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Sample records for measure cuttings concentration

  1. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  2. The Impact of Feeding Diets of High or Low Energy Concentration on Carcass Measurements and the Weight of Primal and Subprimal Lean Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pigs from four sire lines were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.15 to 3.21 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal-based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.41 to 3.45 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Barrows (N = 2,178 and gilts (N = 2,274 were fed either high energy (HE or low energy (LE diets from 27 kg BW to target BWs of 118, 127, 131.5 and 140.6 kg. Carcass primal and subprimal cut weights were collected. The cut weights and carcass measurements were fitted to allometric functions (Y = A CWB of carcass weight. The significance of diet, sex or sire line with A and B was evaluated by linearizing the equations by log to log transformation. The effect of diet on A and B did not interact with sex or sire line. Thus, the final model was B where Diet = −0.5 for the LE and 0.5 for HE diets and A and B are sire line-sex specific parameters. cut weight = (1+bD(Diet A(CW Diet had no affect on loin, Boston butt, picnic, baby back rib, or sparerib weights (p>0.10, bD = −0.003, −0.0029, 0.0002, 0.0047, −0.0025, respectively. Diet affected ham weight (bD = −0.0046, p = 0.01, belly weight (bD = 0.0188, p = 0.001 three-muscle ham weight (bD = −0.014, p = 0.001, boneless loin weight (bD = −0.010, p = 0.001, tenderloin weight (bD = −0.023, p = 0.001, sirloin weight (bD = −0.009, p = 0.034, and fat-free lean mass (bD = −0.0145, p = 0.001. Overall, feeding the LE diets had little impact on primal cut weight except to decrease belly weight. Feeding LE diets increased the weight of lean trimmed cuts by 1 to 2 percent at the same carcass weight.

  3. Predicting the Concentration Characteristics of Itakpe Iron Ore for cut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: Concentration characteristics of an ore are very critical to the estimation of cut-off grade of a ... enormous financial cost of laboratory analysis and time required for such .... Arua A.I. (1997) Fundamentals of statistics, Publisher,.

  4. Effects of cutting and maturity on lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomatoes during storage at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Dekker, M.; Linssen, R.F.A.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits at different stages of maturity were cut into 7 mm slices and stored at temperatures varying from 2°C to 16°C. To assess the effect of cutting, intact fruit were stored in an additional experiment

  5. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  6. Radioactive wear measurements of cutting tools made of metal in cutting aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of making quick checkings of the inhomogeneities of turning materials with radioactive wear measurements has been tested. After activation analysis of the long-lived radioisotopes of cutting tools made of hard metal a method for loss-free collection of the turnings has been developed. The detection limit of the abrasion is about 10 -8 g, the measuring times are 5-10 minutes. Special radiation protection measures are not necessary. An analysis of the abrasion showed that at the beginning of cutting the amount of cobalt is 6 times higher than in the normal composition of the used cutting tools. (author)

  7. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  8. Cutting force measurement of electrical jigsaw by strain gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazup, L; Varadine Szarka, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a measuring method based on strain gauges for accurate specification of electric jigsaw's cutting force. The goal of the measurement is to provide an overall perspective about generated forces in a jigsaw's gearbox during a cutting period. The lifetime of the tool is affected by these forces primarily. This analysis is part of the research and development project aiming to develop a special linear magnetic brake for realizing automatic lifetime tests of electric jigsaws or similar handheld tools. The accurate specification of cutting force facilitates to define realistic test cycles during the automatic lifetime test. The accuracy and precision resulted by the well described cutting force characteristic and the possibility of automation provide new dimension for lifetime testing of the handheld tools with alternating movement. (paper)

  9. A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.

  10. Using laser to measure stem thickness and cut weed stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Andreasen, C.

    2002-01-01

    Stem thickness of the weed Solanum nigrum and the crop sugarbeet was determined with a He-Ne laser using a novel non-destructive technique measuring stem shadow. Thereafter, the stems were cut close to the soil surface with a CO2 laser. Treatments were carried out on pot plants, grown....... A binary model was also tested. The non-linear model incorporating stem thickness described the data best, indicating that it would be possible to optimize laser cutting by measuring stem thickness before cutting. The general tendency was that more energy was needed the thicker the stem. Energy uses...... in the greenhouse, at two different growth stages, and plant dry matter was measured 2-5 weeks after treatment. The relationship between plant dry weight and laser energy was analysed using two different non-linear dose-response regression models; one model included stem thickness as a variable, the other did not...

  11. Dew point measurement technique utilizing fiber cut reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Dikevich, A. A.; Korkishko, Yu. N.; Fedorov, V. A.

    2009-05-01

    The fiber optical dew point hygrometer based on change of reflection coefficient for fiber cut has been developed and examined. We proposed and verified the model of condensation detector functioning principle. Experimental frost point measurements on air with different frost points have been performed.

  12. Thermographic measurements of high-speed metal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Bernhard; Renz, Ulrich

    2002-03-01

    Thermographic measurements of a high-speed cutting process have been performed with an infrared camera. To realize images without motion blur the integration times were reduced to a few microseconds. Since the high tool wear influences the measured temperatures a set-up has been realized which enables small cutting lengths. Only single images have been recorded because the process is too fast to acquire a sequence of images even with the frame rate of the very fast infrared camera which has been used. To expose the camera when the rotating tool is in the middle of the camera image an experimental set-up with a light barrier and a digital delay generator with a time resolution of 1 ns has been realized. This enables a very exact triggering of the camera at the desired position of the tool in the image. Since the cutting depth is between 0.1 and 0.2 mm a high spatial resolution was also necessary which was obtained by a special close-up lens allowing a resolution of app. 45 microns. The experimental set-up will be described and infrared images and evaluated temperatures of a titanium alloy and a carbon steel will be presented for cutting speeds up to 42 m/s.

  13. Measurement Of Multiphase Flow Water Fraction And Water-cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cheng-gang

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes a microwave transmission multiphase flow water-cut meter that measures the amplitude attenuation and phase shift across a pipe diameter at multiple frequencies using cavity-backed antennas. The multiphase flow mixture permittivity and conductivity are derived from a unified microwave transmission model for both water- and oil-continuous flows over a wide water-conductivity range; this is far beyond the capability of microwave-resonance-based sensors currently on the market. The water fraction and water cut are derived from a three-component gas-oil-water mixing model using the mixture permittivity or the mixture conductivity and an independently measured mixture density. Water salinity variations caused, for example, by changing formation water or formation/injection water breakthrough can be detected and corrected using an online water-conductivity tracking technique based on the interpretation of the mixture permittivity and conductivity, simultaneously measured by a single-modality microwave sensor.

  14. Rooting Ability of Melia volkensii Cuttings Under Different Auxin Concentration Levels and Provenances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeba, V.O; Muok, B.; Odee, D

    2007-01-01

    Melia volkensii is one of the most popular fast growing agro-forestry tree species in East Africa's arid and semi arid lands. It is valued for for production of termite resistant timber. Kenya Forestry Research Institute is carrying out studies on management, improvement and domestication of species with a major focus on improving low germination mortality and other propagation methods. Vegetative propagation was investigated in order to supplement more seedlings for increased demand of the species. The objective of this study was to determine and predict the effect of varying levels of auxin concentrations on rooting of melia volkensii shoot cuttings under different provenances. The experiment was set in a split plot design and conducted in a non-mist propagator. The number of roots was recorded for every cutting in the experiment. Mean cumulative cutting percentage were analysed using ANOVA procedures by first checking homogeneity of variance; Pearson correlation were carried out to check the interrelation of the factors with rooting and Logistic ability of the cuttings. The results showed that cuttings inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 s ignificantly (p n ot showing any rooting from three provenances. In conclusion 0.03 mgl-1 s hould be used for further vegetative propagation of M. vokensii. Cutting from Taveta inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 w ould significantly increase the number of seedlings for planting

  15. The Cut-off Value of Blood Mercury Concentration in Relation to Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased blood mercury concentration is associated with inflammation, and chronic inflammation can cause insulin resistance. We examined the cut-off value of blood mercury in relation to an increased score on the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods : We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010. Relevant data from 5,184 subjects (2,523 men and 2,661 women were analyzed cross-sectionally. General linear analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration. In addition, we determined the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased HOMA-IR score (> 2.34 using an ROC curve. Results : The mean value of blood mercury concentration in men and women was 5.88 μg/L and 4.11 μg/L, respectively. In men, comparing to the first quartile, HOMA-IR score increased significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles. In women, however, the increase in HOMA-IR score was not significant. The cut-off value that best represented the association between increased HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration in men was found to be 4.71 μg/L. Conclusion : Blood mercury concentration was associated with increased HOMA-IR score in men, and the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration that was correlated with increased HOMA-IR score was around 4.71 μg/L.

  16. Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavlů, Vilém

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

  17. On-line fresh-cut lettuce quality measurement system using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce, which is a main type of fresh-cut vegetable, has been used in various fresh-cut products. In this study, an online quality measurement system for detecting foreign substances on the fresh-cut lettuce was developed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The online detection system with a s...

  18. Measurement of secondary emissions during laser cutting of steel equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilot, Guy [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: guy.pilot@irsn.fr; Fauvel, Sylvain [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gosse, Xavier [AREVA NC, Centre de Marcoule, 30200 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Dinechin, Guillaume de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DM2S/SEMT, Saclay, Bat. 611, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Vernhet, Didier [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/VRH/UMODD, Centre de Valrho, BP 17171, 20207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-08-15

    In order to dismantle some equipments of an obsolete reprocessing plant in Marcoule, studies were carried out by IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire)/DSU/SERAC in cooperation with CEA (power laser group) on the laser cutting of steel structures, on the request of AREVA NC/Marcoule (UP1 dismantling project manager) and CEA/UMODD (UP1 dismantling owner). These studies were aimed at: {center_dot}quantifying and characterizing the secondary emissions produced by Nd-YAG laser cutting of Uranus 65 steel pieces and examining the influence of different parameters, {center_dot}qualifying a prefiltration technique and particularly an electrostatic precipitator, {center_dot}comparing the Nd-YAG laser used with other cutting tools previously studied especially on aerosol production and aerosol size distribution.

  19. Dismantling of Evaporators by Laser Cutting Measurement of Secondary Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, Guy; Fauvel, Sylvain; Gosse, Xavier; De Dinechin, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    In order to dismantle the evaporators of an obsolete reprocessing plant in Marcoule, studies were carried out by IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire) / DSU/SERAC in cooperation with CEA (power laser group) on the laser cutting of steel structures, on the request of COGEMA (now AREVA NC) /Marcoule (UP1 dismantling project manager) and CEA/UMODD (UP1 dismantling owner). The aim of these studies was: - to quantify and to characterize the secondary emissions produced by Nd-YAG laser cutting of Uranus 65 steel pieces representative of UP1 evaporator elements and to examine the influence of different parameters, - to qualify a pre-filtration technique and particularly an electrostatic precipitator, - to compare the Nd-YAG used with other cutting tools previously studied. The experiments, which took place in a 35 m 3 ventilated cutting cell, allow to underline the following points: for the Uranus 65 steel, the sedimented dross, the deposits on the walls of the cutting cell and the aerosols drawn in the ventilation exhaust duct (∼ 275 m 3 /h), represent respectively between 92% and 99%, between 0.01% and 0.25% and between 1% and 8% of the total collected mass, the attached slag varies much from one configuration to the other and can sometimes amount to a relatively important fraction of the total mass, the kerves vary from 2 mm up to 7 mm for the Uranus 65 steel plates (thickness: 13.8 mm for the single plate and 12.8 + 3.5 mm for the double plate), the exhausted aerosol mass per cut length (g/m) decreases with the cutting speed, varies neither with the stand-off nor with the gas pressure, is dependent upon the gas nature (for the double plate), increases with the laser power, is strongly affected by the nature of the steel (stainless steel or mild steel) and is independent upon the plate position, the size distribution of aerosols is multimodal with a main mode often around 0.45 μm, the electrostatic precipitator has been a satisfactory prefilter

  20. Can semiquantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values differentiate colorectal malignant from benign lessions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , which also precludes a clinically significant cut-off value. The same applies to SUVpeak and SUVmean while TLG measures may be more indicative. CONCLUSION: Semi-quantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values proved inadequate for differentiating colorectal malignancies from benign findings...

  1. Recalculation of measured fuel nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and concentration ratios of heavy fuel nuclides determined in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research Rossendorf on the basis of destructive burnup measurements are compared with the results of microburnup calculations. The possibility is discussed to improve the results by taking into account the spectral characteristics at the positions of the measuring samples. (author)

  2. A High Performance Sensor for Triaxial Cutting Force Measurement in Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high performance triaxial cutting force sensor with excellent accuracy, favorable natural frequency and acceptable cross-interference for high speed turning process. Octagonal ring is selected as sensitive element of the designed sensor, which is drawn inspiration from ring theory. A novel structure of two mutual-perpendicular octagonal rings is proposed and three Wheatstone full bridge circuits are specially organized in order to obtain triaxial cutting force components and restrain cross-interference. Firstly, the newly developed sensor is tested in static calibration; test results indicate that the sensor possesses outstanding accuracy in the range of 0.38%–0.83%. Secondly, impacting modal tests are conducted to identify the natural frequencies of the sensor in triaxial directions (i.e., 1147 Hz, 1122 Hz and 2035 Hz, which implies that the devised sensor can be used for cutting force measurement in a high speed lathe when the spindle speed does not exceed 17,205 rev/min in continuous cutting condition. Finally, an application of the sensor in turning process is operated to show its performance for real-time cutting force measurement; the measured cutting forces demonstrate a good accordance with the variation of cutting parameters. Thus, the developed sensor possesses perfect properties and it gains great potential for real-time cutting force measurement in turning.

  3. A new diagnostic accuracy measure and cut-point selection criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tuochuan; Attwood, Kristopher; Hutson, Alan; Liu, Song; Tian, Lili

    2017-12-01

    Most diagnostic accuracy measures and criteria for selecting optimal cut-points are only applicable to diseases with binary or three stages. Currently, there exist two diagnostic measures for diseases with general k stages: the hypervolume under the manifold and the generalized Youden index. While hypervolume under the manifold cannot be used for cut-points selection, generalized Youden index is only defined upon correct classification rates. This paper proposes a new measure named maximum absolute determinant for diseases with k stages ([Formula: see text]). This comprehensive new measure utilizes all the available classification information and serves as a cut-points selection criterion as well. Both the geometric and probabilistic interpretations for the new measure are examined. Power and simulation studies are carried out to investigate its performance as a measure of diagnostic accuracy as well as cut-points selection criterion. A real data set from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative is analyzed using the proposed maximum absolute determinant.

  4. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  5. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  6. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-12

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  7. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M. Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining. PMID:25587976

  8. Dependence of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varietis on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Б. Кутовенко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the variability of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties depending on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1. Methods. Field study, biometric technique, comparative approach, statistical evaluation, generalization. Results. Dependence of the plant height, the diameter of the leaf rosette, the number of leaves per plant, the leaf area of plants on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1 was defined. Investigations of cutting lettuce ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varieties by Dutch breeding were conducted in 2016–2017 in the collection sites of the department of vegetable growing in the scientific-experimental field  “Fruit and vegetable garden” of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. In order to determine dependence of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce varieties on the concentration of complex microfertilizer Avatar-1, the following scheme was used for the both varieties: variant 1 – water (control; variant 2 – 0,10% solution; variant 3 – 0,25% solution; variant 4 – 0,50% solution. Plants were treated with microfertilizer three times during the vegetative period. Alterations of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varieties  depending on the concentration of complex microfertilizer Avatar-1 was studied. Conclusions. It was found that in case of three-time plant treatment with complex microfertilizer Avatar-1 at the time of harvesting, the best plant biometrics was registered in variant 3 (concentration 0,25% for the both ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varie­ties of cutting lettuce. The height of plants of the cutting lettuce in ‘Afitsyon’ variety exceeded this figure in ‘Concord variety by 1,1–1,4 cm. The concentration of microfertilizer had no significant effect on the diameter of the leaf rosette of ‘Concord’ variety (25,1–25,9 см. The diame­ter of the leaf rosette of

  9. Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.

  10. A Modernized UDM-600 Dynamometer-Based Setup for the Cutting Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. I. Shuliak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a modernized UDM-600 dynamometer-based setup for measuring the cutting force components. Modernization of existing equipment to improve the method of recording the cutting force components in the automated mode is of relevance. The measuring setup allows recording the cutting force components in turning and milling, as well as the axial force and the torque in the drilling and milling operations.The article presents a block diagram and a schematic diagram of the setup to measure the cutting force components, and describes a basic principle of measuring units within the modernized setup. The developed setup uses a half-bridge strain gauge measuring circuit to record the cutting forces. To enhance the measuring circuit output voltage is used a 16-channel amplifier of LA-UN16 model with a discretely adjustable gain. To record and process electrical signals is used a data acquisition device of NI USB-6009 model, which enables transmitting the received data to a PC via USB-interface. The data acquisition device has a built-in stabilized DC power supply that is used to power the strain gauge bridges. A developed schematic diagram of the measuring setup allows us to realize this measuring device and implement its modernization.Final processing of recorded data is provided through the software developed in visual programming environment LabVIEW 9.0. The program allows us to show the real-time measuring values of the cutting force components graphically and to record the taken data to a text file.The measuring setup modernization enabled increasing measurement accuracy and reducing time for processing and analysis of experimental data obtained when measuring the cutting force components. The MT2 Department of BMSTU uses it in education and research activities and in experimental efforts and laboratory classes.

  11. Limiting nutrient emission from a cut rose closed system by high-flux irrigation and low nutrient concentrations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Berg, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A two-year project was aimed at decreasing nutrient emission from closed nutrient systems by using high irrigation rates in order to allow lower EC levels in the presence of accumulated Na and Cl. Experimental variables were growing media, irrigation frequencies, EC and NaCl concentrations for cut

  12. Measurements of natural 41Ca concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhof, A.

    1989-05-01

    Atomic mass spectroscopic examinations on 41 Ca were carried out in the UNILAC accelerator. A sensitivity of about 10 -15 was achieved. This would allow the measurement of present natural 41 Ca concentrations as soon as the problem of the transmission determination is solved. In this respect suggestions were worked out and their feasibility discussed. The detection of 41 Ca-ions is especially free of background when high UNILAC-energies are applied. An estimation showed a background level corresponding with a 41 Ca concentration of less then 10 -17 referred to 40 Ca. Besides an independent concept for the electromagnetic concentration of 41 Ca with variable concentration factors was developed. After being concentrated up to 50 respectively 25 times the initial concentration in the GSI mass separator, the 41 Ca concentration of three recent deer bones found in the Odenwald was measured by atomic mass spectroscopy in the 14UD-Pelletron Tandem in Rehovot (Israel). The measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged between 10 -14 to 10 -13 with consideration of the concentration factor. A theoretical study of the 41 Ca production in the earth's surface based on cosmic radiation illustrates the influence of trace elements on the neutron flux and thus on the 41 Ca production. This influence might be a possible explanation for the observed amplitude of variation of the 41 Ca concentration in recent bones which are of decisive importance for the feasibility of 41 Ca-related dating. In this work a method is suggested that does not depend on the amplitude of variation mentioned above and which would allow the determination of the erosion rate of rocks by its 41 Ca concentrations. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Noel, M.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma-arc and laser cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air and laser beam in air. The same team, CEA/DPT/SPIN, was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and sometimes 20 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by laser beam in four different facilities: CEA/CEN Fontenay, CEA/CEN Saclay, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and ENEA/FRASCATI. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory scale) and by some particularity in the cutting parameters (additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Hannover for example). Some supplementary experiments show the importance of some cutting parameters. (author)

  14. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  15. Measurement of batter movements in brown coal open cuts - results of a research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, H

    1984-05-01

    In the course of a research project sponsored by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia the mine surveying methods used when measuring deformation on open cut batters were further developed, by taking into account the special conditions prevailing in open cuts, to such an extent that the essential monitoring of soil movements can be carried out reliably and promptly. As an integral part of an optimised, accurate geodetic measurement of points, the direct measurement of longitude across the open cut was introduced as a rapid measuring method. The aerophotogrammetric measurement of points is practically as accurate as terrestrial surveying. The author describes the prototype of an automatically operated instrument system for the monitoring of points. In conclusion he also stresses that the first promising advance has already been made as regards the sufficiently accurate monitoring of rock movements in boreholes.

  16. Measurement of concentration of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yuichi; Kondo, Mitsuo; Sakurai, Naoyuki

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of heavy water is measured as one of the technical management in the Fugen plant. The heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor. The measuring method depends on the theory of light absorption. The light absorption range of heavy water spreads from near infrared to infrared zone. The near infrared absorption was adopted for the purpose, as the absorption is much larger in infrared zone, and the measurement has to be conducted, limiting the apparent absorption. This measuring method is available to determine the concentration of heavy water in the broad range exactly. The preparation of heavy water sample and the measurement of the absorption spectra of near infrared ray are explained, as the experimental procedure. The sample cell was made of quartz, and the spectroscope was the Hitachi 323 type. The resolving power is 100 nm and 27 nm for the wave length of 1000 nm and 2500 nm, respectively. Concerning the measured results, the absorption was recorded in the wave length range from 600 nm to 2600 nm, and for the heavy water concentration range from 0 to 99.77 wt. %. The peaks of absorption were located at the wave length of 1450, 1660, 1920, 1970, 2020 and 2600 nm. The three kinds of fundamental vibration mode of the molecules of both light and heavy water are shown, and the peaks belong to H 2 O, HDO and D 2 O, respectively. The relation between the absorption and the heavy water concentration, and that between the transmissivity and the wave length are shown, when the cell thickness was varied to 5 mm and 20 mm, and the heavy water concentration to 21%, 62% and 99.85%. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Noel, J.P.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1992-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser-cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air, and by laser beam in air. The same team was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick, grade 304 stainless-steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and in some cases 20 mm thick, grade 304, stainless-steel plates were cut by laser beam in five different facilities: CEA-CEN Fontenay, CEA-CEN Saclay, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and ENEA/Frascati. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, and the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the involved facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory) and by some particularities in the cutting parameters (an additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Universitaet Hannover, for example)

  18. Improving Oncology Quality Measurement in Accountable Care: Filling Gaps with Cross-Cutting Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuck, Tom; Blaisdell, David; Dugan, Donna P; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W; Miller, Robert S; McClellan, Mark

    2017-02-01

    each gap, we searched for available measures not already being used in programs. Where existing measures did not cover gaps, we recommended refinements to existing measures or proposed measures for development. We shared the results of the measure gap analysis with a roundtable of national experts in cancer care and oncology measurement. During a web meeting and an in-person meeting, the roundtable reviewed the gap analysis and identified priority opportunities for improving measurement. The group determined that overreliance on condition-specific process measures is problematic because of rapidly changing evidence and increasing personalization of cancer care. The group's primary recommendation for enhancing measure sets was to prioritize and develop effective cross-cutting measures that assess clinical and patient-reported outcomes, including shared decision making, care planning, and symptom control. The group also prioritized certain safety and structural measures to complement condition-specific process measures. Further, the group explored strategies for using clinical pathways and devising layered measurement approaches to improve measurement for accountable care. This article presents the roundtable's conclusions and recommendations for next steps. Funding for this project was provided by the National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC). Westrich and Dubois are employees of the NPC. Valuck is a partner with Discern Health. Blaisdell and Dugan are employed by Discern Health. McClellan reports fees for serving on the Johnson & Johnson Board of Directors. Dugan reports consulting fees from the National Committee for Quality Assurance and Pharmacy Quality Alliance. The remaining authors report no relationship or financial interest with any entity that would pose a conflict of interest with the subject matter of this article. Study concept and design were contributed by Blaisdell, Valuck, Dugan, and Westrich. Blaisdell took the lead in data collection, along with Valuck

  19. Development of measuring and control systems for underwater cutting of radioactive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Fuchs, K.

    1990-01-01

    Shutdown and dismantling of nuclear power plants requires special techniques to decommission the radioactive components involved. For reasons of safety, decommissioning of components under water can be advantageous because of the radioactive shielding effect of water. In this project, research activities and developmental works focused on the realization of different sensor systems and their adaptation to cutting tasks. A new image-processing system has been developed in addition to the use of a modified underwater TV camera for optical cutting process control (plasma and abrasive wheel cutting). For control of process parameters, different inductive, ultrasonic and optical sensors have been modified and tested. The investigations performed are aimed at assuring high-quality underwater cutting with the help of sensor systems specially adapted to cutting tasks, with special signal procession and evaluation through microcomputer control. It is important that special attention be paid to the reduction of interferences in image pick-up and procession. The measuring system has been designed and realized according to the consideration of the demands for underwater cutting processes. The reliability of the system was tested in conjunction with a four-axes handling system

  20. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii......) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...

  1. Measurement and prediction of cutting forces and vibrations on longwall shearers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulent Tiryaki [CRCMining (Australia)

    2006-12-15

    CRCMining has developed the Cutting Head Performance Analysis Software (CPAS) to predict cutter motor power, ranging arm reaction forces, and vibrations for different drum designs, coal seams, and shearer operational conditions. This project describes the work on THE DBT EL3000 shearer at Beltana to validate/update CPAS by measuring the cutter motor power, ranging arm vibrations, and reaction forces through an online data acquisition system called Cutting Head Performance Monitoring System (CPMS). This system records the outputs of six strain gauge bridges, six accelerometers, and two pressure transducers on ranging arms during underground coal production. CPAS2 has then been developed in order to eliminate the needs for performing coal cutting tests for the target coal seam. CPAS2 simulations for cutter motor power, vertical reaction force, and vibrations were also close to those measured in the trials. CRCMining will release the CPAS code including fully functioning software code on CD to Australian coal mining industry.

  2. Measurement and modelling ozone fluxes over a cut and fertilized grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mészáros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment between 20 May and 15 June 2000, the ozone flux was measured by the eddy covariance method above intensively managed grassland in Braunschweig, northern Germany. Three different phases of vegetation were covered during the measuring campaign: tall grass canopy before cut (29 May 2000, short grass after cut, and re-growing vegetation after fertilization (5 June 2000. Results show that beside weather conditions, the agricultural activities significantly influenced the O3 fluxes. After the cut the daytime average of the deposition velocity (vd decreased from 0.44 cm s−1 to 0.26 cm s−1 and increased again to 0.32 cm s−1 during the third period. Detailed model calculations were carried out to estimate deposition velocity and ozone flux. The model captures the general diurnal patter of deposition, with vd daytime values of 0.52, 0.24, and 0.35 cm s−1 in the first, second and third period, respectively. Thus the model predicts a stronger response to the cut than the measurements, which is nevertheless smaller than expected on the basis of change in leaf area. The results show that both cut and fertilization have complex impacts on fluxes. Reduction of vegetation by cutting decreased the stomatal flux initially greatly, but the stomatal flux recovered to 80% of its original value within a week. At the same time, the non-stomatal flux appears to have increased directly after the cut, which the model partially explains by an increase in the deposition to the soil. A missing sink after the cut may be the chemical interaction with biogenic volatile organic compounds released after the cut and exposed senescent plant parts, or the increase in soil NO emissions after fertilization. Increased canopy temperatures may also have promoted ozone destruction on leaf surfaces. These results demonstrate the importance of canopy

  3. Measuring multiple residual-stress components using the contour method and multiple cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swenson, Hunter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pagliaro, Pierluigi [U. PALERMO; Zuccarello, Bernardo [U. PALERMO

    2009-01-01

    The conventional contour method determines one component of stress over the cross section of a part. The part is cut into two, the contour of the exposed surface is measured, and Bueckner's superposition principle is analytically applied to calculate stresses. In this paper, the contour method is extended to the measurement of multiple stress components by making multiple cuts with subsequent applications of superposition. The theory and limitations are described. The theory is experimentally tested on a 316L stainless steel disk with residual stresses induced by plastically indenting the central portion of the disk. The stress results are validated against independent measurements using neutron diffraction. The theory has implications beyond just multiple cuts. The contour method measurements and calculations for the first cut reveal how the residual stresses have changed throughout the part. Subsequent measurements of partially relaxed stresses by other techniques, such as laboratory x-rays, hole drilling, or neutron or synchrotron diffraction, can be superimposed back to the original state of the body.

  4. Validation of hindi translation of DSM-5 level 1 cross-cutting symptom measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ankit; Kataria, Dinesh

    2018-04-01

    The DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure is a self- or informant-rated measure that assesses mental health domains which are important across psychiatric diagnoses. The absence of this self- or informant-administered instrument in Hindi, which is a major language in India, is an important limitation in using this scale. To translate the English version of the DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure to Hindi and evaluate its psychometric properties. The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. The DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was translated into Hindi using the World Health Organization's translation methodology. Mean and standard deviation were evaluated for continuous variables while for categorical variables frequency and percentages were calculated. The translated version was evaluated for cross-language equivalence, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and split half reliability. Hindi version was found to have good cross-language equivalence and test-retest reliability at the level of items and domains. Twenty two of the 23 items and all the 23 items had a significant correlation (ρ Cutting Symptom Measure as translated in this study is a valid instrument. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Portable method of measuring gaseous acetone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Adam D; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Angelopoulos, Anastasios P

    2013-08-15

    Measurement of acetone in human breath samples has been previously shown to provide significant non-invasive diagnostic insight into the control of a patient's diabetic condition. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the body produces excess amounts of ketones such as acetone, which are then exhaled during respiration. Using various breath analysis methods has allowed for the accurate determination of acetone concentrations in exhaled breath. However, many of these methods require instrumentation and pre-concentration steps not suitable for point-of-care use. We have found that by immobilizing resorcinol reagent into a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer membrane, a controlled organic synthesis reaction occurs with acetone in a dry carrier gas. The immobilized, highly selective product of this reaction (a flavan) is found to produce a visible spectrum color change which could measure acetone concentrations to less than ppm. We here demonstrate how this approach can be used to produce a portable optical sensing device for real-time, non-invasive acetone analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Apparatus for measuring a concentration of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, H.; Ogushi, A.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for measuring concentration of radioactivity in a fluid circulating in a cooling system or a disposal system, etc., of a nuclear power plant (e.g. coolant), the apparatus having a plurality of sampling tubes with different diameters depending on the intensities of radioactivity, and the sampling tubes having valves for switching from one fluid to another fluid. The sampling tubes are connected to the system to a discharge pipe, and are disposed in the proximity of a radiation detector adapted to issue a signal representative of radiation. The issued signal is supplied to a multichannel pulse height analyzer and a data processing system providing an indication of the concentrations of radioactivities for respective radionuclides

  7. Measurements of radon concentrations in dwelling houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Klink, T.

    1993-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products gain in importance in health protection and radiation safety. Especially in the southern region of Saxony radon concentrations in dwellings may be high by former silver and uranium mines. We found radon contents of about 20.000 Bq/m 3 in dwellings. To redevelop such houses it is necessary to know intrude path of radon. In present work we studied different measuring systems, active and passive detectors, short and long term integrating devices. By means of investigation of radon sources several redeveloping methods are rates as well from radiological as from civil engineering point of view. (author)

  8. Advantages of the CCD camera measurements for profile and wear of cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, G; Dudas, I; Balajti, Z

    2005-01-01

    In our paper we prepared an evaluating study of which conclusions draw mainly two directions for our fields of research. On the one hand, this means the measuring of fix, standing workpieces, on the other hand this means geometrical measurement of moving tools. The first case seems to be solved in many respects (in general cases), but the second one is not completely worked out according to the relevant literature. The monitoring of tool wear, the determination of geometrical parameters (this is mainly in case of gear-generating tools) is not really widespread yet, mainly, if optical parameters have influence on the evaluating procedure (e.g. examination of profiles of grinding wheels). We show the elaboration of a process for the practical application of measuring techniques performed by image processing CCD cameras on the basis of wearing criteria of different cutting tools (drilling tool, turning tool). We have made a profile and cutting tool wear measuring program

  9. Aerosol measurements from plasma torch cuts on stainless steel, carbon steel, and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, V.J.; Brodrick, C.J.; Crawford, S.; Nasiatka, J.; Pierucci, K.; Reyes, V.; Sambrook, J.; Wrobel, S.; Yeary, J.

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to quantify aerosol particle size and generation rates produced by a plasma torch whencutting stainless steel, carbon steel and aluminum. the plasma torch is a common cutting tool used in the dismantling of nuclear facilities. Eventually, other cutting tools will be characterized and the information will be compiled in a user guide to aid in theplanning of both D ampersand D and other cutting operations. The data will be taken from controlled laboratory experiments on uncontaminated metals and field samples taken during D ampersand D operations at ANL nuclear facilities. The plasma torch data was collected from laboratory cutting tests conducted inside of a closed, filtered chamber. The particle size distributions were determined by isokinetically sampling the exhaust duct using a cascade impactor. Cuts on different thicknesses showed there was no observable dependence of the aerosol quantity produced as a function of material thickness for carbon steel. However, data for both stainless steel and aluminum revealed that the aerosol mass produced for these materials appear to have some dependance on thickness, with thinner materials producing tmore aerosols. The results of the laboratory cutting tests show that most measured particle size distributions are bimodal with one mode at about 0.2 μm and the other at about 10 μm. The average Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameters (MMAD's) for these tests are 0.36 ±0.08 μm for stainless steel, 0.48 ±0.17μm for aluminum and 0.52±0.12 μm for carbon steel

  10. Measurement of radon activity concentration in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Pineau, C.; Dechaux, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon exposure, along with medical-related exposure, is the leading source of exposure to ionising radiation for the French population. Measurement campaigns are done in the action plan, drawn up by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), in cooperation with the French directorate for housing, town planning and countryside (DHUP), the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN), the French health monitoring institute (InVS) and the French scientific and technical centre for construction (CSTB). The review of 2005-2008 measurement campaign shows that of the 7356 buildings screened, 84.8% had activity concentration levels below the 400 Bq/m 3 action level. For the other buildings (15.2%), action will be required to reduce human exposure to radon, possibly including building renovation/redevelopment work. In the 1999-2002 measurement campaign,12% of the 13,000 buildings screened had a radon activity concentration level higher than 400 Bq/m 3 . In addition, the ASN and the French general directorate of labour (DGT) are continuing to work on drawing up regulations for occupational risk management. The second national health and environment plan (PNSE 2) was published on 26 June 2009. It follows on from the actions initiated in PNSE 1, a document provided for under the Public Health Act dated 9 August 2004 and under the French 'Grenelle' environmental agreements. On the basis of guidelines laid out in PNSE 2, a radon action plan for 2009-2012 will be drawn up, enabling some of the actions to be continued, particularly in the fields of new building projects and dwellings. (author)

  11. Granular rheology: measuring boundary forces with laser-cut leaf springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhu; Brzinski, Theodore A.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-06-01

    In granular physics experiments, it is a persistent challenge to obtain the boundary stress measurements necessary to provide full a rheological characterization of the dynamics. Here, we describe a new technique by which the outer boundary of a 2D Couette cell both confines the granular material and provides spatially- and temporally- resolved stress measurements. This key advance is enabled by desktop laser-cutting technology, which allows us to design and cut linearly-deformable walls with a specified spring constant. By tracking the position of each segment of the wall, we measure both the normal and tangential stress throughout the experiment. This permits us to calculate the amount of shear stress provided by basal friction, and thereby determine accurate values of μ(I).

  12. Device for measuring the tritium concentration in a measuring gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koran, P.

    1987-01-01

    The measuring gas is brought into contact via a measuring gas path with a diaphragm permeable to water, which separates the measuring gas path from a counter gas path leading to a proportional detector. The measuring gas path and the counter gas path are in counterflow in the area of diaphragm. The preferably hose diaphragm consists of a well-known ion exchange material, which can be used for gas drying purposes, which is permeable to water and tritium compounds similar to water, but is impermeable to other gases and liquids contained in air, particularly rare gases. In this way, the tritium concentration can be measured with great rare gas suppression. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Petrophysical measurements on drill cuttings; Mesures petrophysiques sur deblais de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egermann, P.

    2003-12-01

    This thesis describes new methods to determine petrophysical properties of porous medium from millimetric fragments. Fundamental properties are measured: permeability, porosity, capillary pressure and the tortuosity. The permeability measurement is based on the flow of a viscous fluid inside the fragments, which is interpreted using a numerical model. The tortuosity (formation factor) is obtained from electrical measurements and a conductivity model in heterogeneous media. The methods are validated on crushed core fragments of known properties with a good agreement. The applications are numerous: measurements from drill cuttings to characterize underground reservoirs (hydrocarbons, aquifers), low permeability consolidated formations (cap rocks) and also the characterization of any dispersed porous medium (natural or artificial). (author)

  14. A single method for recovery and concentration of enteric viruses and bacteria from fresh-cut vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R

    2012-01-03

    Fresh-cut vegetables are prone to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens during growth, harvest, transport and further processing and handling. As most of these products are generally eaten raw or mildly treated, there is an increase in the number of outbreaks caused by viruses and bacteria associated with fresh vegetables. Foodborne pathogens are usually present at very low levels and have to be concentrated (i.e. viruses) or enriched (i.e. bacteria) to enhance their detection. With this aim, a rapid concentration method has been developed for the simultaneous recovery of hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NV), murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for NV, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Initial experiments focused on evaluating the elution conditions suitable for virus release from vegetables. Finally, elution with buffered peptone water (BPW), using a Pulsifier, and concentration by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation were the methods selected for the elution and concentration of both, enteric viruses and bacteria, from three different types of fresh-cut vegetables by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers. The average recoveries from inoculated parsley, spinach and salad, were ca. 9.2%, 43.5%, and 20.7% for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. Detection limits were 132 RT-PCR units (PCRU), 1.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID₅₀), and 6.6 TCID₅₀ for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. This protocol resulted in average recoveries of 57.4%, 64.5% and 64.6% in three vegetables for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella with corresponding detection limits of 10³, 10² and 10³ CFU/g, respectively. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the procedure herein is suitable to recover, detect and quantify enteric viruses and foodborne pathogenic bacteria within 5 h and can be applied for the simultaneous detection of both types of foodborne pathogens in fresh-cut vegetables. Copyright

  15. Uranium concentrations in fossils measured by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyeda, Chiaki; Okano, Jun

    1988-01-01

    Semiquantitative analyses of uranium in fossil bones and teeth were carried out by SIMS. The results show a tendency that uranium concentrations in the fossils increase with the ages of the fossils. It is noticed that fossil bones and teeth having uranium concentration of more than several hundred ppm are not rare. (author)

  16. Method for 3D noncontact measurements of cut trees package area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Vizilter, Yuri V.

    2001-02-01

    Progress in imaging sensors and computers create the background for numerous 3D imaging application for wide variety of manufacturing activity. Many demands for automated precise measurements are in wood branch of industry. One of them is the accurate volume definition for cut trees carried on the truck. The key point for volume estimation is determination of the front area of the cut tree package. To eliminate slow and inaccurate manual measurements being now in practice the experimental system for automated non-contact wood measurements is developed. The system includes two non-metric CCD video cameras, PC as central processing unit, frame grabbers and original software for image processing and 3D measurements. The proposed method of measurement is based on capturing the stereo pair of front of trees package and performing the image orthotranformation into the front plane. This technique allows to process transformed image for circle shapes recognition and calculating their area. The metric characteristics of the system are provided by special camera calibration procedure. The paper presents the developed method of 3D measurements, describes the hardware used for image acquisition and the software realized the developed algorithms, gives the productivity and precision characteristics of the system.

  17. Development of measuring and control systems for underwater cutting of radioactive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Fuchs, K.

    1990-01-01

    The underwater dismantling of nuclear power plants has to be remotely controlled with simultaneous optical control by underwater cameras. It is this optical control in particular that leads to problems as, for example, abrasive wheel cutting is subjected to a wide range of interferences so that a minimum of contrast and blurred contours of camera images must be accounted for. This paper describes a new image processing system that has been developed in addition to the use of a modified underwater TV camera for optical cutting process control (plasma and abrasive wheel cutting). Workpiece recognition is performed through the comparison of actually measured objects with pre-trained reference patterns allowing the determination of object location and orientation, the data of which are then supplied to the handling controller. A completely satisfactory prototype system has been built, which is capable of performing image analysis (workpiece recognition, workpiece position, etc.) as well as the control of a handling system with an inductive sensor (distance detection, edge recognition and distance control). With an additional camera the operator has the means of visual process observation. The overall functioning of the system has been tested and demonstrated with a four-axes handling system. (author)

  18. High-resolution gamma ray attenuation density measurements on mining exploration drill cores, including cut cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.-S.; Bourke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical property measurements are increasingly important in mining exploration. For density determinations on rocks, one method applicable on exploration drill cores relies on gamma ray attenuation. This non-destructive method is ideal because each measurement takes only 10 s, making it suitable for high-resolution logging. However calibration has been problematic. In this paper we present new empirical, site-specific correction equations for whole NQ and BQ cores. The corrections force back the gamma densities to the "true" values established by the immersion method. For the NQ core caliber, the density range extends to high values (massive pyrite, 5 g/cm3) and the correction is thought to be very robust. We also present additional empirical correction factors for cut cores which take into account the missing material. These "cut core correction factors", which are not site-specific, were established by making gamma density measurements on truncated aluminum cylinders of various residual thicknesses. Finally we show two examples of application for the Abitibi Greenstone Belt in Canada. The gamma ray attenuation measurement system is part of a multi-sensor core logger which also determines magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and mineralogy on rock cores, and performs line-scan imaging.

  19. Measuring Concentration in Data with an Exogenous Order

    OpenAIRE

    Abedieh, Jasmin; Groll, Andreas; Eugster, Manuel J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Concentration measures order the statistical units under observation according to their market share. However, there are situations where an order according to an exogenous variable is more appropriate or even required. The present article introduces a generalized definition of market concentration and defines a corresponding concentration measure. It is shown that this generalized concept of market concentration satisfies the common axioms of (classical) concentration measures. In an appl...

  20. Uncertainty of slip measurements in a cutting system of converting machinery for diapers production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Aponte F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper slip measurements are described between the peripheral surfaces of knife and a not driven anvil cylinders in a high velocity, high quality cutting unit of a diaper production line. Laboratory tests have been carried out on a test bench with real scale components for possible on line application of the method. With reference to both starting and steady state conditions correlations with the process parameters have been found, achieving a very satisfactory reduction of the slip between the knife cylinder and the not driven anvil one. Accuracy evaluation of measurements allowed us to validate the obtained information and to evaluate the detection threshold of the measurement method in the present configuration The analysis of specific uncertainty contributions to the whole uncertainty could be also used, to further reduce the requested uncertainty of the measurement method.

  1. Personal computer interface for temmperature measuring in the cutting process with turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajchevski, Neven; Filipovski, Velimir; Kuzinonovski, Mikolaj

    2004-01-01

    The computer development aided reserch systems in the investigations of the characteristics of the surface layar forms conditions for decreasing of the measuring uncertainty. Especially important is the fact that the usage of open and self made measuring systems accomplishes the demands for a total control of the research process. This paper describes an original personal computer interface which is used in the newly built computer aided reserrch system for temperatute measuring in the machining with turning. This interface consists of optically-coupled linear isolation amplifier and an analog to digital (A/D) converter. It is designed for measuring of the themo- voltage that is a generated from the natural thermocouple workpiece-cutting tool. That is achived by digitalizing the value of the thermo-voltage in data which is transmitted to the personal computer. The interface realization is a result of the research activity of the faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Skopje.

  2. Measuring oil and water cuts in a multiphase flowstream with elimination of the effects of gas in determining the liquid cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method of measuring the water and oil fractions in a multiphase flow stream in petroleum refining and producing operations is described. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons which are slowed down and then captured producing gamma spectra characteristic of the materials in the fluid. Analysis of the gamma spectra yields the ratio of the gamma ray counts of element sulfur to those of chlorine. From this ratio, the oil and water cuts (fractional oil and water contents) of the fluid may be measured while eliminating the effects of gas in the flowstream on the measurements. (U.K

  3. Development and Testing of an Integrated Rotating Dynamometer Based on Fiber Bragg Grating for Four-Component Cutting Force Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyao; Bing, Junjun; Xiao, Li; Yun, Kang; Wan, Liang

    2018-04-18

    Cutting force measurement is of great importance in machining processes. Hence, various methods of measuring the cutting force have been proposed by many researchers. In this work, a novel integrated rotating dynamometer based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was designed, constructed, and tested to measure four-component cutting force. The dynamometer consists of FBGs that are pasted on the newly designed elastic structure which is then mounted on the rotating spindle. The elastic structure is designed as two mutual-perpendicular semi-octagonal rings. The signals of the FBGs are transmitted to FBG interrogator via fiber optic rotary joints and optical fiber, and the wavelength values are displayed on a computer. In order to determine the static and dynamic characteristics, many tests have been done. The results show that it is suitable for measuring cutting force.

