WorldWideScience

Sample records for measure critical aspects

  1. Towards critical aspects of Confucianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunaj Ľubomír

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of two parts. The first deals with the issue of whether it is possible to coherently employ the term ‘critical Confucian’ in general, i.e. whether it is a paradox or oxymoron. It will be argued that Confucianism should not be identified with any particular ideology and, therefore, can be critical. This critical potential, in turn, can be developed by bringing it into dialogue with Critical Theory. As such, the second part indicates, in an introductory way, some possible overlaps between Confucianism and Critical Theory by comparing Heiner Roetz’s and Axel Honneth’s respective interpretations of these traditions.

  2. [Migrant workers. The critical aspects of integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The integration of migrant poplulations with the indigeneous population is regulated by the Italian Decree, D.Lgs 9/7/2003 n. 215 in enforcement of the directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The Italian decree, D.Lgs 215/2003, at present in force, according to regulation stipulated as to the equal treatment of diverse cohabiting populations, explicitly forbids any form of discrimination whatsoever, be it direct or indirect. A first description of today's migrant panorama is offered by the Caritas Migrantes and the CNEL (Italian National Council of the Economy of Labour). The most critical aspects on the integration of migrants are described and discussed in the text.

  3. Effective Communication, Critical Aspects and Compositionality in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olteanu, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    This paper contains a discussion of how the concept of critical aspects and the principle of compositionality can provide a powerful tool to analyse and understand the communications that occur in the classroom. It is grounded in data collected in a longitudinal study. The content chosen is algebra. It is argued that the critical aspects and the…

  4. Social aspects of automation: Some critical insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouzil, Ibrahim; Raza, Ali; Pervaiz, Salman

    2017-09-01

    Sustainable development has been recognized globally as one of the major driving forces towards the current technological innovations. To achieve sustainable development and attain its associated goals, it is very important to properly address its concerns in different aspects of technological innovations. Several industrial sectors have enjoyed productivity and economic gains due to advent of automation technology. It is important to characterize sustainability for the automation technology. Sustainability is key factor that will determine the future of our neighbours in time and it must be tightly wrapped around the double-edged sword of technology. In this study, different impacts of automation have been addressed using the ‘Circles of Sustainability’ approach as a framework, covering economic, political, cultural and ecological aspects and their implications. A systematic literature review of automation technology from its inception is outlined and plotted against its many outcomes covering a broad spectrum. The study is more focused towards the social aspects of the automation technology. The study also reviews literature to analyse the employment deficiency as one end of the social impact spectrum. On the other end of the spectrum, benefits to society through technological advancements, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) coupled with automation are presented.

  5. Regulatory aspects of criticality control in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    With the creation of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) the Australian approach to criticality safety was revisited. Consistency with international best practices is required by the Act that created ARPANSA and this was applied to practices in criticality safety adopted in other countries. This required extensive regulatory efforts both in auditing the major Australian Nuclear Operator, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), and assessing the existing in Australia criticality safety practices and implementing the required changes using the new legislative power of ARPANSA. The adopted regulatory approach is formulated through both the issued by ARPANSA licenses for nuclear installations (including reactors, fuel stores and radioactive waste stores) and the string of new regulatory documents, including the Regulatory Assessment Principles and the Regulatory Assessment Guidelines for criticality safety. The main features of the adopted regulation include the requirements of independent peer-review, ongoing refresher training coupled with annual accreditation and the reliance on the safe design rather than on an administrative control. (author)

  6. Climate: some aspects of sceptical criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses some reasons to be sceptical about the media-supported idea of an actual climate change, and more particularly about the critical role assigned to carbon dioxide in global warming, about the ability to make the distinction between natural and man-induced climate variations, about the quality of models and simulations, about the knowledge on climate physics, about the interpretation of the recently observed warming (since 1997)

  7. Statistical aspects in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.

    1979-10-01

    This report contains a summary of basic concepts and formulae important for the treatment of errors and for calculating lower limits of detection in radioactivity measurements. Special attention has been paid to practical application and examples which are of interest for scientists working in this field. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects of critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 provides the aims of the studies (chapter 1) and a general overview and discussion of the current literature of metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects in critically ill children (chapter 2). In Part 2 the clinical use of an indirect calorimeter is tested and validated for

  9. Aspects of control measures in occupational hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumens, M.

    1997-01-01


    This thesis focuses on two aspects which are of major importance in the broad field of control measures in occupational hygiene: the selection of control measures in a structured way and the impact of factors modifying the effectiveness of these control measures.

    The main

  10. CRITICAL ASPECTS IN SCRAPS OF COLD SMOKED SALMON PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to summarize the critical aspects in the processing of smoked salmon scraps as resulted from seven different lots of samples through microbiological and chemical-physical analysis. Results demonstrate that this product has very variable salt content, high microbial counts influencing the shelf-life, rancidity problems depending on the raw material and is heavily contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes.

  11. The Critical Aspect on Fair Value Accounting And Its Implication To Islamic Financial Institutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Majid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Aspect on Fair Value Accounting And Its Implication To Islamic Financial Institutions. Fair value accounting (FVA paradigm replaced the historical cost accounting (HCA in the development of accounting standards that FVA is more relevant that HCA probably did not provide the real financial and income information. This paper tries to explore critical aspects of the fair value accounting and its implications to Islamic Financial Institutions implications. This study concludes that that fair value accounting measurement provides many critical aspects to be implemented to Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs. AAOIFI proposed cash equivalent value as respond to fair value measurement that cash equivalent value when the attribute condition are present such as the relevance, reliability and understandability of the resulting information  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i2.1236

  12. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  13. Critical Thinking Measurement in ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Li-Jen; Schneider, Solomon; Bennett, Judith F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the status of critical thinking (CT) and reasoning skills in information communication and technology (ICT) for 190 college students in a higher education system. It analyzed how the students performed in CT, reasoning, and internet copyright and ethical issues. A CT assessment was designed to analyze the CT and reasoning…

  14. The critical aspect on using fair value for financial instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Holban (Oncioiu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The variety of the book-keeping practices, of the financial auditor, of the fiscal norms and rules, can have a negative impact, not only onthe companies’ ability in furnishing the needed and true financial information to the creditors and investors, but also on the capacity to analyze thefuture investment opportunities regarding the financial instruments, which are vital for the economic increment. Under the Accounting Standard forFinancial Instruments, fair value measurement is required in certain circumstances similar to IFRS or US GAAP. There are also specialists whocriticize the limited use of fair values in IFRS. However, those criticizing fair value accounting do not seem to provide any credible alternatives. Dowe go back to historical cost accounting, wherein the financial assets are stated at outdated values and hence are not relevant or reliable? In thecurrent crisis, a question that is raised is: Should financial instruments be marked down to their current throw away prices? This paper describes howthe fair value is used under the Standard and purposes to decide whether fair value measurement is required or not based on the type of investment.

  15. Exploring logistics aspects of flood emergency measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Vis, I.F.A.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are often preceded by warnings such as heavy rain that may make preparatory activities possible in order to prevent flooding from actually happening. However, flood emergency preparedness lacks insight in logistical aspects. This paper develops a framework of logistical aspects of emergency

  16. Exploring Logistics Aspects of Flood Emergency Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Sander; Vis, Iris F. A.; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.

    Floods are often preceded by warnings such as heavy rain that may make preparatory activities possible in order to prevent flooding from actually happening. However, flood emergency preparedness lacks insight in logistical aspects. This paper develops a framework of logistical aspects of emergency

  17. Administrative Aspects of the Criticality Controls Used in Programmes for Basic Criticality Research, Reactor Development and Materials Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D. P.; Giessing, D. F. [Operational Safety Division, USAEC Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States)

    1966-05-15

    This paper describes the administrative and procedural aspects of criticality controls used by a field office of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in programmes that include reactor criticals, research and materials testing reactors, and power reactor development. Situations encountered include handling, storing, and processing large quantities of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 of various configurations and compositions in laboratories and operations which gather basic criticality data, processing of fissile material, and varied reactor research and development, programmes including fuel materials. Similar situations exist for uranium-233 and plutonium-238 on a smaller laboratory scale. The administrative controls and interactions of the USAEC field office and the operating contractors, who operate these installations for the USAEC, are outlined. Also, the purpose and scope of the direct examination by USAEC personnel of these contractor facilities are analysed. The programme has been in effect for three years and is believed to be successful in maintaining efficient operations and an acceptable low level of risk of inadvertent criticality. Success of this programme is in good measure due to the close working relationship between the staffs of the USAEC field office and the operating contractors. (author)

  18. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, P. [Electronics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: swamy@igcar.ernet.in

    2005-07-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  19. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  20. Critical field measurements in a superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannetier, B.; Chaussy, J.; Rammal, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the critical field of a periodic two-dimensional network of superconducting indium. At low fields, the critical line Hsub(c)(T) reflects the network topology and exhibits well-defined cusps due to flux quantization corresponding to both integer and rational number of flux quanta phi 0 = h/2e per unit loop of the network [fr

  1. Spent fuel critical masses and supportive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Wells, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Critical masses for spent fuel are larger than for green fuel and therefore use of the increased masses could result in improved handling, storage, and transport of such materials. To apply spent fuel critical masses requires an assessment of fuel exposure and the corresponding isotopic compositions. The paper discusses several approaches at the Hanford N Reactor in establishing fuel exposure, including a direct measurement of spent to green fuel critical masses. The benefits derived from the use of spent fuel critical masses are illustrated for cask designs at the Nuclear Assurance Corporation. (author)

  2. NEW ASPECTS REGARDING THE EVALUATION OF INVESTMENTS IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupan Mariana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The additional risks associated to the actual global and contagious crisis put a severe pressure on the investments in critical infrastructure and there is a real need for new valuations especially those regarding the synergic financing strategies in crit

  3. Three aspects of critical phenomenons: fundamental, hydrodynamic, conceptual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beysens, D.

    1993-01-01

    After a recall of the leading results relative to the universality class of fluids, examples of how well known universal prevision are held in check by fluids specificities, especially hydrodynamics. Applications of critical phenomenons tool to damping, hydrodynamic instabilities, turbulence are described. (A.B.). 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. New aspect of critical nonlinearly charged black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Taghadomi, Z. S.; Corda, C.

    2018-04-01

    The motion of a point charged particle moving in the background of the critical power Maxwell charged AdS black holes in a probe approximation is studied. The extended phase space, where the cosmological constant appears as a pressure, is regarded and the effective potential is investigated. At last, the mass-to-charge ratio and the large q limit are studied.

  5. Kinetic aspects of the Maillard reaction: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The literature concerning the kinetics of the Maillard reaction was critically discussed according to the initial, intermediate and advanced stages, as this is the way the Maillard reaction is traditionally analysed. For each stage, a division is made between simple kinetics and complex kinetics.

  6. Criticality safety aspects of K-25 Building uranium deposit removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Ingram, J.C. III; Stinnet, E.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The K-25 Building of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now the K-25 Site) went into operation during World War II as the first large scale production plant to separate 235 U from uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. It operated successfully until 1964, when it was placed in a stand-by mode. The Department of Energy has initiated a decontamination and decommissioning program. The primary objective of the Deposit Removal (DR) Project is to improve the nuclear criticality safety of the K-25 Building by removing enriched uranium deposits from unfavorable-geometry process equipment to below minimum critical mass. The method utilized to accomplish this are detailed in this report

  7. Criticality safety aspects of K-25 Building uranium deposit removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ingram, J.C. III; Stinnet, E.C. Jr. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The K-25 Building of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now the K-25 Site) went into operation during World War II as the first large scale production plant to separate {sup 235}U from uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. It operated successfully until 1964, when it was placed in a stand-by mode. The Department of Energy has initiated a decontamination and decommissioning program. The primary objective of the Deposit Removal (DR) Project is to improve the nuclear criticality safety of the K-25 Building by removing enriched uranium deposits from unfavorable-geometry process equipment to below minimum critical mass. The method utilized to accomplish this are detailed in this report.

  8. Cognitive aspects of the captain's work in a critical situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    1996-01-01

    with the people on board, not the structure of the ship. The second study widened the organisational scope, and was a qualitative analysis of a few minutes of a protocol from a simulated critical situation. It came out strongly from the studies that the captain's decisions on any organisational level are embedded...... in structures for communication on and off board. The discussion focus on implications for a prototype of a computer based emergency management system, and for simulator training of ship officers working on the bridge in case of damage to the hull of the ship....

  9. On foundational and geometric critical aspects of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugovecki, E.

    1994-01-01

    The foundational difficulties encountered by the conventional formulation of quantum electrodynamics, and the criticism by Dirac Schwinger, Rohrlich, and others, aimed at some of the physical and mathematical premises underlying that formulation, are reviewed and discussed. The basic failings of the conventional methods of quantization of the electromagnetic field are pointed out, especially with regard to the issue of local (anti) commutativity of quantum fields as an embodiment of relativistic microcausality. A brief description is given of a recently advanced new type of approach to quantum electrodynamics, and to quantum field theory in general, which is epistemically based on intrinsically quantum ideas about the physical nature of spacetime, and is mathematically based on a fiber theoretical formulation of quantum geometries, aimed in part at removing the aforementioned difficulties and inconsistencies. It is shown that these ideas can be traced to a conceptualization of spacetime outlined by Einstein in the last edition of his well-known semipopular exposition of relativity theory. 57 refs

  10. Some practical aspects of peak kilovoltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, A.Y.; Pugh, V.I.; Jeffery, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The peak kilovoltage (kVsub(p)) across the X-ray tube electrodes in diagnostic X-ray machines is a most important parameter, affecting both radiation output and beam quality. Four commercially available non-invasive devices used for kVsub(p) measurement were tested using a selection of generator waveforms. The majority of the devices provided satisfactory measurements of the kVsub(p) to within approximately +- kV provided certain operating conditions are observed. (U.K.)

  11. Noticeable aspects of selecting intervention measures for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yong; Shi Yuanming

    1993-01-01

    Referring to the experience of intervention measures taken for protecting the public after Chernobyl accident and to recent knowledge of source terms of reactor accidents, the noticeable aspects of selecting of intervention measures for nuclear accidents is discussed

  12. Neutron nuclear data measurements for criticality safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guber Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron-induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Joint Research Center Site Geel, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using metallic natural cerium and vanadium samples. Together with existing data, the measured data will be used for a new evaluation and will be submitted with covariances to the ENDF/B nuclear data library.

  13. Outcome measures for adult critical care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J A; Black, N A; Jenkinson, C; Young, J D; Rowan, K M; Daly, K; Ridley, S

    2000-01-01

    1. To identify generic and disease specific measures of impairment, functional status and health-related quality of life that have been used in adult critical care (intensive and high-dependency care) survivors. 2. To review the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the measures in adult critical care survivors. 3. To consider the implications for future policy and to make recommendations for further methodological research. 4. To review what is currently known of the outcome of adult critical care. Searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, The Cochrane Library and SIGLE) from 1970 to August 1998. Manual searches of five journals (1985-98) not indexed in electronic databases and relevant conference proceedings (1993-98). Reference lists of six existing reviews, plus snowballing from reference lists of all relevant articles identified. Randomised trials, non-randomised trials (cohort studies) and case series that included data on outcomes after discharge from adult (16 years and over) critical care. If reported, the following data were extracted from each paper: patient characteristics (age, gender, severity of illness, diagnostic category) number of patients eligible for study, follow-up period, number of deaths before follow-up, number and proportion of survivors included in follow-up method of presentation of outcome data - proportion normal as defined by reference values, or aggregate value (e.g. mean or median), or aggregate values plus an indication of variance (e.g. standard deviation or inter-quartile range). Evidence for three measurement properties was sought for each outcome measure that had been used in at least two studies - their validity, reliability and responsiveness in adult critical care. If the authors did not report these aspects explicitly, an attempt was made to use the data provided to provide these measurement properties. For measures that were used in at least ten studies, information on actual reported

  14. Mission critical database for SPS accelerator measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R; Laugier, I; Reguero, I; Segura, N

    1995-01-01

    In order to maintain efficient control over the hadron and lepton beams in CERN¹s SPS accelerator, measurements are of vital importance. Beam parameters such as intensities, positions and losses need to be rapidly available in the SPS control room to allow the operators to monitor, judge and act on beam physics conditions. For the 1994 SPS startup, a completely new and redesigned measurement system based on client and server C-programs running on UNIX-workstations was introduced. The kernel of this new measurement system is an on-line ORACLE database.The NIAM method was used for the database design as well as a technique to tag synchronized data with timeslots instead of timestamps. A great attention was paid to proper storage allocation for tables and indices since this has a major impact on the efficiency of the database, due to its time-critical nature. Many new features of Oracle7 were exploited to reduce the surrounding software.During the 1994 SPS physics run, this new measurement system was commission...

  15. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  16. Measuring aspects of social capital in a gerontological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tine; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Within the last 10 years, there has been a growing interest in the importance of social capital and older people. The aims of the study are to advance measurements of aspects of social capital based on bonding, bridging and linking that can be used to study the impact of the local community on co...

  17. [Critical aspects of the management of "hazardous" health care workers. Consensus document].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Cicerone, Marina; Cirese, Vania; De Lorenzo, G; Di Giannantonios, M; Fileni, A; Goggiamani, Angela; Magnavita, Giulia; Marchi, Edda; Mazzullo, D; Monami, F; Monami, S; Puro, V; Ranalletta, Dalila; Ricciardi, G; Sacco, A; Spagnolo, A; Spagnolo, A G; Squarcione, S; Zavota, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    A worker is considered to be hazardous to others when, in the course of performing a specific work task, his/her health problems (e.g., substance dependence, emotional disorders, physical disability, transmissible diseases) pose a risk for other workers' or the public's health and safety, or begins to interfere with ability to function in profession life. The presence of certain illnesses or the fact that a health care worker is impaired because of them do not necessarily imply that he, or she, is hazardous for others. Working in health care increases the probability that an impaired worker being hazardous for others. Management of hazardous workers requires new techniques and procedures, and specific policies. An interdisciplinary group of experts from medical, bioethical, legal and administrative disciplines, together with trade union and employers' representatives, is currently attempting to define a way to put prevention measures into practice in accordance with state laws and individual rights. A consensus document is presented, covering critical aspects such as: social responsibility of the employer, risk management, informed consent, non compliance, confidentiality, responsibility of workers, disclosure of risk to patients, non-discrimination, counselling and recovery of impaired workers, effectiveness of international guidelines. Occupational health professionals are obliged to adhere to ethical principles in the management of "hazardous" workers; the assessment of ethical costs and benefits for the stakeholders is the basis for appropriate decisions.

  18. Investigating student difficulties on integral calculus based on critical thinking aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Nursyahidah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Students of Mathematics education often struggle with integration problem, but yet the root of the problem related to critical thinking is rarely investigated. This article reports research where the first-year students of Mathematics Education of PGRI University Semarang were given an integral problem, then individually they were interviewed related to the answer they have made. The findings of students' difficulties in working on integration problem were confirmed through several questions in the interview which aimed to uncover their critical thinking process related to concepts, procedures, and problem solving. This study shows that student difficulties in Integration by disc method such as failure in identifying radius of a rotary object, specify partition, and integration bounds are closely related to their failure to think critically related to concept, skills, and problem solving aspects of critical thinking.

  19. The criticality accident in Tokaimura and medical aspects of radiation emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaohua; Mao Bingzhi

    2003-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999 at the uranium processing plant in Tokaimura Japan, which is the most severe accident since Chernobyl catastrophe. 213 people were exposed to radiation, among them 2 workers were exposed to 16-23 Gy and 6-10 Gy individually, one worker was 2 Gy, 2 people was 10 mSv and 208 person was 0-5 mSv. Author was invited to attend an international symposium on 'The Criticality Accident in Tokaimura Medical Aspects of Radiation Emergency' in Chiba Japan on December 2000. An overview of the accident, dose estimation and neutron relative biological effects are discussed in this article

  20. Determination of the Territorial Sea Baseline - Measurement Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Cezary; Weintrit, Adam; Specht, Mariusz; Dabrowski, Pawel

    2017-12-01

    Determining the course of the territorial sea baseline (TSB) of the coastal state is the basis for establishing its maritime boundaries, thus becoming indirect part of maritime policy of the state. Besides the following aspects: legal and methodological as described in the conventions, acts, standards and regulations, equally important is the issue of measurement methodology with respect to the boundaries of the territorial sea. The publication discussed accuracy requirements of the TSB measurement implementation, the relationship of sea level with a choice of the method of its determination, and discussed the implementation of such a measurement on a selected example. As the test reservoir was used the 400-meter stretch of the public beach in Gdynia. During the measurements they used the GNSS geodetic receiver operating in real time based on the geodetic network - VRSnet.pl. Additionally, a comparison was made of the applied method with analogous measurements of the TSB performed in 1999.

  1. Critical point measurement of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Eugene D.; Popov, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical properties of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured. • These hydrocarbons decompose at near-critical temperatures. • Pulse-heating method with short residence times was used. - Abstract: The critical temperatures and the critical pressures of five polycyclic aromatic compounds, namely, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene have been measured. All the compounds studied decompose at near-critical temperatures. A pulse-heating technique applicable to measuring the critical properties of thermally unstable compounds has been used. The times from the beginning of a heating pulse to the moment of reaching the critical temperature were from (0.06 to 0.85) ms. The short residence times provide little degradation of the substances in the course of the experiments. The experimental critical parameters of the polycyclic aromatic compounds have been compared with those estimated by five predictive methods. The acentric factors of polycyclic aromatic compounds studied have been calculated

  2. Some aspects of Adolf von Harnack’s criticism on Orthodox tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Buda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the critique that Adolf von Harnack (1851–1930 formulated on the Orthodox tradition in his famous book Das Wesen des Christentums, as well as to comment on its affirmations in the context of his time and way of thinking and to try and find explanations for his criticism. The article concludes that although Harnack’s critique on the Orthodox tradition may have presented negative perception of Orthodoxy, particularly amongst Protestants and many Orthodox theologians who were furious after reading his paper, yet, his critical affirmations also have constructive aspects. However, some of the conclusions of Harnack’s criticism are genuinely rejected by the Orthodox theologians and are no longer sustainable. As a theologian, Harnack cannot be considered an opponent of the modern ecumenical movement, but rather as one of its pioneers. Harnack could be included in the category of frank ecumenists who prefer to express in a critical, but constructive way that which he believes about his own Christian tradition, as well as other Christian traditions.

  3. Causal Measurement Models: Can Criticism Stimulate Clarification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    In their 2016 work, Aguirre-Urreta et al. provided a contribution to the literature on causal measurement models that enhances clarity and stimulates further thinking. Aguirre-Urreta et al. presented a form of statistical identity involving mapping onto the portion of the parameter space involving the nomological net, relationships between the…

  4. An aspect-oriented approach for designing safety-critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Z.; Zaykov, P. G.; Cardoso, J. P.; Coutinho, J. G. F.; Diniz, P. C.; Luk, W.

    The development of avionics systems is typically a tedious and cumbersome process. In addition to the required functions, developers must consider various and often conflicting non-functional requirements such as safety, performance, and energy efficiency. Certainly, an integrated approach with a seamless design flow that is capable of requirements modelling and supporting refinement down to an actual implementation in a traceable way, may lead to a significant acceleration of development cycles. This paper presents an aspect-oriented approach supported by a tool chain that deals with functional and non-functional requirements in an integrated manner. It also discusses how the approach can be applied to development of safety-critical systems and provides experimental results.

  5. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  6. Measurement and comparison of nursing faculty members' critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondy, Laurie C

    2011-03-01

    Nursing faculty members strive to teach students to think critically. It has long been assumed that nursing faculty members are good at critical thinking because they are expected to teach these skills to students, but this assumption has not been well supported empirically. Faculty members question their ability to think critically and are unsure of their skills. The purpose of this study was to address this assumption by measuring nursing faculty members' critical thinking skills and compare the faculty mean score to that of a student norming group, and to the mean scores of other nursing faculty studies. Findings can be used to increase nursing faculty members' understanding of their critical thinking skills, prompt discussion about critical thinking skills, and to help faculty members address concerns and uncertainty about the concept of critical thinking. This study also helps establish an empirical basis for future research.

  7. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral “form” visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se. PMID:25583504

  8. Some aspects related to stability, critical concentrations and kinetics of flocculation of the calcium phytate colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, F.J.M.; Alvarez, J.G.; Sanchis, S.E.; Munoz, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    As sup(99m)Tc-Ca phytate is an important radiopharmaceutical and its colloidal nature presents problems, we investigated some of them. This work describes the study of the colloidal behaviour of the calcium phytate colloid in terms of its formation, stability and kinetics of flocculation. The study of spontaneous, and centrifugation-induced flocculation allows the determination of two critical concentrations of sol flocculation. The titrations of calcium phytate colloid at different concentrations provide information on the colloidal formation conditions. Moreover, a study on flocculation kinetics was made by turbidity measurements. (author)

  9. Alternate measurements of benefit to criticality issues at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toffer, H.; Cabrilla, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    Measurements in a critical mass facility, such as the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility, could be performed on simulated nuclear waste materials that would provide important critical mass information and concurrently provide a calibration of alternate measurement techniques. In addition to criticality information, the measurements could also provide a better assessment of diluent material/neutron interaction cross sections. An Hanford, large quantities of fissionable materials are dispersed in tanks, fuel storage pools, and in solid waste. Although the fissionable materials are well diluted by a variety of neutron-moderating and -absorbing substances, it is difficult to assess the margin of subcriticality. A number of measurement approaches are proposed that will either help determine fissionable material concentrations, distributions, or provide a direct measure of subcriticality. The methods under consideration involve passive neutron counting, active neutron measurements, pulse neutron applications, neutron noise analyses, and cover gas evaluations. Active neutron measurements can also provide insight into the determination of neutron absorber concentrations. Efforts are underway to test some of the methods in actual waste tank environments and geometries. It is important that these methods be tested and calibrated in a critical mass facility.

  10. Alternate measurements of benefit to criticality issues at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Cabrilla, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements in a critical mass facility, such as the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility, could be performed on simulated nuclear waste materials that would provide important critical mass information and concurrently provide a calibration of alternate measurement techniques. In addition to criticality information, the measurements could also provide a better assessment of diluent material/neutron interaction cross sections. An Hanford, large quantities of fissionable materials are dispersed in tanks, fuel storage pools, and in solid waste. Although the fissionable materials are well diluted by a variety of neutron-moderating and -absorbing substances, it is difficult to assess the margin of subcriticality. A number of measurement approaches are proposed that will either help determine fissionable material concentrations, distributions, or provide a direct measure of subcriticality. The methods under consideration involve passive neutron counting, active neutron measurements, pulse neutron applications, neutron noise analyses, and cover gas evaluations. Active neutron measurements can also provide insight into the determination of neutron absorber concentrations. Efforts are underway to test some of the methods in actual waste tank environments and geometries. It is important that these methods be tested and calibrated in a critical mass facility

  11. Critical Aspects of the Innovation Management: the cases Natura and Oxiteno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Serafim da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study has as its objective to analyze the critical aspects of the innovation management in terms of structure, strategy and processes of innovation of the Natura and Oxiteno companies. In order to do so, the study reviewed the literature about innovation management, strategies and processes of innovation. A multiple case study was adopted for the Natura and Oxiteno cases. As their data, instrument documents were obtained and interviews were made with managers and researchers working with innovation in both companies. A qualitative approach for the proposed problem was also utilized. The result highlighted similarities and differences within the structures and strategies of how innovation is developed inside and outside each company and their own innovation processes. In the case of Natura, the innovation funnel and technology funnel were used, whereas, in the case of Oxiteno, the innovation funnel and technology silos. Natura was distinguished for their model of open innovation, within the network, and for its sustainability culture. On the other hand, Oxiteno stood out for the freedom it gave to researchers to propose innovation projects. The study presented contributions to the organizations and academia by indicating some limitations in their development processes, as well as suggestions for further studies.

  12. Demands, Potentials, and Economic Aspects of Thermal Spraying with Suspensions: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Filofteia-Laura; Potthoff, Annegret; Berger, Lutz-Michael; Leyens, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Research and development work for about one decade have demonstrated many unique thermal spray coating properties, particularly for oxide ceramic coatings by using suspensions of fine powders as feedstock in APS and HVOF processes. Some particular advantages are direct feeding of fine nano- and submicron-scale particles avoiding special feedstock powder preparation, ability to produce coating thicknesses ranging from 10 to 50 µm, homogeneous microstructure with less anisotropy and lower surface roughness compared to conventional coatings, possibility of retention of the initial crystalline phases, and others. This paper discusses the main aspects of thermal spraying with suspensions which have been taken into account in order to produce these coatings on an economical way. The economic efficiency of the process depends on the availability of suitable additional system components (suspension feeder, injectors), on the development and handling of stable suspensions, as well as on the high process stability for acceptance at industrial scale. Special focus is made on the development and processability of highly concentrated water-based suspensions. While costs and operational safety clearly speak for use of water as a liquid media for preparing suspensions on an industrial scale, its use is often critically discussed due to the required higher heat input during spraying compared to alcoholic suspensions.

  13. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of neurocysticercosis in Brazil: a critical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, Svetlana

    2003-09-01

    With the objective to show the characteristics of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil, was performed a critical analysis of national literature which showed a frequency of 1.5% in autopsies and 3.0% in clinical studies, corresponding to 0.3% of all admissions in general hospitals. In seroepidemiological studies the positivity of specific reactions was 2.3%. Brazilian patient with NCC presents a general clinical-epidemilogical profile (31-50 years old man, rural origin, complex partial epileptic crisis, increased protein levels or normal CSF, CT showing calcifications, constituting the inactive form of NCC), and a profile of severity (21-40 years old woman, urban origin, vascular headache and intracranial hypertension, typical CSF syndrome of NCC or alteration of two or more CSF parameters, CT showing vesicles and/or calcifications, constituting the active form of NCC). Although two localities from the state of S o Paulo have 72:100000 and 96:100000/habitants as prevalence coefficients, regional and national prevalences are very underestimated. Some aspects related to underestimation of NCC prevalence in Brazil are discussed.

  14. Pendulum support of the W7-X plasma vessel: Design, tests, manufacturing, assembly, critical aspects, status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missal, B., E-mail: bernd.missal@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Leher, F.; Schiller, T. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Werftstraße 17, 94469 Deggendorf (Germany); Friedrich, P. [Universität Rostock, FB Maschinenbau und Schiffstechnik, Albert-Einsteins-Straße 2, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Capriccioli, A. [ENEA Frascati, Fusion Technology Unit, Frascati (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma vessel support has to allow vertical adjustment and horizontal passive movement. • Planar sliding tables with PTFE do not fulfill all requirements. • Pendulums can fulfill all requirements. • Geometry and material of spherical bearings had to be optimized in calculations and tests. • Optimized pendulums were manufactured and assembled. - Abstract: The superconducting helical advanced stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Greifswald, Germany. The three dimensional shape of plasma will be generated by 50 non-planar magnetic coils. The plasma vessel geometry follows exactly this three dimensional shape of plasma. To ensure the superconductivity of coils a cryo vacuum has to be generated. Therefore the coils and their support structure are enclosed within the outer vessel. Plasma vessel, coil structures and outer vessel have to be supported separately. This paper will describe the vertical supports of plasma vessel which have to fulfill two special requirements, vertical adjustability and horizontal mobility. These two tasks will be carried out by plasma vessel supports (PVS) with hydraulic cylinders, special sliding tables during assembly and pendulum supports during operating phase. The paper will give an overview of design, calculation, tests, fabrication, assembly, critical aspects and status of PVS.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondelle, Matera (Italy). Direzione INFO

    1995-12-01

    As far as the Rubbia`s and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: (1) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. (2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. (3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. (4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods.

  16. Rapid Mapping Of Floods Using SAR Data: Opportunities And Critical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvirenti, Luca; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Chini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The potentiality of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for flood mapping was demonstrated by several past investigations. The synoptic view, the capability to operate in almost all-weather conditions and during both day time and night time and the sensitivity of the microwave band to water are the key features that make SAR data useful for monitoring inundation events. In addition, their high spatial resolution, which can reach 1m with the new generation of X-band instruments such as TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed (CSK), allows emergency managers to use flood maps at very high spatial resolution. CSK gives also the possibility of performing frequent observations of regions hit by floods, thanks to the four-satellite constellation. Current research on flood mapping using SAR is focused on the development of automatic algorithms to be used in near real time applications. The approaches are generally based on the low radar return from smooth open water bodies that behave as specular reflectors and appear dark in SAR images. The major advantage of automatic algorithms is the computational efficiency that makes them suitable for rapid mapping purposes. The choice of the threshold value that, in this kind of algorithms, separates flooded from non-flooded areas is a critical aspect because it depends on the characteristics of the observed scenario and on system parameters. To deal with this aspect an algorithm for automatic detection of the regions of low backscatter has been developed. It basically accomplishes three steps: 1) division of the SAR image in a set of non-overlapping sub-images or splits; 2) selection of inhomogeneous sub-images that contain (at least) two populations of pixels, one of which is formed by dark pixels; 3) the application in sequence of an automatic thresholding algorithm and a region growing algorithm in order to produce a homogeneous map of flooded areas. Besides the aforementioned choice of the threshold, rapid mapping of floods may

  17. The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Finlay, Andrew Yule; Salek, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Most existing health-related quality of life research concerns the impact of disease on patients. However, in several medical specialties including dermatology, oncology, and physical and mental disability, studies have been carried out investigating the impact of disease on the lives of families of patients. The aim of this paper is to review the literature which relates to the impact of disease on family members of patients. The OVIDSP Medline was selected as the primary database, Searches were limited to sources published in English. 158 papers were identified for review. The definition of "family" varied across the literature, and a broad definition was accepted in this review. This review shows that a wide variety of aspects of family members' lives can be affected, including emotional, financial, family relationships, education and work, leisure time, and social activities. Many of these themes are linked to one another, with themes including financial impact and social impact being linked to emotional impact. Some positive aspects were also identified from the literature, including family relationships growing stronger. Several instruments exist to measure the impact of illness on the family, and most are disease or specialty- specific. The impact of disease on families of patients is often unrecognised and underestimated. Taking into account the quality of life of families as well as patients can offer the clinician a unique insight into issues such as family relationships and the effect of treatment decisions on the patient's close social group of partner and family.

  18. Current-ripple effect on superconductive dc critical current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, L.F.; Bray, S.L.; Clark, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of sample-current power-supply ripple on dc critical current measurement in multifilamentary NbTi superconductors was evaluated. In general the ripple in a current supply became more significant above 500 A because effective filtering was hard to achieve. Ripple also caused noise at the input of the voltmeter used for the measurements. The quantitative effect of current ripple was studied using a battery current supply modified to allow the creation of ripple current with variable frequency and amplitude. Problems common to all large-conductor critical current measurements are discussed

  19. Key aspects on the non-proliferation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Carpintero, N.S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is both to present a reflection on the international policy evolution after the end of Cold War, with the emergence of islamic terrorism and also what we consider main aspects to take into account when dealing with terrorism possibility of having improvised nuclear devices (IND's)

  20. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...

  1. Developing Greek Primary School Students' Critical Thinking through an Approach of Teaching Science which Incorporates Aspects of History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsa, Katerina; Kasoutas, Michael; Kokkotas, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the development of sixth grade students' critical thinking skills in science courses is discussed relatively to the contribution of the integration of aspects of History of Science into instruction. Towards this direction a project on electromagnetism was designed and implemented aiming to engage primary school students in a…

  2. Electronic problem lists: a thematic analysis of a systematic literature review to identify aspects critical to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Chad M; Narus, Scott P

    2018-05-01

    Problem list data is a driving force for many beneficial clinical tools, yet these data remain underutilized. We performed a systematic literature review, pulling insights from previous research, aggregating insights into themes, and distilling themes into actionable advice. We sought to learn what changes we could make to existing applications, to the clinical workflow, and to clinicians' perceptions that would improve problem list utilization and increase the prevalence of problems data in the electronic medical record. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to systematically curate a corpus of pertinent articles. We performed a thematic analysis, looking for interesting excerpts and ideas. By aggregating excerpts from many authors, we gained broader, more inclusive insights into what makes a good problem list and what factors are conducive to its success. Analysis led to a list of 7 benefits of using the problem list, 15 aspects critical to problem list success, and knowledge to help inform policy development, such as consensus on what belongs on the problem list, who should maintain the problem list, and when. A list of suggestions is made on ways in which the problem list can be improved to increase utilization by clinicians. There is also a need for standard measurements of the problem list, so that lists can be measured, compared, and discussed with rigor and a common vocabulary.

  3. Preliminary concepts for materials measurement and accounting in critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Sapir, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary concepts are presented for improved materials measurement and accounting in large critical facilities. These concepts will be developed as part of a study that will emphasize international safeguarding of critical facilities. The major safeguards problem is the timely verification of in-reactor inventory during periods of reactor operation. This will require a combination of measurement, statistical sampling, and data analysis techniques. Promising techniques include integral measurements of reactivity and other reactor parameters that are sensitive to the total fissile inventory, and nondestructive assay measurements of the fissile material in reactor fuel drawers and vault storage canisters coupled with statistical sampling plans tailored for the specific application. The effectiveness of proposed measurement and accounting strategies will be evaluated during the study

  4. Summary of ORSphere critical and reactor physics measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader, J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF with highly enriched uranium (HEU metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. This critical configuration has been evaluated. Preliminary results were presented at ND2013. Since then, the evaluation was finalized and judged to be an acceptable benchmark experiment for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP. Additionally, reactor physics measurements were performed to determine surface button worths, central void worth, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron decay constant, fission density and neutron importance. These measurements have been evaluated and found to be acceptable experiments and are discussed in full detail in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. The purpose of this paper is to summarize all the evaluated critical and reactor physics measurements evaluations.

  5. Summary of ORSphere Critical and Reactor Physics Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Margaret A.; Bess, John D.

    2016-09-01

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J. J. Lynn, and J. R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. This critical configuration has been evaluated. Preliminary results were presented at ND2013. Since then, the evaluation was finalized and judged to be an acceptable benchmark experiment for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP). Additionally, reactor physics measurements were performed to determine surface button worths, central void worth, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron decay constant, fission density and neutron importance. These measurements have been evaluated and found to be acceptable experiments and are discussed in full detail in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. The purpose of this paper is summary summarize all the critical and reactor physics measurements evaluations and, when possible, to compare them to GODIVA experiment results.

  6. Summary of ORSphere critical and reactor physics measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Margaret A.; Bess, John D.

    2017-09-01

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. This critical configuration has been evaluated. Preliminary results were presented at ND2013. Since then, the evaluation was finalized and judged to be an acceptable benchmark experiment for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP). Additionally, reactor physics measurements were performed to determine surface button worths, central void worth, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron decay constant, fission density and neutron importance. These measurements have been evaluated and found to be acceptable experiments and are discussed in full detail in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. The purpose of this paper is to summarize all the evaluated critical and reactor physics measurements evaluations.

  7. Effects of finite aspect ratio on wind turbine airfoil measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark A.; Hultmark, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines partly operate in stalled conditions within their operational cycle. To simulate these conditions, it is also necessary to obtain 2-D airfoil data in terms of lift and drag coefficients at high angles of attack. Such data has been obtained previously, but often at low aspect ratios...... and only barely past the stall point, where strong wall boundary layer influence is expected. In this study, the influence of the wall boundary layer on 2D airfoil data, especially in the post stall domain, is investigated. Here, a wind turbine airfoil is tested at different angles of attack and with two...

  8. Development of assessment instruments to measure critical thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, W.; Supardi, K. I.; Widiarti, N.

    2018-04-01

    Assessment instruments that is commonly used in the school generally have not been orientated on critical thinking skills. The purpose of this research is to develop assessment instruments to measure critical thinking skills, to test validity, reliability, and practicality. This type of research is Research and Development. There are two stages on the preface step, which are field study and literacy study. On the development steps, there some parts, which are 1) instrument construction, 2) expert validity, 3) limited scale tryout and 4) narrow scale try-out. The developed assessment instrument are analysis essay and problem solving. Instruments were declared valid, reliable and practical.

