, are present in Tbr1+/– mice. Moreover, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK was found to interact with TBR1. The CASK-TBR1 complex had been shown to directly bind the promoter of the Grin2b gene, which is also known as Nmdar2b, and upregulate Grin2b expression. This molecular function of TBR1 provides an explanation for NMDAR hypoactivity in Tbr1+/– mice. In addition to Grin2b, cell adhesion molecules-including Ntng1, Cdh8 and Cntn2-are also regulated by TBR1 to control axonal projections of amygdala. Taken together, the studies of Tbr1 provide an integrated picture of ASD

  2. Cigarette smoking and schizophrenia independently and reversibly altered intrinsic brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Luo, Qi; Du, Wanyi; Li, Xingbao; Zhang, Zhiwei; Yu, Renqiang; Chen, Xiaolu; Meng, Huaqing; Du, Lian

    2018-01-03

    Schizophrenia patients are at high risk for cigarette smoking, but the neurobiological mechanisms of this comorbid association are relatively unknown. Long-term nicotine intake may impact brain that are independently and additively associated with schizophrenia. We investigated whether altered intrinsic brain activity (iBA) related to schizophrenia pathology is also associated with nicotine addiction. Forty-two schizophrenia patients (21 smokers and 21 nonsmokers) and 21 sex- and age-matched healthy nonsmokers underwent task-free functional MRI. Whole brain iBA was measured by the amplitude of spontaneous low frequency fluctuation. Furthermore, correlation analyses between iBA, symptom severity and nicotine addiction severity were performed. We found that prefrontal cortex, right caudate, and right postcentral gyrus were related to both disease and nicotine addiction effects. More importantly, schizophrenia smokers, compared to schizophrenia nonsmokers showed reversed iBA in the above brain regions. In addition, schizophrenia smokers, relative to nonsmokers, altered iBA in the left striatal and motor cortices. The iBA of the right caudate was negatively correlated with symptom severity. The iBA of the right postcentral gyrus negatively correlated with nicotine addiction severity. The striatal and motor cortices could potentially increase the vulnerability of smoking in schizophrenia. More importantly, smoking reversed iBA in the right striatal and prefrontal cortices, consistent with the self-medication theory in schizophrenia. Smoking altered left striatal and motor cortices activity, suggesting that the nicotine addiction effect was independent of disease. These results provide a local property of intrinsic brain activity mechanism that contributes to cigarette smoking and schizophrenia.

  3. Oxygen activity measurements in simulated converter matte

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshilombo, KG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available to the composition of the gas atmosphere over the melt. The measured oxygen activity was generally close to that predicted by FactSage calculations. This indicates that such oxygen activity measurements could be useful to monitor iron removal during converting...

  4. The Sum of Its Parts—Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetter, Maartje S.; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural

  5. The sum of its parts--effects of gastric distention, nutrient content and sensory stimulation on brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetter, Maartje S; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural

  6. The sum of its parts--effects of gastric distention, nutrient content and sensory stimulation on brain activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje S Spetter

    Full Text Available During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention, naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients, or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure. Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This

  7. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik A Moser

    Full Text Available It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study examines the link between methylation of the BDNF gene promoter region and patterns of neural activity that are associated with maternal response to stressful versus non-stressful child stimuli within a sample that includes mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD. 46 mothers underwent fMRI. The contrast of neural activity when watching children-including their own-was then correlated to BDNF methylation. Consistent with the existing literature, the present study found that maternal BDNF methylation was associated with higher levels of maternal anxiety and greater childhood exposure to domestic violence. fMRI results showed a positive correlation of BDNF methylation with maternal brain activity in the anterior cingulate (ACC, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, regions generally credited with a regulatory function toward brain areas that are generating emotions. Furthermore we found a negative correlation of BDNF methylation with the activity of the right hippocampus. Since our stimuli focus on stressful parenting conditions, these data suggest that the correlation between vmPFC/ACC activity and BDNF methylation may be linked to mothers who are at a disadvantage with respect to emotion regulation when facing stressful parenting situations. Overall, this study provides evidence that epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes can be linked to functional brain regions regulating parenting stress, thus advancing our understanding of

  8. Baseline and cognition activated brain SPECT imaging in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Lin Xiangtong; Jiang Kaida; Liu Yongchang; Xu Lianqin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities through the semiquantitative analysis of the baseline and cognition activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated depressed patients. Methods: 27 depressed patients unmedicated by anti-depressants were enrolled. The diagnosis (depression of moderate degree with somatization) was confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. 15 age matched normal controls were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognition activated 99m Tc-ECD SPECT were performed on 21 of the 27 patients with depression and 13 of the 15 normal controls. Baseline 99m Tc-ECD SPECT alone were performed on the rest 6 patients with depression and 2 normal controls. The cognitive activation is achieved by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 1110 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was administered by intravenous bolus injection 5 minutes after the onset of the WCST. Semi-quantitative analysis was conducted with the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th slices of the transaxial imaging. rCBF ratios of every ROI were calculated using the average tissue activity in the region divided by the maximum activity in the cerebellum. Results: 1) The baseline rCBF of left frontal (0.720) and left temporal lobe (0.720) were decreased significantly in depressed patients comparing with those of the control subjects. 2) The activated rCBF of left frontal lobe (0.719) and left temporal lobe (0.690), left parietal lobe (0.701) were decreased evidently than those of the controls. Conclusions: 1) Hypoperfusions of left frontal and left temporal cortexes were identified in patients with depression. 2) The hypoperfusion of left frontal and left temporal cortexes may be the cause of cognition disorder and depressed mood in patients with depression. 3) Cognition activated brain perfusion imaging is helpful for making a more accurate diagnosis of depression

  9. Brain Activity Associated With Attention Deficits Following Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, Slim; Cheung, Yin T; Scoggins, Matthew A; Zou, Ping; Sabin, Noah D; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Ogg, Robert J; Krull, Kevin R

    2018-05-21

    The impact of contemporary chemotherapy treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on central nervous system activity is not fully appreciated. Neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were obtained in 165 survivors five or more years postdiagnosis (average age = 14.4 years, 7.7 years from diagnosis, 51.5% males). Chemotherapy exposure was measured as serum concentration of methotrexate following high-dose intravenous injection. Neurocognitive testing included measures of attention and executive function. fMRI was obtained during completion of two tasks, the continuous performance task (CPT) and the attention network task (ANT). Image analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping software, with contrasts targeting sustained attention, alerting, orienting, and conflict. All statistical tests were two-sided. Compared with population norms, survivors demonstrated impairment on number-letter switching (P < .001, a measure of cognitive flexibility), which was associated with treatment intensity (P = .048). Task performance during fMRI was associated with neurocognitive dysfunction across multiple tasks. Regional brain activation was lower in survivors diagnosed at younger ages for the CPT (bilateral parietal and temporal lobes) and the ANT (left parietal and right hippocampus). With higher serum methotrexate exposure, CPT activation decreased in the right temporal and bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, but ANT alerting activation increased in the ventral frontal, insula, caudate, and anterior cingulate. Brain activation during attention and executive function tasks was associated with serum methotrexate exposure and age at diagnosis. These findings provide evidence for compromised and compensatory changes in regional brain function that may help clarify the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors.

  10. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1985-01-01

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  11. Magnetic field effects on brain monoamine oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borets, V.M.; Ostrovskiy, V.Yu.; Bankovskiy, A.A.; Dudinskaya, T.F.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the increasing use of magnetotherapy, studies were conducted on the effects of 35 mTesla magnetic fields on monoamine oxidase activity in the rat brain. Under in vitro conditions a constant magnetic field in the continuous mode was most effective in inhibiting deamination of dopamine following 1 min exposure, while in vivo studies with 8 min or 10 day exposures showed that inhibition was obtained only with a variable field in the continuous mode. However, inhibition of dopamine deamination was only evident within the first 24 h after exposure was terminated. In addition, in none of the cases was norepinephrine deamination inhibited. The effects of the magnetic fields were, therefore, transient and selective with the CNS as the target system. 9 references.

  12. Role of synchronized oscillatory brain activity for human pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of cortical pain processing in humans has significantly improved since the development of modern neuroimaging techniques. Non-invasive electrophysiological approaches such as electro- and magnetoencephalography have proven to be helpful tools for the real-time investigation of neuronal signals and synchronous communication between cortical areas. In particular, time-frequency decomposition of signals recorded with these techniques seems to be a promising approach because different pain-related oscillatory changes can be observed within different frequency bands, which are likely to be linked to specific sensory and motor functions. In this review we discuss the latest evidence on pain-induced time-frequency signals and propose that changes in oscillatory activity reflect an essential communication mechanism in the brain that is modulated during pain processing. The importance of synchronization processes for normal and pathological pain processing, such as chronic pain states, is discussed.

  13. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  14. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  15. Measures for brain connectivity analysis: nodes centrality and their invariant patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Laysa Mayra Uchôa; Baltazar, Carlos Arruda; Silva, Camila Aquemi; Ribeiro, Mauricio Watanabe; de Aratanha, Maria Adelia Albano; Deolindo, Camila Sardeto; Rodrigues, Abner Cardoso; Machado, Birajara Soares

    2017-07-01

    The high dynamical complexity of the brain is related to its small-world topology, which enable both segregated and integrated information processing capabilities. Several measures of connectivity estimation have already been employed to characterize functional brain networks from multivariate electrophysiological data. However, understanding the properties of each measure that lead to a better description of the real topology and capture the complex phenomena present in the brain remains challenging. In this work we compared four nonlinear connectivity measures and show that each method characterizes distinct features of brain interactions. The results suggest an invariance of global network parameters from different behavioral states and that more complete description may be reached considering local features, independently of the connectivity measure employed. Our findings also point to future perspectives in connectivity studies that combine distinct and complementary dependence measures in assembling higher dimensions manifolds.

  16. Task Context Influences Brain Activation during Music Listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjela Markovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examined brain activation in subjects during two music listening conditions: listening while simultaneously rating the musical piece being played [Listening and Rating (LR] and listening to the musical pieces unconstrained [Listening (L]. Using these two conditions, we tested whether the sequence in which the two conditions were fulfilled influenced the brain activation observable during the L condition (LR → L or L → LR. We recorded high-density EEG during the playing of four well-known positively experienced soundtracks in two subject groups. One group started with the L condition and continued with the LR condition (L → LR; the second group performed this experiment in reversed order (LR → L. We computed from the recorded EEG the power for different frequency bands (theta, lower alpha, upper alpha, lower beta, and upper beta. Statistical analysis revealed that the power in all examined frequency bands increased during the L condition but only when the subjects had not had previous experience with the LR condition (i.e., L → LR. For the subjects who began with the LR condition, there were no power increases during the L condition. Thus, the previous experience with the LR condition prevented subjects from developing the particular mental state associated with the typical power increase in all frequency bands. The subjects without previous experience of the LR condition listened to the musical pieces in an unconstrained and undisturbed manner and showed a general power increase in all frequency bands. We interpret the fact that unconstrained music listening was associated with increased power in all examined frequency bands as a neural indicator of a mental state that can best be described as a mind-wandering state during which the subjects are “drawn into” the music.

  17. Culture modulates brain activity during empathy with anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greck, Moritz; Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Xiangyu; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-02-01

    Interdependent cultures (such as the Chinese) and independent cultures (such as the German) differ in their attitude towards harmony that is more valued in interdependent cultures. Interdependent and independent cultures also differ in their appreciation of anger--an emotion that implies the disruption of harmony. The present study investigated if interdependent and independent cultures foster distinct brain activity associated with empathic processing of familiar angry, familiar neutral, and unfamiliar neutral faces. Using functional MRI, we scanned Chinese and German healthy subjects during an intentional empathy task, a control task (the evaluation of skin color), and a baseline condition. The subject groups were matched with regard to age, gender, and education. Behaviorally, Chinese subjects described themselves as significantly more interdependent compared to German subjects. The contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline' revealed several regions, including the left inferior frontal cortex, the left supplementary motor area, and the left insula, that showed comparable hemodynamic responses in both groups. However, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had stronger hemodynamic responses in Chinese subjects in the contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline'. Germans, in contrast, showed stronger hemodynamic responses in the right temporo-parietal junction, right inferior and superior temporal gyrus, and left middle insula for the same contrast. Hemodynamic responses in the latter three brain regions correlated with interdependences scores over all subjects. Our results suggest that enhanced emotion regulation during empathy with anger in the interdependent lifestyle is mediated by the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Increased tolerance towards the expression of anger in the independent lifestyle, in contrast, is associated with increased activity of the right inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the left middle

  18. Distinguishing rhythmic from non-rhythmic brain activity during rest in healthy neurocognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Bottomley, Monica; Kang, Pardeep; Dixon, Roger A