  4. Turbidimetry for measurement of radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanqiang

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a turbidimetric technique counting the tracks registered on CR-39 foils exposed to radon. Instead of eyeview through microscope, by using the differential spectrophotometer, strong correlation between the radon cumulative concentration and track turbidence was observed(r=0.999). Under the etching condition of 7.07 mol·L -1 KOH water solution at 80 o C for 16 hr, linear regression showed that the ratio of track turbidence and cumulative concentration of radon exposure was 1.99 x 10 -1 turbidence (KBq m -1 h) -1 and the determination limit was 36 KBq m -3 h. The details of the experiments are represented in this paper. (Author)

  5. Radon concentration measurements in therapeutic spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, N.; Horvath, A.; Sajo B, L.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that people undergoing a curative cycle in a given spa, may receive a dose in the range of 400 mSv/year which is many times the average annual dose so that their risk of lung cancer may increase by 3% or more. To determine the risk due to the natural radioactivity, of the most frequented spas in Budapest (H), we selected four and some others located on the country side being of particular interest. Results of the radon concentration in spring water are presented, with the evidence that some spas have a high radon concentration. We conclude that patients receiving treatment may be exposed to an additional dose in the range of 29-76 mSv/year that at the bronchia could be between 445-1182 mSv/year. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Performance, body measurements, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality in lambs fed residues from processing agroindustry of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the objective to evaluate the use of residue dry matter (DM from pineapple (Ananas comosus L., banana (Musa sp., mango (Mangifera indica and passion fruit (Passiflora spp. in feeding of the feedlot on productive performance, carcass yield and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of meat. Twenty-five crossbred lamps with Santa Inês breed and mixed breed were used. The treatments consisted of the replacement of 75% of sorghum silage by respective residue DM, whereas in the control treatment forage had only sorghum silage the diets had a houghageto- concentrate ratio of 40:60 interns of DM being isonitrogenous and isoenergetics. The animals were slaughtered at 32 kg liveweight. Before slaughter were obtained biometric measurements, after the same, was performed the hot carcasses weight and morphometric measurements. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4 ° C, was determined the cold carcass weight and yield calculation. The left half carcass was divided into five sections: neck, shoulder, shank, rib and loin, by performing the calculation of income cuts. Analyses meat quality such as pH, color (L, a, b, chroma and Ho, by cooking weight loss, water retention capacity and shear strength were carried out in the Longissimus dorsi sample. The completely randomized design was adapted. The data were interpreted using analysis of variance with the test a Tukey 5% probability. There was no effect of diet (P> 0.05 according to the parameters: growth performance, body measurements, and meat quality of lambs. There was also no effect of the diets (P> 0.05 on the loin eye area assuming that carcasses remained similar muscularity important fact to market acceptance standard. It is concluded that replacing up to 75% of sorghum silage by residues fruit (pineapple, banana, mango and passion fruit in lambs feeding becomes feasible not to change the productive performance, body measurements, yields carcass and cuts and meat

  7. Parameters of Carcass Cuts and Measurements of Martinik Lambs Managed under Intensive Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alexandre

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Martinik sheep is selected for its good adaptive and reproductive traits. The production sector reproaches it with low carcass conformation, although its carcasses have been little described. Two intensive fattening experiments were conducted, whereby lambs were slaughtered for linear measurements and cuts. The variables were analyzed and allometric equations were determined. The database (n = 43 was adjusted for feeding levels and slaughter weight groups (SW: 28, 32 and 36 kg. Mean cold carcass (CC weights varied (P 0.05. The weights of all carcass cuts significantly (P < 0.01 increased with CC increase. Shoulders and legs represented 18 and 34% of CC, respectively. Various measurements taken on the carcass and pelvis width significantly increased (P < 0.05 with CC increase (near 9% difference between extreme weights. Indices of carcass and leg compactness (0.32 and 0.45, respectively did not vary with SW, whereas weight indices did. Allometric coefficients of the shoulder (0.915 and leg (0.891 were in line with those of the literature. This preliminary description of Martinik sheep carcasses could be made available to the sector actors in order to pursue the work and help to better select breeds and management systems.

  8. A cut-off in ocular chemesthesis from vapors of homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones as revealed by concentration-detection functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Abraham, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of homologous series of environmental vapors have shown that their chemesthetic (i.e., sensory irritation) potency increases with carbon chain length (that is, their detection thresholds decrease) until they reach a homolog that fails to be detected, even at vapor saturation. All ensuing homologs cannot be detected either. In this investigation, we measured concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) functions for ocular chemesthesis from homologous alkylbenzenes (pentyl, hexyl, and heptyl benzene) and 2-ketones (undecanone, dodecanone, and tridecanone). Using a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against air blanks, we tested a total of 18 to 24 subjects, about half of them females, average age 31 years, ranging from 18 to 56 years. Stimuli were generated and presented by a computer-controlled, vapor delivery device whose output was quantified by gas chromatography. Exposure time was 6 s and delivery flow 2.5 L/min. Within the context of present and previous findings, the outcome indicated that the functions for heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone reached a plateau where further increases in concentration did not enhance detection. We conclude that: a) a cut-off point in ocular chemesthetic detection is reached along homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones at the level of heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone, respectively, and b) the observed effect rests on the homologs exceeding a critical molecular size (or dimension) rather than on them failing to achieve a high enough vapor concentration

  9. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  10. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  11. Advances in deuterium dioxide concentration measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Woojung [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal, E-mail: nspyim@kaeri.re.kr [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Lim; Park, Hyunmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Rag; Chung, Hongsuk [University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheo Kyung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. • D{sub 2}O purity is analyzed using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). • OA-ICOS has advantages in terms of analysis of D{sub 2}O vapor. • OA-ICOS is expected that it can be used for accurate isotopic analyses in the future. - Abstract: The deuterium–tritium (D–T) reaction has been identified as the most efficient reaction for fusion devices. Deuterium can be obtained by heavy water electrolysis. Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) with a high purity level is necessary for nuclear fusion application. A D{sub 2}O isotopic analysis is thus very important. A system for a heavy water analysis was built and a newly designed isotopic analysis experiment was carried out. We tried to analyze the D{sub 2}O purity using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and newly introduced off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). We found that the OA-ICOS based on measurement via laser absorption spectroscopy shows very high sensitivity. We ameliorated the sensitivity by an order of magnitude of more than 10{sup 3}–10{sup 5}. We could make the apparatus smaller by employing very tiny diode laser and fiber optics elements of a DFB (Distributed Feedback) type. Consequently, our device has advantages in terms of maintainability and mobility even in a radioactive environment. This new method could be used for an accurate isotopic analysis in the future.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  13. α-Cut method based importance measure for criticality analysis in fuzzy probability – Based fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purba, Julwan Hendry; Sony Tjahyani, D.T.; Widodo, Surip; Tjahjono, Hendro

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •FPFTA deals with epistemic uncertainty using fuzzy probability. •Criticality analysis is important for reliability improvement. •An α-cut method based importance measure is proposed for criticality analysis in FPFTA. •The α-cut method based importance measure utilises α-cut multiplication, α-cut subtraction, and area defuzzification technique. •Benchmarking confirm that the proposed method is feasible for criticality analysis in FPFTA. -- Abstract: Fuzzy probability – based fault tree analysis (FPFTA) has been recently developed and proposed to deal with the limitations of conventional fault tree analysis. In FPFTA, reliabilities of basic events, intermediate events and top event are characterized by fuzzy probabilities. Furthermore, the quantification of the FPFTA is based on fuzzy multiplication rule and fuzzy complementation rule to propagate uncertainties from basic event to the top event. Since the objective of the fault tree analysis is to improve the reliability of the system being evaluated, it is necessary to find the weakest path in the system. For this purpose, criticality analysis can be implemented. Various importance measures, which are based on conventional probabilities, have been developed and proposed for criticality analysis in fault tree analysis. However, not one of those importance measures can be applied for criticality analysis in FPFTA, which is based on fuzzy probability. To be fully applied in nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment, FPFTA needs to have its corresponding importance measure. The objective of this study is to develop an α-cut method based importance measure to evaluate and rank the importance of basic events for criticality analysis in FPFTA. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed measure, a case study is performed and its results are then benchmarked to the results generated by the four well known importance measures in conventional fault tree analysis. The results

  14. A min cut-set-wise truncation procedure for importance measures computation in probabilistic safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duflot, Nicolas [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay/LM2S, FRE CNRS 2848, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, F-10010 Troyes cedex (France)], E-mail: nicolas.duflot@areva.com; Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay/LM2S, FRE CNRS 2848, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, F-10010 Troyes cedex (France)], E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.fr; Dieulle, Laurence [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay/LM2S, FRE CNRS 2848, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, F-10010 Troyes cedex (France)], E-mail: laurence.dieulle@utt.fr; Vasseur, Dominique [EPSNA Group (Nuclear PSA and Application), EDF Research and Development, 1, avenue du Gal de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart cedex (France)], E-mail: dominique.vasseur@edf.fr

    2009-11-15

    A truncation process aims to determine among the set of minimal cut-sets (MCS) produced by a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model which of them are significant. Several truncation processes have been proposed for the evaluation of the probability of core damage ensuring a fixed accuracy level. However, the evaluation of new risk indicators as importance measures requires to re-examine the truncation process in order to ensure that the produced estimates will be accurate enough. In this paper a new truncation process is developed permitting to estimate from a single set of MCS the importance measure of any basic event with the desired accuracy level. The main contribution of this new method is to propose an MCS-wise truncation criterion involving two thresholds: an absolute threshold in addition to a new relative threshold concerning the potential probability of the MCS of interest. The method has been tested on a complete level 1 PSA model of a 900 MWe NPP developed by 'Electricite de France' (EDF) and the results presented in this paper indicate that to reach the same accuracy level the proposed method produces a set of MCS whose size is significantly reduced.

  15. A min cut-set-wise truncation procedure for importance measures computation in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot, Nicolas; Berenguer, Christophe; Dieulle, Laurence; Vasseur, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    A truncation process aims to determine among the set of minimal cut-sets (MCS) produced by a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model which of them are significant. Several truncation processes have been proposed for the evaluation of the probability of core damage ensuring a fixed accuracy level. However, the evaluation of new risk indicators as importance measures requires to re-examine the truncation process in order to ensure that the produced estimates will be accurate enough. In this paper a new truncation process is developed permitting to estimate from a single set of MCS the importance measure of any basic event with the desired accuracy level. The main contribution of this new method is to propose an MCS-wise truncation criterion involving two thresholds: an absolute threshold in addition to a new relative threshold concerning the potential probability of the MCS of interest. The method has been tested on a complete level 1 PSA model of a 900 MWe NPP developed by 'Electricite de France' (EDF) and the results presented in this paper indicate that to reach the same accuracy level the proposed method produces a set of MCS whose size is significantly reduced.

  16. Defining Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy from a Continuous Measure of Optic Nerve Damage - The Optimal Cut-off Point for Risk-factor Analysis in Population-based Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diseases characterized by a continuous trait can be defined by setting a cut-off point for the disease measure in question, accepting some misclassification. The 97.5th percentile is commonly used as a cut-off point. However, it is unclear whether this percentile is the optimal cut-off

  17. Nondestructive measurement for radionuclide concentration distribution in soil column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    A nondestructive method has been studied for determining the concentration of radionuclide (Cs-137) distributed in a soil column. The concentration distribution was calculated from the counting rate distribution using the efficiency matrix of a detector. The concentration distribution obtained by this method, with measuring efficiencies of theoretical calculation, coincides well with that obtained by the destructive sampling method. This method is, therefore, found to be effective for the measurement of one dimensional concentration distribution. The measuring limit of this method is affected not only by the radionuclide concentration but also by the shape of concentration distribution in a soil column and also by the way it is divided into concentration blocks. It is found that, the radioactive concentration up to 2.6 x 10 -4 μCi/g (9.62 Bq/g), and also the distribution up to where the concentration reduces to half at every 1 cm of depth, can be measured by this system. The concentration blocks can be divided into 1 cm of thickness as a minimum value. (author)

  18. Autonomous underwater handling system for service, measurement and cutting tasks for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, M.; Haferkamp, H.; Bach, W.; Rose, N.

    1992-01-01

    For about 10 years the Institute for Material Science at the Hanover University has worked on projects of underwater cutting and welding. Increasing tasks to be done in nuclear facilities led to the development of special handling systems to support and handle the cutting tools. Also sensors and computers for extensive and complex tasks were integrated. A small sized freediving handling system, equipped with 2 video cameras, ultrasonic and radiation sensors and a plasma cutting torch for inspection and decommissioning tasks in nuclear facilities is described in this paper. (Author)

  19. Comparison of setting time measured using ultrasonic wave propagation with saw-cutting times on pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At present, there is little fundamental guidance available to assist contractors in choosing when to schedule saw cuts on joints. To : conduct pavement finishing and sawing activities effectively, however, contractors need to know when a concrete mix...

  20. Ignition delay times of Gasoline Distillation Cuts measured with Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal; Singh, Eshan; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Tailoring fuel properties to maximize the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a way towards achieving cleaner combustion systems. In this work, the ignition properties of various gasoline fuel distillation cuts are analyzed to better

  1. Localization of fluctuation measurement by wave scattering close to a cut off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.; Lehner, T.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic of plasma fluctuations in tokamaks based on the scattering of an electromagnetic wave close to a cut off layer is investigated. A linear density profile is considered. An one-dimensional exact analysis is performed. Spatial and spectral localization of scattering process close to the cut off layer is studied and a modified Bragg rule is derived. The structure of pump and of scattered waves is analyzed. The diagnostic seems to be local and sensitive for low R fluctuations

  2. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutakawa, Susan E; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Tainer, John A

    2014-07-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure

  3. Measured and calculated NO2 concentrations in Amsterdam in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, J.P.; Nguyen, P.L.; Van der Zee, S.

    2010-08-01

    Calculations using the Dutch standard calculation method for air quality in urban streets performed for 38 streets in Amsterdam in 2008 yield, on average, lower Nitrogen dioxide concentrations than measurements at those locations. This follows from research by the RIVM and the Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD Amsterdam). The average difference between measured and calculated concentrations is 11 %. At measuring locations of the National Air Quality Measuring Network in the Netherlands no significant underestimation of concentrations by the model is observed. The research was performed by the Dutch ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning en the Environment (VROM). The air quality in the streets that were investigated is mainly determined by emissions from local traffic. The measurements have been performed during thirteen periods of four weeks each, using so called 'Palmes' diffusion tubes. These measurements have been calibrated using the European reference method that is operational in the permanent measuring stations of the GGD Amsterdam. The calculations were performed using the geometry of the roads and information of the traffic at the measuring locations. Part of the differences can be explained, as some locations are not within the scope of the model. In these situations the model is known to perform slightly less. Apart from local traffic, other sources, like shipping, also contribute to the NO2 background concentrations in streets in Amsterdam. Sources that have only globally been included in the calculation of this background concentration may influence concentrations at specific locations. Further studies on this subject will be conducted in 2010. [nl

  4. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  5. Variation of pH-measurement in platelet concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P. F.; van Zanten, A. P.; Pietersz, R. N.; Reesink, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    To measure pH in platelet concentrates, blood gas analysers with different calibration principles may be used. In this study, variances observed in pH measurements with two types of blood gas analysers were investigated. pH was measured in crystalloid solutions (platelet additive solution (PAS-II),

  6. Automatic registration method for multisensor datasets adopted for dimensional measurements on cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L; Mehari, F; Weckenmann, A; Ettl, S; Häusler, G

    2013-01-01

    Multisensor systems with optical 3D sensors are frequently employed to capture complete surface information by measuring workpieces from different views. During coarse and fine registration the resulting datasets are afterward transformed into one common coordinate system. Automatic fine registration methods are well established in dimensional metrology, whereas there is a deficit in automatic coarse registration methods. The advantage of a fully automatic registration procedure is twofold: it enables a fast and contact-free alignment and further a flexible application to datasets of any kind of optical 3D sensor. In this paper, an algorithm adapted for a robust automatic coarse registration is presented. The method was originally developed for the field of object reconstruction or localization. It is based on a segmentation of planes in the datasets to calculate the transformation parameters. The rotation is defined by the normals of three corresponding segmented planes of two overlapping datasets, while the translation is calculated via the intersection point of the segmented planes. First results have shown that the translation is strongly shape dependent: 3D data of objects with non-orthogonal planar flanks cannot be registered with the current method. In the novel supplement for the algorithm, the translation is additionally calculated via the distance between centroids of corresponding segmented planes, which results in more than one option for the transformation. A newly introduced measure considering the distance between the datasets after coarse registration evaluates the best possible transformation. Results of the robust automatic registration method are presented on the example of datasets taken from a cutting tool with a fringe-projection system and a focus-variation system. The successful application in dimensional metrology is proven with evaluations of shape parameters based on the registered datasets of a calibrated workpiece. (paper)

  7. No effect of moderate or high concentrate allowance on growth parameters in weanling Warmblood foals fed late-cut haylage as forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J K; Remler, H P; Senckenberg, E; Kienzle, E

    2014-10-01

    Two groups of Warmblood foals from the Bavarian federal stud participated in the study beginning from the age of approximately 6 months. The foals were offered a late 1st cut of haylage, oats and foal starter feed. For 2 months after weaning, group 'R' (15 foals) received an amount of oats to provide a total digestible energy supply meeting the recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE), whereas the other group 'A' (16 foals) was offered a higher amount of oats (surplus of approximately 1.3 kg/animal/day). Concentrates were fed individually twice daily; total daily haylage intake of all foals together was recorded. In both groups, individual concentrate intake, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and several growth parameters were documented. Both groups showed an absolutely parallel development of the measured growth parameters and of BW and BCS. BW and BCS increased above the recommendations of GfE and Hois. The amount of concentrates offered was not ingested completely in both groups. The average metabolisable energy (ME) intake from concentrates amounted to 30.3 and 32.1 MJ ME/animal/day (group 'R') and 38.7 and 38.2 MJ ME/animal/day (group 'A') for the 7th and 8th month respectively. The mean haylage intake of all foals together equalled 26.2 MJ ME/animal/day. The parallel development of all documented growth parameters in both groups leads to the assumption that higher concentrate intake must have caused lower intake of haylage and vice versa, thus resulting in an overall comparable energy intake for each foal, independently of energy source. The calculated average daily energy intake for all foals together amounted to 60.5 and 61.4 MJ ME/animal for the 7th and 8th month. The mean crude protein intake in both groups together amounted to 640 and 647 g/animal/day for the 7th and 8th month. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  9. Measurement of current drive profile using electron cyclotron wave attenuation near the O-mode cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.

    1991-01-01

    A method for determining the radial profile of the lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks uing electron-cyclotron attenuation of the O-mode for frequencies ω near the cut-off frequency is discussed. The basic idea is that for a given wave frequency, the cut-off plays the role of a spatial filter selecting a variable portion of the non-inductive current. It is shown that the incremental attenuation resulting from a small increase of ω displays specific features related to the current density near the cut-off point. Using the relation between the wave damping and the current density it is possible to determine the radial profile of the current drive from the wave attenuation measurements. A numerical application is also presented for plasma parameters in the reactor regime

  10. Aquatic respiration rate measurements at low oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Holtappels

    Full Text Available Despite its huge ecological importance, microbial oxygen respiration in pelagic waters is little studied, primarily due to methodological difficulties. Respiration measurements are challenging because of the required high resolution of oxygen concentration measurements. Recent improvements in oxygen sensing techniques bear great potential to overcome these limitations. Here we compare 3 different methods to measure oxygen consumption rates at low oxygen concentrations, utilizing amperometric Clark type sensors (STOX, optical sensors (optodes, and mass spectrometry in combination with (18-18O2 labeling. Oxygen concentrations and consumption rates agreed well between the different methods when applied in the same experimental setting. Oxygen consumption rates between 30 and 400 nmol L(-1 h(-1 were measured with high precision and relative standard errors of less than 3%. Rate detection limits in the range of 1 nmol L(-1 h(-1 were suitable for rate determinations in open ocean water and were lowest at the lowest applied O2 concentration.

  11. Measurement of radon activity concentrations in air of Tuzla city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Fazlic, R.; Tresnjo, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The survey was conducted over one year in the area of Tuzla city and its surrounding. At the measuring locations there were registered Daily and seasonal variations in outdoor radon concentration were observed, with average values lying within the region of 9 - 30 Bq/m 3 . The results of the measurements will be included in the concentration map of radon activity in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is under preparation. (P.A.)

  12. Measurements of indoor radon concentration in Libyan cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elarabiy, S. F.; Khalifa, M.; Misrati, N.; Chahboune, N.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-12-01

    Studies confirm that the risk of exposure to indor radon is attributable to lung cancer worldwide. The relationship between radon exposure and cancer is a linear one which necessitates for need for measurements of indoor radon concentration. This paper presents the results of measurements of indoor radon in several libya cities using CR-39 plastic. The results showed that the average radon concentration in the cities of Tripoli, Al-harcha and Alrajaban were 48.8 Bg/m 3 , 51.4 Bg/m 3 and 55.5 Bg/m 3 respectively. The average indoor radon concentration in Libya is low comparing with other studies. (Author)

  13. The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Leo; Galus, James

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was developed to aid clinicians with a dimensional assessment of psychopathology; however, this measure resembles a screening tool for several symptomatic domains. The objective of the current study was to examine the basic parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power of the measure as a screening tool. One hundred and fifty patients in a correctional community center filled out the measure prior to a psychiatric evaluation, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview screen. The above parameters were calculated for the domains of depression, mania, anxiety, and psychosis. The results showed that the sensitivity and positive predictive power of the studied domains was poor because of a high rate of false positive answers on the measure. However, when the lowest threshold on the Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was used, the sensitivity of the anxiety and psychosis domains and the negative predictive values for mania, anxiety and psychosis were good. In conclusion, while it is foreseeable that some clinicians may use the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a screening tool, it should not be relied on to identify positive findings. It functioned well in the negative prediction of mania, anxiety and psychosis symptoms.

  14. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  15. Validation of image cytometry for sperm concentration measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte L.; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2017-01-01

    Sperm concentration is an essential parameter in the diagnostic evaluation of men from infertile couples. It is usually determined by manual counting using a hemocytometer, and is therefore both laborious and subjective. We have earlier shown that a newly developed image cytometry (IC) method may...... be used to determine sperm concentration. Here we present a validation of the IC method by analysis of 4010 semen samples. There was high agreement between IC and manual counting at sperm concentrations above 3 mill/ml and in samples with concentrations above 12 mill/ml the two methods can be used...... a lower coefficient of variation than the manual method (5% vs 10%), indicating a better precision of the IC method. In conclusion, measurement of sperm concentration by IC can be used at concentrations above 3 mill/ml and seems more accurate and precise than manual counting, making it an attractive...

  16. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  17. Intercomparison of different instruments for measuring radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni; Iida, Takao

    1990-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap method, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting method), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integration radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq·m -3 (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq·m -3 (in indoor air). The results obtained by these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling method was about 52% of radon concentration. (author)

  18. Intercomparison of different instruments that measure radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, M.; Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap technique, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting technique), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integrating radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in indoor air). The results obtained from these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling technique was about 52% of radon concentrations

  19. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Annette; Honig, Anja; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Mueller, Andre; Marcos, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC 2 and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring α-particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes

  20. Reflective measurement of water concentration using millimeter wave illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shijun; Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-04-01

    THz and millimeter wave technology have shown the potential to become a valuable medical imaging tool because of its sensitivity to water and safe, non-ionizing photon energy. Using the high dielectric constant of water in these frequency bands, reflectionmode THz sensing systems can be employed to measure water content in a target with high sensitivity. This phenomenology may lead to the development of clinical systems to measure the hydration state of biological targets. Such measurements may be useful in fast and convenient diagnosis of conditions whose symptoms can be characterized by changes in water concentration such as skin burns, dehydration, or chemical exposure. To explore millimeter wave sensitivity to hydration, a reflectometry system is constructed to make water concentration measurements at 100 GHz, and the minimum detectable water concentration difference is measured. This system employs a 100 GHz Gunn diode source and Golay cell detector to perform point reflectivity measurements of a wetted polypropylene towel as it dries on a mass balance. A noise limited, minimum detectable concentration difference of less than 0.5% by mass can be detected in water concentrations ranging from 70% to 80%. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect hydration changes caused by many diseases and pathologies and may be useful in the future as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of burns and other surface pathologies.

  1. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M. L.; Crespo, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs

  2. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement in diabetic foot ulcers: mean values and cut-point for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Weng, Huan; Chen, Lihong; Yang, Haiyun; Luo, Guangming; Mai, Lifang; Jin, Guoshu; Yan, Li

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate mean values and cut-point of transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) measurement in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Prospective, descriptive study. Sixty-one patients with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers comprised the sample. The research setting was Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of SunYat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Participants underwent transcutaneous oxygen (TcPO2) measurement at the dorsum of foot. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to clinical outcomes: (1) ulcers healed with intact skin group, (2) ulcer improved, and (3) ulcer failed to improve. TcPO2 was assessed and cut-points for predicting diabetic foot ulcer healing were calculated. Thirty-six patients healed with intact skin, 8 experienced improvement, and 17 showed no improvement. Mean TcPO2 levels were significantly higher (Pfoot ulcers. In contrast, all patients with TcPO2≥ 40 mmHg achieved wound closure. Measurement of TcPO2 in the supine position revealed a cut-point value of 25 mmHg as the best threshold for predicting diabetic foot ulcer healing; the area under the curve using this cut-point was 0.838 (95% confidence interval = 0.700-0.976). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for TxPO2 were 88.6%, 82.4%, 90.7%, and 72.2%, respectively. TcPO2≥ 40 mmHg was associated with diabetic foot ulcer healing, but a TcPO2≤ 10 mmHg was associated with failure of wound healing. We found that a cut-point of 25 mmHg was most predictive of diabetic foot ulcer healing.

  3. Comparison of predicted and measured variations of indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.; Winqvist, K.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction of the variations of indoor radon concentration were calculated using a model relating indoor radon concentration to radon entry rate, air infiltration and meteorological factors. These calculated variations have been compared with seasonal variations of 33 houses during 1-4 years, with winter-summer concentration ratios of 300 houses and the measured diurnal variation. In houses with a slab in ground contact the measured seasonal variations are quite often in agreement with variations predicted for nearly pure pressure difference driven flow. The contribution of a diffusion source is significant in houses with large porous concrete walls against the ground. Air flow due to seasonally variable thermal convection within eskers strongly affects the seasonal variations within houses located thereon. Measured and predicted winter-summer concentration ratios demonstrate that, on average, the ratio is a function of radon concentration. The ratio increases with increasing winter concentration. According to the model the diurnal maximum caused by a pressure difference driven flow occurs in the morning, a finding which is in agreement with the measurements. The model presented can be used for differentiating between factors affecting radon entry into houses. (author)

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  5. Measuring the State-of-the-Art in Laser Cut Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Ilar, Torbjörn; Schwarz, A.; Kaplan, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy appropriate to investigating the state of the art of laser cutting from an industrial point of view. The importance of creating the samples in a high quality industrial environment is emphasised and preliminary results are presented.

  6. Fast tomographic measurements of temperature in an air plasma cutting torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří; Gruber, Jan; Cressault, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 10 (2016), č. článku 105202. ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : air plasma * cutting torch * tomography Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  7. Cutting state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting

  8. Comparing predicted estrogen concentrations with measurements in US waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostich, Mitch; Flick, Robert; Martinson, John

    2013-01-01

    The range of exposure rates to the steroidal estrogens estrone (E1), beta-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in the aquatic environment was investigated by modeling estrogen introduction via municipal wastewater from sewage plants across the US. Model predictions were compared to published measured concentrations. Predictions were congruent with most of the measurements, but a few measurements of E2 and EE2 exceed those that would be expected from the model, despite very conservative model assumptions of no degradation or in-stream dilution. Although some extreme measurements for EE2 may reflect analytical artifacts, remaining data suggest concentrations of E2 and EE2 may reach twice the 99th percentile predicted from the model. The model and bulk of the measurement data both suggest that cumulative exposure rates to humans are consistently low relative to effect levels, but also suggest that fish exposures to E1, E2, and EE2 sometimes substantially exceed chronic no-effect levels. -- Highlights: •Conservatively modeled steroidal estrogen concentrations in ambient water. •Found reasonable agreement between model and published measurements. •Model and measurements agree that risks to humans are remote. •Model and measurements agree significant questions remain about risk to fish. •Need better understanding of temporal variations and their impact on fish. -- Our model and published measurements for estrogens suggest aquatic exposure rates for humans are below potential effect levels, but fish exposure sometimes exceeds published no-effect levels

  9. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  10. Continuous measurement of uranium concentrations with the laser spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Cremers, D.A.; Wachter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied to the continuous determination of uranium concentrations between 0.1 and 300 g/L in flowing solutions. The technique is rapid, noninvasive, and unaffected by radioactivity. A concentration of 10 g/L was measured with 0.8% precision in 3 min. Substances that absorb at the laser wavelength, suspended materials, and variations in the acidity of the solution have little or no effect on the results. High concentrations of zirconium, cadmium, aluminum, or stainless steel in solution do not interfere

  11. Measurements in Concentrated Sun using a Remote Controlled Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Floroian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, using the concentrated sunlight is a big issue because the amount of energy is very high and the light is concentrated in a very small area. The main problem in this situation is the heating, and in order to make safe measurements a remote controlled robot is needed. After that, a remote controlled robot will assume the duty of protect the measured sample and to expose it for a precise time to the concentrated sun in order to reduce heating of the sample. For easy operating, and for automatize the process, all the duties, starting with initial conditions, continuing with triggering the measurements, and conditioning the signals and finalizing with data saving must be assured by the robot.

  12. Measurement of average radon gas concentration at workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, N.; Somlai, J.; Kovacs, T.; Gorjanacz, Z.; Nemeth, Cs.; Szabo, T.; Varhegyi, A.; Hakl, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper results of measurement of average radon gas concentration at workplaces (the schools and kindergartens and the ventilated workplaces) are presented. t can be stated that the one month long measurements means very high variation (as it is obvious in the cases of the hospital cave and the uranium tailing pond). Consequently, in workplaces where the expectable changes of radon concentration considerable with the seasons should be measure for 12 months long. If it is not possible, the chosen six months period should contain summer and winter months as well. The average radon concentration during working hours can be differ considerable from the average of the whole time in the cases of frequent opening the doors and windows or using artificial ventilation. (authors)

  13. TXRF 'measurements' of concentration distribution below the detection limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Mrowczynski, S.; Pajek, M.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that a shape of the concentration distribution of the element in a set of samples, as measured by the TXRF method, can be determined even for the concentrations below the detection limit (DL). This can be done, when the measurements reporting the concentration below DL level are included properly in the analysis of the results. The method developed for such correction is presented and discussed. It is demonstrated that this correction is particularly important when the studied concentrations are close to the DL level of the method, which is a common case for TXRF. In the paper a precision of the developed correction is discussed in details, by using the results of numerical simulations of experiments for different concentration distributions and number of performed measurements. It is demonstrated that the factor, which limits the accuracy of the correction, is the number of measurements, not the correction procedure itself. The applicability and importance of the developed correction is demonstrated for routine TXRF analysis of different types of samples of bio-medical interest. (author)

  14. QA/QC For Radon Concentration Measurement With Charcoal Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Zivanovic, M.; Rajacic, M.; Krneta Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary concern of any measuring of radon or radon progeny must be the quality of the results. A good quality assurance program, when properly designed and diligently followed, ensures that laboratory staff will be able to produce the type and quality of measurement results which is needed and expected. Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. Upon closing the detectors, the measurement was carried out after achieving the equilibrium between radon and its daughters (at least 3 hours) using NaI or HPGe detector. Radon concentrations as well as measurement uncertainties were calculated according to US EPA protocol 520/5-87-005. Detectors used for the measurements were calibrated by 226Ra standard of known activity in the same geometry. Standard and background canisters are used for QA and QC, as well as for the calibration of the measurement equipment. Standard canister is a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. Background canister is a regular radon measurement canister, which has never been exposed. The detector background and detector efficiency are measured to ascertain whether they are within the warning and acceptance limits. (author).

  15. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a 252 Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.)

  16. Measurement of radon concentration in water with Lucas cell detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.; Pienkos, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the measurement of radon concentration in water is presented based on flushing a water sample with air in a closed loop with the Lucas cell as alpha radiation detector. The main feature of the method is washing radon away from the larger sample of water (0.75 l) to a small volume of air, approximately 0.5 l, thanks to which a high radon concentration in air and a considerable sensitivity of measurement is achieved. Basic relations and results of measurements of a model of a gauge is given. The estimated measuring sensitivity (S) is 8.5 (cpm)/(Bq/l). The random error due to the statistical fluctuations of count rate at radon concentrations 1,10, 100, 1000, 10000 Bq/l is 11, 3.6, 1.1, 0.4, 0.1% correspondingly at a counting (measuring) time of 10 min. The minimum detectable radon concentration in water is 0.11 Bq/l. (author)

  17. Tomographic Measurements of Temperature Fluctuations in an Air Plasma Cutting Torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří; Gruber, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2017), s. 689-699 ISSN 0272-4324 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : cutting arc * air plasma * tomography Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/ article /10.1007%2Fs11090-017-9794-x

  18. Measurement of Temperature in the Steam Arcjet During Plasma Arc Cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašláni, Alan; Sember, Viktor; Stehrer, T.; Pauser, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2013), s. 593-604 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma arc cutting * Optical emission spectroscopy * Plasma temperature * Steam torch Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.599, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11090-013-9443-y.pdf

  19. Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Johnson, Kiersten

    2009-03-01

    Obstetric fistula, characterized by urinary or fecal incontinence via the vagina, has begun to receive attention on the international public health agenda, however less attention has been given to traumatic fistula. Field reports indicate that trauma contributes to the burden of vaginal fistula, especially in regions wrought by civil unrest, however evidence is largely anecdotal or facility-based. This paper specifically examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia. Multivariate selection models are used to control for sampling differences by country. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, however not in Uganda. Simulations predict that elimination of sexual violence would result in from a 7 to a 40% reduction of the total burden of incontinence. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence and this finding is robust for types of cutting and high risk samples. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs which seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.

  20. A new cylindrical capacitance sensor for measurement of water cut in a low-production horizontal well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingbin; Hu Jinhai; Xie Zhonglin; Li Yiwei; Xu Wenfeng; Xu Lijun

    2009-01-01

    In a horizontal well with low flow rate, oil-water two-phase flow is stratified due to gravity. For measuring water cut accurately in a low-production horizontal well, a novel cylindrical capacitance sensor is proposed in this paper. The structure of the sensor is cylindrical and hollow with multi-layer structure which is consisted of inside insulation layer, electrode layer, outside insulation layer and metal casing from inside to outside. And the measurement principle is analyzed in this paper. The mathematical model is established, which shows that theoretically, there is a good relationship between the sensor response and water holdup. The response curve is monotone and the sensor has a good resolution and a high sensitivity in the whole range of water holdup. The electric field of cylindrical capacitance sensor was simulated respectively by using ANSYS software when the sensor is filled with pure water, pure oil and oil-water mixture. The results of the simulation are consistent with the mathematical model. Static experiments with the sensor filled with oil-water mixture were conducted finally. The results have verified the theoretical analysis and show that the proposed sensor is a viable solution to measuring water cut in a low-production horizontal well. Cylindrical capacitance sensor provides a good reference for the water cut in low-production horizontal well and has a good application prospect.

  1. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  2. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  3. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  4. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  5. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  6. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.

    2005-01-01

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm -3 . The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm -3 . However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm -3 . Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  7. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

  8. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  9. Market power in electricity markets: Beyond concentration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.; Bushnell, J.; Knittel, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    The wave of electricity market restructuring both within the US and abroad has brought the issue of horizontal market power to the forefront of energy policy. Traditionally, estimation and prediction of market power has relied heavily on concentration measures. In this paper, the authors discuss the weaknesses of concentration measures as a viable measure of market power in the electricity industry, and they propose an alternative method based on market simulations that take advantage of existing plant level data. The authors discuss results from previous studies they have performed, and present new results that allow for the detection of threshold demand levels where market power is likely to be a problem. In addition, the authors analyze the impact of that recent divestitures in the California electricity market will have on estimated market power. They close with a discussion of the policy implications of the results

  10. Measurement of 222Rn in soil concentrations in interstitial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn soil concentrations were made by inserting stainless-steel sampling tubes into the soil. The samples of the soil interstitial air were taken in to pre-evacuated 1 L glass flasks. The glass flasks are cylindrical and coated with a film of ZnS(Ag). 222 Rn was measured by counting the alpha particles emitted by 222 Rn and its daughter products, 218 Po and 214 Bi, when they reached radioactive equilibrium. Measurements of 222 Rn gas concentrations in the soil air interstices by the method at different depths were used to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the 222 Rn in the soil air. This study has been carried out for diverse soils. (Author)

  11. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  12. Measurement of mean radon concentrations in the Tokai districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Ikebe, Yukimasa; Yamanishi, Hirokuni

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an electrostatic integrating radon monitor designed for the environmental radon monitoring and longterm measurements of mean radon concentrations in outdoor and indoor air. The position of the collecting electrode within the monitor was determined based on the calculation of the internal electric field. The radon exchange rate between the monitor and the outside air through the filter was 0.75 h -1 . The exchange rate can make the radon concentration inside the monitor to follow thoroughly the outside concentration. Since the electrostatic collection of RaA + ( 218 Po + ) atoms depends on the humidity of the air, the inside of the monitor was dehumidified with a diphosphorus pentaoxide (P 2 O 5 ) drying agent which is powerful and dose not absorb radon gas. From the relationship between track density and radon exposure, the calibration factor was derived to be 0.52 ± 0.002 tracks cm -2 (Bq m -3 h) -1 . The detection limit of mean radon level is 1.2 Bq m -3 for an exposure time fo 2 months. The mean radon concentrations in various environments were measured through the year using the monitors this developed. The annual mean outdoor radon level in the Tokai districts was 7.0 Bq m -3 . The mean radon concentrations was found to vary from 3.5 to 11.7 Bq m -3 depending upon the geographical conditions even in this relatively small region. The annual indoor radon concentrations at Nagoya and Sapporo ranged from 6.4 to 11.9 Bq m -3 and from 15.5 to 121.1 Bq m -3 , respectively, with the type of building material and the ventilation rate. The mean radon concentrations in tightly built houses selected at Sapporo are about 10 times as high as those in drafty houses at Nagoya. (author)

  13. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 measurements in Greece and 15 in Cyprus were performed. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Greece were from (1.1±0.5) to (410±50) Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in underground potable waters in Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) Bq/L and (15±4) Bq/L. High concentrations, viz. (120±20), (320±40) and (410±50) Bq/L, were observed in three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidekis in northern Greece. One water sample from Lesvos Island (north-eastern part of Greece) exhibited a radon concentration of (140±20) Bq/L. Six samples of hot spring water from the city of Loutraki (Attica prefecture), characterized as 'medicinal drinking water', contained concentrations of radon between (220±10) and (340±20) Bq/L. Radon concentrations in potable and non-potable underground water in Greece and Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) and (15±4) Bq/L, whereas in surface water the range was from (2.7±0.8) to (24±6) Bq/L. (P.A.)

  14. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting {alpha} particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 {approx} 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m{sup 3}. With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m{sup 3} and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m{sup 3} suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor.

  15. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting α particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, 218 Po, 214 Bi, 214 Pb and 214 Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 ∼ 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m 3 . With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m 3 and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m 3 suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor

  16. Determining the water cut and water salinity in an oil-water flowstream by measuring the sulfur content of the produced oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for detecting water cut and water salinity in an oil/water flowstream in petroleum refining and producing operations is described. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons which are slowed down and then captured producing gamma spectra characteristic of the fluid material. Analysis of the spectra indicates the relative presence of the elements sulfur, hydrogen and chlorine and from the sulfur measurement, the oil cut (fractional oil content) of the fluid is determined, enabling the water cut to be found. From the water cut, water salinity can also be determined. (U.K.)

  17. Measurement of the concentration of radon in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aten, J.B.Th.; Bierhuizen, H.W.J.; Hoek, L.P. van; Ros, D.; Weber, J.

    1975-01-01

    A simple transportable air monitoring apparatus was developed for controlling the radon contamination of air in laboratory rooms. It is not highly accurate but is sufficient to register the order of magnitude of the radon concentration. Air is pumped through a filter for one or two hours and an alpha decay curve of the dust on the filter is determined. Scintillation counting forty minutes after sampling indicates the radon activity. The calibration method of measuring the equilibrium of daughter product concentrations is discussed extensively

  18. Measurement of Alpha Emitters Concentration in Imported Cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser Allah, Z.K.; Musa, W.A.; AL-Rawi, A.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aime of this study was to measured the alpha emitters concentration of (15) different kinds of imported cigarettes. the nuclear reaction used U-235(n, f) obtained by the bombardment of U-235 with thermal neutrons from (Am B e)neutron source with thermal flux of(5*10 3 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The Results obtained showed the values of the Uranium concentration, and varies from (0.041 ppm) in five stares kind to (2.374ppm) in Machbeth (chocolate) 100's kind. All the result obtained are within the limit levels as given by UNSCAR data

  19. Monitoring and measurement of oxygen concentrations in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels of interest for LMFBR applications is reviewed. Additional data are presented to support the validity of the vanadium-equilibration method as a reference for determination of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels equal to or less than 15 ppM. Operating experience with electrochemical oxygen meters that have a thoria-yttria electrolyte and a Na--Na 2 O reference electrode is described. Meter lifetimes in excess of one year have generally been achieved for operating temperatures of 352 and 402 0 C, and fairly stable emfs have been observed for periods of several months. 7 fig, 21 references

  20. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author)

  1. Ignition delay times of Gasoline Distillation Cuts measured with Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-04-21

    Tailoring fuel properties to maximize the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a way towards achieving cleaner combustion systems. In this work, the ignition properties of various gasoline fuel distillation cuts are analyzed to better understand fuel properties of the full boiling range fuel. An advanced distillation column (ADC) provides a more realistic representation of volatility characteristics, which can be modeled using equilibrium thermodynamic methods. The temperature reported is that of the liquid, as opposed to the vapor temperature in conventional ASTM D86 distillation standard. Various FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines were distilled and various cuts were obtained. The separated fractions were then tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) to see the effect of chemical composition of different fractions on their ignition delay time. Fuels with lower aromatic content showed decreasing ignition delay time with increasing boiling point (i.e., molecular weight). However, fuels with higher aromatic content showed an initial decrease in ignition delay time with increasing boiling point, followed by drastic increase in ignition delay time due to fractions containing aromatics. This study also provides an understanding on contribution of different fractions to the ignition delay time of the fuel, which provides insights into fuel stratification utilized in gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines to tailor heat release rates.

  2. Method and device for measuring the smoke concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennemo, B.

    1994-01-01

    The patent deals with a method and a device for measuring the smoke concentration in air. In a smoke chamber are located two electrodes, connected to a voltage source for forming a circuit in which a DC current flows. A radioactive radiation source to ionize the air molecules is located in the vicinity of the smoke chamber, so that the number of ionized air molecules which are formed is dependent upon the radiation intensity of the ion source and the concentration of smoke particles in the smoke chamber. The charging voltage will further imply that a cloud of high ion concentration is built up close to the surface of the electrodes. The ion cloud will be discharged capacitively upon a plurality of short voltages pulses applied to the electrodes to thereby result in current pulses substantially greater than the DC current flowing through the chamber. 8 figs

  3. Diagnostics of and measures against radon concentrations in a dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.

    1994-02-01

    Results are presented of measurements in a test-dwelling in the period april 1993 - november 1993. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate the possibilities of using a blower door (a fan in a wall of the dwelling) for specifying sources of radon in the dwelling, employing the diagnostic method developed at the KVI (Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute in Groningen, Netherlands). Special attention is paid to the measurement of two input variables for the diagnostic method: transparency of the walls of the dwelling and the strength of static sources. Also measures aimed at reducing radon concentrations in the dwelling are discussed. The main conclusions are that (a) the pressure-variation method is a valid procedure to measure the transparency of walls and floors; (b) the blower door is a suitable technique for arriving at a correct diagnosis; and (c) over-pressurizing the crawl-space is the most effective measure in reducing the radon concentration of the crawl-space. More research on air flows in the soil is recommended. 21 figs., 28 tabs., 7 refs

  4. A correction scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using the comparative cut-bar technique based on 3D numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Changhu; Folsom, Charles; Jensen, Colby; Ban, Heng; Marshall, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    As an important factor affecting the accuracy of thermal conductivity measurement, systematic (bias) error in the guarded comparative axial heat flow (cut-bar) method was mostly neglected by previous researches. This bias is primarily due to the thermal conductivity mismatch between sample and meter bars (reference), which is common for a sample of unknown thermal conductivity. A correction scheme, based on finite element simulation of the measurement system, was proposed to reduce the magnitude of the overall measurement uncertainty. This scheme was experimentally validated by applying corrections on four types of sample measurements in which the specimen thermal conductivity is much smaller, slightly smaller, equal and much larger than that of the meter bar. As an alternative to the optimum guarding technique proposed before, the correction scheme can be used to minimize the uncertainty contribution from the measurement system with non-optimal guarding conditions. It is especially necessary for large thermal conductivity mismatches between sample and meter bars. (paper)

  5. Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring the low concentrations of liquid water and ice in relatively dry soil samples. Designed as a prototype of instruments for measuring the liquidwater and ice contents of Lunar and Martian soils, the apparatus could also be applied similarly to terrestrial desert soils and sands. The apparatus is a special-purpose impedance spectrometer: Its design is based on the fact that the electrical behavior of a typical soil sample is well approximated by a network of resistors and capacitors in which resistances decrease and capacitances increase (and, hence, the magnitude of impedance decreases) with increasing water content.