  9. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of emergency response at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Emergency response at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is handled through a graded approach depending on the specific emergency situation . LANL maintains a comprehensive capability to respond to events ranging from minor facility events (alerts) through major community events (general emergencies), including criticality accidents . Criticality safety and emergency response apply to all activities involving significant quantities of fissile material at LANL, primarily at Technical Area 18 (TA-18, the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility) and Technical Area 55 (TA-55, the Plutonium Facility). This discussion focuses on response to a criticality accident at TA-55; the approach at TA-18 is comparable .

  10. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M.

    1966-01-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [fr

  11. Gloss as an aspect of the measurement of appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Pointer, Mike R.; Luo, Ronnier M.; Dakin, John

    2006-01-01

    The perception and measurement of gloss is just one part of the concept of appearance measurement. We describe the comparison between data derived by 20 observers who each scaled the perceived gloss of a set of 84 neutral and colored test samples and measurements of those samples made using a glossmeter and a sphere-based spectrophotometer. With a glossmeter, the relationship between the visual-scaled data and the measured gloss values could be described by a three-part linear fit or, with a higher correlation, a cubic function. For the sphere-based spectrophotometer, the difference in the luminance factor, DeltaY, between specular-included and specular-excluded measurements, was found to give a better linear correlation with the observer-scaled data. The color of the samples did not appear to significantly change the perceived gloss of the surface.

  12. K-effective as a measure of criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venner, J.; Haley, R.M.; Bowden, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the relation between the neutron multiplication of a system, k-effective, and critical parameters. It aims to investigate whether k-effective is always the most appropriate measure of safety. For simple systems handbook data can be effectively utilized, applying a safety factor to critical masses. In such situations, the criticality safety margin is readily apparent. However, more complex systems may use the calculated value of neutron multiplication to assess the criticality safety of the system under investigation. A problem arises because there is no exact consistency between k-effective and the physical margin of subcriticality, in terms of parameters such as mass. In the UK, commonly accepted safety criteria are applied to limit the k-effective of the system being assessed. These margins of subcriticality have no definitive justification to support the values chosen and might be considered rather arbitrary in nature. This paper aims to answer this question of suitability by investigating the relation between k-effective and the physical critical parameters for a wide range of systems. It concludes that the safety criteria currently applied in the UK are valid, but some difference exists between safety factors applied to the mass of fissile material present and the corresponding value of k-effective. (author)

  13. Summations over equilaterally triangulated surfaces and the critical string measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, D.J.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the summation over dynamically triangulated Riemann surfaces which does not rely on properties of the potential in a matrix model. Instead, we formulate a purely algebraic discretization of critical string path integral. This is combined with a technique which assigns to each equilateral triangulation of a two-dimensional surface a Riemann surface defined over a certain finite extension of the field of rational numbers, i.e. an arithmetic surface. Thus we establish a new formulated in which the sum over randomly triangulated surfaces defines an invariant measure on the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces. It is shown that because of this it is far from obvious that this measure for large genera approximates the measure defined by the continuum theory, i.e. Liouville theory or critical string theory. In low genus this subtlety does not exist. In the case of critical string theory we explicitly compute the volume of the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces in terms of the modular height function and show that for low genus it approximates correctly the continuum measure. We also discuss a continuum limit which bears some resemblance with a double scaling limit in matrix models. (orig.)

  14. Chlorophyll as a measure of plant health: Agroecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Pavlović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As photosynthesis is the basic process during which light energy is absorbed and converted into organic matter, the importance of the plant pigment chlorophyll (a and b forms as an intermediary in transformation of the absorbed solar energy and its activity in the process of photosynthesis and synthesis of organic substances in plants are crucial. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of methods for monitoring the optical activity of chlorophyll molecules and methods (non-destructive and destructive for quantification of chlorophyll in plants. These methods are used to estimate the effects of different stress factors (abiotic, biotic and xenobiotic on the efficiency of photosynthesis and bioproductivity, aiming to assess the impact that these limiting factors have on the yield of various cultivars. Also, those methods for analysis of chlorophyll optical activity and/or content are appropriate for assessing the reaction of weed species to different agricultural practices (mineral nutrition, treatment by herbicides, etc. and studies of different aspects of weed ecophysiology and their influence on crop harvest.

  15. Aspects of volumetric efficiency measurement for reciprocating engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Radivoje B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric efficiency significantly influences engine output. Both design and dimensions of an intake and exhaust system have large impact on volumetric efficiency. Experimental equipment for measuring of airflow through the engine, which is placed in the intake system, may affect the results of measurements and distort the real picture of the impact of individual structural factors. This paper deals with the problems of experimental determination of intake airflow using orifice plates and the influence of orifice plate diameter on the results of the measurements. The problems of airflow measurements through a multi-process Otto/Diesel engine were analyzed. An original method for determining volumetric efficiency was developed based on in-cylinder pressure measurement during motored operation, and appropriate calibration of the experimental procedure was performed. Good correlation between the results of application of the original method for determination of volumetric efficiency and the results of theoretical model used in research of influence of the intake pipe length on volumetric efficiency was determined. [Acknowledgments. The paper is the result of the research within the project TR 35041 financed by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia

  16. Theoretical and practical aspects of measuring market potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlagić Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of research in this paper refers to the theoretical, practical and methodological aspects of the assessment of market potential. It presents the main factors relevant to assessing market potential. The process of evaluating the market potential is important, first of all, for optimal adoption of future strategic decisions in business. Planning of business processes is one of the main reasons for the assessment of the market potential and managers often face, when planning, the environmental factors that can not be influenced. Realistic and quality assessment of market potential and sales forecasting in companies becomes not only a means of gaining competitive advantage, but also a necessary condition for long-term development and survival in the market. Knowledge of the potential market increases the efficiency of business operations. To this end, the theoretical, methodological and practical problems of assessment of market potential were analyzed. The need for this is all the more pronounced because of objective, reliable and valid assessment of the market potential is a prerequisite of business improvement and long-term development of enterprises. The aim was to explain the characteristics of the market potential as one of the primary market sizes in order to carry out its assessment. In this context, it was necessary to identify the main factors influencing the assessment of market potential. Results of the study showed that factors of macro and micro environment of the company, competition and purchasing power determine the market potential of edible oil in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the empirical part of the paper are applied most common methods of assessment of market potential.

  17. A Critical Overview of Models of Reading Comprehension with a Focus on Cognitive Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Shahnazari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reading is a cognitive activity involving skills, strategies, attentional resources, knowledge resources and their integration. The reader’s role is to decode the written symbols to allow for the recovery of information from long-term memory to construct a plausible interpretation of the writer’s message. Various number of reading models have been proposed by researchers among which some focus on motivational and emotional aspects of reading. Others highlight the cognitive aspects of reading. In this study, the models characterizing reading in terms of cognitive aspects are revieweded, and different viewpoints on the reading process are described. This may help EFL/ESL teachers to improve their understanding of the reading process, update their perspectives on teaching reading tasks which in turn might result in more efficient learning by not putting too much cognitively demanding reading tasks on EFL/ESL learners.

  18. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie C. Frankle; Judith F. Briesmeister

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k{sub eff} measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a {sup 252}Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented.

  19. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, Stephanie C.; Briesmeister, Judith F.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k eff measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a 252 Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented

  20. Discussant Remarks on Session: Statistical Aspects of Measuring the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    1999-04-02

    These remarks will briefly summarize what we learn from the talks in this session, and add some more areas in Internet Measurement that may provide challenges for statisticians. It will also point out some reasons why statisticians may be interested in working in this area.

  1. A critical review on some aspects of the theory of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    The lecture notes display briefly some of the facets which eventually will be part of a theory for the fission process. They cover some important aspects of our present understanding in a qualitative fashion and complement the existing review articles rather than replacing them. The notes include sections on (I) The Bohr-Wheeler Fission of a Drop, (II) The Strutinsky-Swiatecki Quantum Droplet, (III) The Question of Inertias of a Fluid in Motion, (IV) Some Selected Aspects of the Distributions of Mass and Kinetic Energy, and (V) Possible Relations Between the Phenomenological Models and Self-Consistent Field Approximations. (author)

  2. SOME ASPECTS IN HEIGHT MEASUREMENT BY UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Matsuoka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an experiment to investigate the feasibility of the deformation measurement of a large-scale solar power plant on reclaimed land by UAV photogrammetry. Two teams engaged in the experiment at first. One, which is called Team-A, carried out orientation of images following the procedure of conventional aerial photogrammetry. The other, which is called Team-C, executed that in the manner of close range photogrammetry. The RMSE in height measurement by Team-A was 121.5 mm, while that by Team-C was 8.7 mm. This paper reports an analysis conducted in order to investigate the cause of the large difference in height measurement accuracy between Team-A and Team-C. In the analysis the third team, which is called Team-S, conducts supplementary orientation by using the images utilized by Team-A in the same manner as Team-C did. The RMSE in height measurement by Team-S is 19.1 mm. Our investigation focuses on the difference of the arrangement of points utilized in the orientation. Team-A selected pass points and tie points on image automatically by Intergraph’s ImageStation Automatic Triangulation (ISAT software, while Team-C and Team-S selected points to be utilized in orientation manually so that selected points are distributed uniformly in the experiment area. From the results of the analysis we conclude that the sets of tie points along a straight line on a plane that were selected automatically by the ISAT would bring the low accuracy in height measurement by Team-A.

  3. Technical aspects and limitations of fractional flow reserve measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerabek, Stepan; Kovarnik, Tomas

    2018-02-27

    The only indication for coronary revascularization is elimination of ischaemia. Invasive hemodynamic methods (fractional flow reserve - FFR and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) are superior to coronary angiography in detection of lesions causing myocardial ischaemia. Current European guidelines for myocardial revascularization recommend using of FFR for detection of functional assessment of lesions severity in category IA and number of these procedures increases. However, routine usage of these methods requires knowledge of technical requirements and limitations. The aim of the study is to summarise good clinical practice for FFR and iFR measurements with explanation of possible technical challenges, that are necessary for increasing of measurement accuracy. Authors describe frequent technical mistakes and malpractice during invasive assessment of lesion severity in coronary arteries.

  4. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; D'Aquila, D.M.; McGinnis, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm system installed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was tested extensively at critical facilities located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The ability of the neutron scintillator radiation detection units to respond to a minimum accident of concern as defined in Standard ANSI/ANS-83.-1986 was demonstrated. Detector placement and the established trip point are based on shielding calculations performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and criticality specialists at the Portsmouth plant. Based on these experiments and calculations, a detector trip point of 5 mrad/h in air is used. Any credible criticality accident is expected to produce neutron radiation fields >5 mrad/h in air at one or more radiation alarm locations. Each radiation alarm location has a cluster of three detectors that employs a two-out-of-three alarm logic. Earlier work focused on testing the alarm logic latching circuitry. This work was directed toward measurements involving the actual audible alarm signal delivered

  5. Measuring change in critical thinking skills of dental students educated in a PBL curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardamean, Bens

    2012-04-01

    This study measured the change in critical thinking skills of dental students educated in a problem-based learning (PBL) pedagogical method. The quantitative analysis was focused on measuring students' critical thinking skills achievement from their first through third years of dental education at the University of Southern California. This non-experimental evaluation was based on a volunteer sample of ninety-eight dental students who completed a demographics/academic questionnaire and a psychometric assessment known as the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT). The HSRT produced the overall critical thinking skills score. Additionally, the HSRT generated five subscale scores: analysis, inference, evaluation, deductive reasoning, and inductive reasoning. The results of this study concluded that the students showed no continuous and significant incremental improvement in their overall critical thinking skills score achievement during their PBL-based dental education. Except for the inductive reasoning score, this result was very consistent with the four subscale scores. Moreover, after performing the statistical adjustment on total score and subscale scores, no significant statistical differences were found among the three student groups. However, the results of this study found some aspects of critical thinking achievements that differed by categories of gender, race, English as first language, and education level.

  6. Absolute measurement of the critical scattering cross section in cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinka, C.J.; Minkiewicz, V.J.; Passell, L.

    1975-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering techniques have been used to study the angular distribution of the critical scattering from cobalt above T/sub c/. These measurements have been put on an absolute scale by calibrating the critical scattering directly against the nuclear incoherent scattering from cobalt. In this way the interaction range r 1 , which appears in the classical and modified Ornstein--Zernike expressions for the asymptotic form of the spin pair correlation function and is related to the strength of the spin correlations, has been determined. We obtain r 1 /a = 0.46 +- 0.03 for the ratio of the interaction range to the nearest-neighbor distance in cobalt. This result is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Lack of agreement among previous determinations of the ratio r 1 /a made in iron failed to provide a definitive comparison with theory

  7. Company, Sustainability and Social Responsibility: Origins, Motivations, Critical and Practical Aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribeiro Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the sustainability and its historical aspects, the emergence of global concern about the subject, with sustainable economic development and its major initiatives, from the effective involvement of the States in the discussions in the search for consensus in the quality of life on the planet, rationality in the exploitation of natural resources and concern for future generations. We research also the context of social responsibility (business, starting at historical aspect to following analyze its interrelationship as an instrument to combat the problem of social inequality and poverty, was discoursing on the possibility of state action while inducing corporate behavior on this theme, describing the concrete experience revealed in the actions of the Federal Public Ministry, through award-winning design that became known as "Green Cities / Meat Legal".

  8. Human Aspect as a Critical Factor for Organization Sustainability in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ulus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations adopt diverse strategies to govern the technical and managerial aspects of sustainability implementation processes. The need for better leading and managing people-related issues emerges as companies aim for more effective change towards sustainability. The human aspect of the sustainability implementation process is mostly not paid enough attention, but it can significantly affect the success of a change management program by creating hurdles or easing the process. This study considers three human-related factors: resistance to change, internal communication, and employee engagement in sustainability activities of organizations. The aim of the study is to explore how these human factors are managed by tourism companies for organizational sustainability. For this purpose four companies from different sectors of tourism are chosen as case studies and the results are examined using qualitative data analysis techniques. The results indicate that the companies which are in a more advanced stage of sustainability implementation manage human factors using a greater number of channels and employ varied strategies. The results can provide insights into how organizations tackle the challenges of managing human aspect and display the practices that contribute to successful change management programs for achieving organizational sustainability through people.

  9. Methodological aspects of EEG and Body dynamics measurements during motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eReis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available EEG involves recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp originating from brain grey matter. EEG is one of the favorite methods to study and understand processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements, that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions of how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determination of real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks.

  10. [Methodical aspects of pneumatic segment plethysmography. III. Measuring tourniquet problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, K P; de Caleya, D

    1976-08-01

    The question, to which extent utilization of different plethysmographic cuffs influenced the assessment of volume changes, was examined in 40 healthy individuals as well as by means of an experimental model. It could be shown that plethysmographic results varied significantly according to the design of the cuffs: 1.a) Utilization of short (19.5 cm) cuffs that did not cover the entire thigh circumference resulted in significantly lower arterial inflow and pressure-dependent venous capacity measurements as compared to long cuffs (48.8 cm). b) This result was confirmed by use of a newly developed "calibration-cylinder" demonstrating that use of the short cuff showed only 62.2% of the true volume change, use of the long cuff, however, 89.6%. Deficiency of thigh contact is discussed as possible etiologic factor for this difference. 2. The cover material of the cuff also influenced the results significantly since results could be improved from 62.2% to 86.9% (short cuff) and from 89.6% to 95.1% (long cuff) by use of double layer non-compliant cloth. The reason for this finding is thought to be the compliance of conventional cloth. 3. Comparison of two cuffs with identical shape and dimensions resulted in significantly lower volume changes using hard stiff rubber as compared to soft compliant rubber. These findings suggest some recommendations for optimal design of plethysmographic cuffs. Cuffs should not underestimate volume changes obtained with the "calibration-cylinder" by more than 10%.

  11. Critical Reading Skills and Translation Ability of Thai EFL Students: Pragmatic, Syntactic, and Semantic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwantaneeyakul, Suttawan

    2018-01-01

    Translation ability requires many language skills to produce an accurate and complete text; however, one important skill, critical reading in the research, has been neglected. This research, therefore, employed the explanatory sequential mixed method to investigate the differences in Thai-English translation ability between students with a high…

  12. Protein Anabolism in Critically Ill Children: Pathophysiological aspects and interventional challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. de Betue (Carlijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCritical illness can be defi ned as “a life threatening medical or surgical condition usually requiring intensive care unit (ICU) level care“ [1]. It mostly results from infection, sepsis and trauma (including surgery and burns). Th ese conditions are accompanied by

  13. [Gymnastic school sport injuries--aspects of preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C

    2006-06-01

    Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.

  14. Measurement of supercritical CO2 critical flow: Effects of L/D and surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignot, Guillaume P.; Anderson, Mark H.; Corradini, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of supercritical fluids (SCF) has been proposed for advanced power systems including advanced sodium reactors, since these fluids can provide higher thermal efficiency and reduced system component size. Data characterizing the behavior of SCF during a blowdown or rapid depressurization are essential to validate certain aspects of safety analyses. This paper describes the results of an experiment to measure the critical mass flux for numerous stagnation thermodynamic conditions, geometry and outlet tube roughness. It was found that a 1D homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) was capable of relatively good (less than 10% error) prediction of the test data.

  15. Performance Evaluation and Measurement of the Organization in Strategic Analysis and Control: Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Živan Ristić; Neđo Balaban

    2006-01-01

    Information acquired by measuring and evaluation are a necessary condition for good decision-making in strategic management. This work deals with : (a) Methodological aspects of evaluation (kinds of evaluation, metaevaluation) and measurement (supposition of isomorphism in measurement, kinds and levels of measurement, errors in measurement and the basic characteristics of measurement) (b) Evaluation and measurement of potential and accomplishments of the organization in Kaplan-Norton perspect...

  16. Ferromagnetic quantum criticality: New aspects from the phase diagram of LaCrGe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2018-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies have shown that ferromagnetic quantum criticality is always avoided in clean systems. Two possibilities have been identified. In the first scenario, the ferromagnetic transition becomes of the first order at a tricritical point before being suppressed. A wing structure phase diagram is observed indicating the possibility of a new type of quantum critical point under magnetic field. In a second scenario, a transition to a modulated magnetic phase occurs. Our recent studies on the compound LaCrGe3 illustrate a third scenario where not only a new magnetic phase occurs, but also a change of order of the transition at a tricritical point leading to a wing-structure phase diagram. Careful experimental study of the phase diagram near the tricritical point also illustrates new rules near this type of point.

  17. The ethical aspect of observation and criticism of the term European science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Brankica V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies primarily on criticism of Husserl of the European nations to which he looks inside the main context and the history of Western metaphysics and philosophy through the lens of European culture in general. The main deposited tradition of science, according to Husserl, has its core in theory inaugurated by Galileo, which becomes explicit with Descartes philosophy and affirmed the works of Newton, Leibniz, and Kant. This tradition of science Husserl calls 'Galilean science' while his critique of Cartesian spirit is derived from perceptions of philosophical centrality of the concept of 'world - life' as a valid basis and source of all knowledge of reality. Implicit in this criticism turning to Husserl experience with intuitive-reflective method seeks its evidence within the contours of the human experience, i.e. activities of the entity as a living body, which is a cognitive dualism overcome.

  18. Climate: some aspects of sceptical criticism; Climat: quelques elements de critique sceptique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    The author discusses some reasons to be sceptical about the media-supported idea of an actual climate change, and more particularly about the critical role assigned to carbon dioxide in global warming, about the ability to make the distinction between natural and man-induced climate variations, about the quality of models and simulations, about the knowledge on climate physics, about the interpretation of the recently observed warming (since 1997)

  19. Non-critical string theory formulation of microtubule dynamics and quantum aspects of brain function

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E

    1995-01-01

    Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytosceletal structures, seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. We cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a 1+1-dimensional non-critical string theory, thus enabling us to provide a consistent quantum treatment of MTs, including enviromental {\\em friction} effects. We suggest, thus, that the MTs are the microsites, in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the {\\em preconscious states}. Quantum space-time effects, as described by non-critical string theory, trigger then an {\\em organized collapse} of the coherent states down to a specific or {\\em conscious state}. The whole process we estimate to take {\\cal O}(1\\,{\\rm sec}), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The {\\em microscopic arrow of time}, endemic in non-critical string theory, and apparent here in the self-collapse process, provides a satisfactory and simple resolution to the age...

  20. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  1. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, J.E. [Parallax, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  2. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) in the diffusion cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF 6 in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF 6 in plant operations

  3. A critical perspective on early communications concerning human health aspects of microplastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Sinja; Carney Almroth, Bethanie; Hartmann, Nanna B.

    2018-01-01

    exposure. We risk pulling the focus away from the root of the problem: the way in which we consume, use and dispose of plastics leading to their widespread presence in our everyday life and in the environment. Therefore we urge for a more careful and balanced discussion which includes these aspects.......Microplastic research in recent years has shown that small plastic particles are found almost everywhere we look. Besides aquatic and terrestrial environments, this also includes aquatic species intended for human consumption and several studies have reported their prevalence in other food products...... in certain products. While plastics can undoubtedly be hazardous to human health due to toxicity of associated chemicals or as a consequence of particle toxicity, the extent to which microplastics in individual food products and beverages contribute to this is debatable. Considering the enormous use...

  4. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Topological Aspects of Critical Systems and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubo, Kousuke; Amitsuka, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Goo; Machino, Kazuo; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Tanda, Satoshi; Yamada, Hideto; Kichiji, Nozomi

    2007-07-01

    I. General properties of networks. Physics of network security / Y.-C. Lai, X. Wand and C. H. Lai. Multi-state interacting particle systems on scale-free networks / N. Masuda and N. Konno. Homotopy Reduction of Complex Networks 18 / Y. Hiraoka and T. Ichinomiya. Analysis of the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Model on Complex Network / T. Ichinomiya -- II. Complexity in social science. Innovation and Development in a Random Lattice / J. Lahtinen. Long-tailed distributions in biological systems: revisit to Lognormals / N. Kobayashi ... [et al.]. Two-class structure of income distribution in the USA:exponential bulk and power-law tail / V. M. Yakovenko and A. Christian Silva. Power Law distributions in two community currencies / N. Kichiji and M. Nishibe -- III. Patterns in biological objects. Stoichiometric network analysis of nonlinear phenomena in rection mechanism for TWC converters / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Collective movement and morphogenesis of epithelial cells / H. Haga and K. Kawabata. Indecisive behavior of amoeba crossing an environmental barrier / S. Takagi ... [et al.]. Effects of amount of food on path selection in the transport network of an amoeboid organism / T. Nakagaki ... [et al.]. Light scattering study in double network gels / M. Fukunaya ... [et al.].Blood flow velocity in the choroid in punctate inner choroidopathy and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease; amd multifractal analysis of choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration / K. Yoshida ... [et al.]. Topological analysis of placental arteries: correlation with neonatal growth / H. Yamada and K. Yakubo -- IV. Criticality in pure and applied physics. Droplets in Disordered Metallic Quantum Critical Systems / A. H. Castro Neto and B. A. Jones. Importance of static disorder and inhomogeneous cooperative dynamics in heavy-fermion metals / O. O. Bernal. Competition between spin glass and Antiferromagnetic phases in heavy fermion materials / S. Sullow. Emergent Phases via Fermi surface

  5. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.

  6. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165

  7. How to Measure Critical Health Competences: Development and Validation of the Critical Health Competence Test (CHC Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckelberg, Anke; Hulfenhaus, Christian; Kasper, Jurgen; Rost, Jurgen; Muhlhauser, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Consumers' autonomy regarding health increasingly requires competences to critically appraise health information. Critical health literacy refers to the concept of evidence-based medicine. Instruments to measure these competences in curriculum evaluation and surveys are lacking. We aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure critical…

  8. Family satisfaction with critical care: measurements and messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Hans U; Stricker, Kay H; Heyland, Daren K

    2010-12-01

    Family satisfaction in the ICU reflects the extent to which perceived needs and expectations of family members of critically ill patients are met by healthcare professionals. Here, we present recently developed tools to assess family satisfaction, with a special focus on their psychometric properties. Assessing family satisfaction, however, is not of much use if it is not followed by interpretation of the results and, if needed, consecutive measures to improve care of the patients and their families, or improvement in communication and decision-making. Accordingly, this review will outline recent findings in this field. Finally, possible areas of future research are addressed. To assess family satisfaction in the ICU, several domains deserve attention. They include, among others, care of the patient, counseling and emotional support of family members, information and decision-making. Overall, communication between physicians or nurses and members of the family remains a key topic, and there are many opportunities to improve. They include not only communication style, timing and appropriate wording but also, for example, assessments to see if information was adequately received and also understood. Whether unfulfilled needs of individual members of the family or of the family as a social system result in negative long-term sequels remains an open question. Assessing and analyzing family satisfaction in the ICU ultimately will support healthcare professionals in their continuing effort to improve care of critically ill patients and their families.

  9. Designing a suite of measurements to understand the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Susan L.; DiBiase, Roman A.; Russo, Tess A.; Shi, Yuning; Lin, Henry; Davis, Kenneth J.; Kaye, Margot; Hill, Lillian; Kaye, Jason; Eissenstat, David M.; Hoagland, Beth; Dere, Ashlee L.; Neal, Andrew L.; Brubaker, Kristen M.; Arthur, Dan K.

    2016-03-01

    Many scientists have begun to refer to the earth surface environment from the upper canopy to the depths of bedrock as the critical zone (CZ). Identification of the CZ as an integral object worthy of study implicitly posits that the study of the whole earth surface will provide benefits that do not arise when studying the individual parts. To study the CZ, however, requires prioritizing among the measurements that can be made - and we do not generally agree on the priorities. Currently, the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) is expanding from a small original focus area (0.08 km2, Shale Hills catchment), to a larger watershed (164 km2, Shavers Creek watershed) and is grappling with the prioritization. This effort is an expansion from a monolithologic first-order forested catchment to a watershed that encompasses several lithologies (shale, sandstone, limestone) and land use types (forest, agriculture). The goal of the project remains the same: to understand water, energy, gas, solute, and sediment (WEGSS) fluxes that are occurring today in the context of the record of those fluxes over geologic time as recorded in soil profiles, the sedimentary record, and landscape morphology. Given the small size of the Shale Hills catchment, the original design incorporated measurement of as many parameters as possible at high temporal and spatial density. In the larger Shavers Creek watershed, however, we must focus the measurements. We describe a strategy of data collection and modeling based on a geomorphological and land use framework that builds on the hillslope as the basic unit. Interpolation and extrapolation beyond specific sites relies on geophysical surveying, remote sensing, geomorphic analysis, the study of natural integrators such as streams, groundwaters or air, and application of a suite of CZ models. We hypothesize that measurements of a few important variables at strategic locations within a geomorphological framework will allow

  10. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; McGinnis, B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs

  11. Methodological aspects of functional neuroimaging at high field strength: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheef, L.; Landsberg, M.W.; Boecker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The last few years have proven that high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior in nearly every way to conventional equipment up to 1.5 tesla (T). Following the global success of 3T-scanners in research institutes and medical practices, a new generation of MRI devices with field strengths of 7T and higher is now on the horizon. The introduction of ultra high fields has brought MRI technology closer to the physical limitations and increasingly greater costs are required to achieve this goal. This article provides a critical overview of the advantages and problems of functional neuroimaging using ultra high field strengths. This review is principally limited to T2*-based functional imaging techniques not dependent on contrast agents. The main issues include the significance of high field technology with respect to SNR, CNR, resolution, and sequences, as well as artifacts, noise exposure, and SAR. Of great relevance is the discussion of parallel imaging, which will presumably determine the further development of high and ultra high field strengths. Finally, the importance of high field strengths for functional neuroimaging is explained by selected publications. (orig.)

  12. A Critical Survey of Optimization Models for Tactical and Strategic Aspects of Air Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a critical review of the principal existing optimization models that have been applied to Air Traffic Flow Management (TFM). Emphasis will be placed on two problems, the Generalized Tactical Flow Management Problem (GTFMP) and the Ground Holding Problem (GHP), as well as on some of their variations. To perform this task, we have carried out an extensive literature review that has covered more than 40 references, most of them very recent. Based on the review of this emerging field our objectives were to: (i) identify the best available models; (ii) describe typical contexts for applications of the models; (iii) provide illustrative model formulations; and (iv) identify the methodologies that can be used to solve the models. We shall begin our presentation below by providing a brief context for the models that we are reviewing. In Section 3 we shall offer a taxonomy and identify four classes of models for review. In Sections 4, 5, and 6 we shall then review, respectively, models for the Single-Airport Ground Holding Problem, the Generalized Tactical FM P and the Multi-Airport Ground Holding Problem (for the definition of these problems see Section 3 below). In each section, we identify the best available models and discuss briefly their computational performance and applications, if any, to date. Section 7 summarizes our conclusions about the state of the art.

  13. Rocket Engine Health Management: Early Definition of Critical Flight Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Rick L.; Nelson, Michael A.; Butas, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA led Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program has established key requirements related to safety, reliability, launch availability and operations cost to be met by the next generation of reusable launch vehicles. Key to meeting these requirements will be an integrated vehicle health management ( M) system that includes sensors, harnesses, software, memory, and processors. Such a system must be integrated across all the vehicle subsystems and meet component, subsystem, and system requirements relative to fault detection, fault isolation, and false alarm rate. The purpose of this activity is to evolve techniques for defining critical flight engine system measurements-early within the definition of an engine health management system (EHMS). Two approaches, performance-based and failure mode-based, are integrated to provide a proposed set of measurements to be collected. This integrated approach is applied to MSFC s MC-1 engine. Early identification of measurements supports early identification of candidate sensor systems whose design and impacts to the engine components must be considered in engine design.

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.280 - What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'s performance are important to measure? 102-117.280 Section 102-117.280 Public Contracts and... § 102-117.280 What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure? Important TSP performance...) Percentage of customer satisfaction reports on carrier performance. ...

  15. Biological Aspects of the Critically Endangered Fish, Labeo boga in the Ganges River, Northwestern Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.Y.; Jahan, S.; Jewel, M.A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the first complete and inclusive description of some biological parameters including length-frequency distribution (LFD), sex ratio (SR), length-weight relationship (LWR), condition factors (allometric, KA; Fultons, KF; relative, KR and relative weight, WR) and form factor (a3.0) of Labeo boga in the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. Sampling was conducted using traditional fishing gears during April 2011 to March 2012. For each specimen, total length (TL) was measured to the nearest 0.01 cm using digital slide calipers and total body weight (BW) was measured using an electronic balance with 0.01 g accuracy. The LWR was calculated using the expression: W= a Lb, where W is the BW and L is the TL. A total of 211 specimens ranging from 9.78-27.50 cm TL and 10.00 to 276.10 g BW were studied. BW of females was significantly higher than that of males (Mann-Whitney U-test, p>0.001). However the overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from the expected value of 1:1 (X"2 = 0.12, p > 3.00) in males, females and combined gender and there were significant differences in the intercepts but not in the slopes between the sexes of L. boga in the Ganges River. KF of females was significantly higher than that for males (p<0.001). In addition, the Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that the WR did not differ from 100 for males and females in this study indicating good condition of habitat for L. boga. The results of this study would be an effective tool for fishery specialists to initiate early management strategies and regulations for the sustainable management of the remaining stocks of this species within the Padma River and surrounding ecosystems. (author)

  16. The form of the story: Measuring formal aspects of narrative activity in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Döll-Hentschker, Susanne

    2017-05-01

    We ask which are the clinically relevant qualities of narratives in psychotherapy and how they can be measured. On the background of psychoanalytic assumptions and narrative theory, we propose to measure formal narrative processes which stay close to the linguistic surface, because these escape conscious control. We propose five aspects of narratives to be especially sensitive to distortions and therefore prone to change in successful therapies: (1) The actual chronological, stepwise narrating of events, (2) the intentional structuring of events, or emplotment, (3) the immediate evaluation, (4) the reflected interpretation of events, and finally (5) the consistency and completeness of the narrative. For each aspect we discuss ways to measure them. Finally the aspects are illustrated with excerpts from a series of diagnostic interviews. Implications for the analysis of the co-narrative role of the therapist are suggested.

  17. Study by the Prandtl-Glauert method of compressibility effects and critical Mach number for ellipsoids of various aspect ratios and thickness ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V; Gardner, Clifford S

    1947-01-01

    By using the Prandtl-Glauert method that is valid for three-dimensional flow problems, the value of the maximum incremental velocity for compressible flow about thin ellipsoids at zero angle of attack is calculated as a function of the Mach number for various aspect ratios and thickness ratios. The critical Mach numbers of the various ellipsoids are also determined. The results indicate an increase in critical Mach number with decrease in aspect ratio which is large enough to explain experimental results on low-aspect-ratio wings at zero lift.

  18. Upper critical field measurements in high-Tc superconducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousset, J. C.; Bobo, J. F.; Ulmet, J. P.; Rakoto, H.; Cheggour, N.

    We present upper critical field measurements on the superconducting oxides RE Ba2Cu3O7-δ (RE = Y, Gd) performed in a pulsed magnetic field up to 43 T. Values for Hc2 as high as 52 T and 77 T for Y and Gd respectively, are expected at 77 K. However, in order to observe no resistive behaviour up to 43 T the temperature must be decreased down to 50 K. In the case of oxygen deficient systems the magnetoresistance reveals two superconducting phases wich could be related to two different orders of oxygen vacancies. Nous présentons des mesures de champ critique Hc2 sur les supraconducteurs TR Ba 2Cu3O7-δ (TR = Y, Gd) réalisées en champ magnétique pulsé jusqu'à 43 T. Elles permettent de prévoir des valeurs de H c2 de 52 T et 77 T respectivement pour Y et Gd à 77 K. Cependant, pour ne pas observer de comportement résistif jusqu'au champ maximum, il est nécessaire de refroidir l'échantillon jusqu'à 50 K. Dans le cas des systèmes déficients en oxygène (δ important) nous mettons en évidence l'existence de deux phases supraconductrices qui pourraient être dues à deux ordres différents des lacunes d'oxygène.

  19. Measuring critical thinking in a political context | Bester | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly, a significant correlation was found between political knowledge and critical thinking abilities in a political context. This implied that critical thinking ability varied directly with the amount of knowledge of the subject required by the problem. Thirdly, the results of the research indicated that gender and environment ...

  20. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; van Riet, M M J; Hendriks, W H

    2017-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE)

  1. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Riet, van M.M.J.; Visser, P.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2017-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE)

  2. Critical outlook and trends for environmental reference materials at the Measurements & Testing Generic Activity (European Commission).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, P; Bennink, D; Bøwadt, S

    2001-05-01

    It is now well recognised that the quality control (QC) of all types of analyses, including environmental analyses depends on the appropriate use of reference materials. One of the ways to check the accuracy of methods is based on the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), whereas other types of (not certified) Reference Materials (RMs) are used for routine quality control (establishment of control charts) and interlaboratory testing (e.g. proficiency testing). The perception of these materials, in particular with respect to their production and use, differs widely according to various perspectives (e.g. RM producers, routine laboratories, researchers). This review discusses some critical aspects of RM use and production for the QC of environmental analyses and describes the new approach followed by the Measurements & Testing Generic Activity (European Commission) to tackle new research and production needs.

  3. Some problems of neutron source multiplication method for site measurement technology in nuclear critical safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yongqian; Zhu Qingfu; Hu Dingsheng; He Tao; Yao Shigui; Lin Shenghuo

    2004-01-01

    The paper gives experiment theory and experiment method of neutron source multiplication method for site measurement technology in the nuclear critical safety. The measured parameter by source multiplication method actually is a sub-critical with source neutron effective multiplication factor k s , but not the neutron effective multiplication factor k eff . The experiment research has been done on the uranium solution nuclear critical safety experiment assembly. The k s of different sub-criticality is measured by neutron source multiplication experiment method, and k eff of different sub-criticality, the reactivity coefficient of unit solution level, is first measured by period method, and then multiplied by difference of critical solution level and sub-critical solution level and obtained the reactivity of sub-critical solution level. The k eff finally can be extracted from reactivity formula. The effect on the nuclear critical safety and different between k eff and k s are discussed

  4. Alzheimer's disease: relationship between cognitive aspects and power and coherence EEG measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu C. Fonseca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between specific cognitive aspects and quantitative EEG measures, in patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD. METHOD: Thirty-eight AD patients and 31 controls were assessed by CERAD neuropsychological battery (Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD and the electroencephalogram (EEG. The absolute power and coherences EEG measures were calculated at rest. The correlations between the cognitive variables and the EEG were evaluated. RESULTS: In the AD group there were significant correlations between different coherence EEG measures and Mini-Mental State Examination, verbal fluency, modified Boston naming, word list memory with repetition, word list recall and recognition, and constructional praxis (p<0.01. These correlations were all negative for the delta and theta bands and positive for alpha and beta. There were no correlations between cognitive aspects and absolute EEG power. CONCLUSION: The coherence EEG measures reflect different forms in the relationship between regions related to various cognitive dysfunctions.

  5. Design and Analyses of High Aspect Ratio Nozzles for Distributed Propulsion Acoustic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Vance F., III

    2016-01-01

    A series of three convergent round-to-rectangular high-aspect ratio nozzles were designed for acoustics measurements. The nozzles have exit area aspect ratios of 8:1, 12:1, and 16:1. With septa inserts, these nozzles will mimic an array of distributed propulsion system nozzles, as found on hybrid wing-body aircraft concepts. Analyses were performed for the three nozzle designs and showed that the flow through the nozzles was free of separated flow and shocks. The exit flow was mostly uniform with the exception of a pair of vortices at each span-wise end of the nozzle.

  6. NSSS aging review: critical systems operating measures and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quero, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    How long the nuclear plants can get. In this question we can find three main aspects: Economic - Licensing - and Technical ones. The final answer to this question will include compulsory elements coming from these three areas, each of them being a deciding factor. The presentation is focused on the technical aspect; but before a few comments are done on economic and licensing factors. Then, some particular technical items dealing with aging or life time of our nuclear plants are reviewed: electrical equipment, heat exchangers (steam generators), wear: primary pump, embrittlement: Reactor Pressure Vessel (Austeno-ferritic parts), fatigue (Thermo-hydraulic transients). By the way, some information about how this problem is handled, at the present time, explicitely or implicitely in France are given

  7. The small sample uncertainty aspect in relation to bullwhip effect measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2009-01-01

    The bullwhip effect as a concept has been known for almost half a century starting with the Forrester effect. The bullwhip effect is observed in many supply chains, and it is generally accepted as a potential malice. Despite of this fact, the bullwhip effect still seems to be first and foremost...... a conceptual phenomenon. This paper intends primarily to investigate why this might be so and thereby investigate the various aspects, possibilities and obstacles that must be taken into account, when considering the potential practical use and measure of the bullwhip effect in order to actually get the supply...... chain under control. This paper will put special emphasis on the unavoidable small-sample uncertainty aspects relating to the measurement or estimation of the bullwhip effect.  ...

  8. Practical aspects of spherical near-field antenna measurements using a high-order probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2006-01-01

    Two practical aspects related to accurate antenna pattern characterization by probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with a high-order probe are examined. First, the requirements set by an arbitrary high-order probe on the scanning technique are pointed out. Secondly, a channel...... balance calibration procedure for a high-order dual-port probe with non-identical ports is presented, and the requirements set by this procedure for the probe are discussed....

  9. Measurement of Critical Heat Flux Using the Transient Inverse Heat Conduction Method in Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeung Chan

    2016-01-01

    A study on the measurement of critical heat flux using the transient inverse heat conduction method in spray cooling was performed. The inverse heat conduction method estimates the surface heat flux or temperature using a measured interior temperature history. The effects of the measuring time interval and location of temperature measurement on the measurement of critical heat flux were primarily investigated. The following results were obtained. The estimated critical heat flux decreased as the time interval of temperature measurement increased. Meanwhile, the effect of measurement location on critical heat flux was not significant. It was also found, from the experimental results, that the critical superheat increased as the measurement location of thermocouple neared the heat transfer surface.

  10. Measurement of Critical Heat Flux Using the Transient Inverse Heat Conduction Method in Spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeung Chan [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A study on the measurement of critical heat flux using the transient inverse heat conduction method in spray cooling was performed. The inverse heat conduction method estimates the surface heat flux or temperature using a measured interior temperature history. The effects of the measuring time interval and location of temperature measurement on the measurement of critical heat flux were primarily investigated. The following results were obtained. The estimated critical heat flux decreased as the time interval of temperature measurement increased. Meanwhile, the effect of measurement location on critical heat flux was not significant. It was also found, from the experimental results, that the critical superheat increased as the measurement location of thermocouple neared the heat transfer surface.