    2015-05-15

    Rhythmic brain activity at low frequencies (healthy neurocognitive aging are mixed. Here we address two reasons conventional spectral analyses may have led to inconsistent results. First, spectral-power measures are compared to a baseline condition; when resting activity is the signal of interest, it is unclear what the baseline should be. Second, conventional methods do not clearly differentiate power due to rhythmic versus non-rhythmic activity. The Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC; Caplan et al., 2001; Whitten et al., 2011) avoids these problems by using the signal's own spectral characteristics as a reference to detect elevations in power lasting a few cycles. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signal during rest, alternating eyes open and closed, in healthy younger (18-25 years) and older (60-74 years) participants. Topographic plots suggested the conventional and BOSC analyses measured different sources of activity, particularly at frequencies, like delta (1-4Hz), at which rhythms are sporadic; topographies were more similar in the 8-12Hz alpha band. There was little theta-band activity meeting the BOSC method's criteria, suggesting prior findings of theta power in healthy aging may reflect non-rhythmic signal. In contrast, delta oscillations were present at higher levels than theta in both age groups. In summary, applying strict and standardized criteria for rhythmicity, slow rhythms appear present in the resting brain at delta and alpha, but not theta frequencies, and appear unchanged in healthy aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping of brain activity by automated volume analysis of immediate early genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, Nicolas; Adams, Eliza L.; Kirst, Christoph; Wu, Zhuhao; Azevedo, Ricardo; Kohl, Johannes; Autry, Anita E.; Kadiri, Lolahon; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Victoria X.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Olsen, Olav; Dulac, Catherine; Osten, Pavel; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding how neural information is processed in physiological and pathological states would benefit from precise detection, localization and quantification of the activity of all neurons across the entire brain, which has not to date been achieved in the mammalian brain. We introduce a pipeline for high speed acquisition of brain activity at cellular resolution through profiling immediate early gene expression using immunostaining and light-sheet fluorescence imaging, followed by automated mapping and analysis of activity by an open-source software program we term ClearMap. We validate the pipeline first by analysis of brain regions activated in response to Haloperidol. Next, we report new cortical regions downstream of whisker-evoked sensory processing during active exploration. Lastly, we combine activity mapping with axon tracing to uncover new brain regions differentially activated during parenting behavior. This pipeline is widely applicable to different experimental paradigms, including animal species for which transgenic activity reporters are not readily available. PMID:27238021

  20. Connectome-harmonic decomposition of human brain activity reveals dynamical repertoire re-organization under LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Kringelbach, Morten L; Deco, Gustavo; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-12-15

    Recent studies have started to elucidate the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the human brain but the underlying dynamics are not yet fully understood. Here we used 'connectome-harmonic decomposition', a novel method to investigate the dynamical changes in brain states. We found that LSD alters the energy and the power of individual harmonic brain states in a frequency-selective manner. Remarkably, this leads to an expansion of the repertoire of active brain states, suggestive of a general re-organization of brain dynamics given the non-random increase in co-activation across frequencies. Interestingly, the frequency distribution of the active repertoire of brain states under LSD closely follows power-laws indicating a re-organization of the dynamics at the edge of criticality. Beyond the present findings, these methods open up for a better understanding of the complex brain dynamics in health and disease.

  1. Similar brain activation during false belief tasks in a large sample of adults with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Nicholas; Redcay, Elizabeth; Young, Liane; Mavros, Penelope L; Moran, Joseph M; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D E; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Reading about another person's beliefs engages 'Theory of Mind' processes and elicits highly reliable brain activation across individuals and experimental paradigms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activation during a story task designed to elicit Theory of Mind processing in a very large sample of neurotypical (N = 462) individuals, and a group of high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (N = 31), using both region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses. This large sample allowed us to investigate group differences in brain activation to Theory of Mind tasks with unusually high sensitivity. There were no differences between neurotypical participants and those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. These results imply that the social cognitive impairments typical of autism spectrum disorder can occur without measurable changes in the size, location or response magnitude of activity during explicit Theory of Mind tasks administered to adults.

  2. Similar brain activation during false belief tasks in a large sample of adults with and without autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Dufour

    Full Text Available Reading about another person's beliefs engages 'Theory of Mind' processes and elicits highly reliable brain activation across individuals and experimental paradigms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activation during a story task designed to elicit Theory of Mind processing in a very large sample of neurotypical (N = 462 individuals, and a group of high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (N = 31, using both region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses. This large sample allowed us to investigate group differences in brain activation to Theory of Mind tasks with unusually high sensitivity. There were no differences between neurotypical participants and those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. These results imply that the social cognitive impairments typical of autism spectrum disorder can occur without measurable changes in the size, location or response magnitude of activity during explicit Theory of Mind tasks administered to adults.

  3. Own-gender imitation activates the brain's reward circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Macro; Martin, Alia; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is an important component of human social learning throughout life. Theoretical models and empirical data from anthropology and psychology suggest that people tend to imitate self-similar individuals, and that such imitation biases increase the adaptive value (e.g., self-relevance) of learned information. It is unclear, however, what neural mechanisms underlie people's tendency to imitate those similar to themselves. We focused on the own-gender imitation bias, a pervasive bias thought to be important for gender identity development. While undergoing fMRI, participants imitated own- and other-gender actors performing novel, meaningless hand signs; as control conditions, they also simply observed such actions and viewed still portraits of the same actors. Only the ventral and dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala were more active when imitating own- compared to other-gender individuals. A Bayesian analysis of the BrainMap neuroimaging database demonstrated that the striatal region preferentially activated by own-gender imitation is selectively activated by classical reward tasks in the literature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neurobiological mechanism associated with the own-gender imitation bias and demonstrate a novel role of reward-processing neural structures in social behavior. PMID:22383803

  4. fMRI and brain activation after sport concussion: a tale of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Hutchison

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport-related concussions are now recognized as a major public health concern: The number of participants in sport and recreation is growing, possibly playing their games faster, and there is heightened public awareness of injuries to some high-profile athletes. However, many clinicians still rely on subjective symptom reports for the clinical determination of recovery. Relying on subjective symptom reports can be dangerous, as it has been shown that some concussed athletes may downplay their symptoms. The use of neuropsychological (NP testing tools has enabled clinicians to measure the effects and extent of impairment following concussion more precisely, providing more objective metrics for determining recovery after concussion. Nevertheless, there is a remaining concern that brain abnormalities may exist beyond the point at which individuals achieve recovery in self-reported symptoms and cognition measured by NP testing. Our understanding of brain recovery after concussion is important not only from a neuroscience perspective, but also from the perspective of clinical decision making for safe return-to-play (RTP. A number of advanced neuroimaging tools, including blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, have independently yielded early information on these abnormal brain functions. In the two cases presented in this article, we report contrasting brain activation patterns and recovery profiles using fMRI. Importantly, fMRI was conducted using adapted versions of the most sensitive computerized NP tests administered in current clinical practice to determine impairments and recovery after sport-related concussion. One of the cases is consistent with the concept of lagging brain recovery.

  5. The relationship of resting cerebral blood flow and brain activation during a social cognition task in adolescents with chronic moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Mary R; Scheibel, Randall S; Chu, Zili; Hunter, Jill V; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Lu, Hanzhang; Wang, Zhiyue J; Lin, Xiaodi; Steinberg, Joel L; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori; Levin, Harvey S

    2012-05-01

    Alterations in cerebrovascular function are evident acutely in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), although less is known about their chronic effects. Adolescent and adult patients with moderate to severe TBI have been reported to demonstrate diffuse activation throughout the brain during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because fMRI is a measure related to blood flow, it is possible that any deficits in blood flow may alter activation. An arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion sequence was performed on seven adolescents with chronic moderate to severe TBI and seven typically developing (TD) adolescents during the same session in which they had performed a social cognition task during fMRI. In the TD group, prefrontal CBF was positively related to prefrontal activation and negatively related to non-prefrontal, posterior, brain activation. This relationship was not seen in the TBI group, who demonstrated a greater positive relationship between prefrontal CBF and non-prefrontal activation than the TD group. An analysis of CBF data independent of fMRI showed reduced CBF in the right non-prefrontal region (pflow throughout the right hemisphere in healthy brains. However, the TBI group demonstrated a positive association with activation constrained to the right non-prefrontal region. These data suggest a relationship between impaired non-prefrontal CBF and the presence of non-prefrontal extra-activation, where the region with more limited blood flow is associated with activation limited to that region. In a secondary analysis, pathology associated with hyperintensities on T2-weighted FLAIR imaging over the whole brain was related to whole brain activation, revealing a negative relationship between lesion volume and frontal activation, and a positive relationship between lesion volume and posterior activation. These preliminary data, albeit collected with small sample sizes, suggest that reduced non-prefrontal CBF, and possibly pathological

  6. Platelet activating factor induces transient blood-brain barrier opening to facilitate edaravone penetration into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weirong; Zhang, Rui; Sha, Lan; Lv, Peng; Shang, Erxin; Han, Dan; Wei, Jie; Geng, Xiaohan; Yang, Qichuan; Li, Yunman

    2014-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) greatly limits the efficacy of many neuroprotective drugs' delivery to the brain, so improving drug penetration through the BBB has been an important focus of research. Here we report that platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently opened BBB and facilitated neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into the brain. Intravenous infusion with PAF induced a transient BBB opening in rats, reflected by increased Evans blue leakage and mild edema formation, which ceased within 6 h. Furthermore, rat regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) declined acutely during PAF infusion, but recovered slowly. More importantly, this transient BBB opening significantly increased the penetration of edaravone into the brain, evidenced by increased edaravone concentrations in tissue interstitial fluid collected by microdialysis and analyzed by Ultra-performance liquid chromatograph combined with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Similarly, incubation of rat brain microvessel endothelial cells monolayer with 1 μM PAF for 1 h significantly increased monolayer permeability to (125)I-albumin, which recovered 1 h after PAF elimination. However, PAF incubation with rat brain microvessel endothelial cells for 1 h did not cause detectable cytotoxicity, and did not regulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix-metalloproteinase-9 and P-glycoprotein expression. In conclusion, PAF could induce transient and reversible BBB opening through abrupt rCBF decline, which significantly improved edaravone penetration into the brain. Platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently induces BBB dysfunction and increases BBB permeability, which may be due to vessel contraction and a temporary decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) triggered by PAF. More importantly, the PAF induced transient BBB opening facilitates neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into brain. The results of this study may provide a new approach to improve drug delivery into

  7. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  8. The PPARα Agonist Fenofibrate Preserves Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Inhibits Microglial Activation After Whole-Brain Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanan, Sriram; Kooshki, Mitra; Zhao Weiling; Hsu, F.-C.; Riddle, David R.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) leads to cognitive impairment months to years after radiation. Numerous studies suggest that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial activation are involved in the pathogenesis of WBI-induced brain injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist fenofibrate would prevent the detrimental effect of WBI on hippocampal neurogenesis. Methods and Materials: For this study, 129S1/SvImJ wild-type and PPARα knockout mice that were fed either regular or 0.2% wt/wt fenofibrate-containing chow received either sham irradiation or WBI (10-Gy single dose of 137 Cs γ-rays). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine to label the surviving cells at 1 month after WBI, and the newborn neurons were counted at 2 months after WBI by use of bromodeoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei double immunofluorescence. Proliferation in the subgranular zone and microglial activation were measured at 1 week and 2 months after WBI by use of Ki-67 and CD68 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Whole-brain irradiation led to a significant decrease in the number of newborn hippocampal neurons 2 months after it was performed. Fenofibrate prevented this decrease by promoting the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus. In addition, fenofibrate treatment was associated with decreased microglial activation in the dentate gyrus after WBI. The neuroprotective effects of fenofibrate were abolished in the knockout mice, indicating a PPARα-dependent mechanism or mechanisms. Conclusions: These data highlight a novel role for PPARα ligands in improving neurogenesis after WBI and offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

  9. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  10. Associative learning in humans--conditioning of sensory-evoked brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrandies, W; Jedynak, A

    2000-01-01

    A classical conditioning paradigm was employed in two experiments performed on 35 human volunteers. In nine subjects, the presentation of Landolt rings (conditioned stimuli, CS + ) was paired with an electric stimulus (unconditioned stimuli, UCS) applied to the left median nerve. Neutral visual control stimuli were full circles (CS -) that were not paired with the UCS. The skin conductance response (SCR) was determined in a time interval of 5 s after onset of the visual stimuli, and it was measured in the acquisition and test phase. Associative learning was reflected by a SCR occurring selectively with CS +. The same experiment was repeated with another group of 26 adults while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 30 electrodes. For each subject, mean evoked potentials were computed. In 13 of the subjects, a conditioning paradigm was followed while the other subjects served as the control group (non-contingent stimulation). There were somatosensory and visual brain activity evoked by the stimuli. Conditioned components were identified by computing cross-correlation between evoked somatosensory components and the averaged EEG. In the visual evoked brain activity, three components with mean latencies of 105.4, 183.2, and 360.3 ms were analyzed. Somatosensory stimuli were followed by major components that occurred at mean latencies of 48.8, 132.5, 219.7, 294.8, and 374.2 ms latency after the shock. All components were analyzed in terms of latency, field strength, and topographic characteristics, and were compared between groups and experimental conditions. Both visual and somatosensory brain activity was significantly affected by classical conditioning. Our data illustrate how associative learning affects the topography of brain electrical activity elicited by presentation of conditioned visual stimuli.