  6. Apparatus for measuring the concentration of a gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manin, Ange.

    1974-01-01

    The apparatus described for measuring the concentration of a gas in an atmosphere is of the kind which has an ionization chamber with an internal radioactive source and associated electronics enabling the ionization current crossing the chamber to be measured. It includes at least one cylindrical metal grid forming an electrode brought to a high voltage in relation to a cylindrical collection electrode fitted to the axis of the grid coated with a radioactive deposit and, around this grid, a screen acting as a protective envelope. The radioactive deposit is tritiated titanium [fr

  7. Laser metrology in fluid mechanics granulometry, temperature and concentration measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boutier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption sp

  8. Measurement of indoor radon concentration by CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yoneda, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    A convenient and cheap method for measuring indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration with a CR-39 track detector is described. The detector consisted of two sheets of CR-39 enclosed separately in two plastic pots : one covered by a filter (cup method) and another no covering (bare method). The bare method was used here to supplement the cup method. To compare with the result of the CR-39 detector, alpha-ray spectrometry was carried out with a Si(Au) detector in a controlled radon exposure chamber. Indoor radon concentration measured in 133 houses in several districts of Ishikawa Prefecture have been found to range from 6 Bq/m 3 to as high as 113 Bq/m 3 with a median value of 24 Bq/m 3 . The problems to measure indoor radon concentration using the CR-39 detector are also discussed with emphasis on the position of setting the detector in the room and the possible thoron contribution to the detector. (author)

  9. Neutron-diffraction measurement of residual stresses in Al-Cu cold-cut welding

    CERN Document Server

    Fiori, F

    2002-01-01

    Usually, when it is necessary to join different materials with a large difference in their melting points, welding should be avoided. To overcome this problem we designed and built a device to obtain cold-cut welding, which is able to strongly decrease oxidation problems of the surfaces to be welded. Thanks to this device it is possible to achieve good joining between different pairs of materials (Al-Ti, Cu-Al, Cu-Al alloys) without reaching the material melting point. The mechanical and microstructural characterisation of the joining and the validation of its quality were obtained using several experimental methods. In particular, in this work neutron-diffraction experiments for the evaluation of residual stresses in Cu-Al junctions are described, carried out at the G5.2 diffractometer of LLB, Saclay. Neutron-diffraction results are presented and related to other experimental tests such as microstructural characterisation (through optical and scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical characterisation (ten...

  10. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    The radon content of drinking water samples was determined with Alpha Guard Pro equipped with an appropriate unit (Aqua Kit). The samples were collected from water taps in dwellings located at various cities in Greece and Cyprus. In addition, surface water samples from rivers, lakes and seas as well as potable underground and hot spring water samples from Greece and Cyprus were also collected. For a precise determination of radon concentration in water samples, special procedures were followed both for sampling and transportation, as well as for measurement. Intercomparison experiments were designed and implemented before and during the study. Radon concentrations in drinking water samples in Greece ranged between 1.1 ± 0.5 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in Cyprus ranged between 1.3 ± 0.8 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L. Three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidikis (Northern Greece) exhibited high concentrations of 120±20 Bq/L, 320±40 Bq/L and 410±50 Bq/L. This city is identified as a high radon potential area. One water sample located in Lesvos Island (North-East part of Greece) exhibited radon concentration 140±20 Bq/L. Additional six samples displayed high concentrations in potable hot spring water samples. These samples which were collected from the city of Loutraki (Peloponnesus) ranged between 220-230 Bq/L. In addition, two samples characterized as 'medicinal drinking water' gave concentrations between 320 Bq/L and 340 Bq/L. For underground water samples the radon concentrations ranged between 1.2±0.7 Bq/L and 15±4 Bq/L, while for surface water samples the range was 2.7±0.8 Bq/L to 24±6 Bq/L. The observed concentrations of radon gas in potable water samples in Greece were found to be largely low. In Cyprus, they were all well below 15 Bq/L

  11. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA

  12. Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Paul, Prateek; Stieff, Alex; Stieff, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy affected much of the US East Coast extending over 1800 km. It passed over the test location in the State of Maryland on 29 October 2012. Being 350 km away from the regions of highest intensity the storm was of lower intensity at the test location. Continuous radon monitors and passive radon monitors were used for the measurement. The test location was the basement of a single family home representing the indoor concentration. A partially opened garage of the same test home represented the outdoor radon concentration. In 24 h, the atmospheric pressure dropped from 990 to 960 mbar and the indoor radon concentration increased from 70 to 1500 Bq m(-3) and returned to the normal of 70 Bq m(-3) at the end of the storm. Throughout the storm, the outdoor radon concentration was not significantly affected. Probable reasons for such surprisingly large changes are discussed. However, the outdoor temperature dropped from 13°C to 7°C during the radon peak.

  13. Integrating measurements of indoor thoron and its progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, W.H.; Iida, T.; Hashiguchi, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, indoor surveys in Europe and Asia revealed that the dose contribution from thoron and its progeny can equal or even exceed that of radon and its progeny. For measuring thoron and its progeny, several methods had been reported. However, convenient, low-cost and time-integrating measuring methods which are suitable for large-scale surveys are still unavailable. To solve this problem, three integrating measuring methods with allyl diglycol carbonate plastic (CR-39) as detectors have recently been. The results indicated that they are suitable for estimating the indoor thoron and its progeny concentrations when the public exposure to thoron and its progeny is taken into account. Cup monitor - Former types of passive integrating 222 Rn and 220 Rn cup monitors had been reported. Recently, in order to improve the sensitivity of thoron detection, the air exchange rate between the inner and outer cup was enhanced, and the radius of the hemisphere was reduced to 37.5 mm. Furthermore, the procedure of detector exchange was made to be more convenient. Equilibrium-equivalent 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations monitor (EEC monitor) - The measuring system is composed of a monitor head and a diaphragm pump. The total weight of the system is less than 1.5 kg, which makes it portable. The construction of the monitor head and the measuring principle were also reported by the authors. Thoron progeny deposition rate monitor - The monitor is simply constituted a piece of CR-39 covered with thin sheets of absorbers. The thickness of the absorbers are adjusted to let only the α particles emitted from 212 Pb impinge on the detector. The concentrations of thoron progeny are estimated from the deposition rates, assuming that the deposition velocities of thoron progeny are constant in general dwellings. The improved cup monitor has higher sensitivity than former monitors, with a calibration factor of 1.59x10 -3 tracks·cm -2 (Bq·m -3 ·h) -1 for thoron. The accuracy of the ECC

  14. Serum cortisol concentration with exploratory cut-off values do not predict the effects of hydrocortisone administration in children with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Hogenbirk, Karin; Roest, Arno A W; van Brempt, Ronald; Hazekamp, Mark G; de Jonge, Evert

    2012-10-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome is common after paediatric cardiac surgery. Previous studies suggested that hydrocortisone administration may improve haemodynamic stability in case of resistant low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill children. This study was set up to test the hypothesis that the effects of hydrocortisone on haemodynamics in children with low cardiac output syndrome depend on the presence of (relative) adrenal insufficiency. A retrospective study was done on paediatric patients who received hydrocortisone when diagnosed with resistant low cardiac output syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery in the period from 1 November 2005 to 31 December 2008. We studied the difference in effects of treatment with hydrocortisone administration between patients with adrenal insufficiency defined as an exploratory cut-off value of total cortisol of cortisol of ≥ 100 nmol/l. A total of 62 of patients were enrolled, meeting the inclusion criteria for low cardiac output syndrome. Thirty-two patients were assigned to Group 1 (cortisol concentration and those with normal baseline cortisol levels. A cortisol value using an exploratory cut-off value of 100 nmol/l for adrenal insufficiency should not be used as a criterion to treat these patients with hydrocortisone.

  15. Neutron-diffraction measurement of residual stresses in Al-Cu cold-cut welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, F.; Marcantoni, M.

    Usually, when it is necessary to join different materials with a large difference in their melting points, welding should be avoided. To overcome this problem we designed and built a device to obtain cold-cut welding, which is able to strongly decrease oxidation problems of the surfaces to be welded. Thanks to this device it is possible to achieve good joining between different pairs of materials (Al-Ti, Cu-Al, Cu-Al alloys) without reaching the material melting point. The mechanical and microstructural characterisation of the joining and the validation of its quality were obtained using several experimental methods. In particular, in this work neutron-diffraction experiments for the evaluation of residual stresses in Cu-Al junctions are described, carried out at the G5.2 diffractometer of LLB, Saclay. Neutron-diffraction results are presented and related to other experimental tests such as microstructural characterisation (through optical and scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical characterisation (tensile-strength tests) of the welded interface.

  16. Measurements of serum-free thyroid hormone concentrations by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Norimichi; Hagiwara, Kohji; Taguchi, Hideo; Murakami, Shigeki; Taguchi, Shizuko

    1987-01-01

    An ultrafiltration method (UF) for measuring free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) using the Diaflow YM membrane (Centricon-10) is described. The results are compared with those by equilibrium dialysis (ED) and also by mathematical calculations derived from T 4 , T 3 , and binding protein concentrations. The precision with the UF method was excellent. The normal ranges of FT 4 and FT 3 by the three methods are all comparable. There was a high degree of correlation of FT 4 or FT 3 results by UF with those by ED and by calculation (r = 0.940 - 0.974, n = 161, P 4 and FT 3 by all methods agreed well for hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and for patients with low T 4 -binding globulin. The mean FT 3 in pregnancy was lower than the normal value for all methods, and FT 4 concentrations by UF and calculation also decreased in late pregnancy. The mean FT 4 by UF and ED in low T 3 syndrome were significantly higher than in the normal controls, while the calculated FT 4 was lower. The FT 3 in low T 3 syndrome distributed normal to subnormal in all methods. These results indicate that a) the UF method is a reliable reference method for measuring FT 4 and FT 3 concentrations; b) the UF results agree well with those by ED and also with theoretically derived values in subjects with thyroid diseases and TBG abnormalities; c) for patients with low T 3 syndrome, the FT 4 results obtained by UF and ED are similarly discrepant from the calculated results, implying the existence of binding inhibitor(s) which affect both UF and ED measurements. (author)

  17. assessment of Seawater Intrusion in Concrete by Measuring Chlorine Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.; Osman, A.M.; Bashter, I.I.

    2011-01-01

    The object of this work is to measure water intrusion in concrete using a new methodology based on neutron activation technique. The applied method depends on measuring the activated gamma energy lines emitted from 38 Cl using a gamma spectrometer with Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors. Concrete samples with different percentages of silica fume (SF), up to 20 % submerged in seawater for different period of time were used to perform the investigation. Samples of concrete taken from different positions along the direction of water intrusion in concrete block were irradiated by thermal neutrons using the irradiation cell of 252 Cf neutron source and one of the vertical channels of search reactor at Delft University. The measured 38 Cl concentrations of the irradiated samples were used to plot groups of water profiles distribution in concrete samples with different SF % and submerged in seawater for different periods. These profiles were compared with the others which use here measured by neutron back emitted method where a satisfactory agreement was observed between the two. Further, the displayed measured results; show that the diffusivity for all water contents decreases with increasing the silica fume percentage up to 15 %. However, for concrete samples with silica fume 20 % the observed phenomenon is reversed due to the deterioration of concrete physical and mechanical properties

  18. Si-Traceable Scale for Measurements of Radiocarbon Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joseph T.; Fleisher, Adam J.; Liu, Qingnan; Long, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon (^{14}C) dating of organic materials is based on measuring the ^{14}C/^{12}C atomic fraction relative to the nascent value that existed when the material was formed by photosynthetic conversion of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. This field of measurement has numerous applications including source apportionment of anthropogenic and biogenic fuels and combustion emissions, carbon cycle dynamics, archaeology, and forensics. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most widely used method for radiocarbon detection because it can measure extremely small amounts of radiocarbon (background of nominally 1.2 parts-per-trillion) with high relative precision (0.4 %). AMS measurements of radiocarbon are typically calibrated by reference to standard oxalic-acid (C_2H_2O_4) samples of known radiocativity that are derived from plant matter. Specifically, the internationally accepted absolute dating reference for so-called "modern-equivalent" radiocarbon is 95 % of the specific radioactivity in AD 1950 of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) oxalic acid standard reference material and normalized to δ^{13}C_{VPDB} = 19 per mil. With this definition, a "modern-equivalent" corresponds to 1.176(70) parts-per-trillion of ^{14}C relative to total carbon content. As an alternative radiocarbon scale, we propose an SI-traceable method to determine ^{14}C absolute concentration which is based on linear Beer-Lambert-law absorption measurements of selected ^{14}C^{16}O_2 ν_3-band line areas. This approach is attractive because line intensities of chosen radiocarbon dioxide transitions can be determined by ab initio calculations with relative uncertainties below 0.5 %. This assumption is justified by the excellent agreement between theoretical values of line intensities and measurements for stable isotopologues of CO_2. In the case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements of ^{14}C^{16}O_2 peak areas, we show that absolute, SI-traceable concentrations of

  19. Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Cuihong; Guo Qiuju

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that thoron levels in China are above the world average and may therefore make a significant contribution to the natural background radiation dose. We therefore conducted a pilot study of concentrations of both thoron and radon progeny during the spring of 2006 in the Beijing area, China. A new type of portable 24 h integrating monitor with a CR-39 detector was used during the survey. Seventy dwellings and eight outdoor sites were measured during the survey. For country houses built of red bricks and slurry, the average equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) of thoron and radon were 1.02 ± 0.48 and 16.41 ± 9.02 Bq m -3 , respectively, whereas for city dwellings built of cement blocks and floor slabs, the results were 0.48 ± 0.47 and 11.50 ± 6.99 Bq m -3 for thoron and radon, respectively. For outdoor air, concentrations of thoron and radon progeny were 0.29 ± 0.28 and 7.05 ± 2.68 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radiation exposures from thoron and radon progeny were also evaluated; the ratio of dose contribution from thoron progeny to that of radon progeny was evaluated to be 28% and 17% in country houses and city dwellings, respectively. (note)

  20. Measurements of indoor 222Rn concentration in two art galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Braz, Delson; Jesus, Edgar Francisco de; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Medeiros, Geiza; Zouain, Felipe; Pitassi, Gabriel; Leite, Carlos Barros; Cardoso, Katia

    2009-01-01

    It is point out that radon and their decay products in environment give high dose to human lung. Studies indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has been considered probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after of smoking. A passive-type radon detector was used for measuring indoor radon concentration in two art galleries at Rio de Janeiro city during 90 days January to March, 2009. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occupational and public radon exposure in art galleries and museums. This paper shows the preliminary results of samples collected at two art galleries located in Gavea, Rio de Janeiro city. 30 LEXAN (GE) track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor). The samples were collected in the same building which is a construction of XIX century. The analysis of the results suggests that the 222 Rn concentration levels are different in both sampling site, in closed environmental, demonstrating that, although the construction materials are the same the absence of circulating air is a factor very important to increase the concentration of indoor Rn. (author)

  1. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  2. Measurement limits to 134Cs concentration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.K.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, H.M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.H.; Park, J.N.; Kang, Y.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, S.J.; Park, J.Y.; Ryu, S.Y.; Kim, H.-Ch.; Kang, W.G.; Kim, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the caesium concentrations in soils in mountain areas near Gori nuclear power plant in Korea, focusing on the measurement limits to the 134 Cs. In order to lower the minimum detectable amount (MDA) of activity for the 134 Cs, we have used the ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) precipitation method to get rid of the 40 K existing in natural radioactivity, which reduces the MDA activity about 10 times smaller than those without the AMP precipitation method. The MDA results for the 134 Cs were found to be in the range between 0.015 and 0.044 Bq/kg-dry weight. In order to diminish the background, we also have measured a part of the soil samples in Yangyang, a small town in the east coast of Korea. However, it turns out that in order to detect the 134 Cs in the samples the MDA should be reduced to the level of mBq/kg-dry weight. - Highlights: → We study the caesium concentrations in soils in mountain areas near Gori NPT in Korea. → We use the AMP precipitation method to lower the minimum detectable amount (MDA) of activity for the 134 Cs. → The results of the MDA for the 134 Cs turn out to be in the range between 0.015 and 0.044. → In order to detect the 134 Cs in the samples, the MDA should be reduced to the level of mBq/kg-dry weight.

  3. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  4. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  5. Radioactivity concentration measuring device for radiation waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tetsuo.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can precisely and accurately measure a radioactive concentration of radioactive wastes irrespective of the radioactivity concentration distribution. Namely, a Ge detector having a collimator and a plurality of radiation detectors are placed at the outside of the radioactive waste containing vessel in such a way that it can rotate and move vertically relative to the vessel. The plurality of radiation detectors detect radiation coefficient signals at an assumed segment unit of a predetermined length in vertical direction and for every predetermined angle unit in the rotational direction. A weight measuring device determines the weight of the vessel. A computer calculates an average density of radioactivity for the region filled with radioactivity based on the determined net weight and radiation coefficient signals assuming that the volume of the radioactivity is constant. In addition, the computer calculates the amount of radioactivity in the assumed segment by conducting γ -ray absorption compensation calculation for the material in the vessel. Each of the amount of radioactivity is integrated to determine the amount of radioactivity in the vessel. (I.S.)

  6. Tracking and shape errors measurement of concentrating heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquand, Mathieu; Caliot, Cyril; Hénault, François

    2017-09-01

    In solar tower power plants, factors such as tracking accuracy, facets misalignment and surface shape errors of concentrating heliostats are of prime importance on the efficiency of the system. At industrial scale, one critical issue is the time and effort required to adjust the different mirrors of the faceted heliostats, which could take several months using current techniques. Thus, methods enabling quick adjustment of a field with a huge number of heliostats are essential for the rise of solar tower technology. In this communication is described a new method for heliostat characterization that makes use of four cameras located near the solar receiver and simultaneously recording images of the sun reflected by the optical surfaces. From knowledge of a measured sun profile, data processing of the acquired images allows reconstructing the slope and shape errors of the heliostats, including tracking and canting errors. The mathematical basis of this shape reconstruction process is explained comprehensively. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the measurement accuracy of this "backward-gazing method" is compliant with the requirements of solar concentrating optics. Finally, we present our first experimental results obtained at the THEMIS experimental solar tower plant in Targasonne, France.

  7. Development programs of cutting-edge technologies for measurement and detection of nuclear material for safeguards and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seya, Michio; Wakabayashi, Shuji; Naoi, Yosuke; Ohkubo, Michiaki; Senzaki, Masao

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security ('ISCN', hereafter) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has development programs of cutting-edge technologies for measurement and detection of nuclear materials for nuclear safeguards and security, under the sponsorship of Japanese government (MEXT: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). ISCN started development programs of the following technologies this year. (1) NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) NDA technology using laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma-rays, (2) Alternative to 3 He neutron detection technology using inorganic solid scintillator. ISCN is also going to conduct a demonstration test of a spent fuel Pu-NDA system that is to be developed by LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) using very sophisticated neutron measurement technologies, under JAEA/USDOE cooperation agreement. This presentation shows the above programs of ISCN. (author)

  8. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M; Thombansen, U

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable. (paper)

  9. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  10. Laser-Excited Luminescent Tracers for Planar Concentration Measurements in Gaseous Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Antonio

    Tracers currently used in planar laser-induced fluorescence concentration measurements are not ideal for some experimental conditions, e.g., non-reacting turbulent gaseous flows at standard temperature and pressure. In this work, a number of chemicals have been evaluated, through consideration of their physical and photophysical properties, for use as luminescent concentration markers in turbulent gaseous flows. Two selected substances, biacetyl and acetone, have been studied in more detail. Acetone PLIF concentration images have been acquired in a non-reacting air jet, and the results have been compared to similar images obtained seeding with biacetyl. Acetone has proven to be a superior tracer when imaging fluorescence emission. Acetone has also been used as a fuel marker in hydrogen and methane diffusion flames. This single -laser technique enables simultaneous recording of the acetone and OH fluorescence emissions, as well as Mie scattering from ambient air dust particles. Acetone-sensitized, collisionally-induced biacetyl phosphorescence has been used to visualize molecular mixing in gaseous flows. Initial attempts to produce quantitative results with this method through simultaneous imaging of acetone fluorescence and collisionally-induced biacetyl emission, are described. Using laser-induced biacetyl phosphorescence imaging, a data set of cross-cut concentration images has been acquired in a nitrogen coflowing jet (Re = 5,000). The images have been statistically analyzed. Very simple models of the instantaneous concentration profile have been compared to the experimental data. Of all the tested models, a paraboloid has resulted to be the best approximation to the instantaneous 2-D profile. Finally, an experiment to study jet mixing in crossflow using acetone PLIF imaging has been designed. The flow facility has been constructed, and preliminary images obtained with a high quantum efficiency, thinned CCD detector have revealed the presence of jet structures

  11. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  12. A Compendium of Resistance, Sinkage and Trim, and Longitudinal Wave Cut Measurements Obtained on Model 5365

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratchliffe, Toby; Fullerton, Anne; Rice, James; Walker, Don; Russell, Lauren; Fu, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    .... In these experiments drag force was measured using both 6-component Kistler gages and a "traditional" block gage at the tow post location, as well as a Kistler gage located at the grasshopper bracket...

  13. Prevalence of Hand-transmitted Vibration Exposure among Grass-cutting Workers using Objective and Subjective Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmir, N. A.; Yahya, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Extended exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from vibrating machine is associated with an increased occurrence of symptoms of occupational disease related to hand disorder. The present case study is to determine the prevalence and correlation of significant subjective as well as objective variables that induce to hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) among hand-held grass-cutting workers in Malaysia. Thus, recommendations are made for grass-cutting workers and grass maintenance service management based on findings. A cross sectional study using adopted subjective Hand Arm Vibration Exposure Risk Assessment (HAVERA) questionnaire from Vibration Injury Network on hand disorder signs and symptoms was distributed to a sample of one hundred and sixty eight male workers from grass and turf maintenance industry that use vibrating machine as part of their work. For objective measure, hand-transmitted vibration measurement was collected on site during operation by the following ISO 5349-1, 2001. Two groups were identified in this research comprising of high exposure group and low-moderate exposure group. Workers also gave information about their personal identification, social history, workers’ health, occupational history and machine safety inspection. There was positive HAVS symptoms relationship between the low-moderate exposure group and high exposure group among hand-held grass-cutting workers. The prevalence ratio (PR) was considered high for experiencing white colour change at fingers and fingers go numb which are 3.63 (1.41 to 9.39) and 4.24 (2.18 to 8.27), respectively. The estimated daily vibration exposure, A(8) differs between 2.1 to 20.7 ms-2 for right hand while 2.7 to 29.1 ms-2 for left hand. The subjects claimed that the feel of numbness at left hand is much stronger compared to right hand. The results suggest that HAVS is diagnosed in Malaysia especially in agriculture sector. The A(8) indicates that the exposure value is more than exposure limit value

  14. Underwater-manipulation system for measuring- and cutting tasks in dismantling decommissioned nuclear facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, D.; Reimche, W.; Hansch, M.; Spitzer, M.

    1995-01-01

    Not only manipulators are necessary for dismantling and inspection of structure parts in decomissioned nuclear facilities, but flexible underwater-vehicles. Free-diving underwater-vehicles for inspection and dismantling tasks are still not developed and tested. Aim of the project is the development of sensors and devices for the position determination and the depth regulation. For inspection tasks an ultrasonic measurement and dosimeter device shall be built up. A measurement device has been developed which evaluates the ultrasonic time of flight from a transmitter at the vehicle to several receivers, installed in the reactor pressure vessel. The depth regulation is based on a pressure sensor and the direct control of the thrusters. The ultrasonic measurements are realized by an adapted ultrasonic card, the γ-dosimetry with an ionization chamber and a pA-amplifier. An acoustic orientation system was built up, which measures very accurately with one transmitter mounted on the vehicle and four receivers. Problem occur by reflection from the walls of the basin. The depth regulation is working faultless. The ultrasonic device is preferably used for distance measurement. The radiation measurement device was tested and mounted in the vehicle. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Measurement of PCB concentrations in waters using a biomonitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The book describes a PCB biomonitoring programme which was developed for measuring instantaneous PCB concentrations and permits the compilation of PCB action cadastres for different types of waters and subsequent derivation of current trends. Six representative congeners were selected as a basis for the quantitative routine analysis. The fish species bream (abramis brama) and roach (rutilus rutilus) were used as indicators in the PCB biomonitoring programme on account of their distribution and ecological demands. The age and growth rate of each fish destined for analysis was determined so as to ensure that only healthy fish would be used. In both fish species the dorsal musulature with its low scatter of test results and consistent PCB pattern (internal quantification) proved a representative body region. (orig.) [de

  16. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. METHODS: Skin cetirizine levels were collected...... by the microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Plasma...... cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng...

  17. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M.; Mariotti, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated [it

  18. Chemical characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in relation to heavy metal concentrations in soil water from boreal peatlands after clear-cut harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiikkilä, O.; Nieminen, T.; Starr, M.; Ukonmaanaho, L.

    2012-04-01

    Boreal peatlands form an important terrestrial carbon reserve and are a major source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to surface waters, particularly when disturbed through forestry practices such as draining or timber harvesting. Heavy metals show a strong affinity to organic matter and so, along with DOM, heavy metals can be mobilized and transported from the soil to surface waters and sediments where they may become toxic to aquatic organisms and pass up the food chain. The complexation of heavy metals with DOM can be expected to be related and determined by the chemical characteristics of DOM and oxidation/reducing conditions in the peat. We extracted interstitial water from peat samples and determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and Al, Cu, Zn and Fe in various fractions of DOM isolated by adsorption properties (XAD-8 fractionation) and molecular-weight (ultrafiltration). The peat samples were taken from 0-30 and 30-50 cm depth in drained peatland catchments two years after whole-tree or stem-only clear-cut harvesting (Scots pine or Norway spruce) had been carried out. The samples from the upper layer had been subject to alternating saturation/aeration conditions while the deeper layer had been continuously under the water table. The fractionation of DOC and DON according to both adsorption properties and molecular-weight fractions clearly differed between the upper and lower peat layers. While the hydrophobic acid fraction contained proportionally more DOC and DON than the hydrophilic acid fraction in the upper peat layer the results were vice versa in the lower peat layer. High-molecular-weight compounds (> 100 kDa) were proportionally more abundant in the upper and low-molecular-weight compounds (< 1 kDa) in the lower peat layer. These differences are assumed to reflect differences in the aerobic/ anaerobic conditions and degree of decomposition between the two layers. The concentrations of Zn, Al

  19. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  20. Paper Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how to create paper cuts and suggests the most appropriate materials for young children that give good quality results. Describes the methods the author, a professional artist, uses to assemble her own paper cuts and how these can be adopted by older students. (KM)

  1. Transcutaneous Measurement of Blood Analyte Concentration Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Singh, Gajendra P.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2008-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, affecting nearly 200 million people worldwide. Acute complications, such as hypoglycemia, cardiovascular disease and retinal damage, may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. As diabetes has no known cure, tight control of glucose levels is critical for the prevention of such complications. Given the necessity for regular monitoring of blood glucose, development of non-invasive glucose detection devices is essential to improve the quality of life in diabetic patients. The commercially available glucose sensors measure the interstitial fluid glucose by electrochemical detection. However, these sensors have severe limitations, primarily related to their invasive nature and lack of stability. This necessitates the development of a truly non-invasive glucose detection technique. NIR Raman Spectroscopy, which combines the substantial penetration depth of NIR light with the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, provides an excellent tool to meet the challenges involved. Additionally, it enables simultaneous determination of multiple blood analytes. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of Raman spectroscopy for blood analytes' detection in biological media. The preliminary success of our non-invasive glucose measurements both in vitro (such as in serum and blood) and in vivo has provided the foundation for the development of feasible clinical systems. However, successful application of this technology still faces a few hurdles, highlighted by the problems of tissue luminescence and selection of appropriate reference concentration. In this article we explore possible avenues to overcome these challenges so that prospective prediction accuracy of blood analytes can be brought to clinically acceptable levels.

  2. Description and measurement of concentration problems in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1985-05-01

    Depressed patients commonly complain of concentration problems, yet these have seldom been the focus of systematic investigation. A structured interview about concentration problems was administered to a group of relatively severely depressed patients. Problems in reading and watching television were the most common, and were highly correlated with each other. Direct report of the number of concentration lapses on a reading task was the most generally satisfactory task-performance correlate of complaints of reading/TV concentration problems. Evidence both from this task and from the interview suggests that depressive concentration problems may often be due to 'mind-wandering'. The correlations with concentration problems with the severity and endogeneity of depression and with state anxiety were generally similar.

  3. An optimal guarding scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using a guarded cut-bar technique, part 1 experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Changhu

    2014-01-01

    In the guarded cut-bar technique, a guard surrounding the measured sample and reference (meter) bars is temperature controlled to carefully regulate heat losses from the sample and reference bars. Guarding is typically carried out by matching the temperature profiles between the guard and the test stack of sample and meter bars. Problems arise in matching the profiles, especially when the thermal conductivities of the meter bars and of the sample differ, as is usually the case. In a previous numerical study, the applied guarding condition (guard temperature profile) was found to be an important factor in measurement accuracy. Different from the linear-matched or isothermal schemes recommended in literature, the optimal guarding condition is dependent on the system geometry and thermal conductivity ratio of sample to meter bar. To validate the numerical results, an experimental study was performed to investigate the resulting error under different guarding conditions using stainless steel 304 as both the sample and meter bars. The optimal guarding condition was further verified on a certified reference material, pyroceram 9606, and 99.95% pure iron whose thermal conductivities are much smaller and much larger, respectively, than that of the stainless steel meter bars. Additionally, measurements are performed using three different inert gases to show the effect of the insulation effective thermal conductivity on measurement error, revealing low conductivity, argon gas, gives the lowest error sensitivity when deviating from the optimal condition. The result of this study provides a general guideline for the specific measurement method and for methods requiring optimal guarding or insulation

  4. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  5. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  6. Circular Hough Transform and Local Circularity Measure for Weight Estimation of a Graph-Cut based Wood Stack Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galsgaard, Bo; Lundtoft, Dennis Holm; Nikolov, Ivan Adriyanov

    2015-01-01

    are finally scaled and used to acquire the necessary wood stack measurements in real-world scale (in cm). The proposed system, which works automatically, has been tested on two different datasets, containing real outdoor images of logs which vary in shapes and sizes. The experimental results show......One of the time consuming tasks in the timber industry is the manually measurement of features of wood stacks. Such features include, but are not limited to, the number of the logs in a stack, their diameters distribution, and their volumes. Computer vision techniques have recently been used...... for solving this real-world industrial application. Such techniques are facing many challenges as the task is usually performed in outdoor, uncontrolled, environments. Furthermore, the logs can vary in texture and they can be occluded by different obstacles. These all make the segmentation of the wood logs...

  7. Measurement of local interfacial area concentration in boiling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoung, Ho Kang; Byong, Jo Yun; Goon, Cherl Park

    1995-01-01

    An accurate prediction of two-phase flow is essential to many energy systems, including nuclear reactors. To model the two-phase flow, detailed information on the internal flow structure is required. The void fraction and interfacial area concentration are important fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. The interfacial area concentration is defined as the available interfacial area per unit volume of the two-phase mixture in calculations of the interfacial transport of mass, momentum, and energy. Although a number of studies have been made in this area, the interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow has not been sufficiently investigated either experimentally or analytically. Most existing models for interfacial area concentration are limited to area-averaged interfacial area concentration in a flow channel. And the studies on local interfacial area concentration are limited to the case of air-water two-phase flow. However, the internal flow structure of steam-water two-phase flow having various bubble sizes could be quite different from that of air-water two-phase flow, the reliability of which weak in practical applications. In this study, the local interfacial area concentration steam-water two-phase flow has been investigated experimentally in a circular boiling tube having a heating rod in the center, and for the low flow with liquid superficial velocity <1 m/s

  8. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  9. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  10. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  11. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. (paper)

  12. The Critical Micelle Concentration of Asphaltenes as Measured by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Christensen, S. D.

    2000-01-01

    Micellization of asphaltenes in solution has been investigated using a micro calorimetric titration procedure (Andersen, S. I.; Birdi, K. S. J Colloid Interface Sci. 1991, 142, 497). The method uses the analysis of heat of dissociation and dilution of asphaltene micelles when a pure solvent (or...... solvent mixture) is titrated with a solution of asphaltene in the same solvent. The asphaltene concentration of the injected solution is at a level above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In the present paper the procedure is applied in investigation of asphaltenes as well as subfractions...

  13. Concentration Polarization to Measure Nano-pore Accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solsona, Miguel; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Olthuis, Wouter; Papadimitriou, Vasileios; van den Berg, Albert; Abelmann, Leon; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Nieuwelink, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the deactivation process in porous catalysts is of tremendous economic significance. We demonstrate the feasibility of using the concentration polarization method to obtain the pore accessibility distribution at single particle level for the first time. By using this technique we could

  14. Twice cutting method reduces tibial cutting error in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Bone cutting error can be one of the causes of malalignment in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The amount of cutting error in total knee arthroplasty has been reported. However, none have investigated cutting error in UKA. The purpose of this study was to reveal the amount of cutting error in UKA when open cutting guide was used and clarify whether cutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced the cutting errors in UKA. We measured the alignment of the tibial cutting guides, the first-cut cutting surfaces and the second cut cutting surfaces using the navigation system in 50 UKAs. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between the cutting guide and cutting surface. The mean absolute first-cut cutting error was 1.9° (1.1° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.6° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane, whereas the mean absolute second-cut cutting error was 1.1° (0.6° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.4° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane. Cutting the tibia horizontally twice reduced the cutting errors in the coronal plane significantly (Pcutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced cutting error in the coronal plane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of Multiple Vitamin K Forms in Processed and Fresh-Cut Pork Products in the U.S. Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xueyan; Shen, Xiaohua; Finnan, Emily G; Haytowitz, David B; Booth, Sarah L

    2016-06-08

    Vitamin K food composition data have historically been limited to plant-based phylloquinone (vitamin K1). The purpose of this study was to expand analysis of vitamin K to animal products and to measure phylloquinone and 10 forms of menaquinones (vitamin K2) in processed and fresh-cut pork products. Nationally representative samples of processed pork products (n = 28) were obtained through USDA's National Food and Nutrition Analysis Program, and fresh pork (six cuts; n = 5 per cut) and bacon (n = 4) were purchased from local retail outlets. All samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (phylloquinone and menaquinone-4) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (menaquinone-5 to menaquinone-13). Although low in phylloquinone (processed pork products and fresh pork cuts contained menaquinone-4, menaquinone-10, and menaquinone-11 (range: [35.1 ± 11.0]-[534 ± 89.0] μg of menaquinones per 100 g). The total menaquinone contents of processed pork products were correlated with fat contents (r = 0.935). In summary, processed and fresh-cut pork products are a rich dietary source of menaquinones that are currently unaccounted for in assessment of vitamin K in the food supply.

  16. The measurement of airborne rodon daughter concentrations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Lee, J.K.; Moon, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    A simple method for determining the airborne concentration of radon daughter products has been developed, which is based on gross alpha counting of the air filter collections at several time intervals after completion of air sampling. The concentration of each nuclide is then obtained from an equation involving the alpha disintegrations, the sampling time, and the known numerical coefficients. The state of radioactive disequilibrium is also inventigated. The atmosphere sampled in the TRIGA Mark-III reactor room was largely in disequilibrium. The extent of radioactive disequilibrium between radon daughter products seems likely depend on sampling times associated with turbulence conditions. The data obtained here will certainly provide useful information on the evaluation of internal exposure and calibration of effluent monitoring instruments. (author)

  17. The analyses of measured nuclide concentration in project ISTC 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article are analyzed experiments for WWER-440 fuel and compared with theoretical results by new version of the SCALE 5 code: nuclide compositions - measurement in Kurchatov institute for 3.6% - measurement in Dimitrovgrad for 3.6% (project ISTC 2670) The focus is on modules TRITON and ORIGEN-S (Authors)

  18. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    For the first time in over 30 years, a new ethnographic study emerges on the Bugkalot tribe, more widely known as the Ilongot of the northern Philippines. Exploring the notion of masculinity among the Bugkalot, Cutting Cosmos is not only an experimental, anthropological study of the paradoxes...... around which Bugkalot society revolves, but also a reflection on anthropological theory and writing. Focusing on the transgressive acts through which masculinity is performed, this book explores the idea of the cosmic cut, the ritual act that enables the Bugkalot man to momentarily hold still the chaotic...

  19. Determination of the thermal conductivity of sediment rock from measurements on cuttings; Ermittlung der Gesteinswaermeleitfaehigkeit von Sedimentgesteinen aus Messungen am Bohrklein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troschke, B; Burkhardt, H [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Angewandte Goephysik

    1997-12-01

    Due to high costs core recovery in many wells is strongly restricted. To determine thermal conductivity in these cases measurements on cuttings are necessary, since in situ measurements are expensive and protracted, too. Therefore cores from three hydrogeothermal wells of the north-east part of the German sedimentary basin were grinded to compare the results of measurements on cuttings with known values of thermal conductivity from the original cores. By a suitable model of the two-phase-system cuttings-water it is possible to calculate the thermal conductivity of the rock-matrix. On the basis of this value and a suitable rock-model an average thermal conductivity for the water saturated rock can be estimated. Certainly all influences of the texture (anisotropy, grain bond) and of the characteristics of the porespace (porosity, internal surface, saturation, permeability) are lost with measurements on cuttings. Therefore for the different systems cuttings-water and rock-porefluid as well as for different rock types different models are necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] In vielen Bohrungen werden aus Kostengruenden keine Kerne gezogen. Fuer die Ermittlung der Waermeleitfaehigkeit koennen deshalb nur in-situ-Messungen, die ebenfalls zeit- und kostenintensiv sind, oder Messungen am Bohrklein herangezogen werden. Es wurden daher Kerne aus drei Hydrogeothermalbohrungen des nordostdeutschen Beckens aufgemahlen, um so vergleichende Messungen am `Bohrklein` aus Kernen mit bekannter Waermeleitfaehigkeit durzhzufuehren. Durch eine geeignete Modellvorstellung des Zwei-Phasen-Systems Bohrklein/Wasser laesst sich die Waermeleitfaehigkeit der Gesteinsmatrix bestimmen und aus dieser durch ein Gesteinsmodell auch eine mittlere Waermeleitfaehigkeit des wassergesaettigten Festgesteins berechnen. Klar ist, dass bei Messungen am Bohrklein Einfluesse, die durch Gefuege (Anisotropie, Kornbindung) und Porenraumeigenschaften (Porositaet, Saettigung, Permeabilitaet) hervorgerufen werden

  20. Measurement of aerosol concentration with a beta-ray gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzac, G. d'; Dubillot, J.

    1978-01-01

    Because dusts in suspension are a dangerous polluting agent, several methods have been used to monitor their concentration. Among these, the beta-ray gage enjoys a privileged position. The authors describe such a gage and discuss the conditions to be observed for it to be capable of giving results comparable to those obtained with manual gravimetric methods. The satisfactory results obtained led to standardization of the method and a whole range of instruments based on this principle are employed in pollution supervising networks and for continuously monitoring industrial emissions [fr

  1. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, J.; Oelßner, W.; Decker, M.; Gerlach, G.; Guth, U.

    2011-07-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO2. In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements.

  2. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zosel, J; Oelßner, W; Decker, M; Gerlach, G; Guth, U

    2011-01-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO 2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO 2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO 2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO 2 . In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements. (topical review)

  3. Quality control of the concentration measurement of specific radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, Luis Guillermo; Badilla, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    The counting efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy chain with a Ge (H.p) detector was measured. The Monte Carlo simulation and standard reference materials, in order to calculate the specific activity from 4 reference materials, and from intercomparison samples were used. The purpose was to evaluate the analytical results obtained in the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma. (author) [es

  4. Fluxes of chemically reactive species inferred from mean concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galmarini, S.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of the fluxes of chemically reactive species on the basis of routine measurements of meteorological variables and chemical species. The method takes explicity into account the influence of chemical reactions on the fluxes of the species. As a demonstration

  5. Measurement of radon concentration in Taiz city dwellings-yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Taher M.; Ahmed, Hayel A.; Ismail, Rokhsana M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon gas considered being a high part of natural radiation background. Emitting alpha particles; radon daughters may be deposited into the lungs and cause health hazards. For this reason, estimation of radon levels in dwellings was done in many countries. In our country, Radon group in the Department of physics, University of Aden has been studied radon level in Aden dwelling. The present study is about the radon level in Taiz City - Yemen. Passive diffusion dosimeters containing (SSNTD s ) Cr - 39 detectors were used in the present work. 125 dosimeters were distributed into dwellings of ten regions in Taiz City. Results obtained show that Rn 222 levels vary between 4 Bq/m 3 and 99 Bq/m 3 . The average concentration in Al-Hasseb district is 23 Bq/m 3 and in Algumhuri hospital district is 53 Bq/m 3 . In other regions it varies between the two values. Whereas the general average in the Taiz City is 34 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  6. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  7. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cutting Itch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Cutting Itch” is a curatorial project by artists-duo Baltensperger-Siepert. An exhibition project about the essential need of art to be an active system that reflects, investigates social, cultural and political issues. It is about an existential necessity to shape ones environment, to think about relations, regulating structures and about how we can locate ourselves in a more and more globalised world. (from press material). \\ud \\ud Baltensperger & Siepert identified seven artists from Mexi...

  9. Concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil and in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, A; Eskiner, M; Burger, C; Rossner, M; Krahl, J; Ruck, W

    2012-01-01

    This work comprised a method for concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil as well as biodiesel in diesel fuel by a measurement of the permittivity of the mixture at a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. For this purpose a special designed measurement cell with high sensitivity was designed. The results for the concentration measurements of biodiesel in the engine oil and diesel fuel shows linearity to the measurement cell signal for the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil between 0.5% Vol. to 10% Vol. and for biodiesel in the diesel fuel between 0% Vol. to 100% Vol. The method to measure the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil or the concentration of biodiesel in the diesel fuel is very accurate and low concentration of about 0.5% Vol. biodiesel in engine oil or in diesel fuel can be measured with high accuracy.

  10. Measure of horizontal and vertical displacement of the acromioclavicular joint after cutting ligament using X-ray and opto-electronic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochcongar, Goulven; Emily, Sébastien; Lebel, Benoit; Pineau, Vincent; Burdin, Gilles; Hulet, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    Surgical versus orthopedic treatments of acromioclavicular disjunction are still debated. The aim of this study was to measure horizontal and vertical acromion's displacement after cutting the ligament using standard X-ray and an opto-electronic system on cadaver. Ten cadaveric shoulders were studied. A sequential ligament's section was operated by arthroscopy. The sequence of cutting was chosen to fit with Rockwood's grade. The displacement of the acromion was measured on standard X-ray and with an opto-electronic system allowing measuring of the horizontal displacement. Statistical comparisons were performed using a paired Student's t test with significance set at p acromioclavicular ligament. The contact surface between the acromion and the clavicle decreases statistically after sectioning the acromioclavicular ligament and the coracoclavicular ligament with no effect of sectioning the delto-trapezius muscles. Those results are superposing with those dealing with the anterior translation. The measure concerning the acromioclavicular distance and the coracoclavicular distance are superposing with those of Rockwood. However, there is a significant horizontal translation after cutting the acromioclavicular ligament. Taking into account this displacement, it may be interesting to choose either surgical or orthopedic treatment. There is a correlation between anatomical damage and importance of instability. Horizontal instability is misevaluated in clinical practice.