  11. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USMT,2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  12. The Critical Micelle Concentration of Asphaltenes as Measured by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Christensen, S. D.

    2000-01-01

    Micellization of asphaltenes in solution has been investigated using a micro calorimetric titration procedure (Andersen, S. I.; Birdi, K. S. J Colloid Interface Sci. 1991, 142, 497). The method uses the analysis of heat of dissociation and dilution of asphaltene micelles when a pure solvent (or...... solvent mixture) is titrated with a solution of asphaltene in the same solvent. The asphaltene concentration of the injected solution is at a level above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In the present paper the procedure is applied in investigation of asphaltenes as well as subfractions...

  13. Solid state track recorder measurements in the poolside critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fission rate measurements using solid state track recorders (SSTR) have been performed at the PCA. A schematic representation of a cross-section of the PCA is shown. Fission rates were measured in the pressure vessel simulator at the T/4, T/2 and 3T/4 positions and in the void box (VB). SSTR measurements were carried out with 232 Th, 235 U (bare and cadmium covered), 238 U and 237 Np fissionable deposits. Midplane only measurements were carried out for 235 U and 237 Np, while 5 axial locations at 1/4T and 1/2T and 3 axial locations at 3/4T and in the VB were sampled for 232 Th and 238 U. The HEDL SSTR fission rate measurements reported herein for both configurations together with NBS and CEN/SCK fission chamber measurements will be used to establish absolute and relative fission reaction rates, and ratios for the PCA pressure vessel Benchmark Facility

  14. Methodological aspects to be considered in evaluating the economics of service measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bald, M.

    1987-01-01

    For the purposes of the report, service measures is used as a term denoting all those steps which exceed the framework of normal in-service maintenance and repair and serve to improve economics over the normal case. Positive impacts are to be achieved on such parameters as availability, efficiency, and service life. One of the aspects investigated is the effect, if any, of such measures on the residual service life of plants in operation for a long period of time already. Residual service life in this case means the remaining span of effective technical and economic operation which, in these model calculations, also includes part of the period of depreciation. (orig.) [de

  15. Electromagnetic Near Field Measurements of Two Critical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettee, Jeffrey David

    2015-11-03

    The reactors employed, Godiva IV and WSMR Fast Burst Reactor, are described first. Then the point reactor kinetics model, electromagnetic potential, and the measurement of kinetics quantities are successively discussed. In summary, reactor power produces measurable electric energy. The electric signal mimics power curve for prompt burst operations - features in logarithmic derivatives match. The electric signature should be dependent on the power and not the derivative; therefore, steady-state modes should be measurable.

  16. Measuring Critical Thinking in Physics: Development and Validation of a Critical Thinking Test in Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Dawit Tibebu; De Cock, Mieke; Weldeslassie, Ataklti G.; Elen, Jan; Janssen, Rianne

    2017-01-01

    Although the development of critical thinking (CT) is a major goal of science education, adequate emphasis has not been given to the measurement of CT skills in specific science domains such as physics. Recognizing that adequately assessing CT implies the assessment of both domain-specific and domain-general CT skills, this study reports on the…

  17. How to measure comorbidity. a critical review of available methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, V.; Beckerman, H.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bouter, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The object of this article was to systematically review available methods to measure comorbidity and to assess their validity and reliability. A search was made in Medline and Embase, with the keywords comorbidity and multi-morbidity, to identify articles in which a method to measure comorbidity was

  18. How to measure comorbidity. A critical review of available methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, V; Beckerman, H; Lankhorst, G J; Bouter, L M

    2003-01-01

    The object of this article was to systematically review available methods to measure comorbidity and to assess their validity and reliability. A search was made in Medline and Embase, with the keywords comorbidity and multi-morbidity, to identify articles in which a method to measure comorbidity was

  19. Critical Evaluation of Blood Volume Measurements during Hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; van der Sande, Frank M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on

  20. Practical aspects of the uncertainty and traceability of spectrochemical measurement results by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, S.; Robouch, P.; Barbu, L.; Taylor, P.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of trace elements concentration in water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is a common and well established technique in many chemical testing laboratories. However, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty results is not systematically implemented. The paper presents an easy step-by-step example leading to the evaluation of the combined standard uncertainty of copper determination in water using ETAAS. The major contributors to the overall measurement uncertainty are identified due to amount of copper in water sample that mainly depends on the absorbance measurements, due to certified reference material and due to auto-sampler volume measurements. The practical aspects how the traceability of copper concentration in water can be established and demonstrated are also pointed out

  1. Practical aspects of the uncertainty and traceability of spectrochemical measurement results by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duta, S. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); National Institute of Metrology, 042122 Vitan Barzesti 11, sector 4 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: steluta.duta@inm.ro; Robouch, P. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: Piotr.Robouch@ec.europa.eu; Barbu, L. [Coca-Cola Entreprise, Analytical Department, Bucharest (Romania); Taylor, P. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: Philip.Taylor@ec.europa.eu

    2007-04-15

    The determination of trace elements concentration in water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is a common and well established technique in many chemical testing laboratories. However, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty results is not systematically implemented. The paper presents an easy step-by-step example leading to the evaluation of the combined standard uncertainty of copper determination in water using ETAAS. The major contributors to the overall measurement uncertainty are identified due to amount of copper in water sample that mainly depends on the absorbance measurements, due to certified reference material and due to auto-sampler volume measurements. The practical aspects how the traceability of copper concentration in water can be established and demonstrated are also pointed out.

  2. Critical electrode size in measurement of d33 coefficient of films via spatial distribution of piezoelectric displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhihong; Miao Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    Spatial distributions of piezoelectric displacement response across the top electrode have been used in this paper to measure the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of films based on the converse piezoelectric effect. The technical details and features of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer have been summarized and discussed for accurately obtaining the spatial displacement distributions. Three definitions, including the apparent, the effective and the constrained piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of films, have been clarified and used to better understand the fundamental phenomenon behind the measured displacement distributions. Finite element analysis reveals that both the apparent and the effective piezoelectric coefficients depend on the electrode radius of test capacitor as well as film thickness. However, there exists a critical electrode size for apparent piezoelectric coefficients and a critical test capacitor aspect ratio for effective piezoelectric coefficient. Beyond their respective critical values, both coefficients converge to the constrained piezoelectric coefficient irrespective of film thickness. The finding of the critical electric size makes it possible to consistently measure the constrained piezoelectric coefficient of films by using the spatial distributions of the piezoelectric displacement response and becomes the fundamental criterion of this measurement method

  3. Kiloampere, Variable-Temperature, Critical-Current Measurements of High-Field Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, L F; Cheggour, N; Stauffer, T C; Filla, B J; Lu, X F

    2013-01-01

    We review variable-temperature, transport critical-current (I c) measurements made on commercial superconductors over a range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to about 1 kA. We have developed and used a number of systems to make these measurements over the last 15 years. Two exemplary variable-temperature systems with coil sample geometries will be described: a probe that is only variable-temperature and a probe that is variable-temperature and variable-strain. The most significant challenge for these measurements is temperature stability, since large amounts of heat can be generated by the flow of high current through the resistive sample fixture. Therefore, a significant portion of this review is focused on the reduction of temperature errors to less than ±0.05 K in such measurements. A key feature of our system is a pre-regulator that converts a flow of liquid helium to gas and heats the gas to a temperature close to the target sample temperature. The pre-regulator is not in close proximity to the sample and it is controlled independently of the sample temperature. This allows us to independently control the total cooling power, and thereby fine tune the sample cooling power at any sample temperature. The same general temperature-control philosophy is used in all of our variable-temperature systems, but the addition of another variable, such as strain, forces compromises in design and results in some differences in operation and protocol. These aspects are analyzed to assess the extent to which the protocols for our systems might be generalized to other systems at other laboratories. Our approach to variable-temperature measurements is also placed in the general context of measurement-system design, and the perceived advantages and disadvantages of design choices are presented. To verify the accuracy of the variable-temperature measurements, we compared critical-current values obtained on a specimen immersed in liquid helium ("liquid" or I c liq) at 5

  4. Accounting for measurement error: a critical but often overlooked process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Edward F; Smith, Richard N

    2009-12-01

    Due to instrument imprecision and human inconsistencies, measurements are not free of error. Technical error of measurement (TEM) is the variability encountered between dimensions when the same specimens are measured at multiple sessions. A goal of a data collection regimen is to minimise TEM. The few studies that actually quantify TEM, regardless of discipline, report that it is substantial and can affect results and inferences. This paper reviews some statistical approaches for identifying and controlling TEM. Statistically, TEM is part of the residual ('unexplained') variance in a statistical test, so accounting for TEM, which requires repeated measurements, enhances the chances of finding a statistically significant difference if one exists. The aim of this paper was to review and discuss common statistical designs relating to types of error and statistical approaches to error accountability. This paper addresses issues of landmark location, validity, technical and systematic error, analysis of variance, scaled measures and correlation coefficients in order to guide the reader towards correct identification of true experimental differences. Researchers commonly infer characteristics about populations from comparatively restricted study samples. Most inferences are statistical and, aside from concerns about adequate accounting for known sources of variation with the research design, an important source of variability is measurement error. Variability in locating landmarks that define variables is obvious in odontometrics, cephalometrics and anthropometry, but the same concerns about measurement accuracy and precision extend to all disciplines. With increasing accessibility to computer-assisted methods of data collection, the ease of incorporating repeated measures into statistical designs has improved. Accounting for this technical source of variation increases the chance of finding biologically true differences when they exist.

  5. Simulation and Measurement of Neuroelectrodes' Characteristics with Integrated High Aspect Ratio Nano Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Nick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the interface between electrodes and neurons has been the focus of research for the last decade. Neuroelectrodes should show small geometrical surface area and low impedance for measuring and high charge injection capacities for stimulation. Increasing the electrochemically active surface area by using nanoporous electrode material or by integrating nanostructures onto planar electrodes is a common approach to improve this interface. In this paper a simulation approach for neuro electrodes' characteristics with integrated high aspect ratio nano structures based on a point-contact-model is presented. The results are compared with experimental findings conducted with real nanostructured microelectrodes. In particular, effects of carbon nanotubes and gold nanowires integrated onto microelectrodes are described. Simulated and measured impedance properties are presented and its effects onto the transfer function between the neural membrane potential and the amplifier output signal are studied based on the point-contact-model. Simulations show, in good agreement with experimental results, that electrode impedances can be dramatically reduced by the integration of high aspect ratio nanostructures such as gold nanowires and carbon nanotubes. This lowers thermal noise and improves the signal-to-noise ratio for measuring electrodes. It also may increase the adhesion of cells to the substrate and thus increase measurable signal amplitudes.

  6. Critical thinking as an educational outcome: an evaluation of current tools of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M H; Whitlow, J F; Stover, L M; Johnson, K W

    1996-01-01

    Critical thinking, an outcome criterion of the National League for Nursing and the Council of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs, is an abstract skill difficult to measure. The authors provide a comprehensive review of four instruments designed to measure critical thinking and summarize research in which the tools were used. Analysis of this information will empower nursing faculty members to select a critical-thinking instrument that is individualized to the needs of their respective nursing programs.

  7. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Zorko, B.; Gregori, B.; Knezevic, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron + gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Boskovic Inst. (RBI), Croatia, Jozef Stefan Inst. (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7 LiF (TLD-700), CaF 2 :Mn and Al2 O3 :Mg,Y - all from RBI; CaF 2 :Mn from JSI and 7 LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. (authors)

  8. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  9. Measurement of critical mass for an assembly of bare uranium shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.L.; Goulding, C.A.; Hollas, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the research into nuclear measurement techniques, a series of measurements was performed that have applications to criticality safety and nuclear material handling. The critical mass of a set of bare, enriched-uranium metal hemispherical shells, known as the Rocky Flats shells, was measured for an assembly having an inside radius of 2.347 cm. The critical mass value was extrapolated from a series of subcritical measurements using three different kinds of sources (AmBe, AmF, and 252 Cf) placed at the center of the shells. Two kinds of neutron detection configurations (a 1% efficiency and a 25% efficiency configuration) were used to make the measurements

  10. Critical evaluation of blood volume measurements during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasselaar, Judith J; van der Sande, Frank M; Franssen, Casper F M

    2012-01-01

    Devices that continuously measure relative blood volume (RBV) changes during hemodialysis (HD) are increasingly used for the prevention of dialysis hypotension and fine-tuning of dry weight. However, RBV measurements are subject to various limitations. First, RBV devices provide information on relative blood volume changes but not on absolute blood volume. Since blood volume varies with the hydration status, identical reductions of RBV may result in very different absolute blood volumes at the end of HD. Second, RBV changes underestimate the change of total blood volume due to translocation of lower-hematocrit blood from the microcirculation to the central circulation. Third, changes in posture before and during HD, food intake, exercise, and administration of intravenous fluids may influence the validity of the RBV measurement. Fourth, results obtained by various RBV devices show large interdevice differences. Finally, although a fall in blood volume is an important factor in dialysis hypotension, frank dialysis hypotension only occurs when the cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms can no longer compensate for the reduction in blood volume. Therefore, the dialysis staff should not exclusively focus on RBV, but also search for opportunities in the dialysis prescription to facilitate cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, e.g. by lowering dialysate temperature. In the opinion of the authors, routine RBV monitoring should be used with caution until the major conceptual and methodological problems that are inherent to the indirect RBV estimation are clarified. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Experimental aspects of buoyancy correction in measuring reliable highpressure excess adsorption isotherms using the gravimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Giang T; Horn, Jarod C; Thommes, Matthias; van Zee, Roger D; Espinal, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Addressing reproducibility issues in adsorption measurements is critical to accelerating the path to discovery of new industrial adsorbents and to understanding adsorption processes. A National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Material, RM 8852 (ammonium ZSM-5 zeolite), and two gravimetric instruments with asymmetric two-beam balances were used to measure high-pressure adsorption isotherms. This work demonstrates how common approaches to buoyancy correction, a key factor in obtaining the mass change due to surface excess gas uptake from the apparent mass change, can impact the adsorption isotherm data. Three different approaches to buoyancy correction were investigated and applied to the subcritical CO 2 and supercritical N 2 adsorption isotherms at 293 K. It was observed that measuring a collective volume for all balance components for the buoyancy correction (helium method) introduces an inherent bias in temperature partition when there is a temperature gradient (i.e. analysis temperature is not equal to instrument air bath temperature). We demonstrate that a blank subtraction is effective in mitigating the biases associated with temperature partitioning, instrument calibration, and the determined volumes of the balance components. In general, the manual and subtraction methods allow for better treatment of the temperature gradient during buoyancy correction. From the study, best practices specific to asymmetric two-beam balances and more general recommendations for measuring isotherms far from critical temperatures using gravimetric instruments are offered.

  12. Half-life of 90Sr - measurement and critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.; Lucas, S.E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evaluations of the half-life of 90 Sr have demonstrated the variable quality of the available experimental data which has prevented the estimation and adoption of a value that commands confidence. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty in the half-life to an acceptable level, the decay of a 90 Sr source has been followed for over six years at NPL. The equipment comprised matching, re-entrant, high-pressure ionization chambers and a long-lived reference source to reduce non-random effects. The experimental technique is described together with the statistical procedure used to analyse the measured data. A half-life value was determined together with an estimate of the associated uncertainties. A new evaluation of the 90 Sr half-life has been made, taking account of the new NPL data and other recent measurements. Particular attention has been paid to the experimental techniques used to produce the data and the uncertainties attributed to them. An objective evaluation has been conducted to produce a new recommended half-life value of 10 516 ± 21 days. (orig.)

  13. Critical Hydrologic and Atmospheric Measurements in Complex Alpine Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlange, M. B.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Barrenetxea, G.; Krichane, M.; Ingelrest, F.; Couach, O.; Luyet, V.; Vetterli, M.; Lehning, M.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, C.; Selker, J.; Kumar, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Alps are often referred to as the « Water Towers of Europe » and as such play an essential role in European water resources. The impact of climatic change is expected to be particularly pronounced in the Alps and the lack of detailed hydrologic field observations is problematic for predictions of hydrologic and hazard assessment. Advances in information technology and communications provide important possibilities to improve the situation with relatively few measurements. We will present sensorscope technology (arrays of wireless weather stations including soil moisture, pressure, and temperature) that has now been deployed at the Le Genepi and Grand St. Bernard pass. In addition, a Distributed Temperature Sensor array on the stream beds has been deployed and stream discharge monitored. The high spatial resolution data collected in these previously "ungaged" regions are used in conjunction with new generation hydrologic models. The framework as to what is possible today with sensor arrays and modeling in extreme mountain environments is discussed.

  14. A critical role of the human hippocampus in an electrophysiological measure of implicit memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addante, Richard James

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has traditionally been thought to be critical for conscious explicit memory but not necessary for unconscious implicit memory processing. In a recent study of a group of mild amnesia patients with evidence of MTL damage limited to the hippocampus, subjects were tested on a direct test of item recognition confidence while electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired, and revealed intact measures of explicit memory from 400–600ms (mid-frontal old-new effect, FN400). The current investigation re-analyzed this data to study event-related potentials (ERPs) of implicit memory, using a recently developed procedure that eliminated declarative memory differences. Prior ERP findings from this technique were first replicated in two independent matched control groups, which exhibited reliable implicit memory effects in posterior scalp regions from 400–600 msec, which were topographically dissociated from the explicit memory effects of familiarity. However, patients were found to be dramatically impaired in implicit memory effects relative to control subjects, as quantified by a reliable condition × group interaction. Several control analysis were conducted to consider alternative factors that could account for the results, including outliers, sample size, age, or contamination by explicit memory, and each of these factors were systematically ruled out. Results suggest that the hippocampus plays a fundamental role in aspects of memory processing that is beyond conscious awareness. The current findings therefore indicate that both memory systems of implicit and explicit memory may rely upon the same neural structures – but function in different physiological ways. PMID:25562828

  15. Innovation and organisational performance: A critical review of the instruments used to measure organisational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo Sethibe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovation is recognised as one of the most important determinant of organisational performance. Yet, the results of studies that investigate the relationship between innovation and organisational performance are inconclusive. The inconsistency has been attributed to a number of factors, which include, among others, the measures used to evaluate organisational performance. Aim: This study was set out to identify, categorise and critically analyse the instruments used to assess organisational performance when investigating the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Setting: The study focuses on all scientific publications reporting on organisational performance, inclusive of both financial and non-financial indicators of performance, and are not limited to any specific country or industry. Methods: The systematic literature review methodology was used to identify studies which investigated the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Once identified, articles were analysed on the way organisational performance was measured. Classification was done with reference to financial and non-financial indicators, accounting and market-based, as well as objective and subjective measures. Results: The findings show that profitability, sales growth and return on assets (ROA are the most preferred accounting-based financial measures of organisation performance. In addition, Tobin’s Q was found to be the most favoured market-based financial measure of organisational performance. The study further reveals that market share, customer satisfaction and productivity are the most popular non-financial-based measures of organisational performance. Conclusion: The use of measures of organisational performance is often left to the discussion of the researcher, which is not implicitly wrong, but does little to contribute to the body of knowledge on this important topic. Researchers are firstly urged to

  16. Quantitative Laughter Detection, Measurement, and Classification-A Critical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Sarah; Sessa, Salvatore; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    The study of human nonverbal social behaviors has taken a more quantitative and computational approach in recent years due to the development of smart interfaces and virtual agents or robots able to interact socially. One of the most interesting nonverbal social behaviors, producing a characteristic vocal signal, is laughing. Laughter is produced in several different situations: in response to external physical, cognitive, or emotional stimuli; to negotiate social interactions; and also, pathologically, as a consequence of neural damage. For this reason, laughter has attracted researchers from many disciplines. A consequence of this multidisciplinarity is the absence of a holistic vision of this complex behavior: the methods of analysis and classification of laughter, as well as the terminology used, are heterogeneous; the findings sometimes contradictory and poorly documented. This survey aims at collecting and presenting objective measurement methods and results from a variety of different studies in different fields, to contribute to build a unified model and taxonomy of laughter. This could be successfully used for advances in several fields, from artificial intelligence and human-robot interaction to medicine and psychiatry.

  17. Thermal hydraulic aspects of uncertainty in power measurement of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gaikwad, A.J.; Majumdar, P.; Agrawal, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Power measurement in Nuclear Reactors is carried out through in-core and ex-core neutron monitors which are continuously calibrated against thermal power. In Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (220 MWe) the temperature difference across steam generator hot and cold legs is taken to be a measure of thermal power as the flow through the primary heat transport system is assumed to be constant through out is operation. Gross flow is not measured directly. However, the flow depends on the characteristics of the primary heat transport pumps, which are centrifugal type and are affected by the grid frequency. The paper quantifies the percentage increase in the reactor power for the sustained allowable frequency. The paper quantifies the percentage increase in the reactor power for the sustained allowable high grid frequency. This uncertainty is in addition to instrument inaccuracy and should be accounted for in safety analysis. In some reactors thermal power is calculated from stem flow rate and pressure, here the location of steam flow measurement is important to avoid leakage related error in thermal power. Neutron absorption cross section in the power measurement instruments and the power production in the fuel varies with neutron energy levels, these aspects are also discussed in the paper. (author)

  18. Skeleton sled velocity profiles: a novel approach to understand critical aspects of the elite athletes' start phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colyer, Steffi L; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Salo, Aki I T

    2018-06-01

    The development of velocity across the skeleton start is critical to performance, yet poorly understood. We aimed to understand which components of the sled velocity profile determine performance and how physical abilities influence these components. Thirteen well-trained skeleton athletes (>85% of athletes in the country) performed dry-land push-starts alongside countermovement jump and sprint tests at multiple time-points. A magnet encoder attached to the sled wheel provided velocity profiles, which were characterised using novel performance descriptors. Stepwise regression revealed four variables (pre-load velocity, pre-load distance, load effectiveness, velocity drop) to explain 99% variance in performance (β weights: 1.70, -0.81, 0.25, -0.07, respectively). Sprint times and jump ability were associated (r ± 90% CI) with pre-load velocity (-0.70 ± 0.27 and 0.88 ± 0.14, respectively) and distance (-0.48 ± 0.39 and 0.67 ± 0.29, respectively), however, unclear relationships between both physical measures and load effectiveness (0.33 ± 0.44 and -0.35 ± 0.48, respectively) were observed. Athletes should develop accelerative ability to attain higher velocity earlier on the track. Additionally, the loading phase should not be overlooked and may be more influenced by technique than physical factors. Future studies should utilise this novel approach when evaluating skeleton starts or interventions to enhance performance.

  19. Method for measuring the resistive transition and critical current in superconductors using pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, W.C.; Jones, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the intragranular critical current of a granular superconductive material, comprising the steps of: conducting a substantially rectangular electronic pulse through said material so as to conduct a current through said material such that when said intragranular critical current of said material is exceeded, any grains present in said material are in a superconducting state when said current is less than said intragranular critical current, said material having a critical temperature; measuring said current through said material while conducting said pulse; measuring a voltage difference across said material while conducting said pulse; and determining said intragranular critical current through said material by varying said current to discern a current level at which an electrical resistance of said material increases to that of a non-superconducting state as the grains of said material transition from said superconducting to said non-superconducting state

  20. Antarctic Ice Sheet Slope and Aspect Based on Icesat's Repeat Orbit Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Xie, S.; Xiao, F.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate information of ice sheet surface slope is essential for estimating elevation change by satellite altimetry measurement. A study is carried out to recover surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) elevation measurements based on repeat orbits. ICESat provides repeat ground tracks within 200 meters in cross-track direction and 170 meters in along-track direction for most areas of Antarctic ice sheet. Both cross-track and along-track surface slopes could be obtained by adjacent repeat ground tracks. Combining those measurements yields a surface slope model with resolution of approximately 200 meters. An algorithm considering elevation change is developed to estimate the surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet. Three Antarctic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were used to calculate surface slopes. The surface slopes from DEMs are compared with estimates by using in situ GPS data in Dome A, the summit of Antarctic ice sheet. Our results reveal an average surface slope difference of 0.02 degree in Dome A. High resolution remote sensing images are also used in comparing the results derived from other DEMs and this paper. The comparison implies that our results have a slightly better coherence with GPS observation than results from DEMs, but our results provide more details and perform higher accuracy in coastal areas because of the higher resolution for ICESat measurements. Ice divides are estimated based on the aspect, and are weakly consistent with ice divides from other method in coastal regions.

  1. Dimensional measurement of micro parts with high aspect ratio in HIT-UOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hong; Cui, Jiwen; Feng, Kunpeng; Li, Junying; Zhao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Haoran; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-11-01

    Micro parts with high aspect ratios have been widely used in different fields including aerospace and defense industries, while the dimensional measurement of these micro parts becomes a challenge in the field of precision measurement and instrument. To deal with this contradiction, several probes for the micro parts precision measurement have been proposed by researchers in Center of Ultra-precision Optoelectronic Instrument (UOI), Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). In this paper, optical fiber probes with structures of spherical coupling(SC) with double optical fibers, micro focal-length collimation (MFL-collimation) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are described in detail. After introducing the sensing principles, both advantages and disadvantages of these probes are analyzed respectively. In order to improve the performances of these probes, several approaches are proposed. A two-dimensional orthogonal path arrangement is propounded to enhance the dimensional measurement ability of MFL-collimation probes, while a high resolution and response speed interrogation method based on differential method is used to improve the accuracy and dynamic characteristics of the FBG probes. The experiments for these special structural fiber probes are given with a focus on the characteristics of these probes, and engineering applications will also be presented to prove the availability of them. In order to improve the accuracy and the instantaneity of the engineering applications, several techniques are used in probe integration. The effectiveness of these fiber probes were therefore verified through both the analysis and experiments.

  2. Critical report of current fisheries management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Ulrich, Clara; Hegland, Troels J.

    The present report is an EU-FP7-SOCIOEC Report giving an overview and critical evaluation of the current management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries and the fish stocks involved in this. Also, this involves review and critical evaluation of the scientific advice...

  3. Measurements of the surface impedance and the ac critical field of superconducting thin tin films at 10 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface impedances and ac critical fields of superconducting thin tin films were studied. These experiments were performed using a superconducting frequency stabilized microwave cavity of high Q. Measurements of the power losses in the cavity and the center frequency of the cavity were used to determine the surface impedance and the critical field of a thin film sample placed in the cavity. In this case a theoretical treatment based on a model proposed by I.O. Kulik was used to fit the data. The general agreement between the modified Kulik treatment and the data, obtained in this experiment, was substantial. The second method was to modify the thin film data to correspond to a bulk situation. This modification was accomplished by taking into account the measuring techniques used and the geometric consideration inherent in the experiment. The comparison between the modified experimental data and calculations obtained from the Mattis-Bardeen bulk model was generally very good. One aspect of the results which was not explained was the presence of a slight increase in the surface resistance in the vicinity of the transition temperature. The critical field measurements were compared to the (1 - (T/T/sub c/)/sup 1/2) dependence predicted by Bardeen. If it is assumed that substantial microwave heating took place in the sample near T/sub c/, then remarkable agreement with the Bardeen model can be reached

  4. Technique of Critical Current Density Measurement of Bulk Superconductor with Linear Extrapolation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi, Wisnu Ari; Sukirman, Engkir; Winatapura, Didin S.

    2000-01-01

    Technique of critical current density measurement (Jc) of HTc bulk ceramic superconductor has been performed by using linear extrapolation with four-point probes method. The measurement of critical current density HTc bulk ceramic superconductor usually causes damage in contact resistance. In order to decrease this damage factor, we introduce extrapolation method. The extrapolating data show that the critical current density Jc for YBCO (123) and BSCCO (2212) at 77 K are 10,85(6) Amp.cm - 2 and 14,46(6) Amp.cm - 2, respectively. This technique is easier, simpler, and the use of the current flow is low, so it will not damage the contact resistance of the sample. We expect that the method can give a better solution for bulk superconductor application. Key words. : superconductor, critical temperature, and critical current density

  5. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  6. Some aspects of time domain reflectometry, neutron scattering, and capacitance methods for soil water content measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evett, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Soil-water measurements encounter particular problems related to the physics of the method used. For time domain reflectometry (TDR), these relate to wave form shape changes caused by soil, soil water, and TDR probe properties. Methods of wave form interpretation that overcome these problems are discussed and specific computer algorithms are presented. Neutron scattering is well understood, but calibration methods remain critical to accuracy and precision, and are discussed with recommendations for field calibration and use. Capacitance probes tend to exhibit very small radii of influence, thus are sensitive to small-scale changes in soil properties, and are difficult or impossible to field calibrate. Field comparisons of neutron and capacitance probes are presented. (author)

  7. Measurement and correlation of critical properties for binary mixtures and ternary mixtures containing gasoline additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lipu; Han, Kewei; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng; Yan, Fangyou

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A high-pressure view cell was used to measure the critical properties of mixtures. • Three binary mixtures’ and three ternary mixtures’ critical properties were reported. • The experimental data of each system covered the whole mole fraction range. • The critical properties of the ternary mixtures were predicted with the PR–WS model. • Empirical equations were used to correlate the experimental results. - Abstract: The critical properties of three binary mixtures and three ternary mixtures containing gasoline additives (including methanol + 1-propanol, heptane + ethanol, heptane + 1-propanol, methanol + 1-propanol + heptane, methanol + 1-propanol + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethanol + heptane + MTBE) were determined by a high-pressure cell. All the critical lines of binary mixtures belong to the type I described by Scott and van Konynenburg. The system of methanol + 1-propanol showed little non-ideal behavior due to their similar molecular structures. The heptane + ethanol and heptane + 1-propanol systems showed visible non-ideal behavior for their great differences in molecular structure. The Peng–Robinson equation of state combined with the Wong–Sandler mixing rule (PR–WS) was applied to correlate the critical properties of binary mixtures. The critical points of the three ternary mixtures were predicted by the PR–WS model with the binary interaction parameters using the procedure proposed by Heidemann and Khalil. The predicted critical temperatures were in good agreement with the experimental values, while the predicted critical pressures differed from the measured values. The experimental values of binary mixtures were fitted well with the Redlich–Kister equation. The critical properties of ternary mixtures were correlated with the Cibulka’s equation, and the critical surfaces were plotted using the Cibulka’s equations

  8. Critical Analysis of the Quality, Readability, and Technical Aspects of Online Information Provided for Neck-Lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayess, Hani; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Gupta, Amar; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Carron, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients using the internet to obtain health information is growing. This material is unregulated and heterogeneous and can influence patient decisions. To compare the quality, readability, and technical aspects of online information about neck-lifts provided by private practice websites vs academic medical centers and reference sources. In this cross-sectional analysis conducted between November 2015 and January 2016, a Google search of the term neck-lift was performed, and the first 45 websites were evaluated. The websites were categorized as private practice vs other. Private websites (PWs) included sites created by private practice physicians. Other websites (OWs) were created by academic medical centers or reference sources. Quality, readability, and technical aspects of online websites related to neck-lifts. Quality was assessed using the DISCERN criteria and the Health on the Net principles (HONcode). Readability was assessed using 7 validated and widely used criteria. Consensus US reading grade level readability was provided by a website (readabilityformulas.com). Twelve technical aspects were evaluated based on criteria specified by medical website creators. Forty-five websites (8 OWs [18%] and 37 PWs [82%]) were analyzed. There was a significant difference in quality between OWs and PWs based on the DISCERN criteria and HONcode principles. The DISCERN overall mean (SD) scores were 2.3 (0.5) for OWs and 1.3 (0.3) for PWs (P analysis, the mean (SD) was 8.6 (1.8) (range, 5-11) for OW, and the mean (SD) was 5.8 (1.7) (range, 2-9) for PW. The mean (SD) readability consensus reading grade level scores were 11.7 (1.9) for OWs and 10.6 (1.9) for PWs. Of a total possible score of 12, the mean (SD) technical scores were 6.3 (1.8) (range, 4-9) for OWs and 6.4 (1.5) (range, 3-9) for PWs. Compared with PWs, OWs had a significantly higher quality score based on both the DISCERN criteria and HONcode principles. The mean readability for OWs and PWs was

  9. Measurements in Los Alamos benchmark criticals and the central reactivity discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.; Hansen, G.E.; Koelling, J.J.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements in seven Los Alamos fast critical facilities are described; all are related to elucidating the causes of the central reactivity discrepancy in fast reactors. Specific capabilities of these specialized assemblies permit measurements well-above delayed critical and these confirm the validity of the delayed neutron data used for calibration; there is therefore no reactivity-scale error. Reactivity measurements in these homogeneous assemblies exhibit no discrepancy. It is concluded that nuclear data should not be adjusted to eliminate the discrepancy found in other, heterogeneous assemblies

  10. Transport measurements in superconductors: critical current of granular high TC ceramic superconductor samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, W.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a method to obtain critical current of granular superconductors. We have carried out transport measurements (ρxT curves and VxI curves) in a YBa_2Cu_3O_7_-_δ sample to determine critical current density of it. Some specimens reveal a 'semiconductor-like' behavior (electrical resistivity decreases with increasing temperatures above critical temperature T_c of material) competing with superconductor behavior. Due to high granular fraction of the sample, these competition is clearly noted in ρxT curves. Measurements carried out from 0 to 8500 Oe of applied field show the same behavior, and the critical current density of the samples is shown. (author)

  11. ASPECTOS RELEVANTES DE LA ENTEROBIOSIS HUMANA. REVISIÓN CRÍTICA I RELEVANT ASPECTS OF HUMAN ENTEROBIOSIS. A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro Cazorla-Perfetti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterobiosis is a human intestinal parasitic disease caused by the nematode worm Enterobius vermicularis . At night, gravid female pinworms migrate from large intestine to perianal/perineal areas where they lay eggs. Pinworm infection has a cosmopolitan distribution and is more prevalent among children, potentially causing adverse effects on their behavior, school success and nutritional condition. We consider that enterobiosis is one of the most underestimated entero-parasitic infection in humans. The present study makes a critical review of several important aspects about enterobiosis, including biology and taxonmy of E. vermicularis , diagnostic tools, pathologic effects, epidemiology and tretament.

  12. The measurements of critical mass with uranium fuel elements and thorium rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhiquan; Chen Zhicheng; Yao Zewu; Ji Huaxiang; Bao Borong; Zhang Jiahua

    1991-01-01

    The critical experiments with uranium elements and Thorium rods have been performed in zero power reactor at Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research. The critical masses have been measured in various U/Th ratios. The fuels are 3% 235 U-enriched uranium. The Thorium rods are made from power of ThF 4 . Ratios of calculated values to experimental values are nearly constant at 0.995

  13. A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>= 10 μg) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.F.R.; Meyer, E.; Silveira, M.F. da.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>=10μg) samples is described. The apparatus is built in the form of a probe, which can be introduced directly into a liquid He storage dewar and permits the determination of the critical temperature, with an imprecision of +- 0.05 K above 4.2 K, in about 10 minutes. (Author) [pt

  14. Measuring Nontechnical Aspects of Surgical Clinician Development in an Otolaryngology Residency Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jennifer J; Cunningham, Michael J; Emerick, Kevin G; Gray, Stacey T

    2016-05-01

    Surgical competency requires sound clinical judgment, a systematic diagnostic approach, and integration of a wide variety of nontechnical skills. This more complex aspect of clinician development has traditionally been difficult to measure through standard assessment methods. This study was conducted to use the Clinical Practice Instrument (CPI) to measure nontechnical diagnostic and management skills during otolaryngology residency training; to determine whether there is demonstrable change in these skills between residents who are in postgraduate years (PGYs) 2, 4, and 5; and to evaluate whether results vary according to subspecialty topic or method of administration. Prospective study using the CPI, an instrument with previously established internal consistency, reproducibility, interrater reliability, discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change, in an otolaryngology residency training program. The CPI was used to evaluate progression in residents' ability to evaluate, diagnose, and manage case-based clinical scenarios. A total of 248 evaluations were performed in 45 otolaryngology resident trainees at regular intervals. Analysis of variance with nesting and postestimation pairwise comparisons were used to evaluate total and domain scores according to training level, subspecialty topic, and method of administration. Longitudinal residency educational initiative. Assessment with the CPI during PGYs 2, 4, and 5 of residency. Among the 45 otolaryngology residents (248 CPI administrations), there were a mean (SD) of 5 (3) administrations (range, 1-4) during their training. Total scores were significantly different among PGY levels of training, with lower scores seen in the PGY-2 level (44 [16]) compared with the PGY-4 (64 [13]) or PGY-5 level (69 [13]) (P otolaryngology (mean [SD], 72 [14]) than in subspecialties (range, 55 [12], P = .003, to 56 [19], P < .001). Neither administering the examination with an electronic scoring system, rather than a

  15. Role of experimental resolution in measurements of critical layer thickness for strained-layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental measurements of critical layer thicknesses (CLT's) in strained-layer epitaxy are considered. Finite experimental resolution can have a major effect on measured CLT's and can easily lead to spurious results. The theoretical approach to critical layer thicknesses of J. W. Matthews [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 126 (1975)] has been modified in a straightforward way to predict the apparent critical thickness for an experiment with finite resolution in lattice parameter. The theory has also been modified to account for the general empirical result that fewer misfit dislocations are generated than predicted by equilibrium calculation. The resulting expression is fit to recent x-ray diffraction data on InGaAs/GaAs and SiGe/Si. The results suggest that CLT's in these systems may not be significantly larger than predicted by equilibrium theory, in agreement with high-resolution measurements

  16. Characterization of the Caliban and Prospero Critical Assemblies Neutron Spectra for Integral Measurements Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Jacquet, X.; Cartier, J.

    2014-04-01

    Caliban and Prospero are two highly enriched uranium metallic core reactors operated on the CEA Center of Valduc. These critical assemblies are suitable for integral experiments, such as fission yields measurements or perturbation measurements, which have been carried out recently on the Caliban reactor. Different unfolding methods, based on activation foils and fission chambers measurements, are used to characterize the reactor spectra and especially the Caliban spectrum, which is very close to a pure fission spectrum.