  11. Relationship between catalase activity and uptake of elemental mercury by rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, I.; Syversen, T.L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Uptake of mercury by brain after intravenous injection of elemental mercury was investigated in the rat. Catalase activity was inhibited by aminotriazole either by intraperitoneal affecting catalase in most tissues of the animal or by intraventricular injections affecting catalase in the brain selectively. Uptake of elemental mercury by rat brain was not influenced by intraperitoneal administration of aminotriazole resulting in 50% inhibition of brain catalase. However, when the inhibitor was injected intraventricularly in concentrations to give a 50% inhibition of brain catalase, it was shown that the mercury uptake by brain was significantly decreased. In the latter case when only brain catalase was inhibited and the supply of elemtal mercury to brain was maintained, mercury uptake by brain was proportional to the activity of catalase in brain tissue and to the injected amount of elemental mercury. Contrary to the intraventricular injection of aminotriazole, in animals recieving aminotriazole intraperitoneally prior to elemental mercury injection, we suggest that the lower activity of brain catalse is compensated by an increased supply of elemtal mercury caused by the generally lower oxidation rate in the animal. This view is supported by the finding that mercury uptake by liver increased due to aminotriazole intraperitoneally although activity of catalase was depressed. (author)

  12. [Local brain activity in different motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease with fMRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya'nan; Zhang, Jiarong; Chen, Biao; Wu, Tao

    2015-02-17

    To explore the changes of local brain activity in motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A total of 60 idiopathic PD and 30 age- and gender-matched normal controls were examined with resting-state fMRI from January 2013 to March 2014. All subjects gave their written informed consent for the study. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was calculated to measure local brain activity. The PD patients were divided into two groups of tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) (n = 30 each). All subjects gave their written in formed consent for the study.One-way ANOVA and post-hoc t-test were performed to detect the differences of local brain activity between PD and normal subjects. And the correlations were examined between ALFF, scores and levodopa dose. Compared with normal subjects, the TD group showed increased activity in bilateral cerebellums (-37, -47, -38), thalamus (-18, -17,0), pons (-3, -23, -37) and left precentral gyrus (-41, -30, 46) versus decreased activity in bilateral frontal lobes (-13, 69, 6), temporal lobes (-42, 18, -21), left insula (-32, 22, 2) and left anterior cingulated (-7, 32, -5). The PIGD group showed increased activity in right postcentral gyrus (63, -18, 39) and decreased activity in bilateral putamens (-24, 12, 3), pre-supplementary motor area (10, 10, 58), frontal lobes (15, -15, 57), temporal lobes (-39, 18, -3) and left insula (-29, 20, 11). Compared with PIGD, the TD group showed increased activity in temporal lobes, but decreased activity in frontal lobes. Additionally, ALFF in bilateral cerebellums and frontal lobes was positively correlated with TD scores while ALFF in left precentral gyrus, bilateral putamens and temporal lobes negatively correlated with TD scores. ALFF in bilateral frontal lobes and left temporal lobe was positively correlated with PIGD scores.However, in right postcentral gyrus and bilateral putamens, ALFF was

  13. Multichannel brain recordings in behaving Drosophila reveal oscillatory activity and local coherence in response to sensory stimulation and circuit activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique C; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel "whole brain" readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior.

  14. Counting systems characterization for air activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Air activity measurements are carried out continuously at all the nuclear power plant (NPP) sites both during pre-operational phase and also during operation of nuclear facility. These measurements provide a trend line for the background air activity in the surrounding environments of an operating NPP. Any increase in air activity over the benchmark level becomes very handy to investigate the releases from the station and to give feedback to the operators of NPP about the prevailing air activity levels and their correlation to the plant releases. This paper compiles the results obtained for air filter samples using different counters operating in GM region and also plastic scintillators

  15. Measuring the osmotic pressure of active colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael; Soni, Vishal; Magkiriadou, Sofia; Ferrari, Melissa; Youssef, Mina; Driscoll, Michelle; Sacanna, Stefano; Chaikin, Paul; Irvine, William

    We study the behavior of a system of colloidal spinners, consisting of weakly magnetic colloids driven by a rotating magnetic field. First the particles are allowed to sediment to an equilibrium density profile in a gravitational field, from which we measure the equilibrium equation of state. By spinning the particles at various frequencies, we introduce activity into the system through the hydrodynamic interactions between particles. We observe that the activity expands the sedimentation profile to a new steady state, from which we measure the pressure as a function of the density and activity. We compare the effects of activity on the pressure and mean-squared displacement of spinners and tracer particles.

  16. Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in the Activity of Electron Transport Chain Complexes of Brain Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the activity of individual mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II/III, IV) and citrate synthase induced by pharmacologically different cannabinoids. In vitro effects of selected cannabinoids on mitochondrial enzymes were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from pig brain. Both cannabinoid receptor agonists, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide, and R-(+)-WIN55,212-2, and antagonist/inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptors, AM251, and cannabidiol were examined in pig brain mitochondria. Different effects of these cannabinoids on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase were found. Citrate synthase activity was decreased only by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM251. Significant increase in the complex I activity was induced by anandamide. At micromolar concentration, all the tested cannabinoids inhibited the activity of electron transport chain complexes II/III and IV. Stimulatory effect of anandamide on activity of complex I may participate on distinct physiological effects of endocannabinoids compared to phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids. Common inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on activity of complex II/III and IV confirmed a non-receptor-mediated mechanism of cannabinoid action on individual components of system of oxidative phosphorylation.

  17. Measurement of cerebral blood flow rate and its relationship with brain function using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Dou, Shidan; Ma, Yushu; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    Activity of brain neurons will lead to changes in local blood flow rate (BFR). Thus, it is important to measure the local BFR of cerebral cortex on research of neuron activity in vivo, such as rehabilitation evaluation after stroke, etc. Currently, laser Doppler flowmetry is commonly used for blood flow measurement, however, relatively low resolution limits its application. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful noninvasive 3D imaging modality with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Furthermore, OCT can provide flow distribution image by calculating Doppler frequency shift which makes it possible for blood flow rate measurement. In this paper, we applied OCT to measure the blood flow rate of the primary motor cortex in rats. The animal was immobilized and anesthetized with isoflurane, an incision was made along the sagittal suture, and bone was exposed. A skull window was opened on the primary motor cortex. Then, blood flow rate changes in the primary motor cortex were monitored by our homemade spectral domain OCT with a stimulation of the passive movement of the front legs. Finally, we established the relationship between blood flow rate and the test design. The aim is to demonstrate the potential of OCT in the evaluation of cerebral cortex function.

  18. Measurement of brain pH using 11CO2 and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, R.B.; Wechsler, L.R.; Alpert, N.M.; Ackerman, R.H.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Correia, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the feasibility of measuring local brain pH in vivo with 11 CO 2 and positron emission tomography. In particular, we have addressed two objections that have been raised against this method: the assumed need to estimate local tissue PCO 2 and the rapid fixation of 11 C in tissue. From a reexamination of the basic theory, we argue that after administration of 11 CO 2 the time-dependent distribution of 11 C between tissue and blood is independent of the distribution of CO 2 already in the body, making it unnecessary to estimate local tissue PCO 2 . Assuming that the blood--brain barrier is impermeable to bicarbonate ions, there will be equal partial pressures of 11 CO 2 in blood and tissue at equilibrium. To overcome the problem of fixation in the tissue we have developed a kinetic model of the time-dependent distribution of 11 C that accounts for regional variations in blood flow, CO 2 extraction, pH, and rate of fixation. The values of the model parameters can be estimated from sequential measurements of tissue activity concentration during administration of 11 CO 2 . Tissue pH can then be calculated from one of the parameter values, a measurement of arterial pH, and known constants. Numerical calculations based on the kinetic model with assumed values of the parameters were used to optimize the experimental design. The calculations show that problems with fixation are much less severe with continuous infusion of activity than with bolus administration. During infusion the tissue curve depends strongly on tissue pH but only weakly on the rate of fixation

  19. Altered brain network measures in patients with primary writing tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2017-10-15

    Primary writing tremor (PWT) is a rare task-specific tremor, which occurs only while writing or while adopting the hand in the writing position. The basic pathophysiology of PWT has not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the alterations in the resting state functional brain connectivity, if any, in patients with PWT using graph theory-based analysis. This prospective case-control study included 10 patients with PWT and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI in a 3-Tesla scanner. Several parameters of small-world functional connectivity were compared between patients and healthy controls by using graph theory-based analysis. There were no significant differences in age, handedness (all right handed), gender distribution (all were males), and MMSE scores between the patients and controls. The mean age at presentation of tremor in the patient group was 51.7 ± 8.6 years, and the mean duration of tremor was 3.5 ± 1.9 years. Graph theory-based analysis revealed that patients with PWT had significantly lower clustering coefficient and higher path length compared to healthy controls suggesting alterations in small-world architecture of the brain. The clustering coefficients were lower in PWT patients in left and right medial cerebellum, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Patients with PWT have significantly altered small-world brain connectivity in bilateral medial cerebellum, right DLPFC, and left PPC. Further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm our results. (orig.)

  20. Altered brain network measures in patients with primary writing tremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Primary writing tremor (PWT) is a rare task-specific tremor, which occurs only while writing or while adopting the hand in the writing position. The basic pathophysiology of PWT has not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the alterations in the resting state functional brain connectivity, if any, in patients with PWT using graph theory-based analysis. This prospective case-control study included 10 patients with PWT and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI in a 3-Tesla scanner. Several parameters of small-world functional connectivity were compared between patients and healthy controls by using graph theory-based analysis. There were no significant differences in age, handedness (all right handed), gender distribution (all were males), and MMSE scores between the patients and controls. The mean age at presentation of tremor in the patient group was 51.7 ± 8.6 years, and the mean duration of tremor was 3.5 ± 1.9 years. Graph theory-based analysis revealed that patients with PWT had significantly lower clustering coefficient and higher path length compared to healthy controls suggesting alterations in small-world architecture of the brain. The clustering coefficients were lower in PWT patients in left and right medial cerebellum, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Patients with PWT have significantly altered small-world brain connectivity in bilateral medial cerebellum, right DLPFC, and left PPC. Further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm our results. (orig.)

  1. Altered brain network measures in patients with primary writing tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Primary writing tremor (PWT) is a rare task-specific tremor, which occurs only while writing or while adopting the hand in the writing position. The basic pathophysiology of PWT has not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the alterations in the resting state functional brain connectivity, if any, in patients with PWT using graph theory-based analysis. This prospective case-control study included 10 patients with PWT and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI in a 3-Tesla scanner. Several parameters of small-world functional connectivity were compared between patients and healthy controls by using graph theory-based analysis. There were no significant differences in age, handedness (all right handed), gender distribution (all were males), and MMSE scores between the patients and controls. The mean age at presentation of tremor in the patient group was 51.7 ± 8.6 years, and the mean duration of tremor was 3.5 ± 1.9 years. Graph theory-based analysis revealed that patients with PWT had significantly lower clustering coefficient and higher path length compared to healthy controls suggesting alterations in small-world architecture of the brain. The clustering coefficients were lower in PWT patients in left and right medial cerebellum, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Patients with PWT have significantly altered small-world brain connectivity in bilateral medial cerebellum, right DLPFC, and left PPC. Further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm our results.

  2. Analysis of brain activity and response during monoscopic and stereoscopic visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, Enrico; Folgieri, Raffaella; Gadia, Davide; Marini, Daniele

    2012-03-01

    Stereoscopic visualization in cinematography and Virtual Reality (VR) creates an illusion of depth by means of two bidimensional images corresponding to different views of a scene. This perceptual trick is used to enhance the emotional response and the sense of presence and immersivity of the observers. An interesting question is if and how it is possible to measure and analyze the level of emotional involvement and attention of the observers during a stereoscopic visualization of a movie or of a virtual environment. The research aims represent a challenge, due to the large number of sensorial, physiological and cognitive stimuli involved. In this paper we begin this research by analyzing possible differences in the brain activity of subjects during the viewing of monoscopic or stereoscopic contents. To this aim, we have performed some preliminary experiments collecting electroencephalographic (EEG) data of a group of users using a Brain- Computer Interface (BCI) during the viewing of stereoscopic and monoscopic short movies in a VR immersive installation.

  3. Robot-assisted motor activation monitored by time-domain optical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, O.; Wabnitz, H.; Schmid, S.; Steingräber, R.; Schmidt, H.; Krüger, J.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Robot-assisted motor rehabilitation proved to be an effective supplement to conventional hand-to-hand therapy in stroke patients. In order to analyze and understand motor learning and performance during rehabilitation it is desirable to develop a monitor to provide objective measures of the corresponding brain activity at the rehabilitation progress. We used a portable time-domain near-infrared reflectometer to monitor the hemodynamic brain response to distal upper extremity activities. Four healthy volunteers performed two different robot-assisted wrist/forearm movements, flexion-extension and pronation-supination in comparison with an unassisted squeeze ball exercise. A special headgear with four optical measurement positions to include parts of the pre- and postcentral gyrus provided a good overlap with the expected activation areas. Data analysis based on variance of time-of-flight distributions of photons through tissue was chosen to provide a suitable representation of intracerebral signals. In all subjects several of the four detection channels showed a response. In some cases indications were found of differences in localization of the activated areas for the various tasks.

  4. Human brain activity associated with painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Lynn; Ono, Mayu; Koyama, Tetsuo; Oshiro, Yoshitetsu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Shibata, Masahiko

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the central processing of painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone by measuring blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled. Mechanical pressure on muscle and bone were applied at the right lower leg by an algometer. Intensities were adjusted to cause weak and strong pain sensation at either target site in preliminary testing. Brain activation in response to mechanical nociceptive stimulation targeting muscle and bone were measured by fMRI and analyzed. Painful mechanical stimulation targeting muscle and bone activated the common areas including bilateral insula, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), inferior parietal lobe, and basal ganglia. The contralateral S2 was more activated by strong stimulation than by weak stimulation. Some areas in the basal ganglia (bilateral putamen and caudate nucleus) were more activated by muscle stimulation than by bone stimulation. The putamen and caudate nucleus may have a more significant role in brain processing of muscle pain compared with bone pain.