  11. The measurement of radon concentration of soil in a civil construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Fan Guang

    2004-01-01

    Radon is one of radioactive resources which do harm to human body. Therefore, its concentration in the soil should be measured before the civil construction works. Code for Indoor Environmental Pollution Control of Civil Building Engineering (GB50325-2001) is the main norm used for soil radon concentration measurement. By using FD-3017 RaA radon measuring equipment, the soil radon concentration in a civil building engineering site has been measured, the result shows that the concentration is lower than the regional average value, radon protective measures should not be installed in that site. (authors)

  12. System for measuring of air concentration in air-steam mixture during the transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbenko, Gennady A.; Gakal, Pavlo G.; Epifanov, Konstantin S.; Osokin, Gennady V.; Smirnov, Sergey V.

    2006-01-01

    Description of system for air concentration measuring in air-steam mixture during the transients is represented. Air concentration measuring is based on discrete sampling method. The measuring system consists of sampler, transport pipeline, distributor and six measuring vessels. From the sampler air-steam mixture comes to distributor through transport pipeline and fills consecutively the measuring vessels. The true air concentration in place of measurement was defined based on measured air concentration in samples taken from measuring vessels. For this purpose, the mathematical model of transients in measuring system was developed. Air concentration transient in air-steam mixture in place of measurement was described in mathematical model by air concentration time-dependent function. The function parameters were defined based on air concentration measured in samples taken from measuring vessels. Estimated error of air concentration identification was about 10%. Measuring system was used in experiments on EREC BKV-213 test facility intended for testing of VVER-440/V-213 reactor barbotage-vacuum system

  13. Characterisation of aerosols produced by laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvel, S.; Pilot, G.; Dinechin, G. de; Gosse, X.; Arnaud, P.

    2007-01-01

    Powerful lasers represent a promising alternative solution to traditional cutting processes used in dismantling nuclear equipments. The use of optical fibers has an unquestionable advantage when dealing with airtight workshops. A study funded by COGEMA Marcoule was undertaken by IRSN/SERAC in collaboration with GIP/GERAILP in order to characterise the aerosols emitted by the cutting of evaporators elements with a 4 kW continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. For this study, laser cutting has been carried out in a tight room of 35 m 3 connected to a particle sampling pipe. Iso-kinetic samplers allowed the measurement of the aerosol concentration. A diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2001) - an Andersen impinger coupled to a diffusion battery - provided the size distribution. An electrostatic filter used upstream a HEPA filter, itself placed before the extractor fan, collected the majority of the emitted aerosol. Its efficiency was measured and controlled throughout the experiments. The results show the influence of the cutting conditions on the characteristics of the aerosol, and allow a comparison with other cutting tools. (authors)

  14. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  15. Concentrations of heavy metals and plant nutrients in water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes of anthropogenic lakes (former open cut brown coal mines) differing in stage of acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A. [Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, Wroclaw University, ul. Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wroclaw (Poland); Kempers, A.J. [Department of Biogeology, University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2001-12-17

    Concentration of heavy metals (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) as well as macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) were measured in water, bottom sediments and plants from anthropogenic lakes in West Poland. The collected plants were: Phragmites australis, Potamogeton natans, Iris pseudoacorus, Juncus effusus, Drepanocladus aduncus, Juncus bulbosus, Phalaris arundinacea, Carex remota and Calamagrostis epigeios. Two reference lakes were sampled for Nymphaea alba, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus lacustris, Typha angustifolia and Polygonum hydropiper. These plants contained elevated levels of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Mn, and part of the plants contained in addition elevated levels of Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni and Zn. Analyses of water indicated pollution with sulfates, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cu, and bottom sediments indicated that some of the examined lakes were polluted with Cd, Co and Cr. Strong positive correlations were found between concentrations of Co in water and in plants and between Zn in sediments and plants, indicating the potential of plants for pollution monitoring for this metal. Heavy metal accumulation seemed to be directly associated with the exclusion of Ca and Mg.

  16. The role of the implementation angle of cuttings of Phyllanthus sellowianus as a reference for a soil protection measure against surface erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, H. P.; Sutili, F. J.; Aschbacher, M.; Müller, B.

    2009-04-01

    Cutting plantation is a very common method of soil bioengineering techniques. The potential of vegetative reproduction is used to install a vegetation cover on eroded slopes to prevent surface erosion. The development of above and below biomass from parts of the stock plant in a very short time and the fast and easy propagation are one of the most important advantages of this soil bioengineering type. Several handbooks (Schiechtl, 1992; Florineth, 2004 and Zeh, 2007) suggest potential plants for vegetative reproduction and describe the procedure of plantation in detail. It is recommended that the cuttings are not driven vertically into the ground. A flat implementation angle guarantees a more uniform rooting of the cutting part driven into the soil, however there are no systematically investigations of the impact of the implementation angle on the biomass performance and consequently on the performance as a surface erosion protection measure. This paper shows results from field investigations focusing on the problem of the impact of the implementation angle of cuttings. In sum 75 specimens of the species of Phyllanthus sellowianus. The plant species was recommended as a native potential soil bioengineering plant by Sutili (s. Sutili, 2006). The cuttings were planted with an average length of 50 cm and diameter of 2 cm. The implementation angle differences between 90 (vertical) 45 and 10 degree. Two months after plantation all plants were excavated and the relevant plant data sets were collected in order to analyse the biomass performance. The field investigations are part of an integrated research project of the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil.

  17. Chapter 10: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stern, Frank [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Spencer, Justin [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Savings from electric energy efficiency measures and programs are often expressed in terms of annual energy and presented as kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/year). However, for a full assessment of the value of these savings, it is usually necessary to consider the measure or program's impact on peak demand as well as time-differentiated energy savings. This cross-cutting protocol describes methods for estimating the peak demand and time-differentiated energy impacts of measures implemented through energy efficiency programs.

  18. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  19. Clonal multiplication of guava through softwood cuttings under mist conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareem, A.; Jaskkani, M.J.; Fatima, B.; Sadia, B.

    2012-01-01

    Guava (psidium guajava l.) is a luscious and important tropical fruit crop. the objective of the study was to develop vegetative propagation system to avoid clonal degradation in guava fruit plants. softwood cuttings from five year old gola accession were prepared from the shoot tops of current season growth, measuring 12 cm in length and carrying 2 to 4 nodes. iba and naa (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 ppm) were selected to treat cuttings for root induction. cuttings were planted under mist conditions by maintaining temperature at 25 degree c and 85% relative humidity for 25 days. maximum survival percentage (92.17%) of plants at transplanting was noted with 4000 ppm concentration followed by 2000 ppm (85.50%). In general iba 4000 ppm concentration performed better as compared to naa for all parameters studied. This study revealed the potential of clonal propagation of guava through softwood cuttings treated with auxins. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20 µg/100...

  1. Airborne plutonium and americium concentrations measured from the top of Rattlesnake Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 blowing from offsite was measured in an initial experiment at the top of Rattlesnake Mountain. Average airborne concentration measured was similar to fallout concentrations. Airborne plutonium concentrations were independent of wind speed for seven wind speed increments between 0.5 and 31 m/sec. In contrast the airborne americium concentration was a minimum at a wind speed of approximately 7 m/sec. Similarly, the airborne solids concentration in μg/m 3 was a minimum at an intermediate wind speed increment of 7 to 11 m/sec

  2. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations : a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; Dijk, Peter H.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  3. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations: a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Weykamp, C.W.; Cobbaert, C.M.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  4. Automatic measuring device for atomic oxygen concentrations (1962); Dispositif de mesure automatique de concentrations d'oxygene atomique (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J; Deiss, M; Mercier, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Within the framework of the activities of the Autonomous Reactor Electronics Section we have developed a device, which renders automatic one type of measurement carried out in the Physical Chemistry Department at the Saclay Research Centre. We define here: - the physico-chemical principle of the apparatus which is adapted to the measurement of atomic oxygen concentrations; - the physical principle of the automatic measurement; - the properties, performance, constitution, use and maintenance of the automatic measurement device. It is concluded that the principle of the automatic device, whose tests have confirmed the estimation of the theoretical performance, could usefully be adapted to other types of measurement. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des activites de la Section Autonome d'Electronique des Reacteurs, il a ete realise et mis au point un dispositif permettant de rendre automatique un type de mesures effectuees au Departement de Physico-Chimie du C.E.N. SACLAY. On definit ici: - le principe physico-chimique de l'appareillage, adapte a la mesure de concentrations de l'oxygene atomique; - le principe physique de la mesure automatique; - les qualites, performances, constitution, utilisation, et maintenance du dispositif de mesure automatique. Il est porte en conclusion, que le principe du dispositif automatique realise, dont les essais ont sensiblement confirme l'evaluation des performances theoriques, pourrait etre utilement adapte a d'autres types de mesures courantes. (auteurs)

  5. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  6. Determination of deuterium concentrations in JET plasmas from fusion reaction rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Morgan, P.D.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van; Conroy, S.; Elevant, T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of deuterium in the central regions of JET plasmas, expressed as a fraction of the electron concentration (n d /n e ), has been determined using four different methods involving neutron detection. These measurements are found to be consistent and agree within experimental errors with values deduced from Z eff measurements using visible bremsstrahlung radiation. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify pulmonary hypertension patients according to European society of cardiology exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Michaela B; Garcia, Rodrigue; Christiaens, Luc; Larrieu-Ardilouze, Elisa; Howard, Luke S; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-04-15

    Right ventricular function is the major determinant of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The ESC risk assessment strategy for PAH is based on clinical status, exercise testing, NTproBNP, imaging and haemodynamics but does not include right ventricular function. Our aims were to test the power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify PAH patients according to ESC exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs and to determine if the classification power of echocardiographic parameters varied in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively and consecutively recruited 46 PAH patients and 42 CTEPH patients referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing and comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography. Exercise testing parameters analyzed were peak oxygen consumption, percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal diagnostic cut-off values of echocardiographic parameters for classifying the patients in intermediate or high risk category according to exercise testing. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function were the best for classifying in PAH (area under the curve 0.815 to 0.935). Measurements of right ventricular pressure overload (0.810 to 0.909) were optimal for classifying according to exercise testing in CTEPH. Measurements of left ventricular function were of no use in either group. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function can classify according to exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs in PAH. However, this is not the case in CTEPH where pressure overload, rather than right ventricular function seems to be linked to exercise performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before

  9. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  10. Significance of radioelement concentration measurements made by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry over the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.; Killeen, P.G.; Carson, J.M.; Cameron, G.W.; Richardson, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada are presented as maps contoured in units of radioelement and concentration ratios. These contoured values represent the average surface concentrations of the radioelements over areas of the order of several square kilometres. The relationship between this ''average surface concentration'' and the radioelement concentration in bedrock underlying the area depends on: (1) the percentage of outcrop; (2) the relation between overburden and bedrock radioelement concentration; (3) percentage of marshland or surface water in the area; (4) soil moisture; and (5) density of vegetation. More than 2500 portable gamma-ray spectrometer analyses of outcrop and overburden have been made in the Bancroft, Elliot Lake and Fort Smith areas of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. In the areas examined, the radioelement concentrations in glacial drift reflect the concentrations in the underlying bedrock. Rocks with near-crustal average contents of thorium, uranium and potassium are overlain by glacial drift having approximately the same concentrations. As the concentration in bedrock increases, the concentration in the local overburden also increases, but not to the same extent. In addition, in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements were made at almost 1000 stations within the area of airborne surveys near Mont Laurier and Elliot Lake. These ground measurements were compared with the airborne measurements by averaging the values for all those ground stations located in the areas between each contour level on airborne maps. Radioelement concentrations in bedrock are considerably higher than corresponding airborne measurements, and this difference between bedrock and airborne values increases at higher radioelement concentrations. Radioelement concentrations in glacial drift are only slightly higher than airborne contour values for the same area. Airborne contour maps of the radioelement ratios

  11. Measurement of airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughter products by alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Ryan, M.T.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of naturally occurring uranium-238 and thorium-232 produces radon-222 and radon-220 isotopes which can escape into the atmosphere. If these radon gases become concentrated in air, their daughter products may present an inhalation hazard to man. The airborne concentrations of radon-222 can usually be measured very accurately in the presence of normal airborne concentrations of radon-220 and its daughters. In contrast, the measurements of the airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughters are usually complicated by the presence of radon-222 and its daughters even at normally occurring airborne concentrations. The complications involved in these measurements can be overcome in most situations by using an alpha particle spectrometer to distinguish the activity of radon-222 daughters from that due to radon-220 daughters collected on a filter. A practical spectrometer for field measurements of alpha particle activity on a filter is discussed

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  13. Introduction and evaluation of DSM-5 cross-cutting symptom measures%DSM-5跨界症状量表评介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李园园; 张红霞; 季建林

    2017-01-01

    The DSM-5 cross-cutting symptom measures were developed by the DSM-5 Task Force and Work Groups to serve as a "review of mental systems" in each patient who presents for mental health evaluation and treatment.The cross-cutting symptom measures have two levels.Level 1 questions are a brief survey for adult patients and for child and adolescent patients.Level 2 questions provide a more in depth assessment of certain domains.The comprehensive symptoms could be evaluated through the objective assessment other than symptoms fit nearly into the diagnostic criteria.The following are briefly introduced.%跨界症状量表(cross-cutting symptom measures)是由DSM-5工作组制定的一组精神症状评定量表.该套量表包括用于多维评估的一级跨界症状量表和用于深入评估单一维度症状的一套二级跨界量表.两个级别的量表均有三种不同的版本:成人自评版本、儿童/青少年自评版本以及父母/监护人他评版本.通过评估,可全面客观地了解患者的症状特征,而不仅仅限于诊断标准所列的症状.本文简要介绍该组量表,及其测量特征、优势、不足、需要进一步发展的方面等.

  14. Surface texture generation during cylindrical milling in the aspect of cutting force variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, S; Twardowski, P; Pelic, M

    2014-01-01

    The work presented here concentrates on surface texture analysis, after cylindrical milling of hardened steel. Cutting force variations occurring in the machining process have direct influence on the cutter displacements and thus on the generated surface texture. Therefore, in these experiments, the influence of active number of teeth (z c ) on the cutting force variations was investigated. Cutting forces and cutter displacements were measured during machining process (online) using, namely piezoelectric force dynamometer and 3D laser vibrometer. Surface roughness parameters were measured using stylus surface profiler. The surface roughness model including cutting parameters (f z , D) and cutting force variations was also developed. The research revealed that in cylindrical milling process, cutting force variations have immediate influence on surface texture generation

  15. A new method to measure effective soil solution concentration predicts copper availability to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zhao, F J; Sun, B; Davison, W; McGrath, S P

    2001-06-15

    Risk assessments of metal contaminated soils need to address metal bioavailability. To predict the bioavailability of metals to plants, it is necessary to understand both solution and solid phase supply processes in soils. In striving to find surrogate chemical measurements, scientists have focused either on soil solution chemistry, including free ion activities, or operationally defined fractions of metals. Here we introduce the new concept of effective concentration, CE, which includes both the soil solution concentration and an additional term, expressed as a concentration, that represents metal supplied from the solid phase. CE was measured using the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) which, like a plant, locally lowers soil solution concentrations, inducing metal supply from the solid phase, as shown by a dynamic model of the DGT-soil system. Measurements of Cu as CE, soil solution concentration, by EDTA extraction and as free Cu2+ activity in soil solution were made on 29 different soils covering a large range of copper concentrations. Theywere compared to Cu concentrations in the plant material of Lepidium heterophyllum grown on the same soils. Plant concentrations were linearly related and highly correlated with CE but were more scattered and nonlinear with respect to free Cu2+ activity, EDTA extraction, or soil solution concentrations. These results demonstrate that the dominant supply processes in these soils are diffusion and labile metal release, which the DGT-soil system mimics. The quantity CE is shown to have promise as a quantitative measure of the bioavailable metal in soils.

  16. Continuous measurement of the radon concentration in water using electret ion chamber method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.K.; Hopke, P.K.

    1992-10-01

    A radon concentration of 300 pCi/L has been proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a limit for radon dissolved in municipal drinking water supplies. There is therefore a need for a continuous monitor to insure that the daily average concentration does not exceed this limit. In order to calibrate the system, varying concentrations of radon in water have been generated by bubbling radon laden air through a dynamic flowthrough water system. The value of steady state concentration of radon in water from this system depends on the concentration of radon in air, the air bubbling rate, and the water flow rate. The measurement system has been designed and tested using a 1 L volume electret ion chamber to determine the radon in water. In this dynamic method, water flows directly through the electret ion chamber. Radon is released to the air and measured with the electret. A flow of air is maintained through the chamber to prevent the build-up of high radon concentrations and too rapid discharge of the electret. It was found that the system worked well when the air flow was induced by the application of suction. The concentration in the water was calculated from the measured concentration in air and water and air flow rates. Preliminary results suggest that the method has sufficient sensitivity to measure concentrations of radon in water with acceptable accuracy and precision

  17. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  18. Measurement of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Veena; Bijalwan, Pramesh; Rawat, Jasbir; Yadav, Manjulata; Ramola, R.C.; Mishra, Rosaline

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that inhalation of radon, thoron and their progeny contribute more than 50% of natural background radiation dose to human being. The time integrated passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were carried out in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. The measurements of radon and thoron concentrations were performed by LR-115 detector based single entry Pin-Hole dosimeter while for the measurement of progeny concentrations, LR-115 deposition based DTPS/DRPS technique was used. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. (author)

  19. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  20. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  1. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  2. The deconvolution of sputter-etching surface concentration measurements to determine impurity depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I.V.; Nobes, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-linear partial differential continuity equations that describe the evolution of the depth profiles and surface concentrations of marker atoms in kinematically equivalent systems undergoing sputtering, ion collection and atomic mixing are solved using the method of characteristics. It is shown how atomic mixing probabilities can be deduced from measurements of ion collection depth profiles with increasing ion fluence, and how this information can be used to predict surface concentration evolution. Even with this information, however, it is shown that it is not possible to deconvolute directly the surface concentration measurements to provide initial depth profiles, except when only ion collection and sputtering from the surface layer alone occur. It is demonstrated further that optimal recovery of initial concentration depth profiles could be ensured if the concentration-measuring analytical probe preferentially sampled depths near and at the maximum depth of bombardment-induced perturbations. (author)

  3. Development of plasma arc cutting technique for dismantlement of reactor internals in JPDR decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi; Tanaka, Mitsugu; Ujihara, Norio.

    1988-01-01

    The decommissioning program for JPDR has been conducted by JAERI since 1981 under contact with the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. The development of cutting tools for dismantling the JPDR is one of the important items in the program. An underwater plasma arc cutting technique was selected for dismantling the JPDR core internals. The study was concentrated on improving the cutting ability in water. Various cutting tests were conducted changing the parameters such as arc current, supply gas and cutting speed to evaluate the most effective cutting condition. Through the study, it has been achieved to be able to cut a 130 mm thick stainless steel plate in water. In addition, the amount and the characteristics of by-products were measured during the cutting tests for the safety evaluation of the dismantling activities. Final cutting tests and checkout of whole plasma arc cutting system were conducted using a mockup water pool and test pieces simulating the JPDR core internals. It was proved from the tests that the cutting system developed in the program will be applicable for the JPDR core internals dismantlement. (author)

  4. Methods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deshler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone plays a significant role in the chemical and radiative state of the atmosphere. For this reason there are many instruments used to measure ozone from the ground, from space, and from balloons. Balloon-borne electrochemical cell ozonesondes provide some of the best measurements of the ozone profile up to the mid-stratosphere, providing high vertical resolution, high precision, and a wide geographic distribution. From the mid-1990s to the late 2000s the consistency of long-term records from balloon-borne ozonesondes has been compromised by differences in manufacturers, Science Pump (SP and ENSCI (EN, and differences in recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % potassium iodide (KI and the one-half dilution: 0.5 %. To investigate these differences, a number of organizations have independently undertaken comparisons of the various ozonesonde types and solution concentrations, resulting in 197 ozonesonde comparison profiles. The goal of this study is to derive transfer functions to allow measurements outside of standard recommendations, for sensor composition and ozonesonde type, to be converted to a standard measurement and thus homogenize the data to the expected accuracy of 5 % (10 % in the stratosphere (troposphere. Subsets of these data have been analyzed previously and intermediate transfer functions derived. Here all the comparison data are analyzed to compare (1 differences in sensor solution composition for a single ozonesonde type, (2 differences in ozonesonde type for a single sensor solution composition, and (3 the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO and manufacturers' recommendations of 1.0 % KI solution for Science Pump and 0.5 % KI for ENSCI. From the recommendations it is clear that ENSCI ozonesondes and 1.0 % KI solution result in higher amounts of ozone sensed. The results indicate that differences in solution composition and in ozonesonde type display little pressure dependence at pressures

  5. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  6. Predicting and measurement of pH of seawater reverse osmosis concentrates

    KAUST Repository

    Waly, Tarek; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The pH of seawater reverse osmosis plants (SWRO) is the most influential parameter in determining the degree of supersaturation of CaCO3 in the concentrate stream. For this, the results of pH measurements of the concentrate of a seawater reverse

  7. Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations. The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and

  8. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For...

  9. Prompt gamma-ray spectrometry for measurement of B-10 concentration in brain tissue and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumoto, Keizo; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Boron-10 (B-10) concentration in the brain tissue and blood was measured continuously for 24 hours after injection of the B-10 compound in live rabbits using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. Following injection of B-10 compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, 50mg/kg) dissolved in physiological saline, B-10 concentration was continuously measured in the brain tissue. Intermittently the concentration of B-10 in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. In 10 minutes after the injection of B-10 compound, the level of B-10 concentration reached the peak of 400-500 ppm in blood and 20-30 ppm in the normal brain tissue. In 60 minutes the level of B-10 concentration rapidly decreased and then a gradual decline was observed. The value was 15-30 ppm at 3 hours after injection, 5-10 ppm at 6 hours and 2-5 ppm at 24 hours in the blood. The concentration in the brain tissue was 3-8 ppm at 3 hours, 2-5 ppm at 6 hours and below 1.5 ppm at 24 hours. B-10 concentration in cerebro-spinal fluid was below 1 ppm. B-10 concentration was also measured in the brain tumor and blood in the human cases at boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). These data studied by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry are very important and useful to decide the irradiation time. (author)

  10. Processing-independent proANP measurement for low concentrations in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased concentrations of pro-atrial-derived natriuretic peptides (proABP) in plasma have been associated with obesity and suggested as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. However, assays for measuring proANP are generally aimed to quantitate higher concentrations of proANP associated...

  11. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  12. Exposition by inhalation to the formaldehyde in the air. Source, measures and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gratta, F.; Durif, M.; Fagault, Y.; Zdanevitch, I.

    2004-12-01

    This document presents the main techniques today available to characterize the formaldehyde concentrations in the air for different contexts: urban and rural areas or around industrial installations but also indoor and occupational area. It provides information to guide laboratories and research departments. A synthesis gives also the main emissions sources of these compounds as reference concentrations measured in different environments. (A.L.B.)

  13. About Error in Measuring Oxygen Concentration by Solid-Electrolyte Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates additional errors while measuring oxygen concentration in a gas mixture by a solid-electrolyte cell. Experimental dependences of additional errors caused by changes in temperature in a sensor zone, discharge of gas mixture supplied to a sensor zone, partial pressure in the gas mixture and fluctuations in oxygen concentrations in the air.

  14. Cutting of the Berberis laurina Billb. Using Different Concentrations of Indolebutyric Acid Estaquia de Berberis laurina Billb. utilizando diferentes concentrações de ácido indol butírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Melissa Althaus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Berberis laurina Billb. (Berberidaceae is a native shrub from Floresta Ombrófila Mista ecological formation, very ornamental and useful specie for recovery of degraded areas. With medical applications, its fruit is edible and its roots are used as dye. This paper aims to analyze lhe induction of lhe rooting of Berberis laurina stem cuttings employing indolebutyric acid (IBA in O, 1000 and 2000 mgL-1 concentrations, using the vermiculite as growing medium. In october 2003, stem cuttings were collected from eight stock plants, located in Fazenda Rio Grande - PR. Semi-hardwood cuttings were preppared with 8.0 cm long by 0.35 cm of diameter shape, containing three leaves on the top, cut in a half,  the base was cut in diagonal and the top was cut straight, receiving a treatment with sodium hipochlorite (0.5% for 10 minutes. The experiment was being conducted in a greenhouse. After 90 days an analysis was taken from the rooting rate, rate of the number of roots formed per cuttings, length of the three biggest  roots formed per cuttings, rate of the initial leaves which have survived since the cutting’s manufacture per cutting, rate of sprout presence per cutting, rate of not rooted living cuttings and rate of dead cuttings. The analyzed variables did not show a significative difference using 5% of probability, except for the rate of not rooted living cuttings which had differed  statistically; however, the rooting rate was above the ones found in studies made with another species of  Berberis (20.0 - 30.0 %. IBA did not improve the  rooting of B. laurina.Berberis Iaurina (Berberidaceae é um arbusto nativo da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, de grande potencial ornamental, também utilizado em recuperação de áreas degradadas. Possui aplicação medicinal, seu  fruto é comestível e suas raízes são utilizadas como  corantes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a indução do enraizamento de estacas caulinares

  15. Evaluation and Comparison of Chemiluminescence and UV Photometric Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O3) that may be p...

  16. Optimisation of elevated radon concentration measurement by using electro-chemical etching of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P.; Fujimoto, K.; Tommasino, L.; Demajo, A.; Zunic, Z.; Celikovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, two methods for adjusting of passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeters (UFO detector) for enhanced radon concentration measurement are presented. Achieved upper limit of detection is 5.94 MBq m-3 d [sr

  17. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  18. Wedge cutting of mild steel by CO 2 laser and cut-quality assessment in relation to normal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.

    2008-10-01

    In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.

  19. Development of automatic high-concentration boron measurement technique; Konodo hoso jido sokutei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T.; Honda, S.; Ito, A. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The technology that can automatically measure the boron concentration in boric acid water was developed. A high-concentration boric acid solution must be held at a high temperature to prevent the deposition. Skill and precision ({plus_minus}0.2 to 0.3% for 10 to 2500 ppm as boron concentration, and {plus_minus}2 to 3% for 2500 to 25,000 ppm) are required to analyze the boric acid solution manually. In theory, the boron concentration in a wide range can be measured, and boron has a constant-temperature function. A density hydrometer method that facilitates the treatment and calibration in high precision and at low cost was chosen. The vibration period generated when vibration is given to the solution specimen put in a U-tube is higher as the density is lower. On the basis of this theory, the density of a specimen can be obtained according to the relation with the same data of the known-concentration boric acid water. The high-concentration boric acid water that cannot be measured by the existing boron densitometer can be measured directly. It can also be measured in a low-concentration area. The technique can be used in a laboratory as the simplified method that is replaced by the current manual analysis. The reduction effect of analytical chemical`s waste liquid can also be expected. In the electric power industry, automated equipment is required for high efficiency and labor saving. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Estimation of release of tritium from measurements of air concentrations in reactor building of PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to estimate the releases from measured air concentrations of tritium at various locations in Reactor Building (RB). Design data of Kaiga Generating Station and sample measurements of tritium concentrations at various locations in RB and discharges for a period of fortnight were used. A comparison has also been made with actual measurements. It has been observed that there is good matching in estimated and actual measurements of tritium release on some days while on some days there is high difference

  1. Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkkönen, P; Pai, P; Maynard, A; Lehtinen, K E J; Hämeri, K; Rechkemmer, P; Ramachandran, G; Prasad, B; Kulmala, M

    2005-07-15

    Fine particle number concentration (D(p)>10 nm, cm(-3)), mass concentrations (approximation of PM(2.5), microg m(-3)) and indoor/outdoor number concentration ratio (I/O) measurements have been conducted for the first time in 11 urban households in India, 2002. The results indicate remarkable high indoor number and mass concentrations and I/O number concentration ratios caused by cooking. Besides cooking stoves that used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene as the main fuel, high indoor concentrations can be explained by poor ventilation systems. Particle number concentrations of more than 300,000 cm(-3) and mass concentrations of more than 1000 microg m(-3) were detected in some cases. When the number and mass concentrations during cooking times were statistically compared, a correlation coefficient r>0.50 was observed in 63% of the households. Some households used other fuels like wood and dung cakes along with the main fuel, but also other living activities influenced the concentrations. In some areas, outdoor combustion processes had a negative impact on indoor air quality. The maximum concentrations observed in most cases were due to indoor combustion sources. Reduction of exposure risk and health effects caused by poor indoor air in urban Indian households is possible by improving indoor ventilation and reducing penetration of outdoor particles.

  2. Whispering Gallery Mode Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring Concentration of Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber solution-concentration sensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM is proposed in this paper. The WGM solution-concentration sensors were used to measure salt solutions, in which the concentrations ranged from 1% to 25% and the wavelength drifted from the left to the right. The experimental results showed an average sensitivity of approximately 0.372 nm/% and an R2 linearity of 0.8835. The proposed WGM sensors are of low cost, feasible for mass production, and durable for solution-concentration sensing.

  3. Determination of potassium concentration in salt water for residual beta radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, Ll.

    2004-01-01

    High interferences may arise in the determination of potassium concentration in salt water. Several analytical methods were studied to determine which method provided the most accurate measurements of potassium concentration. This study is relevant for radiation protection because the exact amount of potassium in water samples must be known for determinations of residual beta activity concentration. The fitting algorithm of the calibration curve and estimation of uncertainty in potassium determinations were also studied. The reproducibility of the proposed analytical method was tested by internal and external validation. Furthermore, the residual beta activity concentration of several Spanish seawater and brackish river water samples was determined using the proposed method

  4. Differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique for non-invasive measurement of glucose concentration on human fingertip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc-Hung; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2017-06-26

    A differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique is proposed for obtaining non-invasive (NI) measurements of the glucose concentration on the human fingertip. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by detecting the optical rotation angle and depolarization index of tissue phantom samples containing de-ionized water (DI), glucose solutions with concentrations ranging from 0~500 mg/dL and 2% lipofundin. The results show that the extracted optical rotation angle increases linearly with an increasing glucose concentration, while the depolarization index decreases. The practical applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index properties of the human fingertips of healthy volunteers.

  5. Chromatographic method of measurement of helium concentration in underground waters for dating in hydrological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Research methods which use natural environmental indicators are widely applied in hydrology. Different concentrations of indicators and their isotopic components in ground waters allow to determine the genesis of waters and are valuable source of information about the water flow dynamics. One of the significant indicator is helium. The concentration of 4 He (helium) in ground water is a fine indicator in water dating in a range from a hundreds to millions of years (Aeschbach-Hertig i in., 1999; Andrews i in., 1989; Castro i in., 2000; Zuber i in., 2007). 4 He is also used for dating young waters of age about 10 years (Solomon i in., 1996). Thesis consist the description of elaborated in IFJ PAN in Krakow chromatographic measurement method of helium concentration in ground waters in aim of dating. Chapter 1 contain short introduction about ground water dating and chapter 2 description of helium property and chosen applications of helium for example in technology and earthquake predictions. Helium sources in ground waters are described in chapter 3. Helium concentration in water after infiltration (originated from atmosphere) to the ground water system depends mainly on the helium concentration coming from the equilibration with the atmosphere increased by additional concentration from '' excess air ''. With the increasing resistance time of ground water during the flow, radiogenic, non-atmospheric component of helium dissolves also in water. In chapter 4 two measurement methods of helium concentration in ground waters were introduced: mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic method. Detailed description of elaborated chromatographic measurement method of helium concentration in ground water contain chapter 5. To verify developed method the concentration of helium in ground waters from the regions of Krakow and Busko Zdroj were measured. For this waters the concentrations of helium are known from the earlier mass spectrometric measurements. The results of

  6. Development of concentration measurement system in a mini-channel using a local NMR sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2008-01-01

    A local NMR sensor to measure methanol concentration of fluid flowing in a mini-channel was developed. The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 0.60 mm inside diameter. Using the sensors, local methanol concentration of water-methanol mixture in the mini-channel of 3.0 mm width and 1.5 mm depth was measured. The effects of flow velocity in the channel and the gravity direction on the methanol concentration distribution in the channel were investigated experimentally. (author)

  7. ESR measurement of the concentration of vibrationally excited hydrogen and deuterium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenzon, Yu.M.; Ivanov, A.V.; Il'in, S.D.; Kucheryavyi, S.I.; Rozenshtein, V.B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of vibrationally excited H 2 and D 2 molecules using an ESR microwave spectrometer. The essence of the method is the titration of H 2 (v = 1) and D 2 (v = 1) with D and H atoms and measurement of the concentrations of the titration products H and D, respectively. Stoichiometric titration coefficients were determined in the form of proportionality coefficients between the titration signals Δ[H], Δ[D] and the concentrations of H 2 (v = 1), D 2 (v = 1)

  8. Measurement of Radon concentration in groundwater by technique of nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Van Giap; Nguyen Manh Hung; Dang Duc Nhan

    2000-01-01

    A method for measuring radon concentration in groundwater using nuclear track detector LR-115 stripping is reported. The radon-monitoring device in groundwater is a small box with two pieces of nuclear track detector and all these materials is placed in a plastic bag made by polyethylene. It is very suitable to measure radon concentration in groundwater well in long term. Alpha tracks produced by radon and it daughter on nuclear track detector is counted automatically by spark counting method. The paper also presents some results of radon concentration in some groundwater well and mineral water sources. (author)

  9. Results of long-term measurement of 222Rn concentrations in outdoor atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of the authors' long-term measurement of 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere. The measurements started in 1987 and were performed at a height of 1.5 m over a grass-covered ground surface, using till 1991 a Lucas type scintillation chamber and later a large volume scintillation chamber. Graphs are presented and discussed of the course of average monthly radon concentration in 1987-1996 and of annual courses of radon concentration for different time intervals of the day over 1991 to 1995. (A.K.)

  10. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in drinking water in the environs of Thirthahalli taluk, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shilpa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved radon concentration in water samples collected from various aquifers in and around Thirthahalli taluk was measured by employing active technique through Scintillation Radon Monitoring system. The measured radon concentration lies in the range of 0.37 ± 0.05 Bq/l to 87.02 ± 2.11 Bq/l. The resulting annual effective radiation dose to the public, who consume this water, lies in the range of 1.01μSvy−1 to 237.56 μSvy−1. However, no significant change in the radon concentration with respect to seasonal variation was observed in majority of the sample. Few samples show higher radon concentration during summer season and lower concentration in rainy season. All these results are presented in this paper.

  11. Study of carrier concentration in single InP nanowires by luminescence and Hall measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Hultin, Olof; Heurlin, Magnus; Storm, Kristian; Borgström, Magnus T; Samuelson, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The free electron carrier concentrations in single InP core–shell nanowires are determined by micro-photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence (CL) and Hall effect measurements. The results from luminescence measurements were obtained by solving the Fermi–Dirac integral, as well as by analyzing the peak full width at half maximum (FWHM). Furthermore, the platform used for Hall effect measurements, combined with spot mode CL spectroscopy, is used to determine the carrier concentrations at specific positions along single nanowires. The results obtained via luminescence measurements provide an accurate and rapid feedback technique for the epitaxial development of doping incorporation in nanowires. The technique has been employed on several series of samples in which growth parameters, such as V/III-ratio, temperature and dopant flows, were investigated in an optimization procedure. The correlation between the Hall effect and luminescence measurements for extracting the carrier concentration of different samples were in excellent agreement. (paper)

  12. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  13. Rooting of stem cuttings of ixora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline De Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ixora is ornamental plant widely used in landscaping. In order to maximize the propagation of cuts, we evaluated the concentrations of auxin (indolbutiric acid and the presence of leaves on the rooting in cuts of Ixora coccinea L. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design, in factorial design 3x4, with three types of cuts (without leaf, with two or four leaves, four concentrations of indolbutiric acid (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1, with four replications and 10 cuts in each experimental unit. After 53 days of implantation the experiment, evaluated the survival(%, rooting(%, sprouting(%, formation of callus(%, number, length and biomass of roots formed. The interaction of the type of cuts with concentrations of auxin was not significant for any of the variables analyzed. The survival of cuttings was not influenced by the treatments. Cuts with two or four leaves presented rooting and length of roots above the cuttings without leaves. The application of auxin does not substitute the presence of leaf in cuts of ixora in vegetative propagation. The vegetative propagation by cut of ixora can be made without application of auxin, and the leaves must be maintained in the cuttings.

  14. Sequential Measurement of Intermodal Variability in Public Transportation PM2.5 and CO Exposure Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-08-16

    A sequential measurement method is demonstrated for quantifying the variability in exposure concentration during public transportation. This method was applied in Hong Kong by measuring PM2.5 and CO concentrations along a route connecting 13 transportation-related microenvironments within 3-4 h. The study design takes into account ventilation, proximity to local sources, area-wide air quality, and meteorological conditions. Portable instruments were compacted into a backpack to facilitate measurement under crowded transportation conditions and to quantify personal exposure by sampling at nose level. The route included stops next to three roadside monitors to enable comparison of fixed site and exposure concentrations. PM2.5 exposure concentrations were correlated with the roadside monitors, despite differences in averaging time, detection method, and sampling location. Although highly correlated in temporal trend, PM2.5 concentrations varied significantly among microenvironments, with mean concentration ratios versus roadside monitor ranging from 0.5 for MTR train to 1.3 for bus terminal. Measured inter-run variability provides insight regarding the sample size needed to discriminate between microenvironments with increased statistical significance. The study results illustrate the utility of sequential measurement of microenvironments and policy-relevant insights for exposure mitigation and management.

  15. Plasma arc cutting: speed and cut quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchinsky, V A; Severance, W S

    2009-01-01

    When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.

  16. The measurement of thoron concentrations in Australia using the Japanese passive R-T dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, L.F.; Tokonami, S.; Doi, M.; Solomon, S.B.; Peggie, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown higher gamma radiation levels and higher soil thorium concentrations in the Darling Scarp area to the east of the city of Perth in Western Australia. It was considered desirable to measure the concentrations of the 220 Rn (thoron) in houses built near such areas and compare these measurements with similar measurements at other sites within Australia. A monitor developed for surveying 220 Rn and 222 Rn levels in Japan was considered most suitable for this purpose. The monitor used for the survey was a passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeter, similar in type to that used to measure thoron concentrations in traditional Japanese houses. Houses for this study were selected from areas in the Darling Scarp. To provide data on what might be considered typical thoron concentrations associated with other soil types within Australia, a small number of houses in areas on the coastal plain of Western Australia and from the coastal areas of Victoria were also monitored. The mean thoron concentration in homes on the Darling Scarp of 14.0 Bq.m -3 was higher than that in the coastal plain in Western Australia (3.0 Bq.m -3 ) but comparable to the measurements in Victoria (11.3 Bq.m -3 ). For the radon measurements in homes, the mean Scarp concentration was typically 49.2 Bq.m -3 while the WA coastal plain and in Victoria mean concentrations were 11.6 Bq.m -3 and 15.4 Bq.m -3 respectively. For outdoors in the Darling Scarp, the thoron mean was 76.3 Bq.m -3 while the radon level was 18.2 Bq.m -3 . These measurements would suggest that the source of the thoron in homes on the Scarp is from the underlying soil rather than from the building materials. (author)

  17. Studies on measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete structures with long-period grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jaw-Luen; Chiang, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Hsiang-Ping; Wang, Jian-Neng

    2006-03-01

    We report the development and demonstration of a simple and low-cost long-period grating (LPG) sensor for chloride ion concentration measurement in concrete structures. The LPG sensor is extremely sensitive to the refractive index of the medium surrounding the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus allowing it to be used as an ambient index sensor or chemical concentration indicator with high stability and reliability. We have measured chloride ion levels in a concrete sample immersed in salt water solution with different weight concentration ranging from 0 % to 20 %, and results showed that the LPG sensor exhibited a linear decrease in the transmission loss and resonance wavelength shift when the concentration increased. The measurement accuracy for concentration of salt in water solution is estimated to be 0.6 % and the limit of detection for chloride ion is about 0.04 %. To further enhance its sensitivity for chloride concentrations, we have coated gold nanoparticles on the grating surface of the LPG sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance of self-assembled Au colloids on the grating portion of the LPG. With this method, a factor of two increases in sensitivity of detecting chemical solution concentrations was obtained. The advantage of this type of the sensor is relatively simple of construction and ease of use. Moreover, the sensor has the potential capability for on-site, in vivo, and remote sensing, and has the potential use for disposable sensors.

  18. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruin, S. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States); University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Keck School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States); Sioutas, C. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; Fine, P.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction ({approx}6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  19. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruin, S.; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (∼6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  20. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, S.; Westerdahl, D.; Sax, T.; Sioutas, C.; Fine, P. M.

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (˜6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated with readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles.

  1. K-edge x-ray fluorescence analysis for actinide and heavy elements solution concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    Advantages of using Co-57 as an exciter for K XRFA include: a compact design that requires no x-ray tubes; the exciter-detector assembly locates remote from support electronics; on-line, at-line, or off-line configurations for monitor/measurements; systems that can be run by semi-skilled technicians, once programmed; and operated via remote terminals with results sent to control rooms; heavy element concentrations that are measurable thru industrial pipes; independent of minor changes in solution matrix or source half life with concentration results reported in near-real-time; a dynamic range of measurable concentrations that is greater than 10 4 ; measurement times that are reasonable even at 1 gram/liter; and for nuclear safeguards, it provides the <0.5% accuracy required by DOE for the accountability of U, Pu, or both, once the system is calibrated

  2. Accurate measurement of indoor radon concentration using a low-effective volume radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Aya; Minami, Nodoka; Mukai, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Yumi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Muto, Jun

    2017-01-01

    AlphaGUARD is a low-effective volume detector and one of the most popular portable radon monitors which is currently available. This study investigated whether AlphaGUARD can accurately measure the variable indoor radon levels. The consistency of the radon-concentration data obtained by AlphaGUARD is evaluated against simultaneous measurements by two other monitors (each ∼10 times more sensitive than AlphaGUARD). When accurately measuring radon concentration with AlphaGUARD, we found that the net counts of the AlphaGUARD were required of at least 500 counts, <25% of the relative percent difference. AlphaGUARD can provide accurate measurements of radon concentration for the world average level (∼50 Bq m -3 ) and the reference level of workplace (1000 Bq m -3 ), using integrated data over at least 3 h and 10 min, respectively. (authors)

  3. The boron concentration measurement by the prompt gamma-ray analysis device at JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, N.; Torii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kishi, T.; Takada, J.

    2000-01-01

    In determining the dose for BNCT, it is important to measure the boron concentration in blood as well as the thermal neutron fluence. To attain an accurate measurement of the boron concentration in the whole blood at about 30 ppm, the Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis (PGA) is adopted to enable the measurement with a high degree of accuracy in short time, since the chemical analysis technique has some difficulties on it. In order to install the PGA device in a swimming pool type research reactor JRR-4, the super-mirror for obtaining the necessary neutron flux in the space over the pool surface was perpendicularly placed, because the reactor had no horizontal experiment tube for this kind of use. As the accurate measurement of the boron concentration in whole blood using PGA is enabled herewith, the first medical irradiation for BNCT at JRR-4 was carried out on October 25, 1999. (author)

  4. 41Ar-concentration measurements at the Finnish TRIGA Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminen, A.