  17. Measurement of Responsibility: A Critical Evaluation of Level of Work Measurement by Time-Span of Discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, S.; And Others

    This report is a critical evaluation based on extended field trials and theoretical analysis of the time-span technique of measuring level of work in organizational hierarchies. It is broadly concluded that the technique does possess many of the desirable features claimed by its originator, but that earlier, less highly structured versions based…

  18. Development of reactivity feedback effect measurement techniques under sub-critical condition in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, A.; Nishi, H.; Suzuki, T.; Okajima, S.; Kanemoto, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first-of-a-kind reactor has been licensed by a safety examination of the plant design based on the measured data in precedent mock-up experiments. The validity of the safety design can be confirmed without a mock-up experiment, if the reactor feed-back characteristics can be measured before operation, with the constructed reactor itself. The 'Synthesis Method', a systematic and sophisticated method of sub-criticality measurement, is proposed in this work to ensure the safety margin before operation. The 'Synthesis Method' is based on the modified source multiplication method (MSM) combined with the noise analysis method to measure the reference sub-criticality level for MSM. A numerical simulation for the control-rod reactivity worth and the isothermal feed-back reactivity was conducted for typical fast reactors of 100 MWe-size, 300 MWe-size, 750 MWe-size, and 1500 MWe-size to investigate the applicability of Synthesis Method. The number of neutron detectors and their positions necessary for the measurement were investigated for both methods of MSM and the noise analysis by a series of parametric survey calculations. As a result, it was suggested that a neutron detector located above the core center and three or more neutron detectors located above the radial blanket region enable the measurement of sub-criticality within 10% uncertainty from -$0.5 to -$2 and within 15% uncertainty for the deeper sub-criticality. (authors)

  19. New aspects of radioimmunochemical measurement of human parathyroid hormone using the labelled antibody technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, R.D.; McIntosh, C.H.S.; Woodhead, J.S.; Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff

    1975-01-01

    Two forms of heterogeneity of parathyroid hormone (PTH) have given rise to conflicting results: one due to the heterogeneity of the secreted species from the gland and their peripheral metabolism and the other representing the immunochemical heterogeneity of the available antibodies. We have developed sequence specific assays using the technique of labelled antibodies. Therefore, results of assays measuring the C-terminal part and the (1-34)-N-terminal part of the molecule could be compared to those of an assay for hormone bearing both N- and C-terminal antigenic determinants. This assay is supposed to detect predominantly (1-84)-intact hormone. The immunoradiometric assay of (1-34)-PTH has a sensitivity of 0.04 ng/ml. This technique avoids the critical iodination of the hormone fragment containing no tyrosine. There is the expected overlap between normal subjects and patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most important finding are results from patients undergoing neck catheterization. We demonstrated nonuniform secretion of different species of PTH by parathyroid adenomata and normal glands. This supports the hypothesis of cleavage of the (1-84)-molecule in the gland. (orig.) [de

  20. Cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility studied with MRI: measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, Anders

    2012-07-01

    During each cardiac cycle pulsatile arterial blood inflates the vascular bed of the brain, forcing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and venous blood out of the cranium. Excessive arterial pulsatility may be part of a harmful mechanism causing cognitive decline among elderly. Additionally, restricted venous flow from the brain is suggested as the cause of multiple sclerosis. Addressing hypotheses derived from these observations requires accurate and reliable investigational methods. This work focused on assessing the pulsatile waveform of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flows. The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility using MRI, with respect to measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects.Two-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D PCMRI) was used to assess the pulsatile waveforms of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flow. The repeatability was assessed in healthy young subjects. The 2D PCMRI measurements of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF pulsatility were generally repeatable but the pulsatility decreased systematically during the investigation. A method combining 2D PCMRI measurements with invasive CSF infusion tests to determine the magnitude and distribution of compliance within the craniospinal system was developed and applied in a group of healthy elderly. The intracranial space contained approximately two thirds of the total craniospinal compliance. The magnitude of craniospinal compliance was less than suggested in previous studies. The vascular hypothesis for multiple sclerosis was tested. Venous drainage in the internal jugular veins was compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients using 2D PCMRI. For both groups, a great variability in the internal jugular flow was observed but no pattern specific to multiple sclerosis could be found. Relationships between regional brain volumes and potential biomarkers of intracranial cardiac-related pulsatile

  1. Cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility studied with MRI: measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waahlin, Anders

    2012-01-01

    During each cardiac cycle pulsatile arterial blood inflates the vascular bed of the brain, forcing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and venous blood out of the cranium. Excessive arterial pulsatility may be part of a harmful mechanism causing cognitive decline among elderly. Additionally, restricted venous flow from the brain is suggested as the cause of multiple sclerosis. Addressing hypotheses derived from these observations requires accurate and reliable investigational methods. This work focused on assessing the pulsatile waveform of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flows. The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility using MRI, with respect to measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects.Two-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D PCMRI) was used to assess the pulsatile waveforms of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flow. The repeatability was assessed in healthy young subjects. The 2D PCMRI measurements of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF pulsatility were generally repeatable but the pulsatility decreased systematically during the investigation. A method combining 2D PCMRI measurements with invasive CSF infusion tests to determine the magnitude and distribution of compliance within the craniospinal system was developed and applied in a group of healthy elderly. The intracranial space contained approximately two thirds of the total craniospinal compliance. The magnitude of craniospinal compliance was less than suggested in previous studies. The vascular hypothesis for multiple sclerosis was tested. Venous drainage in the internal jugular veins was compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients using 2D PCMRI. For both groups, a great variability in the internal jugular flow was observed but no pattern specific to multiple sclerosis could be found. Relationships between regional brain volumes and potential biomarkers of intracranial cardiac-related pulsatile

  2. JOYO MK-III performance test. Criticality test, excess reactivity measurement and burn-up coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Shigetaka; Sekine, Takashi; Kitano, Akihiro; Nagasaki, Hideaki

    2005-03-01

    The MK-III performance test began in June 2003 to fully characterize the upgraded core and heat transfer system of the experimental fast reactor JOYO. This paper describes the results of the approach to criticality, the excess reactivity evaluation and the burn-up coefficient measurement. In the approach to criticality test, the MK-III core achieved initial criticality at the control rod bank position of 412.8 mm on 14:03 July 2nd, 2003. Because the replacement of the outer two rows of reflector subassemblies with shielding subassemblies reduced the source range monitor signals by a factor of 3 at the same reactor power compared with those in the MK-II core, we measured the change of the monitor's response and determined the count rate 2x10 4 cps.' as an appropriate value judging the zero power criticality. In the excess reactivity evaluation, the zero power excess reactivity at 250degC was 2.99±0.10%Δk/kk' based on the measured critical rod bank position and the measured control rod worths. The predicted value by the JOYO core management code system HESTIA was 3.13±0.16%Δk/kk', showing good agreement with the measured value. The measured excess reactivity was within the safety requirement limit. In the burn-up coefficient measurement, the excess reactivity change versus the reactor burn-up was evaluated. The measurement method adopted was to measure the control rod positions during the rated power operation. A value of -2.12x10 -4 Δk/kk'/MWd was obtained as a measured burn-up coefficient. The value calculated by HESTIA was -2.12x10 -4 Δk/kk'/MWd, and it agreed well with the measured value. All technical safety requirements for MK-III core were satisfied and the calculation accuracy of the core management code system HESTIA was confirmed. (author)

  3. Predictors of having heard about human papillomavirus vaccination: Critical aspects for cervical cancer prevention among Colombian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermedo-Carrasco, Silvia; Feng, Cindy Xin; Peña-Sánchez, Juan Nicolás; Lepnurm, Rein

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the probability of having heard about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination differs by socio-demographic characteristics among Colombian women; and whether the effect of predictors of having heard about HPV vaccination varies by educational levels and rural/urban area of residence. Data of 53,521 women aged 13-49 years were drawn from the 2010 Colombian National Demographic and Health Survey. Women were asked about aspects of their health and their socio-demographic characteristics. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with having heard about HPV vaccination. Educational level and rural/urban area of residence of the women were tested as modifier effects of predictors. 26.8% of the women had heard about HPV vaccination. The odds of having heard about HPV vaccination were lower among women: in low wealth quintiles, without health insurance, with subsidized health insurance, and those who had children (p<0.001). Although women in older age groups and with better education had higher probabilities of having heard about HPV vaccination, differences in these probabilities by age group were more evident among educated women compared to non-educated ones. Probability gaps between non-educated and highly educated women were wider in the Eastern region. Living in rural areas decreased the probability of having heard about HPV vaccination, although narrower rural/urban gaps were observed in the Atlantic and Amazon-Orinoquía regions. Almost three quarters of the Colombian women had not heard about HPV vaccination, with variations by socio-demographic characteristics. Women in disadvantaged groups were less likely to have heard about HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Methods to measure target site penetration of antibiotics in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Richard; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2013-02-01

    While several tools are necessary to repair a car, the engineer knows exactly which instrument he has to utilize at different parts of the broken machine. Likewise, depending on the information we are interested in, we have to choose different tools to investigate and consecutively understand the multiple aspects that are involved in pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in critically ill patients. Some techniques, like blood sampling, microdialysis or positrons emission tomography (PET) will allow for obtaining continues concentration time profiles while others like bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), biopsy or surgical tissue samples can only be used a limited number of times per subject. PET and methods based on tissue homogenization will deliver an average of the actual concentrations in intra - and extracellular compartments while investigations in isolated blood cells or microdialysis allow for more distinguished allocation of a concentration to a defined compartment. The present review aims at discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods used for assessing pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients with regard to specific aspects of pharmacokinetic research and further reviews data of selected antibiotics as examples for applications of the individual techniques.

  5. Core and edge aspects of quiescent double barrier operation on DIII-D, with relevance to critical ITB physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Casper, T.A.; Burrell, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrated operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) A clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) Successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) Theory based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) The operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) Both absolute (β≤ 3.8%, neutron rate S n ≤ 5.5x10 15 s -1 ) and relative (β N H 89 = 7 for 10τ E ) performance has been increased; (6) With regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 τ E . These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads. (author)

  6. Measurement of critical temperatures and critical pressures for binary mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + alcohol and MTBE + alkane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kewei; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng; Yan, Fangyou; Liu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The critical properties of seven binary mixtures related to gasoline were measured. • The critical properties of the five systems containing MTBE were reported for the first time. • Binary interaction parameters were fitted by experimental data using PR EOS with Wong–Sandler mixing rule. • Redlich–Kister equation was used to correlate the experimental data. -- Abstract: A set of high-pressure view apparatus was designed for determining the critical properties of chemicals. In order to check the reliability of the apparatus, the critical temperatures (T c ) and critical pressures (P c ) of pure n-heptane, cyclohexane, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and binary mixture n-hexane + ethanol were measured. The experimental data were in good agreement with the literature data, which proves the reliability of the apparatus used in the work. The critical temperatures and critical pressures of five binary mixtures containing gasoline additive (MTBE + n-heptane, MTBE + cyclohexane, MTBE + methanol, MTBE + ethanol, MTBE + 1-propanol) were measured using the high-pressure view cell with visual observation. The critical temperatures and critical pressures for the five binary mixtures were all reported for the first time. In addition, the critical temperatures and critical pressures of the binary mixture n-heptane + cyclohexane (two of main components in gasoline) were also measured. All the critical lines for the mixtures studied are continuous which connect the critical points of the two pure components, indicating their phase diagrams belong to type I proposed by Scott and van Konynenburg. The critical points of these systems were calculated by the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the Wong–Sandler mixing rule. This model could calculate the critical properties of the mixtures well with the binary interaction parameter k ij obtained by fitting the experimental critical data. And the experimental data were all

  7. Calibration of Hall sensor array for critical current measurement of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan; Yang, Xinsheng; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.

  8. Calibration of Hall sensor array for critical current measurement of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Yang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xsyang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.

  9. ASPECTOS CRÍTICOS DEL LIDERAZGO INSTITUCIONAL EN LA EDUCACIÓN (CRITICAL ASPECTS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo de Mora Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este trabajo revisa críticamente la visión funcionalista del liderazgo. La dimensión de control y eficacia es la característica predominante de esta visión cuantitativa del liderazgo. En cambio, hoy en día las acciones de liderazgo están dirigidas a la inclusión social de la diversidad de la población escolar como la meta más urgente en las políticas y acciones escolares. Así, estas dos visiones de la acción de liderazgo son contradictorias y origen de dilemas importantes: por una parte la visión estatal funcionalista y, por otra, la visión local sustentada en las raíces de la Sociedad Civil. La opción es un nuevo concepto denominado liderazgo social. En este trabajo se señalan sus características: interaccionismo inclusivo, organizaciones horizontales, toma de decisiones democráticas y acciones emocionales orientadas a la mejora del aprendizaje del alumnado.Abstract: This paper is a critical review of leadership based on functionalist theory. Current literature emphasises a quantitative approach of leadership which main dimension are control and efficacy. But nowadays at primary and secondary school is more important to improve process of inclusion of the population diversity as main goal of schooling. The two visions, that is, State and Administrative approach of leadership and Civil Society development of local leadership are in permanent conflicts, contradictions and dilemmas. The option is a new leadership’s concept: social leadership. In this concept I sketch some target actions: partnership interactionist, inclusiveness, flat organizations, democratic decision making and emotional action aimed to improve students’ achievement.

  10. Interlaboratory comparison on high-temperature superconductor critical-current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiejaczka, J.A.; Goodrich, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    An extensive interlaboratory comparison was conducted on high temperature superconductor (HTS) critical-current measurements. This study was part of an international cooperative effort through the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). The study involved six US laboratories that are recognized leaders in the field of HTS. This paper includes the complete results from this comparison of critical-current measurements on Ag-sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10-x (2223) tapes. The effects of sample characteristics, specimen mounting, measurement technique, and specimen damage were studied. The future development of a standard HTS measurement method is also discussed. Most of the evolution of this emerging technology has occurred in improvement of the performance of the conductors. The successful completion of this interlaboratory comparison is an important milestone in the evolution of HTS technology and marks a level of maturity that the technology has reached

  11. Measurement of tritium production in 6LiD irradiated with neutrons from a critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaojie

    1998-03-01

    The tritium production rate and its distribution, in a 6 LiD semisphere on a critical assembly neutron source are measured with a 6 Li sandwich gold-silicon surface barrier detector. Then tritium production rate and the average tritium production length of the neutrons in the whole 6 LiD sphere are derived from approximate sphere symmetry

  12. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  13. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  14. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the Big Ten critical assembly by lithium-6 spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leeuw-Gierts, G.; De Leeuw, S.; Hansen, G.E.; Helmick, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The central neutron-flux spectrum of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's critical assembly, Big Ten, was measured with a 6 Li spectrometer and techniques developed at the Centre d'Etude de L'Energie Nucleaire, Mol, as part of an experimental program to establish the characteristics of Big Ten

  15. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the Big Ten critical assembly by lithium-6 spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuw-Gierts, G. de; Leeuw, S. de

    1980-01-01

    The central neutron-flux spectrum of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's critical assembly, Big Ten, was measured with a 6 Li spectrometer and techniques developed at the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, Mol, as part of an experimental program to establish the characteristics of Big Ten

  16. Critical Steps in Data Analysis for Precision Casimir Force Measurements with Semiconducting Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A. A.; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Mohideen, U.

    2011-06-01

    Some experimental procedures and corresponding results of the precision measurement of the Casimir force between low doped Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film and gold sphere are described. Measurements were performed using an Atomic Force Microscope in high vacuum. It is shown that the magnitude of the Casimir force decreases after prolonged UV treatment of the ITO film. Some critical data analysis steps such as the correction for the mechanical drift of the sphere-plate system and photodiodes are discussed.

  17. Design of capacitance measurement module for determining critical cold temperature of tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzong Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical cold temperature is one of the most crucial control factors for crop frost protection. Tea leaf's capacitance has a significant response to cold injury and appears as a peak response to a typical low temperature which is the critical temperature. However, the testing system is complex and inconvenient. In view of these, a tea leaf's critical temperature detector based on capacitance measurement module was designed and developed to measure accurately and conveniently the capacitance. Software was also designed to measure parameters, record data, query data as well as data deletion module. The detector utilized the MSP430F149 MCU as the control core and ILI9320TFT as the display module, and its software was compiled by IAR5.3. Capacitance measurement module was the crucial part in the overall design which was based on the principle of oscillator. Based on hardware debugging and stability analysis of capacitance measurement module, it was found that the output voltage of the capacitance measurement circuit is stable with 0.36% average deviation. The relationship between capacitance and 1/Uc2 was found to be linear distribution with the determination coefficient above 0.99. The result indicated that the output voltage of capacitance measurement module well corresponded to the change in value of the capacitance. The measurement error of the circuit was also within the required range of 0 to 100 pF which meets the requirement of tea leaf's capacitance. Keywords: Tea leaves, Critical cold temperature, Capacitance peak response, Frost protection, Detector

  18. Conceptualising and measuring collaborative critical thinking on asynchronous discussion forums: Challenges and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Ghodrati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of asynchronous discussion forums (ADFs is thought to assist in enhancing students’ collaborative learning and critical thinking throughout higher education. However, previous research has mainly focused on individual critical thinking while the investigation of critical thinking during group work has been generally overlooked. Furthermore, few studies have investigated critical thinking processes of the individual and of the group in a single study to present a comprehensive picture of collaborative critical thinking (CCT. To address these gaps, I examined the demonstration of CCT on ADFs in a graduate subject at an Australian university over two academic semesters as students discussed topics online. In this paper, I discuss the ontological and methodological challenges in conducting the above research and present possible solutions to these challenges. At the ontological level, I discuss challenges in conceptualising and defining CCT. At the methodological level, I present challenges in constructing a coding scheme to measure the demonstration of CCT on ADFs. I then discuss ways to tackle the above challenges, propose an operational definition of CCT and present a synthetic coding scheme for measuring CCT in computer-supported collaborative learning contexts such as on ADFs.

  19. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; van Riet, M M J; Visser, P; Blok, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2017-11-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE) basis) diets (i.e. 22 MJ NE/day) with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate (C) in relation to haylage (H). The absolute amounts of diet dry matter fed per day were 4.48 kg of H (100H), 3.36 and 0.73 kg of H and C (75H25C), 2.24 and 1.45 kg of H and C (50H50C) and 1.12 and 2.17 kg of H and C (25H75C). Diets were supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.7 g Ti/day). Voluntary voided faeces were quantitatively collected daily during 10 consecutive days and analysed for moisture, ash, ADL, acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and Ti. A minimum faeces collection period of 6 consecutive days, along with a 14-day period to adapt the animals to the diets and become accustomed to the collection procedure, is recommended to obtain accurate estimations on dry matter digestibility and organic matter digestibility (OMD) in equids fed haylage-based diets supplemented with concentrate. In addition, the recovery of AIA, ADL and Ti was determined and evaluated. Mean faecal recovery over 10 consecutive days across diets for AIA, ADL and Ti was 124.9% (SEM 2.9), 108.7% (SEM 2.0) and 97.5% (SEM 0.9), respectively. Cumulative faecal recovery of AIA significantly differed between treatments, indicating that AIA is inadequate to estimate the OMD in equines. In addition, evaluation of the CV of mean cumulative faecal recoveries obtained by AIA, ADL and Ti showed greater variations in faecal excretion of AIA (9.1) and ADL (7.4) than Ti (3.7). The accuracy of prediction of OMD was higher with the use of Ti than ADL. The use of Ti is preferred as a marker in digestibility trials in equines fed haylage-based diets supplemented with increasing amounts of pelleted concentrate.

  20. Technical Aspects and Validation of a New Biofeedback System for Measuring Lower Limb Loading in the Dynamic Situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R.; Augustine, Robin; van Merkerk, Rutger O.; Koopman, Bart F. J. M.; Blokhuis, Taco J.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of techniques for measuring lower limb loading exists, each with their own limitations. A new ambulatory biofeedback system was developed to overcome these limitations. In this study, we described the technical aspects and validated the accuracy of this system. A bench press was used to

  1. Technical Aspects and Validation of a New Biofeedback System for Measuring Lower Limb Loading in the Dynamic Situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaben, M.; Holtslag, H.R.; Augustine, R.; van Merkerk, R.O.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Blokhuis, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A variety of techniques for measuring lower limb loading exists, each with their own limitations. A new ambulatory biofeedback system was developed to overcome these limitations. In this study, we described the technical aspects and validated the accuracy of this system. Methods: A bench

  2. An assessment of The Effects of Elevation and Aspect on Deposition of Airborne Pollution and Water Quality in an Alpine Critical Zone: San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Marcantonio, F.

    2015-12-01

    The alpine critical zone is affected by various inputs, storages, pathways, and outputs. Unfortunately, many of these processes distribute the pollutants beyond the immediate area and into the surrounding biological and anthropogenic communities. Years of mining and improper disposal of the tailings and acid-mine drainage have degraded the quality of surface water within the San Juan Mountains. However, mining may not be the only factor significantly affecting the surface water quality in this high-elevation environment. As a high elevation system, this area is a fragile ecosystem with inputs ranging from local mining to atmospheric transport and deposition. Studies from around the world have shown atmospheric transport and deposition affect high-elevation systems. Thus, a significant question arises: does elevation or aspect affect the volume and rate of atmospheric deposition of pollutants? We assume atmospheric deposition occurs on the slopes in addition to in streams, lakes, and ponds. Deposition on slopes can be transported to nearby surface waters and increase the impact of the atmospheric pollutants along with residence time. Atmospheric deposition data were collected for aluminum, iron, manganese, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate. Water chemistry data were collected for the same constituents as the atmospheric deposition with the addition of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance. Deposition samples were collected on a five-day sampling regime during two summers. Water quality samples were collected in-stream adjacent to the deposition-ample collectors. Collection sites were located on opposite sides of Red Mountain at five equal elevations providing two different aspects. The north side is drained by Red Mountain Creek and the south side is drained by Mineral Creek. Differences in atmospheric deposition and water quality at different elevations and aspects suggest there is a relationship between aspect and elevation on atmospheric

  3. Measuring critical thinking in pre-registration midwifery students: A multi-method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary

    2018-02-01

    Test the concurrent validity of three newly developed tools (student self-rating, preceptor rating, and reflective writing) that aim to measure critical thinking in midwifery practice. A descriptive matched cohort design was used. Australian research intensive university offering a three year Bachelor of Midwifery programme. Fifty-five undergraduate midwifery students. Students assessed their ability to apply critical thinking in midwifery practice using a 25-item tool and a 5-item subscale in Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Clinical preceptors completed a 24-item tool assessing the students' application of critical thinking in practice. Reflective writing by students was assessed by midwifery academics using a 15-item tool. Internal reliability, and concurrent validity were assessed. Correlations, t-tests, multiple regression and confidence levels were calculated for the three scales and associations with student characteristics. The three scales achieved good internal reliability with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient between 0.93 and 0.97. Matched total scores for the three critical thinking scales were moderately correlated; student/preceptor (r=0.36, pstudent/reflective writing (r=0.38, pstudents with a previous degree, but only significant for reflective writing (t (53)=-2.35, p=0.023). Preceptor ratings were predictive of GPA (beta=0.50, pStudents' self-rating scores were predictive of year level (beta=0.32, pstudent, preceptor, and reflective writing tools were found to be reliable and valid measures of critical thinking. The three tools can be used individually or in combination to provide students with various sources of feedback to improve their practice. The tools allow formative measurement of critical thinking over time. Further testing of the tools with larger, diverse samples is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutron cross sections measurements for light elements at ORELA and their application in nuclear criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guber, Klaus H.; Leal, Luiz C.; Sayer, Royce O.; Spencer, Robert R.; Koehler, Paul E.; Valentine, Timothy E.; Derrien, Herve; Harvey, John A.

    2002-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) was used to measure neutron total and capture cross sections of aluminium, natural chlorine and silicon in the energy range from 100 eV to ∼600 keV. ORELA is the only high power white neutron source with excellent time resolution and ideally suited for these experiments still operating in the USA. These measurements were carried out to support the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program. Concerns about the use of existing cross section data in the nuclear criticality calculations using Monte Carlo codes and benchmarks have been a prime motivator for the new cross section measurements. More accurate nuclear data are not only needed for these calculations but also serve as input parameters for s-process stellar models. (author)

  5. Nb/sub 3/Sn critical-current measurements using tubular fiberglass-epoxy mandrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, L.F.; Bray, S.L.; Stauffer, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of sample mounting techniques on the superconducting critical-current measurement was made in conjunction with the VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Advanced Materials and Standards) interlaboratory comparison (round robin) measurements. A seemingly small change in mandrel geometry can result in a 40% change in the measured critical current of a Nb/sub 3/Sn sample at 12 T. This is a result of a change in the conductor pre-strain at 4 K caused by variation in thermal contraction between thick- and thin-walled fiberglass-epoxy composite (G-10) tubes. An approximate measure of the variations in thermal contraction (from room to liquid nitrogen temperature) indicate a 0.2% greater contraction for the thick-walled tube. This difference, combined with strain sensitivity measurements, is consistent with the observed decrease in critical current. Previous publications on thermal contraction of G-10 have addressed the plate geometry, but not the tube geometry. The contraction of a G-10 plate is highly anisotropic. The radial contraction of a tube is different than the contraction of a plate, however, because the circumferential fiberglass is put into hoop compression by the epoxy, and the resulting contraction is a competition between the two structural components. This appears to be the source of the variation in thermal contraction with tube wall thickness

  6. Field mapping measurements to determine spatial and field dependence of critical current density in YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, J.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.; Lévêque, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for characterizing superconducting tapes from field mapping is presented. • A new and efficient field mapping apparatus has been setup. • This method allows the spatial characterization of superconducting tapes. • The critical current density is obtained as a function of the flux density. • This method has been experimentally tested on an YBCO tape. -- Abstract: In this paper a measurement method that allows the determination of the critical current density of superconducting tape from field mapping measurements is presented. This contact-free method allows obtaining characteristics of the superconductor as a function of the position and of the applied flux density. With some modifications, this technique can be used for reel-to-reel measurements. The determination of the critical current density is based on an inverse calculation. This involves calculating the current distribution in the tape from magnetic measurements. An YBaCuO tape has been characterized at 77 K. A defect in this superconductor has been identified. Various tests were carried out to check the efficiency of the method. The inverse calculation was tested theoretically and experimentally. Comparison with a transport current measurement was also performed

  7. Implementation of emergency department transfer communication measures in Minnesota critical access hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira; Casey, Michelle; McEllistrem Evenson, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Previously published findings based on field tests indicated that emergency department patient transfer communication measures are feasible and worthwhile to implement in rural hospitals. This study aims to expand those findings by focusing on the wide-scale implementation of these measures in the 79 Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) in Minnesota from 2011 to 2013. Information was obtained from interviews with key informants involved in implementing the emergency department patient transfer communication measures in Minnesota as part of required statewide quality reporting. The first set of interviews targeted state-level organizations regarding their experiences working with providers. A second set of interviews targeted quality and administrative staff from CAHs regarding their experiences implementing measures. Implementing the measures in Minnesota CAHs proved to be successful in a number of respects, but informants also faced new challenges. Our recommendations, addressed to those seeking to successfully implement these measures in other states, take these challenges into account. Field-testing new quality measure implementations with volunteers may not be indicative of a full-scale implementation that requires facilities to participate. The implementation team's composition, communication efforts, prior relationships with facilities and providers, and experience with data collection and abstraction tools are critical factors in successfully implementing required reporting of quality measures on a wide scale. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Analysis of strain distribution and critical current of superconductors based on a strain-critical current measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Wu Yu; Long Feng

    2010-01-01

    Based on Pacman device which is widely used to investigate the axial strain dependence of the critical current in superconductors, the finite element analysis method is employed to carry out the force analysis of the spring and the superconducting strand, thereby the axial and lateral strain distributions of the superconducting strand are obtained. According to the two extreme assumptions(low inter-filament resistance and high inter-filament resistance), the effects of the strain homogeneity at the cross section of the superconductor on the critical current is analyzed combined with the Nb 3 Sn deviatoric strain-critical current scaling law. (authors)

  9. One to Criticism Positivism Legal And Judicial Discretion in the Light of the Work "Measure for Measure" Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cacinotti Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to screen, in tracing the horizon in "Measure for Measure" by Shakespeare, develop a critique of legal positivism and judicial discretion, with the case study basis, consistent in the reasons released by the Court of Rio Grande do Sul if referring to the son in law that kills the father and want the right to sharecropping inheritance. The theoretical framework of the paper is the hermeneutical philosophy and philosophical hermeneutics (Heidegger/Gadamer, the Law as Integrity (Dworkin and Critical Hermeneutics of law (Streck, in a (required approach between Law and Literature for production constitutionally appropriate decisions.

  10. The personality profile of terrorist leaders: theoretical aspects and ways of measuring

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrovska, Aleksandra; Dojcinovski, Metodija

    2015-01-01

    The main task of the psychology of terrorism is to explain the psychological aspects of terrorism, trying to provide answers about the behavior of the persons involved in terrorist activities. The literature suggests that there is no a single theory that explains the reasons and the way of "making the terrorists." While the first generation of research have viewed on terrorism as a pathology, explaining it predominantly through mental illness and psychopathic personality, th...

  11. Critical current measurements of high Tc superconductors in a scanning low temperature cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telschow, K.L.; O'Brien, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    Maintaining uniformity of properties over long distances is one of the fabrication problems encountered with the new high T c superconductors. Uniform properties are crucial in long tapes or wires with high critical current since local nonuniformities can limit the current carrying capacity of the whole piece. Transport critical currents in high T c superconductors are conventionally measured with the contact 4-point probe DC current-voltage technique. This technique requires contact with the sample and and spatially averages over the region between the two voltage contacts. Two techniques have been used to infer the critical state model. The first uses the net magnetization of a suitably shaped sample in an external magnetic field. The second combines a DC magnetic field with AC induced currents to infer spatial flux profiles. The AC magnetization technique offers an advantage in that it is noncontacting; however, it also averages the measurement over a large area and requires that the sample be shaped and positioned such that it exhibits zero demagnetizing factor. This paper describes a measurement technique and a scanning cryostat assembly that are capable of determining local critical current in a tape or wire with high resolution and without any direct sample electrical contact. A small compensated coil was used to induce AC currents in slab-shaped samples. The coil was situated near the surface on one side of the slab. With this method, the AC probe can be used as a noncontacting dissipation probe, replacing the voltage probe in the 4-point contact method, when an externally driven transport current is used, or by itself as a local critical state generator and dissipation detector. The results are shown to be meaningful even when the internal magnetic field is not uniform due to shape demagnetizing effects. 10 refs., 5 figs

  12. M-OSCE as a method to measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Martha J; Wright, Rebecca A; Mann, Nancy K; Cooper, Mary D; Jacks, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Educators in all academic disciplines have been encouraged to utilize assessment strategies to evaluate students' critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of the modified objective structured clinical examination (m-OSCE) to evaluate critical thinking in dental hygiene education. This evaluation utilized a convenience sample of senior dental hygiene students. Students participated in the m-OSCE in which portions of a patient case were revealed at four stations. The exam consisted of multiple-choice questions intended to measure students' ability to utilize critical thinking skills. Additionally, there was one fill-in-the-blank question and a treatment plan that was completed at the fifth station. The results of this study revealed that the m-OSCE did not reliably measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking. Statistical analysis found no satisfactory reliability within the multiple-choice questions and moderately reliable results within the treatment planning portion of the examination. In addition, the item analysis found gaps in students' abilities to transfer clinical evidence/data to basic biomedical knowledge as demonstrated through the multiple-choice questioning results. This outcome warrants further investigation of the utility of the m-OSCE, with a focus on modifications to the evaluation questions, grading rubric, and patient case.

  13. Development of criticality accident detector measuring neutrons and gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Ishii, Masato

    2005-01-01

    The authors developed a new criticality accident detector measuring neutrons and gamma-rays. The detector is a cylindrical plastic scintillator coupled to a current-mode operated photomultiplier, and is covered by an inner cadmium shell, acting as a neutron to gamma-ray converter, and a 5cm thick outer polyethylene moderator in order to respond to the same threshold triggering dose regardless of whether it was exposed to neutrons, gamma-rays or a mixture of the two radiations. (author)

  14. An antithetic variate to facilitate upper-stem height measurements for critical height sampling with importance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2013-01-01

    Critical height sampling (CHS) estimates cubic volume per unit area by multiplying the sum of critical heights measured on trees tallied in a horizontal point sample (HPS) by the HPS basal area factor. One of the barriers to practical application of CHS is the fact that trees near the field location of the point-sampling sample point have critical heights that occur...

  15. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  16. A comparison of reaction rate calculations using Endf/B-VII with critical assembly measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, C.; Mac Innes, M.; Barr, D.; Trellue, H.; MacFarlane, R.; Chadwick, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present critical assembly reaction rate data, and modeling of the same using the recently released Endf/B-VII library. While some of the experimental measurements were performed as long as 50 years ago, the results have not been widely used/available outside of Los Alamos. Over the years, a variety of target foils were fabricated and placed in differing neutron spectrum/fluence environments within critical assemblies. Neutron-induced reactions such as (n,γ), (n,2n), and (n,f) on these targets were measured, typically referenced to 235 U(n,f) or 239 Pu(n,f). Because the cross section for the latter reactions are now well known, these experiments provide a rich data set for testing evaluated cross sections. Due to the large variety of critical assemblies that were historically available at Los Alamos, it was possible to make measurements in spectral environments ranging from hard (Pu Jezebel, center of Pu Flattop) through intermediate (Big Ten) to degraded (reflector region of Flattop). This broad range of configurations allows us to test both the cross section magnitudes and their energy dependencies. We will present data, along with reaction rate predictions using primarily MCNP5 in conjunction with Endf/B-VII, for a number of target nuclei, including iridium, isotopes of uranium (e.g., 233, 235, 237, 238), neptunium (237), plutonium (239), and americium (241). (authors)

  17. Validating criticality calculations for spent fuel with 252Cf-source-driven noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Krass, A.W.; Valentine, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The 252 Cf-Source-driven noise analysis method can be used for measuring the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k of arrays of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This type of measurement provides a parameter that is directly related to the criticality state of arrays of LWR fuel. Measurements of this parameter can verify the criticality safety margins of spent LWR fuel configurations and thus could be a means of obtaining the information to justify burnup credit for spent LWR transportation/storage casks. The practicality of a measurement depends on the ability to install the hardware required to perform the measurement. Source chambers containing the 252 Cf at the required source intensity for this application have been constructed and have operated successfully for ∼10 years and can be fabricated to fit into control rod guide tubes of PWR fuel elements. Fission counters especially developed for spent-fuel measurements are available that would allow measurements of a special 3 x 3 spent fuel array and a typical burnup credit rail cask with spent fuel in unborated water. Adding a moderator around these fission counters would allow measurements with the typical burnup credit rail cask with borated water and the special 3 x 3 array with borated water. The recent work of Ficaro on modifying the KENO Va code to calculate by the Monte Carlo method the time sequences of pulses at two detectors near a fissile assembly from the fission chain multiplication process, initiated by a 252 Cf source in the assembly allows a direct computer calculation of the noise analysis data from this measurement method

  18. Striving for Optimum Noise-Decreasing Strategies in Critical Care: Initial Measurements and Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, Timothy C; Benoit, Britney; Inglis, Darlene; Burgess, Stacy A; Ellsmere, Barbara; Hewitt, Brenda E; Bishop, Tanya M; Sheppard, Christopher L; Jangaard, Krista A; Morrison, Gavin C; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha L

    To identify baseline sound levels, patterns of sound levels, and potential barriers and facilitators to sound level reduction. The study setting was neonatal and pediatric intensive care units in a tertiary care hospital. Participants were staff in both units and parents of currently hospitalized children or infants. One 24-hour sound measurements and one 4-hour sound measurement linked to observed sound events were conducted in each area of the center's neonatal intensive care unit. Two of each measurement type were conducted in the pediatric intensive care unit. Focus groups were conducted with parents and staff. Transcripts were analyzed with descriptive content analysis and themes were compared against results from quantitative measurements. Sound levels exceeded recommended standards at nearly every time point. The most common code was related to talking. Themes from focus groups included the critical care context and sound levels, effects of sound levels, and reducing sound levels-the way forward. Results are consistent with work conducted in other critical care environments. Staff and families realize that high sound levels can be a problem, but feel that the culture and context are not supportive of a quiet care space. High levels of ambient sound suggest that the largest changes in sound levels are likely to come from design and equipment purchase decisions. L10 and Lmax appear to be the best outcomes for measurement of behavioral interventions.

  19. Measuring functional, interactive and critical health literacy of Chinese secondary school students: reliable, valid and feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuaijun; Davis, Elise; Yu, Xiaoming; Naccarella, Lucio; Armstrong, Rebecca; Abel, Thomas; Browne, Geoffrey; Shi, Yanqin

    2018-04-01

    Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in the global context. In mainland China, health literacy measures mainly focus on health knowledge and practices or on the functional domain for adolescents. However, little is known about interactive and critical domains. This study aimed to adopt a skills-based and three-domain (functional, interactive and critical) instrument to measure health literacy in Chinese adolescents and to examine the status and determinants of each domain. Using a systematic review, the eight-item Health Literacy Assessment Tool (HLAT-8) was selected and translated from English to Chinese (c-HLAT-8). Following the translation process, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Beijing, China. A total of 650 students in Years 7-9 were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographics, self-efficacy, social support, school environment, community environment and health literacy. Results showed that the c-HLAT-8 had satisfactory reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.79; intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.72) and strong validity (translation validity index (TVI) ≥0.95; χ 2 / df = 3.388, p students had an average score of 26.37 (±5.89) for the c-HLAT-8. When the determinants of each domain of health literacy were examined, social support was the strongest predictor of interactive and critical health literacy. On the contrary, self-efficacy and school environment played more dominant roles in predicting functional health literacy. The c-HLAT-8 was demonstrated to be a reliable, valid and feasible instrument for measuring functional, interactive and critical health literacy among Chinese students. The current findings indicate that increasing self-efficacy, social support and creating supportive environments are important for promoting health literacy in secondary school settings in China.

  20. Quick evaluation of the neutron dose following a criticality accident by measurement of sodium 24 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabardel, R.; Ricourt, A.; Parmentier, N.

    1984-07-01

    In order to quickly sort out the irradiated individuals following a criticality accident, the neutron dose can be evaluated quickly by measuring the sodium-24 activity induced in the human body. The report supplies the information necessary for this evaluation from the response of various detectors of current use in radiation protection. The first part describes the method of evaluation of sodium-24 activity (A) given by the reading (M) of each instrument. The second part describes the method of kerma evaluation from the measured sodium-24 activity. The third part is an experimental application of the method of kerma evaluation from the sodium-24 activity measured in a phantom irradiated in the SILENE reactor flux. The results given by radiation protection instruments are in good agreement with the calculated values for a front exposure and demonstrate the usefulness of measuring the induced sodium-24 activity by radiation protection instruments of current use [fr

  1. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 1. Measurement procedure and its result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Mineo, Hideaki; Tonoike, Kotaro; Takeshita, Isao; Hoshi, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki.

    1994-07-01

    Initial tank calibrations were carried out prior to hot operation of critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for the facility. Raw calibration data were collected from single run per one tank by measuring differential pressure with dip-tube systems, weight of calibration liquid (demineralized water) poured into the tank, temperature in the tank and so on, without operation of tank ventilation system. Volume and level data were obtained by applying density and buoyancy corrections to the raw data. As a result, the evaluated measurement errors of volume and level were small enough, e.g. within 0.2 lit. and 1.0 mm, respectively, for Pu accountancy tanks. This paper summarizes the above-mentioned measurement procedures, collected data, data correction procedures and evaluated measurement errors. (author)

  2. Biomass Burning Aerosol Absorption Measurements with MODIS Using the Critical Reflectance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Martins, Vanderlei J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    This research uses the critical reflectance technique, a space-based remote sensing method, to measure the spatial distribution of aerosol absorption properties over land. Choosing two regions dominated by biomass burning aerosols, a series of sensitivity studies were undertaken to analyze the potential limitations of this method for the type of aerosol to be encountered in the selected study areas, and to show that the retrieved results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the assumptions used in the retrieval of smoke aerosol. The critical reflectance technique is then applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) in South African and South American 35 biomass burning events. The retrieved results were validated with collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. One standard deviation of mean MODIS retrievals match AERONET products to within 0.03, the magnitude of the AERONET uncertainty. The overlap of the two retrievals increases to 88%, allowing for measurement variance in the MODIS retrievals as well. The ensemble average of MODIS-derived SSA for the Amazon forest station is 0.92 at 670 nm, and 0.84-0.89 for the southern African savanna stations. The critical reflectance technique allows evaluation of the spatial variability of SSA, and shows that SSA in South America exhibits higher spatial variation than in South Africa. The accuracy of the retrieved aerosol SSA from MODIS data indicates that this product can help to better understand 44 how aerosols affect the regional and global climate.

  3. A safety-critical decision support system evaluation using situation awareness and workload measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safety of operations in safety-critical systems, it is necessary to maintain operators' situation awareness (SA) at a high level. A situation awareness support system (SASS) has therefore been developed to handle uncertain situations [1]. This paper aims to systematically evaluate the enhancement of SA in SASS by applying a multi-perspective approach. The approach consists of two SA metrics, SAGAT and SART, and one workload metric, NASA-TLX. The first two metrics are used for the direct objective and subjective measurement of SA, while the third is used to estimate operator workload. The approach is applied in a safety-critical environment called residue treater, located at a chemical plant in which a poor human-system interface reduced the operator's SA and caused one of the worst accidents in US history. A counterbalanced within-subjects experiment is performed using a virtual environment interface with and without the support of SASS. The results indicate that SASS improves operators' SA, and specifically has benefits for SA levels 2 and 3. In addition, it is concluded that SASS reduces operator workload, although further investigations in different environments with a larger number of participants have been suggested. - Highlights: • The suitability of a cognitive decision support system is investigated. • An evaluation approach considering situation awareness and workload measures is proposed. • A computerized system based on the proposed approach is implemented. • The implemented system is used in a safety-critical environment.