  5. Multistability in Large Scale Models of Brain Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Golos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Noise driven exploration of a brain network's dynamic repertoire has been hypothesized to be causally involved in cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration. The dynamic repertoire crucially depends on the network's capacity to store patterns, as well as their stability. Here we systematically explore the capacity of networks derived from human connectomes to store attractor states, as well as various network mechanisms to control the brain's dynamic repertoire. Using a deterministic graded response Hopfield model with connectome-based interactions, we reconstruct the system's attractor space through a uniform sampling of the initial conditions. Large fixed-point attractor sets are obtained in the low temperature condition, with a bigger number of attractors than ever reported so far. Different variants of the initial model, including (i a uniform activation threshold or (ii a global negative feedback, produce a similarly robust multistability in a limited parameter range. A numerical analysis of the distribution of the attractors identifies spatially-segregated components, with a centro-medial core and several well-delineated regional patches. Those different modes share similarity with the fMRI independent components observed in the "resting state" condition. We demonstrate non-stationary behavior in noise-driven generalizations of the models, with different meta-stable attractors visited along the same time course. Only the model with a global dynamic density control is found to display robust and long-lasting non-stationarity with no tendency toward either overactivity or extinction. The best fit with empirical signals is observed at the edge of multistability, a parameter region that also corresponds to the highest entropy of the attractors.

  6. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  7. Mapping social behavior-induced brain activation at cellular resolution in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Pradhan, Kith; Mende, Carolin; Taranda, Julian; Turaga, Srinivas C.; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Ng, Lydia; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Rockland, Kathleen; Seung, H. Sebastian; Osten, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how brain activation mediates behaviors is a central goal of systems neuroscience. Here we apply an automated method for mapping brain activation in the mouse in order to probe how sex-specific social behaviors are represented in the male brain. Our method uses the immediate early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, visualized by serial two-photon tomography: the c-fos-GFP-positive neurons are computationally detected, their distribution is registered to a reference brain and a brain atlas, and their numbers are analyzed by statistical tests. Our results reveal distinct and shared female and male interaction-evoked patterns of male brain activation representing sex discrimination and social recognition. We also identify brain regions whose degree of activity correlates to specific features of social behaviors and estimate the total numbers and the densities of activated neurons per brain areas. Our study opens the door to automated screening of behavior-evoked brain activation in the mouse. PMID:25558063

  8. Measurement of neutron activation in concrete samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of activation studies of ordinary and barytes concrete samples relevant for research reactor decommissioning are given. Five important long-lived radioactive isotopes ( 54 Mn, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 133 Ba, and 152 Eu) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the irradiated concrete samples. Activation of these samples was also calculated using ORIGEN2 code. Comparison of calculated and measured results is given. (author)

  9. Brain activation patterns during memory of cognitive agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Sophia; Luks, Tracy L; Simpson, Gregory V; Schulman, Brian J; Glenn, Shenly; Wong, Amy E

    2006-06-01

    Agency is the awareness that one's own self is the agent or author of an action, a thought, or a feeling. The implicit memory that one's self was the originator of a cognitive event - the sense of cognitive agency - has not yet been fully explored in terms of relevant neural systems. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined brain activation patterns differentiating memory for the source of previously self-generated vs. experimenter-presented word items from a sentence completion paradigm designed to be emotionally neutral and semantically constrained in content. Accurate memory for the source of self-generated vs. externally-presented word items resulted in activation of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) bilaterally, supporting an emerging body of work that indicates a key role for this region in self-referential processing. Our data extend the function of mPFC into the domain of memory and the accurate retrieval of the sense of cognitive agency under conditions where agency was encoded implicitly.

  10. Enhancing Physical Activity and Brain Reorganization after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Carr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that, if reorganization of brain function is to be optimal after stroke, there needs to be a reorganisation of the methods used in physical rehabilitation and the time spent in specific task practice, strength and endurance training, and aerobic exercise. Frequency and intensity of rehabilitation need to be increased so that patients can gain the energy levels and vigour necessary for participation in physical activity both during rehabilitation and after discharge. It is evident that many patients are discharged from inpatient rehabilitation severely deconditioned, meaning that their energy levels are too low for active participation in daily life. Physicians, therapists, and nursing staff responsible for rehabilitation practice should address this issue not only during inpatient rehabilitation but also after discharge by promoting and supporting community-based exercise opportunities. During inpatient rehabilitation, group sessions should be frequent and need to include specific aerobic training. Physiotherapy must take advantage of the training aids available, including exercise equipment such as treadmills, and of new developments in computerised feedback systems, robotics, and electromechanical trainers. For illustrative purposes, this paper focuses on the role of physiotherapists, but the necessary changes in practice and in attitude will require cooperation from many others.

  11. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  12. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [ 3 H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  13. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  14. Refining a measure of brain injury sequelae to predict postacute rehabilitation outcome: rating scale analysis of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, J F; Moessner, A M; Kragness, M; Lezak, M D

    2000-02-01

    Evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI). Rating scale (Rasch) analysis of MPAI and principal component analysis of residuals; the predictive validity of the MPAI measures and raw scores was assessed in a sample from a day rehabilitation program. Outpatient brain injury rehabilitation. 305 persons with brain injury. A 22-item scale reflecting severity of sequelae of brain injury that contained a mix of indicators of impairment, activity, and participation was identified. Scores and measures for MPAI scales were strongly correlated and their predictive validities were comparable. Impairment, activity, and participation define a single dimension of brain injury sequelae. The MPAI shows promise as a measure of this construct.

  15. Increased brain connectivity and activation after cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia; Peña, Javier; Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Alberto; Lucas-Jiménez, Olaia; Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Beldarrain, Maria Ángeles; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy). T1-weighted, diffusion weighted and functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) during resting-state and during a memory paradigm (with learning and recognition tasks) were acquired at pre-treatment and post-treatment. Cerebral changes were assessed with repeated measures ANOVA 2 × 2 for group x time interaction. During resting-state fMRI, the REHACOP group showed significantly increased brain connectivity between the left inferior temporal lobe and the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to the control group. Moreover, during the recognition fMRI task, the REHACOP group showed significantly increased brain activation in the left middle temporal area compared to the control group. During the learning fMRI task, the REHACOP group showed increased brain activation in the left inferior frontal lobe at post-treatment compared to pre-treatment. No significant structural changes were found between pre- and post-treatment. Finally, the REHACOP group showed significant and positive correlations between the brain connectivity and activation and the cognitive performance at post-treatment. This randomized controlled trial suggests that an integrative cognitive rehabilitation program can produce significant functional cerebral changes in PD patients and adds evidence to the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation programs in the therapeutic approach for PD.

  16. Correlates of objectively measured sedentary behavior in cancer patients with brain metastases: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sonya S; Danielson, Brita; Beaumont, Crystal; Watanabe, Sharon M; Baracos, Vickie E; Courneya, Kerry S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the demographic, medical, and social-cognitive correlates of objectively measured sedentary behavior in advanced cancer patients with brain metastases. Advanced cancer patients diagnosed with brain metastases, aged 18 years or older, cognitively intact, and with palliative performance scale greater than 30%, were recruited from a Rapid Access Palliative Radiotherapy Program multidisciplinary brain metastases clinic. A cross-sectional survey interview assessed the theory of planned behavior variables and medical and demographic information. Participants wore activPAL™ (PAL Technologies Ltd, Glasgow, United Kingdom) accelerometers recording time spent supine, sitting, standing, and stepping during 7 days encompassing palliative whole brain radiotherapy treatments. Thirty-one patients were recruited. Correlates of median time spent supine or sitting in hours per day were instrumental attitude (i.e., perceived benefits) of physical activity (r = -0.42; p = 0.030) and affective attitude (i.e., perceived enjoyment) of physical activity (r = -0.43; p = 0.024). Moreover, participants who sat or were supine for greater than 20.7 h per day reported significantly lower instrumental attitude (M = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.0-1.4; p = 0.051) and affective attitude (M = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.0-1.4; p = 0.041). Finally, participants who were older than 60 years of age spent more time sitting or being supine. Instrumental attitude and affective attitude were the strongest correlates of objectively measured sedentary behavior. This information could inform intervention studies to increase physical activity in advanced cancer patients with brain metastases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Comparison of Dolphins' Body and Brain Measurements with Four Other Groups of Cetaceans Reveals Great Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Sam H; Carlin, Kevin P; Van Alstyne, Kaitlin R; Hanson, Alicia C; Tarpley, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    We compared mature dolphins with 4 other groupings of mature cetaceans. With a large data set, we found great brain diversity among 5 different taxonomic groupings. The dolphins in our data set ranged in body mass from about 40 to 6,750 kg and in brain mass from 0.4 to 9.3 kg. Dolphin body length ranged from 1.3 to 7.6 m. In our combined data set from the 4 other groups of cetaceans, body mass ranged from about 20 to 120,000 kg and brain mass from about 0.2 to 9.2 kg, while body length varied from 1.21 to 26.8 m. Not all cetaceans have large brains relative to their body size. A few dolphins near human body size have human-sized brains. On the other hand, the absolute brain mass of some other cetaceans is only one-sixth as large. We found that brain volume relative to body mass decreases from Delphinidae to a group of Phocoenidae and Monodontidae, to a group of other odontocetes, to Balaenopteroidea, and finally to Balaenidae. We also found the same general trend when we compared brain volume relative to body length, except that the Delphinidae and Phocoenidae-Monodontidae groups do not differ significantly. The Balaenidae have the smallest relative brain mass and the lowest cerebral cortex surface area. Brain parts also vary. Relative to body mass and to body length, dolphins also have the largest cerebellums. Cortex surface area is isometric with brain size when we exclude the Balaenidae. Our data show that the brains of Balaenidae are less convoluted than those of the other cetaceans measured. Large vascular networks inside the cranial vault may help to maintain brain temperature, and these nonbrain tissues increase in volume with body mass and with body length ranging from 8 to 65% of the endocranial volume. Because endocranial vascular networks and other adnexa, such as the tentorium cerebelli, vary so much in different species, brain size measures from endocasts of some extinct cetaceans may be overestimates. Our regression of body length on endocranial

  18. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  19. Multichannel brain recordings in behaving Drosophila reveal oscillatory activity and local coherence in response to sensory stimulation and circuit activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel “whole brain” readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior. PMID:23864378

  20. The effect of visual and musical suspense on brain activation and memory during naturalistic viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, Matthew A; Wenzel, William G; Schumacher, Eric H

    2017-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, during naturalistic viewing, moments of increasing narrative suspense narrow the scope of attentional focus. We also tested how changes in the emotional congruency of the music would affect brain responses to suspense, as well as subsequent memory for narrative events. In our study, participants viewed suspenseful film excerpts while brain activation was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicated that suspense produced a pattern of activation consistent with the attention-narrowing hypothesis. For example, we observed decreased activation in the anterior calcarine sulcus, which processes the visual periphery, and increased activity in nodes of the ventral attention network and decreased activity in nodes of the default mode network. Memory recall was more accurate for high suspense than low suspense moments, but did not differ by soundtrack congruency. These findings provide neural evidence that perceptual, attentional, and memory processes respond to suspense on a moment-by-moment basis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glutathione in the human brain: Review of its roles and measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Caroline D; Williams, Stephen R

    2017-07-15

    We review the transport, synthesis and catabolism of glutathione in the brain as well as its compartmentation and biochemistry in different brain cells. The major reactions involving glutathione are reviewed and the factors limiting its availability in brain cells are discussed. We also describe and critique current methods for measuring glutathione in the human brain using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and review the literature on glutathione measurements in healthy brains and in neurological, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental conditions In summary: Healthy human brain glutathione concentration is ∼1-2 mM, but it varies by brain region, with evidence of gender differences and age effects; in neurological disease glutathione appears reduced in multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease and epilepsy, while being increased in meningiomas; in psychiatric disease the picture is complex and confounded by methodological differences, regional effects, length of disease and drug-treatment. Both increases and decreases in glutathione have been reported in depression and schizophrenia. In Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment there is evidence for a decrease in glutathione compared to age-matched healthy controls. Improved methods to measure glutathione in vivo will provide better precision in glutathione determination and help resolve the complex biochemistry of this molecule in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional brain activation and affective response to physical activity among healthy adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Margaret; Graham, Dan; Grant, Arthur; King, Pamela; Cooper, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that frontal brain activation, assessed via electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts the post-exercise affective response to exercise among adults. Building on this evidence, the present study investigates the utility of resting cortical asymmetry for explaining variance in the affective response both during and after exercise at two different intensities among healthy adolescents. Resting EEG was obtained from 98 adolescents (55% male), who also completed two 30-m...