    1970-01-01

    41 Ar-concentrations in the reactor hall and in the Ar-ventilation duct of FiR-1 (IRIGA Mark II, 250 kW) have been measured during normal operation conditions. Additional measurements have been performed varying Ar-ventilation and hall ventilation flow. A γ- and background compensated thin window proportional detector and a β-Geiger detector for 41 Ar-measurements are described. The hall concentration has also been estimated from background measurements with an unshielded Ge(Li)-detector. The saturation concentration in the reactor hall with and without the hall ventilation is about 1 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 and 3 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 , respectively. (author)

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  6. Estimation of Uncertainty in Aerosol Concentration Measured by Aerosol Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Song, Yong Jae; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Gyu Tae; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    FNC Technology Co., Ltd has been developed test facilities for the aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The aerosol generation system is connected to the aerosol mixing system which injects SiO{sub 2}/ethanol mixture. In the sampling system, glass fiber membrane filter has been used to measure average mass concentration. Based on the experimental results using main carrier gas of steam and air mixture, the uncertainty estimation of the sampled aerosol concentration was performed by applying Gaussian error propagation law. FNC Technology Co., Ltd. has been developed the experimental facilities for the aerosol measurement under high pressure and high temperature. The purpose of the tests is to develop commercial test module for aerosol generation, mixing and sampling system applicable to environmental industry and safety related system in nuclear power plant. For the uncertainty calculation of aerosol concentration, the value of the sampled aerosol concentration is not measured directly, but must be calculated from other quantities. The uncertainty of the sampled aerosol concentration is a function of flow rates of air and steam, sampled mass, sampling time, condensed steam mass and its absolute errors. These variables propagate to the combination of variables in the function. Using operating parameters and its single errors from the aerosol test cases performed at FNC, the uncertainty of aerosol concentration evaluated by Gaussian error propagation law is less than 1%. The results of uncertainty estimation in the aerosol sampling system will be utilized for the system performance data.

  7. Relating soil solution Zn concentration to diffusive gradients in thin films measurements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Fien; Smolders, Erik; Oliver, Ian; Zhang, Hao

    2003-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been suggested to sample an available fraction of metals in soil. The objectives of this study were to compare DGT measurements with commonly measured fractions of Zn in soil, viz, the soil solution concentration and the total Zn concentration. The DGT technique was used to measure fluxes and interfacial concentrations of Zn in three series of field-contaminated soils collected in transects toward galvanized electricity pylons and in 15 soils amended with ZnCl2 at six rates. The ratio of DGT-measured concentration to pore water concentration of Zn, R, varied between 0.02 and 1.52 (mean 0.29). This ratio decreased with decreasing distribution coefficient, Kd, of Zn in the soil, which is in agreement with the predictions of the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The R values predicted with the DIFS model were generally larger than the observed values in the ZnCl2-amended soils at the higher Zn rates. A modification of the DIFS model indicated that saturation of the resin gel was approached in these soils, despite the short deployment times used (2 h). The saturation of the resin with Zn did not occur in the control soils (no Zn salt added) or the field-contaminated soils. Pore water concentration of Zn in these soils was predicted from the DGT-measured concentration and the total Zn content. Predicted values and observations were generally in good agreement. The pore water concentration was more than 5 times underpredicted for the most acid soil (pH = 3) and for six other soils, for which the underprediction was attributed to the presence of colloidal Zn in the soil solution.

  8. Method to make accurate concentration and isotopic measurements for small gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M. R.; Wahl, E.; Cunningham, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon isotopic ratio measurements of CO2 and CH4 provide valuable insight into carbon cycle processes. However, many of these studies, like soil gas, soil flux, and water head space experiments, provide very small gas sample volumes, too small for direct measurement by current constant-flow Cavity Ring-Down (CRDS) isotopic analyzers. Previously, we addressed this issue by developing a sample introduction module which enabled the isotopic ratio measurement of 40ml samples or smaller. However, the system, called the Small Sample Isotope Module (SSIM), does dilute the sample during the delivery with inert carrier gas which causes a ~5% reduction in concentration. The isotopic ratio measurements are not affected by this small dilution, but researchers are naturally interested accurate concentration measurements. We present the accuracy and precision of a new method of using this delivery module which we call 'double injection.' Two portions of the 40ml of the sample (20ml each) are introduced to the analyzer, the first injection of which flushes out the diluting gas and the second injection is measured. The accuracy of this new method is demonstrated by comparing the concentration and isotopic ratio measurements for a gas sampled directly and that same gas measured through the SSIM. The data show that the CO2 concentration measurements were the same within instrument precision. The isotopic ratio precision (1σ) of repeated measurements was 0.16 permil for CO2 and 1.15 permil for CH4 at ambient concentrations. This new method provides a significant enhancement in the information provided by small samples.

  9. Elastic Stability of Concentric Tube Robots: A Stability Measure and Design Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hunter B; Hendrick, Richard J; Webster, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Concentric tube robots are needle-sized manipulators which have been investigated for use in minimally invasive surgeries. It was noted early in the development of these devices that elastic energy storage can lead to rapid snapping motion for designs with moderate to high tube curvatures. Substantial progress has recently been made in the concentric tube robot community in designing snap-free robots, planning stable paths, and characterizing conditions that result in snapping for specific classes of concentric tube robots. However, a general measure for how stable a given robot configuration is has yet to be proposed. In this paper, we use bifurcation and elastic stability theory to provide such a measure, as well as to produce a test for determining whether a given design is snap-free (i.e. whether snapping can occur anywhere in the unloaded robot's workspace). These results are useful in designing, planning motions for, and controlling concentric tube robots with high curvatures.

  10. Evanescent Wave Absorption Based Fiber Sensor for Measuring Glucose Solution Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Candra Pratiwi, Arni; Suryanti, Venty

    2018-03-01

    An optical fiber sensor based on evanescent wave absorption designed for measuring glucose solution consentration was proposed. The sensor was made to detect absorbance of various wavelength in the glucose solution. The sensing element was fabricated by side polishing of multimode polymer optical fiber to form a D-shape. The sensing element was immersed in different concentration of glucoce solution. As light propagated through the optical fiber, the evanescent wave interacted with the glucose solution. Light was absorbed by the glucose solution. The larger concentration the glucose solution has, the more the evanescent wave was absorbed in particular wavelenght. Here in this paper, light absorbtion as function of glucose concentration was measured as function of wavelength (the color of LED). We have shown that the proposed sensor can demonstrated an increase of light absorption as function of glucose concentration.

  11. Measurements of the size dependence of the concentration of nonvolatile material in fog droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, J. A.; Noone, K. J.; Hallberg, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Schell, D.; Berner, A.; Solly, I.; Kruisz, C.; Reischl, G.; Arends, B. G.; Wobrock, W.

    1992-11-01

    Measurements of the size dependence of the mass concentration of nonvolatile material dissolved and suspended in fog droplets were obtained with three complementary approaches, covering a size range from c. 1 50µm diameter: a counterflow virtual impactor, an eight-stage aerosol impactor, and a two-stage fogwater impactor. Concentrations were observed to decrease with size over the entire range, contrary to expectations of increasing concentrations at larger sizes. It is possible that the larger droplets had solute concentrations that increased with increasing size, but that the increase was too weak for the measurements to resolve. Future studies should consider the hypothesis that the droplets were coated with a surface-active substance that hindered their uptake of water.

  12. The effect of the nuclear track detectors' position on the radon concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A.; Kuerkcueoglu, M. E.; Haner, B.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to determine the radon concentration values of the underground mines according to workers' health. For this purpose, to be able to measure radon concentrations by using passive nuclear etched track detectors, CR-39 detectors were placed into 66 points on the way of aeration galleries of Armutcuk, Amasra, Karadon, Kozlu and Uezuelmez bituminous coal mines which are known as the Carboniferous outcrops of the Western Black Sea Area in Turkey. In every measurement point, a pair of detectors, one of them is being perpendicular and the other one is parallel to air flow, were exposed to radon gases over 40 days for four seasons of the year 2008. The relationship between the readings of vertically and horizontally positioned detectors was investigated by evaluating the effect of the detectors' positions on the detected radon concentrations. It can be concluded that, the vertically positioned detectors, in general, recorded higher radon gases concentration values than that of the horizontally positioned ones.

  13. Measurement of radon progeny concentrations in air by alpha-particle spectrometey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1975-07-01

    A technique is presented for measuring air concentrations of the short-lived progeny of radon-222 by the use of alpha spectrometry. In this technique, the concentration of RaA, RaB, and RaC are calculated from one integral count of the RaA and two integral counts of the RaC' alpha-particle activity collected on a filter with an air sampling device. The influence of air sampling and counting intervals of time on the accuracy of the calculated concentrations is discussed in the report. A computer program is presented for use with this technique. It is written in the BASIC language. The program will calculate the air concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC, and will estimate the accuracy in these calculated concentrations. (U.S.)

  14. Comparison of Respirable Mass Concentrations Measured by a Personal Dust Monitor and a Personal DataRAM to Gravimetric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Andrew; Sousan, Sinan; Peters, Thomas M

    2017-12-15

    In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 mg m-3. For all aerosols except coal dust, strong, near-one-to-one, linear relationships were observed between mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and gravimetrically (diesel fume, slope = 0.99, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.98, R2 = 0.99; and NaCl, slope = 0.95, R2 = 0.99). The slope deviated substantially from unity for coal dust (slope = 0.55; R2 = 0.99). Linear relationships were also observed between mass concentrations measured with the pDR-1500 and gravimetrically, but one-to-one behavior was not exhibited (diesel fume, slope = 0.23, R2 = 0.76; coal dust, slope = 0.54, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.61, R2 = 0.99; NaCl, slope = 1.14, R2 = 0.98). Unlike the pDR-1500, mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 appear independent of refractive index and density, suggesting that it could have applications in a variety of occupational settings. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  16. PET measurement of FK506 concentration in a monkey model of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Noda, Akihiro; Osoda, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The immunosuppressive agent FK506 (tacrolimus) has neuroprotective properties in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia. To improve the accuracy of clinical studies in acute stroke, a clinical dose setting should be based on the brain concentration, but not on the blood concentration of agents in humans. We have already established a measurement method using PET for FK506 concentration in the normal monkey brain, which could be applicable for human study; however, under ischemic conditions, in this study, we aimed to examine the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. Methods: Studies were performed on six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model was used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by an intravenous injection of [ 15 O]H 2 O 165 min after MCA occlusion. FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) containing [ 11 C]FK506 was intravenously injected into the monkeys 180 min after MCA occlusion, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 30 min after administration. FK506 concentrations in the brain were calculated in moles per liter (M) units using the specific activity of injected FK506. Results: MCA occlusion produced ischemia, confirmed by rCBF measurement before the administration of [ 11 C]FK506. Fifteen minutes after FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) administration, the concentrations in the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex were 22.4±6.4 and 19.7±4.0 ng/g, respectively. Conclusion: We successfully measured the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. The difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral concentrations of FK506 was not significant. This characteristic that FK506 readily penetrates ischemic tissue as well as normal tissue might explain the neuroprotective effect of FK506 in the ischemic brain and is suitable for the treatment of stroke patients

  17. Development of a 10 Hz measurement system for atmospheric aerosol concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouarouri, Assia

    2014-01-01

    The goal is to develop an aerosol charger based on a corona discharge for atmospheric concentration measurements (10 3 -10 5 cm -3 ) within a response time of 100 ms. Two ion sources, point-to-hole and wire-to-slit have been characterized. The increase of the ion flow in the post-discharge by EHD ion confinement in both the discharge gap and the hole has been shown. At first, using an experimental survey driven in two mixing configurations, concentric and face-to-face, we have confirmed the aerosol diffusion charging law which depends on aerosol diameter and N i .t product, with N i , the ions concentration and t, the charging time. Thus, the originality of this charger relies on the very high heterogeneity of unipolar ion densities (N i 0 ≥10 9 cm -3 ) required to compensate the charging time of 50 ms. In these conditions, we have shown that aerosol diameter and the charging dynamic (which depends also on the diameter) control the aerosol trajectory. The chargers have, next, been compared in different operating conditions, mainly in terms of the maximal charging and the minimal losses. In the chosen charger (point-to-hole ion source and concentric mixing), the relations charge/mobility and losses according to diameter have been characterized. We have also shown the linearity of the charged particles current with the aerosol concentration which allows the current-concentration data inversion. The preliminary measurement system composed by the charger, the separator and the particle current measurements, satisfies the objectives of the study in terms of the concentration detection limit (10 3 cm -3 ) and the response time (100 ms). We have thus shown the feasibility of an atmospheric aerosol concentration measurement system at 10 Hz using a corona discharge charger provided that the separation power is improved. Furthermore, knowing that aerosol losses are negligible and the lower limit of the partial charging, the developed charger is adaptable with other

  18. Integrated Microanalytical System for Simultaneous Voltammetric Measurements of Free Metal Ion Concentrations in Natural Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Stéphane; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Lin, Lin; Buffle, Jacques; Guenat, Olivier; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-01-01

    A complexing gel integrated microelectrode (CGIME) for direct measurements of free metal ion concentrations in natural waters has been developed. It is prepared by the successive deposition of microlayers of a chelating resin, an antifouling agarose gel and Hg on a 100-interconnected Ir-based microelectrode array. The trace metals of interest are in a first step accumulated on the chelating resin in proportion to their free ion concentration in solution, then released in acidic solution and d...

  19. The measurement of thoron (220Rn) concentration in indoor air continuously using pylon model WLx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnel Sofyan

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of thoron ( 220 Rn) in particular location can be higher than radon ( 220 Rn), however, its presence is always neglected. This might be due to the difficulties in calibration and discrimination between radon and thoron. From biokinetic and dosimetric model, it has been known that the dominant contribution of thoron to the effective dose is in the lungs. UNSCEAR estimates the doses contribution of thoron and its progenies is between 5-10% of the annual dose received by the general public and the risk level is 4.4 times greater than radon and progenies. Therefore, it is necessary to study the thoron concentration in indoor air and workplaces. Radon-thoron concentration in indoor air can be determined by direct methods using Pylon Model WLx device and passive methods using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTDs). In this research the measurement of thoron was carried out continuously using Pylon Model WLx equipment that is sensitive to radon for 24, 65, 72, 116 and 154 hours in different rooms. The measurement result showed that the mean value of thoron working level (WL) concentration obtained in room-1 was 2.53 ± 0.67 Bq/m 3 with maximum and minimum of thoron concentrations were 3.37 and 2.22 Bq/m 3 respectively. From the measurement in different locations, it was obtained that the largest and smallest average concentrations of thoron progenies were 0.83 ± 0.23 Bq/m 3 and 0.29 ± 0.64 Bq/m 3 , while the maximum and minimum concentration values were 7.80 Bq/m 3 and 0.01 Bq/m 3 respectively. Pylon Model WLx device is not enables to be used for longer and large scale survey area concurrently, so the SSNTDs which is sensitive to the emission of alpha particles and can measure cumulative thoron concentrations is required. (author)

  20. Evaluating the reliability of uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements via an interlaboratory comparison program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Olivio Pereira de; Oliveira, Inez Cristina de; Pereira, Marcia Regina; Tanabe, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic area for the Brazilian development because it is associated with the generation of electricity needed to boost the country economy. Uranium is one the chemical elements in this cycle and its concentration and isotope composition must be accurately known. In this present work, the reliability of the uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements carried out at the CTMSP analytical laboratories is evaluated by the results obtained in an international interlaboratory comparison program. (author)

  1. Regge cuts in inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.; Trueman, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of Regge cuts to single-particle inclusive processes is analyzed using the techniques of Gribov. The dependence of these contributions on the polarization state of the target is emphasized. A general formula is obtained and certain contributions to it are calculated. It is not possible, however, to reduce this to a simple, powerful formula expressing the total cut contribution in terms of other measurable quantities, as can be done for the cut contribution to the total cross section. The reasons for this are discussed in detail. The single-particle intermediate states, analogous to the absorption model for elastic scattering, are explicitly calculated as an illustration

  2. Direct concentration and viability measurement of yeast in corn mash using a novel imaging cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo L; Lyettefi, Emily J; Pirani, Alnoor; Smith, Tim; Qiu, Jean; Lin, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide awareness of fossil-fuel depletion and global warming has been increasing over the last 30 years. Numerous countries, including the USA and Brazil, have introduced large-scale industrial fermentation facilities for bioethanol, biobutanol, or biodiesel production. Most of these biofuel facilities perform fermentation using standard baker's yeasts that ferment sugar present in corn mash, sugar cane, or other glucose media. In research and development in the biofuel industry, selection of yeast strains (for higher ethanol tolerance) and fermentation conditions (yeast concentration, temperature, pH, nutrients, etc.) can be studied to optimize fermentation performance. Yeast viability measurement is needed to identify higher ethanol-tolerant yeast strains, which may prolong the fermentation cycle and increase biofuel output. In addition, yeast concentration may be optimized to improve fermentation performance. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method for concentration and viability measurement of fermenting yeast. In this work, we demonstrate an imaging cytometry method for concentration and viability measurements of yeast in corn mash directly from operating fermenters. It employs an automated cell counter, a dilution buffer, and staining solution from Nexcelom Bioscience to perform enumeration. The proposed method enables specific fluorescence detection of viable and nonviable yeasts, which can generate precise results for concentration and viability of yeast in corn mash. This method can provide an essential tool for research and development in the biofuel industry and may be incorporated into manufacturing to monitor yeast concentration and viability efficiently during the fermentation process.

  3. Concentrations of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX: measurements and steady state analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OH and HO2 concentrations were measured simultaneously at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in the summer of 2002 during the NAMBLEX (North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment field campaign. OH was measured by laser-induced fluorescence employing the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique, with a mean daytime detection limit of 2.7×105 molecule cm−3 (5 min acquisition period; signal-to-noise ratio = 1. HO2 was detected as OH following its chemical conversion through addition of NO, with a mean detection limit of 4.4×106 molecule cm−3. The diurnal variation of OH was measured on 24 days, and that of HO2 on 17 days. The local solar noon OH concentrations ranged between (3–8×106 molecule cm−3, with a 24 h mean concentration of 9.1×105 molecule cm−3. The local solar noon HO2 concentrations were (0.9–2.1×108 molecule cm−3 (3.5–8.2 pptv, with a 24 h mean concentration of 4.2×107 molecule cm−3 (1.6 pptv. HO2 radicals in the range (2–3×107 molecule cm−3 were observed at night. During NAMBLEX, a comprehensive suite of supporting measurements enabled a detailed study of the behaviour of HOx radicals under primarily clean marine conditions. Steady state expressions are used to calculate OH and HO2 concentrations and to evaluate the effect of different free-radical sources and sinks. The diurnally averaged calculated to measured OH ratio was 1.04±0.36, but the ratio displays a distinct diurnal variation, being less than 1 during the early morning and late afternoon/evening, and greater than 1 in the middle of the day. For HO2 there was an overprediction, with the agreement between calculated and measured concentrations improved by including reaction with measured IO and BrO radicals and uptake to aerosols. Increasing the concentration of IO radicals included in the calculations to above that measured by a DOAS instrument with an absorption path located mainly over the ocean, reflecting the

  4. Measurement of the “Tar” and Nicotine Yield of Fine-Cut Smoking Articles - The ISO/TC 126 Collaborative Study 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Technical Committee ISO/TC 126 ‘Tobacco and tobacco products’ of the International Organization for Standardization set up Working Group 7 to develop and test a method for the determination of ‘tar’ and nicotine yield when fine-cut smoking articles (FCSAs are smoked by routine-analytical smoking machines. FCSAs are individually made by consumers using tobaccos manufactured for enclosure in paper wrappers (i.e. leaflets and tubes - with or without filters. This paper records the history of method development, defines terms and explains the differences between measurements made on FCSAs and commercially factory made cigarettes. Individual consumer making practices are represented by the specification of four hand-made article types using two wrappers of different physical properties each with either 400 mg or 750 mg tobacco.

  5. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  6. Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan and in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi-Hoang; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Oliva, S.T. de; Botelho, M.M.; Tavares, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of alcohol fuel has received much attention since the 1980s. In Brazil, ethanol-fuelled vehicles have been currently used on a large scale. This paper reports the atmospheric methanol and isoproponal concentrations which were measured from May to December 1997, in Osaka, Japan, where alcohol fuel was not used and from 3 to 9 February 1998 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where ethanol was used. The alcohols were determined by the alkyl nitrite formation reaction using gas chromatography (GC-ECD) analysis. The concentration of atmospheric alcohols, especially ethanol, measured in Sao Paulo were significantly higher than those in Osaka. In Osaka, the average concentrations of atmospheric methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were 5.8 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 4.6, and 7.2 ± 5.9ppbv, respectively. The average ambient levels of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol measured in Sao Paulo were 34.1± 9.2, 176.3 ± 38.1, and 44.2 ± 13.7ppbv, respectively. The ambient levels of aldehydes, which were expected to be high due to the use of alcohol fuel, were also measured at these sampling sites. The atmospheric formaldehyde average measured in Osaka was 1.9± 0.9ppbv, and the average acetaldehyde concentration was 1.5 ± 0.8ppbv. The atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average concentrations measured in Sao Paulo were 5.0 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.8ppbv, respectively. The C 2 H 5 OH/CH 3 OH and CH 3 CHO/HCHO were compared between the two measurement sites and elsewhere in the world, which have already been reported in the literature. Due to the use of ethanol-fuelled vehicles, these ratios, especially C-2H 5 OH/CH 3 OH, are much higher in Brazil than those measured elsewhere in the world. (Author)

  7. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation vs. concentration of 40nm magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present on-chip Brownian relaxation measurements on a logarithmic dilution series of 40 nm beads dispersed in water with bead concentrations between 16 mu g/ml and 4000 mu g/ml. The measurements are performed using a planar Hall effect bridge sensor at frequencies up to 1 MHz. No external fields...... are needed as the beads are magnetized by the field generated by the applied sensor bias current. We show that the Brownian relaxation frequency can be extracted from fitting the Cole-Cole model to measurements for bead concentrations of 64 mu g/ml or higher and that the measured dynamic magnetic response...... is proportional to the bead concentration. For bead concentrations higher than or equal to 500 mu g/ml, we extract a hydrodynamic diameter of 47(1) nm for the beads, which is close to the nominal bead size of 40 nm. Furthermore, we study the signal vs. bead concentration at a fixed frequency close to the Brownian...

  8. On the deduction of chemical reaction pathways from measurements of time series of concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilov, Michael; Arkin, Adam; Ross, John

    2001-03-01

    We discuss the deduction of reaction pathways in complex chemical systems from measurements of time series of chemical concentrations of reacting species. First we review a technique called correlation metric construction (CMC) and show the construction of a reaction pathway from measurements on a part of glycolysis. Then we present two new improved methods for the analysis of time series of concentrations, entropy metric construction (EMC), and entropy reduction method (ERM), and illustrate (EMC) with calculations on a model reaction system. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Experimental Determination of Drug Diffusion Coefficients in Unstirred Aqueous Environments by Temporally Resolved Concentration Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Cagno, Massimiliano Pio; Clarelli, Fabrizio; Vabenø, Jon

    2018-01-01

    or the need for dedicated instrumentation. In this work, a simple but reliable method based on time resolved concentration measurements by UV-visible spectroscopy in an unstirred aqueous environment was developed. This method is based on spectroscopic measurement of the variation of the local concentration...... characteristics (i.e. ionic strength and presence of complexing agents) on the diffusivity. The method can be employed in any research laboratory equipped with a standard UV-visible spectrophotometer, and could become a useful and straightforward tool in order to characterize diffusion coefficients...

  10. From cutting nature and its joints to measuring it: new kinds and new kinds of people in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOuat, G

    2001-12-01

    In the received version of the development of science, natural kinds are established in the preliminary stages (natural history) and made more precise by measurement (exact science). By examining the move from nineteenth- to twentieth-century biology, this paper unpacks the notion of species as 'natural kinds' and grounds for discourse, questioning received notions about both kinds and species. Life sciences in the nineteenth century established several 'monster-barring' techniques to block disputes about the precise definition of species. Counterintuitively, precision and definition brought dispute and disrupted exchange. Thus, any attempt to add precision was doomed to failure. By intervening and measuring, the new experimental biology dislocated the established links between natural kinds and kinds of people and institutions. New kinds were built in new places. They were made to measure from the very start. This paper ends by claiming that there was no long-standing 'species problem' in the history of biology. That problem is a later construction of the 'modern synthesis', well after the disruption of 'kinds' and kinds of people. Only then would definitions and precision matter. A new, non-linguistic, take on the incommensurability thesis is hinted at. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  12. Windows pollution problems of the dust concentration measurement based on scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanjun; Zhang Yongtao; Shi Xinyue; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin

    2009-01-01

    The windows are separated the measurement system from the dust space in the light Scattering dust concentration measurement system. The windows are polluted unavoidably by the dust and the measurement error is produced. Based on the Mie Scattering theory, the measurement error is researched in this paper. The numerical simulation results show that the measurement error is related to the particles diameter distribution and the refractive index, but is independent of the particles average diameter. A novel photoelectricity sensor is developed in this paper in order to solve the measurement error by the windows pollution. The calculated method is brought out which can amend the measurement errors by the windows pollution and improve the measurement accuracy.

  13. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth under submerged condition divided by the cutting depth in air at the same standoff distance. The relative cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  14. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  15. Feasibility of Uranium Concentration Measurements for H Canyon Tank 16.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascola, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) evaluated the feasibility of using the H Canyon on-line diode array spectrophotometer to measure uranium concentrations in Tank 16.7. On-line measurements will allow an increase in highly enriched uranium (HEU) production by removing delays associated with off-line measurements. The instrument must be able to measure uranium at concentrations below 1.0 g/L with an uncertainty no greater than 0.3 g/L. SRTC determined that the system has a limit of quantitation of 0.15 g/L. At concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L, the spectrometer uncertainty is 0.10 g/L. No design changes, such as an increase in flow cell path length, are required to obtain this performance. Expected levels of iron in Tank 16.7 solutions will not interfere with the measurement. The CHEMCHEK method should not be used for confirmatory analysis, as it contributes excessively to the overall uncertainty of the measurement. SRTC expects that the spectrophotometer will meet the measurement requirements for Tank 16.7

  16. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  17. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  18. On the Usage of Cyclic Voltammetry and Impedance Spectroscopy for Measuring the Concentration of Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fiedler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes sensors for concentration measurement based on the electro- chemical properties of the liquid being measured. Herein two electrical methods, namely cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy, are being presented. The measurement can be performed quasi simultaneously using the same measurement medium. Further optimization of the combined methods is possible by adapting the geometric design of the electrode structure, the electrode material, the optional passivation and the electric coupling (galvanically or capacitively. In summary, by combining multiple sensory principles on a device it becomes possible to analyze mixtures of substances contained in a solution with respect to their composition.

  19. The design and realization of calibration apparatus for measuring the concentration of radon in three models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huiping, Guo [The Second Artillery Engineering College, Xi' an (China)

    2007-06-15

    For satisfying calibration request of radon measure in the laboratory, the calibration apparatus for radon activity measure is designed and realized. The calibration apparatus can auto-control and auto-measure in three models. sequent mode, pulse mode and constant mode. The stability and reliability of the calibration apparatus was tested under the three models. The experimental result shows that the apparatus can provides an adjustable and steady radon activity concentration environment for the research of radon and its progeny and for the calibration of its measure. (authors)

  20. Measurement of indoor radon Concentrations in Osaka, Nara, Wakayama and Hyogo with passive dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Toshiaki; Hori, Yasuharu; Takeda, Atsuhiko; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Uchiyama, Masahumi; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kankura, Takako; Kobayashi, Sadayosi.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations of 792 houses in Osaka, Nara, Wakayama and Hyogo were measured by the passive dosemeter which was developed in Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in West Germany. Each house was measured at two places for successive two periods of six months to obtain annual average exposure due to radon daughters. The arithmetic mean concentration of all houses was 45.2 Bq/m 3 with a standard deviation of 27.2; the geometric mean, 40.7 Bq/m 3 and the median, 39 Bq/m 3 . The distribution of the radon levels was approximately log-normal with 80% of houses having radon concentrations less than 60 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variation of the mean radon concentration was evident between the former period including winter value of 45 Bq/m 3 and the latter including summer value of 32 Bq/m 3 . The indoor radon concentrations of wooden houses were found to have the widest distribution with the highest value of 371 Bq/m 3 . The highest value obtained in the ferro-concrete house was 118 Bq/m 3 . Twelve houses having indoor radon concentrations higher than 120 Bq/m 3 were all Japanese traditional wooden houses with walls made of soil. (author)

  1. Full-field dye concentration measurement within saturated/unsaturated thin slabs of porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.L.; Glass, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a full-field dye concentration measurement technique that extends our experimental capabilities to the measurement of transient dye concentration fields within steady state flow fields under unsaturated or saturated conditions. Simple light absorption theory provides a basis for translating images into high resolution dye concentration fields. A series of dye pulse experiments that demonstrate the combined use of the full-field saturation and dye concentration techniques was conducted at four different degrees of saturation. Each of these experimental sequences was evaluated with respect to mass balance, the results being within 5% of the known dye mass input. An image windowing technique allowed us to see increased dispersion due to decreasing moisture content, tailing of concentration at the rear of the dye pulse and slight velocity changes of the dispersive front due to changes in moisture content. The exceptional resolution of dye concentration in space and time provided by this laboratory technique allows systematic experimentation for examining basic processes affecting solute transport within saturated/unsaturated porous media. Future challenges for this work will be to use these techniques to analyze more complex systems involving heterogeneities, scaling laws, and detailed investigations of the relationship between transverse and longitudinal dispersion in unsaturated media

  2. Saliva oxytocin measures do not reflect peripheral plasma concentrations after intranasal oxytocin administration in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Andreassen, Ole A; Djupesland, Per G

    2018-05-16

    Oxytocin plays an important role in social behavior. Thus, there has been significant research interest for the role of the oxytocin system in several psychiatric disorders, and the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration to treat social dysfunction. Measurement of oxytocin concentrations in saliva are sometimes used to approximate peripheral levels of oxytocin; however, the validity of this approach is unclear. In this study, saliva and plasma oxytocin was assessed after two doses of Exhalation Delivery System delivered intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU), intravenous oxytocin (1 IU) and placebo in a double-dummy, within-subjects design with men. We found that intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU) administration increased saliva oxytocin concentrations in comparison to saliva oxytocin concentration levels after intravenous and placebo administration. Additionally, we found that saliva oxytocin concentrations were not significantly associated with plasma oxytocin concentrations after either intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration. Altogether, we suggest that saliva oxytocin concentrations do not accurately index peripheral oxytocin after intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration, at least in men. The data indicates that elevated oxytocin saliva levels after nasal delivery primarily reflect exogenous administered oxytocin that is cleared from the nasal cavity to the oropharynx, and is therefore a weak surrogate for peripheral blood measurements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of VIDAS and Radioimmunoassay Methods for Measurement of Cortisol Concentration in Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Proverbio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoassay (RIA is the “gold standard” method for evaluation of serum cortisol concentration. The VIDAS cortisol test is an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay designed for the MiniVidas system. The aim of this study was to compare the VIDAS method with RIA for measurement of bovine serum cortisol concentration. Cortisol concentrations were evaluated in 40 cows using both VIDAS and RIA methods, the latter as the reference method. A paired Student’s -test, Pearson’s correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plot, and Deming regression analysis were used to compare the two methods. There was no statistically significant difference between mean serum cortisol concentrations measured by VIDAS or RIA methods (. Both methods were able to detect significant differences in mean low and high cortisol concentrations ( RIA and VIDAS. The correlation coefficient was low, but a Bland-Altman plot and Deming regression analysis show neither constant nor proportional error. The VIDAS method produced slightly higher values than RIA, but the difference was small and in no case did the mean value move the normal range. Results suggest that VIDAS method is suitable for the determination of bovine serum cortisol concentration in studies of large numbers of animals.

  4. Serum cystatin C concentration measured routinely is a prognostic marker for renal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Naoki; Takashima, Satoshi; Iwasa, Tatsuo; Iwasa, Kazuko; Suzuki, Tomomi; Kobatake, Yui; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Nishii, Naohito

    2018-06-14

    This study examined the predictive value of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration, measured during routine periodic health examinations, in the renal prognosis of dogs. A cohort of 140 dogs weighing C concentrations were measured during periodic health examinations from December 2013 to March 2016 were prospectively studied, with renal disease-related death the predicted end point. Of the 140 dogs, nine died from renal diseases during the follow-up period (539 ± 249 days). Serum Cys-C concentrations were higher in the dogs that subsequently died of renal disease than in the censored group (0.8 ± 0.25 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, respectively; P C concentrations (>0.55 mg/dl) had a shorter (P C concentrations (≤0.55 mg/dl). In conclusion, high serum Cys-C concentrations in periodic health examinations in dogs <15 kg predicted poorer prognosis for renal function. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Measurement of Rn-222 concentration in underground water in Osaka stratum group in Sennan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kosuke

    1977-01-01

    The Rn-222 concentration in underground water is reported as follows, which is the result obtained when the ground inspection was carried out in the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University located at Kumatori area in Osaka stratum group. Underground water, at different depth, well water and rain water were taken, and the contained Rn-222 was extracted with toluene to measure by liquid scintillation technique. Rn-222 concentration in rain water was 3.5 - 8.0 pCi/l, while the concentration in well water was 130 - 250 pCi/l, and that in underground water was 240 - 313 pCi/l. The seasonal change, geographical difference and variation according to depth of Rn-222 concentration were examined. Rn-222 behavior in soil should be investigated more in detail in reference to Rn-222 dispersion, transport and equilibrium problems in soil-water system in the future. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. Measuring the Largest Angular Scale CMB B-mode Polarization with Galactic Foregrounds on a Cut Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Duncan J.; Larson, David; Marriage, Tobias A.; Abitbol, Maximilian H.; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Miller, Nathan J.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the effectiveness of foreground cleaning in the recovery of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization sourced by gravitational waves for tensor-to-scalar ratios in the range 0\\lt r\\lt 0.1. Using the planned survey area, frequency bands, and sensitivity of the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS), we simulate maps of Stokes Q and U parameters at 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz, including realistic models of the CMB, diffuse Galactic thermal dust and synchrotron foregrounds, and Gaussian white noise. We use linear combinations (LCs) of the simulated multifrequency data to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of r, the relative scalar amplitude s, and LC coefficients. We find that for 10,000 simulations of a CLASS-like experiment using only measurements of the reionization peak ({\\ell }≤slant 23), there is a 95% C.L. upper limit of r\\lt 0.017 in the case of no primordial gravitational waves. For simulations with r=0.01, we recover at 68% C.L. r={0.012}-0.006+0.011. The reionization peak corresponds to a fraction of the multipole moments probed by CLASS, and simulations including 30≤slant {\\ell }≤slant 100 further improve our upper limits to r\\lt 0.008 at 95% C.L. (r={0.010}-0.004+0.004 for primordial gravitational waves with r = 0.01). In addition to decreasing the current upper bound on r by an order of magnitude, these foreground-cleaned low multipole data will achieve a cosmic variance limited measurement of the E-mode polarization’s reionization peak.

  7. GUM approach to uncertainty estimations for online 220Rn concentration measurements using Lucas scintillation cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyabama, N.

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that, when all of the known or suspected components of errors have been evaluated and corrected, there still remains an uncertainty, that is, a doubt about how well the result of the measurement represents the value of the quantity being measured. Evaluation of measurement data - Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is a guidance document, the purpose of which is to promote full information on how uncertainty statements are arrived at and to provide a basis for the international comparison of measurement results. In this paper, uncertainty estimations following GUM guidelines have been made for the measured values of online thoron concentrations using Lucas scintillation cell to prove that the correction for disequilibrium between 220 Rn and 216 Po is significant in online 220 Rn measurements

  8. Data on final calcium concentration in native gel reagents determined accurately through inductively coupled plasma measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Viviano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present data on the concentration of calcium as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP measurements. Calcium was estimated in the reagents used for native gel electrophoresis of Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS proteins. NCS proteins exhibit calcium-dependent mobility shift in native gels. The sensitivity of this shift to calcium necessitated a precise determination of calcium concentrations in all reagents used. We determined the calcium concentrations in different components used along with the samples in the native gel experiments. These were: 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, loading dye and running buffer, with distilled water as reference. Calcium determinations were through ICP measurements. It was found that the running buffer contained calcium (244 nM over the blank. Keywords: Neuronal calcium sensor proteins, Electrophoresis, Mobility shift, Calcium, Magnesium

  9. Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, C.A.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Col. Centro. Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Acosta, R. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Boulevard Bahia s/n Esq. I. Comonfort, Chetumal Quintana Roo 77019 (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    A calorimeter was built for measuring the concentrated solar power produced by a point focus solar concentrator that was developed at CIE - UNAM. In order to obtain a thermal characterization of the calorimeter a theoretical and experimental heat transfer study is carried out. This study addresses the heat transfer in the circular flat plate of the calorimeter, which acts as receiver for the concentrating system. Temperatures are measured at different points of this plate and fit with a theoretical model that considers heat conduction with convective and radiative boundary conditions. In particular, it is possible to calculate the temperature distribution on the irradiated surface. This allows to examine the validity of the assumptions of cold water calorimetry, which was the technique applied to this system in previous works. (author)

  10. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  11. Measurement of radon exhalation rate and soil gas radon concentration in areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, S. A.; Hussain, S.; Ramzan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic track detectors were used to measure the radon concentration and exhalation rate from the soil samples. The samples were collected from areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan). In a laboratory experiment, passive alpha dosemeters were installed inside cylindrical bottles containing the soil samples. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rate were found in the ranges of 34±7 to 260±42 Bq m -3 and 38±8 to 288±46 mBq m -2 h -1 , respectively. The on-site measurements of radon in the soil gas were also carried out in these areas using a scintillation alpha counter. The concentration of radon in the soil gas was found in the range of 423±82-3565±438 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  12. Noninvasive measurement of glucose concentration on human fingertip by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tseng-Lin; Lo, Yu-Lung; Liao, Chia-Chi; Phan, Quoc-Hung

    2018-04-01

    A method is proposed for determining the glucose concentration on the human fingertip by extracting two optical parameters, namely the optical rotation angle and the depolarization index, using a Mueller optical coherence tomography technique and a genetic algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index of aqueous glucose solutions with low and high scattering, respectively. It is shown that for both solutions, the optical rotation angle and depolarization index vary approximately linearly with the glucose concentration. As a result, the ability of the proposed method to obtain the glucose concentration by means of just two optical parameters is confirmed. The practical applicability of the proposed technique is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index on the human fingertip of healthy volunteers under various glucose conditions.

  13. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutuk, H.; Guemues, H.; Turhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kizilirmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg -1 , respectively. 137 Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg -1 . From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated. (authors)

  14. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuk, Halil; Gümüs, Hasan; Turhan, Seref

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kızılırmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (137)Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg(-1). From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated.

  15. Passive Sampler for Measurements of Atmospheric Nitric Acid Vapor (HNO3 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3 vapor is an important nitrogenous air pollutant responsible for increasing saturation of forests with nitrogen and direct injury to plants. The USDA Forest Service and University of California researchers have developed a simple and inexpensive passive sampler for monitoring air concentrations of HNO3. Nitric acid is selectively absorbed on 47-mm Nylasorb nylon filters with no interference from particulate NO3-. Concentrations determined with the passive samplers closely corresponded with those measured with the co-located honeycomb annular denuder systems. The PVC protective caps of standardized dimensions protect nylon filters from rain and wind and allow for reliable measurements of ambient HNO3 concentrations. The described samplers have been successfully used in Sequoia National Park, the San Bernardino Mountains, and on Mammoth Mountain in California.

  16. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  17. Measurement of chloride-ion concentration with long-period grating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wang, Jian-Neng

    2007-06-01

    A simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPG) sensor suited for chloride-ion concentration measurement is presented. The LPG sensor is found to be sensitive to the refractive index of the medium around the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus offering the prospect of development of practical sensors such as an ambient index sensor or a chemical concentration indicator with high stability and reliability. We measured chloride ions in a typical concrete sample immersed in salt water solutions with different weight concentrations ranging from 0% to 25%. Results show that the LPG sensor exhibited a linear decrease in the transmission loss and resonance wavelength shift when the concentration increased. The measurement accuracy for the concentration of salt in water solution is estimated to be 0.6% and the limit of detection for chloride ions is about 0.04%. To further enhance its sensitivity for chloride concentrations, we coated a monolayer of colloidal gold nanoparticles as the active material on the grating surface of the LPG sensor. The operating principle of sensing is based on the sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance of self-assembled gold colloids on the grating section of the LPG. With this method, a factor of two increase in the sensitivity of detecting chemical solution concentrations was obtained. The advantages of this type of fiber-optic sensor are that it is compact, relatively simple to construct and easy to use. Moreover, the sensor has the potential capability for on-site, in vivo and remote sensing, and it has potential use as a disposable sensor.

  18. High frequency measurement of nitrate concentration in the Lower Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shuiwang; Powell, Rodney T.; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2014-11-01

    Nutrient concentrations in the Mississippi River have increased dramatically since the 1950s, and high frequency measurements on nitrate concentration are required for accurate load estimations and examinations on nitrate transport and transformation processes. This three year record of high temporal resolution (every 2-3 h) data clearly illustrates the importance of high frequency sampling in improving load estimates and resolving variations in nitrate concentration with river flow and tributary inputs. Our results showed large short-term (days to weeks) variations in nitrate concentration but with no diurnal patterns. A repeatable and pronounced seasonal pattern of nitrate concentration was observed, and showed gradual increases from the lowest values in September (during base-flow), to the highest in June - which was followed by a rapid decrease. This seasonal pattern was only moderately linked with water discharge, and more controlled by nitrogen transformation/export from watershed as well as mixing patterns of the two primary tributaries (the upper Mississippi and the Ohio Rivers), which have distinctly different nitrate concentrations and flow patterns. Based on continuous in situ flow measurements, we estimated 554-886 × 106 kg of nitrate-N was exported from the Mississippi River system during years 2004-2006, which was <9% and <16% lower than U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) estimates using their LOADEST or composite methods, respectively. USGS methods generally overestimated nitrate loads during rising stages and underestimated the loads during falling stages. While changes in nitrate concentrations in large rivers are generally not as responsive to alterations in diurnal inputs and/or watershed hydrology as small rivers, high-frequency water quality sampling would help in monitoring short-term (days to weeks) variations in nutrient concentration patterns and thus improve the accuracy of nutrient flux estimates.

  19. Artifacts in measuring aerosol uptake kinetics: the roles of time, concentration and adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Renbaum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory studies of organic aerosol particles reacting with gas-phase oxidants, high concentrations of radicals are often used to study on the timescale of seconds reactions which may be occurring over days or weeks in the troposphere. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that radical concentration and time are interchangeable parameters, though this has not been established. Here, the kinetics of OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation reactions of model single-component liquid (squalane and supercooled (brassidic acid and 2-octyldodecanoic acid organic aerosols are studied by varying separately the radical concentration and the reaction time. Two separate flow tubes with residence times of 2 and 66 s are used, and [OH] and [Cl] are varied by adjusting either the laser photolysis fluence or the radical precursor concentration ([O3] or [Cl2], respectively used to generate the radicals. It is found that the rates measured by varying the radical concentration and the reaction time are equal only if the precursor concentrations are the same in the two approaches. Further, the rates depend on the concentrations of the precursor species with a Langmuir-type functional form suggesting that O3 and Cl2 saturate the surface of the liquid particles. It is believed that the presence of O3 inhibits the rate of OH reaction, perhaps by reacting with OH radicals or by O3 or intermediate species blocking surface sites, while Cl2 enhances the rate of Cl reaction by participating in a radical chain mechanism. These results have important implications for laboratory experiments in which high concentrations of gas-phase oxidants are used to study atmospheric reactions over short timescales and may explain the variability in recent measurements of the reactive uptake of OH on squalane particles in reactor systems used in this and other laboratories.

  20. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying

  1. Radon as an environmental risk: concentration measurements in family buildings at Cordoba city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, A.; Murua, C.; Martin, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration at homes are usual activities in the last years at the countries with uranium in their soils. On the other hand, the man's radiological protection about radiation is related to the environmental actions for a healthy life, but not much known for a public. The great quantities of ore with uranium can be an important source of irradiation when they are used as building materials. The soils are important too for the emanations of radon in the interior of buildings and for these reasons, the radon concentration measurements in Cordoba familiar houses were implemented in the summer of 1991. The Alpha Track Technique and the results obtained indicate the need of other measurements and a winter measurement for investigation variations of radon concentration. The typical values measured were low, about 4.13 Bq/m 3 if they are compared with other Argentine values measured. This paper discusses the procedure, techniques and criteria used in the work held in Cordoba city, Argentina. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; van Riet, M M J; Hendriks, W H

    2017-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE)

  3. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Riet, van M.M.J.; Visser, P.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2017-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE)

  4. Thoron and radon progeny concentration measurements using direct progeny sensors in HLNRAs of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.; Prajith, R.; Gole, A.C.; Kanse, S.D.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.; Jayalekshmi, P.; Nair, Raghu Ram K.