  4. A Device for Automatically Measuring and Supervising the Critical Care Patient’S Urine Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemi Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical care units are equipped with commercial monitoring devices capable of sensing patients’ physiological parameters and supervising the achievement of the established therapeutic goals. This avoids human errors in this task and considerably decreases the workload of the healthcare staff. However, at present there still is a very relevant physiological parameter that is measured and supervised manually by the critical care units’ healthcare staff: urine output. This paper presents a patent-pending device capable of automatically recording and supervising the urine output of a critical care patient. A high precision scale is used to measure the weight of a commercial urine meter. On the scale’s pan there is a support frame made up of Bosch profiles that isolates the scale from force transmission from the patient’s bed, and guarantees that the urine flows properly through the urine meter input tube. The scale’s readings are sent to a PC via Bluetooth where an application supervises the achievement of the therapeutic goals. The device is currently undergoing tests at a research unit associated with the University Hospital of Getafe in Spain.

  5. Evaluation of tools used to measure critical thinking development in nursing and midwifery undergraduate students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Well developed critical thinking skills are essential for nursing and midwifery practices. The development of students' higher-order cognitive abilities, such as critical thinking, is also well recognised in nursing and midwifery education. Measurement of critical thinking development is important to demonstrate change over time and effectiveness of teaching strategies. To evaluate tools designed to measure critical thinking in nursing and midwifery undergraduate students. The following six databases were searched and resulted in the retrieval of 1191 papers: CINAHL, Ovid Medline, ERIC, Informit, PsycINFO and Scopus. After screening for inclusion, each paper was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Tool. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and quality appraisal. Sixteen different tools that measure critical thinking were reviewed for reliability and validity and extent to which the domains of critical thinking were evident. Sixty percent of studies utilised one of four standardised commercially available measures of critical thinking. Reliability and validity were not consistently reported and there was a variation in reliability across studies that used the same measure. Of the remaining studies using different tools, there was also limited reporting of reliability making it difficult to assess internal consistency and potential applicability of measures across settings. Discipline specific instruments to measure critical thinking in nursing and midwifery are required, specifically tools that measure the application of critical thinking to practise. Given that critical thinking development occurs over an extended period, measurement needs to be repeated and multiple methods of measurement used over time. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical current measurement in superconducting rings using an automatic inductive technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Jorge, H.; Linares, B.; Quelle, I.; Carballo, E.; Romani, L.; Domarco, G.

    2007-01-01

    A measurement technique was developed to identify the critical current of superconducting rings. It is based on the detection of the voltage on a secondary coil when the current induced in the superconductor by a primary one go beyond to the critical value. The technique uses a DC power supply to control the AC current circulating by the primary circuit. Such circuit mainly consists on an AC power supply which gives a constant AC voltage, a primary inducting coil and a control coil with iron core. The AC current circulating by this circuit is modified with the change in the impedance of the control coil due to the fact of the DC current supplied by the power supply in parallel with it

  7. Measuring foot-pad lesions in commercial broiler houses. Some aspects of methodoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Harn, van J.; Gunnink, H.; Lourens, A.; Riel, van J.W.

    2012-01-01

    For monitoring purposes there is a need for a protocol to measure foot-pad dermatitis (FPD) on-farm. Therefore, we studied the effect of number of birds sampled, number of locations sampled and sampling location in a broiler house on the accuracy of measurement, in order to construct a protocol that

  8. A critical appraisal of instruments to measure outcomes of interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Matthew; Davidson, Megan

    2015-04-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is believed to prepare health professional graduates for successful collaborative practice. A range of instruments have been developed to measure the outcomes of IPE. An understanding of the psychometric properties of these instruments is important if they are to be used to measure the effectiveness of IPE. This review set out to identify instruments available to measure outcomes of IPE and collaborative practice in pre-qualification health professional students and to critically appraise the psychometric properties of validity, responsiveness and reliability against contemporary standards for instrument design. Instruments were selected from a pool of extant instruments and subjected to critical appraisal to determine whether they satisfied inclusion criteria. The qualitative and psychometric attributes of the included instruments were appraised using a checklist developed for this review. Nine instruments were critically appraised, including the widely adopted Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS). Validity evidence for instruments was predominantly based on test content and internal structure. Ceiling effects and lack of scale width contribute to the inability of some instruments to detect change in variables of interest. Limited reliability data were reported for two instruments. Scale development and scoring protocols were generally reported by instrument developers, but the inconsistent application of scoring protocols for some instruments was apparent. A number of instruments have been developed to measure outcomes of IPE in pre-qualification health professional students. Based on reported validity evidence and reliability data, the psychometric integrity of these instruments is limited. The theoretical test construction paradigm on which instruments have been developed may be contributing to the failure of some instruments to detect change in

  9. Measuring the quality of patient-centered care: why patient-reported measures are critical to reliable assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzelepis F

    2015-06-01

    the Lung Information Needs Questionnaire and the EORTC QLQ-INFO25. In relation to physical comfort, only patients can report the severity of physical symptoms and whether medications provide adequate relief. Patient-reported measures that investigate physical comfort include the Pain Care Quality Survey and the Brief Pain Inventory. Using patient-reported measures to regularly measure patient-centered care is critical to identifying areas of health care where improvements are needed.Keywords: patient-centered care, quality of care, quality assessment, patient-reported measures

  10. Control of (pre-analytical aspects in immunoassay measurements of metabolic hormones in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bielohuby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of circulating hormones by immunoassay remains a cornerstone in preclinical endocrine research. For scientists conducting and interpreting immunoassay measurements of rodent samples, the paramount aim usually is to obtain reliable and meaningful measurement data in order to draw conclusions on biological processes. However, the biological variability between samples is not the only variable affecting the readout of an immunoassay measurement and a considerable amount of unwanted or unintended variability can be quickly introduced during the pre-analytical and analytical phase. This review aims to increase the awareness for the factors ‘pre-analytical’ and ‘analytical’ variability particularly in the context of immunoassay measurement of circulating metabolic hormones in rodent samples. In addition, guidance is provided how to gain control over these variables and how to avoid common pitfalls associated with sample collection, processing, storage and measurement. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how to perform a basic validation of novel single and multiplex immunoassays for the measurement of metabolic hormones in rodents. Finally, practical examples from immunoassay measurements of plasma insulin in mice address the factors ‘sampling site and inhalation anesthesia’ as frequent sources of introducing an unwanted variability during the pre-analytical phase. The knowledge about the influence of both types of variability on the immunoassay measurement of circulating hormones as well as strategies to control these variables are crucial, on the one hand, for planning and realization of metabolic rodent studies and, on the other hand, for the generation and interpretation of meaningful immunoassay data from rodent samples.

  11. Assessing Psychological Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: a Critical Comparison of Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Truscott, E; Pouwer, F; Speight, J

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to examine the operationalisation of 'psychological insulin resistance' (PIR) among people with type 2 diabetes and to identify and critique relevant measures. PIR has been operationalised as (1) the assessment of attitudes or beliefs about insulin therapy and (2) hypothetical or actual resistance, or unwillingness, to use to insulin. Five validated PIR questionnaires were identified. None was fully comprehensive of all aspects of PIR, and the rigour and reporting of questionnaire development and psychometric validation varied considerably between measures. Assessment of PIR should focus on the identification of negative and positive attitudes towards insulin use. Actual or hypothetical insulin refusal may be better conceptualised as a potential consequence of PIR, as its assessment overlooks the attitudes that may prevent insulin use. This paper provides guidance on the selection of questionnaires for clinical or research purpose and the development of new, or improvement of existing, questionnaires.

  12. Plasma dynamics near critical density inferred from direct measurements of laser hole boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy J.; Joshi, Chan

    2016-06-01

    We have used multiframe picosecond optical interferometry to make direct measurements of the hole boring velocity, vHB, of the density cavity pushed forward by a train of C O2 laser pulses in a near critical density helium plasma. As the pulse train intensity rises, the increasing radiation pressure of each pulse pushes the density cavity forward and the plasma electrons are strongly heated. After the peak laser intensity, the plasma pressure exerted by the heated electrons strongly impedes the hole boring process and the vHB falls rapidly as the laser pulse intensity falls at the back of the laser pulse train. A heuristic theory is presented that allows the estimation of the plasma electron temperature from the measurements of the hole boring velocity. The measured values of vHB, and the estimated values of the heated electron temperature as a function of laser intensity are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  13. Precise Measurements of the Density and Critical Phenomena Near Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Nai-Chang

    1997-01-01

    The first-year progress for the project of precise measurements of the density and critical phenomena of helium near phase transitions is summarized below: (1) completion of a cryogenic sample probe for the proposed measurements, and the rehabilitation of a designated laboratory at Caltech for this project; (2) construction and testing of a superconducting niobium cavity; (3) acquisition of one phase-locked-loop system for high-resolution frequency control and read- out; (4) setting up high-resolution thermometry (HRT) for temperature readout and control; (5) developing new approaches for calibrating the coefficient between the resonant frequency shift (delta f) and the helium density (rho), as well as for measuring the effect of gravity on T(sub lambda) to a much better precision; (6) programming of the interface control of all instruments for automatic data acquisition; and (7) improving data analyses and fitting procedures.

  14. A critical perspective on the measurement of performance in the empirical multinationality and performance literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Nicole Franziska; Schmidt, Robert; Ladwig, Tina J.

    2017-01-01

    used in empirical studies and the underlying theoretical streams that explain the effects on benefits and costs of multinationality. Our findings indicate that authors still largely rely on overall financial performance measures. Theoretical arguments, in contrast, refer to specific benefit and cost......This paper contributes to the core research in international business (IB), namely the relation between multinationality and performance, and is concerned with the quality of past empirical research designs. On the basis of 49 studies, we critically evaluate the match between performance measures...... positions that are better reflected in operational performance indicators. In our view, the idiosyncratic choice of the performance measures contributes to the varying results in past studies. We offer suggestions for improving future research designs....

  15. Measures of Transport-Related Social Exclusion: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamruzzaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative measures of transport disadvantage are reviewed in this paper from the perspective of their effectiveness to investigate social exclusion. The effectiveness is assessed using criteria derived through a review of the concepts of transport disadvantage and social exclusion and their operationalisation. The specified criteria are related to issues of spatial (e.g., urban accessibility, and public transport accessibility, temporal (e.g., public transport availability, and facility opening hours, and social attributes of travel and activity participation (e.g., personal mobility, and disability. Four groups of transport disadvantage measures are identified and evaluated. These include deprivation-based measures, mobility-based measures, accessibility-based measures, and activity-based measures. The review suggests that although the first three categories of measures have traditionally been used to identify transport disadvantage, they do not satisfy issues surrounding activity participation—the key outcome of social exclusion. The activity space concept is a way in which these issues can be incorporated, as it is a measure of the outcomes of activity participation and their associated travel to that activity. Participation in an activity means that an individual has overcome the spatial, temporal and social barriers of travel for that activity. The research using the activity space concept has, however, inadequately identified individual travel and activity participation. This has been due to a separate application of a range of different indicators to assess activity space size. These indicators are by their nature multidimensional—e.g., area visited, distance travelled, and number of activity sites visited. Although each indicator represents a specific qualitative/quantitative aspect of travel and activity participation, researchers have treated these indicators in an isolated manner to identify transport disadvantage and

  16. QCD aspects of diboson production based on measurements of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Baishali; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of diboson states with jets in the final state received significant attention since next-to-next-to leading order calculations became available. In this talk, we present measurements of WZ and ZZ dibosons final states, with a special focus on their production in association with jets. Several differential distributions have been measured for the first time and are compared to the state-of-the art theory predictions.

  17. Technical aspects of acid dew point measurement in furnace exhaust. Messtechnik fuer die Saeuretaupunktmessung in Feuerungsabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struschka, M.; Baumbach, G.

    1986-01-01

    SO/sub 3/ formation in flue gases and the effect of furnace parameters, furnace type and design on the efficiency of SO/sub 2/ conversion were investigated in a detailed bibliographic study. Phase equilibrium data for the binary system H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and equations for calculating the acid dew point are presented, and the available wet chemical methods for SO/sub 3/ concentration measurements in flue gases are reviewed. The SM1 acid dew point measuring instrument availabe at the authors' institute was modified by installing a new measuring probe, an external thermoelement intensifier, and a new PD control element for temperature control in the measuring surfaces. Acid dew point measurements were carried out in two different furnaces, i.e. a domestic boiler for light fuel oil and an industrial furnace fuelled with heavy oil at the Stuttgart University heat- and power plant. The measurements are compared with data from relevant publications. (orig./RB) With 80 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. The measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs: critical review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sara; Lund, Crick; Kakuma, Ritsuko

    2012-09-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between poverty and mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have produced somewhat conflicting results. This has partly been attributed to poorly operationalized and oversimplified poverty measures. This paper has two aims: (1) to review how socio-economic outcomes in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs are measured; (2) based on this review, to provide a set of generic recommendations for measuring poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMIC. This is relevant for mental health researchers, and for practitioners and policy makers who use mental health research findings. This review was part of a broader systematic review examining the association between poverty and mental illness. An analytic framework was developed to examine the definition and measurement of poverty in these studies. The majority of studies provided no definition for the concept of poverty being used, and very few measured poverty through standardized or validated methods. Many poverty indicators were broken down into extremely open-ended and vague categories, with no details on how the parameters were defined or derived, and no documentation of the time period and unit of analysis for which the poverty variable was measured. This review revealed that using poverty as an indicator in mental health research in LMIC is still in its infancy, with much room for improvement. The implications of poor measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology are discussed. The recommendations provided will hopefully help researchers in psychiatric epidemiology use the concept of poverty in a much more critical, systematic and appropriate manner.

  19. Noninvasive Measurement of Hemoglobin Using Spectrophotometry: Is it Useful for the Critically Ill Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Basak

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of noninvasively measuring hemoglobin using spectrophotometry (SpHb) with a pulse CO-oximeter and laboratory hemoglobin (Hb) measurements. A total of 345 critically ill children were included prospectively. Age, sex, and factors influencing the reliabilityof SpHb such as SpO2, heart rate, perfusion index (PI), and vasoactive inotropic score were recorded. SpHb measurements were recorded during the blood draw and compared with the Hb measurement. Thirteen patients (low PI in 9 patients and no available Hb in 4 patients) were excluded and 332 children were eligible for final analysis. The mean Hb was 8.71±1.49 g/dL (range, 5.9 to 12 g/dL) and the mean SpHb level was 9.55±1.53 g/dL (range, 6 to 14.2 g/dL). The SpHb bias was 0.84±0.86,with the limits of agreement ranging from -2.5 to 0.9 g/dL. The difference between Hb and SpHb was >1.5 g/dL for only 47 patients. Of these, 24 patients had laboratory Hb levels <7 g/dL. There was a weak positive correlation between differences and PI (r=0.349; P= 0.032). The pulse CO-oximeter is a promising tool for measuring SpHb and monitoring critically ill children. However, PI may affect these results. Additional studies investigating the reliability of the trend of continuous SpHb values compared with simultaneously measured laboratory Hb values in the same patient are warranted.

  20. Measuring Critical Care Providers' Attitudes About Controlled Donation After Circulatory Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Luskin, Richard; Nelson, Helen; Glazier, Alexandra; Henderson, Galen V; Delmonico, Francis L

    2018-06-01

    Unfavorable attitudes and insufficient knowledge about donation after cardiac death among critical care providers can have important consequences for the appropriate identification of potential donors, consistent implementation of donation after cardiac death policies, and relative strength of support for this type of donation. The lack of reliable and valid assessment measures has hampered research to capture providers' attitudes. Design and Research Aims: Using stakeholder engagement and an iterative process, we developed a questionnaire to measure attitudes of donation after cardiac death in critical care providers (n = 112) and examined its psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, and validity analyses were conducted to examine the measure. A 34-item questionnaire consisting of 4 factors (Personal Comfort, Process Satisfaction, Family Comfort, and System Trust) provided the most parsimonious fit. Internal consistency was acceptable for each of the subscales and the total questionnaire (Cronbach α > .70). A strong association between more favorable attitudes overall and knowledge ( r = .43, P donation after cardiac death ( P donation after cardiac death.

  1. Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2003-07-01

    The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.

  2. Measurement of the main and critical parameters for optimal laser treatment of heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeya, FB; Abrahamse, H.; Karsten, AE

    2017-10-01

    Laser light is frequently used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. As in traditional treatments such as medication, bypass surgery, and minimally invasive ways, laser treatment can also fail and present serious side effects. The true reason for laser treatment failure or the side effects thereof, remains unknown. From the literature review conducted, and experimental results generated we conclude that an optimal laser treatment for coronary artery disease (named heart disease) can be obtained if certain critical parameters are correctly measured and understood. These parameters include the laser power, the laser beam profile, the fluence rate, the treatment time, as well as the absorption and scattering coefficients of the target treatment tissue. Therefore, this paper proposes different, accurate methods for the measurement of these critical parameters to determine the optimal laser treatment of heart disease with a minimal risk of side effects. The results from the measurement of absorption and scattering properties can be used in a computer simulation package to predict the fluence rate. The computing technique is a program based on the random number (Monte Carlo) process and probability statistics to track the propagation of photons through a biological tissue.

  3. Methodological Aspects for Preclinical Evaluation of Gadolinium Presence in Brain Tissue: Critical Appraisal and Suggestions for Harmonization-A Joint Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Philippe; Frenzel, Thomas; Factor, Cécile; Jost, Gregor; Rasschaert, Marlène; Schuetz, Gunnar; Fretellier, Nathalie; Boyken, Janina; Idée, Jean-Marc; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2018-04-13

    Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are pharmaceuticals that have been approved for 30 years and used daily in millions of patients worldwide. Their clinical benefits are indisputable. Recently, unexpected long-term presence of Gd in the brain has been reported by numerous retrospective clinical studies and confirmed in preclinical models particularly after linear GBCA (L-GBCA) compared with macrocyclic GBCA (M-GBCA). Even if no clinical consequences of Gd presence in brain tissue has been demonstrated so far, in-depth investigations on potential toxicological consequences and the fate of Gd in the body remain crucial to potentially adapt the clinical use of GBCAs, as done during the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis crisis. Preclinical models are instrumental in the understanding of the mechanism of action as well as the potential safety consequences. However, such models may be associated with risks of biases, often related to the protocol design. Selection of adequate terminology is also crucial. This review of the literature intends to summarize and critically discuss the main methodological aspects for accurate design and translational character of preclinical studies.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  4. Critical current density measurement of thin films by AC susceptibility based on the penetration parameter h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao-Fen; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, Asger B.

    2012-01-01

    We have numerically proved that the dependence of AC susceptibility χ of a E(J) power law superconducting thin disc on many parameters can be reduced to one penetration parameter h, with E the electric field and J the current density. Based on this result, we propose a way of measuring the critical...... current density Jc of superconducting thin films by AC susceptibility. Compared with the normally used method based on the peak of the imaginary part, our method uses a much larger range of the AC susceptibility curve, thus allowing determination of the temperature (T) dependence of Jc from a normally...

  5. Critical heat flux measurements in small-diameter tubes using R12 as model fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Menzel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Results of critical heat flux measurements are reported for vertical upflow of Refrigerant 12 at high mass fluxes and high pressures in small diameter tubes. The data are transformed into water data using a scaling law, which is verified by means of a new analysis. An error estimation includes the error of the scaling law. Special phenomena ('limiting quality', 'upstream boiling crisis') are explained by theoretical models. The applicability of existing correlations is checked and a new CHF-table for small diameter tubes is presented. With 41 figs., 12 tabs [de

  6. Experimental methods to validate measures of emotional state and readiness for duty in critical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Louise Marie

    2007-01-01

    A recent report on criticality accidents in nuclear facilities indicates that human error played a major role in a significant number of incidents with serious consequences and that some of these human errors may be related to the emotional state of the individual. A pre-shift test to detect a deleterious emotional state could reduce the occurrence of such errors in critical operations. The effectiveness of pre-shift testing is a challenge because of the need to gather predictive data in a relatively short test period and the potential occurrence of learning effects due to a requirement for frequent testing. This report reviews the different types of reliability and validity methods and testing and statistical analysis procedures to validate measures of emotional state. The ultimate value of a validation study depends upon the percentage of human errors in critical operations that are due to the emotional state of the individual. A review of the literature to identify the most promising predictors of emotional state for this application is highly recommended

  7. DRUGAS: implantable telemetric system for measuring the portal venous pressure: assembly aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Roland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing an implantable, telemetric pressure measuring system for venous applications makes a high degree of miniaturization necessary. Thus the influence on the measurement environment is minimized and the risk of thrombosis at small flow blood velocities is decreased. But these systems are limited in terms of accuracy and resolution. The asked system requirements could only be reached by optimising the assembly and encapsulation techniques. To achieve the high degree of miniaturization numerical simulations were performed on the shape and size of the implant and led to the development of a specific metal housing consisting of two main components. A small measuring chamber will be placed into the portal vein and is rigidly fixed to a flat circular part that contains the pressure sensor chip and a transponder board and will be located outside on top of the vein. The main focus of the assembly process was based on a stress-free design and mounting of the components.

  8. Some aspects of achieving an ultimate accuracy during insertion device magnetic measurements by a Hall probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasserman, I. B.; Xu, J. Z.; Strelnikov, N. O.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive test of a new Senis 2-axis Hall probe was done at the Advanced Photon Source using the Undulator A device and calibration system. This new probe has clear advantages compared with previously used Bell and Sentron Hall probes: very stable zero offset (less than the noise of 0.026 G) and compensated planar Hall effect. It can be used with proper calibration even for first and second field integral measurements. A comparison with reference measurements by long stretched coil shows that the difference in the first field integral measurement results for a 2.4-m-long Undulator A device is between 17 G cm for the best of four Hall probes used for the test and 51 G cm for the worst of them for all gap ranges from 10.5 mm to 150 mm.

  9. Measurements of saturation densities in critical region and critical loci for binary R-32/125 and R-125/143a systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishizawa, G.; Sato, H.; Watanabe, K.

    1999-05-01

    R-32/125 (difluoromethane/pentafluoroethane) and R-125/143a (pentafluoroethane/1,1,1-trifluoroethane) binary systems are promising alternative refrigerants to replace conventional refrigerants, i.e., R-22 and R-502. The saturated vapor- and liquid-density data in the critical region of these mixtures were measured using the visual observation of the miniscus disappearance in an optical cell. For the R-32/125 system, 35 saturation density data were measured at three compositions, 10, 35, and 50 mass % R-32. Nineteen saturation density data were also measured for R-125/143a (50/50 mass %). The critical temperatures and densities for these binary refrigerants were determined by taking into consideration the level and location of the meniscus disappearance as well as the intensity of the critical opalescence. Correlations to represent the critical loci of these binary refrigerants for an entire range of compositions have been developed. The experimental uncertainties of the saturation density data are estimated to be within 9 mK in temperature and 0.5 to 5.0 kg{center{underscore}dot}m{sup {minus}3} in density. The uncertainties of the critical temperature and density are estimated to be within 12 to 14 mK and 4 to 8 kg{center{underscore}dot}m{sup {minus}3}, respectively.

  10. STEREOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF HYDRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS .3. DENSITY AND ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GALEMA, SA; HOILAND, H

    1991-01-01

    Density and ultrasound measurements have been performed in aqueous solutions of pentoses, hexoses, methylpyranosides, and disaccharides as a function of molality of carbohydrate (0-0.3 mol kg-1). Partial molar volumes, partial molar isentropic compressibilities, and hydration numbers have been

  11. Cerebral blood measurements in cerebral vascular disease: methodological and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieschi, C.; Lenzi, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is devoted mainly to studies performed on acute cerebral vascular disease with the invasive techniques for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The principles of the rCBF method are outlined and the following techniques are described in detail: xenon-133 inhalation method, xenon-133 intravenous method and emission tomography methods. (C.F.)

  12. Aspects of scanning force microscope probes and their effects on dimensional measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: andrew.yacoot@npl.co.uk

    2008-05-21

    The review will describe the various scanning probe microscopy tips and cantilevers used today for scanning force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Work undertaken to quantify the properties of cantilevers and tips, e.g. shape and radius, is reviewed together with an overview of the various tip-sample interactions that affect dimensional measurements. (topical review)

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Aspects of scanning force microscope probes and their effects on dimensional measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Koenders, Ludger

    2008-05-01

    The review will describe the various scanning probe microscopy tips and cantilevers used today for scanning force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Work undertaken to quantify the properties of cantilevers and tips, e.g. shape and radius, is reviewed together with an overview of the various tip-sample interactions that affect dimensional measurements.

  14. Aspects of scanning force microscope probes and their effects on dimensional measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Koenders, Ludger

    2008-01-01

    The review will describe the various scanning probe microscopy tips and cantilevers used today for scanning force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Work undertaken to quantify the properties of cantilevers and tips, e.g. shape and radius, is reviewed together with an overview of the various tip-sample interactions that affect dimensional measurements. (topical review)

  15. Practical aspects of phase correction determination for gauge blocks measured by optical interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramotowski, Zbigniew; Salbut, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Determination of a phase correction is necessary when making interferometric measurements of gauge blocks with an auxiliary platen. The phase correction compensates for the differences in the reflecting properties of the gauge block and the platen surfaces. Different phase corrections are reported for gauge blocks of different manufacturers, made from different materials and with different surface roughness compared to the platen. In this paper, the process of selection of the best surface roughness parameter and the influence of different complex refractive indices of the same type of material are analysed. The new surface roughness parameter based on the difference between the weighted mean of maximum and minimum asperities of 3D surface roughness measured by a modernized Linnik phase shifting interferometer is introduced. The results of comparison of the phase correction values calculated from the difference between the weighted mean values and calculated from stack method measurements are presented and discussed. The complementary method of phase correction measurement based on the cross-wringing method with the use of the modernized phase shifting Kösters interferometer is proposed. (paper)

  16. Assessment and Utility of Frailty Measures in Critical Illness, Cardiology, and Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabali, Naheed; Rolfson, Darryl; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2016-09-01

    Frailty is a clearly emerging theme in acute care medicine, with obvious prognostic and health resource implications. "Frailty" is a term used to describe a multidimensional syndrome of loss of homeostatic reserves that gives rise to a vulnerability to adverse outcomes after relatively minor stressor events. This is conceptually simple, yet there has been little consensus on the operational definition. The gold standard method to diagnose frailty remains a comprehensive geriatric assessment; however, a variety of validated physical performance measures, judgement-based tools, and multidimensional scales are being applied in critical care, cardiology, and cardiac surgery settings, including open cardiac surgery and transcatheter aortic value replacement. Frailty is common among patients admitted to the intensive care unit and correlates with an increased risk for adverse events, increased resource use, and less favourable patient-centred outcomes. Analogous findings have been described across selected acute cardiology and cardiac surgical settings, in particular those that commonly intersect with critical care services. The optimal methods for screening and diagnosing frailty across these settings remains an active area of investigation. Routine assessment for frailty conceivably has numerous purported benefits for patients, families, health care providers, and health administrators through better informed decision-making regarding treatments or goals of care, prognosis for survival, expectations for recovery, risk of complications, and expected resource use. In this review, we discuss the measurement of frailty and its utility in patients with critical illness and in cardiology and cardiac surgery settings. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes measurements with the retardation spectrometer aSPECT at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. The goal of the measurement is to determine the angular correlation coefficient a from the form of the proton recoil spectrum in the decay of the free neutron in order to determine a precise value for the ratio of the weak axial vector and vector coupling constants of the nucleon. A big improvement was achieved with the use of a silicon drift detector which was used here for the first time to detect low energetic protons. A saturation effect of the electronics that was only discovered during the analysis of the data from neutron decay proved to be not correctable. The findings from analysis, simulations and test experiments gained in this work should allow a measurement of a with high precision in a future beamtime. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simson, Martin

    2010-09-21

    This thesis describes measurements with the retardation spectrometer aSPECT at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. The goal of the measurement is to determine the angular correlation coefficient a from the form of the proton recoil spectrum in the decay of the free neutron in order to determine a precise value for the ratio of the weak axial vector and vector coupling constants of the nucleon. A big improvement was achieved with the use of a silicon drift detector which was used here for the first time to detect low energetic protons. A saturation effect of the electronics that was only discovered during the analysis of the data from neutron decay proved to be not correctable. The findings from analysis, simulations and test experiments gained in this work should allow a measurement of a with high precision in a future beamtime. (orig.)

  19. Aspects of kinematical coincidence measurements of excitation energy division in damped reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toke, J.; Schroeder, W.U.; Huizenga, J.R.; Rochester Univ., NY

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the finite resolution inherent in the kinematical coincidence method leads to systematic errors in the deduced (primary) physical quantities if the latter are calculated based on mass and linear momentum conservation equations alone. As an example, application of this method for measuring excitation energy of the fragments from damped reactions is reviewed. In such a case, finite resolution effects generate significant instrumental, or 'background' correlations between the physical quantities reconstructed in a straightforward fashion, hence, if not accounted for, they may lead to the qualitative misinterpretation of the data. Experimental measures are discussed which appear necessary in order to ensure proper accuracy of the finite resolution corrections. An alternative method of data analysis is presented which is much less susceptible to the finite resolution effects discussed. (orig.)

  20. Current status and methodological aspects on the measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, M.; Hignette, C.; Kolar, P.; Prigent, A.; Paillard, M.

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) contribute to our understanding of kidney physiology and pathophysiology . Moreover, determination of GFR is of clinical importance in assessing the diagnosis and the progression of renal disease. The purpose of this article is to review the technical performance and results of GFR measurements, including the classical inulin clearance technique and more recent alternative clearance techniques using radioisotope-labelled filtration markers, bolus infusion and spontaneous bladder emptying. Some simplified techniques avoiding urinary collection are also described. We conclude that estimation of GFR from renal and in some cases plasmatic clearances is accurate and more convenient than the classical inulin clearance technique. Such measurements of GFR should be included both in clinical practice and clinical research. (authors). 80 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Quality of nuchal translucency measurements correlates with broader aspects of program rigor and culture of excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark I; Krantz, David A; Hallahan, Terrence; Sherwin, John; Britt, David W

    2013-01-01

    To determine if nuchal translucency (NT) quality correlates with the extent to which clinics vary in rigor and quality control. We correlated NT performance quality (bias and precision) of 246,000 patients with two alternative measures of clinic culture - % of cases for whom nasal bone (NB) measurements were performed and % of requisitions correctly filled for race-ethnicity and weight. When requisition errors occurred in 5% (33%), the curve lowered to 0.93 MoM (p 90%, MoM was 0.99 compared to those quality exists independent of individual variation in NT quality, and two divergent indices of program rigor are associated with NT quality. Quality control must be program wide, and to effect continued improvement in the quality of NT results across time, the cultures of clinics must become a target for intervention. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Maintaining balance in elderly fallers: novel aspects of postural balance measures in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Swanenburg, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    At first in this thesis, an intervention programme was tested for the effect on the risk of falling in a population of elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate if exercise, combined with protein intake and calcium/vitamin D supplementation would have a larger effect on the risk of falling and postural balance outcomes than calcium/vitamin D supplementation only. An observational performance test (risk of falling) and performance measurements (force platform) were used as outcome measu...

  3. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physica...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD.......It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...

  4. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS): Critical appraisal of its measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, James J; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Jüni, Peter; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2018-02-17

    To critically appraise the development and measurement properties, including sensibility, reliability, and validity of the Non-Technical Skills of Surgeons (NOTSS) system. Articles that described development process of the NOTSS system were identified. Relevant primary studies that presented evidence of reliability and validity were identified through a comprehensive literature review. NOTSS was developed through robust item generation and reduction strategies. It was shown to have good content validity, acceptability, and feasibility. Inter-rater reliability increased with greater expertise and number of assessors. Studies demonstrated evidence of cross-sectional construct validity, in that the tool was able to differentiate known groups of varied non-technical skill levels. Evidence of longitudinal construct validity also existed to demonstrate that NOTSS detected changes in non-technical skills before and after targeted training. In populations and settings presented in our critical appraisal, NOTSS provided reliable and valid measurements of intraoperative non-technical skills of surgeons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Questions of trust in health research on social capital: what aspects of personal network social capital do they measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiano, Richard M; Fitterer, Lisa M

    2014-09-01

    Health research on personal social capital has often utilized measures of respondents' perceived trust of others as either a proxy for one's social capital in the absence of more focused measures or as a subjective component of social capital. Little empirical work has evaluated the validity of such practices. We test the construct validity of two trust measures used commonly in health research on social capital-generalized trust and trust of neighbors-with respect to measures of people's general network-, organization-, family-, friend-, and neighborhood-based social capital and the extent to which these two trust measures are associated with self-rated general health and mental health when social capital measures are included in the same models. Analyses of 2008 Canadian General Social Survey data (response rate 57.3%) indicate that generalized trust and trust of neighbors are both positively-yet modestly-associated with measures of several domains of network-based social capital. Both trust measures are positively associated with general and mental health, but these associations remain robust after adjusting for social capital measures. Our findings suggest that (a) trust is conceptually distinct from social capital, (b) trust measures are inadequate proxies for actual personal social networks, and (c) trust measures may only be capturing psychological aspects relevant to-but not indicative of-social capital. Though links between perceived trust and health deserve study, health research on social capital needs to utilize measures of respondents' actual social networks and their inherent resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Have a little faith: measuring the impact of illness on positive and negative aspects of faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Garcia, Sofia F; Lai, Jin-Shei; Cella, David

    2012-12-01

    The importance of faith and its associations with health are well documented. As part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, items tapping positive and negative impact of illness (PII and NII) were developed across four content domains: Coping/Stress Response, Self-Concept, Social Connection/Isolation, and Meaning and Spirituality. Faith items were included within the concept of meaning and spirituality. This measurement model was tested on a heterogeneous group of 509 cancer survivors. To evaluate dimensionality, we applied two bi-factor models, specifying a general factor (PII or NII) and four local factors: Coping/Stress Response, Self-Concept, Social Connection/Isolation, and Meaning and Spirituality. Bi-factor analysis supported sufficient unidimensionality within PII and NII item sets. The unidimensionality of both PII and NII item sets was enhanced by extraction of the faith items from the rest of the questions. Of the 10 faith items, nine demonstrated higher local than general factor loadings (range for local factor loadings = 0.402 to 0.876), suggesting utility as a separate but related 'faith' factor. The same was true for only two of the remaining 63 items across the PII and NII item sets. Although conceptually and to a degree empirically related to Meaning and Spirituality, Faith appears to be a distinct subdomain of PII and NII, better handled by distinct assessment. A 10-item measure of the impact of illness upon faith (II-Faith) was therefore assembled. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Optical waveguiding and applied photonics technological aspects, experimental issue approaches and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronics--technology based on applications light such as micro/nano quantum electronics, photonic devices, laser for measurements and detection--has become an important field of research. Many applications and physical problems concerning optoelectronics are analyzed in Optical Waveguiding and Applied Photonics.The book is organized in order to explain how to implement innovative sensors starting from basic physical principles. Applications such as cavity resonance, filtering, tactile sensors, robotic sensor, oil spill detection, small antennas and experimental setups using lasers are a

  9. Different measures of structural similarity tap different aspects of visual object processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The structural similarity of objects has been an important variable in explaining why some objects are easier to categorize at a superordinate level than to individuate, and also why some patients with brain injury have more difficulties in recognizing natural (structurally similar) objects than...... artifacts (structurally distinct objects). In spite of its merits as an explanatory variable, structural similarity is not a unitary construct, and it has been operationalized in different ways. Furthermore, even though measures of structural similarity have been successful in explaining task and category-effects...

  10. New Aspects of Photocurrent Generation at Graphene pn Junctions Revealed by Ultrafast Optical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazian, Grant; Sun, Dong; Jones, Aaron; Ross, Jason; Yao, Wang; Cobden, David; Xu, Xiaodong

    2012-02-01

    The remarkable electrical and optical properties of graphene make it a promising material for new optoelectronic applications. However, one important, but so far unexplored, property is the role of hot carriers in charge and energy transport at graphene interfaces. Here we investigate the photocurrent (PC) dynamics at a tunable graphene pn junction using ultrafast scanning PC microscopy. Pump-probe measurements show a temperature dependent relaxation time of photogenerated carriers that increases from 1.5ps at 290K to 4ps at 20K; while the amplitude of the PC is independent of the lattice temperature. These observations imply that it is hot carriers, not phonons, which dominate ultrafast energy transport. Gate dependent measurements show many interesting features such as pump induced saturation, enhancement, and sign reversal of probe generated PC. These observations reveal that the underlying PC mechanism is a combination of the thermoelectric and built-in electric field effects. Our results enhance the understanding of non-equilibrium electron dynamics, electron-electron interactions, and electron-phonon interactions in graphene. They also determine fundamental limits on ultrafast device operation speeds (˜500 GHz) for graphene-based photodetectors.

  11. Risk Mitigation Measures: An Important Aspect of the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Liebig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within EU marketing authorization procedures of human and veterinary medicinal products (HMP and VMP, an environmental risk assessment (ERA has to be performed. In the event that an unacceptable environmental risk is identified, risk mitigation measures (RMM shall be applied in order to reduce environmental exposure to the pharmaceutical. Within the authorization procedures of HMP, no RMM have been applied so far, except for specific precautions for the disposal of the unused medicinal product or waste materials. For VMP, a limited number of RMM do exist. The aim of this study was to develop consistent and efficient RMM. Therefore, existing RMM were compiled from a summary of product characteristics of authorized pharmaceuticals, and new RMM were developed and evaluated. Based on the results, appropriate RMM were applied within the authorization procedures of medicinal products. For HMP, except for the existing precautions for disposal, no further reasonable measures could be developed. For VMP, two specific precautions for disposal and 17 specific precautions for use in animals were proposed as RMM.

  12. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  13. Experimental aspects of buoyancy correction in measuring reliable high-pressure excess adsorption isotherms using the gravimetric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Giang T.; Horn, Jarod C.; Thommes, Matthias; van Zee, Roger D.; Espinal, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Addressing reproducibility issues in adsorption measurements is critical to accelerating the path to discovery of new industrial adsorbents and to understanding adsorption processes. A National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Material, RM 8852 (ammonium ZSM-5 zeolite), and two gravimetric instruments with asymmetric two-beam balances were used to measure high-pressure adsorption isotherms. This work demonstrates how common approaches to buoyancy correction, a key factor in obtaining the mass change due to surface excess gas uptake from the apparent mass change, can impact the adsorption isotherm data. Three different approaches to buoyancy correction were investigated and applied to the subcritical CO2 and supercritical N2 adsorption isotherms at 293 K. It was observed that measuring a collective volume for all balance components for the buoyancy correction (helium method) introduces an inherent bias in temperature partition when there is a temperature gradient (i.e. analysis temperature is not equal to instrument air bath temperature). We demonstrate that a blank subtraction is effective in mitigating the biases associated with temperature partitioning, instrument calibration, and the determined volumes of the balance components. In general, the manual and subtraction methods allow for better treatment of the temperature gradient during buoyancy correction. From the study, best practices specific to asymmetric two-beam balances and more general recommendations for measuring isotherms far from critical temperatures using gravimetric instruments are offered.

  14. What is a Beryllium Measurement? A Critical Look at Beryllium Quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Davis; Dan Field; John Hess; Dan Jensen

    2006-01-01

    DOE workplaces strive to comply with the 10 CFR 850.31(b)(1) surface concentration release criterion. The usual planning considerations for demonstrating compliance are these: how many swipes, and where; which sample preparation and analytical methods; what reporting limits; and what sample statistic to compare with the criterion. We have reviewed swipe samples from hundreds of Nevada Test Site workplaces: office buildings; experimental facilities; forward area field units; shops; and tunnels. Our experiences have led us to a critical examination of the inner workings of the measurement process itself, involving details generally taken for granted when those usual questions are asked. In this presentation we dissect the ICP-AES Be measurement process. We discuss calibration options and how they impact the distributions of analytical results. We look at distributions of blank results obtained from different labs, and discuss their relevance to determining reporting limits. We examine the way measurements are made from spectra, how that process impacts our understanding of the actual statistical distributions of Be measurements, and how interferences can affect Be measurements. Our objective is to gain sufficient confidence in the measurement process so that the usual questions will make sense and the survey results will be credible. Based on our observations, we offer these recommendations: prepare calibration samples in digested blank swipes; force the calibration line through (0,0); base reporting limits on field blank measurement distributions rather than 40 CFR 236 calculations; use, but do not believe, the usual lognormal distribution assumption; and avoid the 234.861 nm emission line

  15. Design aspects of gamma densitometers for void fraction measurements in small scale two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.M.C.; Banerjee, S.