  3. Involvement of CCR-2 chemokine receptor activation in ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning of brain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet

    2012-10-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the potential role of CCR-2 chemokine receptor in ischemic preconditioning as well as postconditioning induced reversal of ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse brain. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 17 min followed by reperfusion for 24h was employed in present study to produce ischemia and reperfusion induced cerebral injury in mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was evaluated using elevated plus-maze test and Morris water maze test. Rota rod test was employed to assess motor incoordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced cerebral infarction and impaired memory and motor co-ordination. Three preceding episodes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 1 min and reperfusion of 1 min were employed to elicit ischemic preconditioning of brain, while three episodes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 10s and reperfusion of 10s immediately after the completion of were employed to elicit ischemic postconditioning of brain. Both prior ischemic preconditioning as well as ischemic postconditioning immediately after global cerebral ischemia prevented markedly ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury as measured in terms of infarct size, loss of memory and motor coordination. RS 102895, a selective CCR-2 chemokine receptor antagonist, attenuated the neuroprotective effect of both the ischemic preconditioning as well as postconditioning. It is concluded that the neuroprotective effect of both ischemic preconditioning as well as ischemic postconditioning may involve the activation of CCR-2 chemokine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting Story Goodness Performance from Cognitive Measures Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Karen; Coelho, Carl; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the prediction of performance on measures of the Story Goodness Index (SGI; Le, Coelho, Mozeiko, & Grafman, 2011) from executive function (EF) and memory measures following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that EF and memory measures would significantly predict SGI outcomes. Method: One hundred…

  5. No Effect of Commercial Cognitive Training on Brain Activity, Choice Behavior, or Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Joseph W; Caulfield, M Kathleen; Falcone, Mary; McConnell, Mairead; Bernardo, Leah; Parthasarathi, Trishala; Cooper, Nicole; Ashare, Rebecca; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Hornik, Robert; Diefenbach, Paul; Lee, Frank J; Lerman, Caryn

    2017-08-02

    Increased preference for immediate over delayed rewards and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training. Pretraining and post-training, participants completed cognitive assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the following validated decision-making tasks: delay discounting (choices between smaller rewards now vs larger rewards in the future) and risk sensitivity (choices between larger riskier rewards vs smaller certain rewards). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no evidence that cognitive training influences neural activity during decision-making; nor did we find effects of cognitive training on measures of delay discounting or risk sensitivity. Participants in the commercial training condition improved with practice on the specific tasks they performed during training, but participants in both conditions showed similar improvement on standardized cognitive measures over time. Moreover, the degree of improvement was comparable to that observed in individuals who were reassessed without any training whatsoever. Commercial adaptive cognitive training appears to have no benefits in healthy young adults above those of standard video games for measures of brain activity, choice behavior, or cognitive performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Engagement of neural regions and circuits important in executive cognitive function can bias behavioral choices away from immediate

  6. Effects of sevoflurane on adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity in brain of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Changdong; Yang Jianping; Dai Tijun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of sevoflurane on c adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE) activity in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of rats, and to examine the role of cAMP in sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Fourty SD rats were delaminately designed and allocated randomly to 5 groups inhaling 1.5% sevoflurane i.e., no recovery (recovery group, n=8) and one hour after righting reflexrecovery (aware group, n=8). The brain tissues were rapidly dissected into cerebrocortex and hippocampus and brain stem.Then the adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity were assessed. Results: So far as the activity of AC is concerned, compared with the control group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem brain stem of induction group and anesthesia group, the cerebrocortex, and hippocampus in the recovery group were significantly increased; compared with those in the anesthesia group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of aware group were significantly decreased (P<0.05); For the activity of PDE, compared with the control group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem in the induction group and anesthesia group was significantly decreased, compared with that in anesthesia group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of recovery group and aware group was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: cAMP may play an important role in sevoflurane anesthesia. (authors)

  7. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  8. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa J Kersey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7 year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters – in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback.

  9. Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: Functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eBock

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method in 8 day old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A pups together with parents and siblings (control, (B separation of the litter from the parents, (C individual separation from parents and siblings, (D individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C, where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D maternal vocalizations reactivated brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other

  10. Acute and chronic changes in brain activity with deep brain stimulation for refractory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, Silke; Matthews, Julian C; Patel, Nikunj K; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Talbot, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation-response was defined as reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score from baseline of ≥50%, and remission as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score ≤8. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were assessed using [ 15 O]water positron emission tomography. Remitters had higher relative regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex at baseline and all subsequent time-points compared to non-remitters and non-responders, with prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow generally increasing with chronic deep brain stimulation. These effects were consistent regardless of stimulation-site. Overall, no significant regional cerebral blood flow changes were apparent when deep brain stimulation was acutely interrupted. Deep brain stimulation improved treatment-refractory depression severity in the majority of patients, with consistent changes in local and distant brain regions regardless of target stimulation. Remission of depression was reached in patients with higher baseline prefrontal regional cerebral blood flow. Because of the small sample size these results are preliminary and further evaluation is necessary to determine whether prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow could be a predictive biomarker of treatment response.

  11. Cholinergic Enhancement of Brain Activation in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI during Episodic Memory Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Risacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological impact of treatment with donepezil (Aricept on neural circuitry supporting episodic memory encoding in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI using functional MRI (fMRI. Methods: 18 patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC were scanned twice while performing an event-related verbal episodic encoding task. MCI participants were scanned before treatment and after approximately 3 months on donepezil; HC were untreated but rescanned at the same interval. Voxel-level analyses assessed treatment effects in activation profile relative to retest changes in non-treated HC. Changes in task-related connectivity in medial temporal circuitry were also evaluated, as were associations between brain activation pattern, task-related functional connectivity, task performance, and clinical measures of cognition.Results: At baseline, the MCI group showed reduced activation during encoding relative to HC in the right medial temporal lobe (MTL; hippocampal/parahippocampal and additional regions, as well as attenuated task-related deactivation, relative to rest, in a medial parietal lobe cluster. After treatment, the MCI group showed normalized MTL activation and improved parietal deactivation. These changes were associated with cognitive performance. After treatment, the MCI group also demonstrated increased task-related functional connectivity from the right MTL cluster seed region to a network of other sites including the basal nucleus/caudate and bilateral frontal lobes. Increased functional connectivity was associated with improved task performance.Conclusions: Pharmacologic enhancement of cholinergic function in amnestic MCI is associated with changes in brain activation pattern and functional connectivity during episodic memory processing which are in turn related to increased cognitive performance. fMRI is a promising biomarker for assessing treatment related changes in brain function.

  12. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S; Rooney, William D

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third-trimester ......Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third......-trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (approximately 100%). Inasmuch as brain glucose metabolism is a sensitive marker of brain function, the current findings provide...

  13. Sustained Treatment with Insulin Detemir in Mice Alters Brain Activity and Locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sartorius

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified unique brain effects of insulin detemir (Levemir®. Due to its pharmacologic properties, insulin detemir may reach higher concentrations in the brain than regular insulin. This might explain the observed increased brain stimulation after acute insulin detemir application but it remained unclear whether chronic insulin detemir treatment causes alterations in brain activity as a consequence of overstimulation.In mice, we examined insulin detemir's prolonged brain exposure by continuous subcutaneous (s.c. application using either micro-osmotic pumps or daily s.c. injections and performed continuous radiotelemetric electrocorticography and locomotion recordings.Acute intracerebroventricular injection of insulin detemir activated cortical and locomotor activity significantly more than regular insulin in equimolar doses (0.94 and 5.63 mU in total, suggesting an enhanced acute impact on brain networks. However, given continuously s.c., insulin detemir significantly reduced cortical activity (theta: 21.3±6.1% vs. 73.0±8.1%, P<0.001 and failed to maintain locomotion, while regular insulin resulted in an increase of both parameters.The data suggest that permanently-increased insulin detemir levels in the brain convert its hyperstimulatory effects and finally mediate impairments in brain activity and locomotion. This observation might be considered when human studies with insulin detemir are designed to target the brain in order to optimize treatment regimens.

  14. Application and Evaluation of Independent Component Analysis Methods to Generalized Seizure Disorder Activities Exhibited in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S Thomas; Balakrishnan, R; Johnson, J Stanly; Jayakumar, J

    2017-07-01

    EEG records the spontaneous electrical activity of the brain using multiple electrodes placed on the scalp, and it provides a wealth of information related to the functions of brain. Nevertheless, the signals from the electrodes cannot be directly applied to a diagnostic tool like brain mapping as they undergo a "mixing" process because of the volume conduction effect in the scalp. A pervasive problem in neuroscience is determining which regions of the brain are active, given voltage measurements at the scalp. Because of which, there has been a surge of interest among the biosignal processing community to investigate the process of mixing and unmixing to identify the underlying active sources. According to the assumptions of independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms, the resultant mixture obtained from the scalp can be closely approximated by a linear combination of the "actual" EEG signals emanating from the underlying sources of electrical activity in the brain. As a consequence, using these well-known ICA techniques in preprocessing of the EEG signals prior to clinical applications could result in development of diagnostic tool like quantitative EEG which in turn can assist the neurologists to gain noninvasive access to patient-specific cortical activity, which helps in treating neuropathologies like seizure disorders. The popular and proven ICA schemes mentioned in various literature and applications were selected (which includes Infomax, JADE, and SOBI) and applied on generalized seizure disorder samples using EEGLAB toolbox in MATLAB environment to see their usefulness in source separations; and they were validated by the expert neurologist for clinical relevance in terms of pathologies on brain functionalities. The performance of Infomax method was found to be superior when compared with other ICA schemes applied on EEG and it has been established based on the validations carried by expert neurologist for generalized seizure and its clinical

  15. Characterizing Motif Dynamics of Electric Brain Activity Using Symbolic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motifs are small recurring circuits of interactions which constitute the backbone of networked systems. Characterizing motif dynamics is therefore key to understanding the functioning of such systems. Here we propose a method to define and quantify the temporal variability and time scales of electroencephalogram (EEG motifs of resting brain activity. Given a triplet of EEG sensors, links between them are calculated by means of linear correlation; each pattern of links (i.e., each motif is then associated to a symbol, and its appearance frequency is analyzed by means of Shannon entropy. Our results show that each motif becomes observable with different coupling thresholds and evolves at its own time scale, with fronto-temporal sensors emerging at high thresholds and changing at fast time scales, and parietal ones at low thresholds and changing at slower rates. Finally, while motif dynamics differed across individuals, for each subject, it showed robustness across experimental conditions, indicating that it could represent an individual dynamical signature.

  16. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  17. Effects of emotional valence and three-dimensionality of visual stimuli on brain activation: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, A R; Almeida, I; Barbosa, F; Castelo-Branco, M; Monteiro, L; Reis, M; de Sousa, L; Caldas, A Castro

    2013-01-01

    Examining changes in brain activation linked with emotion-inducing stimuli is essential to the study of emotions. Due to the ecological potential of techniques such as virtual reality (VR), inspection of whether brain activation in response to emotional stimuli can be modulated by the three-dimensional (3D) properties of the images is important. The current study sought to test whether the activation of brain areas involved in the emotional processing of scenarios of different valences can be modulated by 3D. Therefore, the focus was made on the interaction effect between emotion-inducing stimuli of different emotional valences (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral valences) and visualization types (2D, 3D). However, main effects were also analyzed. The effect of emotional valence and visualization types and their interaction were analyzed through a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. Post-hoc t-tests were performed under a ROI-analysis approach. The results show increased brain activation for the 3D affective-inducing stimuli in comparison with the same stimuli in 2D scenarios, mostly in cortical and subcortical regions that are related to emotional processing, in addition to visual processing regions. This study has the potential of clarify brain mechanisms involved in the processing of emotional stimuli (scenarios' valence) and their interaction with three-dimensionality.

  18. Volume of Structures in the Fetal Brain Measured with a New Semiautomated Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ber, R; Hoffman, D; Hoffman, C; Polat, A; Derazne, E; Mayer, A; Katorza, E

    2017-11-01

    Measuring the volume of fetal brain structures is challenging due to fetal motion, low resolution, and artifacts caused by maternal tissue. Our aim was to introduce a new, simple, Matlab-based semiautomated method to measure the volume of structures in the fetal brain and present normal volumetric curves of the structures measured. The volume of the supratentorial brain, left and right hemispheres, cerebellum, and left and right eyeballs was measured retrospectively by the new semiautomated method in MR imaging examinations of 94 healthy fetuses. Four volume ratios were calculated. Interobserver agreement was calculated with the intraclass correlation coefficient, and a Bland-Altman plot was drawn for comparison of manual and semiautomated method measurements of the supratentorial brain. We present normal volumetric curves and normal percentile values of the structures measured according to gestational age and of the ratios between the cerebellum and the supratentorial brain volume and the total eyeball and the supratentorial brain volume. Interobserver agreement was good or excellent for all structures measured. The Bland-Altman plot between manual and semiautomated measurements showed a maximal relative difference of 7.84%. We present a technologically simple, reproducible method that can be applied prospectively and retrospectively on any MR imaging protocol, and we present normal volumetric curves measured. The method shows results like manual measurements while being less time-consuming and user-dependent. By applying this method on different cranial and extracranial structures, anatomic and pathologic, we believe that fetal volumetry can turn from a research tool into a practical clinical one. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Generating and measuring photochemical changes inside the brain using optical fibers: exploring stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, Georgios; Klarić, Thomas S; Schartner, Erik P; Warren-Smith, Stephen C; Lewis, Martin D; Koblar, Simon A; Monro, Tanya M

    2014-11-01

    We report here on the development of a method for inducing a stroke in a specific location within a mouse brain through the use of an optical fiber. By capturing the emitted fluorescence signal generated using the same fiber it is possible to monitor photochemical changes within the brain in real-time, and directly measure the concentration of the stroke-inducing dye, Rose Bengal, at the infarct site. This technique reduces the requirement for post-operative histology to determine if a stroke has successfully been induced within the animal, and therefore opens up the opportunity to explore the recovery of the brain after the stroke event.

  20. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Carlson, Synnöve; Vuontela, Virve; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking), divided attention (i.e., dual-tasking) did not recruit additional cortical regions, but resulted in increased activity in medial and lateral frontal regions which were also activated by the component tasks when performed separately. Areas involved in semantic language processing were revealed predominantly in the left lateral prefrontal cortex by contrasting incongruent with congruent sentences. These areas also showed significant activity increases during divided attention in relation to selective attention. In the sensory cortices, no crossmodal inhibition was observed during divided attention when compared with selective attention to one modality. Our results suggest that the observed performance decrements during dual-tasking are due to interference of the two tasks because they utilize the same part of the cortex. Moreover, semantic dual-tasking did not appear to recruit additional brain areas in comparison with single tasking, and no crossmodal inhibition was observed during intermodal divided attention.