    2010-01-01

    Passive Progeny Dosimeters (PPDs) were deployed in 500 houses in 3 villages namely Allapad, Chavara and Neendakara villages of Karunagapally Taluk of Kollam district of Kerala. Each PPD unit is a combination of a DTPS and a DRPS placed side-by-side for time integrated thoron and radon progeny concentration estimation respectively. The PPDs were suspended vertically in the rooms, such that the nearest distance from any wall or surface was at least 30 cm. These are, as of now, being exposed for a period of 3 months, after which they will be retrieved and analysed by chemical etching and track counting. Simultaneously, external gamma radiation measurements have also been made using a survey meter; these showed a variation from 13 to 118 μR/h in indoors and 21 to 213 μR/h in the outdoor environments. Spot measurements of thoron progeny concentrations were also made in 7 selected houses using the conventional grab filter-paper sampling technique at a flow-rate of 21 min -1 for 30 minutes, followed by alpha counting. The average thoron progeny concentration was found to be 2.0 ± 0.7 Bq m -3 . In the outdoor environment, filter-paper sampling was carried out for 2 hours at 21 min -1 and the thoron progeny concentration was measured as 2.96 Bq m -3 . To corroborate these measurements, a flow mode integrated sampler which uses the DTPS and DRPS elements was used

  5. Optimizing measurement sensitivity to facilitate monitoring environmental levels of Rn-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    In the measurement of environmental levels of radioactivity, the primary problem is the accumulation of a statistically meaningful number of counts within a reasonable period of time. In the case of measurements of airborne 222 Rn-daughter concentrations, the problem is further complicated by the particularly short half-life, 3.05 minutes, of RaA (Po 218 ). Since the Rn-daughters, (RaA, RaB [Pb 214 ] and RaC [Bi 214 ]) are of interest, the equations interrelating these Rn-daughter concentrations were derived from the laws of radioactive-series decay. These equations, although straightforward, are cumbersome to solve. To facilitate the efficient use of these equations, a computer program has been written which permits the calculation of Rn-daughter concentrations or expected counts for a given set of measurement parameters (flow rate and detector efficiencies). A subroutine then calculates the optimum pumping and counting times required to provide the number of counts necessary for acceptable statistics at environmental levels of 222 Rn-daughter concentrations. This subroutine contains a set of parameters, flow rate and efficiencies, that are fixed using realistic restrictions. The use of these optimized pumping and counting times results in maximum measurement sensitivity under realistic constraints

  6. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  7. Using Conductivity Measurements to Determine the Identities and Concentrations of Unknown Acids: An Inquiry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Garza, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a student designed experiment using titrations involving conductivity measurements to identify unknown acids as being either HCl or H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], and to determine the concentrations of the acids, thereby improving the utility of standard acid-base titrations. Using an inquiry context, students gain experience…

  8. Optical sensor technology for simultaneous measurement of particle speed and concentration of micro sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper; Han, Anpan; Kristensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Experimental characterization of a sensor technology that can measure particle speed and concentration simultaneously in liquids and gases is presented here. The basic sensor principle is based on an optical element that shapes a light beam into well-defined fringes. The technology can be described...

  9. Measurement of uranium concentration by molecular absorption spectrophotometry by means optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauna, Alberto C.; Pascale, Ariel A.

    1996-01-01

    An on-line method for measuring the concentration of uranium in uranyl nitrate-nitric acid aqueous solutions is described. The method is based on molecular absorption spectrophotometry with transmission of light by means of optical fibers. It is ideally suited for control and processes development applications. (author)

  10. Planar measurements of velocity and concentration of turbulent mixing in a T-junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, N. F.

    Turbulent mixing of two isothermal air streams in a T-junction of square ducts are investigated. Three dimensional velocity fields and turbulent kinetic energy are measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The concentration field is obtained with a planar Mie scattering technique...

  11. Testing of a uranium downhole logging system to measure in-situ plutonium concentrations in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, R.B.; Kay, M.A.; Bruns, L.E.; Stokes, J.A.; Steinman, D.K.; Adams, J.

    1980-11-01

    A prototype urainium borehole logging system, developed for uranium exploration, was modified for Pu assay and testing at the site. It uses the delayed fission neutron (DFN) method. It was tested in a retired Pu facility, the 216-Z-1A Crib. General agreement between laboratory determined Pu concentrations in sediment samples and neutron flux measurements was found for the relative distribution with depth

  12. To Error Problem Concerning Measuring Concentration of Carbon Oxide by Thermo-Chemical Sen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives additional errors in respect of measuring concentration of carbon oxide by thermo-chemical sensors. A number of analytical expressions for calculation of error data and corrections for environmental factor deviations from admissible ones have been obtained in the paper

  13. Water leak detection in sodium heated steam generators through measurement of hydrogen concentration in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambillard, E.; Lacroix, A.; Martin, P.; Viala, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report includes a description of apparatus for measuring hydrogen concentration in the secondary sodium system of the PHENIX reactor. The calibration method and results obtained since the commissioning of the reactor are also described. Mention is made of improvements to be built into SUPER PHENIX [fr

  14. EDITORIAL: Aerosol cloud interactions—a challenge for measurements and modeling at the cutting edge of cloud climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichtinger, Peter; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2008-04-01

    Research in aerosol properties and cloud characteristics have historically been considered two separate disciplines within the field of atmospheric science. As such, it has been uncommon for a single researcher, or even research group, to have considerable expertise in both subject areas. The recent attention paid to global climate change has shown that clouds can have a considerable effect on the Earth's climate and that one of the most uncertain aspects in their formation, persistence, and ultimate dissipation is the role played by aerosols. This highlights the need for researchers in both disciplines to interact more closely than they have in the past. This is the vision behind this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Certain interactions between aerosols and clouds are relatively well studied and understood. For example, it is known that an increase in the aerosol concentration will increase the number of droplets in warm clouds, decrease their average size, reduce the rate of precipitation, and extend the lifetime. Other effects are not as well known. For example, persistent ice super-saturated conditions are observed in the upper troposphere that appear to exceed our understanding of the conditions required for cirrus cloud formation. Further, the interplay of dynamics versus effects purely attributed to aerosols remains highly uncertain. The purpose of this focus issue is to consider the current state of knowledge of aerosol/cloud interactions, to define the contemporary uncertainties, and to outline research foci as we strive to better understand the Earth's climate system. This focus issue brings together laboratory experiments, field data, and model studies. The authors address issues associated with warm liquid water, cold ice, and intermediate temperature mixed-phase clouds. The topics include the uncertainty associated with the effect of black carbon and organics, aerosol types of anthropogenic interest, on droplet and ice formation. Phases

  15. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2017-04-01

    ADV backscatter data can be used under certain conditions to gain information about the concentrations of suspended loads. This was shown in many studies before (Fugate and Friedrichs 2002; Chanson et al 2008; Ha et al. 2009). This paper reports on a pre-study to investigate the influence of particle size on concentration measurements for suspended sediment load with ADV. The study was conducted in a flume in the Oskar-von-Miller-Institute using fresh water from a river including the natural suspended load. The ADV used in the experiments was a Vectrino Profiler (Nortek). In addition water samples were taken for TSS and TOC. For the measurements a surge was generated in the flume to ensure that also particles of larger size will be present in the water phase. The measurements and samples were taken during the whole surge event. Therefore we were able to find a good correlation between the backscatter data of the ADV and the TSS as well as TOC results. For the decreasing part of the flow event the concentration of TOC in the suspended load of the water phase is decreasing much slower than the TSS and results in a damped decrease of the backscatter values. This means that the results for concentration measurements might be slightly influenced by the size of the particles. Further evaluations of measurements conducted with a LISST SL (Sequoia) will be investigated to show the trend of the particle sizes during this process and fortify this result. David C. Fugate, Carl T. Friedrichs, Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issues 11-13, 2002 H.K. Ha, W.-Y. Hsu, J.P.-Y. Maa, Y.Y. Shao, C.W. Holland, Using ADV backscatter strength for measuring suspended cohesive sediment concentration, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 29, Issue 10, 2009 Hubert Chanson, Maiko Takeuchi, Mark Trevethan, Using turbidity and acoustic backscatter intensity as surrogate measures of

  16. Absolute choline concentration measured by quantitative proton MR spectroscopy correlates with cell density in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gong, Qi-Yong [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China)]|[University of Liverpool, Division of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and pathological changes in meningioma. Twenty-two meningioma cases underwent single voxel 1H-MRS (point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, repetition time/echo time = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms). Absolute choline (Cho) concentration was calculated using tissue water as the internal reference and corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts. Pathological specimens were stained with MIB-1 antibody to measure cell density and proliferation index. Correlation analysis was performed between absolute Cho concentration and cell density and MIB-1 labeled proliferation index. Average Cho concentration of all meningiomas before correction was 2.95 {+-} 0.86 mmol/kg wet weight. It was increased to 3.23 {+-} 1.15 mmol/kg wet weight after correction. Average cell density of all meningiomas was 333 {+-} 119 cells/HPF, and average proliferation index was 2.93 {+-} 5.72%. A linear, positive correlation between cell density and Cho concentration was observed (r = 0.650, P = 0.001). After correction of Cho concentration, the correlation became more significant (r = 0.737, P < 0.001). However, no significant correlation between Cho concentration and proliferation index was found. There seemed to be a positive correlation trend after correction of Cho concentration but did not reach significant level. Absolute Cho concentration, especially Cho concentration corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts, reflects cell density of meningioma. (orig.)

  17. Historical occupational trichloroethylene air concentrations based on inspection measurements from Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Locke, Sarah J; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Stewart, Patricia A; Ji, Bu-Tian; Bassig, Bryan; Lu, Wei; Xue, Shouzheng; Chow, Wong-Ho; Lan, Qing; Purdue, Mark P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a carcinogen that has been linked to kidney cancer and possibly other cancer sites including non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Its use in China has increased since the early 1990s with China's growing metal, electronic, and telecommunications industries. We examined historical occupational TCE air concentration patterns in a database of TCE inspection measurements collected in Shanghai, China to identify temporal trends and broad contrasts among occupations and industries. Using a database of 932 short-term, area TCE air inspection measurements collected in Shanghai worksites from 1968 through 2000 (median year 1986), we developed mixed-effects models to evaluate job-, industry-, and time-specific TCE air concentrations. Models of TCE air concentrations from Shanghai work sites predicted that exposures decreased 5-10% per year between 1968 and 2000. Measurements collected near launderers and dry cleaners had the highest predicted geometric means (GM for 1986 = 150-190 mg m(-3)). The majority (53%) of the measurements were collected in metal treatment jobs. In a model restricted to measurements in metal treatment jobs, predicted GMs for 1986 varied 35-fold across industries, from 11 mg m(-3) in 'other metal products/repair' industries to 390 mg m(-3) in 'ships/aircrafts' industries. TCE workplace air concentrations appeared to have dropped over time in Shanghai, China between 1968 and 2000. Understanding differences in TCE concentrations across time, occupations, and industries may assist future epidemiologic studies in China. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  18. A rapid approach for measuring silver nanoparticle concentration and dissolution in seawater by UV-Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Mithun; Lead, Jamie R; Chandler, G Thomas; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2018-03-15

    Detection and quantification of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in environmental systems is challenging and requires sophisticated analytical equipment. Furthermore, dissolution is an important environmental transformation process for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which affects the size, speciation and concentration of AgNPs in natural water systems. Herein, we present a simple approach for the detection, quantification and measurement of dissolution of PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) based on monitoring their optical properties (extinction spectra) using UV-vis spectroscopy. The dependence of PVP-AgNPs extinction coefficient (ɛ) and maximum absorbance wavelength (λ max ) on NP size was experimentally determined. The concentration, size, and extinction spectra of PVP-AgNPs were characterized during dissolution in 30ppt synthetic seawater. AgNPs concentration was determined as the difference between the total and dissolved Ag concentrations measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS); extinction spectra of PVP-AgNPs were monitored by UV-vis; and size evolution was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) over a period of 96h. Empirical equations for the dependence of maximum absorbance wavelength (λ max ) and extinction coefficient (ɛ) on NP size were derived. These empirical formulas were then used to calculate the size and concentration of PVP-AgNPs, and dissolved Ag concentration released from PVP-AgNPs in synthetic seawater at variable particle concentrations (i.e. 25-1500μgL -1 ) and in natural seawater at particle concentration of 100μgL -1 . These results suggest that UV-vis can be used as an easy and quick approach for detection and quantification (size and concentration) of sterically stabilized PVP-AgNPs from their extinction spectra. This approach can also be used to monitor the release of Ag from PVP-AgNPs and the concurrent NP size change. Finally, in seawater, AgNPs dissolve faster and to a higher extent with the decrease in NP

  19. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  20. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  1. Numerical investigation of the effect of particle concentration on particle measurement by digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huafeng; Zhou, Binwu; Wu, Xuecheng; Wu, Yingchun; Gao, Xiang; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa

    2014-04-01

    Digital holography plays a key role in particle field measurement, and appears to be a strong contender as the next-generation technology for diagnostics of 3D particle field. However, various recording parameters, such as the recording distance, the particle size, the wavelength, the size of the CCD chip, the pixel size and the particle concentration, will affect the results of the reconstruction, and may even determine the success or failure of a measurement. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effect of particle concentration, the volume depth to evaluate the capability of digital holographic microscopy. Standard particles holograms with all known recording parameters are numerically generated by using a common procedure based on Lorenz-Mie scattering theory. Reconstruction of those holograms are then performed by a wavelet-transform based method. Results show that the reconstruction efficiency decreases quickly until particle concentration reaches 50×104 (mm-3), and decreases linearly with the increase of particle concentration from 50 × 104 (mm-3) to 860 × 104 (mm-3) in the same volume. The first half of the line waves larger than the second half. It also indicates that the increase of concentration leads the rise in average diameter error and z position error of particles. Besides, the volume depth also plays a key role in reconstruction.

  2. Measurement of particulate concentrations produced during bulk material handling at the Tarragona harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artinano, B.; Gomez-Moreno, F.J.; Pujadas, M.; Moreno, N.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Martin, F.; Guerra, A.; Luaces, J.A.; Basora, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Bulk material handling can be a significant source of particles in harbor areas. The atmospheric impact of a number of loading/unloading activities of diverse raw materials has been assessed from continuous measurements of ambient particle concentrations recorded close to the emission sources. Two experimental campaigns have been carried out in the Tarragona port to document the impact of specific handling operations and bulk materials. Dusty bulk materials such as silica-manganese powder, tapioca, coal, clinker and lucerne were dealt with during the experiments. The highest impacts on ambient particle concentrations were recorded during handling of clinker. For this material and silica-manganese powder, high concentrations were recorded in the fine grain size ({lt}2.5 {mu}m). The lowest impacts on particulate matter concentrations were recorded during handling of tapioca and lucerne, mainly in the coarse grain size (2-5-10 {mu} m). The effectiveness of several emission abatement measures, such as ground watering to diminish coal particle resuspension, was demonstrated to reduce ambient concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. The importance of other good practices in specific handling operations, such as controlling the height of the shovel discharge, was also evidenced by these experiments. The results obtained can be further utilized as a useful experimental database for emission factor estimations.

  3. Fluorescence measurement of atomic oxygen concentration in a dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, P.; Mrkvičková, M.; Obrusník, A.; Kratzer, J.; Dědina, J.; Procházka, V.

    2017-06-01

    Concentration of atomic oxygen was measured in a volume dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ignited in mixtures of Ar + O2(+ H2) at atmospheric pressure. Two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic oxygen was used and this method was calibrated by TALIF of Xe in a mixture of argon and a trace of xenon. The calibration was performed at atmospheric pressure and it was shown that quenching by three-body collisions has negligible effect on the life time of excited Xe atoms. The concentration of atomic oxygen in the DBD was around 1021 m-3 and it was stable during the whole discharge period. The concentration did not depend much on the electric power delivered to the discharge provided that the power was sufficiently high so that the visible discharge filled the whole reactor volume. Both the addition of hydrogen or replacing of argon by helium led to a significant decrease of atomic oxygen concentration. The TALIF measurements of O concentration levels in the DBD plasma performed in this work are made use of e.g. in the field analytical chemistry. The results contribute to understanding the processes of analyte hydride preconcentration and subsequent atomization in the field of trace element analysis where DBD plasma atomizers are employed.

  4. Rapid measurement of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment using LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka Urszula; Jensen, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and isotopic enrichment are commonly used to evaluate FFA metabolism. Until now, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) was the best method to measure isotopic enrichment in the methyl derivatives of 13C-labeled fatty acids. Although IRMS is excellent for analyzing enrichment, it requires time-consuming derivatization steps and is not optimal for measuring FFA concentrations. We developed a new, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of 13C-labeled fatty acids in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). This method involves a very quick Dole extraction procedure and direct injection of the samples on the HPLC system. After chromatographic separation, the samples are directed to the mass spectrometer for electrospray ionization (ESI) and analysis in the negative mode using single ion monitoring. By employing equipment with two columns connected parallel to a mass spectrometer, we can double the throughput to the mass spectrometer, reducing the analysis time per sample to 5 min. Palmitate flux measured using this approach agreed well with the GC/C/IRMS method. This HPLC/MS method provides accurate and precise measures of FFA concentration and enrichment. PMID:20526002

  5. Measurement of particle size distribution and mass concentration of nuclear fuel aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.

    1982-01-01

    The particle size distribution and particle mass concentration of a nuclear fuel aerosol is measured by admitting the aerosol into a vertically-extending container, positioning an alpha particle detector within the container so that its window is horizontal and directed vertically, stopping the admission of aerosol into the container, detecting the alpha-activity of the particles of the aerosol sedimenting onto the detector window (for example in a series of equal time intervals until a constant level is reached), and converting the alpha-activity measurements into particle size distribution and/or particle mass concentration measurements. The detector is attached to a pivotted arm and by raising a counterweight can be lowered from the container for cleaning. (author)

  6. Measurements of ammonia concentrations, fluxes and dry deposition velocities to a spruce forest 1991-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.V.; Hovmand, M.F.; Hummelshøj, P.

    1999-01-01

    The dry deposition velocities and fluxes of ammonia have been estimated from measurements of the vertical gradient of ammonia and micrometeorology above a spruce forest in western Jutland, Denmark. Measurements have been made in seven periods, each lasting about one week and covering all seasons...... measuring period characterized by easterly winds with dry conditions and high ammonia concentrations, and the emissions might relate to evaporation from ammonia saturated surfaces or emission from mineralization in the forest soil. In general, relatively high net deposition velocities were observed during...... at conditions with easterly winds, the air have passed central Jutland with large emission areas. Some of the relatively low deposition velocities or emissions were observed during conditions with low ammonia concentration and westerly winds. These observations might relate to a compensation point of the forest...

  7. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  8. Applicability of Stokes method for measuring viscosity of mixtures with concentration gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Medina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After measuring density and viscosity of a mixture of glycerin and water contained in a vertical pipe, a variation of these properties according to depth is observed. These gradients are typical of non-equilibrium states related to the lower density of water and the fact that relatively long times are necessary to achieve homogeneity. In the same pipe, the falling velocity of five little spheres is measured as a function of depth, and then a numerical fit is performed which agrees very well with experimental data. Based on the generalization of these results, the applicability of Stokes method is discussed for measuring viscosity of mixtures with a concentration gradient.

  9. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Several Wards of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo...

    OpenAIRE

    , Y. Halimi; , S. Kadiri; , G. Hodolli; , B. Xhafa; , A. Jonuzaj

    2016-01-01

    Understanding that what’s the level of environment pollution from radioactive pollutant in some wards of UCCK (University Clinical Center of Kosovo) in Prishtina are made measurements of α radiation which is the product of 222Rn and have been read doses of TLD to some staff workers in three wards of UCCK. All this is done to see the risk level of possible pollution. Concentration of radon 222Rn is measured with device CRM-510 portable instruments. During the measurements the apparatus has rec...

  10. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.

    1995-01-01

    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali metal concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Measurements will be performed during 1995 and 1996 at different stages of the research programme. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali metal vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  11. Measurements of radon concentrations in a sample representative of housing in Franche-Comte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aury, K.; Clinard, F.; Tillier, C.; Catelinois, O.; Pirard, P.; Aury, K.; Nourry, L.; Hochart, A.

    2008-01-01

    Three departments on four ones in Franche-Comte are classified at risk for radon: measurements are so compulsory in establishments receiving public. For the residential sector, no obligation of measurement are compulsory when french people spend 70% of their time in it. The data concerning homes are fragmentary and deserve to be completed. This campaign of measurements has confirmed the existence of radon in relatively high concentrations in Franche-Comte, including the sedimentary areas, justifying the necessity to realize a precise evaluation of the sanitary impact. The model will allow to study different strategies to reduce radon in houses. (N.C.)

  12. Measurements and statistical analyses of indoor radon concentrations in Tokyo and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Shiroharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Inokoshi, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Since the UNSCEAR report published in 1982, radiation exposure to the respiratory tract due to radon and its progeny has been regarded as the single largest contributor to the natural radiation exposure of the general public. In Japan, the measurement of radon gas concentrations in many types of buildings have been surveyed by national and private institutes. We also carried out the measurement of radon gas concentrations in different types of residential buildings in Tokyo and its adjoining prefectures from October 1988 to September 1991, to evaluate the potential radiation risk of the people living there. One or two simplified passive radon monitors were set up in each of the 34 residential buildings located in the above-mentioned area for an exposure period of 3 months each. Comparing the average concentrations in the buildings of different materials and structures, those in the concrete steel buildings were always higher than those in the wooden and the prefabricated mortared buildings. The radon concentrations were proved to become higher in autumn and winter, and lower in spring and summer. Radon concentrations in an underground room of a concrete steel building showed the highest value throughout our investigation, and statistically significant seasonal variation was detected by the X-11 method developed by the U.S. Bureau of Census. The values measured in a room at the first floor of the same concrete steel building also showed seasonal variation, but the phase of variation was different. Another multivariate analysis suggested that the building material and structure are the most important factors concerning the levels of radon concentration among other factors such as the age of the building and the use of ventilators. (author)

  13. Predicting and measurement of pH of seawater reverse osmosis concentrates

    KAUST Repository

    Waly, Tarek

    2011-10-01

    The pH of seawater reverse osmosis plants (SWRO) is the most influential parameter in determining the degree of supersaturation of CaCO3 in the concentrate stream. For this, the results of pH measurements of the concentrate of a seawater reverse osmosis pilot plant were compared with pH calculations based on the CO2-HCO3 --CO3 2- system equilibrium equations. Results were compared with two commercial software programs from membrane suppliers and also the software package Phreeqc. Results suggest that the real concentrate pH is lower than that of the feed and that none of the used programs was able to predict correctly real pH values. In addition, the effect of incorporating the acidity constant calculated for NaCl medium or seawater medium showed a great influence on the concentrate pH determination. The HCO3 - and CO3 2- equilibrium equation using acidity constants developed for seawater medium was the only method able to predict correctly the concentrate pH. The outcome of this study indicated that the saturation level of the concentrate was lower than previously anticipated. This was confirmed by shutting down the acid and the antiscalants dosing without any signs of scaling over a period of 12 months. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Concentration and measuring Platinum Group Elements (PGE) Transfer Factor in soil and vegetations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibah Sakinah Oyub

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and to measure platinum group elements (PGE) transfer factor in environmental samples of roadside soil and vegetation. The use of vehicle catalytic converter has released platinum group elements (PGE) and other gases into the environment. Thus, roadside soil and plants were exposed to this element and has become the medium for the movement of this elements. Samples of roadside soil and vegetation were taken at various locations in UKM Bangi Toll and the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) is determined using mass spectrometry-inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Overall, the concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE), which is the element platinum (Pt) in soil was 0.016 ± 0.036 μgg -1 . While the concentration of the elements palladium (Pd) was 0.079 ± 0.019 μgg -1 and element rhodium (Rh) is at a concentration of 0.013 ± 0.020 μgg -1 . Overall, the transfer factor for the element platinum (Pt) is 1. While the transfer factor of the element palladium (Pd) is 0.96 and the element rhodium (Rh) is 1.11. In conclusion, the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in soils have increased. (author)

  15. Measurements of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Chaiya and Tha Chana Districts, Surat Thani Province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titipornpun, K.; Titipornpun, A.; Sola, P.; Bhongsuwan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chaiya and Tha Chana districts of Surat Thani province are located in the areas with high equivalent uranium at ground surface, which have been identified as sources of radon. A survey measurement of indoor radon concentrations was carried out in 248 houses, using CR-39 detectors in closed cups. All of the detectors were exposed to radon for forty days. After the exposure, the alpha tracks were made visible by chemical etching and counted manually under an optical microscope. The indoor concentrations in Chaiya district were found to vary from the minimum to the maximum of 4 Bq.m -3 to 88 Bq.m -3 , respectively. In Tha Chana district, the concentrations of indoor radon were varied from the minimum of 4 Bq.m -3 to the maximum of 159 Bq.m -3 . The geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations in Chaya and Tha Chana districts were found to be 26±2 Bq.m -3 and 30±2 Bq.m -3 , respectively. The overall geometric mean in the surveyed areas was 28±2 Bq.m -3 . Only in two houses (1%), the concentrations (151 and 159 Bq.m -3 ) were found to be higher than the action level recommended by the US EPA (148 Bq.m -3 ). Most houses (94%) have natural ventilation by keeping doors and windows opened during the daytime. This ventilation likely causes the low level of indoor radon concentrations.

  16. Measurements of radon daughter concentrations in structures built on or near uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Kerr, G.D.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is discussed that has been used to measure air concentrations of short-lived daughters of 222 Rn in residential and commercial structures built on or near uranium mill tailings in the western part of the United States. In this technique, the concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC are calculated from one integral count of the RaA and two integral counts of the RaC' alpha-particle activity collected on a filter with an air sampling device. A computer program is available to calculate the concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC in air and to estimate the accuracy in these calculated concentrations. This program is written in the BASIC language. Also discussed in this paper are the alpha-particle spectrometer used to count activity on the air filters and the results of our radon daughter measurements in Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico. These results and results of other measurements discussed in a companion paper are now being used in a comprehensive study of potential radiation exposures to the public from uranium mill tailing piles

  17. Measurement of radon concentration in dwellings in the region of highest lung cancer incidence in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoliana, B.; Rohmingliana, P.C.; Sahoo, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of radon exhalation from soil and its concentration in indoor is found to be helpful in many investigations such as health risk assessment and others as radiation damage to bronchial cells which eventually can be the second leading cause of lung cancer next to smoking. The fact that Aizawl District, Mizoram, India has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in Age Adjusted Rate (AAR) in India as declared by Population Based Cancer Registry Report 2008 indicates the need for quantification of radon and its anomalies attached to it. Measurement of radon concentration had been carried out inside the dwellings in Aizawl district, Mizoram. A time integrated method of measurement was employed by using a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) type (LR-115 films) kept in a twin cup dosimeter for measurement of concentration of radon and thoron. The dosimeters were suspended over bed rooms or living rooms in selected dwellings. They were deployed for a period of about 120 days at a time in 63 houses which were selected according to their place of location viz. fault region, places where fossil remains were found and geologically unidentified region. After the desired period of exposure, the detectors were retrieved and chemically etched which were then counted by using a spark counter. The recorded nuclear tract densities are then converted into air concentrations of Radon and Thoron

  18. Indoor and outdoor Radon concentration measurements in Sivas, Turkey, in comparison with geological setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihci, Metin [Iller Bankasi, Etud Plan ve Yol Dairesi, Opera, 06053 Ankara (Turkey); Buyuksarac, Aydin [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 17020, Canakkale (Turkey); Aydemir, Attila, E-mail: aydemir@tpao.gov.t [Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Mustafa, Kemal Mah. 2. Cad. No: 86, 06100 Sogutozu, Ankara (Turkey); Celebi, Nilgun [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre (CNAEM), Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Indoor and soil gas Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration measurements were accomplished in two stages in Sivas, a central eastern city in Turkey. In the first stage, CR-39 passive nuclear track detectors supplied by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) were placed in the selected houses throughout Sivas centrum in two seasons; summer and winter. Before the setup of detectors, a detailed questionnaire form was distributed to the inhabitants of selected houses to investigate construction parameters and properties of the houses, and living conditions of inhabitants. Detectors were collected back two months later and analysed at TAEA laboratories to obtain indoor {sup 222}Rn gas concentration values. In the second stage, soil gas {sup 222}Rn measurements were performed using an alphameter near the selected houses for the indoor measurements. Although {sup 222}Rn concentrations in Sivas were quite low in relation with the allowable limits, they are higher than the average of Turkey. Indoor and soil gas {sup 222}Rn concentration distribution maps were prepared seperately and these maps were applied onto the surface geological map. In this way, both surveys were correlated with the each other and they were interpreted in comparison with the answers of questionnaire and the geological setting of the Sivas centrum and the vicinity.

  19. Measures of ozone concentrations using passive sampling in forests of South Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: mjose@ceam.es; Calatayud, V. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Pena, G. [Servicio de Proteccion de los Montes contra Agentes Nocivos, Direccion General para la Biodiversidad, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Gran Via de San Francisco, 4, E-28005, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    Ambient ozone concentrations were measured with passive samplers in the framework of the EU and UN/ECE Level II forest monitoring programme. Data from France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and Switzerland are reported for 2000-2002, covering the period from April to September. The number of plots increased from 67 in 2000 to 83 in 2002. The year 2001 experienced the highest ozone concentrations, reflecting more stable summer meteorological conditions. Average 6-month ozone concentrations above 45 ppb were measured this year in 40.3% of the plots, in contrast with the less than 21% measured in the other 2 years. Gradients of increasing ozone levels were observed from North to South and with altitude. Comments are made on the regional trends and on the time frame of the higher ozone episodes. Also, some recommendations enabling a better comparison between plots are provided. - Ozone concentrations in forested areas of SW Europe during the period 2000-2002 showed highest values in 2001, as well as a tendency to increase towards the South and with altitude.

  20. Measures of ozone concentrations using passive sampling in forests of South Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, M.J.; Calatayud, V.; Sanchez-Pena, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ambient ozone concentrations were measured with passive samplers in the framework of the EU and UN/ECE Level II forest monitoring programme. Data from France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and Switzerland are reported for 2000-2002, covering the period from April to September. The number of plots increased from 67 in 2000 to 83 in 2002. The year 2001 experienced the highest ozone concentrations, reflecting more stable summer meteorological conditions. Average 6-month ozone concentrations above 45 ppb were measured this year in 40.3% of the plots, in contrast with the less than 21% measured in the other 2 years. Gradients of increasing ozone levels were observed from North to South and with altitude. Comments are made on the regional trends and on the time frame of the higher ozone episodes. Also, some recommendations enabling a better comparison between plots are provided. - Ozone concentrations in forested areas of SW Europe during the period 2000-2002 showed highest values in 2001, as well as a tendency to increase towards the South and with altitude

  1. The doping concentration and physical properties measurement of silicon water using tera hertz wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Oh, Gyung Hwan; Kim, Hak Sung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a tera hertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used to measure doping concentration and physical properties (such as refractive index and permittivity) of the doped silicon (Si) wafers. The transmission and reflection modes with an incidence angle of 30° were employed to determine the physical properties of the doped Si wafers. The doping concentrations of the prepared Si wafers were varied from 10"1"4 to 10"1"8 in both N-type and P-type cases. Finally, the correlation between the doping concentration and the power of the THz wave was determined by measuring the powers of the transmitted and reflected THz waves of the doped Si wafers. Additionally, the doped thickness, the refractive index, and permittivity of each doped Si wafer were calculated using the THz time domain waveform. The results indicate that the THz-TDS imaging technique is potentially a promising technique to measure the doping concentration as well as other optical properties (such as the refractive index and permittivity) of the doped Si wafer

  2. Measurement of the Cupric Ion Concentration Variation near Electrodes in the Copper Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The heat fluxes to the side wall imposed at the upper metallic layer, are known to increase with the reduction of layer height. This 'Focusing effect' is varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. The heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. When the electroplating system is adopted as the mass transfer system, in order to simulate the different temperature conditions of top and side walls, an electrical resistance was attached to the top wall so that it is mimics hotter wall condition. Because the quantitative temperature conditions according to the electrical resistance were unknown, the methodology development is necessary. The electrical resistance was adopted to the top plate. But the quantitative temperature conditions depending on the electrical resistance were unknown. In order to overcome the limitations of mass transfer, this work tried to measure the cupric ion concentration. The methods of concentration measurement are RGB, Brightness, ICP, PIV, and Interferometry. The key of RGB, Brightness and PIV method is the clear images of the concentration boundary layer corresponding the thermal boundary layer of heat transfer. The results for ICP method can be got by taking the trace sample of a solution, accurately. The formation of patterns in the interferometry is very important. The characteristics of the interference pattern depend on the nature of the light source, the precise orientation of the mirrors, etc. The methodology of concentration measurement is still under development stage.

  3. The doping concentration and physical properties measurement of silicon water using tera hertz wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Oh, Gyung Hwan; Kim, Hak Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a tera hertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used to measure doping concentration and physical properties (such as refractive index and permittivity) of the doped silicon (Si) wafers. The transmission and reflection modes with an incidence angle of 30° were employed to determine the physical properties of the doped Si wafers. The doping concentrations of the prepared Si wafers were varied from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 18} in both N-type and P-type cases. Finally, the correlation between the doping concentration and the power of the THz wave was determined by measuring the powers of the transmitted and reflected THz waves of the doped Si wafers. Additionally, the doped thickness, the refractive index, and permittivity of each doped Si wafer were calculated using the THz time domain waveform. The results indicate that the THz-TDS imaging technique is potentially a promising technique to measure the doping concentration as well as other optical properties (such as the refractive index and permittivity) of the doped Si wafer.

  4. Measurement of the Cupric Ion Concentration Variation near Electrodes in the Copper Electroplating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin

    2016-01-01

    The heat fluxes to the side wall imposed at the upper metallic layer, are known to increase with the reduction of layer height. This 'Focusing effect' is varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. The heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. When the electroplating system is adopted as the mass transfer system, in order to simulate the different temperature conditions of top and side walls, an electrical resistance was attached to the top wall so that it is mimics hotter wall condition. Because the quantitative temperature conditions according to the electrical resistance were unknown, the methodology development is necessary. The electrical resistance was adopted to the top plate. But the quantitative temperature conditions depending on the electrical resistance were unknown. In order to overcome the limitations of mass transfer, this work tried to measure the cupric ion concentration. The methods of concentration measurement are RGB, Brightness, ICP, PIV, and Interferometry. The key of RGB, Brightness and PIV method is the clear images of the concentration boundary layer corresponding the thermal boundary layer of heat transfer. The results for ICP method can be got by taking the trace sample of a solution, accurately. The formation of patterns in the interferometry is very important. The characteristics of the interference pattern depend on the nature of the light source, the precise orientation of the mirrors, etc. The methodology of concentration measurement is still under development stage.

  5. Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Manish; Sapra, B. K.; Khan, Arshad; Tripathi, S. N.; Shamjad, P. M.; Gupta, Tarun; Mayya, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Regional studies focusing on the role of atmospheric nanoparticles in climate change have gained impetus in the last decade. Several multi-institutional studies involving measurement of nanoparticles with several kinds of instruments are on the rise. It is important to harmonize these measurements as the instruments may work on different techniques or principles and are developed by different manufacturers. Scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS) are often used to measure size distribution of nanoparticles in the airborne phase. Two such commercially available instruments namely, GRIMM and TSI-SMPS have been compared for ambient and laboratory generated conditions. A stand-alone condensation particle counter (CPC) of TSI make was used as a reference for particle concentration measurements. The consistency of the results in terms of mean size and geometric standard deviation was seen to be excellent for both the SMPSs, with GRIMM always showing slightly (approximately 10 %) lower mean size. The integrated number concentration from GRIMM-SMPS was seen to be closer to stand-alone reference CPC compared to TSI-SMPS, for an ambient overnight comparison. However, a concentration-dependent response, i.e. the variations between the two instruments increasing with the concentration, was observed and possible reasons for this have been suggested. A separate experiment was performed for studying the modifying effect of diffusion dryer and sheath air dryer on the measured aerosol size spectra. A significant hygroscopic growth was noted when diffusion dryer was attached to one of the SMPS. The introduction of sheath air dryer in GRIMM-SMPS produced a significant shift towards lower mean size. These results have been compared and discussed with the recent inter-comparison results to strengthen and harmonize the measurement protocols.

  6. Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Sapra, B. K.; Khan, Arshad; Tripathi, S. N.; Shamjad, P. M.; Gupta, Tarun; Mayya, Y. S.

    2012-12-01

    Regional studies focusing on the role of atmospheric nanoparticles in climate change have gained impetus in the last decade. Several multi-institutional studies involving measurement of nanoparticles with several kinds of instruments are on the rise. It is important to harmonize these measurements as the instruments may work on different techniques or principles and are developed by different manufacturers. Scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS) are often used to measure size distribution of nanoparticles in the airborne phase. Two such commercially available instruments namely, GRIMM and TSI-SMPS have been compared for ambient and laboratory generated conditions. A stand-alone condensation particle counter (CPC) of TSI make was used as a reference for particle concentration measurements. The consistency of the results in terms of mean size and geometric standard deviation was seen to be excellent for both the SMPSs, with GRIMM always showing slightly (approximately 10 %) lower mean size. The integrated number concentration from GRIMM-SMPS was seen to be closer to stand-alone reference CPC compared to TSI-SMPS, for an ambient overnight comparison. However, a concentration-dependent response, i.e. the variations between the two instruments increasing with the concentration, was observed and possible reasons for this have been suggested. A separate experiment was performed for studying the modifying effect of diffusion dryer and sheath air dryer on the measured aerosol size spectra. A significant hygroscopic growth was noted when diffusion dryer was attached to one of the SMPS. The introduction of sheath air dryer in GRIMM-SMPS produced a significant shift towards lower mean size. These results have been compared and discussed with the recent inter-comparison results to strengthen and harmonize the measurement protocols.

  7. Specific wavelength colorimeter. [for measuring given solute concentration in test sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. C.; Mcdavid, L. S.; Walsh, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A self contained, specific wavelength, single beam colorimeter is described for direct spectrophotometric measurement of the concentration of a given solute in a test sample. An electrical circuit employing a photoconductive cell converts the optical output into a linear, directly readable meter output. The colorimeter is simple to operate and is adapted for use in zero gravity conditions. In a specific application, the colorimeter is designed to analyze the concentration of iodine in potable water carried aboard a space vehicle such as the 4B stage of Skylab.

  8. Analysis of predicted and measured performance of an integrated compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R.; O' Gallagher, J.J.; Muschaweck, J.; Mahoney, A.R.; Dudley, V.

    1999-07-01

    A variety of configurations of evacuated Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) tubes have been under development for many years. A particularly favorable optical design corresponds to the unit concentration limit for a fin CPC solution which is then coupled to a practical, thin, wedge-shaped absorber. Prototype collector modules using tubes with two different fin orientations (horizontal and vertical) have been fabricated and tested. Comprehensive measurements of the optical characteristics of the reflector and absorber have been used together with a detailed ray trace analysis to predict the optical performance characteristics of these designs. The observed performance agrees well with the predicted performance.

  9. Measure of hydrogen concentration profile in materials by resonant nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livi, R.P.; Zawislak, F.C.; Acquadro, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The technique for determining the profile of hydrogen concentration in proximities of the surface of materials, is presented. The preliminary measurements were done, using the Pelletron accelerator at Sao Paulo University (USP), in Brazil, for the resonant-nuclear reaction 1 H( 19 F, α γ) 16 O. By using this reaction the technique is sensitive for concentrations above 500 ppm, which could be reduced to 100 ppm through special shieldings and other techniques to reduce the background radiation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Measurement of Rn-222 concentrations in building materials used in jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.M.; Abumyrad, K.M.; Kullab, M.K.; Albataina, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of the radiative inert gas Rn-222 emanated from the building materials that are commonly in jordan have been studied. For this purpose, samples of ten jordanian building materials of different masses were prepared in plastic cans sealed to passive integrated dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors which are very sensitive to alpha-particles. The Rn-222 concentrations in these samples range from 137 Bq/m 3 to 267 Bq/m 3 with an average of 189 Bq/m 3 . These levels were found to be consistent with those measured by other workers in other countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Optical measurements of atomic oxygen concentration, temperature and nitric oxide production rate in flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Franklin Henry

    An optical method for measuring nitric oxide (NO) production rates in flames was developed and characterized in a series of steady, one-dimensional, atmospheric-pressure laminar flames of 0.700 Hsb2/0.199 Nsb2/0.101 COsb2 or 0.700 CHsb4/0.300 Nsb2 (by moles) with dry air, with equivalence ratios from 0.79 to 1.27. Oxygen atom concentration, (O), was measured by two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), temperature was measured by ultraviolet Rayleigh scattering, and nitrogen concentration was calculated from supplied reactant flows; together this information was used to calculate the NO production rate through the thermal (Zel'dovich) mechanism. Measurements by two other techniques were compared with results from the above method. In the first comparison, gas sampling was used to measure axial NO concentration profiles, the slopes of which were multiplied by velocity to obtain total NO production rates. In the second comparison, LIF measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH) were used with equilibrium water concentrations and a partial equilibrium assumption to find (O). Nitric oxide production rates from all three methods agreed reasonably well. Photolytic interference was observed during (O) LIF measurements in all of the flames; this is the major difficulty in applying the optical technique. Photolysis of molecular oxygen in lean flames has been well documented before, but the degree of interference observed in the rich flames suggests that some other molecule is also dissociating; the candidates are OH, CO, COsb2 and Hsb2O. An extrapolative technique for removing the effects of photolysis from (O) LIF measurements worked well in all flames where NO production was significant. Using the optical method to measure NO production rates in turbulent flames will involve a tradeoff among spatial resolution, systematic photolysis error, and random shot noise. With the conventional laser system used in this work, a single pulse with a resolution of 700 mum measured NO

  12. Optimized measurement of radium-226 concentration in liquid samples with radon-222 emanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Aupiais, Jean; Girault, Frédéric; Przylibski, Tadeusz A.; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Measuring radium-226 concentration in liquid samples using radon-222 emanation remains competitive with techniques such as liquid scintillation, alpha or mass spectrometry. Indeed, we show that high-precision can be obtained without air circulation, using an optimal air to liquid volume ratio and moderate heating. Cost-effective and efficient measurement of radon concentration is achieved by scintillation flasks and sufficiently long counting times for signal and background. More than 400 such measurements were performed, including 39 dilution experiments, a successful blind measurement of six reference test solutions, and more than 110 repeated measurements. Under optimal conditions, uncertainties reach 5% for an activity concentration of 100 mBq L"−"1 and 10% for 10 mBq L"−"1. While the theoretical detection limit predicted by Monte Carlo simulation is around 3 mBq L"−"1, a conservative experimental estimate is rather 5 mBq L"−"1, corresponding to 0.14 fg g"−"1. The method was applied to 47 natural waters, 51 commercial waters, and 17 wine samples, illustrating that it could be an option for liquids that cannot be easily measured by other methods. Counting of scintillation flasks can be done in remote locations in absence of electricity supply, using a solar panel. Thus, this portable method, which has demonstrated sufficient accuracy for numerous natural liquids, could be useful in geological and environmental problems, with the additional benefit that it can be applied in isolated locations and in circumstances when samples cannot be transported. - Highlights: • Radium-226 concentration measured with optimized accumulation in a container. • Radon-222 in air measured precisely with scintillation flasks and long countings. • Method tested by repetition tests, dilution experiments, and successful blind tests. • Estimated conservative detection limit without pre-concentration is 5 mBq L"−"1. • Method is portable, cost

  13. Combination scattering of dissociating gas applied to measurements of temperature and concentration of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkov, V.A.; Kurganova, F.I.; Grishchuk, M.Kh.

    1987-01-01

    The method to calculate the combination scattering power of the components of the dissociating N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 → 2NO+O 2 gas subjected to the laser radiation effect is given. The combination scattering power has been calculated for temperatures 400-600 K, pressures 1-3 MPa, with the neodymium laser (λ=1.06 μm) as a source and the possibility of measuring the local temperatures and concentration of the given gas components with the help of the combination scattering has been analysed. It follows from the calculated data that combination scattering power of N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 gas in excitation with the neodymium laser as a source is sufficient for detection. Gas temperature is likely to be measured with the minimum error relative to stokes and anti-stokes bands of the combination scattering, produced by nitrogen tetroxide. From calculated data it also follows that measurement of NO 2 concentration in the range 400-600 K is possible. At the same time combination scattering power, produced by NO and O 2 components is sufficient for measurement merely with the concentration of the components of the order of 10 18 molecules/cm 3 guaranteed in static conditions only at N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 gas temperature 500 K and higher

  14. HO2 measurements at atmospheric concentrations using a chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S.; Novelli, A.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Kang, S.; Baker, Y.; Mentel, T. F.; Fuchs, H.