    1981-01-01

    Design procedure for a single-beam gamma densitometer operated in the count mode is described. The design is simple, compact and is particularly suited for small scale two-phase flow experiments with thin-metal walled or non-metallic test sections. The choice of gamma sources, scintillators and signal processing systems is discussed. The procedure has been applied by the authors in the design of densitometers for two transient experiments: refilling and rewetting experiments and flow boiling experiments. Good average void measurements were obtained for relatively fast transients. It has also been shown that some useful flow parameters other than void fractions can be obtained if two or more densitometers are used, eg, the average rewetting and entrained liquid velocities in the refilling and rewetting experiments, and the average void velocity in the flow boiling experiments. (orig.)

  16. Measuring male infertility: epidemiological aspects Avaliando infertilidade masculina: aspectos epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Firmbach Pasqualotto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human semen quality may have been deteriorating in recent years. Most of the evidence is retrospective, based on analysis of data sets collected for other purposes. Measures of male infertility are needed if we want to monitor the biological capacity for males to reproduce over time or between different populations. We also need these measures in analytical epidemiology if we want to identify risk indicators, risk factors, or even causes of an impaired male fecundity-that is, the male component in the biological ability to reproduce. The most direct evaluation of fecundity is to measure the time it takes to conceive. Since the time of conception may be missed in the case of an early abortion, time to get pregnant is often measured as the time it takes to obtain a conception that survives until a clinically recognized pregnancy or even a pregnancy that ends with a live born child occurs. A prolonged time required to produce pregnancy may therefore be due to a failure to conceive or a failure to maintain a pregnancy until clinical recognition. Studies that focus on quantitative changes in fecundity (that does not cause sterility should in principle be possible in a pregnancy sample. The most important limitation in fertility studies is that the design requires equal persistency in trying to become pregnant and rather similar fertility desires and family planning methods in the groups to be compared. This design is probably achievable in exposure studies that make comparisons with reasonable comparable groups concerning social conditions and use of contraceptive methods.Evidências nos últimos anos sugerem que a qualidade seminal humana talvez esteja deteriorando. Muitas evidências são retrospectivas, baseadas nas análises de dados coletados com outros propósitos. Aferições da infertilidade masculina são necessárias se quisermos monitorar a capacidade biológica para homens se reproduzirem com o passar do tempo ou

  17. Medical information on the internet: a tool for measuring consumer perception of quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowicz, Arthur; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-03-30

    Most of adult Internet users have searched for health information on the Internet. The Internet has become one of the most important sources for health information and treatment advice. In most cases, the information found is not verified with a medical doctor, but judged by the "online-diagnosers" independently. Facing this situation, public health authorities raise concern over the quality of medical information laypersons can find on the Internet. The objective of the study was aimed at developing a measure to evaluate the credibility of websites that offer medical advice and information. The measure was tested in a quasi-experimental study on two sleeping-disorder websites of different quality. There were 45 survey items for rating the credibility of websites that were tested in a quasi-experimental study with a random assignment of 454 participants to either a high- or a low-quality website exposure. Using principal component analysis, the original items were reduced to 13 and sorted into the factors: trustworthiness, textual deficits of the content, interferences (external links on the Web site), and advertisements. The first two factors focus more on the provided content itself, while the other two describe the embedding of the content into the website. The 45 survey items had been designed previously using exploratory observations and literature research. The final scale showed adequate power and reliability for all factors. The loadings of the principal component analysis ranged satisfactorily (.644 to .854). Significant differences at P<.001 were found between the low- and high-quality groups. Advertisements on the website were rated as disturbing in both experimental conditions, meaning that they do not differentiate between good and bad information. The scale reliably distinguished high- and low-quality of medical advice given on websites.

  18. Patient experience and satisfaction with inpatient service: development of short form survey instrument measuring the core aspect of inpatient experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza L Y Wong

    Full Text Available Patient experience reflects quality of care from the patients' perspective; therefore, patients' experiences are important data in the evaluation of the quality of health services. The development of an abbreviated, reliable and valid instrument for measuring inpatients' experience would reflect the key aspect of inpatient care from patients' perspective as well as facilitate quality improvement by cultivating patient engagement and allow the trends in patient satisfaction and experience to be measured regularly. The study developed a short-form inpatient instrument and tested its ability to capture a core set of inpatients' experiences. The Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (HKIEQ was established in 2010; it is an adaptation of the General Inpatient Questionnaire of the Care Quality Commission created by the Picker Institute in United Kingdom. This study used a consensus conference and a cross-sectional validation survey to create and validate a short-form of the Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (SF-HKIEQ. The short-form, the SF-HKIEQ, consisted of 18 items derived from the HKIEQ. The 18 items mainly covered relational aspects of care under four dimensions of the patient's journey: hospital staff, patient care and treatment, information on leaving the hospital, and overall impression. The SF-HKIEQ had a high degree of face validity, construct validity and internal reliability. The validated SF-HKIEQ reflects the relevant core aspects of inpatients' experience in a hospital setting. It provides a quick reference tool for quality improvement purposes and a platform that allows both healthcare staff and patients to monitor the quality of hospital care over time.

  19. Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are semi-aquatic marine mammals with a circumpolar Arctic distribution. In this study, we investigate the amphibious hearing capabilities of ringed seals to provide auditory profiles for this species across the full range of hearing. Using psychophysical methods with two trained ringed seals, detection thresholds for narrowband signals were measured under quiet, carefully controlled environmental conditions to generate aerial and underwater audiograms. Masked underwater thresholds were measured in the presence of octave-band noise to determine critical ratios. Results indicate that ringed seals possess hearing abilities comparable to those of spotted seals (Phoca largha) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and considerably better than previously reported for ringed and harp seals. Best sensitivity was 49 dB re. 1 µPa (12.8 kHz) in water, and -12 dB re. 20 µPa (4.5 kHz) in air, rivaling the acute hearing abilities of some fully aquatic and terrestrial species in their respective media. Critical ratio measurements ranged from 14 dB at 0.1 kHz to 31 dB at 25.6 kHz, suggesting that ringed seals--like other true seals--can efficiently extract signals from background noise across a broad range of frequencies. The work described herein extends similar research on amphibious hearing in spotted seals recently published by the authors. These parallel studies enhance our knowledge of the auditory capabilities of ice-living seals, and inform effective management strategies for these and related species in a rapidly changing Arctic environment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Profile of Students’ Critical Thinking Skill Measured by Science Virtual Test on Living Things and Environmental Sustainability Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida, N. I.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the level of students’ critical thinking skill on living things and environmental sustainability theme for each Inch’ critical thinking elements and overall, (2) to investigate the level of students’ critical thinking skill on living things characteristic, biodiversity, energy resources, ecosystem, environmental pollution, and global warming topics. The research was conducted due to the important of critical thinking measurement to get the current skill description as the basic consideration for further critical thinking skill improvement in lower secondary science. The research method used was descriptive. 331 seventh grade students taken from five lower secondary schools in Cirebon were tested to get the critical thinking skill data by using Science Virtual Test as the instrument. Generally, the mean scores on eight Inch’ critical thinking elements and overall score from descriptive statistic reveals a moderate attainments level. Students’ critical thinking skill on biodiversity, energy resources, ecosystem, environmental pollution, and global warming topics are in moderate level. While students’ critical thinking skill on living things characteristic is identified as high level. Students’ experience in thinking critically during science learning process and the characteristic of the topic are emerged as the reason behind the students’ critical thinking skill level on certain science topic.

  1. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections for the Advanced Neutron Source against the FOEHN critical experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Gehin, J.C.; Worley, B.A.; Renier, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The FOEHN critical experiments were analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. Eleven critical configurations were evaluated using the KENO, DORT, and VENTURE neutronics codes. Eigenvalue and power density profiles were computed and show very good agreement with measured values

  2. On an entanglement measure in quantum physics: geometric aspects of density matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, D.H.T.; Cima, O.M.D.; Silva, S.L.L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa - UFV, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The study of entanglement would be justified simply by its theoretical interest, given that this phenomenon since its inception, casts important questions on the basis of a fundamental character of the building that is quantum mechanics. Moreover,the entanglement has been an indispensable ingredient in the field of quantum computing (processing and transmission of information) and also in condensed matter physics (in the understanding of quantum phase transitions). In this work we present and discuss some ways to characterize both quantitatively and qualitatively entanglement. In particular, we aim to introduce and apply the method developed by Dahl et al. [1]. This method determines the distance from the nearest separable state of the state of interest, since this distance may be used to measure the degree of entanglement of the system of interest. We consider a separable state by state with only classical correlations, i.e a non-entangled, non-separable states which are said entangled. Quantum entanglement has been shown, also, a very useful tool in the study of superconductivity. We aim to study the relationship between the phase transition of superconductivity and the spin entanglement of the Cooper pairs. [1] G. Dahl, J. M. Leinaas, J. Myrheim, and E. Ovrum. Linear Algebra and its application, 420:711-725, 2007 (author)

  3. Climatological aspects of aerosol physical characteristics in Tunisia deduced from sun photometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane, Mabrouk; Azri, Chafai; Medhioub, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric and climatic data measured at Thala site (Tunisia) for a long-time period (1977-2001) are used to analyse the monthly, seasonal, and annual variations of the aerosol optical depth at 1 μm wavelength. We have shown that aerosol and microphysical properties and the dominating aerosol types depend on seasons. A comparison of the seasonal cycle of aerosol optical characteristics at Thala site showed that the contribution of long-range transported particles is expected to be larger in summer as a consequence of the weather stability typical of this season. Also, the winter decrease in atmospheric turbidity may result from increases in relative humidity and decreases in temperature, leading to increased particle size and mass and increased fall and deposition velocities. The spring and autumn weather patterns usually carry fine dust and sand particles for the desert area to Thala region. The annual behaviour of the aerosol optical depth recorded a period of stead increase started in 1986 until 2001. Trends in atmospheric turbidity after 1988 could be explained other ways by the contribution of the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and by local or regional changes in climate or in aerosol emissions.

  4. Theoretical aspects of synthetic measurement of the development dynamics in the context of city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyszko Pawlak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  Background:  The paper presents the theoretical basis for the proposal of modeling of the dynamics of the modern cities’ development by the use of a properly constructed synthetic indicator. Additionally to the possibility of the quantification of the development of social and economic systems of cities, its implementation allows the identification of nonlinear processes as phase transitions, which occur e.g. under influence of technological and social innovations. The economic and physical approach to this allows to learn more about the nature of these processes and to set new instruments supporting the management of urban areas in conditions of an increasing competiveness.  Methods: The mathematical modeling of social and economical processes and economical and physical approach to dynamics of systems of nonlinear development. Results and conclusions: Based on conducted simulation researches, it can be concluded that the synthetic measure of the development of urban areas can be a good tool supporting the city management by local authorities. The economical and physical approach to the nonlinear dynamics of urban systems marks out new areas for further researches, the determination of minimum required conditions (the necessary level for stimulation of the phase transition and the analysis of factors allowing to avoid the negative consequences of a phase transition, especially in smaller cities areas, seems to be the most important ones.  

  5. Image, measure, figure: a critical discourse analysis of nursing practices that develop children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by discourses that link early child development and health, nurses engage in seemingly benign surveillance of children. These practices are based on knowledge claims and technologies of developmental science, which remain anchored in assumptions of the child body as an incomplete form with a universal developmental trajectory and inherent potentiality. This paper engages in a critical discursive analysis, drawing on Donna Haraway's conceptualizations of technoscience and figuration. Using a contemporary developmental screening tool from nursing practice, this analysis traces the effects of this tool through production, transformation, distribution, and consumption. It reveals how the techniques of imaging, abstraction, and measurement collide to fix the open, transformative child body in a figuration of the developing child. This analysis also demonstrates how technobiopower infuses nurses' understandings of children and structures developmentally appropriate expectations for children, parents, and nurses. Furthermore, it describes how practices that claim to facilitate healthy child development may inversely deprive children of agency and foster the production of normal or ideal children. An alternative ontological perspective is offered as a challenge to the individualism of developmental models and other dominant ideologies of development, as well as practices associated with these ideologies. In summary, this analysis argues that nurses must pay closer attention to how technobiopower infuses practices that monitor and promote child development. Fostering a critical understanding of the harmful implications of these practices is warranted and offers the space to conceive of human development in alternate and exciting ways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The comparison between science virtual and paper based test in measuring grade 7 students’ critical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhitareka, P. H.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.

    2018-05-01

    This research is comparing science virtual and paper-based test in measuring grade 7 students’ critical thinking based on Multiple Intelligences and gender. Quasi experimental method with within-subjects design is conducted in this research in order to obtain the data. The population of this research was all seventh grade students in ten classes of one public secondary school in Bandung. There were 71 students within two classes taken randomly became the sample in this research. The data are obtained through 28 questions with a topic of living things and environmental sustainability constructed based on eight critical thinking elements proposed by Inch then the questions provided in science virtual and paper-based test. The data was analysed by using paired-samples t test when the data are parametric and Wilcoxon signed ranks test when the data are non-parametric. In general comparison, the p-value of the comparison between science virtual and paper-based tests’ score is 0.506, indicated that there are no significance difference between science virtual and paper-based test based on the tests’ score. The results are furthermore supported by the students’ attitude result which is 3.15 from the scale from 1 to 4, indicated that they have positive attitudes towards Science Virtual Test.

  7. Three calculations of free cortisol versus measured values in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Nienke; Groeneveld, A B Johan; de Jong, Margriet F C

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the agreement between the calculated free cortisol levels according to widely applied Coolens and adjusted Södergård equations with measured levels in the critically ill. A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit. We consecutively included 103 patients with treatment-insensitive hypotension in whom an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test (250μg) was performed. Serum total and free cortisol (equilibrium dialysis), corticosteroid-binding globulin and albumin were assessed. Free cortisol was estimated by the Coolens method (C) and two adjusted Södergård (S1 and S2) equations. Bland Altman plots were made. The bias for absolute (t=0, 30 and 60min after ACTH injection) cortisol levels was 38, -24, 41nmol/L when the C, S1 and S2 equations were used, with 95% limits of agreement between -65-142, -182-135, and -57-139nmol/L and percentage errors of 66, 85, and 64%, respectively. Bias for delta (peak-baseline) cortisol was 14, -31 and 16nmol/L, with 95% limits of agreement between -80-108, -157-95, and -74-105nmol/L, and percentage errors of 107, 114, and 100% for C, S1 and S2 equations, respectively. Calculated free cortisol levels have too high bias and imprecision to allow for acceptable use in the critically ill. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flow visualization and critical heat flux measurement of a boundary layer pool boiling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.; Shiah, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the effort to evaluate the concept of external passive cooling of core melt by cavity flooding under severe accident conditions, a subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) facility, consisting of a pressurized water tank with a condenser unit, a heated hemispherical test vessel, and a data acquisition/photographic system, was developed to simulate the boiling process on the external bottom surface of a fully submerged reactor vessel. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were conducted in the facility to measure the local critical heat flux (CHF) and observe the underlying mechanisms under well controlled saturated and subcooled conditions. Large elongated vapor slugs were observed in the bottom region of the vessel which gave rise to strong upstream influences in the resulting two-phase liquid-vapor boundary layer flow along the vessel outer surface. The local CHF values deduced from the transient quenching data appeared to be very close to those obtained in the steady-state boiling experiments. Comparison of the SBLB data was made with available 2-D full-scale data and the differences were found to be rather small except in a region near the bottom center of the vessel. The angular position of the vessel outer surface and the degree of subcooling of water had dominant effects on the local critical heat flux. They totally dwarfed the effect of the physical dimensions of the test vessels. (author)

  9. Face puzzle—two new video-based tasks for measuring explicit and implicit aspects of facial emotion recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliemann, Dorit; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Bölte, Sven; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Dziobek, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing others' emotional states is crucial for effective social interaction. While most facial emotion recognition tasks use explicit prompts that trigger consciously controlled processing, emotional faces are almost exclusively processed implicitly in real life. Recent attempts in social cognition suggest a dual process perspective, whereby explicit and implicit processes largely operate independently. However, due to differences in methodology the direct comparison of implicit and explicit social cognition has remained a challenge. Here, we introduce a new tool to comparably measure implicit and explicit processing aspects comprising basic and complex emotions in facial expressions. We developed two video-based tasks with similar answer formats to assess performance in respective facial emotion recognition processes: Face Puzzle, implicit and explicit. To assess the tasks' sensitivity to atypical social cognition and to infer interrelationship patterns between explicit and implicit processes in typical and atypical development, we included healthy adults (NT, n = 24) and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 24). Item analyses yielded good reliability of the new tasks. Group-specific results indicated sensitivity to subtle social impairments in high-functioning ASD. Correlation analyses with established implicit and explicit socio-cognitive measures were further in favor of the tasks' external validity. Between group comparisons provide first hints of differential relations between implicit and explicit aspects of facial emotion recognition processes in healthy compared to ASD participants. In addition, an increased magnitude of between group differences in the implicit task was found for a speed-accuracy composite measure. The new Face Puzzle tool thus provides two new tasks to separately assess explicit and implicit social functioning, for instance, to measure subtle impairments as well as potential improvements due to social cognitive

  10. Radiologic examination and measurement of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint. New aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernvall, A.H.; Ekenstam, F. af; Hagert, C.G.; Irstam, L.

    Following fractures of the distal radius, a relatively high incidence of complications is caused by malalignment in the distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint; recent anatomic and clinical investigations have shown a congruity of that joint to be of significant importance for restoring the function of the wrist. The radius forms a moderately arched bone, which moves around the ulna in pronation and supination. Biomechanically, the ulna may be regarded as the pillar around which the radius moves. In an anatomic investigation of 5 arm specimens, we have shown that the maximum cartilage contact in the DRU joint between the ulna head and the distal radius occurs in the neutral rotation position. A proposed routine examination method of the wrist and forearm includes a true antero-posterior and a lateral projection of the radius and the ulna, performed with the forearm and wrist in a neutral rotation, a neutral wrist deviation and with the elbow angled 90 degrees. Such an examination implies a standardized and reproducible method. In a radioanatomic investigation, a series of 50 healthy wrists and forearms were examined. A simple measuring technique is presented, applicable to the DRU joint and wrist favouring the ulna as the bone through which a reproducible long axis of the forearm/wrist may be drawn. It is suggested that the length of the radius should be judged relative to the ulna. Ulnar head inclination and radio-ulnar angle are new concepts, being major characteristics of the DRU joint. These angles of the right and left wrist were equal and no difference was found between the sexes. Minor alterations of the distal radius may be revealed when estimating these angles.

  11. α-Cut method based importance measure for criticality analysis in fuzzy probability – Based fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purba, Julwan Hendry; Sony Tjahyani, D.T.; Widodo, Surip; Tjahjono, Hendro

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •FPFTA deals with epistemic uncertainty using fuzzy probability. •Criticality analysis is important for reliability improvement. •An α-cut method based importance measure is proposed for criticality analysis in FPFTA. •The α-cut method based importance measure utilises α-cut multiplication, α-cut subtraction, and area defuzzification technique. •Benchmarking confirm that the proposed method is feasible for criticality analysis in FPFTA. -- Abstract: Fuzzy probability – based fault tree analysis (FPFTA) has been recently developed and proposed to deal with the limitations of conventional fault tree analysis. In FPFTA, reliabilities of basic events, intermediate events and top event are characterized by fuzzy probabilities. Furthermore, the quantification of the FPFTA is based on fuzzy multiplication rule and fuzzy complementation rule to propagate uncertainties from basic event to the top event. Since the objective of the fault tree analysis is to improve the reliability of the system being evaluated, it is necessary to find the weakest path in the system. For this purpose, criticality analysis can be implemented. Various importance measures, which are based on conventional probabilities, have been developed and proposed for criticality analysis in fault tree analysis. However, not one of those importance measures can be applied for criticality analysis in FPFTA, which is based on fuzzy probability. To be fully applied in nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment, FPFTA needs to have its corresponding importance measure. The objective of this study is to develop an α-cut method based importance measure to evaluate and rank the importance of basic events for criticality analysis in FPFTA. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed measure, a case study is performed and its results are then benchmarked to the results generated by the four well known importance measures in conventional fault tree analysis. The results

  12. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, F.R. [CTS-NA, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO{sub 2} gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  13. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greening, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO_2 gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  14. Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: a new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted.

  15. Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: a new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walla

    Full Text Available With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG (i and their skin conductance (ii and their heart rate (iii were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted.

  16. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted. PMID:22073192

  17. Critical concentrations of cadmium in human liver and kidney measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Few data exist on Cd metabolism in human beings. In particular, data are needed on the role of parameters such as age, sex, weight, diet, smoking habits, and state of health. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) provides the only currently available means for measuring in vivo levels of liver and kidney Cd. The method employs an 85 Ci, 235 Pu,Be neutron source and a gamma ray detection system consisting of two Ge(Li) detector. The dose delivered to the liver and left kidney is 666 mrem (detection limit is 1.4 μg/g Cd in the liver and 2.0 mg Cd for one kidney). Absolute levels of Cd in the kidney and concentrations of Cd in the liver were measured in vivo in twenty healthy adult males using 238 Pu,Be neutron sources. Organ Cd levels of smokers were significantly elevated above those of nonsmokers. Biological half-time for Cd in the body was estimated to be 15.7 yr. Cigarette smoking was estimated to result in the absorption of 1.9 μg of Cd per pack. No relationship was bound between body stores of Cd (liver and kidney) and Cd or β-microglobulin levels in urine and blood. Currently the above neutron activation facility is being mounted on a 34-ft mobile trailer unit. This unit will be used to monitor levels of Cd in industrial workers. It is anticipated that critically important data, particularly on industrially exposed workers, will provide a better basis for determining critical concentrations and for the setting or revision of standards for industrial and environmental Cd pollution

  18. Amphibious hearing in spotted seals (Phoca largha): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-03-01

    Spotted seals (Phoca largha) inhabit Arctic regions that are facing both rapid climate change and increasing industrialization. While little is known about their sensory capabilities, available knowledge suggests that spotted seals and other ice seals use sound to obtain information from the surrounding environment. To quantitatively assess their auditory capabilities, the hearing of two young spotted seals was tested using a psychophysical paradigm. Absolute detection thresholds for tonal sounds were measured in air and under water over the frequency range of hearing, and critical ratios were determined using octave-band masking noise in both media. The behavioral audiograms show a range of best sensitivity spanning four octaves in air, from approximately 0.6 to 11 kHz. The range of sensitive hearing extends across seven octaves in water, with lowest thresholds between 0.3 and 56 kHz. Critical ratio measurements were similar in air and water and increased monotonically from 12 dB at 0.1 kHz to 30 dB at 25.6 kHz, indicating that the auditory systems of these seals are quite efficient at extracting signals from background noise. This study demonstrates that spotted seals possess sound reception capabilities different from those previously described for ice seals, and more similar to those reported for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). The results are consistent with the amphibious lifestyle of these seals and their apparent reliance on sound. The hearing data reported herein are the first available for spotted seals and can inform best management practices for this vulnerable species in a changing Arctic.

  19. Rethinking the measurement of energy poverty in Europe: A critical analysis of indicators and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Bouzarovski, Stefan; Snell, Carolyn

    2017-08-01

    Energy poverty - which has also been recognised via terms such as 'fuel poverty' and 'energy vulnerability' - occurs when a household experiences inadequate levels of energy services in the home. Measuring energy poverty is challenging, as it is a culturally sensitive and private condition, which is temporally and spatially dynamic. This is compounded by the limited availability of appropriate data and indicators, and lack of consensus on how energy poverty should be conceptualised and measured. Statistical indicators of energy poverty are an important and necessary part of the research and policy landscape. They carry great political weight, and are often used to guide the targeting of energy poverty measures - due to their perceived objectivity - with important consequences for both the indoor and built environment of housing. Focussing on the European Union specifically, this paper critically assesses the available statistical options for monitoring energy poverty, whilst also presenting options for improving existing data. This is examined through the lens of vulnerability thinking, by considering the ways in which policies and institutions, the built fabric and everyday practices shape energy use, alongside the manner in which energy poor households experience and address the issue on a day-to-day basis.

  20. Measurement of the ^235mU Production Cross Section Using a Critical Assembly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, Robert; Authier, Nicolas; Becker, John; Belier, Gilbert; Bond, Evelyn; Bredeweg, Todd; Glover, S.; Meot, Vincent; Rundberg, Robert; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2006-10-01

    Measurements of the creation and destruction cross sections for actinide nuclei constitute an important experimental effort in support of Stockpile Stewardship. In this talk I will give a progress report on the effort to measure the production cross section of the ^235mU isomer integrated over a fission neutron spectrum. This ongoing experiment is fielded at CEA in Valduc, France, taking advantage of the CALIBAN critical assembly. This effort is performed in collaboration with LANL, LLNL, Bruyeres le Chatel, and Valduc staff. This experiment utilizes a technique to measure internal conversion electrons from the ^235mU isomer with the French BIII detector (Bruyeres le Chatel), and involves a substantial chemistry effort (LANL) to prepare targets for irradiation and counting, as well as to remove fission fragments after irradiation. Experimental techniques will be discussed and preliminary data presented. *Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory (W-7405-ENG-36) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (W-7405-ENG-48), and CEA-DAM under CEA-DAM NNSA-DOE agreement.

  1. Criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility. Think back on JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Keiji

    2003-09-01

    This book is written in order to understand the fundamental knowledge of criticality safety or criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility by the citizens. It consists of four chapters such as critical conditions and criticality accident of nuclear facility, risk of criticality accident, prevention of criticality accident and a measure at an occurrence of criticality accident. A definition of criticality, control of critical conditions, an aspect of accident, a rate of incident, damage, three sufferers, safety control method of criticality, engineering and administrative control, safety design of criticality, investigation of failure of safety control of JCO criticality accident, safety culture are explained. JCO criticality accident was caused with intention of disregarding regulation. It is important that we recognize the correct risk of criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility and prevent disasters. On the basis of them, we should establish safety culture. (S.Y.)

  2. Measurement of critical heat flux in narrow gap with two-dimensional slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sung Joong; Noh, Sang Woo; Suh, Kune Y.

    2002-01-01

    A cooling mechanism due to boiling in a gap between the debris crust and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall was proposed for the TMI-2 reactor accident analysis. If there is enough heat transfer through the gap to cool the outer surface of the debris and the inner surface of the wall, the RPV wall may preserve its integrity during a severe core melt accident. If the heat removal through gap cooling relative to the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) is pronounced, the safety margin of the reactor can be far greater than what had been previously known in the severe accident management arena. Should a severe accident take place, the RPV integrity will be maintained because of the inherent nature of degraded core coolability inside the lower head due to boiling in a narrow gap between the debris crust and the RPV wall. As a defense-in-depth measure, the heat removal capability by gap cooling coupled with external cooling can be examined for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) and the Advanced Power Reactor 1400MWe (APR1400) in light of the TMI-2 vessel survival. A number of studies were carried out to investigate the complex heat transfer mechanisms for the debris cooling in the lower plenum. However, these heat transfer mechanisms have not been clearly understood yet. The CHFG (Critical Heat Flux in Gap) experiments at KAERI were carried out to develop the critical heat flux (CHF) correlation in a hemispherical gap, which is the upper limit of the heat transfer. According to the CHFG experiments performed with a pool boiling condition, the CHF in a parallel gap was reduced by 1/30 compared with the value measured in the open pool boiling condition. The correlation developed from the CHFG experiment is based on the fact that the CHF in a hemispherical gap is governed by the CCFL and a Kutateladze type CCFL parameter correlates CCFL data well in hemispherical gap geometry. However, the results of the CHFG experiments appear to be limited in their

  3. The social media index: measuring the impact of emergency medicine and critical care websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; pimpact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; pimpact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool.

  4. Radiology reading-caused fatigue and measurement of eye strain with critical flicker fusion frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Akai, Hiroyuki; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Sasaki, Hiroki; Matsuda, Izuru; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate eye fatigue that could impair diagnostic accuracy by measuring the critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF) before and after reading. CFFF was measured before and after about 4 h of health checkup reading in seven healthy volunteer radiologists. A questionnaire was also completed on duration of sleep the night before the experiment, average duration of sleep, and subjective fatigue using a visual analog scale (corrected to a 0-1 scale, 0 indicating the worst fatigue ever experienced). After-reading subjective fatigue was significantly greater (before 0.52±0.15, after 0.42±0.15), and CFFF was significantly lower (before 40.9±2.4, after 39.9±2.0). There was no significant correlation between subjective fatigue and CFFF, either before or after or between before- and after-reading differences in subjective fatigue and CFFF. Shorter duration of sleep the night before significantly correlated with lower CFFF (Pearson's correlation coefficient): before 0.42, P=0.0047; after 0.52, P=0.0003. CFFF declines after reading and can be considered useful as an indicator of fatigue induced by radiology reading. CFFF declines significantly when sleep is reduced the day before reading without correlation with subjective fatigue, meaning that sleep deprivation can cause an unaware decline in visual function. (author)

  5. Measurements of the vapor-liquid coexistence curve and the critical parameters for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Y.; Tanikawa, S.; Uematsu, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1989-05-01

    Measurements of the vapor-liquid coexistence curve in the critical region for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a; CH2FCF3), which is currently considered as a prospective substitute for conventional refrigerant R12, have been performed by visual observation of the disappearance of the meniscus at the vapor-liquid interface within an optical cell. Twenty-seven saturated densities along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve between 208 and 999 kg·m-3 have been obtained in the temperature range 343 K to the critical temperature. The experimental uncertainties in temperature and density measurements have been estimated to be within ±10mK and ±0.55%, respectively. On the basis of these measurements near the critical point, the critical temperature and the critical density for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane were determined in consideration of the meniscus disappearing level as well as the intensity of the critical opalescence. In addition, the critical exponent ß along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve has been determined in accord with the difference between the density of the saturated liquid and that of the saturated vapor.

  6. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoma, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi was developed to help address this. Methods: We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1 temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2 correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results: The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001 and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001. When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001 and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001. Conclusion: The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:242–249.

  7. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The

  8. Measuring tele-ICU impact: does it optimize quality outcomes for the critically ill patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Susan F

    2012-04-01

    To determine the relationship between tele-ICU (intensive care unit) implementations and improvement in quality measures and patient outcomes. Tele-ICUs were designed to leverage scarce critical-care experts and promised to improve patient quality. Abstracts and peer-reviewed articles were reviewed to identify the associations between tele-ICU programmes and clinical outcomes, cost savings, and customer satisfaction. Few peer-reviewed studies are available and many variables in each study limit the ability to associate study conclusions to the overall tele-ICU programme. Further research is required to explore the impact of the tele-ICU on patient/family satisfaction. Research findings are highly dependent upon the level of ICU acceptance. The tele-ICU, in collaboration with the ICU team, can be a valuable tool for the enhancement of quality goals although the ability to demonstrate cost savings is extremely complex. Studies clearly indicate that tele-ICU nursing vigilance can enhance patient safety by preventing potential patient harm. Nursing managers and leaders play a vital part in optimizing the quality role of the tele-ICU through supportive modelling and the maximization of ICU integration. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Measurement of the proton recoil spectrum in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT. Study of systematic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Gertrud Emilie

    2012-01-24

    Free neutron decay, n{yields}pe anti {nu}{sub e}, is the simplest nuclear beta decay, well described as a purely left-handed, vector minus axial-vector interaction within the framework of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles and fields. Due to its highly precise theoretical description, neutron beta decay data can be used to test certain extensions to the SM. Possible extensions require, e.g., new symmetry concepts like left-right symmetry, new particles, leptoquarks, supersymmetry, or the like. Precision measurements of observables in neutron beta decay address important open questions of particle physics and cosmology, and are generally complementary to direct searches for new physics beyond the SM in high-energy physics. In this doctoral thesis, a measurement of the proton recoil spectrum with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT is described. From the proton spectrum the antineutrinoelectron angular correlation coefficient a can be derived. In our first beam time at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich, Germany (2005-2006), background instabilities due to particle trapping and the electronic noise level of the proton detector prevented us from presenting a new value for a. In the latest beam time at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France (2007-2008), the trapped particle background has been reduced sufficiently and the electronic noise problem has essentially been solved. For the first time, a silicon drift detector was used. As a result of the data analysis, we identified and fixed a problem in the detector electronics which caused a significant systematic error. The target figure of the latest beam time was a new value for a with a total relative error well below the present literature value of 4 %. A statistical accuracy of about 1.4% was reached, but we could only set upper limits on the correction of the problem in the detector electronics, which are too high to determine a meaningful result. The present

  10. Measurement of the proton recoil spectrum in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT. Study of systematic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, Gertrud Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Free neutron decay, n→pe anti ν e , is the simplest nuclear beta decay, well described as a purely left-handed, vector minus axial-vector interaction within the framework of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles and fields. Due to its highly precise theoretical description, neutron beta decay data can be used to test certain extensions to the SM. Possible extensions require, e.g., new symmetry concepts like left-right symmetry, new particles, leptoquarks, supersymmetry, or the like. Precision measurements of observables in neutron beta decay address important open questions of particle physics and cosmology, and are generally complementary to direct searches for new physics beyond the SM in high-energy physics. In this doctoral thesis, a measurement of the proton recoil spectrum with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT is described. From the proton spectrum the antineutrinoelectron angular correlation coefficient a can be derived. In our first beam time at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich, Germany (2005-2006), background instabilities due to particle trapping and the electronic noise level of the proton detector prevented us from presenting a new value for a. In the latest beam time at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France (2007-2008), the trapped particle background has been reduced sufficiently and the electronic noise problem has essentially been solved. For the first time, a silicon drift detector was used. As a result of the data analysis, we identified and fixed a problem in the detector electronics which caused a significant systematic error. The target figure of the latest beam time was a new value for a with a total relative error well below the present literature value of 4 %. A statistical accuracy of about 1.4% was reached, but we could only set upper limits on the correction of the problem in the detector electronics, which are too high to determine a meaningful result. The present doctoral

  11. Reduced functional measure of cardiovascular reserve predicts admission to critical care unit following kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M S Ting

    Full Text Available There is currently no effective preoperative assessment for patients undergoing kidney transplantation that is able to identify those at high perioperative risk requiring admission to critical care unit (CCU. We sought to determine if functional measures of cardiovascular reserve, in particular the anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT could identify these patients.Adult patients were assessed within 4 weeks prior to kidney transplantation in a University hospital with a 37-bed CCU, between April 2010 and June 2012. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET, echocardiography and arterial applanation tonometry were performed.There were 70 participants (age 41.7±14.5 years, 60% male, 91.4% living donor kidney recipients, 23.4% were desensitized. 14 patients (20% required escalation of care from the ward to CCU following transplantation. Reduced anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT was the most significant predictor, independently (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p<0.001 and in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59; p = 0.001. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was 0.93, based on a risk prediction model that incorporated VO₂AT, body mass index and desensitization status. Neither echocardiographic nor measures of aortic compliance were significantly associated with CCU admission.To our knowledge, this is the first prospective observational study to demonstrate the usefulness of CPET as a preoperative risk stratification tool for patients undergoing kidney transplantation. The study suggests that VO₂AT has the potential to predict perioperative morbidity in kidney transplant recipients.

  12. Characterization of the CALIBAN Critical Assembly Neutron Spectra using Several Adjustment Methods Based on Activation Foils Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Casoli Pierre; Grégoire Gilles; Rousseau Guillaume; Jacquet Xavier; Authier Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    CALIBAN is a metallic critical assembly managed by the Criticality, Neutron Science and Measurement Department located on the French CEA Center of Valduc. The reactor is extensively used for benchmark experiments dedicated to the evaluation of nuclear data, for electronic hardening or to study the effect of the neutrons on various materials. Therefore CALIBAN irradiation characteristics and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum have to be very accurately evaluated. In order to streng...

  13. Measuring the Impact of Online Evidence Retrieval Systems using Critical Incidents & Journey Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Coiera, Enrico W; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Online evidence retrieval systems are one potential tool in supporting evidence-based practice. We have undertaken a program of research to investigate how hospital-based clinicians (doctors, nurses and allied health professionals) use these systems, factors influencing use and their impact on decision-making and health care delivery. A central component of this work has been the development and testing of a broad range of evaluation techniques. This paper provides an overview of the results obtained from three stages of this evaluation and details the results derived from the final stage which sought to test two methods for assessing the integration of an online evidence system and its impact on decision making and patient care. The critical incident and journey mapping techniques were applied. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 clinicians who were experienced users of the online evidence system. Clinicians were asked to described recent instances in which the information obtained using the online evidence system was especially helpful with their work. A grounded approach to data analysis was taken producing three categories of impact. The journey mapping technique was adapted as a method to describe and quantify clinicians' integration of CIAP into their practice and the impact of this on patient care. The analogy of a journey is used to capture the many stages in this integration process, from introduction to the system to full integration into everyday clinical practice with measurable outcomes. Transcribed interview accounts of system use were mapped against the journey stages and scored. Clinicians generated 85 critical incidents and one quarter of these provided specific examples of system use leading to improvements in patient care. The journey mapping technique proved to be a useful method for providing a quantification of the ways and extent to which clincians had integrated system use into practice, and insights into how information

  14. Plans and equipment for criticality measurements on plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Clayton, E.D.; Durst, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Data from critical experiments are required on the criticality of plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions to accurately establish criticality control limits for use in processing and handling of breeder type fuels. Since the fuel must be processed both safely and economically, it is necessary that criticality considerations be based on accurate experimental data. Previous experiments have been reported on plutonium-uranium solutions with Pu weight ratios extending up to some 38 wt %. No data have been presented, however, for plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions beyond this Pu weight ratio. The current research emphasis is on the procurement of criticality data for plutonium-uranium mixtures up to 60 wt % Pu that will serve as the basis for handling criticality problems subsequently encountered in the development of technology for the breeder community. Such data also will provide necessary benchmarks for data testing and analysis on integral criticality experiments for verification of the analytical techniques used in support of criticality control. Experiments are currently being performed with plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions in stainless steel cylindrical vessels and an expandable slab tank system. A schematic of the experimental systems is presented

  15. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  16. Analysis of measurements for a uranium-free core experiment at the BFS-2 critical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Stuart [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-04-01

    This document describes a series of calculations that were carried out to model various measurements from the BFS-58-1-I1 experiment. BFS-58-1-I1 was a mock-up of a uranium-free, Pu burning core at BFS-2, a Russian critical assembly operated by IPPE. The experiment measured values of Keff, Na void reactivity worth, material sample reactivity worths and reaction rate ratios. The experiments were modelled using a number of different methods. Basic nuclear data was taken from JENDL-3.2, in either 70 or 18 groups. Cross-section data for the various material regions of the assembly were calculated by either SLAROM or CASUP; the heterogeneous structure of the core regions was modelled in these calculations, with 3 different options considered for representing the (essentially 2D) geometry of the assembly components in a 1D cell model. Whole reactor calculations of flux and Keff were done using both a diffusion model (CITATION) and a transport model (TWOTRAN2), both using an RZ geometry. Reactivity worths were calculated both directly from differences in Keff values and by using the exact perturbation calculations of PERKY and SN-PERT (for CITATION and TWOTRAN2, respectively). Initial calculations included a number of inaccuracies in the assembly representation, a result of communication difficulties between JNC and IPPE; these errors were removed for the final calculations that are presented. Calculations for the experiments have also been carried out in Russia (IPPE) and France (CEA) as part of an international comparison exercise, some of those results are also presented here. The calculated value of Keff was 1.1%{delta}k/k higher than the measured value, Na void worth C/E values were {approx}1.06; these results were considered to be reasonable. (Discrepancies in certain Na void values were probably due to experimental causes , though the effect should be investigated in any future experiments.) Several sample worth values were small compared with calculational

  17. Reading the Leaves: A Comparison of Leaf Rank and Automated Areole Measurement for Quantifying Aspects of Leaf Venation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton A. Green

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reticulate venation that is characteristic of a dicot leaf has excited interest from systematists for more than a century, and from physiological and developmental botanists for decades. The tools of digital image acquisition and computer image analysis, however, are only now approaching the sophistication needed to quantify aspects of the venation network found in real leaves quickly, easily, accurately, and reliably enough to produce biologically meaningful data. In this paper, we examine 120 leaves distributed across vascular plants (representing 118 genera and 80 families using two approaches: a semiquantitative scoring system called “leaf ranking,” devised by the late Leo Hickey, and an automated image-analysis protocol. In the process of comparing these approaches, we review some methodological issues that arise in trying to quantify a vein network, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of automatic data collection and human pattern recognition. We conclude that subjective leaf rank provides a relatively consistent, semiquantitative measure of areole size among other variables; that modal areole size is generally consistent across large sections of a leaf lamina; and that both approaches—semiquantitative, subjective scoring; and fully quantitative, automated measurement—have appropriate places in the study of leaf venation.