  1. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  2. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Carlson, Synnöve; Vuontela, Virve; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking), divided attention (i.e., dual-tasking) did not recruit additional cortical regions, but resulted in increased activity in medial and lateral frontal regions which were also activated by the component tasks when performed separately. Areas involved in semantic language processing were revealed predominantly in the left lateral prefrontal cortex by contrasting incongruent with congruent sentences. These areas also showed significant activity increases during divided attention in relation to selective attention. In the sensory cortices, no crossmodal inhibition was observed during divided attention when compared with selective attention to one modality. Our results suggest that the observed performance decrements during dual-tasking are due to interference of the two tasks because they utilize the same part of the cortex. Moreover, semantic dual-tasking did not appear to recruit additional brain areas in comparison with single tasking, and no crossmodal inhibition was observed during intermodal divided attention. PMID:25745395

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy can reveal increases in brain activity related to animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuka; Ebara, Fumio; Morita, Yoshimitsu; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19-21 years) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University. Participants were shown a picture of a Tokara goat or shack (control) while prefrontal cortical oxygenated haemoglobin levels (representing neural activity) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The prefrontal cortical near-infrared spectroscopy signal was significantly higher during viewing of the animal picture than during a rest condition or during viewing of the control picture. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to objectively identify brain activity changes during human mentation regarding animals; furthermore, these preliminary results suggest the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy could be related to increased activation of the prefrontal cortex.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of glucose transport and utilization in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shestov, Alexander A.; Emir, Uzay E.; Kumar, Anjali; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.; Öz, Gülin

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is the primary fuel for brain function, and determining the kinetics of cerebral glucose transport and utilization is critical for quantifying cerebral energy metabolism. The kinetic parameters of cerebral glucose transport, KMt and Vmaxt, in humans have so far been obtained by measuring steady-state brain glucose levels by proton (1H) NMR as a function of plasma glucose levels and fitting steady-state models to these data. Extraction of the kinetic parameters for cerebral glucose tra...

  5. Brain tissues volume measurements from 2D MRI using parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, A. A.; Toropova, O. A.; Litovka, Yu. V.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the paper is to propose a fully automated method of volume assessment of structures within human brain. Our statistical approach uses maximum interdependency principle for decision making process of measurements consistency and unequal observations. Detecting outliers performed using maximum normalized residual test. We propose a statistical model which utilizes knowledge of tissues distribution in human brain and applies partial data restoration for precision improvement. The approach proposes completed computationally efficient and independent from segmentation algorithm used in the application.

  6. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Piguet, Camille; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-08-15

    Theoretical models of hypnosis have emphasized the importance of attentional processes in accounting for hypnotic phenomena but their exact nature and brain substrates remain unresolved. Individuals vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis, a variability often attributed to differences in attentional functioning such as greater ability to filter irrelevant information and inhibit prepotent responses. However, behavioral studies of attentional performance outside the hypnotic state have provided conflicting results. We used fMRI to investigate the recruitment of attentional networks during a modified flanker task in High and Low hypnotizable participants. The task was performed in a normal (no hypnotized) state. While behavioral performance did not reliably differ between groups, components of the fronto-parietal executive network implicated in monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), adjustment (lateral prefrontal cortex; latPFC), and implementation of attentional control (intraparietal sulcus; IPS) were differently activated depending on the hypnotizability of the subjects: the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited, whereas IPS and ACC were less recruited by High susceptible individuals compared to Low. Our results demonstrate that susceptibility to hypnosis is associated with particular executive control capabilities allowing efficient attentional focusing, and point to specific neural substrates in right prefrontal cortex. We demonstrated that outside hypnosis, low hypnotizable subjects recruited more parietal cortex and anterior cingulate regions during selective attention conditions suggesting a better detection and implementation of conflict. However, outside hypnosis the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited by highly hypnotizable subjects during selective attention conditions suggesting a better control of conflict. Furthermore, in highly hypnotizable subjects this region was more connected to the default mode network

  7. Regional brain activity during early visual perception in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Cohen, Mark S; Engel, Stephen A; Glahn, David; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Visual masking paradigms assess the early part of visual information processing, which may reflect vulnerability measures for schizophrenia. We examined the neural substrates of visual backward performance in unaffected sibling of schizophrenia patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-one unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy controls performed a backward masking task and three functional localizer tasks to identify three visual processing regions of interest (ROI): lateral occipital complex (LO), the motion-sensitive area, and retinotopic areas. In the masking task, we systematically manipulated stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). We analyzed fMRI data in two complementary ways: 1) an ROI approach for three visual areas, and 2) a whole-brain analysis. The groups did not differ in behavioral performance. For ROI analysis, both groups increased activation as SOAs increased in LO. Groups did not differ in activation levels of the three ROIs. For whole-brain analysis, controls increased activation as a function of SOAs, compared with siblings in several regions (i.e., anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule). The study found: 1) area LO showed sensitivity to the masking effect in both groups; 2) siblings did not differ from controls in activation of LO; and 3) groups differed significantly in several brain regions outside visual processing areas that have been related to attentional or re-entrant processes. These findings suggest that LO dysfunction may be a disease indicator rather than a risk indicator for schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative measurements of brain iron deposition in cirrhotic patients using susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuang; Zheng, Gang; Shen, Wen; Liu, Saifeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Haacke, E Mark; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has been used to detect micro-bleeds and iron deposits in the brain. However, no reports have been published on the application of SWI in studying iron changes in the brain of cirrhotic patients. To compare the susceptibility of different brain structures in cirrhotic patients with that in healthy controls and to evaluate susceptibility as a potential biomarker and correlate the measured susceptibility and cadaveric brain iron concentration for a variety of brain structures. Forty-three cirrhotic patients (27 men, 16 women; mean age, 50 ± 9 years) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (22 men, 12 women; mean age, 47 ± 7 years) were included in this retrospective study. Susceptibility was measured in the frontal white matter, basal ganglia, midbrain, and dentate nucleus and compared with results gathered from two postmortem brain studies. Correlation between susceptibility and clinical biomarkers and neuropsychiatric tests scores was calculated. In cirrhotic patients, the susceptibility of left frontal white matter, bilateral caudate head, and right substantia nigra was higher than that in healthy controls (P brain study (r = 0.835, P = 0.01) in eight deep grey matter structures and another in five brain structures (r = 0.900, P = 0.03). The susceptibility of right caudate head (r = 0.402) and left caudate head (r = 0.408) correlated with neuropsychological test scores (both P brain regions appears to reflect neurocognitive changes. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Whole-Brain Mapping of Neuronal Activity in the Learned Helplessness Model of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Perova, Zinaida; Mirrione, Martine M; Pradhan, Kith; Henn, Fritz A; Shea, Stephen; Osten, Pavel; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP - a marker of neuronal activation - in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helplessness (LH) procedure, a widely used model of stress-induced depression-like phenotype in laboratory animals. We found that mice showing "helpless" behavior had an overall brain-wide reduction in the level of neuronal activation compared with mice showing "resilient" behavior, with the exception of a few brain areas, including the locus coeruleus, that were more activated in the helpless mice. In addition, the helpless mice showed a strong trend of having higher similarity in whole-brain activity profile among individuals, suggesting that helplessness is represented by a more stereotypic brain-wide activation pattern. This latter effect was confirmed in rats subjected to the LH procedure, using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to assess neural activity. Our findings reveal distinct brain activity markings that correlate with adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and provide a framework for further studies investigating the contribution of specific brain regions to maladaptive stress responses.

  10. Whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity in the learned helplessness model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoo eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP – a marker of neuronal activation – in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helplessness (LH procedure, a widely used model of stress-induced depression-like phenotype in laboratory animals. We found that mice showing helpless behavior had an overall brain-wide reduction in the level of neuronal activation compared with mice showing resilient behavior, with the exception of a few brain areas, including the locus coeruleus, that were more activated in the helpless mice. In addition, the helpless mice showed a strong trend of having higher similarity in whole brain activity profile among individuals, suggesting that helplessness is represented by a more stereotypic brain-wide activation pattern. This latter effect was confirmed in rats subjected to the LH procedure, using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to assess neural activity. Our findings reveal distinct brain activity markings that correlate with adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and provide a framework for further studies investigating the contribution of specific brain regions to maladaptive stress responses.

  11. Influence of posterior dental arch length on brain activity during chewing in patients with mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoi, K; Fueki, K; Usui, N; Taira, M; Wakabayashi, N

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that shortened dental arch decreases masticatory function. However, its potential to change brain activity during mastication is unknown. The present study investigates the effect of a shortened posterior dental arch with mandibular removable partial dentures (RPDs) on brain activity during gum chewing. Eleven subjects with missing mandibular molars (mean age, 66.1 years) on both sides received experimental RPDs with interchangeable artificial molars in a crossover trial design. Brain activity during gum chewing with RPDs containing (full dental arch) and lacking artificial molars (shortened dental arch) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, masticatory function was evaluated for each dental arch type. Food comminuting and mixing ability and the perceived chewing ability were significantly lower in subjects with a shortened dental arch than those with a full dental arch (P chewing with the full dental arch occurred in the middle frontal gyrus, primary sensorimotor cortex extending to the pre-central gyrus, supplementary motor area, putamen, insula and cerebellum. However, middle frontal gyrus activation was not observed during gum chewing with the shortened dental arch. These results suggest that shortened dental arch affects human brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus during gum chewing, and the decreased middle frontal gyrus activation may be associated with decreased masticatory function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reward sensitivity is associated with brain activity during erotic stimulus processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Victor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Fuentes, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Ávila, César

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral approach system (BAS) from Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory is a neurobehavioral system involved in the processing of rewarding stimuli that has been related to dopaminergic brain areas. Gray's theory hypothesizes that the functioning of reward brain areas is modulated by BAS-related traits. To test this hypothesis, we performed an fMRI study where participants viewed erotic and neutral pictures, and cues that predicted their appearance. Forty-five heterosexual men completed the Sensitivity to Reward scale (from the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire) to measure BAS-related traits. Results showed that Sensitivity to Reward scores correlated positively with brain activity during reactivity to erotic pictures in the left orbitofrontal cortex, left insula, and right ventral striatum. These results demonstrated a relationship between the BAS and reward sensitivity during the processing of erotic stimuli, filling the gap of previous reports that identified the dopaminergic system as a neural substrate for the BAS during the processing of other rewarding stimuli such as money and food.

  13. Reward sensitivity is associated with brain activity during erotic stimulus processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Costumero

    Full Text Available The behavioral approach system (BAS from Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory is a neurobehavioral system involved in the processing of rewarding stimuli that has been related to dopaminergic brain areas. Gray's theory hypothesizes that the functioning of reward brain areas is modulated by BAS-related traits. To test this hypothesis, we performed an fMRI study where participants viewed erotic and neutral pictures, and cues that predicted their appearance. Forty-five heterosexual men completed the Sensitivity to Reward scale (from the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire to measure BAS-related traits. Results showed that Sensitivity to Reward scores correlated positively with brain activity during reactivity to erotic pictures in the left orbitofrontal cortex, left insula, and right ventral striatum. These results demonstrated a relationship between the BAS and reward sensitivity during the processing of erotic stimuli, filling the gap of previous reports that identified the dopaminergic system as a neural substrate for the BAS during the processing of other rewarding stimuli such as money and food.

  14. Approach and withdrawal motivation in schizophrenia: an examination of frontal brain asymmetric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Wynn, Jonathan K; Mathis, Ian; Miller, Gregory A; Green, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational disturbances are common in schizophrenia, their neurophysiological and psychological basis is poorly understood. This electroencephalography (EEG) study examined the well-established motivational direction model of asymmetric frontal brain activity in schizophrenia. According to this model, relative left frontal activity in the resting EEG reflects enhanced approach motivation tendencies, whereas relative right frontal activity reflects enhanced withdrawal motivation tendencies. Twenty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls completed resting EEG assessments of frontal asymmetry in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz), as well as a self-report measure of behavioral activation and inhibition system (BIS/BAS) sensitivity. Patients showed an atypical pattern of differences from controls. On the EEG measure patients failed to show the left lateralized activity that was present in controls, suggesting diminished approach motivation. On the self-report measure, patients reported higher BIS sensitivity than controls, which is typically interpreted as heightened withdrawal motivation. EEG asymmetry scores did not significantly correlate with BIS/BAS scores or with clinical symptom ratings among patients. The overall pattern suggests a motivational disturbance in schizophrenia characterized by elements of both diminished approach and elevated withdrawal tendencies.

  15. Changes in brain activity in response to problem solving during the abstinence from online game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Jieun E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that addictive disorders including substance abuse and pathologic gambling might be associated with dysfunction on working memory and prefrontal activity. We hypothesized that excessive online game playing is associated with deficits in prefrontal cortex function and that recovery from excessive online game playing might improve prefrontal cortical activation in response to working memory stimulation. Thirteen adolescents with excessive online game playing (AEOP) and ten healthy adolescents (HC) agreed to participate in this study. The severity of online game play and playing time were evaluated for a baseline measurement and again following four weeks of treatment. Brain activation in response to working memory tasks (simple and complex calculations) at baseline and subsequent measurements was assessed using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Compared to the HC subjects, the AEOP participants exhibited significantly greater activity in the right middle occipital gyrus, left cerebellum posterior lobe, left premotor cortex and left middle temporal gyrus in response to working memory tasks during baseline measurements. After four weeks of treatment, the AEOP subjects showed increased activity within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left occipital fusiform gyrus. After four weeks of treatment, changes in the severity of online game playing were negatively correlated with changes in the mean β value of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in response to complex stimulation. We suggest that the effects of online game addiction on working memory may be similar to those observed in patients with substance dependence.