    2017-12-01

    Correct and precise measurements of atmospheric radical species are necessary for a better understanding of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Due to the reactivity of radicals, and their consequent low concentrations, direct measurements of these species are particularly challenging and have been proven in the past to be affected by interfering species. Here we present a chemical ionization source coupled to an APi-HR-TOF-MS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), which has a limit of detection for HO2 radicals well below its atmospheric concentrations ( 1 x 108 molecules cm-3). The instrument was calibrated with a well-established and characterized HO2 calibration source in use for the laser induced fluorescence instrument in the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Within the source, a well characterized amount of HO2 radicals is produced after photolysis of water by a mercury lamp. In addition, several experiments were performed in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR at the Forschungszentrum Jülich to test for potential interferences. Measurements of HO2 radicals were concurrently detected by a laser induced fluorescence instrument allowing for the comparison of measurements within the two different and independent techniques for various atmospheric conditions regarding concentrations of O3, NOx and VOCs. Results from the intercomparison together with the calibration procedure of the instrument and laboratory characterization will be presented.

  15. Development of an instantaneous local fuel-concentration measurement probe: an engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, P.; Boutar, Z.; Lemoyne, L.

    2003-11-01

    This work presents a new tool which can deliver instantaneous local measurements of fuel concentration in an engine cylinder with a high temporal resolution, particularly during compression strokes. Fuel concentration is represented by means of equivalence fuel-air ratio, i.e. the real engine mass ratio of fuel to air divided by the same ratio in ideal stoichiometry conditions. Controlling the mixture configuration for any strategy in a spark ignition engine and for auto-ignition combustion has a dominant effect on the subsequent processes of ignition, flame propagation and auto-ignition combustion progression, pollutant formation under lean or even stoichiometric operating conditions. It is extremely difficult, under a transient operation, to control the equivalence air/fuel ratio precisely at a required value and at the right time. This requires the development of a highly accurate equivalence air/fuel ratio control system and a tool to measure using crank angle (CA) resolution. Although non-intrusive laser techniques have considerable advantages, they are most of the time inappropriate due to their optical inaccessibility or the complex experimental set-up involved. Therefore, as a response to the demand for a relatively simple fuel-concentration measurement system a probe is presented that replaces a spark plug and allows the engine to run completely normally. The probe is based on hot-wire like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation at the wire surface. The development, characteristics and calibration of the probe are presented followed by applications to in-cylinder engine measurements.

  16. Comparison of point-of-care versus central laboratory measurement of hematocrit, hemoglobin, and electrolyte concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos

    We aimed to investigate the accuracy of certain laboratory examinations obtained by the ABG analyzer (ROCHE AVL OMNI S) as compared to hospital central laboratory (CL). We prospectively collected data obtained from the same arterial blood sample regarding hematocrit, hemoglobin, potassium, and sodium. ABG analyzer results were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) compared to CL values thus values between the two methods are not interchangeable. The mean bias for Hb, Na + and K + were within accepted by US Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (USCLIA) differences (cut-off points) but not for Ht. In 8.0%, 17.5%, 37.5% and 56.0% of Hb, Na + , K + and Ht measurements respectively and 29.75% in sum the differences were over the USCLIA accepted limits. ABG analyzer significantly underestimate the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + , compared to CL and almost 30% of all examined parameters were beyond USCLIA accepted biases. ABG analyzer significantly underestimates the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + compared to CL and almost 30% for all examined parameters are beyond USCLIA accepted biases. These data do not support widespread or even careful use of POCT for making diagnostic and treatment decisions until technology improves and results in improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Uncertainty propagation for the coulometric measurement of the plutonium concentration in MOX-PU4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-11-07

    This GUM WorkbenchTM propagation of uncertainty is for the coulometric measurement of the plutonium concentration in a Pu standard material (C126) supplied as individual aliquots that were prepared by mass. The C126 solution had been prepared and as aliquoted as standard material. Samples are aliquoted into glass vials and heated to dryness for distribution as dried nitrate. The individual plutonium aliquots were not separated chemically or otherwise purified prior to measurement by coulometry in the F/H Laboratory. Hydrogen peroxide was used for valence adjustment. The Pu assay measurement results were corrected for the interference from trace iron in the solution measured for assay. Aliquot mass measurements were corrected for air buoyancy. The relative atomic mass (atomic weight) of the plutonium from X126 certoficate was used. The isotopic composition was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) for comparison but not used in calculations.

  18. Uncertainty associated with the gravimetric measurement of particulate matter concentration in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Ronald E; Faulkner, William Brock

    2015-07-01

    This work applied a propagation of uncertainty method to typical total suspended particulate (TSP) sampling apparatus in order to estimate the overall measurement uncertainty. The objectives of this study were to estimate the uncertainty for three TSP samplers, develop an uncertainty budget, and determine the sensitivity of the total uncertainty to environmental parameters. The samplers evaluated were the TAMU High Volume TSP Sampler at a nominal volumetric flow rate of 1.42 m3 min(-1) (50 CFM), the TAMU Low Volume TSP Sampler at a nominal volumetric flow rate of 17 L min(-1) (0.6 CFM) and the EPA TSP Sampler at the nominal volumetric flow rates of 1.1 and 1.7 m3 min(-1) (39 and 60 CFM). Under nominal operating conditions the overall measurement uncertainty was found to vary from 6.1x10(-6) g m(-3) to 18.0x10(-6) g m(-3), which represented an uncertainty of 1.7% to 5.2% of the measurement. Analysis of the uncertainty budget determined that three of the instrument parameters contributed significantly to the overall uncertainty: the uncertainty in the pressure drop measurement across the orifice meter during both calibration and testing and the uncertainty of the airflow standard used during calibration of the orifice meter. Five environmental parameters occurring during field measurements were considered for their effect on overall uncertainty: ambient TSP concentration, volumetric airflow rate, ambient temperature, ambient pressure, and ambient relative humidity. Of these, only ambient TSP concentration and volumetric airflow rate were found to have a strong effect on the overall uncertainty. The technique described in this paper can be applied to other measurement systems and is especially useful where there are no methods available to generate these values empirically. This work addresses measurement uncertainty of TSP samplers used in ambient conditions. Estimation of uncertainty in gravimetric measurements is of particular interest, since as ambient particulate

  19. Measurements of CaF2 concentration in fluorite ore using thermoluminescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembo, L.; Maestri, G.; Pimpinella, M.; Benzi, V.; Muntoni, C.

    1990-01-01

    Fluorite powder is produced by means of a flotation process on crude ore extracted by the mines. A full automation of the flotation plant would reduce the operating cost and improve the quality and recovery of fluorite production. However, taking into account that the efficiency of a flotation cycle is directly dependent on the CaF 2 content in the concentrate and tail products, this automation requires a quasi-real-time quantitative analysis of CaF 2 concentration in the floated pulp. The feasibility was studied of using a thermoluminescence technique as an on-line analysis method to measure the CaF 2 concentration during the flotation cycle. A first set of experimental conditions to determine CaF 2 content in acid-grade fluorspar has been already developed and the preliminary results so far obtained are presented. (author)

  20. Measurement of natural and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öksüz, İ., E-mail: ibrahim-ksz@yahoo.com; Güray, R. T., E-mail: tguray@kocaeli.edu.tr; Özkan, N., E-mail: nozkan@kocaeli.edu.tr; Yalçin, C., E-mail: caner.yalcin@kocaeli.edu.tr [Kocaeli University, Department of Physics, Umuttepe 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ergül, H. A., E-mail: halim.ergul@kocaeli.edu.tr; Aksan, S., E-mail: serdar.aksan@kocaeli.edu.tr [Kocaeli University, Department of Biology, Umuttepe 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope {sup 137}Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the {sup 40}K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of {sup 137}Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  1. Measurements of the radon-222 and its daughters concentrations throughout Gaza strip, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasas, M.F.; Yassin, S.S.; Shabat, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    High Radon levels are present in the granite and grandiositic rocks that. spread in sand dunes along coast of Gaza. Such materials are rich in uranium and T widely used in the construction of dwelling in the Gaza, and their contribution to high indoor Radon levels is most relevant.The present work aims to investigate approaches, measures and detection of indoor Radon level throughout Gaza Strip. Five hundred CR-39 dosimeters were distributed over six locations in the middle Yv-region of Gaza Strip. Results suggest that Radon concentrations range from l3.36 to 83.82 Bq/m 3 and a maximum value of 97.01 Bq/m 3 .The average Radon concentrations was 37.83 Bq/m 3 with standard deviation of 11.23.The results provide a framework for future studies that include a large, broader survey of Radon concentration in Palestine

  2. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the 'Bay of Cadiz' Natural Park (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Vidal, J.; Melendez, M.J.; Hamani, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2009-01-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range = 0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders

  3. Application of image analyzer for radon concentration measurement by nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Vukovic, J.; Novakovic, V.; Tasic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements were performed by determination of alpha tracks density in NTD of polymer type (Allyl diglycol polycarbonate - ADC Intercast EC, Parma). NTD plates were exposed to Rn, during 72 days in low level laboratory (LLL) at the Institute of Physics, Belgrade. Therefore, they were etched in 6N - NaOH water solution during 8 h at bath temperature of 70 0 C. The analyses of the alpha tracks was made by optical microscope and semiquantitative image analyzer using video camera digitizer attached to Pentium PC with software Ozaria V2.5. According to the determined mean track density value, ρmean=74210 tracks/cm 2 (background track density ρb=123 tracks/cm 2 ) Rn concentration was calculated to be 1174 Bq/m 3 . Obtained higher value than global - normal indoor Rn concentration might be the consequence of the temperature difference in LLL and outdoor. (author)

  4. Exposition by inhalation to the formaldehyde in the air. Source, measures and concentrations; Exposition par inhalation au formaldehyde dans l'air. Source, mesures et concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gratta, F.; Durif, M.; Fagault, Y.; Zdanevitch, I

    2004-12-15

    This document presents the main techniques today available to characterize the formaldehyde concentrations in the air for different contexts: urban and rural areas or around industrial installations but also indoor and occupational area. It provides information to guide laboratories and research departments. A synthesis gives also the main emissions sources of these compounds as reference concentrations measured in different environments. (A.L.B.)

  5. Development of fast measurements of concentration of NORM U-238 by HPGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seokki; Kim, Siu; Kim, Geehyun

    2017-02-01

    Naturally Occureed Radioactive Material (NORM) generated from the origin of earth can be found all around us and even people who are not engaged in the work related to radiation have been exposed to unnecessary radiation. This NORM has a potential risk provided that is concentrated or transformed by artificial activities. Likewise, a development of fast measruement method of NORM is emerging to prevent the radiation exposure of the general public and person engaged in the work related to the type of business related thereto who uses the material in which NORM is concentrated or transfromed. Based on such a background, many of countries have tried to manage NORM and carried out regulatory legislation. To effienctly manage NORM, there is need for developing new measurement to quickly and accurately analyze the nuclide and concentration. In this study, development of the fast and reliable measurement was carried out. In addition to confirming the reliability of the fast measurement, we have obtained results that can suggest the possibility of developing another fast measurement. Therefore, as a follow-up, it is possible to develop another fast analytical measurement afterwards. The results of this study will be very useful for the regulatory system to manage NORM. In this study, a review of two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 that has used HPGe on the basis of the equilibrium theory of relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at decay-chain of NORM U-238 has been carried out. For comparative study(in order to know reliabily), direct measurement that makes use of alpha spectrometer with complicated pre-processing process was implemented.

  6. Field instruments for real time in-situ crude oil concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, C.B.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling, M.C.Jr.; Ojo, T.O.

    2003-01-01

    Accidental oil spills, contaminant release during resuspension, storms, and harmful algal blooms are all episodic events that can effect coastal margins. It is important to quantitatively describe water and ecological quality evolution and predict the impact to these areas by such events, but traditional sampling methods miss environmental activity during cyclical events. This paper presents a new sampling approach that involves continuous, real-time in-situ monitoring to provide data for development of comprehensive modeling protocols. It gives spill response coordinators greater assurance in making decisions using the latest visualization tools which are based on a good understanding of the physical processes at work in pulsed events. Five sensors for rapid monitoring of crude oil concentrations in aquatic systems were described. The in-situ and ex-situ sensors can measure plume transport and estimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure concentrations to assess risk of toxicity. A brief description and evaluation of the following 5 sensors was provided: the LISST-100 by Sequoia Instrument, a submersible multi-angle laser scattering instrument; the AU-10 field fluorometer by Turner Designs, an ex-situ single wavelength fluorometer; the Flashlamp by WET Labs Inc., an in-situ single wavelength fluorometer; and, the ECO-FL3 and SAFire by WET Labs Inc., two in-situ multiple wavelength fluorometers. These instruments were used to analyze crude oil emissions of various concentrations. All of the instruments followed a linear response within the tested concentration range. At the lowest concentrations the LISST-100 was not as effective as the fluorometers because of limited particle volume for scatter. For the AU-10 field fluorometer, the highest concentrations tested were above the measurement range of the instrument. 6 refs., 5 figs

  7. Concentrations and size distributions of fine aerosol particles measured at roof level in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despiau, S.; Croci, D.

    2007-05-01

    During the experimental Field Experiments to Constrain Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions (ESCOMPTE) campaign in June-July 2001, concentrations and size distributions of fine particles (14-722 nm) were measured at roof level in downtown Marseille (France). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the study of aerosol behavior in relation to strong photochemical events (which were identified as "IOP" days) and their regional modeling. The analysis of the concentration variations and the evolution of average diurnal size distribution showed that an "IOP day" is not characterized by a specific concentration or its variation, nor by a specific evolution of the average size distribution. The morning traffic rush is detected at roof level by a net increase in particle concentration over the whole size range measured, indicating a production of ultrafine particles by the traffic but also the raising to roof level of particles of the accumulation mode. The increase is observed about 1 hour after the traffic peak at street level, which is characterized by strong increases in NOx and CO concentrations. The corresponding flux of particles at roof level has been estimated around 3 × 104 cm-2 s-1. A specific signature characterized by a strong and rapid burst of concentration (factor 2 to 4 in 15 min) of particles between 25 and 50 nm, independent of the traffic source, has been detected on six occasions during the campaign. These events occur systematically around noon, in cases of strong radiation, low relative humidity, and common wind direction. Despite the high-diameter value of these particles, it is suggested that they could result from a specific "secondary aerosol process" event involving ozone, biogenic, and/or anthropogenic gas precursors like iodine and VOCs.

  8. Results of measurements of particulate matter concentrations inside a pig fattening facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulens, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. This research note discusses the results of measurements of particulate matter concentrations inside a pig fattening facility. Objectives. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the correlations between the different size fractions of indoor particulate matter (PM inside a pig fattening facility and to investigate the evolution of particle size distribution (PSD through a fattening period and between two housing systems and two cleaning protocols. Method. Data from two consecutive fattening periods in a commercial pig barn were used. Results. Very high correlations were found between PM10 and PM2.5 indoor concentrations. Depending on the measuring instrument, high or low correlations were found between PM1 and PM10 or PM2.5 indoor concentrations. No differences in PSD could be found between the two housing systems or the two cleaning protocols. Conclusions. The results from the present study showed high correlations between the indoor concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. In the present study, no differences in PSD were found.

  9. Bubble growth as a means to measure dissolved nitrogen concentration in aerated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Keita; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the amount of dissolved gases in water is important, for example, to food processing; it is essential to quantitatively evaluate dissolved gas concentration. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) can be measured by commercial DO meters, but that of dissolved nitrogen (DN) cannot be obtained easily. Here, we propose a means to measure DN concentration based on Epstein-Plesset-type analysis of bubble growth under dissolved gas supersaturation. DO supersaturation in water is produced by oxygen microbubble aeration. The diffusion-driven growth of bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water is first observed. The observed growth is then compared to the extended Epstein-Plesset theory that considers Fick's mass transfer of both DO and DN across bubble interfaces; in this comparison, the unknown DN concentration is treated as a fitting parameter. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest, as expected, that DN can be effectively purged by oxygen microbubble aeration. This study was supported in part by the Mizuho Foundation for the Promotion of Science and by a MEXT Grant-in-Aid for the Program for Leading Graduate Schools.

  10. Measurement and analysis of the concentration and size distribution of aerosols in a copper mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehong; Zhuo Weihai; Huang Gang; Su Xu; Sun Quanfu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the general characteristics of the concentration and size distribution of aerosols in a mine. Methods: In different areas of a non-uranium mine, the particle number and mass concentration of aerosols were surveyed with a condensation particle counter and a personal aerosol monitor, respectively, and the size distribution of aerosols larger than 1 μm in size was estimated according to the size- selective measurements of mass concentrations. The size distribution of submicron aerosols was evaluated based on the method of screen diffusion battery (SOB), and the measurements were performed in both inside and outside of a control room. Results: The mass concentration of inhaled particles (PM10) was averaged to be 0.42 mg/m 3 in the whole mine, and it varied with different working areas and significantly affected with human activities. In the mine, particles lager than 1 μm in size widely distributed, while the particles less than 5 nm in size were seldom observed. Conclusions: The characteristics of aerosol significantly change with different working areas, human activities and Antilation condition in mine. The dose contribution from inhaled radioactive particles larger than 1 μm in size should be considered in mine. (authors)

  11. Uncertainties of retrospective radon concentration measurements by multilayer surface trap detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrikov, V.; Kruzhalov, A.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    The detector for retrospective radon exposure measurements is developed. The detector consists of the multilayer package of solid-state nuclear track detectors LR-115 type. Nitrocellulose films works both as α-particle detector and as absorber decreasing the energy of α-particles. The uncertainties of implanted 210 Pb measurements by two- and three-layer detectors are assessed in dependence on surface 210 Po activity and gross background activity of the glass. The generalized compartment behavior model of radon decay products in the room atmosphere was developed and verified. It is shown that the most influencing parameters on the value of conversion coefficient from 210 Po surface activity to average radon concentration are aerosol particles concentration, deposition velocity of unattached 218 Po and air exchange rate. It is demonstrated that with the use of additional information on surface to volume room ratio, air exchange rate and aerosol particles concentration the systematic bias of conversion coefficient between surface activity of 210 Po and average radon concentration can be decreased up to 30 %. (N.C.)

  12. In situ measurements of hydrogen concentration and flux between 160 and 300 km in the thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breig, E.L.; Hanson, W.B.; Hoffman, J.H.; Kayser, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Thermospheric concentrations of neutral atomic hydrogen near and below the F peak are directly related to H + , O + and atomic oxygen concentrations through the charge exchange equilibrium that is established between hydrogen and oxygen at these altitudes. This chemical relationship, together with in situ measurements of ionospheric and neutral atmospheric concentrations by instrumentation on board the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite, is utilized to investigate properties of neutral hydrogen at altitudes below 200 km where vertical diffusion strongly affects the hydrogen distribution. Data are discussed for a set of satellite orbits during quiet geomagnetic and solar conditions in February 1974; the resultant altitude variation of the derived hydrogen concentrations applies specifically to early afternoon at low 10 5 atoms/cm 3 is observed for these conditions at 300 km. At lower altitudes the concentration profiles are interpreted in terms of vertical hydrogen flow. The resultant daytime flux in the thermosphere is estimated to be (3.2 +- 1.0) x 10 8 atoms/cm 2 s. The present observations thus support theoretical estimates and model calculations of large hydrogen flow upward from the region below 100 km. They also support the concept of daytime thermospheric loss process of greater magnitude than the traditional evaporative escape mechanism

  13. Measurement of trimethylamine concentration and evaluation of pig meat natural quality by a spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Abdul HAMID,Xi WANG,Xiangdong DING,Chuduan WANG,Xingbo ZHAO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pig meat off-flavor is attributed to trimethylamine (TMA concentration, and it is considered as the precursor of the fishy off-flavor problems. In this study, TMA concentrations in pig meat were determined, and the interactions with breed and gender effects were discussed. In addition, the TMA threshold for meat off-flavor and pig meat natural quality was measured in relation to meat storage and movement, and the influential factors including the pig breed and storage time were discussed. The results indicated positive effects on the precursor of the fishy off-flavor and the TMA threshold. Native breeds were found to have lower TMA concentrations than European breeds (P<0.01, and females and castrated males had significantly lower TMA concentration than males (P<0.01, The threshold concentration of TMA when meat was classed as off-flavored was 25 μg·g-1, and this occurred after 35–38 h of storage. The natural qualities, such as appearance, flavor, color and overall acceptable scores declined significantly after 4 days in storage (P<0.01. It is concluded that pig meat off-flavor, breed and gender were essential factors affecting flavor for meat breeding programs, and storage time is important for pig meat natural quality.

  14. Measurement of fluorescent probes concentration ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbater, Osnat; Gannot, Israel

    2014-03-01

    The pathogenic process of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, begins years before the clinical diagnosis. Here, we suggest a novel method which may detect AD up to nine years earlier than current exams, minimally invasive, with minimal risk, pain and side effects. The method is based on previous reports which relate the concentrations of biomarkers in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) (Aβ and Tau proteins) to the future development of AD in mild cognitive impairment patients. Our method, which uses fluorescence measurements of the relative concentrations of the CSF biomarkers, replaces the lumbar puncture process required for CSF drawing. The process uses a miniature needle coupled trough an optical fiber to a laser source and a detector. The laser radiation excites fluorescent probes which were prior injected and bond to the CSF biomarkers. Using the ratio between the fluorescence intensities emitted from the two biomarkers, which is correlated to their concentration ratio, the patient's risk of developing AD is estimated. A theoretical model was developed and validated using Monte Carlo simulations, demonstrating the relation between fluorescence emission and biomarker concentration. The method was tested using multi-layered tissue phantoms simulating the epidural fat, the CSF in the sub-arachnoid space and the bone. These phantoms were prepared with different scattering and absorption coefficients, thicknesses and fluorescence concentrations in order to simulate variations in human anatomy and in the needle location. The theoretical and in-vitro results are compared and the method's accuracy is discussed.

  15. Estimating the relation between groundwater and river water by measuring the concentration of Rn-222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relationship between groundwater in shallow layer and river water by determining the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and nitric nitrogen along with water temperature. The region around ca. 20 km along river A in a certain basin was chosen as a test area. The Rn concentration of groundwater was determined by Rn extracting with toluene and counting in liquid scintillation counter, whereas for river water, it was determined by activated charcoal passive collector method developed by the authors, by which the amount of Rn adsorbed on activated charcoal was estimated by Ge-solid state detector. In addition, water temperature and nitric nitrogen concentration were measured at various points in the test area. Thus, a distribution map of the three parameters was made on the basis of the data obtained in December, 1989. Since Rn concentration is generally higher in ground water than river water and the water temperature in December is higher in the former, it seems likely that the concentrations of Rn and nitric nitrogen would become higher in the area where ground water soaks into river water. Thus, the directions of ground water flow at the respective sites along river A were estimated from the data regarding the properties of ground water. (M.N.)

  16. Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are Lensing Clusters Over-Concentrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

    2009-01-29

    We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

  17. Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, DONG

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel approach to measure the absolute cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was established. The parameters associated with the probe fluo-3 AM were optimized to accurately determine fluorescence intensity from the Ca2+-bound probe. Using three optimized parameters (final concentration of 6 mM probe, incubation time of 135 min, loading probe before plasma treatment), the maximum fluorescence intensity (F max = 527.8 a.u.) and the minimum fluorescence intensity (F min = 63.8 a.u.) were obtained in a saturated Ca2+ solution or a solution of lacking Ca2+. Correspondingly, the maximum [Ca2+]cyt induced by cold plasma was 1232.5 nM. Therefore, the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was successfully applied to measure the absolute [Ca2+]cyt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated by cold plasma at atmospheric air pressure.

  18. Field calibration of optical sensors for measuring suspended sediment concentration in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guillén

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The water turbidity measured with optical methods (transmittance and backscattering is usually expressed as beam attenuation coefficient (BAC or formazin turbidity units (FTU. The transformation of these units to volumetric suspended sediment concentration (SSC units is not straightforward, and accurate calibrations are required in order to obtain valuable information on suspended sediment distributions and fluxes. In this paper, data from field calibrations between BAC, FTU and SSC are presented and best-fit calibration curves are shown. These calibrations represent an average from different marine environments of the western Mediterranean (from estuary to continental slope. However, the general curves can only be applied for descriptive or semi-quantitative purposes. Comparison of turbidity measurements using the same sensor with different calibration ranges shows the advantage of simultaneously combining two instruments calibrated in different ranges when significant changes in suspended sediment concentrations are expected.

  19. Size, velocity, and concentration in suspension measurements of spherical droplets and cylindrical jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, F; Bergougnoux, L; Firpo, J L; Misguich-Ripault, J

    1999-07-20

    The principle of an optical technique for simultaneous velocity, size, and concentration in suspension measurements of spherical droplets and cylindrical jets is proposed. This technique is based on phase Doppler anemometry working in the dual burst technique configuration. The particle size and velocity are deduced from the reflected signal phase and frequency, whereas the amplitude ratio between the refracted and the reflected signals is used for measuring the concentration of small scatterers inside the particles. Numerical simulations, based on geometrical optics and a Monte Carlo model, and an experimental validation test on cylindrical jets made of various suspensions, are used to validate the principle of the proposed technique. It is believed that this new technique could be useful in investigating processes in which liquid suspensions are sprayed for surface coating, drying, or combustion applications.

  20. Variation of molecular hydrogen tropospheric concentration over Southern Poland - results of the continuous chromatographic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necki, J.; Chmura, L.

    2012-04-01

    Although hydrogen is one of the fundamental constituents of the earth's atmosphere its global balance is still poorly clarified. A few developed inventories diverging values for efficiency of sources and sinks of this gas. The European network for the hydrogen concentrations measurement is based on several unevenly spaced measurement points. While in 2009 MPI Jena has delivered accurate scale for hydrogen measurements and the techniques of analyses are well described, still large areas of Central Europe is uncovered by representative stations. The first measurement point, established under the EUROHYDROS EU program, on the territory of Poland was Kraków city. Different laboratory setups was tested there and compared to each other. The Kraków area has significant car traffic and its geographical location implies frequent temperature inversions in lower troposphere leading to the accumulation of trace gases in atmosphere of the city. Observations launched in 2007 revealed that the concentration of hydrogen fluctuates strongly within diurnal and seasonal timescales. Its average concentration is three times larger than this, observed at the other stations. The European "background" concentrations of hydrogen are not reflected in the Krakow record. An ideal place to carry out observation of the regional air composition for Central Europe is a research station located in the meteorological observatory at Kasprowy Wierch. Measurement point at the top of mountain peak with elevation of 2000m a.s.l. gives an access to the well mixed troposphere. The station delivers also the necessary facilities and logistics. Since year 1996 greenhouse gas measurement program has been operating at this point. The first measurements of atmospheric concentrations of hydrogen at Kasprowy Wierch were performed in year 2010, based on dedicated gas chromatograph using RGD detector installed at the station. Analysis of hydrogen content in the outside air is performed without any enrichment

  1. A Florescence Detection Module for Photodynamic Therapy Optimization by Measuring the Concentration of Photo sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Navarro, Joel; Stolik Isakina, Suren; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose M. de; Valor Reed, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a portable fluorescence detection system designed and built for dosimetry control applications in Photodynamic Therapy is presented. The system excites the used photo sensitizer drug with a modulated laser light source and subsequently measures the radiance of the emitted fluorescent light. Since the fluorescent radiance is directly related to the photosensitizers concentration, this measurement allows for real-time monitoring of the photo sensitizer concentration in the treated tissue. The system is thought to permit adjusting the therapeutic regime in order to optimize the expected therapy results. In the developed system, a synchronous detection technique is employed to recover the fluorescence signals embedded in noisy backgrounds and lit environments. A scanning probe with a 405 nm diode laser is used to excite the photo sensitizer, while a detection wavelength range from 590 nm to 700 nm has been implemented. (Author)

  2. Hydrogen peroxide and glucose concentration measurement using optical fiber grating sensors with corrodible plasmonic nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Wu, Ze; Liu, Fu; Fu, Qiangqiang; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Huang, Yunyun; Tang, Yong; Guo, Tuan; Albert, Jacques

    2018-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and glucose concentration measurements using a plasmonic optical fiber sensor. The sensor utilizes a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) written in standard single mode communication fiber. The fiber is over coated with an nm-scale film of silver that supports surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Such a tilted grating SPR structure provides a high density of narrow spectral resonances (Q-factor about 10 5 ) that overlap with the broader absorption band of the surface plasmon waves in the silver film, thereby providing an accurate tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon resonance frequencies. The H 2 O 2 to be detected acts as an oxidant to etch the silver film, which has the effect of gradually decreasing the SPR attenuation. The etching rate of the silver film shows a clear relationship with the H 2 O 2 concentration so that monitoring the progressively increasing attenuation of a selected surface plasmon resonance over a few minutes enables us to measure the H 2 O 2 concentration with a limit of detection of 0.2 μM. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applied to the determination of glucose in human serum for a concentration range from 0 to 12 mM (within the physiological range of 3-8 mM) by monitoring the H 2 O 2 produced by an enzymatic oxidation process. The sensor does not require accurate temperature control because of the inherent temperature insensitivity of TFBG devices referenced to the core mode resonance. A gold mirror coated on the fiber allows the sensor to work in reflection, which will facilitate the integration of the sensor with a hypodermic needle for in vitro measurements. The present study shows that Ag-coated TFBG-SPR can be applied as a promising type of sensing probe for optical detection of H 2 O 2 and glucose detection in human serum.

  3. Measuring low radium activity concentration in water with RAD7 by means of evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Marussig, Camila G.T.; Paschuk, Sergei; Zambianchi Junior, Pedro; Correa, Janine N.; Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Martin, Aline

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary activity measurements of low radium concentration in mineral water by using RAD7 equipment showed high values of statistical errors. Therefore, the need to develop a new protocol for measuring and proofing the evaporation test for radium measurements in water is in place. This study evaluates the possibility of using RAD7 equipment to measure Ra-226 activity in equilibrium with Rn-222 present in water samples. The technique involves evaporation process so as to increase the Ra-226 concentration in the sample in a controlled manner and thus reduce statistical errors. Two samples were compared, 10 L sample of distilled water and a 7.75 L sample of known concentration (0.1 Bq/L). The evaporation was carried out starting with different initial volumes for both samples: 500 mL, 1000 mL, 2000 mL, 4000 mL and a 250 mL sample not subject to evaporation. All samples reached a final volume of approximately 250 mL. After evaporation, the samples were stored for 30 days until secular equilibrium was achieved between Ra-226 and Rn-222. The values obtained, by using RAD7 detector, for distilled water, as expected, are near zero averaging 0.021 ± 0.016 Bq/L. The average value found in the water of known concentration was 0.099 ± 0.011 Bq/L, also close to the expected 0.1 Bq/L. The conclusion is that the application of an evaporation process is efficient and the proposed methodology is a proven alternative to decrease the statistical errors. (author)

  4. Measuring gas concentration and wind intensity in a turbulent wind tunnel with a mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lacasa, Daniel; Moreno Blanc, Javier; Tresánchez, Marcel; Clotet Bellmunt, Eduard; Jiménez-Soto, Juan M.; Magrans, Rudys; Pardo Martínez, Antonio; Marco Colás, Santiago; Palacín Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents themeasurement of gas concentration and wind intensity performed with amobile robot in a customturbulent wind tunnel designed for experimentation with customizable wind and gas leak sources.This paper presents the representation in different information layers of the measurements obtained in the turbulent wind tunnel under different controlled environmental conditions in order to describe the plume of the gas and wind intensities inside the experimentation chamber...

  5. Measurement of the concentration of plasmatic cortisol by competition to the binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, H.; Tambascia, M.A.; Wajchenberg, B.L.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of plasmatic cortisol was measured by competition to the binding protein (transcortin), after extracting the samples with dicloromethane. It is a suitable method for clinical routine, 100μl of plasma being used in each analysis. The normal mean +- standard error mean in 8:00 a.m. fasting subjects was 13,62 +- 5,43 μl/100 ml of plasma [pt

  6. Hydrogen peroxide and glucose concentration measurement using optical fiber grating sensors with corrodible plasmonic nanocoatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Wu, Ze; Liu, Fu; Fu, Qiangqiang; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Huang, Yunyun; Tang, Yong; Guo, Tuan; Albert, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose concentration measurements using a plasmonic optical fiber sensor. The sensor utilizes a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) written in standard single mode communication fiber. The fiber is over coated with an nm-scale film of silver that supports surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Such a tilted grating SPR structure provides a high density of narrow spectral resonances (Q-factor about 105) that overlap with the broader absorption band of the surface plasmon waves in the silver film, thereby providing an accurate tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon resonance frequencies. The H2O2 to be detected acts as an oxidant to etch the silver film, which has the effect of gradually decreasing the SPR attenuation. The etching rate of the silver film shows a clear relationship with the H2O2 concentration so that monitoring the progressively increasing attenuation of a selected surface plasmon resonance over a few minutes enables us to measure the H2O2 concentration with a limit of detection of 0.2 μM. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applied to the determination of glucose in human serum for a concentration range from 0 to 12 mM (within the physiological range of 3-8 mM) by monitoring the H2O2 produced by an enzymatic oxidation process. The sensor does not require accurate temperature control because of the inherent temperature insensitivity of TFBG devices referenced to the core mode resonance. A gold mirror coated on the fiber allows the sensor to work in reflection, which will facilitate the integration of the sensor with a hypodermic needle for in vitro measurements. The present study shows that Ag-coated TFBG-SPR can be applied as a promising type of sensing probe for optical detection of H2O2 and glucose detection in human serum. PMID:29675315

  7. Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global

  8. Estimation of natural potassium concentration in Romanian males by in vivo gamma-ray spectrometry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirela Angela Saizu

    2012-01-01

    At the Whole Body Monitoring Laboratory, from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, Romania, there were performed in vivo gamma-ray spectrometry measurements on 108 Romanian males in order to evaluate the mineral natural potassium content in human body, as total value and concentration. The measurements were performed with a shadow shield whole body counter, tilted chair geometry, based on a shielded NaI(Tl) scintillation detector of 12.5 cm (diameter) x 10 cm (height) crystal size. The results revealed a calculated value of the mean total body potassium (TBK) of 135.03 ± 2.94 g and a value of 1.9 ± 0.022 g of potassium/kg of body weight for the mean body potassium concentration, for the measured males. These values are similar with the values declared for the Reference Man, in ICRP23. Correlations between total body potassium, potassium concentration and age, weight and Body Build Index were investigated and peculiar conclusions were resulted. (author)

  9. Concentrations and flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) impact soil processes as VOCs transmit signals between roots and rhizosphere (Ditengou et al., 2015), VOCs can regulate microbial activity (Asensio et al., 2012), and VOCs can also promote root growth (Hung et al., 2012). Belowground concentrations of VOCs have not been measured in situ and for this reason, knowledge of how different soil organisms such as roots, rhizosphere and decomposers contribute to VOC production is limited. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify VOC fluxes and concentrations of different horizons from boreal forest soil. The VOC concentrations and fluxes were measured from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland from 21th of April to 2nd of December in 2016. VOC fluxes were measured using dynamic (flow-through) chambers from five soil collars placed on five different locations. VOC concentrations were also measured in each location from four different soil horizons with the measurement depth 1-107 cm. VOCs were collected from underground gas collectors into the Tenax-Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes using portable pumps ( 100 ml min-1). The VOC concentrations and fluxes of isoprene, 11 monoterpenes, 13 sesquiterpenes and different oxygenated VOCs were measured. Sample tubes were analyzed using thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Soil temperature and soil water content were continuously monitored for each soil horizon. Our preliminary results show that the primary source of VOCs is organic soil layer and the contribution of mineral soil to the VOC formation is minor. VOC fluxes and concentrations were dominated by monoterpenes such as α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, and Δ3-carene. Monoterpene concentration is almost 10-fold in organic soil compared to the deeper soil layers. However, the highest VOC fluxes on the soil surface were measured in October, whereas the monoterpene concentrations in organic soil were highest in July

  10. Real-time measurements of suspended sediment concentration and particle size using five techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, D.; Albayrak, I.; Abgottspon, A.; Boes, R. M.

    2016-11-01

    Fine sediments are important in the design and operation of hydropower plants (HPPs), in particular with respect to sediment management and hydro-abrasive erosion in hydraulic machines. Therefore, there is a need for reliable real-time measurements of suspended sediment mass concentration (SSC) and particle size distribution (PSD). The following instruments for SSC measurements were investigated in a field study during several years at the HPP Fieschertal in the Swiss Alps: (1) turbidimeters, (2) a Laser In-Situ Scattering and Trans- missometry instrument (LISST), (3) a Coriolis Flow and Density Meter (CFDM), (4) acoustic transducers, and (5) pressure sensors. LISST provided PSDs in addition to concentrations. Reference SSCs were obtained by gravimetrical analysis of automatically taken water samples. In contrast to widely used turbidimeters and the single-frequency acoustic method, SSCs obtained from LISST, the CFDM or the pressure sensors were less or not affected by particle size variations. The CFDM and the pressure sensors allowed measuring higher SSC than the optical or the acoustic techniques (without dilution). The CFDM and the pressure sensors were found to be suitable to measure SSC ≥ 2 g/l. In this paper, the measuring techniques, instruments, setup, methods for data treatment, and selected results are presented and discussed.

  11. Toward new instruments for measurement of low concentration hydrogen sulfide in small-quantity aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiao Chu; Wu, Dong Qing; Zhang, W J; Sammynaiken, R; Yang, Wei; Wang, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Endogenously generated hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been found to play some important physiological roles in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, such as a neuromodulator and a vasorelaxant. These roles are in contrast to our common perception that H 2 S is toxic. However, whether H 2 S plays a positive or negative role is dependent on the H 2 S concentration levels in mammals. This further puts a high demand on the accurate measurement of H 2 S in mammals with a further desire to be real time, continuous and in vivo. Existing methods for H 2 S measurement require a large number of tissue samples with complex procedures, and these methods are extremely invasive. The development of new in vivo and real-time methods for measuring H 2 S is, however, a great challenge. In the present study, we proposed and examined five potential H 2 S measurement methods: (1) atomic force microscopy with coating materials, (2) Raman spectroscopy on the H 2 S solutions, (3) gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (with the static headspace technique) on the H 2 S solutions, (4) mass spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions and (5) Raman spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions. Our study concluded that method (5) is the most promising one for detecting low concentration H 2 S in small-quantity aqueous solutions in terms of measurement resolution and non-invasiveness, but the method is not very robust

  12. The estimation of heavy metal concentration in FBR reprocessing solvent streams by density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    The application of density measurement to heavy metal monitoring in the solvent phase is described, including practical experience gained during three fast reactor fuel reprocessing campaigns. An experimental algorithm relating heavy metal concentration and sample density was generated from laboratory-measured density data, for uranyl nitrate dissolved in nitric acid loaded tri-butyl phosphate in odourless kerosene. Differences in odourless kerosene batch densities are mathematically interpolated, and the algorithm can be used to estimate heavy metal concentrations from the density to within +1.5 g/l. An Anton Paar calculating digital densimeter with remote cell operation was used for all density measurements, but the algorithm will give similar accuracy with any density measuring device capable of a precision of better than 0.0005 g/cm 3 . For plant control purposes, the algorithm was simplified using a density referencing system, whereby the density of solvent not yet loaded with heavy metal is subtracted from the sample density. This simplified algorithm compares very favourably with empirical algorithms, derived from numerical analysis of density data and chemically measured uranium and plutonium data obtained during fuel reprocessing campaigns, particularly when differences in the acidity of the solvent are considered before and after loading with heavy metal. This simplified algorithm had been successfully used for plant control of heavy metal loaded solvent during four fast reactor fuel reprocessing campaigns. (author)

  13. A novel method of measuring the concentration of anaesthetic vapours using a dew-point hygrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, A R; Mapleson, W W; Mecklenburgh, J S

    1994-02-01

    The Antoine equation relates the saturated vapour pressure of a volatile substance, such as an anaesthetic agent, to the temperature. The measurement of the 'dew-point' of a dry gas mixture containing a volatile anaesthetic agent by a dew-point hygrometer permits the determination of the partial pressure of the anaesthetic agent. The accuracy of this technique is limited only by the accuracy of the Antoine coefficients and of the temperature measurement. Comparing measurements by the dew-point method with measurements by refractometry showed systematic discrepancies up to 0.2% and random discrepancies with SDS up to 0.07% concentration in the 1% to 5% range for three volatile anaesthetics. The systematic discrepancies may be due to errors in available data for the vapour pressures and/or the refractive indices of the anaesthetics.

  14. Water temperature and concentration measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, J R; Lightstone, J M; Piecuch, S; Koch, J D

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of absorption spectroscopy to directly measure temperature and concentration histories of water vapor within the expansion of a high explosive detonation. While the approach of absorption spectroscopy is well established, the combination of a fast, near-infrared array, broadband light source, and rigid gauge allow the first application of time-resolved absorption measurements in an explosive environment. The instrument is demonstrated using pentaerythritol tetranitrate with a sampling rate of 20 kHz for 20 ms following detonation. Absorption by water vapor is measured between 1335 and 1380 nm. Water temperatures are determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Water mole fractions are deduced following the temperature assignment. The sources of uncertainty and their impact on the results are discussed. These measurements will aid the development of chemical-specific reaction models and the predictive capability in technical fields including combustion and detonation science

  15. Measurements of ice nucleating particle concentrations at 242 K in the free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, L.; Lohmann, U.; Boose, Y.; Zipori, A.; Herrmann, E.; Bukowiecki, N.; Steinbacher, M.; Gute, E.; Kanji, Z. A.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds containing ice play an important role in the Earth's system, but some fundamental knowledge on their formation and further development is still missing. The phase change from vapor or liquid to ice in the atmosphere can occur heterogeneously in the presence of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at temperatures warmer, and supersaturations lower than required for homogeneous freezing. Only a small fraction of particles in an environment relevant for the occurrence of ice- and mixed-phase clouds are INPs, and their identification and quantification remains challenging. We measure INP concentrations with the ETH Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC) at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ) during several field campaigns in different seasons and years. The measurements are performed at 242 K and above water saturation, representing ice- and mixed-phase clouds conditions. Due to its elevation of 3580 m a.s.l. the site encounters mostly free tropospheric conditions, and is influenced by boundary layer injections up to 80% of the time in summer. JFJ regularly encounters Saharan dust events and receives air masses of marine origin, which can both occur within the free troposphere. Our measurements show that INP concentrations in the free troposphere do not follow a seasonal cycle. They are remarkably constant, with concentrations from 0.5 - 8 L-1 (interquartile range), which compares well to measurements performed under the same conditions at another location within the free troposphere, the Izaña Atmospheric Research Station in Tenerife. At JFJ, correlations with parameters of physical properties of ambient particles, meteorology and air mass characteristics do not show a single best estimator to predict INP concentrations, emphasizing the complexity of ice nucleation in the free troposphere. Increases in INP concentrations of a temporary nature were observed in the free troposphere during Saharan dust events and marine air mass influence, which

  16. Welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de

  17. Intelligent pricing policy and service marketing. Measures to prevent price cutting wars; Intelligente Preis- und Dienstleistungspolitik. Massnahmen zur Vermeidung von Preiskriegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laker, M.; Herr, S. [Simon-Kucher and Partners, Strategy and Marketing Consultants GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Cost-reducing programmes are only the first step in a series of measures to be taken by the power utilities in order to become fit for the free competition markets. A great number of empirical studies on the future power markets do show that for the customers, prices are a priority criterium, but offering competitive prices alone will not suffice to keep one`s competitive edge. The negative consequences of pure price competition (shown by the aviation industry) and the lessons to be learned from ``intelligent`` branches of industry, (eg. mineral oil and cigarettes), who have been clever enough to avoid price cutting wars, demonstrate that there are chances for development also in deregulated power markets. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zur Vorbereitung auf die anstehende Liberalisierung muss eine Neuausrichtung der EVU schnellstmoeglich erfolgen. Reine Kostensenkungsprogramme sind dabei nur der erste Schritt, um fuer den Wettbewerb fit zu werden. Hierzu zaehlt die strategische und marketingorientierte Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf den Wettbewerb. Zahlreiche empirische Studien zum EVU-Markt kommen zwar zu dem Ergebnis, dass aus der Sicht des Kunden der Preis einen hohen Stellenwert einnimmt. Ein wettbewerbsorientierter Preis ist notwendig, reicht aber zum erfolgreichen Ueberleben im Wettbewerb alleine nur bei ueberlegener Kostenfuehrerschaft aus. Die negativen Auswirkungen eines reinen Preiswettbewerbs (Luftfahrt) sowie die Lehren aus `intelligenten` Branchen (Mineraloel-, Zigarettenindustrie), die dies vermeiden, zeigen die vielfaeltigen Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten auch fuer den Energie-Wettbewerbsmarkt auf. (orig./RHM)

  18. Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2011-01-01

    A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

  19. Material testing of copper by extrusion-cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segalina, F.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    was developed and implemented on a CNC lathe. An investigation was carried out extrusion-cutting copper discs using high-speed-steel cutting tools at 100 m/min cutting speed. Flow stress values for copper under machining-relevant conditions were obtained from measurement of the extrusion-cutting force...