  18. Measurements of 60Co in spoons activated by neutrons during the JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, J.; Hult, M.; Komura, K.; Arnold, D.; Holmes, L.; Johnston, P.N.; Laubenstein, M.; Neumaier, S.; Reyss, J.-L.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Tagziria, H.; Van Britsom, G.; Vasselli, R.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activated items from the vicinity of the place where the JCO criticality accident occurred have been used to determine the fluence of neutrons around the facility and in nearby residential areas. By using underground laboratories for measuring the activation products, it is possible to extend the study to also cover radionuclides with very low activities from long-lived radionuclides. The present study describes γ-ray spectrometry measurements undertaken in a range of underground laboratories for the purpose of measuring 60 Co more than 2 years after the criticality event. The measurements show that neutron fluence determined from 60 Co activity is in agreement with previous measurements using the short-lived radionuclides 51 Cr and 59 Fe. Limits on contamination of the samples with 60 Co are evaluated and shown to not greatly affect the utility of neutron fluence determinations using 60 Co activation

  19. Measurements of 60Co in spoons activated by neutrons during the JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, J; Hult, M; Komura, K; Arnold, D; Holmes, L; Johnston, P N; Laubenstein, M; Neumaier, S; Reyss, J-L; Schillebeeckx, P; Tagziria, H; Van Britsom, G; Vasselli, R

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activated items from the vicinity of the place where the JCO criticality accident occurred have been used to determine the fluence of neutrons around the facility and in nearby residential areas. By using underground laboratories for measuring the activation products, it is possible to extend the study to also cover radionuclides with very low activities from long-lived radionuclides. The present study describes gamma-ray spectrometry measurements undertaken in a range of underground laboratories for the purpose of measuring (60)Co more than 2 years after the criticality event. The measurements show that neutron fluence determined from (60)Co activity is in agreement with previous measurements using the short-lived radionuclides (51)Cr and (59)Fe. Limits on contamination of the samples with (60)Co are evaluated and shown to not greatly affect the utility of neutron fluence determinations using (60)Co activation.

  20. Contactless estimation of critical current density and its temperature dependence using magnetic measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Youssef, A.; Baničová, L.; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Janů, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 5 (2010), s. 1036-1037 ISSN 0587-4246. [Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism /14./. Košice, 06.07.2010-09.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : superconductivity * critical state * Bean model * critical current density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.467, year: 2010

  1. Methods to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from high-frequency wrist accelerometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, John; He, Shai; Hickey, Amanda; Sasaki, Jeffer; Freedson, Patty

    2015-08-15

    This investigation developed models to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from three-axis high-frequency wrist-worn accelerometer data. The models were developed and tested on 20 participants (n = 10 males, n = 10 females, mean age = 24.1, mean body mass index = 23.9), who wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their dominant wrist and an ActiGraph GT3X on the hip while performing a variety of scripted activities. Energy expenditure was concurrently measured by a portable indirect calorimetry system. Those calibration data were then used to develop and assess both machine-learning and simpler models with fewer unknown parameters (linear regression and decision trees) to estimate metabolic equivalent scores (METs) and to classify activity intensity, sedentary time, and locomotion time. The wrist models, applied to 15-s windows, estimated METs [random forest: root mean squared error (rSME) = 1.21 METs, hip: rMSE = 1.67 METs] and activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, hip: 60% correct) better than a previously developed model that used counts per minute measured at the hip. In a separate set of comparisons, the simpler decision trees classified activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, tree: 74% correct), sedentary time (random forest: 96% correct, decision tree: 97% correct), and locomotion time (random forest: 99% correct, decision tree: 96% correct) nearly as well or better than the machine-learning approaches. Preliminary investigation of the models' performance on two free-living people suggests that they may work well outside of controlled conditions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Greenhouse gases in the life cycle of fossil fuels: critical aspects in upstream emissions estimate and their repercussions on the overall life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, Tiziana

    2004-01-01

    Combustion accounts for the main contribution to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in electricity generation via fossil fuels. To date, minor attention has been paid to pre combustion emissions associated with fossil fuel upstream segment (production, processing and transportation). This study seeks to provide insight into GHG emissions in the pre combustion step of natural gas and coal. Owing to the size/complexity of the upstream processes and to a lack of detailed site-specific data, this study just outlines some of the key aspects involved. The attention will be focused on the elements that may have a significant impact on fossil fuel life-cycle and no on the evaluation of GHG: the sources, the extent of the pre combustion GHG emissions and the accuracy of their estimate. Some key results are summarized in the following. The first one is that pre combustion GHG, owing of the huge Italy reliance on fossil fuels imports, are mainly emitted abroad. In addition, they are released to the atmosphere mainly as fugitive emissions (methane and carbon dioxide being the predominant gases). Moreover, although pre combustion emissions give a modest contribution to GHG of the whole energy sector, they may account for a consistent part of the aver all fuel life-cycle in power generation even though combustion technologies efficiency plays a key role in emission reduction. Some examples are reported, showing the potential impact of pre combustion emissions on coal and natural gas life-cycle in Italy's electricity generation. The second one is that pre combustion emissions are very site specific as they depend on several factors which may vary greatly between countries and even between individual companies. The sources and the extent of upstream emissions are in fact a function of a least three factor types: (a) technical parameters (design and operating practices, process operating conditions, efficiency of potential emission control/reduction equipment, age and conditions of

  3. Some aspects of RF radiation safety guidelines on urgent protective measures in case of radiation emergency at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, V.G.; Klepikova, N.V.; Shershakov, V.M.; Ivanov, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    emergency. Besides, specific activities of radionuclides in foods are also used as criteria; requirements regarding intervention measures depend on whether the predicted dose can bring about deterministic effects. In the case of high doses leading to deterministic effects protection measures are mandatory. If deterministic effects cannot be excluded, then protection measures should be justifiable and optimized. One of the key concepts of emergency response activities is the intervention level. In NRB-99 the intervention level is defined as radiation factor level which when exceeded requires protection measures. The NRB-99 lays down dose levels the excess of which can lead to clinical effects. These are consistent with the IAEA guidelines. The criteria of NRB-99 for shelter and evacuation am different from those of ICRP as far as measurement units are concerned. In NRB-99 doses averted through sheltering and evacuation are proposed to be calculated as absorbed dose, rather than effective dose. The NRB-99 requires prediction of doses averted by sheltering, evacuation and iodine prophylaxis in the first 10 days after a radiation accident. This suggests that a protection measure can be as long as 10 days. The NRB-99 contains no recommendation with regard to consideration of exposure pathways. Also, in the NRB-99 there is no mentioning of population groups for which averted dose should be calculated. The IAEA recommendations specify that averted dose should apply to a population mean value, rather than most exposed persons (critical groups). However, predicted doses for critical groups should be estimated given exposure levels require urgent Intervention (i. e. leading to clinical effects). Method for express assessment of possible intervention areas in the early phase of emergency at a nuclear power plant. The presentation discusses a method for preparing quickly recommendations an emergency measures to protect the personnel and the public in case of emergency at a NPP with V

  4. Nuclear accident: dosimetric and medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    The conservation aspect of the treatment of patients who received whole-body exposure is presented. Such treatment to be started during the first hours after the accident (prodomal phase), as well as the nonconventional measures to be adopted when the critical phase of acute irradiation syndrome is reached. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Simulation of reactor noise analysis measurement for light-water critical assembly TCA using MCNP-DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2001-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis methods using Monte Carlo technique have been proposed and developed in the field of nuclear criticality safety. The Monte Carlo simulation for noise analysis can be made by simulating physical phenomena in the course of neutron transport in a nuclear fuel as practically as possible. MCNP-DSP was developed by T. Valentine of ORNL for this purpose and it is a modified version of MCNP-4A. The authors applied this code to frequency analysis measurements performed in light-water critical assembly TCA. Prompt neutron generation times for critical and subcritical cores were measured by doing the frequency analysis of detector signals. The Monte Carlo simulations for these experiments were carried out using MCNP-DSP, and prompt neutron generation times were calculated. (author)

  6. Progress in nanoscale dry processes for fabrication of high-aspect-ratio features: How can we control critical dimension uniformity at the bottom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kenji; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Cho, Sung Il; Elliott, Simon; Hausmann, Dennis; Mocuta, Dan; Wilson, Aaron; Kinoshita, Keizo

    2018-06-01

    In this review, we discuss the progress of emerging dry processes for nanoscale fabrication of high-aspect-ratio features, including emerging design technology for manufacturability. Experts in the fields of plasma processing have contributed to addressing the increasingly challenging demands of nanoscale deposition and etching technologies for high-aspect-ratio features. The discussion of our atomic-scale understanding of physicochemical reactions involving ion bombardment and neutral transport presents the major challenges shared across the plasma science and technology community. Focus is placed on advances in fabrication technology that control surface reactions on three-dimensional features, as well as state-of-the-art techniques used in semiconductor manufacturing with a brief summary of future challenges.

  7. A critical discourse analysis of the attitudes of occupational therapists and physiotherapists towards the systematic use of standardised outcome measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger Pedersen, Tonny; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate discourses relating to the implementation of standardised outcome measurement within rehabilitation practise. METHOD: It is a critical discourse analysis of texts in professional occupational therapist (OT) and physiotherapist (PT) journals, along with transcriptions from ......, deliberate and conscious reflections in local settings are needed. It is necessary to go beyond normal and familiar professional reflections. To this end, newcomers' opinions are valuable....

  8. COMPARISON OF GKS CALCULATED CRITICAL ION TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS AND ITG GROWTH RATES TO DIII-D MEASURED GRADIENTS AND DIFFUSIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, DR; STAEBLER, GM; PETTY, CC; GREENFIELD, CM; LUCE, TC

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The gyrokinetic equations predict that various drift type waves or modes can be unstable in a tokamak. For some of these modes, such as the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the electron temperature gradient mode, there exists a critical gradient, above which the mode is unstable. Since the existence of unstable modes can cause increased transport, plasmas which are centrally heated tend to increase in temperature gradient until the modes become unstable. Under some conditions the increased transport can fix the gradient at the critical value. here they present a comparison between the measured ion temperature gradients and the critical gradient as calculated by a gyrokinetic linear stability (GKS) code. They also present the maximum linear growth rate as calculated by this code for comparison to experimentally derived transport coefficients. The results show that for low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the measured ion temperature gradient is significantly greater than the GKS calculated critical gradient over a large region of the plasma. This is the same region of the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity is large. For high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges the ion temperature gradient is closer to the critical gradient, but often still greater than the critical gradient over some region. For the best H-mode discharges, the ion temperature is less than or equal to the critical gradient over the whole plasma. In general they find that the position in the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity starts to increase rapidly is where the maximum linear growth rate is greater than the E x B shearing rate

  9. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) and critical temperature (Tc). The critical current (Ic) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new Ic measurement system that can carry out accurate Ic measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The Ic measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) tapes Ic determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  10. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  11. Economic aspects of hydro geological risk mitigation measures management in Italy: the ReNDiS project experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, D.; Campobasso, C.; Gallozzi, P. L.; Dessi', B.; Traversa, F.

    2009-04-01

    queries, we have grouped engineering works in several categories that have been related to the characteristics and type of hazards Vs cost-benefit analysis and timing of each work. Implementing a statistical analysis of the ReNDiS database, it has been possible to attempt a first spatial and temporal comparison between zoning of risk and distribution of preventive measures with relative cost at national level. In synthesis, this study has shown that although the total amount of resources devoted to preventive measures are not enough to remove the risk over the entire territory, the response of Italian institutions is in general well calibrated on the characteristic and type of hazard, but still very complex. Further efforts are necessary in order to improve the knowledge on landslides and flood prone areas, also in the perspective of adaptation to climate changes and to better address the public investments where the hydro geological risk is more critical. The importance of this monitoring activities is mainly due to limited financial resources of the Italian public sector in soil protection. Data collection, monitoring activities and statistical analysis like the ones carried out in ReNDiS experience is one of the best way in order to optimise the allocation of financial resources for the mitigation of natural hazard and risk.

  12. Accuracy of bedside glucose measurement from three glucometers in critically ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Prinsen, M.A.; Willems, J.L.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Implementation of strict glucose control in most intensive care units has resulted in increased use of point-of-care glucose devices in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of point-of-care testing glucose meters among critically ill patients

  13. A RATIONAL BASIS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF FREE PHENYTOIN CONCENTRATION IN CRITICALLY ILL TRAUMA PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIELMANN, S; MIELCK, F; KAHL, R; KAZMAIER, S; SYDOW, M; KOLK, J; BURCHARDI, H

    Phenytoin binding to serum proteins and factors influencing protein binding were investigated in 38 critically ill trauma patients. In 24% of these patients, the free fraction of phenytoin was less-than-or-equal-to 10%, whereas in 76%, the free phenytoin fraction was increased >10%-up to 24%.

  14. Upper Critical Field and de Haas-van Alphen Oscillations in KOs2O6 Measured in a Hybrid Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichi Terashima,; Nobuyuki Kurita,; Atsushi Harada,; Kota Kodama,; Jun-ichi Yamaura,; Zenji Hiroi,; Hisatomo Harima,; Shinya Uji,

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic torque measurements have been performed on a KOs2O6 single crystal in magnetic fields up to 35.3 T and at temperatures down to 0.6 K. The upper critical field is determined to be ˜30 T. De Haas-van Alphen oscillations are observed. A large mass enhancement of (1+λ) = m* / mband = 7.6 is found. It is suggested that, for the large upper critical field to be reconciled with Pauli paramagnetic limiting, the observed mass enhancement must be of electron-phonon origin, including electron-rattling-mode interactions, for the most part.

  15. The approximate determination of the critical temperature of a liquid by measuring surface tension versus the temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, J A; Nieves, F J de las; Quesada-Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    A classical experience in a physics student laboratory is to determine the surface tension of a liquid versus the temperature and to check the linear appearance of the obtained graph. In this work we show a simple method to estimate the critical temperature of three liquids by using experimental data of surface tension at different temperatures. By a logarithm fitting between surface tension and temperature, the critical temperature can be determined and compared with data from the literature. For two liquids (butanol and nitrobenzene) the comparison is acceptable but the differences are too high for the third liquid (water). By discussing the results it seems to be clear that the difference between the critical temperature of the liquid and the maximum temperature of the surface tension measurements is the determining factor in obtaining acceptable results. From this study it is possible to obtain more information on the liquid characteristics from surface tension measurements that are currently carried out in a student laboratory. Besides, in this paper it is shown how to select the most suitable liquids which provide both acceptable values for the critical temperature and measurements of the surface tension at moderate temperatures. The complementary use of numerical methods permits us to offer a complete experience for the students with a simple laboratory experiment which we recommend for physics students in advanced university courses

  16. Measurement of local critical currents in TFA-MOD processed coated conductors by use of scanning Hall-probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Higashikawa, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Inoue, M.; Kiss, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated 2-dimensional distribution of critical current density. We have measured TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductor. We used scanning Hall-probe microscopy. These provided information is useful for fabrication process of coated conductor. We have carried out 2-dimensional (2D) measurement of local critical current in a Trifluoroacetates-Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed YBCO coated conductor using scanning Hall-probe microscopy. Recently, remarkable R and D accomplishments on the fabrication processes of coated conductors have been conducted extensively and reported. The TFA-MOD process has been expected as an attractive process to produce coated conductors with high performance at a low production cost due to a simple process using non-vacuum equipments. On the other hand, enhancement of critical currents and homogenization of the critical current distribution in the coated conductors are definitely very important for practical applications. According to our measurements, we can detect positions and spatial distribution of defects in the conductor. This kind of information will be very helpful for the improvement of the TFA-MOD process and for the design of the conductor intended for practical electric power device applications.

  17. An evolution in listening: An analytical and critical study of structural, acoustic, and phenomenal aspects of selected works by Pauline Oliveros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setar, Katherine Marie

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation analytically and critically examines composer Pauline Oliveros's philosophy of 'listening' as it applies to selected works created between 1961 and 1984. The dissertation is organized through the application of two criteria: three perspectives of listening (empirical, phenomenal, and, to a lesser extent, personal), and categories derived, in part, from her writings and interviews (improvisational, traditional, theatrical, electronic, meditational, and interactive). In general, Oliveros's works may be categorized by one of two listening perspectives. The 'empirical' listening perspective, which generally includes pure acoustic phenomenon, independent from human interpretation, is exemplified in the analyses of Sound Patterns (1961), OH HA AH (1968), and, to a lesser extent, I of IV (1966). The 'phenomenal' listening perspective, which involves the human interaction with the pure acoustic phenomenon, includes a critical examination of her post-1971 'meditation' pieces and an analytical and critical examination of her tonal 'interactive' improvisations in highly resonant space, such as Watertank Software (1984). The most pervasive element of Oliveros's stylistic evolution is her gradual change from the hierarchical aesthetic of the traditional composer, to one in which creative control is more equally shared by all participants. Other significant contributions by Oliveros include the probable invention of the 'meditation' genre, an emphasis on the subjective perceptions of musical participants as a means to greater musical awareness, her musical exploration of highly resonant space, and her pioneering work in American electronic music. Both analytical and critical commentary were applied to selective representative works from Oliveros's six compositional categories. The analytical methods applied to the Oliveros's works include Wayne Slawson's vowel/formant theory as described in his book, Sound Color, an original method of categorizing consonants as

  18. Exploring the utility of measures of critical thinking dispositions and professional behavior development in an audiology education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L; Bartlett, Doreen J; Lucy, S Deborah

    2013-05-01

    Discussions about professional behaviors are growing increasingly prevalent across health professions, especially as a central component to education programs. A strong critical thinking disposition, paired with critical consciousness, may provide future health professionals with a foundation for solving challenging practice problems through the application of sound technical skill and scientific knowledge without sacrificing sensitive, empathic, client-centered practice. In this article, we describe an approach to monitoring student development of critical thinking dispositions and key professional behaviors as a way to inform faculty members' and clinical supervisors' support of students and ongoing curriculum development. We designed this exploratory study to describe the trajectory of change for a cohort of audiology students' critical thinking dispositions (measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory: [CCTDI]) and professional behaviors (using the Comprehensive Professional Behaviors Development Log-Audiology [CPBDL-A]) in an audiology program. Implications for the CCTDI and CPBDL-A in audiology entry-to-practice curricula and professional development will be discussed. This exploratory study involved a cohort of audiology students, studied over a two-year period, using a one-group repeated measures design. Eighteen audiology students (two male and 16 female), began the study. At the third and final data collection point, 15 students completed the CCTDI, and nine students completed the CPBDL-A. The CCTDI and CPBDL-A were each completed at three time points: at the beginning, at the middle, and near the end of the audiology education program. Data are presented descriptively in box plots to examine the trends of development for each critical thinking disposition dimension and each key professional behavior as well as for an overall critical thinking disposition score. For the CCTDI, there was a general downward trend from time point 1 to

  19. Analysis of critical state response in thin films by AC susceptibility measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Youssef, A.; Švindrych, Z.; Hadač, J.; Janů, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2008), s. 1589-1592 ISSN 1051-8223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0942 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : AC susceptibility * critical state * harmonics * thin film * axial magnetic-field * superconductor disks * cylinders Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2008

  20. Dosimetry measurements for a criticality exercise based on moderated 2.5 MeV accelerator neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Harrison, K.G.; Harvey, J.R.; Hudd, W.H.R.

    1979-02-01

    A joint criticality exercise between BNL and Harwell was held on 22 March 1978 to test criticality dosimetry procedures, and to establish an irradiation technique which could be used to simulate the irradiation of criticality dosimeters in a criticality excursion. Dosimeters were irradiated on a phantom by moderated 2.5 MeV accelerator neutrons using facilities at BNL, and then transported rapidly to Harwell for assessment. This exercise showed that despite the limited dose rate available from the accelerator, such an irradiation could be used successfully to simulate a criticality incident. The induced dosimeter activities were adequate for the initial monitoring at BNL and a subsequent full dose assessment at Harwell. Neutron dose assessments obtained by different methods of interpretation were both self-consistent (1.7 +- 0.2 rad), and in good agreement with an independent estimate of dose (2.0 +- 1.0 rad) based on measurements made with a De Pangher Long counter at BNL. (author)

  1. Electron critical gradient scale length measurements of ICRF heated L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmandyar, S.; Hatch, D. R.; Horton, C. W.; Liao, K. T.; Phillips, P. E.; Rowan, W. L.; Zhao, B.; Cao, N. M.; Ernst, D. R.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    A profile for the critical gradient scale length (Lc) has been measured in L-mode discharges at the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, where electrons were heated by an ion cyclotron range of frequency through minority heating with the intention of simultaneously varying the heat flux and changing the local gradient. The electron temperature gradient scale length (LTe-1 = |∇Te|/Te) profile was measured via the BT-jog technique [Houshmandyar et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 11E101 (2016)] and it was compared with electron heat flux from power balance (TRANSP) analysis. The Te profiles were found to be very stiff and already above the critical values, however, the stiffness was found to be reduced near the q = 3/2 surface. The measured Lc profile is in agreement with electron temperature gradient (ETG) models which predict the dependence of Lc-1 on local Zeff, Te/Ti, and the ratio of the magnetic shear to the safety factor. The results from linear Gene gyrokinetic simulations suggest ETG to be the dominant mode of turbulence in the electron scale (k⊥ρs > 1), and ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode modes in the ion scale (k⊥ρs < 1). The measured Lc profile is in agreement with the profile of ETG critical gradients deduced from Gene simulations.

  2. Indexed bibliography on tritium: its sources and projections, behavior, measurement and monitoring techniques, health physics aspects, and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, M.N.; Holoway, C.F.; Houser, B.L.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-08-01

    References are presented to the world literature on sources of tritium in the environment, the migration of tritium in the environment and uptake by biological materials, monitoring methods, health aspects, and radioactive waste management. Subject, author, and permuted title indexes are included. (U.S.)

  3. Reclaiming the everyday world: how long-term ventilated patients in critical care seek to gain aspects of power and control over their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patricia

    2004-08-01

    Critical care nurses are increasingly seeking to base patient care on evidence derived from research studies. The purpose of this study was to explore the meanings former patients attributed to being on long-term mechanical ventilation in a critical care unit (CCU) in Australia. Using Heideggerian phenomenology, unstructured interviews were undertaken with nine participants. Data were analysed thematically using the method developed by van Manen. Thematic analysis revealed four major themes. This article presents the findings from the theme titled: Reclaiming the everyday world, which describes how the study participants gained comfort from the presence of nurses and their families, sought control over their treatments, and questioned and interpreted the environment, in order to reclaim self. The study highlighted the central role of nurses in patient care, and served as a basis for a number of recommendations, which include recognising the significant role of nurses and family in patient care, and being aware that patients may want more control over their environment and instigate ways to facilitate this. Further research is warranted to examine CCU patients' perceived level of control and power, and to investigate the extent and type of involvement CCU patients would like to have in their care.

  4. eLearning to facilitate the education and implementation of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment: a novel measure of function in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Evelyn J; Handy, Jonathan M; Brett, Stephen J

    2016-04-11

    To evaluate the efficacy of eLearning in the widespread standardised teaching, distribution and implementation of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment (CPAx) tool-a validated tool to assess physical function in critically ill patients. Prospective educational study. An eLearning module was developed through a conceptual framework, using the four-stage technique for skills teaching to teach clinicians how to use the CPAx. Example and test video case studies of CPAx assessments were embedded within the module. The CPAx scores for the test case studies and demographic data were recorded in a secure area of the website. Data were analysed for inter-rater reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to see if an eLearning educational package facilitated consistent use of the tool. A utility and content validity questionnaire was distributed after 1 year to eLearning module registrants (n=971). This was to evaluate uptake of the CPAx in clinical practice and content validity of the CPAx from the perspective of clinical users. The module was distributed for use via professional forums (n=2) and direct contacts (n=95). Critical care clinicians. ICC of the test case studies. Between July and October 2014, 421 candidates from 15 countries registered for the eLearning module. The ICC for case one was 0.996 (95% CI 0.990 to 0.999; n=207). The ICC for case two was 0.988 (0.996 to 1.000; n=184). The CPAx has a strong total scale content validity index (s-CVI) of 0.94 and is well used. eLearning is a useful and reliable way of teaching psychomotor skills, such as the CPAx. The CPAx is a well-used measure with high content validity rated by clinicians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Economic aspects of adaptation to the climate change. Bibliographic study on the cost and benefits of adaptation measures to cope with global climate change; Oekonomische Aspekte der Anpassung an den Klimawandel. Literaturauswertung zu Kosten und Nutzen von Anpassungsmassnahmen an den Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeltzsch, Jenny; Goerlach, Benjamin [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany); Lueckge, Helen; Peter, Martin [INFRAS - Forschung und Beratung, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sartorius, Christian [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Measures for adaptation to the global climate change are a comparatively recent but highly complex field of economic investigation. Adaptation measures differ in many respects from measures to prevent emissions of greenhouse gases, and these differences are reflected in the methodology of economic analyses. For example, the evaluation of adaptation measures tends to depend more strongly on a concrete regional and time context. On the other hand, there is no single variable by which the effects of adaptation measures can be measured, and therefore there is no adaptation goal that is quantified (in time and volume). The contribution outlines certain aspects that have been identified as critical in the course of the process of literature compilation. This compilation does not intend to provide a final discussion of the problems inherent in an economic evaluation of adaptation measures; rather, it points out certain aspects that are relevant for understanding the available fields of action. (orig./RHM)

  6. Theoretical framework and methodological development of common subjective health outcome measures in osteoarthritis: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Marie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Subjective measures involving clinician ratings or patient self-assessments have become recognised as an important tool for the assessment of health outcome. The value of a health outcome measure is usually assessed by a psychometric evaluation of its reliability, validity and responsiveness. However, psychometric testing involves an accumulation of evidence and has recognised limitations. It has been suggested that an evaluation of how well a measure has been developed would be a useful additional criteria in assessing the value of a measure. This paper explored the theoretical background and methodological development of subjective health status measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research. Fourteen subjective health outcome measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research were examined. Each measure was explored on the basis of their i theoretical framework (was there a definition of what was being assessed and was it part of a theoretical model? and ii methodological development (what was the scaling strategy, how were the items generated and reduced, what was the response format and what was the scoring method?. Only the AIMS, SF-36 and WHOQOL defined what they were assessing (i.e. the construct of interest and no measure assessed was part of a theoretical model. None of the clinician report measures appeared to have implemented a scaling procedure or described the rationale for the items selected or scoring system. Of the patient self-report measures, the AIMS, MPQ, OXFORD, SF-36, WHOQOL and WOMAC appeared to follow a standard psychometric scaling method. The DRP and EuroQol used alternative scaling methods. The review highlighted the general lack of theoretical framework for both clinician report and patient self-report measures. This review also drew attention to the wide variation in the methodological development of commonly used measures in OA. While, in general the patient self-report measures had good methodological

  7. Analytical evaluation of dose measurement of critical accident at SILENE (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T; Tonoike, K

    2003-01-01

    Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) jointly organized SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise to intercompare the dose measurement systems of participating countries. Each participating country carried out dose measurements in the same irradiation field, and the measurement results were mutually compared. The participated in the exercise to measure the doses of gamma rays and neutron from SILENE by using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) and an alanine dosimeter. In this examination, the derived evaluation formulae for obtaining a tissue-absorbed dose from measured value (ambient dose equivalent) of TLD for neutron. We reported the tissue-absorbed dose computed using this evaluation formula to OECD/NEA. TLD's for neutron were irradiated in the TRACY facility to verify the evaluation formulae. The results of TLD's were compared with the calculations of MCNP and measurements with alanine dose meter. We found that the ratio of the dose b...

  8. Critical investigation of Jauch's approach to the quantum theory of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbut, Fedor

    1986-01-01

    To make Jauch's approach more realistic, his assumptions are modified in two ways: (1) On the quantum system plus the measuring apparatus (S + MA) after the measuring interaction has ceased, one can actually measure only operators of the form given. (2) Measurement is defined in the most general way (including, besides first-kind, also second-kind and third-kind or indirect measurements). It is shown that Jauch's basic result that the microstates (statistical operators) of S + MA before and after the collapse correspond to the same macrostate (belong to the same equivalence class of microstates) remains valid under the above modifications, and that the significance of this result goes beyond measurement theory. On the other hand, it is argued that taking the orthodox (i.e. uncompromisingly quantum) view of quantum mechanics, it is not the collapse, but the Jauch-type macrostates that are spurious in a Jauch-type theory. (author)

  9. A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Cheryl Burke; MacKenzie, Scott B; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2003-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that few studies use formative indicator measurement models, even though they should. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to (a) discuss the distinction between formative and reflective measurement models, (b) develop a set of conceptual criteria that can be used to determine whether a construct should be modeled as having formative or reflective indicators, (c) review the marketing literature to obtain an estimate of the extent of measurement model ...

  10. Field measurements of supermarket refrigeration systems. Part I: Analysis of CO2 trans-critical refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawalha, Samer; Karampour, Mazyar; Rogstam, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the refrigeration performance of three CO 2 trans-critical solutions based on field measurements. The measurements are carried out in five supermarkets in Sweden. Using the field measurements, low and medium temperature level cooling capacities and COP's are calculated for ten-minute intervals, filtered and averaged to monthly values. The results indicate that the systems using trans-critical booster system with gas removal from the intermediate vessel have relatively the highest total COP. The reasons are higher evaporation temperatures, lower internal and external superheat and higher total efficiency of booster compressors. Another important factor is gas removal from the intermediate vessel which leads to higher COP of low temperature level. Comparing the older and newer installed systems, a trend in energy efficiency improvement has been seen. The study shows this improvement originates from both changes in the system design (e.g. two stage expansion) and components efficiency improvement (e.g. higher total efficiency of compressors - lower internal superheat and higher evaporation temperatures of cabinets). - Highlights: • Five Swedish supermarkets using three CO 2 refrigeration solutions are analyzed. • A trend of improvement in energy efficiency has been observed. • Parallel CO 2 system with indirect heat rejection offers the lowest energy efficiency. • CO 2 trans-critical booster with gas removal achieves up to 35% COP improvement

  11. A simple method to measure critical angles for high-sensitivity differential refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilio, S C

    2012-01-16

    A total internal reflection-based differencial refractometer, capable of measuring the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index in real time, is presented. The device takes advantage of the phase difference acquired by s- and p-polarized light to generate an easily detectable minimum at the reflected profile. The method allows to sensitively measuring transparent and turbid liquid samples.

  12. Criticism on Jäntti's Three Point Method on curtailing gas adsorption measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massen, C.H.; Poulis, J.A.; Robens, E.

    2000-01-01

    Jäntti introduced a method to reduce the time required for the stepwise measurement of adsorption isotherms (Jäntti et al., Progress in Vacuum Microbalance Techniques, Vol. 1, Heyden, London, pp. 345–353, 1972). After a pressure change he measured the adsorbed mass three times and calculated its

  13. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Analytical evaluation of dose measurement of critical accident at SILENE (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takemi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) jointly organized SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise to intercompare the dose measurement systems of participating countries. Each participating country carried out dose measurements in the same irradiation field, and the measurement results were mutually compared. The authors participated in the exercise to measure the doses of gamma rays and neutron from SILENE by using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's) and an alanine dosimeter. In this examination, the authors derived evaluation formulae for obtaining a tissue-absorbed dose from measured value (ambient dose equivalent) of TLD for neutron. We reported the tissue-absorbed dose computed using this evaluation formula to OECD/NEA. TLD's for neutron were irradiated in the TRACY facility to verify the evaluation formulae. The results of TLD's were compared with the calculations of MCNP and measurements with alanine dose meter. We found that the ratio of the dose by the evaluation formula to the measured value by the alanine dosimeter was 0.94 and the formula agreed within 6%. From examination of this TRACY, we can conclude that the value reported to OECD/NEA has equivalent accuracy. (author)

  15. Program of critical experiment and measurements at the RA reactor; Program kriticnih eksperimenata i merenja na reaktoru RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-14

    Program described in this document describes in detail the following experiments: critical experiments with two reactor core lattices with 38 and 44 fuel channels, initial heavy water level being 1300 mm, criticality is achieved by adding heavy water; preliminary analysis of heavy water quality and verification of the fuel isotopic contents; experiment with the initial core which contains 56 fuel channels with maximum heavy water level according to the Russian proposal; measurement of neutron flux by Dy and In foils; measurement of reactivity excess dependent on the heavy water level and number of fuel rods; measurement of reactor period for determined reactivity change; measurement of moderator temperature coefficient; measurement of absolute flux. [Serbo-Croat] Program sadrzan u ovom dokumentu opisuje detaljno sledece eksperimente: kriticni eksperiment sa dve konfiguracije jezgra reaktora, sa 38 i 44 gorivna kanala, pocetni nivo teske vode je 1300 mm, kriticnost se dostize dodavanjem teske vode; prethodno izvrsenom analizom teske vode i proverom izotopskog sastava goriva; eksperiment sa pocetnom resetkom koja prema ruskom predlogu sadrzi 56 gorivnih kanala i maksimalnom visinom teske vode; merenje raspodele neutronskog fluksa folijama Dy i In; kalibracija regulacionih sipki; merenje viska reaktivnosti sa promenom visine nivoa teske vode i promenom broja sipki; merenje periode reaktora za odredjenu promenu reaktivnosti; merenje temperaturnog koeficijenta za vodu; merenje apsolutnog fluksa.

  16. Assessment CANDU physics codes using experimental data - part 1: criticality measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok; Jeong, Chang Joon

    2001-08-01

    In order to assess the applicability of MCNP-4B code to the heavy water moderated, light water cooled and pressure-tube type reactor, the MCNP-4B physics calculations has been carried out for the Deuterium Critical Assembly (DCA), and the results were compared with those of the experimental data. In this study, the key safety parameters like as the multiplication factor, void coefficient, local power peaking factor and bundle power distribution in the scattered core are simulated. In order to use the cross section data consistently for the fuels to be analyzed in the future, new MCNP libraries have been generated from ENDF/B-VI release 3. Generally, the MCNP-4B calculation results show a good agreement with experimental data of DCA core. After benchmarking MCNP-4B against available experimental data, it will be used as the reference tool to benchmark design and analysis codes for the advanced CANDU fuels

  17. Testing plan for critical heat flux measurement during in-vessel retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Iwaki, Chikako; Sato, Hisaki; Mimura, Satoshi; Kanamori, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-Vessel Retention (IVR) is a method to maintain molten debris in a reactor vessel (RV) by RV outer surface cooling. Structural integrity of RV and cooling capacity on RV outer surface are important to verify IVR strategy. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) data is necessary to estimate cooling capacity on the RV outer surface. And there are some CHF data to estimate cooling capacity on the RV outer surface. However, these data were obtained for specific plants. Thus, the objective of this study is developing a CHF correlation for various PWR plants. The objectives of this paper are developing test equipment and testing plan for the CHF correlation. Firstly, plant conditions during severe accidents were organized. Then, ranges of testing parameters were estimated with the plant conditions. And specifications of the test equipment were set to cover the range of parameters. Secondly, testing cases were set based on design of experiments. The test cases are suitable to develop experimental correlations. (author)

  18. AN ACACIAN DINNER: IN THE MEASURE FOR THE GASTRONOMIC CRITIC OF THE LISBON BOURGEOISIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto de Andrade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Eça de Queirós (1845-1900 has not stood out as a great cook, his literature has left traces in Portuguese cuisine. In fact, culinary is such a relevant element in his books that his work has inspired a recipe book and called attention of illustrious readers. This paper highlights the relevance of gastronomy in the structuring of O Primo Basílio. By gastronomically por­traying his characters, Eça exercises his criticism and stresses the singular conditions, perspectives and limitations of nineteen-century Portuguese society. The meals portrayed in the aforementioned novel provides con­crete expression to the imbalance between the ideal of grandeur and the pettiness of everyday life, the stereotyping look towards the other(s and the reification of human relations.

  19. A critical review of financial measures as reported in the Ontario hospital balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John; Tsasis, Peter; Porporato, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    For Ontario hospitals in Canada, the Financial Performance and Condition measures in the Ontario hospital balanced scorecard are especially of interest since in the foreseeable future, they may be linked to provincial government funding decisions. However, we find that these measures lack valuable information on key attributes that affect organizational performance. We suggest changes that focus on key drivers of performance and reflect the operational realities of Ontario hospitals.

  20. Critical Investigation of Jauch's Approach to the Quantum Theory of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbut, Fedor

    1986-08-01

    To make Jauch's approach more realistic, his assumptions are modified in two ways: (1) On the quantum system plus the measuring apparatus (S+MA) after the measuring interaction has ceased, one can actually measure only operators of the form A⊗∑ k b k Q k ,where A is any Hermitian operator for S, the resolution of the identity ∑kQk=1 defines MA as a classical system (following von Neumann), and the b k are real numbers (S and MA are distant). (2) Measurement is defined in the most general way (including, besides first-kind, also second-kind and third-kind or indirect measurements). It is shown that Jauch's basic result that the microstates (statistical operators) of S+MA before and after the collapse correspond to the same macrostate (belong to the same equivalence class of microstates) remains valid under the above modifications, and that the significance of this result goes beyond measurement theory. On the other hand, it is argued that taking the orthodox (i.e. uncompromisingly quantum) view of quantum mechanics, it is not the collapse, but the Jauch-type macrostates that are spurious in a Jauch-type theory.

  1. “Where Does the Circle End?”: Representation as a Critical Aspect of Reflection in Teaching Social and Behavioral Sciences in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Michael J.; Richards, Boyd F.; Cunningham, Hetty; Desai, Urmi; Lewis, Owen; Mutnick, Andrew; Nidiry, Mary Anne J.; Saha, Prantik; Charon, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper describes a reflective learning program within a larger curriculum on behavioral and social science that makes use of close reading, written representation of experience, discussion, and textual response. This response may in turn lead to further reflection, representation, and response in a circular pattern. A unique feature of this program is that it pays attention to the representation itself as the pivotal activity within reflective learning. Using the narrative methods that are the hallmark of this program, faculty writings were analyzed to characterize the essential benefits that derive from these practices. Methods In the context of a faculty development seminar on the teaching of behavioral and social sciences in medical curricula, a group of fifteen faculty members wrote brief narratives of reflective learning experiences in which they had made use of the methods described above. Their responses were submitted to iterative close reading and discussion, and potential themes were identified. Results Four themes emerged: writing as attention to self, writing as attention to other, writing as reader/writer contract, and writing as discovery. In each instance, writing provides a new or deepened perspective, and in each case the dividends for the writer are amplified by the narrative skills of those who read, listen, and respond. Conclusions The narrative pedagogy described and modeled herein provides a potentially promising approach to teaching the social, cultural, behavioral, and interpersonal aspects of medical education and practice. Future research will deepen our understanding of the benefits and limitations of this pedagogy and expand our appreciation of its applications. PMID:25272952

  2. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  3. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  4. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM CONVENTIONAL SOURCES AND MEASURES TO MITIGATE THE PRODUCED IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL CALANTER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electricity sector represents the sector with the greatest impact in terms of producing climate change, mainly due to the greenhouse gas emissions generated through the burning of fossil fuels. It is not however the only negative aspect associated to the classic technologies of electricity production. This paper aims to assess the economic and environmental aspects associated to the technologies for the electricity production from conventional sources and as a conclusion of the research it will also propose certain specific measures designed to mitigate their impacts. Therefore, the analysis will focus on economic issues, such as limited resources of fuels and the significant fluctuation in fuel prices, low energy efficiency, environmental protection expenditures and health issues as a result of the pollution generated by the electricity production and environmental aspects related primarily to the burning of fossil fuels, but also to extraction, transport and storage, aspects concerning the management of waste generated by the energy sector or to the risks associated with the process of producing electricity. In the final part of the paper a few measures will be proposed to mitigate the impact on the environment and economic development of such technologies, as well as increasing energy efficiency, promoting renewable sources of energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, limiting deforestation, afforestation or the prevention of accidents in the energy sector.