  16. Overview of non-pharmacological intervention for dementia and principles of brain-activating rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Maki, Yohko; Yamagami, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for dementia are likely to have an important role in delaying disease progression and functional decline. Research into non-pharmacological interventions has focused on the differentiation of each approach and a comparison of their effects. However, Cochrane Reviews on non-pharmacological interventions have noted the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of these interventions. The essence of non-pharmacological intervention is dependent of the patients, families, and therapists involved, with each situation inevitably being different. To obtain good results with non-pharmacological therapy, the core is not 'what' approach is taken but 'how' the therapists communicate with their patients. Here, we propose a new type of rehabilitation for dementia, namely brain-activating rehabilitation, that consists of five principles: (i) enjoyable and comfortable activities in an accepting atmosphere; (ii) activities associated with empathetic two-way communication between the therapist and patient, as well as between patients; (iii) therapists should praise patients to enhance motivation; (iv) therapists should try to offer each patient some social role that takes advantage of his/her remaining abilities; and (v) the activities should be based on errorless learning to ensure a pleasant atmosphere and to maintain a patient's dignity. The behavioral and cognitive status is not necessarily a reflection of pathological lesions in the brain; there is cognitive reserve for improvement. The aim of brain-activating rehabilitation is to enhance patients' motivation and maximize the use of their remaining function, recruiting a compensatory network, and preventing the disuse of brain function. The primary expected effect is that patients recover a desire for life, as well as their self-respect. Enhanced motivation can lead to improvements in cognitive function. Amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and improvements in

  17. Activity-based anorexia activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in distinct brain nuclei of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharner, Sophie; Prinz, Philip; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Lommel, Reinhard; Kobelt, Peter; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-12-15

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an established animal model for the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). The pathophysiology of AN and the involvement of food intake-regulatory peptides is still poorly understood. Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic peptide also involved in the mediation of stress, anxiety and depression might be a likely candidate involved in the pathogenesis of AN. Therefore, activation of nesfatin-1 immunoreactive (ir) brain nuclei was investigated under conditions of ABA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into four groups (n=6/group): activity-based anorexia (ABA), restricted feeding (RF), activity (AC) and ad libitum fed (AL). After the 21-day experimental period and development of ABA, brains were processed for c-Fos/nesfatin-1 double labeling immunohistochemistry. ABA increased the number of nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus and in the rostral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract compared to AL and AC groups (p0.05). Moreover, we observed significantly more c-Fos and nesfatin-1 ir double-labeled cells in ABA rats compared to RF, AL and AC in the supraoptic nucleus (p<0.05) and compared to AL and AC in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus and the rostral raphe pallidus (p<0.05). Since nesfatin-1 plays a role in the inhibition of food intake and the response to stress, we hypothesize that the observed changes of brain nesfatin-1 might play a role in the pathophysiology and symptomatology under conditions of ABA and potentially also in patients with AN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fior, L.; Nicolosi Correa, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Paschuk, S.A., E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Denyak, V.V. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim, 1632, Curitiba, PR 80250-200 (Brazil); Soreanu Pecequilo, B.R. [Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches, IPEN, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-/05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kappke, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 cm{sup 3} were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), and external hazard index (H{sub ext}) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radon activity in air related to building materials was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of activity concentration of building materials was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radium equivalent activity of

  19. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Hidekazu

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author)

  20. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Hidekazu (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author).

  1. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226 Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H 2 O, which allows one to identify the 222 Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10 5 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H 2 O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ( 226 Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222 Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  2. Global loss of acetylcholinesterase activity with mitochondrial complexes inhibition and inflammation in brain of hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajib; Borah, Anupom

    2017-12-20

    There exists an intricate relationship between hypercholesterolemia (elevated plasma cholesterol) and brain functions. The present study aims to understand the impact of hypercholesterolemia on pathological consequences in mouse brain. A chronic mouse model of hypercholesterolemia was induced by giving high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. The hypercholesterolemic mice developed cognitive impairment as evident from object recognition memory test. Cholesterol accumulation was observed in four discrete brain regions, such as cortex, striatum, hippocampus and substantia nigra along with significantly damaged blood-brain barrier by hypercholesterolemia. The crucial finding is the loss of acetylcholinesterase activity with mitochondrial dysfunction globally in the brain of hypercholesterolemic mice, which is related to the levels of cholesterol. Moreover, the levels of hydroxyl radical were elevated in the regions of brain where the activity of mitochondrial complexes was found to be reduced. Intriguingly, elevations of inflammatory stress markers in the cholesterol-rich brain regions were observed. As cognitive impairment, diminished brain acetylcholinesterase activity, mitochondrial dysfunctions, and inflammation are the prima facie pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases, the findings impose hypercholesterolemia as potential risk factor towards brain dysfunction.

  3. Distinct patterns of brain activity characterise lexical activation and competition in spoken word production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Piai

    Full Text Available According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat, unrelated (pin, or identical (dog. Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350-650 ms (4-10 Hz in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition.

  4. Brain activity and functional coupling changes associated with self-reference effect during both encoding and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Morel

    Full Text Available Information that is processed with reference to oneself, i.e. Self-Referential Processing (SRP, is generally associated with better remembering compared to information processed in a condition not related to oneself. This positive effect of the self on subsequent memory performance is called as Self-Reference Effect (SRE. The neural basis of SRE is still poorly understood. The main goal of the present work was thus to highlight brain changes associated with SRE in terms of activity and functional coupling and during both encoding and retrieval so as to assess the relative contribution of both processes to SRE. For this purpose, we used an fMRI event-related self-referential paradigm in 30 healthy young subjects and measured brain activity during both encoding and retrieval of self-relevant information compared to a semantic control condition. We found that SRE was associated with brain changes during the encoding phase only, including both greater activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and greater functional coupling between these brain regions and the posterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of brain regions involved in both SRP and episodic memory and the relevance of the communication between these regions during the encoding process as the neural substrates of SRE. This is consistent with the idea that SRE reflects a positive effect of the reactivation of self-related memories on the encoding of new information in episodic memory.

  5. Brain activation and inhibition after acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi: resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-qun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can induce changes in the brain. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on a single acupoint at a time. In the present study, we observed activity changes in the brains of healthy volunteers before and after acupuncture at Taichong (LR3 and Taixi (KI3 using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 15 minutes before acupuncture, then received acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi using the nail-pressing needle insertion method, after which the needle was retained in place for 30 minutes. Fifteen minutes after withdrawal of the needle, the volunteers underwent a further session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, a measure of spontaneous neuronal activity, increased mainly in the cerebral occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18/19, inferior occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18 and cuneus (Brodmann area 18, but decreased mainly in the gyrus rectus of the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 11, inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44 and the center of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The present findings indicate that acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi specifically promote blood flow and activation in the brain areas related to vision, emotion and cognition, and inhibit brain areas related to emotion, attention, phonological and semantic processing, and memory.

  6. Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Aboo-Bakkar, Zainie; Conway, Myra E; Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Fulford, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation, and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 mL blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5 ± 3.0 y; body mass index, 25.9 ± 3.3 kg·m -2 ) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ± 3.3 y; body mass index, 27.1 ± 4.0 kg·m -2 ). Pre- and postsupplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanner while functional magnetic resonance images were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p = 0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin-rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults.

  7. Brain activation and inhibition after acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi: resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Qun; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Chen, Jun-Qi; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Li, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Jia-Rong; Ouyang, Huai-Liang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chun-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Acupuncture can induce changes in the brain. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on a single acupoint at a time. In the present study, we observed activity changes in the brains of healthy volunteers before and after acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Taixi (KI3) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 15 minutes before acupuncture, then received acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi using the nail-pressing needle insertion method, after which the needle was retained in place for 30 minutes. Fifteen minutes after withdrawal of the needle, the volunteers underwent a further session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, a measure of spontaneous neuronal activity, increased mainly in the cerebral occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18/19), inferior occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18) and cuneus (Brodmann area 18), but decreased mainly in the gyrus rectus of the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 11), inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44) and the center of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The present findings indicate that acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi specifically promote blood flow and activation in the brain areas related to vision, emotion and cognition, and inhibit brain areas related to emotion, attention, phonological and semantic processing, and memory.

  8. Abnormal neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long-Chun; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Yue; Zhang, Min-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Ma, Hua; Zhao, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Guang-Yu

    2017-10-13

    The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods. We exerted the stimulating signal to the primary auditory cortices of the virtual brain and observed the brain region activations. We found that patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss presented weaker brain region activations in the auditory and language networks, but enhanced neural activities in the default mode network as compared with normally hearing subjects. Especially, the right cerebral hemisphere presented more changes than the left. Additionally, weaker neural activities in the primary auditor cortices were also strongly associated with poorer cognitive performance. Finally, causal analysis revealed several interactional circuits among activated brain regions, and these interregional causal interactions implied that abnormal neural activities of the directional brain networks in the deaf patients impacted cognitive function.

  9. SPECT assessment of brain activation induced by caffeine: no effect on areas involved in dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Namer, Izzie J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is not considered addictive, and in animals it does not trigger metabolic increases or dopamine release in brain areas involved in reinforcement and reward. Our objective was to measure caffeine effects on cerebral perfusion in humans using single photon emission computed tomography with a specific focus on areas of reinforcement and reward. Two groups of nonsmoking subjects were studied, one with a low (8 subjects) and one with a high (6 subjects) daily coffee consumption. The subjects ingested 3 mg/kg caffeine or placebo in a raspberry-tasting drink, and scans were performed 45 min after ingestion. A control group of 12 healthy volunteers receiving no drink was also studied. Caffeine consumption led to a generalized, statistically nonsignificant perfusion decrease of 6% to 8%, comparable in low and high consumers. Compared with controls, low consumers displayed neuronal activation bilaterally in inferior frontal gyrus-anterior insular cortex and uncus, left internal parietal cortex, right lingual gyrus, and cerebellum. In high consumers, brain activation occurred bilaterally only in hypothalamus. Thus, on a background of widespread low-amplitude perfusion decrease, caffeine activates a few regions mainly involved in the control of vigilance, anxiety, and cardiovascular regulation, but does not affect areas involved in reinforcing and reward.

  10. Soybean and tempeh total isoflvones improved antioxidant activities in normal and scopolamine-induced rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the comparative studies between total isoflavone extracts from soybean and tempeh on the neuronal oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. Methods: The total isoflavones were administered orally for 15 days with 3 selected doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Piracetam (400 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a drug that promoted amnesia in selected groups. The oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide were measured in brain homogenate. The antioxidant activities evaluated were catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione. Results: Our results showed that soybean and tempeh isoflavones significantly improved the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione while decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide in both the brain of normal as well as scopolamine-induced animals. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that soybean and tempeh isoflavones could be useful in the management and prevention of age-related neurodegenerative changes including Alzheimer’s disease through its antioxidant activities.

  11. Localized brain activation related to the strength of auditory learning in a parrot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Eda-Fujiwara

    Full Text Available Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory.

  12. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  13. Prompt gamma-ray spectrometry for measurement of B-10 concentration in brain tissue and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumoto, Keizo; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Boron-10 (B-10) concentration in the brain tissue and blood was measured continuously for 24 hours after injection of the B-10 compound in live rabbits using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. Following injection of B-10 compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, 50mg/kg) dissolved in physiological saline, B-10 concentration was continuously measured in the brain tissue. Intermittently the concentration of B-10 in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. In 10 minutes after the injection of B-10 compound, the level of B-10 concentration reached the peak of 400-500 ppm in blood and 20-30 ppm in the normal brain tissue. In 60 minutes the level of B-10 concentration rapidly decreased and then a gradual decline was observed. The value was 15-30 ppm at 3 hours after injection, 5-10 ppm at 6 hours and 2-5 ppm at 24 hours in the blood. The concentration in the brain tissue was 3-8 ppm at 3 hours, 2-5 ppm at 6 hours and below 1.5 ppm at 24 hours. B-10 concentration in cerebro-spinal fluid was below 1 ppm. B-10 concentration was also measured in the brain tumor and blood in the human cases at boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). These data studied by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry are very important and useful to decide the irradiation time. (author)

  14. The assessment of changes in brain volume using combined linear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Steiner, I.; Melamed, E.; Cooper, G.

    1984-01-01

    All linear measurements employed for evaluation of brain atrophy, were performed on 148 computed tomograms of patients aged 28 to 84 without evidence of any nervous system disorder. These included size of lateral, third and fourth ventricles, width of the Sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and cortical sulci and size of the pre-pontine cistern. Various parameters indicated decrease in brain mass with age. Since the atrophic process is a diffuse phenomenon, integration of several measurements evaluating separate brain regions was made. The bicaudate ratio and the Sylvian fissure ratio (representing both central and cortical atrophy) were combined arithmetically, resulting in a correlation of 0.6390 with age (p<0.0005). With a computed canonical correlation analysis: a formula was obtained which combined measurements of the lateral and third ventricles, the Sylvian fissure and the pre-pontine cistern. This formula yealded a correlation of 0.67795 (p<0.0005). These linear measurements will enable simple and reliable assessment of reduction in brain volume during the normal aging process and in disorders accompanied by brain atrophy. (orig.)

  15. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Pan; Wei Pan; Wei Pan; Xuemei Gao; Shuo Shi; Fuqu Liu; Chao Li

    2018-01-01

    A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used the...

  16. Efficacy and toxicity in brain tumor treatment - quantitative Measurements using advanced MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Søren

    2016-01-01

    From the clinical introduction in the 1980s, MRI has grown to become an indispensable brain imaging modality, mainly due to its excellent ability to visualize soft tissues. Morphologically, T1- and T2-weighted brain tumor MRI have been part of routine diagnostic radiology for more than two decades...... with the introduction of magnets with higher field strength. Ongoing technical development has enabled a change from semiquantitative measurements to a true quantitative approach. This step is expected to have a great impact on the treatment of brain tumor patients in the future. The aim of this Ph.D. dissertation...... was to explore how different advanced MRI techniques could contribute to a higher degree of individualized treatment of brain tumor patients. The thesis is based on three studies in which advanced MRI is used to evaluate the possible role of fMRI in presurgical planning, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI...