  20. Measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc in plant pots and estimated leaching outflows from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P.E.; Christensen, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc were measured in plant pots with 15 contaminated soils which differed in origin, texture, pH (5.1-7.8) and concentrations of cadmium (0.2-17 mg Cd kg(-1)) and zinc (36-1300 mg Zn kg(-1)). The soil waters contained total concentrations of 0.5 to 17 mu g...... to 0.1% per year of the total soil content of cadmium and zinc. The measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc did not correlate linearly with the corresponding soil concentrations but correlated fairly well with concentrations measured in Ca(NO(3))(2) extracts of the soils and with soil...... water concentrations estimated from soil concentrations and pH. Such concentration estimates may be useful for estimating amounts of cadmium and zinc being leached from soils....

  1. Combined radiation-protective and radiation-sensitizing agents. IV. Measurement of intracellular protector concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.J.; Stobbe, C.C.; Hettiaratchi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitization of hypoxic V79 Chinese hamster cells by 0.5 mM misonidazole at approximately 0-4 degrees C is substantially enhanced by pretreating the cells overnight with 0.1 mM buthionine sulfoximine, which lowers the cellular glutathione content to 5% of control values (from 4 mM to approximately 0.2 mM). The enhanced sensitization is reversed by concentrations of exogenous cysteine that are much lower (0.02 mM) than the original glutathione content. Reduced Co-enzyme A affords reversal of the enhancing effect at concentrations of about 1 mM. Sodium ascorbate gives no protection at all even at concentrations of 2 mM. The intracellular concentration of the reducing agents was measured using a spin-through oil technique. There was no diffusion of Co-A (MW greater than 750) or ascorbate (excluded by charge) into the cells. In contrast, cysteine was rapidly concentrated by factors of 4-10, even at the low temperatures used. Extracellular ascorbate's inability to radioprotect argues against electron transfer across the cell membrane as a mechanism for radioprotection. This mechanism could have explained the ability of exogenous thiols to radioprotect in former studies using glutathione, and in the present studies using Co-A. The potential of cysteine to be concentrated by cells poses a problem in the interpretation of exogenous protection by non-diffusing thiols, since trace contamination by cysteine could lead to the actual protection observed. Cysteine could also be formed by exchange reactions of exogenous thiols with the disulfide of cysteine, present in all media formulations

  2. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bültmann, Eva; Nägele, Thomas; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Klose, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic.

  3. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltmann, Eva; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Naegele, Thomas; Klose, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic. (orig.)

  4. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueltmann, Eva; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Naegele, Thomas [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiological University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Klose, Uwe [University of Tuebingen, Section of Experimental MR of the CNS, Department of Neuroradiology, Radiological University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic. (orig.)

  5. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  6. Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements with Clouds from an Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Numata, K.; Chen, J. R.; Sun, X.; DiGangi, J. P.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Globally distributed atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements with high precision, low bias and full seasonal sampling are crucial to advance carbon cycle sciences. However, two thirds of the Earth's surface is typically covered by clouds, and passive remote sensing approaches from space are limited to cloud-free scenes. NASA Goddard is developing a pulsed, integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric column CO2 concentrations, XCO2, from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere also allow this technique to estimate XCO2 and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground with precise knowledge of the photon path-length. We demonstrate this measurement capability using airborne lidar measurements from summer 2017 ASCENDS airborne science campaign in Alaska. We show retrievals of XCO2 to ground and to a variety of cloud tops. We will also demonstrate how the partial column XCO2 to cloud tops and cloud slicing approach help resolving vertical and horizontal gradient of CO2 in cloudy conditions. The XCO2 retrievals from the lidar are validated against in situ measurements and compared to the Goddard Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model (PCTM) simulations. Adding this measurement capability to the future lidar mission for XCO2 will provide full global and seasonal data coverage and some information about vertical structure of CO2. This unique facility is expected to benefit atmospheric transport process studies, carbon data assimilation in models, and global and regional carbon flux estimation.

  7. Evaluation of uncertainties in femtoampere current measurement for the number concentration standard of aerosol nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Hiromu; Ehara, Kensei

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated uncertainties in current measurement by the electrometer at the current level on the order of femtoamperes. The electrometer was the one used in the Faraday-cup aerosol electrometer of the Japanese national standard for number concentration of aerosol nanoparticles in which the accuracy of the absolute current is not required, but the net current which is obtained as the difference in currents under two different conditions must be measured accurately. The evaluation was done experimentally at the current level of 20 fA, which was much smaller than the intervals between the electrometer's calibration points at +1, +0.5, −0.5 and −1 pA. The slope of the response curve for the relationship between the 'true' and measured current, which is crucial in the above measurement, was evaluated locally at many different points within the ±1 pA range for deviation from the slope determined by a linear regression of the calibration data. The sum of the current induced by a flow of charged particles and a bias current from a current-source instrument was measured by the electrometer while the particle current was toggled on and off. The net particle current was obtained as the difference in the measured currents between the toggling, while at the same time the current was estimated from the particle concentration read by a condensation particle counter. The local slope was calculated as the ratio of the measured to estimated currents at each bias current setting. The standard deviation of the local slope values observed at varied bias currents was about 0.003, which was calculated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the treatment of the bias current. The combined standard uncertainty of the slope, which was calculated from the uncertainty of the slope by linear regression and the variability of the slope, was calculated to be about 0.004

  8. Instruments to measure radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. Interlaboratory comparison 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2011-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by BfS. A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organizational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the website www.bfs.de/de/ion/radon/fachinfomessung/vergleichspruefungen.html and from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (eptis) available in the internet. (orig.)

  9. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2014-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  10. Non-destructive measurements of uranium and thorium concentrations and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragnev, T.N.; Damjanov, B.P.; Karamanova, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The passive X-ray fluorescent-gamma spectrometry method and technique for uranium concentration measurements was developed and tested. It is based on the measurement of the intensity ratios of self-excited Ksub(α) X-rays of uranium to the intensity of the combined peak with 92.8 keV average energy. The last peak has 92.367 and 92.792 keV gamma rays of 234 Th, representing the activities of 238 U and its daughter isotopes, and 93.35 keV Th Ksub(α) X-rays representing the activities of 235 U and its daughters. The results of the measurements do not depend on the size and the shape of the measurements. The procedure is developed to take automatically into account the presence of any absorber or cladding between the measured sample and the detector. The attainable precision of the measurements (at 95% confidence level) is 0.2 - 0.3%. If combined with enrichment measurements, and after suitable empirical calibration, the method can be used without standards. Gamma-spectrometric measurements of 238 U and 232 Th are based on the daughter isotopes' gamma activities. However, this is correct only when there is a corresponding equilibrium between 238 U and 232 Th and the daughter isotopes' activities. Where such equilibrium is not reached the status of the daughter products' activities regarding equilibrium, has to be taken into account. Two methods of quantitative corrections are proposed: (i) The use of an absolute determination of the 228 Ac/ 224 Ra activity ratio through self-calibrated measurements and individual activities and their correlation with the equilibrium activities. (ii) Use of two of the same sample measurements at two different moments during the unrestored equilibrium and the correlation of the measurement results with the 232 Th activity. This method can be generally applied. (author)

  11. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rondo, L.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosolnucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detectionof gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased inthe presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was setup at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection ofH2SO4in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time inthe CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF(Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutralsulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presenceof dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS...

  12. Comparison of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle as measured by the Bradford and Lowry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevaratnam, Rajini; Patel, Barkha P; Hamadeh, Mazen J

    2009-06-01

    The Lowry and Bradford assays are the most commonly used methods of total protein quantification, yet vary in several aspects. To date, no comparisons have been made in skeletal muscle. We compared total protein concentrations of mouse red and white gastrocnemius, reagent stability, protein stability and range of linearity using both assays. The Lowry averaged protein concentrations 15% higher than the Bradford with a moderate correlation (r = 0.36, P = 0.01). However, Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable bias (15.8 +/- 29.7%). Both Lowry reagents and its protein-reagent interactions were less stable over time than the Bradford. The linear range of concentration was smaller for the Lowry (0.05-0.50 mg/ml) than the Bradford (0-2.0 mg/ml). We conclude that the Bradford and Lowry measures of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle are not interchangeable. The Bradford and Lowry assays have various strengths and weaknesses in terms of substance interference and protein size. However, the Bradford provides greater reagent stability, protein-reagent stability and range of linearity, and requires less time to analyse compared to the Lowry assay.

  13. The role and importance of ozone for atmospheric chemistry and methods for measuring its concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on where ozone resides, it can protect or harm life on Earth. The thin layer of ozone that surrounds Earth acts as a shield protecting the planet from irradiation by UV light. When it is close to the planet's surface, ozone is a powerful photochemical oxidant that damage, icons frescos, museum exhibits, rubber, plastic and all plant and animal life. Besides the basic properties of some methods for determining the ozone concentration in working and living conditions, this paper presents a detailed description of the electrochemical method. The basic properties of the electrochemical method are used in the construction of mobile equipment for determining the sum of oxidants in the atmosphere. The equipment was used for testing the determination of the ozone concentration in working rooms, where the concentration was at a high level and caused by UV radiation or electrostatic discharge. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that this equipment for determining the ozone concentration in the atmosphere is very powerful and reproducible in measurements.

  14. Stability of mercury concentration measurements in archived soil and peat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Burns, Douglas; Nováková, Tereza; Kaňa, Jiří; Rohovec, Jan; Roll, Michal; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2018-01-01

    Archived soil samples can provide important information on the history of environmental contamination and by comparison with recently collected samples, temporal trends can be inferred. Little previous work has addressed whether mercury (Hg) concentrations in soil samples are stable with long-term storage under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we have re-analyzed using cold vapor atomic adsorption spectroscopy a set of archived soil samples that ranged from relatively pristine mountainous sites to a polluted site near a non-ferrous metal smelter with a wide range of Hg concentrations (6 - 6485 µg kg-1). Samples included organic and mineral soils and peats with a carbon content that ranged from 0.2 to 47.7%. Soil samples were stored in polyethylene bags or bottles and held in laboratory rooms where temperature was not kept to a constant value. Mercury concentrations in four subsets of samples were originally measured in 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2007, and re-analyzed in 2017, i.e. after 17, 12, 11 and 10 years of storage. Statistical analyses of either separated or lumped data yielded no significant differences between the original and current Hg concentrations. Based on these analyses, we show that archived soil and peat samples can be used to evaluate historical soil mercury contamination.

  15. Real-time measurement of aerosol particle concentration at high temperatures; Hiukkaspitoisuuden reaaliaikainen mittaaminen korkeassa laempoetilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J; Hautanen, J; Laitinen, A [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Physics

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a new method for continuous aerosol particle concentration measurement at elevated temperatures (up to 800-1000 deg C). The measured property of the aerosol particles is the so called Fuchs surface area. This quantity is relevant for diffusion limited mass transfer to particles. The principle of the method is as follows. First, aerosol particles are charged electrically by diffusion charging process. The charging takes place at high temperature. After the charging, aerosol is diluted and cooled. Finally, aerosol particles are collected and the total charge carried by the aerosol particles is measured. Particle collection and charge measurement take place at low temperature. Benefits of this measurement method are: particles are charged in-situ, charge of the particles is not affected by the temperature and pressure changes after sampling, particle collection and charge measurement are carried out outside the process conditions, and the measured quantity is well defined. The results of this study can be used when the formation of the fly ash particles is studied. Another field of applications is the study and the development of gasification processes. Possibly, the method can also be used for the monitoring the operation of the high temperature particle collection devices. (orig.)

  16. Sulfur dioxide concentration measurements in the vicinity of the Albert Funk mining and metallurgical plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide in the area of Freiberg, GDR. The emission of sulfur dioxide results for the most part from brown coal combustion in heat and power plants and in metallurgical plants. Sulfur dioxide emission from neighboring industrial centers such as Dresden and North Bohemian towns affects the Freiburg area to some extent. The use of brown coal in household heating contributes an average of 50 kg of sulfur dioxide emission per coal burning household annually. A total of 1260 measurements at 28 points in the vicinity of Freiberg were made in the year 1972 in evaluating the concentration of sulfur dioxide present in the air. In 75% of the measurements the concentrations were below 0.15 mg/mat3, in 12% between 0.15 and 0.2 mg/mat3, in 7% between 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mat3 and in 6% between 0.3 and 0.5 mg/mat3. The results are described as average industrial pollution. The influence of air temperature, wind velocity, fog, season and time of day are also discussed. (4 refs.) (In German)

  17. Outdoor measurements of a photovoltaic system using diffractive spectrum-splitting and concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a single-bandgap absorber, photons having energy less than the bandgap are not absorbed, while those having energy larger than the bandgap lose the excess energy via thermalization. We present outdoor measurements of a photovoltaic system that overcomes these losses via spectrum splitting and concentration using a planar diffractive optic. The system was comprised of the diffractive optic coupled with GaInP and CIGS solar cells. The optic provides a geometric concentration of 3X for each solar cell. It is easily fabricated by single-step grayscale lithography and it is ultra-thin with a maximum thickness of only 2.5μm. Electrical measurements under direct sunlight demonstrated an increase of ∼25% in total output power compared to the reference case without spectrum splitting and concentration. Since different bandgaps are in the same plane, the proposed photovoltaic system successfully circumvents the lattice-matching and current-matching issues in conventional tandem multi-junction solar cells. This system is also tolerant to solar spectrum variation and fill-factor degradation of constitutive solar cells.

  18. Concentration of atomic hydrogen in a dielectric barrier discharge measured by two-photon absorption fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, P.; Talába, M.; Obrusník, A.; Kratzer, J.; Dědina, J.

    2017-08-01

    Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) was utilized for measuring the concentration of atomic hydrogen in a volume dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ignited in mixtures of Ar, H2 and O2 at atmospheric pressure. The method was calibrated by TALIF of krypton diluted in argon at atmospheric pressure, proving that three-body collisions had a negligible effect on quenching of excited krypton atoms. The diagnostic study was complemented with a 3D numerical model of the gas flow and a zero-dimensional model of the chemistry in order to better understand the reaction kinetics and identify the key pathways leading to the production and destruction of atomic hydrogen. It was determined that the density of atomic hydrogen in Ar-H2 mixtures was in the order of 1021 m-3 and decreased when oxygen was added into the gas mixture. Spatially resolved measurements and simulations revealed a sharply bordered region with low atomic hydrogen concentration when oxygen was added to the gas mixture. At substoichiometric oxygen/hydrogen ratios, this H-poor region is confined to an area close to the gas inlet and it is shown that the size of this region is not only influenced by the chemistry but also by the gas flow patterns. Experimentally, it was observed that a decrease in H2 concentration in the feeding Ar-H2 mixture led to an increase in H production in the DBD.

  19. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eugster

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hotspots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hotspots.

  20. Measurement of the deuterium concentration in water samples using a CW chemical deuterium fluoride laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, M.

    1979-10-01

    In this study a new method for the determination of the deuterium content in water samples is described. The absorption of the radiation of a CW deuterium fluoride laser by the isotope HDO in the water vapor of the sample is measured by means of an optoacoustic detector (spectrophone). Thereby advantage is taken of the fact that H 2 O hardly absorbs the laser radiation and that D 2 O only exists in negligible concentrations. The isotope ratio of hydrogen can be calculated from the measured relative concentration of HDO. In the course of this investigation the relative absorption cross sections of HDO for the different laser lines were determined. It was thereby established that there exists a very good coincidence of an HDO absorption line with the 2P2 laser line. Using a very sensitive nonresonant spectrophone the relative concentration of HDO in natural water samples could be determined with an accuracy of about 10%. The experiments also demonstrated that with appropriate improvements made to the apparatus and using a second spectrophone as a reference it should be possible to increase this accuracy to 0,1%. (orig.)

  1. A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x-ray fluorescence for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Di; Li Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This paper reports a technique that enables the quantitative determination of the concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the accurate detection of their fluorescence radiation in the diagnostic x-ray spectrum. Methods: Experimentally, x-ray fluorescence spectra of 1.9 and 15 nm GNP solutions are measured using an x-ray spectrometer, individually and within chicken breast tissue samples. An optimal combination of excitation and emission filters is determined to segregate the fluorescence spectra at 66.99 and 68.80 keV from the background scattering. A roadmap method is developed that subtracts the scattered radiation (acquired before the insertion of GNP solutions) from the signal radiation acquired after the GNP solutions are inserted. Results: The methods effectively minimize the background scattering in the spectrum measurements, showing linear relationships between GNP solutions from 0.1% to 10% weight concentration and from 0.1% to 1.0% weight concentration inside a chicken breast tissue sample. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated the potential of imaging gold nanoparticles quantitatively in vivo for in-tissue studies, but future studies will be needed to investigate the ability to apply this method to clinical applications.

  2. Evaluation of correlating factors between 238U concentration measured in fine and course atmospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Dias, Vagner Silva; Dias, Fabiana Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Air quality is ever more important in function of the enormous proportion of human actions that have affected the environment over the last two centuries. Particulate material is one among many pollutants that can cause great risk to human health and the environment. It can be classified as: Total Suspended Particles (TSP), defined simply as particles with less than 50 μm aerodynamic diameter (one group of these particles can be inhaled and may cause health problems, while others may unfavorably affect the population's quality of life, interfering in environmental conditions and impairing normal community activities); and Inhalable Particles (PM 10 ), defined as those particles with less than 10 μm aerodynamic diameter. These particles penetrate the respiratory system and can reach pulmonary alveoli due to their small size, causing serious health damage. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has monitored air quality around its installations since 2000. CDTN's Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) includes monitoring radioactivity levels contained in atmospheric TSP. In order to optimize its program, CDTN is carrying out a study to estimate the correlation between concentrations of particulate material measured in TSP and those measured in PM 10 , PI 2.5 and PI 1 , as well as determination of activity concentration for each controlled radionuclide in all parts. The objective of this study is to present preliminary results and report 238 U activity concentration results. (author)

  3. Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M. I.; Fazal ur, Rehman

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia was carried out using passive radon dosemeters. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data of Al-Jauf region. The study is a continuation of radon survey in main cities of Saudi Arabia which constitutes a baseline for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. A total of 318 passive radon dosemeters were distributed randomly in the region and placed for a period of 1 y starting from April 2004 to April 2005. The results of indoor radon concentration measurement in 136 dwellings distributed in Al-Jauf region are presented. The remaining dosemeters were lost in the dwellings or mishandled. The results showed that the average, minimum, maximum radon concentrations and standard deviation were 35, 7, 168 and 30 Bq m -3 , respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of the radon distribution were found to be 28 and 1.83, respectively. (authors)

  4. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  5. Measurement error potential and control when quantifying volatile hydrocarbon concentrations in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Due to their widespread use throughout commerce and industry, volatile hydrocarbons such as toluene, trichloroethene, and 1, 1,1-trichloroethane routinely appears as principal pollutants in contamination of soil system hydrocarbons is necessary to confirm the presence of contamination and its nature and extent; to assess site risks and the need for cleanup; to evaluate remedial technologies; and to verify the performance of a selected alternative. Decisions regarding these issues have far-reaching impacts and, ideally, should be based on accurate measurements of soil hydrocarbon concentrations. Unfortunately, quantification of volatile hydrocarbons in soils is extremely difficult and there is normally little understanding of the accuracy and precision of these measurements. Rather, the assumptions often implicitly made that the hydrocarbon data are sufficiently accurate for the intended purpose. This appear presents a discussion of measurement error potential when quantifying volatile hydrocarbons in soils, and outlines some methods for understanding the managing these errors

  6. Analysis of problems and failures in the measurement of soil-gas radon concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neznal, Martin; Neznal, Matěj

    2014-07-01

    Long-term experience in the field of soil-gas radon concentration measurements allows to describe and explain the most frequent causes of failures, which can appear in practice when various types of measurement methods and soil-gas sampling techniques are used. The concept of minimal sampling depth, which depends on the volume of the soil-gas sample and on the soil properties, is shown in detail. Consideration of minimal sampling depth at the time of measurement planning allows to avoid the most common mistakes. The ways how to identify influencing parameters, how to avoid a dilution of soil-gas samples by the atmospheric air, as well as how to recognise inappropriate sampling methods are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    1999-01-01

    A quantum-cascade laser operating at a wavelength of 8.1 micrometers was used for high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy of methane (CH4). The laser frequency was continuously scanned with current over more than 3 cm-1, and absorption spectra of the CH4 nu 4 P branch were recorded. The measured laser linewidth was 50 MHz. A CH4 concentration of 15.6 parts in 10(6) ( ppm) in 50 Torr of air was measured in a 43-cm path length with +/- 0.5-ppm accuracy when the signal was averaged over 400 scans. The minimum detectable absorption in such direct absorption measurements is estimated to be 1.1 x 10(-4). The content of 13CH4 and CH3D species in a CH4 sample was determined.

  8. Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodes, C.; Sheldon, L.; Whitaker, D.; Clayton, A.; Fitzgerald, K.

    1999-01-01

    This project measured 2-hour integrated concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, metals and a number of organic chemicals including benzene and MTBE inside vehicles on California roadways. Using continuous samplers, particle counts, black carbon, and CO were also measured. In addition to measuring in-vehicle levels, the investigators measured pollutant levels just outside the vehicle, at roadside stations, and ambient air monitoring stations. Different driving scenarios were designed to assess the effects of a number of factors on in-vehicle pollutant levels. These factors included roadway type, carpool lanes, traffic conditions, geographical locations, vehicle type, and vehicle ventilation conditions. The statewide average in-vehicle concentrations of benzene, MTBE, and formaldehyde ranged from 3--22 microg/m 3 , 3--90 microg/m 3 , and 0---22 microg/m 3 , respectively. The ranges of mean PM10 and PM2.5 in-vehicle levels in Sacramento were 20--40 microg/m 3 and 6--22 microg/m 3 , respectively. In general, pollutant levels inside or just outside the vehicles were higher than those measured at the roadside stations or the ambient air stations. In-vehicle pollutant levels were consistently higher in Los Angeles than Sacramento. Pollutant levels measured inside vehicles traveling in a carpool lane were much lower than those in the right-hand, slower lanes. Under the study conditions, factors such as vehicle type and ventilation and little effect on in-vehicle pollutant levels. Other factors, such as roadway type, freeway congestion level, and time-of-day had some influence on in-vehicle pollution levels

  9. Comparison of sources of submicron particle number concentrations measured at two sites in Rochester, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Hopke, Philip K; Chalupa, David C; Utell, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    Sources contributing to the submicron particles (100-470 nm) measured between January 2002 and December 2007 at two different New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) sites in Rochester, NY were identified and apportioned using a bilinear receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Measurements of aerosol size distributions and number concentrations for particles in the size range of 10-500 nm have been made since December 2001 to date in Rochester. The measurements are being made using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) consisting of a DMA and a CPC (TSI models 3071 and 3010, respectively). From December 2001 to March 2004, particle measurements were made at the NYS DEC site in downtown Rochester, but it was moved to the eastside of Rochester in May 2004. Each measurement period was divided into three seasons i.e., winter (December, January, and February), summer (June, July, and August), and the transitional periods (March, April, May, September, October, and November) so as to avoid experimental uncertainty resulting from too large season-to-season variability in ambient temperature and solar photon intensity that would lead to unstable/non-stationary size distributions. Therefore, the seasons were analyzed independently for possible sources. Ten sources were identified at both sites and these include traffic, nucleation, residential/commercial heating, industrial emissions, secondary nitrate, ozone- rich secondary aerosol, secondary sulfate, regionally transported aerosol, and a mixed source of nucleation and traffic. These results show that the measured total outdoor particle number concentrations in Rochester generally vary with similar temporal patterns, suggesting that the central monitoring site data can be used to estimate outdoor exposure in other parts of the city.

  10. Energy Yield Determination of Concentrator Solar Cells using Laboratory Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F.; Garcia, Ivan; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-14

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used to predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted. temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  11. Concentration inequalities for functions of Gibbs fields with application to diffraction and random Gibbs measures

    CERN Document Server

    Külske, C

    2003-01-01

    We derive useful general concentration inequalities for functions of Gibbs fields in the uniqueness regime. We also consider expectations of random Gibbs measures that depend on an additional disorder field, and prove concentration w.r.t the disorder field. Both fields are assumed to be in the uniqueness regime, allowing in particular for non-independent disorder field. The modification of the bounds compared to the case of an independent field can be expressed in terms of constants that resemble the Dobrushin contraction coefficient, and are explicitly computable. On the basis of these inequalities, we obtain bounds on the deviation of a diffraction pattern created by random scatterers located on a general discrete point set in the Euclidean space, restricted to a finite volume. Here we also allow for thermal dislocations of the scatterers around their equilibrium positions. Extending recent results for independent scatterers, we give a universal upper bound on the probability of a deviation of the random sc...

  12. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  13. On the feasibility of a CENTA-based biosensor to measure antibiotics concentration in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Rovati, Luigi; Costi, Maria Paola; Venturelli, Alberto; Luciani, Rosaria; Cattini, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    In veterinary practice antibiotics are used and abused all over the world both to treat diseases and prevent infections and, to increase feed efficiency thus promoting growth in food producing animals. With more than 30 years history, β-lactam antibiotics are nowadays one of the most important group of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. In this paper we investigate the possibility to realize a measurement method suitable for field testing and we propose a competitive biosensor based on a relatively low-cost chromogenic cephalosporin (CENTA) for the quantitative analysis of β-lactams concentration in milk. In particular, the reported preliminary study has been focused on cloxacillin and the reported results indicates that the method is potentially able to detect cloxacillin at a concentration of about one order of magnitude lower than the maximal residue limits (MRL) set by the European Commission.

  14. Measurement of Rn-222 concentrations in building materials used in jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A M; Abumyrad, K M; Kullab, M K; Albataina, B A [Physics Dept., Yarmouk University, 219-10 Irbid, (Jordan)

    1995-10-01

    In this work, the concentrations of the radiative inert gas Rn-222 emanated from the building materials that are commonly in jordan have been studied. For this purpose, samples of ten jordanian building materials of different masses were prepared in plastic cans sealed to passive integrated dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors which are very sensitive to alpha-particles. The Rn-222 concentrations in these samples range from 137 Bq/m{sup 3} to 267 Bq/m{sup 3} with an average of 189 Bq/m{sup 3}. These levels were found to be consistent with those measured by other workers in other countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Limiting values for radionuclide concentration in the soil from remote spectrometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, T.P.

    1977-08-01

    Spectrometers that remotely sense γ-rays in the soil are usually oriented with the normal to a planar surface perpendicular to the air-soil interface. When this is the case, and when the thickness of the detector is not greater than the linear dimensions that determine the aforementioned surface area, simple assumptions can be made to calculate high and low limits for factors that convert from photopeak count rates in the spectrometer to soil concentrations. An H.P. 65 calculator program is developed to calculate these two conversion factors as a function of detector altitude, counting rates from a single measurement with a point calibration source, shielding on the surface of the detector, and depth of activity in the soil. The assumption of an exponential decrease with depth allows the previously reported results of Beck et al to be applied to convert from soil concentration to dose rate at 1 m above the ground

  16. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber; Pomiar koncentracji radonu za pomoca komory Lucasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-12-31

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author). 4 refs, 19 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Toward real-time measurement of atmospheric mercury concentrations using cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS is a direct absorption technique that utilizes path lengths up to multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell and has a significantly higher sensitivity than conventional absorption spectroscopy. This tool opens new prospects for study of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 because of its high temporal resolution and reduced sample volume requirements (<0.5 l of sample air. We developed a new sensor based on CRDS for measurement of (Hg0 mass concentration. Sensor characteristics include sub-ng m−3 detection limit and high temporal resolution using a frequency-doubled, tuneable dye laser emitting pulses at ~253.65 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The dye laser incorporates a unique piezo element attached to its tuning grating allowing it to tune the laser on and off the Hg0 absorption line on a pulse-to-pulse basis to facilitate differential absorption measurements. Hg0 absorption measurements with this CRDS laboratory prototype are highly linearly related to Hg0 concentrations determined by a Tekran 2537B analyzer over an Hg0 concentration range from 0.2 ng m−3 to 573 ng m−3, implying excellent linearity of both instruments. The current CRDS instrument has a sensitivity of 0.10 ng Hg0 m−3 at 10-s time resolution. Ambient-air tests showed that background Hg0 levels can be detected at low temporal resolution (i.e., 1 s, but also highlight a need for high-frequency (i.e., pulse-to-pulse differential on/off-line tuning of the laser wavelength to account for instabilities of the CRDS system and variable background absorption interferences. Future applications may include ambient Hg0 flux measurements with eddy covariance techniques, which require measurements of Hg0 concentrations with sub-ng m−3 sensitivity and sub-second time

  18. Measurements of colloid concentrations in the fracture zone, Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledin, A.; Dueker, A.; Karlsson, Stefan; Allard, B.

    1995-06-01

    The applicability of light scattering in combination with photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) for determination of concentration and size distribution of colloidal matter in a deep groundwater was tested in situ and on-line. Well-defined reference colloids of Fe 2 O 3 , Al(OH) 3 , SiO 2 , kaolinite, illite and a high molecular humic acid in aqueous media were used as model substances for calibration of the PCS instrument. The intensity of scattered light was found to be dependent on the composition of the colloids. The colloid concentration in the rather saline groundwater was below the detection limit for the PCS equipment used, which corresponds to a colloid concentration not higher than 0.5 mg/l and probably below 0.1 mg/l according to the measurements on-line and in situ at Aespoe and in comparison to the calibrations performed with reference colloids. The results clearly demonstrated that the stability, concentration and composition of a colloid-size suspended phase in the anoxic groundwater with high content of Fe(II), like the one in Aespoe, is extremely sensitive to exposure to atmospheric conditions during sample handling and preparation. Diffusion of air into the closed measuring cuvette was enough to alter the colloid content significantly within 6 hours. A particle fraction with the size distribution in the range 170-700 nm was formed within 45 min when air was allowed to diffuse into the aqueous phase from the air filled upper part of the cuvette. The corresponding time to generate a significant colloid precipitate was less than 1 min when a stream of air was bubbled through the water samples. The precipitated colloid phase consisted of a mixture of ferric (hydr)oxide and calcium carbonate in all three cases. 53 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Aerosol concentration measurements and correlations with air mass trajectories at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, M. I.; Louedec, K.; Freire, M.; Vitale, P.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2017-06-01

    Aerosols play an important role in radiative transfer processes involved in different fields of study. In particular, their influence is crucial in the attenuation of light at astronomical and astrophysical observatories, and has to be taken into account in light transfer models employed to reconstruct the signals. The Andean Argentinean region is increasingly being considered as a good candidate to host such facilities, as well as the ones for solar-energy resources, and an adequate knowledge of aerosols characteristics there is needed, but it is not always possible due to the vast area involved and the scarce atmospheric data at ground. The aim of this work is to find correlations between aerosol data and particle trajectories that can give an insight into the origin and behaviour of aerosols in this zone and can be employed in situations in which one does not have local aerosol measurements. For this purpose, an aerosol spectrometer and dust monitor (Grimm 1.109) was installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, to record aerosol concentrations in different size intervals, at surface level. These measurements are analysed and correlated with air mass trajectories obtained from HYSPLIT (NOAA) model calculations. High aerosol concentrations are registered predominantly when air masses have travelled mostly over continental areas, mainly from the NE direction, while low aerosol concentrations are found in correspondence with air masses coming from the Pacific Ocean, from the NW direction. Different size distribution patterns were found for the aerosols depending on their origin: marine or continental. This work shows for the first time the size distribution of aerosols registered at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The correlations found between mass and particle concentrations (total and for different size ranges) and HYSPLIT air mass trajectories, confirm that the latter can be employed as a useful tool to infer the sources, evolution

  20. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  1. Comparison of fungal spores concentrations measured with wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor and Hirst methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Lemonis, N.; Clot, B.; O'Connor, D. J.; Sodeau, John R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to provide both a comparison of traditional and novel methodologies for airborne spores detection (i.e. the Hirst Burkard trap and WIBS-4) and the first quantitative study of airborne fungal concentrations in Payerne (Western Switzerland) as well as their relation to meteorological parameters. From the traditional method -Hirst trap and microscope analysis-, sixty-three propagule types (spores, sporangia and hyphae) were identified and the average spore concentrations measured over the full period amounted to 4145 ± 263.0 spores/m3. Maximum values were reached on July 19th and on August 6th. Twenty-six spore types reached average levels above 10 spores/m3. Airborne fungal propagules in Payerne showed a clear seasonal pattern, increasing from low values in early spring to maxima in summer. Daily average concentrations above 5000 spores/m3 were almost constant in summer from mid-June onwards. Weather parameters showed a relevant role for determining the observed spore concentrations. Coniferous forest, dominant in the surroundings, may be a relevant source for airborne fungal propagules as their distribution and predominant wind directions are consistent with the origin. The comparison between the two methodologies used in this campaign showed remarkably consistent patterns throughout the campaign. A correlation coefficient of 0.9 (CI 0.76-0.96) was seen between the two over the time period for daily resolutions (Hirst trap and WIBS-4). This apparent co-linearity was seen to fall away once increased resolution was employed. However at higher resolutions upon removal of Cladosporium species from the total fungal concentrations (Hirst trap), an increased correlation coefficient was again noted between the two instruments (R = 0.81 with confidence intervals of 0.74 and 0.86).

  2. Indoor radon concentration measurements in Tarqumia Girl Schools at Western Hebron Region, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabyneh, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, radon-222 in indoor air was surveyed in 62 rooms located in four governmental schools, for girls, in Tarqumia town that lies in the north western part of Hebron city in Palestine. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from the inhalation of radon and its daughters by 2318 pupils and 102 staff members occupying the surveyed rooms were also measured. TASTRAK, a solid state nuclear track detector, has been used to measure the indoor radon concentrations at those schools thus, 124 radon detectors were distributed in the four school buildings. The radon detectors stayed for 70 days between February 2006 and April 2006. The results showed that the radon concentration and the annual effective dose equivalent in these schools were varied from 12 to 232.5 Bq/m 3 with an average of 34.1 Bq/m 3 and 0.62 to 12.0 mSv/y with an average of 1.76 mSv/y, respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in Tarqumia secondary girls school, Al-aqsa elementary girls school, Umsalama elementary girls school and Tarqumia elementary girls school were 35.8, 26.7, 25.9 and 47.8 Bq/m 3 , respectively, and the mean values of the annual effective dose equivalent for the above mentioned were 1.85, 1.38, 1.34 and 2.47 mSv/y, respectively. It has been found from these results that, most of the values were of nominal state values (that is less than the allowed global values) and in few places, the concentration was higher than the allowed global values, therefore, the annual effective dose higher than annual global level values (1.3 mSv/y) was resulted. Poor ventilation and old buildings were, most mobility, the main cause of these high radon concentrations. Improving ventilation of these places will increase air exchange rates with the out side, thereby resulting in reduced concentration. In general, the results showed that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for pupils and staff members occupying the rooms of the investigated schools

  3. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results

  4. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results.

  5. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. During the reporting period the alkali measuring device has been tested under pressurized conditions at VTT Energy, DMT, Foster-Wheeler Energia and ABB Carbon. Measurements in Delft will be performed during 1996 after installation of the hot gas filter. The original plan for measurements in Delft has been postponed due to schedule delays in Delft. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. This will be the first test of the plasma assisted measurement method in a gasification process. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  6. Fresh cut yellow melon (CAC submitted to different type cuts and concentrations of calcion chloride stored under modified passive atmosphereMelão amarelo (CAC minimamente processado submetido a diferentes cortes e concentrações de cloreto de cálcio armazenado em atmosfera modificada passiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lopes Vieites

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of yellow melon inodorus Valenciano Amarelo (CAC fresh cut submitted to two cut types and with application postharvest of calcium chloride. After preparation cubes and slices melon were immersed in solution with different calcium chloride (CaCl2 concentrations for two minutes, afterwards they were conditioned in trays of expanded polystyrene (EPS, covered by plastic film of low density polyethylene (PEBD, stored in cold camera to 5°C ±1 and analyzed for 8 days. They were evaluated pH, firmness, tritable acidity (AT, soluble solids (SS sugar reducer and ratio. The pH values varied from 5.27 to 5.68. The sugars reducers content and the ratio were superior in the slices compared to the cubes. The melon slices maintained larger firmness values compared to the cubes and in general there was reduction in the values of this parameter along the storage period for all treatments. Concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5% of CaCl2, result in larger values of firmness. The storage temperature and modified passive atmosphere they contributed to quality maintenance of MP melon. Concentrations of up to 1.0% of CaCl2 they could be recommended to maintain the melon quality MP melon yellow inodorus (CAC.Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade de melão amarelo inodorus (cultivar Valenciano Amarelo CAC minimamente processado (MP submetido a dois tipos de corte e com aplicação pós-colheita de cloreto de cálcio. Após preparo cubos e fatias de melão foram imersos em solução com diferentes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 por dois minutos, sendo em seguida acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido (EPS, revestidas por filme plástico de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, armazenados em câmara fria a 5°C ±1 e analisadas durante 8 dias. Foram avaliados pH, firmeza, acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, açúcar redutor e ratio. Os valores de pH variaram de 5,27 a 5,68. O teor

  7. Measurement of radon, radon daughters and thoron concentrations by multi-detector devices. No. E/12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Varga, Zs.

    1983-01-01

    There is a growing interest in collection of data concerning human exposures to naturally occurring alpha-emitting radionuclides (e.g. in mines, dwellings, building materials, industrial wastes, coal fuel cycle, water supply, soil, plants, etc.). Most of such studies are incomplete for the following reasons: in radon measurements the contribution of thoron is generally neglected, the determination of equilibrium factor is complicated or not possible at all, short- and long-term concentration fluctuations cause difficulties in obtaining representative mean values, the plate-out effect is generally not taken into account. A variety of simple methods were studied that could be used to overcome some of these difficulties by using cups equipped with two or more alpha-sensitive nuclear track detectors. A theoretical foundation of the quantitative measurements with such devices is presented. Experimental data are reported on radon, radon daughters and thoron concentrations measured by multi-detector devices in cave soil gas and in air of Hungarian dwellings. (author)

  8. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  9. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco H. Visser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulating-type (or integrating-type NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s, the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed.

  10. Measurements of radon concentration levels in drinking water at urban area of Curitiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    Current work presents the results of more than 100 measurements of 222 Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores at Curitiba region during the period of 2008 - 2009. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology in cooperation with the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specific kit of glass vessels Aqua KIT through the air pump. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.5 L/min. The 222 Rn concentration levels were detected and analyzed by the computer every 10 minutes using the software DataEXPERT by GENITRON Instruments. Collected average levels of 222 Rn concentration were processed taking into account the volume of water sample and its temperature, atmospheric pressure and the total volume of the air in the vessels. Collected samples of water presented the average 222 Rn activity about 57.70 Bq/L which is almost 5 times more than maximum level of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). It has to be noted that many artesian drillings presented the radon activity in the range of 100 - 200 Bq/L. Further measurements are planned to be performed at other regions of Parana State and will involve the mineral water sources, explored artesian drillings as well as soil samples. (author)''

  11. Different top-down approaches to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood tacrolimus mass concentration values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Blanco-Font, Aurora; Canalias, Francesca

    2018-05-08

    Values of mass concentration of tacrolimus in whole blood are commonly used by the clinicians for monitoring the status of a transplant patient and for checking whether the administered dose of tacrolimus is effective. So, clinical laboratories must provide results as accurately as possible. Measurement uncertainty can allow ensuring reliability of these results. The aim of this study was to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values obtained by UHPLC-MS/MS using two top-down approaches: the single laboratory validation approach and the proficiency testing approach. For the single laboratory validation approach, we estimated the uncertainties associated to the intermediate imprecision (using long-term internal quality control data) and the bias (utilizing a certified reference material). Next, we combined them together with the uncertainties related to the calibrators-assigned values to obtain a combined uncertainty for, finally, to calculate the expanded uncertainty. For the proficiency testing approach, the uncertainty was estimated in a similar way that the single laboratory validation approach but considering data from internal and external quality control schemes to estimate the uncertainty related to the bias. The estimated expanded uncertainty for single laboratory validation, proficiency testing using internal and external quality control schemes were 11.8%, 13.2%, and 13.0%, respectively. After performing the two top-down approaches, we observed that their uncertainty results were quite similar. This fact would confirm that either two approaches could be used to estimate the measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO.sub.2 concentration and H.sub.2O concentration in a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jr., William P.; Jatana, Gurneesh Singh; Yoo, Ji Hyung; Parks, II, James E.

    2017-12-26

    A diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO.sub.2 concentration and H.sub.2O concentration in a fluid stream is described. The system may include one or more probes that sample the fluid stream spatially, temporally and over ranges of pressure and temperature. Laser light sources are directed down pitch optical cables, through a lens and to a mirror, where the light sources are reflected back, through the lens to catch optical cables. The light travels through the catch optical cables to detectors, which provide electrical signals to a processer. The processer utilizes the signals to calculate CO.sub.2 concentration based on the temperatures derived from H.sub.2O vapor concentration. A probe for sampling CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2O vapor concentrations is also disclosed. Various mechanical features interact together to ensure the pitch and catch optical cables are properly aligned with the lens during assembly and use.

  13. Photonic reagents for concentration measurement of flu-orescent proteins with overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goun, Alexei; Bondar, Denys I.; Er, Ali O.; Quine, Zachary; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2016-05-01

    By exploiting photonic reagents (i.e., coherent control by shaped laser pulses), we employ Optimal Dynamic Discrimination (ODD) as a novel means for quantitatively characterizing mixtures of fluorescent proteins with a large spectral overlap. To illustrate ODD, we simultaneously measured concentrations of in vitro mixtures of Enhanced Blue Fluorescent Protein (EBFP) and Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP). Building on this foundational study, the ultimate goal is to exploit the capabilities of ODD for parallel monitoring of genetic and protein circuits by suppressing the spectral cross-talk among multiple fluorescent reporters.

  14. Application of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to measurement of tritium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kazushige; Endo, Yoshio; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of tritium concentration in various media have been successfully performed by detecting with an ordinary NaI(Tl) scintillation counter the bremsstrahlung emitted from tritium decay. To distinguish meaningful signals from noises emanating mainly from thermoelectrons present in the phototube, differences in rise time were discriminated by means of an electronic circuit, instead of separation by pulse height analysis. This pulse-shape discriminator successfully reduced noise counts below 18 keV in a multichannel analyzer from 100 cpm to 4 cpm, which permitted direct counting of tritiated water as dilute as 1 μCi/ml, without requiring any complicated preparation. (auth.)

  15. Radon concentration as an indicator of the indoor air quality: development of an efficient measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Energy conservation regulation could lead to a reduction of the air exchange rate and also a degradation of the indoor air quality. Present methods for the estimating the indoor air quality can only be implemented with limitations. This paper presents a method that allows the estimation of the indoor air quality under normal conditions by using natural radon as an indicator. With mathematical models, the progression of the air exchange rate is estimated by using the radon concentration. Furthermore, the progression of individual air pollutants is estimated. Through series of experiments in a measurement chamber, the modelling could be verified. (author)

  16. Optoelectronic system to measure the concentration and turbidity of suspended solids in the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The selection of the site where a nuclear power plant is to be built requires intensive study of the environmental conditions. This work presents the results reached on the development of a measurement system of suspended solids based on turbidity characteristics of the water. The system consists of an optical transducer composed of an emitter and a detector of infrared light, both solid state type, whose electrical signal is electronically treated. The equipment was calibrated and certified against turbidity and concentration standards in laboratory use. The obtained results indicate the reliability of the experimental method. The utilization of the equipment at the shore reinforces its flexibility and commodity of use. (author)

  17. Cutting tool wear monitoring with the use of impedance layers

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Marek; Kratochvíl, Jiří; Petrů, Jana; Čep, Robert; Zlámal, Tomáš; Stančeková, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with problems of cutting process monitoring in real time. It is focused on tool wear by means of impedance layers applied on ceramic cutting inserts. In the experimental part the cutting process is monitored using electrical resistance measurement. The results are compared and verified using the monitored cutting temperature and tool wear. The testing of impedance laye