  17. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in hydrocephalus measured by MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Gjerris, F

    1994-01-01

    We used MR imaging to measure the apparent brain water self-diffusion in 5 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), in 2 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and in 8 age-matched controls. In all patients with NPH significant elevations of the apparent diffusion coefficients...... white matter, and in one patient reexamined one year after surgery, ADCs were unchanged in nearly all brain regions. The increased ADC values in hydrocephalus patients may be caused by factors such as changes in myelin-associated bound water, increased Virchow-Robin spaces, and increased extracellular...... brain water fraction. For further studies of brain water diffusion in hydrocephalus patients, echo-planar imaging techniques with imaging times of a few seconds may be valuable....

  18. Altered Coupling between Motion-Related Activation and Resting-State Brain Activity in the Ipsilesional Sensorimotor Cortex after Cerebral Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity maps using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI can closely resemble task fMRI activation patterns, suggesting that resting-state brain activity may predict task-evoked activation or behavioral performance. However, this conclusion was mostly drawn upon a healthy population. It remains unclear whether the predictive ability of resting-state brain activity for task-evoked activation would change under different pathological conditions. This study investigated dynamic changes of coupling between patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and motion-related activation in different stages of cerebral stroke. Twenty stroke patients with hand motor function impairment were involved. rs-fMRI and hand motion-related fMRI data were acquired in the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of cerebral stroke on a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR scanner. Sixteen healthy participants were enrolled as controls. For each subject, an activation map of the affected hand was first created using general linear model analysis on task fMRI data, and then an RSFC map was determined by seeding at the peak region of hand motion activation during the intact hand task. We then measured the extent of coupling between the RSFC maps and motion-related activation maps. Dynamic changes of the coupling between the two fMRI maps were estimated using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance across the three stages. Moreover, imaging parameters were correlated with motor performances. Data analysis showed that there were different coupling patterns between motion-related activation and RSFC maps associating with the affected motor regions during the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of stroke. Coupling strengths increased as the recovery from stroke progressed. Coupling strengths were correlated with hand motion performance in the acute stage, while coupling recovery was negatively correlated with the recovery

  19. Differences in activity of cytochrome C oxidase in brain between sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, Elena V; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Zhang, Lin; Cater, Jacqueline R; Galante, Raymond J; Ward, Stephen E; Avadhani, Narayan G; Pack, Allan I

    2005-01-01

    Increased mRNA level of subunit 1 cytochrome c oxidase (COXI) during wakefulness and after short-term sleep deprivation has been described in brain. We hypothesized that this might contribute to increased activity of cytochrome oxidase (COX) enzyme during wakefulness, as part of the mechanisms to provide sufficient amounts of adenosine triphosphate to meet increased neuronal energy demands. COX activity was measured in isolated mitochondria from different brain regions in groups of rats with 3 hours of spontaneous sleep, 3 hours of spontaneous wake, and 3 hours of sleep deprivation. The group with 3 hours of spontaneous wake was added to delineate the circadian component of changes in the enzyme activity. Northern blot analysis was performed to examine the mRNA levels of 2 subunits of the enzyme COXI and COXIV, encoded by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, respectively. Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Animal Biology, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania. 2-month-old male Fischer rats (N = 21) implanted for polygraphic recording. For COX activity, there was a main effect by analysis of variance of experimental group (P sleep-deprived groups as compared to the sleep group. A main effect of brain region was also significant (P sleep. There is an increase in COX activity after both 3 hours of spontaneous wake and 3 hours of sleep deprivation as compared with 3 hours of spontaneous sleep in diverse brain regions, which could be, in part, explained by the increased levels of bigenomic transcripts of the enzyme. This likely contributes to increased adenosine triphosphate production during wakefulness. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; COXI, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mRNA; COX, cytochrome c oxidase (protein); CREB, cyclic AMP response element binding protein; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; EEG, electroencephalography; EMG, electromyography; GABP, GA binding

  20. A simple non-invasive method for measuring gross brain size in small live fish with semi-transparent heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Näslund

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive method for estimating gross brain size in small fish with semi-transparent heads, using system camera equipment. Macro-photographs were taken from above on backlit free-swimming fish undergoing light anaesthesia. From the photographs, the width of the optic tectum was measured. This measure (TeO-measure correlates well with the width of the optic tectum as measured from out-dissected brains in both brown trout fry and zebrafish (Pearson r > 0.90. The TeO-measure also correlates well with overall brain wet weight in brown trout fry (r = 0.90, but less well for zebrafish (r = 0.79. A non-invasive measure makes it possible to quickly assess brain size from a large number of individuals, as well as repeatedly measuring brain size of live individuals allowing calculation of brain growth.

  1. Measuring Glial Metabolism in Repetitive Brain Trauma and Alzheimers Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    4: Correlate the glial and glutamate metabolic rates with additional measures obtained in the parent studies including of a) serum, CSF, and genetic...resonances as a linear combination model. Note the high SNR of glutamate and its separation from other metabolites that would overlap at 3 Tesla. 3.3... separate protocol offered to participants in the study but will not be mandatory and thus will not impact this study in any way. 3.4. Results

  2. The relation of ongoing brain activity, evoked neural responses, and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sadaghiani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing brain activity has been observed since the earliest neurophysiological recordings and is found over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. It is characterized by remarkably large spontaneous modulations. Here, we review evidence for the functional role of these ongoing activity fluctuations and argue that they constitute an essential property of the neural architecture underlying cognition. The role of spontaneous activity fluctuations is probably best understood when considering both their spatiotemporal structure and their functional impact on cognition. We first briefly argue against a ‘segregationist’ view on ongoing activity, both in time and space, countering this view with an emphasis on integration within a hierarchical spatiotemporal organization of intrinsic activity. We then highlight the flexibility and context-sensitivity of intrinsic functional connectivity that suggest its involvement in functionally relevant information processing. This role in information processing is pursued by reviewing how ongoing brain activity interacts with afferent and efferent information exchange of the brain with its environment. We focus on the relationship between the variability of ongoing and evoked brain activity, and review recent reports that tie ongoing brain activity fluctuations to variability in human perception and behavior. Finally, these observations are discussed within the framework of the free-energy principle which – applied to human brain function - provides a theoretical account for a non-random, coordinated interaction of ongoing and evoked activity in perception and behaviour.

  3. Physical activity, structural brain changes and cognitive decline. The SMART-MR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.; Boss, H.M.; van der Graaf, Y.; Kappelle, L.J.; Biessels, G.J.; Geerlings, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to examine the cross-sectional and prospective relationship between leisure time physical activity, brain MRI abnormalities and cognitive performance in patients with vascular disease. Methods: Within the SMART-MR study, 1.5T MRI of the brain and neuropsychological examinations

  4. Modeling the dynamics of human brain activity with recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güçlü, U.; Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Encoding models are used for predicting brain activity in response to sensory stimuli with the objective of elucidating how sensory information is represented in the brain. Encoding models typically comprise a nonlinear transformation of stimuli to features (feature model) and a linear convolution

  5. Evening dietary tryptophan improves post-sleep behavioral and brain measures of memory function in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Jonkman, L.M.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Deutz, N.E.P.

    2006-01-01

    Brain serotonin function has been implicated in the control of sleep and sleep related memory dysfunctions are attributed to deficient brain serotonin activity. Depletion of the serotonin precursor tryptophan reduces brain serotonin function and is found to cause sleep abnormalities and cognitive

  6. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-08-28

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.

  7. Activation of caspase-3 in radioinduced apoptosis in developing brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, Severino C.; Perez, Maria del R.; Gisone, Pablo; Dubner, Diana

    2001-01-01

    ICE/ced-3 related proteases (caspases) have been implicated in programmed cell death in a wide variety of cell types. However, their roles in radiation-induced cell death in cultures of mixed, neuronal and glial precursors cells are poorly understood. In order to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation induced death in this system; we have examined the ability of ionizing radiation to induce cell death and the caspase-3 activity. Survival decreased in a dose-dependent manner 24 h after a single 0,1 to 4 Gy dose of ionizing radiation. Irradiation resulted in a significant induction in caspase-3 activity, as measured by increased cleavage of colorimetric caspase substrates. Specific inhibitor of caspase-3, zDEVD-fmk, protected only partially from radiation induced cell death. These results demonstrate that cell death occurred despite of caspase-3 inhibition, and suggest that radio-induced cell death may occur by other mechanisms. (author)

  8. Rapid intranasal delivery of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in the active form to different brain regions as a model for enzyme therapy in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appu, Abhilash P; Arun, Peethambaran; Krishnan, Jishnu K S; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2016-02-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is critical for maintaining central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis by restricting entry of potentially toxic substances. However, the BBB is a major obstacle in the treatment of neurotoxicity and neurological disorders due to the restrictive nature of the barrier to many medications. Intranasal delivery of active enzymes to the brain has therapeutic potential for the treatment of numerous CNS enzyme deficiency disorders and CNS toxicity caused by chemical threat agents. The aim of this work is to provide a sensitive model system for analyzing the rapid delivery of active enzymes into various regions of the brain with therapeutic bioavailability. We tested intranasal delivery of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), a relatively large (75kD) enzyme, in its active form into different regions of the brain. CAT was delivered intranasally to anaesthetized rats and enzyme activity was measured in different regions using a highly specific High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HP-TLC)-radiometry coupled assay. Active enzyme reached all examined areas of the brain within 15min (the earliest time point tested). In addition, the yield of enzyme activity in the brain was almost doubled in the brains of rats pre-treated with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Intranasal administration of active enzymes in conjunction with MMP-9 to the CNS is both rapid and effective. The present results suggest that intranasal enzyme therapy is a promising method for counteracting CNS chemical threat poisoning, as well as for treating CNS enzyme deficiency disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Brain activity associated with translation from a visual to a symbolic representation in algebra and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Waisman, Ilana; Shaul, Shelley; Leikin, Roza

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a small part of a larger interdisciplinary study that investigates brain activity (using event related potential methodology) of male adolescents when solving mathematical problems of different types. The study design links mathematics education research with neurocognitive studies. In this paper we performed a comparative analysis of brain activity associated with the translation from visual to symbolic representations of mathematical objects in algebra and geometry. Algebraic tasks require translation from graphical to symbolic representation of a function, whereas tasks in geometry require translation from a drawing of a geometric figure to a symbolic representation of its property. The findings demonstrate that electrical activity associated with the performance of geometrical tasks is stronger than that associated with solving algebraic tasks. Additionally, we found different scalp topography of the brain activity associated with algebraic and geometric tasks. Based on these results, we argue that problem solving in algebra and geometry is associated with different patterns of brain activity.

  10. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework

  11. Estimation of brain activation in response to major and minor scales by fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Takuya; Nemoto, Iku

    2011-01-01

    We made fMRI measurements of the brain responses to major and minor scales which are the fundamental elements for making melodies in music. In addition, we used an arpeggio of diminished 7th. For a control stimulus, we provided a sequence of repeated single tones. The ascending scales of 12 major and 12 minor keys were made starting from F no.3 to F4. Each scale was 3 s in duration. A 3 s scan was performed 2-3 s (randomized) after a scale has been finished and repeated every 14 s (sparse time scanning). Typically, major scales activated the left inferior frontal gyrus, minor scales the posterior cingulate gyrus and the diminished arpeggio the left auditory cortex. In general, the left hemisphere was more activated than usually seen in responses to music. (author)

  12. Mapping of functional activity in brain with 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.; Greenberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of using the 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose ( 18 F-DG) for measuring regional cerebral glucose utilization in man during functional activation is demonstrated. Normal male volunteers subjected to sensory stimuli (visual, auditory, tactile) exhibited focal increases in glucose metabolism in response to the stimulus. Unilateral visual hemifield stimulation caused the contralateral striate cortex to become more active metabolically than the striate cortex ipsilateral to the stimulated hemifield. Similarly, stroking of the fingers and hand of one arm with a brush produced an increase in metabolism in the contralateral postcentral gyrus compared to the homologous ipsilateral region. The auditory stimulus, which consisted of monaural listening to either a meaningful or nonmeaningful story, caused an increase in glucose metabolism in the right temporal cortex independent of which ear was stimulated. These results demonstrate that the 18 F-DG technique is capable of providing functional maps in vivo in the human brain

  13. Secondary hyperalgesia phenotypes exhibit differences in brain activation during noxious stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Werner, Mads Utke

    2015-01-01

    of the burn-injury) (p right (p = 0.001) and left caudate nucleus (p = 0.01) was detected....... To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47 °C, 7 min......, 9 cm(2)) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary...

  14. Light Stimulation Properties to Influence Brain Activity: A Brain-CoMputer Interface application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieger, J.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) enable people to control appliances without involving the normal output pathways of peripheral nervesand muscles. A particularly promising type of BCI is based on the Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Users can selectcommands by focusing their attention

  15. N-3 fatty acids, neuronal activity and energy metabolism in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbeby Emilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in brain membranes is of crucial importance for the optimum development of brain functions. A lack of DHA accretion in the brain is accompanied by deficits in learning behavior linked to impairments in neurotransmission processes, which might result from alteration of brain fuel supply and hence energy metabolism. Experimental data we published support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may modulate brain glucose utilization and metabolism. Indeed rats made deficient in DHA by severe depletion of total n-3 fatty acid intake have 1 a lower brain glucose utilization, 2 a decrease of the glucose transporter protein content GLUT1 both in endothelial cells and in astrocytes, 3 a repression of GLUT1 gene expression in basal state as well as upon neuronal activation. This could be due to the specific action