  5. The Impact of Load Carriage on Measures of Power and Agility in Tactical Occupations: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that load carriage can impact on a tactical officer’s mobility, and that survival in the field may rely on the officer’s mobility. The ability for humans to generate power and agility is critical for performance of the high-intensity movements required in the field of duty. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on measures of power and agility and to synthesize the findings. The authors completed a search of the literature using key search terms in four databases. After relevant studies were located using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were critically appraised using the Downs and Black Checklist and relevant data were extracted and tabled. Fourteen studies were deemed relevant for this review, ranging in percentage quality scores from 42.85% to 71.43%. Outcome measures used in these studies to indicate levels of power and agility included short-distance sprints, vertical jumps, and agility runs, among others. Performance of both power and agility was shown to decrease when tactical load was added to the participants. This suggests that the increase in weight carried by tactical officers may put this population at risk of injury or fatality in the line of duty.

  6. The Impact of Load Carriage on Measures of Power and Agility in Tactical Occupations: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aaron; Wiley, Amy; Orr, Robin; Schram, Benjamin; Dawes, J Jay

    2018-01-07

    The current literature suggests that load carriage can impact on a tactical officer's mobility, and that survival in the field may rely on the officer's mobility. The ability for humans to generate power and agility is critical for performance of the high-intensity movements required in the field of duty. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on measures of power and agility and to synthesize the findings. The authors completed a search of the literature using key search terms in four databases. After relevant studies were located using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were critically appraised using the Downs and Black Checklist and relevant data were extracted and tabled. Fourteen studies were deemed relevant for this review, ranging in percentage quality scores from 42.85% to 71.43%. Outcome measures used in these studies to indicate levels of power and agility included short-distance sprints, vertical jumps, and agility runs, among others. Performance of both power and agility was shown to decrease when tactical load was added to the participants. This suggests that the increase in weight carried by tactical officers may put this population at risk of injury or fatality in the line of duty.

  7. Silicon diode measurements for monoenergetic neutrons and critical assemblies (H.P.R.R. and VIPER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Reading, A.H.

    1981-04-01

    The response of the silicon diode (AEI FNDD1) has been measured for monoenergetic neutrons of mean energies 0.56, 2.00 and 3.68 MeV. Using conversion factors from neutron fluence to kerma (ICRU, 1977) it is shown that the theoretical kerma response in muscle tissue is substantially uniform (+- 20%) over the neutron energy range from 250 keV to 17 MeV. Diode measurements were made at the Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, U.S.A., during the 1979 international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems. Measurements of kerma in free air and of the surface absorbed dose on the front surface of a phantom were made with the reactor bare, shielded by 20 cm concrete and by 5 cm steel. Further tests were made at the VIPER reactor at AWRE. These diode measurements, covering a range of neutron spectra, were in good agreement (+- 20%) with measurements made by the threshold detector system. (author)

  8. Direct optical band gap measurement in polycrystalline semiconductors: A critical look at the Tauc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgonos, Alex; Mason, Thomas O.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The direct optical band gap of semiconductors is traditionally measured by extrapolating the linear region of the square of the absorption curve to the x-axis, and a variation of this method, developed by Tauc, has also been widely used. The application of the Tauc method to crystalline materials is rooted in misconception–and traditional linear extrapolation methods are inappropriate for use on degenerate semiconductors, where the occupation of conduction band energy states cannot be ignored. A new method is proposed for extracting a direct optical band gap from absorption spectra of degenerately-doped bulk semiconductors. This method was applied to pseudo-absorption spectra of Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO)—converted from diffuse-reflectance measurements on bulk specimens. The results of this analysis were corroborated by room-temperature photoluminescence excitation measurements, which yielded values of optical band gap and Burstein–Moss shift that are consistent with previous studies on In 2 O 3 single crystals and thin films. - Highlights: • The Tauc method of band gap measurement is re-evaluated for crystalline materials. • Graphical method proposed for extracting optical band gaps from absorption spectra. • The proposed method incorporates an energy broadening term for energy transitions. • Values for ITO were self-consistent between two different measurement methods.

  9. A critical comparison of electrical methods for measuring spin-orbit torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanzi; Hung, Yu-Ming; Rehm, Laura; Kent, Andrew D.

    Direct (DC) and alternating current (AC) transport measurements of spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in heavy metal-ferromagnet heterostructure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been proposed and demonstrated. A DC method measures the change of perpendicular magnetization component while an AC method probes the first and second harmonic magnetization oscillation in responses to an AC current (~1 kHz). Here we conduct both types of measurements on β-Ta/CoFeB/MgO in the form of patterned Hall bars (20 μm linewidth) and compare the results. Experiments results are qualitatively in agreement with a macro spin model including Slonzewski-like and a field-like SOTs. However, the effective field from the ac method is larger than that obtained from the DC method. We discuss the possible origins of the discrepancy and its implications for quantitatively determining SOTs. Research supported by the SRC-INDEX program, NSF-DMR-1309202 and NYU-DURF award.

  10. Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Saturation (StO2 Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mesquida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to current critical care management guidelines, the overall hemodynamic optimization process seeks to restore macrocirculatory oxygenation, pressure, and flow variables. However, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that, despite normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations might occur, and persistence of these alterations has been associated with worse prognosis. Such observations have led to great interest in testing new technologies capable of evaluating the microcirculation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measures tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and has been proposed as a noninvasive system for monitoring regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on NIRS and its potential clinical utility in different scenarios of critically ill patients.

  11. Application of the modified neutron source multiplication method for a measurement of sub-criticality in AGN-201K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Hyun Kim

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of sub-criticality is a challenging and required task in nuclear industry both for nuclear criticality safety and physics test in nuclear power plant. A relatively new method named as Modified Neutron Source Multiplication Method (MNSM) was proposed in Japan. This method is an improvement of traditional Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) Method, in which three correction factors are applied additionally. In this study, MNSM was tested in calculation of rod worth using an educational reactor in Kyung Hee University, AGN-201K. For this study, a revised nuclear data library and a neutron transport code system TRANSX-PARTISN were used for the calculation of correction factors for various control rod positions and source locations. Experiments were designed and performed to enhance errors in NSM from the location effects of source and detectors. MNSM can correct these effects but current results showed not much correction effects. (author)

  12. A Critical Evaluation of Quantitative Measures of the Quality of Arts and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    Art and culture i.e. theatre, film, music, visual art, literature, cultural heritage etc. and related institutions and participants, have traditionally not been measured and evaluated in the same way as other sectors. The reason for this is perhaps that art and culture cannot be ‘weighed and meas......Art and culture i.e. theatre, film, music, visual art, literature, cultural heritage etc. and related institutions and participants, have traditionally not been measured and evaluated in the same way as other sectors. The reason for this is perhaps that art and culture cannot be ‘weighed...

  13. A critical study of emittance measurements of intense low-energy proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1972-01-01

    The measurement of emittance in low energy proton beams suffers from two perturbing effects: 1) the neutralisation of the beam by backstreaming secondary electrons and 2) the space charge blowup of the beam sample between defining and analysing apparatus. An experimental study shows a significant change of the emittance orientation when bias is used to eliminate the secondary electrons. Biased and non-biased cases are also compared with computed dynamics including space charge. Criteria for the slit size and drift distance which make the space charge blow-up negligible are derived. In addition a transverse coherent oscillation of the proton beam, which was revealed the measurements, is discussed briefly. (11 refs).

  14. Critical evaluation of measured line positions of 14N16O in X2П state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakshina, O. N.; Borkov, Yu. G.

    2018-04-01

    All available line positions for unresolved and resolved Λ-doublets of the 14N16O molecule in the X2 П state were collected from the literature and tested using the RITZ computer code. These data have been critically analysed and used to obtain the most complete set of 1789 experimental energy levels of unresolved Λ-doublets covering the 0-35,866 cm-1 interval. A set of 425 experimental energy levels of resolved Λ-doublets covering the 0-5957 cm-1 interval for two states 2П1/2 and 2П3/2 also have been obtained. These levels together with calculated correlation matrix can be used to generate the precise list of transitions with confidence intervals. Comparisons with the HITRAN as well as with Amiot calculations are discussed. The systematic shift between experimental energy levels of unresolved Λ-doublets and those calculated by Amiot for 2П3/2 state was found. The same systematic shift for transitions frequencies of unresolved Λ-doublets in forbidden subbands 2П1/2↔2П3/2 is also established in the HITRAN database. Comparison of the RITZ energy levels with calculated energy levels by Wong at al. was also done. It was found, that experimental RITZ energy levels for resolved Λ-doublets of 14N16O coincide with those calculated by Wong at al. within experimental uncertainties.

  15. Measuring the critical resolved shear stresses in Mg alloys by instrumented nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Martín, R.; Pérez-Prado, M.T.; Segurado, J.; Bohlen, J.; Gutiérrez-Urrutia, I.; Llorca, J.; Molina-Aldareguia, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main limiting factors in the development of new magnesium (Mg) alloys with enhanced mechanical behavior is the need to use vast experimental campaigns for microstructure and property screening. For example, the influence of new alloying additions on the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSSs) is currently evaluated by a combination of macroscopic single-crystal experiments and crystal plasticity finite-element simulations (CPFEM). This time-consuming process could be considerably simplified by the introduction of high-throughput techniques for efficient property testing. The aim of this paper is to propose a new and fast, methodology for the estimation of the CRSSs of hexagonal close-packed metals which, moreover, requires small amounts of material. The proposed method, which combines instrumented nanoindentation and CPFEM modeling, determines CRSS values by comparison of the variation of hardness (H) for different grain orientations with the outcome of CPFEM. This novel approach has been validated in a rolled and annealed pure Mg sheet, whose H variation with grain orientation has been successfully predicted using a set of CRSSs taken from recent crystal plasticity simulations of single-crystal experiments. Moreover, the proposed methodology has been utilized to infer the effect of the alloying elements of an MN11 (Mg–1% Mn–1% Nd) alloy. The results support the hypothesis that selected rare earth intermetallic precipitates help to bring the CRSS values of basal and non-basal slip systems closer together, thus contributing to the reduced plastic anisotropy observed in these alloys

  16. Manual muscle testing: a method of measuring extremity muscle strength applied to critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Nancy; Dinglas, Victor; Fan, Eddy; Kho, Michelle; Kuramoto, Jill; Needham, Dale

    2011-04-12

    Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other causes of critical illness often have generalized weakness, reduced exercise tolerance, and persistent nerve and muscle impairments after hospital discharge. Using an explicit protocol with a structured approach to training and quality assurance of research staff, manual muscle testing (MMT) is a highly reliable method for assessing strength, using a standardized clinical examination, for patients following ARDS, and can be completed with mechanically ventilated patients who can tolerate sitting upright in bed and are able to follow two-step commands. (7, 8) This video demonstrates a protocol for MMT, which has been taught to ≥ 43 research staff who have performed >800 assessments on >280 ARDS survivors. Modifications for the bedridden patient are included. Each muscle is tested with specific techniques for positioning, stabilization, resistance, and palpation for each score of the 6-point ordinal Medical Research Council scale. Three upper and three lower extremity muscles are graded in this protocol: shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, wrist extension, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion. These muscles were chosen based on the standard approach for evaluating patients for ICU-acquired weakness used in prior publications. (1,2).

  17. DETAILED FIT OF 'CRITICAL BALANCE' THEORY TO SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Miriam A.; Wicks, Robert T.; Horbury, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    We derive the reduced spectrum of turbulent magnetic fluctuations at different frequencies f which would be observed by a single spacecraft in the solar wind when the magnetic field was at an angle θ B to the solar wind flow, if the wavevector spectrum in the solar wind frame were in anisotropic 'critical balance' (CB) as proposed by Goldreich and Sridhar in 1995 (GS95). The anisotropic power spectrum in the inertial range, P(f, θ B ), is scaled onto one curve with f- 5/3 behavior at θ B near 90 0 and f -2 behavior at small θ B . The transition between the two limiting spectra depends on the form of the GS95 wavevector spectrum and the CB scaling parameter L. Using wavelet analysis of Ulysses magnetic field data in three 30-day periods in the high-latitude solar wind in 1995, we verify that the scaling of power with angle and frequency is qualitatively consistent with GS95 theory. However, the scale length L required to fit the observed P(f, θ B ) to the original CB theory is rather less than the scale predicted by that theory for the solar wind. Part, possibly all, of this discrepancy is removed when the GS95 theory modified for imbalanced turbulence is used.

  18. Subsonic and transonic pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Watson, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.

  19. Critical Success Factors for the Large-Scale Introduction of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems. A survey focusing on the non-technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenendaal, B.J.; De Lange, T.J.; Lako, P.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M.; Tool, C.J.J.; De Wild-Scholten, M.J.

    2000-11-01

    The differences in Significance and Status of 15 factors that might be of decisive influence in achieving a large-scale market introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems are analyzed. As a research method the opinions of PV experts and persons involved in the implementation of PV have been surveyed. A questionnaire was sent to about 300 persons all over the world (America, Europe and Asia). The methods applied to analyze the returned questionnaires can be divided into a comparing method (Mann-Whitney test) and ranking methods (Friedman test and the Medal-Classification test). One of the main conclusion is that the ranking of the main critical success factors on Significance shows no large differences between the American and European respondents. The answers from the American and European respondents show that the technical and financial factors are the most Significant: RD and D, technical reliability, financing and cost reduction. The Asian ranking does differ from the American and European ranking. The answers from the Asian respondents show that the international factors: global developments and internationalisation together with specialist knowledge and image are the most Significant success factors. Another main conclusion is that the three regions differ in the ranking of the actual Status of the factors. A comparison of the American ranking with the Asian ranking show the largest differences, whereas Europe is taking an intermediary position. Another interesting observation is that the Status of factors, e.g. internationalisation, global developments and the technical/commercial network, are considered more positive in America, whereas Asia and Europe are more positive about the factors RD and D, image and financing. More specific conclusions show that there is a significant difference in answers between the American and European respondents about the Significance of the factor cost reduction. There is also a significant difference between the

  20. Algunos aspectos epidemiológicos en la morbilidad obstétrica crítica Some epidemiological aspects in critical obstetric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M Balestena Sánchez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de analizar el comportamiento de la morbilidad en la paciente obstétrica crítica se realizó una investigación retrospectiva, transversal, analítica en el Hospital Universitario "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado", durante el periodo de mayo del 2001 hasta diciembre de 2004. El universo quedó conformado por todas las pacientes obstétricas (embarazadas o puérperas que ingresaron en dicho hospital en el período antes mencionado, la muestra se formó con todas aquellas pacientes que ingresaron en la terapia intensiva, se estudiaron variables relacionadas con la madre, el embarazo y el parto. Utilizamos el por ciento, el promedio y la desviación estándar así como el test de diferencia de proporciones (Z, con nivel de significación de pIn order to analyze the behaviour of the morbidity rate in the critical obstetric patient a retrospective, cross-sectional, analytical research was performed at Abel Santamaría Cuadrado University Hospital, from May 2001 to December 2004. The whole sample was comprised by all the obstetric patients (pregnant or puerperal who were admitted at such hospital during the period above mentioned. The sample comprised all those patients admitted at the Intensive Unit Care. Variables related to the mother, the pregnancy, and labor were analyzed. The percentage, the average and standard deviation were used, as well as the ratio difference test with a level of significance p<0.05. Also, odds ratio (OR was used to ascertain the risk factor and the attributable percentage risk, as well as the confidence interval for OR 95%. The serious maternal morbidity was highly associated with the aging, pregnant, multipara, those who underwent previous labors, bronchial asthma, hypertension, and heart disease, as well as the hypertensive processes during pregnancy. The obstetric causes were most frequent. Anemia and respiratory sepsis were the predominant complications. As a conclusion, there are maternal events capable

  1. TL detectors for gamma-ray dose measurements in critically accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Zorko, B.; Gregori, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Determination of gamma-ray dose in mixed neutron + gamma-ray fields is still a challenging task. Dosemeters used for gamma-ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e. on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosimeter responses to gamma-rays. To reduce all these influences, design of dosemeter holders is of special importance. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma-ray dose determination in mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Boscovic Institute (RBI), Croatia, Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. At that exercise three accidental scenarios were reproduced: bare reactor, free evolution; lead shielded reactor, steady state; and lead shielded reactor, free evolution. In each irradiation dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free-in-air'. Also, dosemeters were irradiated in a pure gamma ray field of 60 Co source. Following types of TLDs were used: 7 LiF (TLD-700), CaF 2 :Mn and AI 2 O 3 :Mg,Y - all from RBI; CaF 2 :Mn from JSI and 7 LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the mean participants' values. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed. (author)

  2. Performance Measurements, Critical Facts to Business Growth – Exemplification on Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Ileana ZAMFIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important consideration in the process of modeling business processes is that in order to improve, you must define the current state of work. Accordingly, the general argument for business growth based on performance measurement is that in order to improve the process in the future, you must know how activities are conducted in the present. The article presents the key elements of performance measurements in relation to business growth, taking also into account main challenges and obstacles. The author based the research upon a larger study of increasing performance, developed inside four companies from an extended supply chain in automotive industry, relating the theoretical discoveries in the field with the real business experience.

  3. Humidity measurements in passive heat and moisture exchangers applications: a critical issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubini, G; Fumero, R

    2000-01-01

    A reliable, quantitative assessment of humidification performances of passive heat and moisture exchangers in mechanically-ventilated patients is still to be achieved, although relevant efforts have been made to date. One of the major problems to tackle consists in the difficulty of humidity measurements, both in vivo (during either anaesthesia or intensive care unit treatments) and in vitro set-ups. In this paper a review of the basic operation principles of humidity sensors as well as an analysis of their usage within in vivo and in vitro tests are presented. Particular attention is devoted to the limitations arising from the specific measurement set-up, as they may affect the results notably.

  4. A critical analysis of hazard resilience measures within sustainability assessment frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Elizabeth C.; Sattler, Meredith; Friedland, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Today, numerous sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) exist to guide designers in achieving sustainable performance in the design of structures and communities. SAFs are beneficial in educating users and are useful tools for incorporating sustainability strategies into planning, design, and construction; however, there is currently a substantial gap in the ability of existing SAFs to incorporate hazard resistance and hazard mitigation in the broader context of sustainable design. This paper analyzes the incorporation of hazard resistant design and hazard mitigation strategies within SAFs via a multi-level analysis of eleven SAFs. The SAFs analyzed range in scale of application (i.e. building, site, community). Three levels of analysis are presented: (1) macro-level analysis comparing the number of measures strictly addressing resilience versus sustainability, (2) meso-level analysis of the coverage of types of hazards within SAFs (e.g. flood, fire), and (3) micro-level analysis of SAF measures connected to flood-related hazard resilience. The results demonstrate that hazard resistance and hazard mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs and that weaknesses in resilience coverage exist that have the potential to lead to the design of structures and communities that are still highly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme events. - Highlights: • Sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) were analyzed for resilience coverage • Hazard resistance and mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs • Approximately 75% of SAFs analyzed address three or fewer hazards • Lack of economic measures within SAFs could impact resilience and sustainability • Resilience measures for flood hazards are not consistently included in SAFs

  5. A critical analysis of hazard resilience measures within sustainability assessment frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Elizabeth C., E-mail: echiso1@lsu.edu [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Sattler, Meredith, E-mail: msattler@lsu.edu [School of Architecture, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Friedland, Carol J., E-mail: friedland@lsu.edu [Bert S. Turner Department of Construction Management, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Today, numerous sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) exist to guide designers in achieving sustainable performance in the design of structures and communities. SAFs are beneficial in educating users and are useful tools for incorporating sustainability strategies into planning, design, and construction; however, there is currently a substantial gap in the ability of existing SAFs to incorporate hazard resistance and hazard mitigation in the broader context of sustainable design. This paper analyzes the incorporation of hazard resistant design and hazard mitigation strategies within SAFs via a multi-level analysis of eleven SAFs. The SAFs analyzed range in scale of application (i.e. building, site, community). Three levels of analysis are presented: (1) macro-level analysis comparing the number of measures strictly addressing resilience versus sustainability, (2) meso-level analysis of the coverage of types of hazards within SAFs (e.g. flood, fire), and (3) micro-level analysis of SAF measures connected to flood-related hazard resilience. The results demonstrate that hazard resistance and hazard mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs and that weaknesses in resilience coverage exist that have the potential to lead to the design of structures and communities that are still highly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme events. - Highlights: • Sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) were analyzed for resilience coverage • Hazard resistance and mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs • Approximately 75% of SAFs analyzed address three or fewer hazards • Lack of economic measures within SAFs could impact resilience and sustainability • Resilience measures for flood hazards are not consistently included in SAFs.

  6. Critical experiments, measurements, and analyses to establish a crack arrest methodology for nuclear pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    Substantial progress was made in three important areas: crack propagation and arrest theory, two-dimensional dynamic crack propagation analyses, and a laboratory test method for the material property data base. The major findings were as follows: Measurements of run-arrest events lent support to the dynamic, energy conservation theory of crack arrest. A two-dimensional, dynamic, finite-difference analysis, including inertia forces and thermal gradients, was developed. The analysis was successfully applied to run-arrest events in DCB (double-cantilever-beam) and SEN (single-edge notched) test pieces. A simplified procedure for measuring K/sub D/ and K/sub Im/ values with ordinary and duplex DCB specimens was demonstrated. The procedure employs a dynamic analysis of the crack length at arrest and requires no special instrumentation. The new method was applied to ''duplex'' specimens to measure the large K/sub D/ values displayed by A533B steel above the nil-ductility temperature. K/sub D/ crack velocity curves and K/sub Im/ values of two heats of A533B steel and the corresponding values for the plane strain fracture toughness associated with static initiation (K/sub Ic/), dynamic initiation (K/sub Id/), and the static stress intensity at crack arrest (K/sub Ia/) were measured. Possible relations among these toughness indices are identified. During the past year the principal investigators of the participating groups reached agreement on a crack arrest theory appropriate for the pressure vessel problem. 7 figures

  7. A new scheme for critical current measurements on straight superconducting cables in a large solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; Volpini, G.

    1991-01-01

    The precision of I c measurement of straight superconducting cables in solenoids can be limited by the magnetic field inhomogeneity. A solution in order to improve the field homogeneity based on iron shims is presented here. A conceptual design for the experimental lay-out of a test station to be used in connection with the SOLEMI-I solenoid at the Milan INFN Section (LASA Laboratory) is given

  8. An Analysis of Measures Used to Evaluate the Air Force Critical Item Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    example of a histogram. Cause & Effect Diagram. The cause and effect diagram was introduced in 1953 by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa in summarizing the opinions of...Personal Interview. Air Force Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 24 April 1991. 31. Ishikawa , Dr. Kaoru . Guide to...collected. How the data are collected will determine which measurement techniques are appropriate. Ishikawa classifies data collection into five categories

  9. A critical comparison of electron scattering cross sections measured by single collision and swarm techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.; Brunger, M.J.

    1996-07-01

    Electron scattering cross sections (elastic, rotational and vibrational excitation) for a number of atomic and (relatively) single molecular systems are examined. Particular reference is made to the level of agreement which is obtained from the application of the completely different measurement philosophies embodied in 'beam' and 'swarm' techniques. The range of energies considered is generally restricted to the region below 5 eV. 142 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  10. Measures of Narcissism and Their Relations to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    There exists substantial debate about how to best assess pathological narcissism with a variety of measures designed to assess grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 based conceptualizations of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Wright and colleagues published correlations between several narcissism measures (Narcissistic Personality Inventory [NPI]; Pathological Narcissism Inventory [PNI]; Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire [PDQ] NPD) with the traits comprising the DSM-5 Section III personality trait model. In the current study, we examine the agreement manifested by Wright and colleagues' narcissism-DSM-5 trait profiles with expert ratings of the DSM-5 traits most relevant to descriptions of DSM-IV NPD. Despite concerns regarding the NPI's ability to measure pathological narcissism, its trait profile was strongly correlated with expert ratings, as was PDQ NPD's profile. Conversely, the trait profiles associated with the PNI were primarily uncorrelated with the expert rated NPD profile. The implications of these findings with regard to the assessment of narcissism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Methods of measurement of myocardial blood flow in patients: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, M.L.; Wilson, R.F.; White, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    During the past decade, major progress has been made in the evolution of technology directed toward the accurate measurement of regional myocardial perfusion in patients. The deficiencies of some of the older methods (thermodilution and gas clearance) are better appreciated and improved approaches (Doppler catheters, positron-emission tomography, and digital subtraction angiography) have been developed. The new approaches should play a major role in research and for most applications the older methods will gradually be replaced. Efforts to bring these new methods to community hospitals and practicing cardiologists should be stimulated. Doppler catheters, positron-emission tomography, and digital-subtraction angiography are commercially available and Doppler catheters and digital-subtraction angiography could be easily incorporated into routine cardiac catheterization procedures. The Doppler catheter is the most inexpensive and probably the simplest to apply. In our opinion, routine measurements of coronary flow reserve will significantly improve the care of patients with coronary obstructive disease and other diseases that impair myocardial perfusion. If coronary reserve measurements are used frequently, patient selection for coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery will no longer depend entirely on visual assessment of percent diameter stenosis, a very poor criterion in many situations. Also, patients with chest pain syndromes, normal coronary vessels, and impaired coronary reserve will be identified and perhaps some effective treatment for this condition will be devised. 77 references

  12. Approach for measuring the chemistry of individual particles in the size range critical for cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauscher, Melanie D; Moore, Meagan J K; Lewis, Gregory S; Hering, Susanne V; Prather, Kimberly A

    2011-03-15

    Aerosol particles, especially those ranging from 50 to 200 nm, strongly impact climate by serving as nuclei upon which water condenses and cloud droplets form. However, the small number of analytical methods capable of measuring the composition of particles in this size range, particularly at the individual particle level, has limited our knowledge of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) composition and hence our understanding of aerosols effect on climate. To obtain more insight into particles in this size range, we developed a method which couples a growth tube (GT) to an ultrafine aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UF-ATOFMS), a combination that allows in situ measurements of the composition of individual particles as small as 38 nm. The growth tube uses water to grow particles to larger sizes so they can be optically detected by the UF-ATOFMS, extending the size range to below 100 nm with no discernible changes in particle composition. To gain further insight into the temporal variability of aerosol chemistry and sources, the GT-UF-ATOFMS was used for online continuous measurements over a period of 3 days.

  13. Use of Generics—A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cankat Tulunay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new

  14. Characterization of the CALIBAN Critical Assembly Neutron Spectra using Several Adjustment Methods Based on Activation Foils Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, Pierre; Grégoire, Gilles; Rousseau, Guillaume; Jacquet, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    CALIBAN is a metallic critical assembly managed by the Criticality, Neutron Science and Measurement Department located on the French CEA Center of Valduc. The reactor is extensively used for benchmark experiments dedicated to the evaluation of nuclear data, for electronic hardening or to study the effect of the neutrons on various materials. Therefore CALIBAN irradiation characteristics and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum have to be very accurately evaluated. In order to strengthen our knowledge of this spectrum, several adjustment methods based on activation foils measurements are being studied for a few years in the laboratory. Firstly two codes included in the UMG package have been tested and compared: MAXED and GRAVEL. More recently, the CALIBAN cavity spectrum has been studied using CALMAR, a new adjustment tool currently under development at the CEA Center of Cadarache. The article will discuss and compare the results and the quality of spectrum rebuilding obtained with the UMG codes and with the CALMAR software, from a set of activation measurements carried out in the CALIBAN irradiation cavity.

  15. Inverse kinetics method with source term for subcriticality measurements during criticality approach in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Cesar Augusto Domingues; Santos, Adimir dos

    2009-01-01

    In reactor physics tests which are performed at the startup after refueling the commercial PWRs, it is important to monitor subcriticality continuously during criticality approach. Reactivity measurements by the inverse kinetics method are widely used during the operation of a nuclear reactor and it is possible to perform an online reactivity measurement based on the point reactor kinetics equations. This technique is successful applied at sufficiently high power level or to a core without an external neutron source where the neutron source term in point reactor kinetics equations may be neglected. For operation at low power levels, the contribution of the neutron source must be taken into account and this implies the knowledge of a quantity proportional to the source strength, and then it should be determined. Some experiments have been performed in the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor for the determination of the Source Term, using the Least Square Inverse Kinetics Method (LSIKM). A digital reactivity meter which neglects the source term is used to calculate the reactivity and then the source term can be determined by the LSIKM. After determining the source term, its value can be added to the algorithm and the reactivity can be determined again, considering the source term. The new digital reactivity meter can be used now to monitor reactivity during the criticality approach and the measured value for the reactivity is more precise than the meter which neglects the source term. (author)

  16. Characterization of the CALIBAN Critical Assembly Neutron Spectra using Several Adjustment Methods Based on Activation Foils Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casoli Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CALIBAN is a metallic critical assembly managed by the Criticality, Neutron Science and Measurement Department located on the French CEA Center of Valduc. The reactor is extensively used for benchmark experiments dedicated to the evaluation of nuclear data, for electronic hardening or to study the effect of the neutrons on various materials. Therefore CALIBAN irradiation characteristics and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum have to be very accurately evaluated. In order to strengthen our knowledge of this spectrum, several adjustment methods based on activation foils measurements are being studied for a few years in the laboratory. Firstly two codes included in the UMG package have been tested and compared: MAXED and GRAVEL. More recently, the CALIBAN cavity spectrum has been studied using CALMAR, a new adjustment tool currently under development at the CEA Center of Cadarache. The article will discuss and compare the results and the quality of spectrum rebuilding obtained with the UMG codes and with the CALMAR software, from a set of activation measurements carried out in the CALIBAN irradiation cavity.

  17. A criticism to the fundamental principles of physics: The problem of the quantum measurement (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mormontoy Cardenas, Oscar; Marquez Jacome, Mateo

    2008-01-01

    The wave packet model collapse debt to extremely fast fluctuations of quantum field leads to interpreting the phase speed of the harmonic waves that compose the packet, as the speed of time flux. If it consider that harmonics waves keep different phases, the waves packet scattered almost instantly and, as consequence of that, allows the possibility of the quantum system energy it is measure with exactitude absolute in given time. These results induce to think that the time would being a superforce which would determine finally the events of universe and being responsible of the intrinsic pulsations observable in the physics systems. (author)

  18. Human figure drawings as a measure of children's emotional status: critical review for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy; Su, Ying-Hwa

    2007-02-01

    Human figure drawing is a common measurement that is used in practice and research. Drawing is a fun, inexpensive, and easy-to-administer method used to provide school-age children a projective means of expressing attitudes and emotions. As cognition matures, the content of drawing develops. The inclusion of emotional indicators in drawing signifies possible emotional problems. Recently, drawing has been used in countries and cultures other than the United States. Drawing can be implemented in any setting by all health care professionals.

  19. Measurements of parametric instability near the critical density and the resultant electron heating: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, K.; De Groot, J.S.; Seka, W.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed studies of the ion acoustic parametric decay instability have been made. Theoretical and particle simulation results indicate these instabilities are important in long scale length plasma irradiated by moderate intensity laser light (10'' ≤ Iλ 2 /T/sub e/ (W/cm 2 ) (μm 2 )/(keV) ≤ 5 x 10 14 ). Laser light (λ 0 ≅ 1/2 μm) is focused onto a CH target. The parametric decay instability has been measured by detecting the emission spectrum at frequencies near 2ω 0 . The experimental results clearly indicate that this parametric instability is important for short wavelength (1/2 μm) laser light irradiation. The threshold of the parametric instability (λ 0 = 1/2 μm) was only slightly higher than that of 1 μm laser case. The measured wavelength shift of the Stokes component (λ 0 = 1/2 μm) compared very well with the 1 μm laser results

  20. 'Leak Current' correction for critical current measurement of no-insulation HTS coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jung Bin [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Hahn, Seung Yong [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Discrepancy between a power supply current and an actual “spiral” coil current makes the conventional 4-probe measurement of a critical current (I{sub c}) of a no-insulation (NI) high temperature superconductor (HTS) coil inaccurate and time-consuming. This paper presents a fast and accurate approach for I{sub c} measurement of NI HTS coils. With an NI HTS coil energized at a constant ramping rate, a complete analytic expression for the spiral coil current was obtained from a first-order partial differential equation that derived from an equivalent circuit model of the NI coil. From the analytic solution, both spiral coil current and radial leak current can be obtained simultaneously, which enables fast and accurate measurement of the NI coil I{sub c}. To verify the proposed approach, an NI double-pancake (DP) coil, wound with GdBCO tapes of 6 mm × 0.1 mm, was constructed and its Ic was repeatedly measured with various ramping rates in a bath of liquid nitrogen at 77 K. The measured results agreed well with the calculated ones, which validates the proposed approach to measure I{sub c} of an NI HTS coil.

  1. The measurement, control, and validation of critical parameters in an electron beam sterilization facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Drewell, N.H.; McKeown, J.

    1996-01-01

    The delivery and validation of a specified dose to a medical device are key concerns of operators of electron beam irradiation facilities. In an IMPELA-based irradiator, four of the parameters that directly influence the absorbed dose distribution in the product are controllable in real time - the electron energy, average beam current, scanned area, and the product exposure time. The 10 MeV accelerator operates at 50 kW with a stream of 200 μs wide, 100 mA pulses at a repetition rate of 250 Hz. The combination of short-term intra-pulse regulation with long-term pulse-to-pulse stability makes the IMPELA output attractive for the sterilization of medical products. The measurement and closed-loop control techniques used in the IMPELA design will be described with reference to facilitating compliance with medical sterilization standards. (orig.)

  2. Measuring a critical stress for continuous prevention of marine biofouling accumulation with aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-10-01

    When cleaning the hull of a ship, significant shear stresses are needed to remove established biofouling organisms. Given that there exists a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. Yet, it is unclear if there is a minimum stress needed to prevent the growth of macrofouling in the limit of continuous grooming. This manuscript shows that single bubble stream aeration provides continuous grooming and prevents biofouling accumulation in regions where the average wall stress exceeds ~0.01 Pa. This value was found by comparing observations of biofouling growth from field studies with complementary laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. These results suggest that aeration and other continuous grooming systems must exceed a wall stress of 0.01 Pa to prevent macrofouling accumulation.

  3. Critical report of current fisheries management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Ulrich, Clara; Hegland, Troels J.

    the scientific advice, the development in recent years has been towards this gap being reduced. Management of the fisheries has undergone a number of structural and behavioral changes, and these have already yielded some positive results as the state of the demersal stocks in the North Sea have globally improved......, at least in the prosperous countries around the North Sea, provides only few jobs. Despite the above trends indicating positive effects of the most recent fisheries management of the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries there are a row of general problems in the present management. Population dynamics...... states’ ministers in the Council have exercised strong control over the fisheries management measures which have been developed and adopted on the background of proposals from the Commission and the Parliament, though since the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty the Parliament has assumed a role of co...

  4. Analysis of the Techniques for Measuring the Reactivity of Far Sub-Critical Multiplying Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandeplas, P.

    1968-01-01

    The methods of measuring control-rod worth on the basis of reactor response to a periodic excitation source are analysed and it is shown that the ratio of the integrals of the prompt and delayed neutron densities over one period is independent of the shape of the signal used. This ratio will thus be equal to the ratio of the neutron densities in the presence of a time-independent source. The pulsed source, sinusoidal source and source removed methods therefore give identical worth values. Experimentation and numerical analysis show that the ratio of prompt to delayed neutron density, which is a linear combination of successive eigenvalues of the system, is largely dependent on the position of the source. It is demonstrated analytically that with a suitably chosen volume of integration, the contribution of the space harmonics is drastically reduced in the integrals of both the prompt neutron density and the delayed neutron density. Numerical studies show that the ratio of these two integrals is practically equal to the reactivity corresponding to the fundamental static mode and is almost independent of the position of the source. Integration of the neutron densities over a volume can be reduced to an integration along a straight line by a suitable choice of source location. Such an integration can be performed by means of an integral detector, thereby only requiring one measurement. Optimization of the position of the source and of the limits of integration to give the best value for the reactivity can be achieved on the basis of purely experimental criteria. (author) [fr

  5. A critical evalution of 24 hours whole-body (skeletal) retention of diphosphonate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Bessent, R.G.; Scullion, J.E.; Cuthbert, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In previous studies we have found that 24 hour whole-body retention (WBR) of diphosphonate is a valuable test for the assessment of skeletal metabolism. However, the reproducibility, accuracy and possible sources of error in WBR measurements have not previously been studied. In 21 paired studies the technique was found to be highly reproducible (r = 0.998, p < 0.0001). The coefficient of variation for whole-body counts on day 1 was 0.1% and on day 2, 1.1%. The net whole-body count of a phantom representing the 24 hour whole-body distribution of tracer was 98% of that of a uniform phantom. Ten subjects, counted twice within a few minutes to study the effect of repositioning showed a mean difference between counts of only 0.8%. For eleven subjects with traumatic fractures it was found that 9 had normal values for WBR, while 2 had minimally elevated results. For twenty patients with renal disease but no apparent skeletal disease a significant correlation between serum creatinine and WBR was found (r = 0.72, p<0.001). However WBR results were always normal when serum creatinine values were <130 μmol/l. It is suggested that WBR measurement is accurate and the technique is highly reproducible. The presence of a focal lesion is unlikely to affect a WBR result significantly and if serum creatinine is in the normal range then an elevated WBR result can be assumed to reflect increased skeletal metabolism without further concern as to renal function. (Author)

  6. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Stephens, John A.

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  7. Economic aspects of non-technical measures to reduce traffic emissions; Wirtschaftliche Aspekte nichttechnischer Massnahmen zur Emissionsminderung im Verkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Hartwig, Johannes; Senger, Florian; Schade, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Maibach, Markus; Sutter, Daniel; Bertschmann, Damaris [Infrastruktur- und Entwicklungsplanung Umwelt- und Wirtschaftsfragen (INFRAS), Zuerich (Switzerland); Lambrecht, Udo; Knoerr, Wolfram; Duennebeil, Frank [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Aim and methodology: This study looks at the impact of selected transport policy measures on environment, transport users, economy and society by the year 2030. Considered are shifts to cycling, walking and public transport, shorter car trips and more efficient car use in passenger travel, as well as more rail in freight transport. Out of the transport user perspective private costs, travel time, health effects, air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, noise and traffic safety are assessed. Macroeconomic impacts are appraised using the system-dynamics transport and economics model ASTRA-D. Results: The environmental impacts of the measures diverge widely and are dominated by the costs of greenhouse gas emissions. Measures, which include long-distance travel, achieve higher impacts than pure urban transport measures. In particular for public transport considerable potentials to reduce its external costs from air pollution were identified. Active mobility enhances personal health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases. However, the safety of cyclists and pedestrians in cities requires increased attention. The investment costs for the measures investigated differ strongly, but reach up to 10 billion Euros annually for more attractive local destinations. Accordingly, employment develops positively in almost all measures, and the gross domestic product (GDP) is slightly above the base case in 2030 in four out of the five cases. Recommendations: sensible bundles of measures may clearly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of transport policy. Core elements are ''push-nd-pull'' approaches combining transport shift and funding policies.

  8. Use of zero power plutonium reactor measurements as a support of criticality prediction for the SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilate, S.; de Wouters, R.; Wehmann, U.; Helm, F.; Scholtyssek, W.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluations of criticality measurements performed in various SNEAK and Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR) cores are compared. The best available methods of calculations (including transport theory) are used. The ZPPR results support well the trend indicated by the SNEAK evaluations for clean cores and for cores with followers; for cores with absorbers partially inserted, the agreement is only rough. Evaluations of control rod worth measurements are therefore also compared, using the routine method of calculation for SNR-300 (diffusion theory). The control rod worths are largely underestimated in SNEAK (C/E = 0.89), but only slightly underestimated in the ZPPR (C/E = 0.97). The difference in the nature of core fuel (uranium in SNEAK, plutonium in the ZPPR) could be at the origin of this discrepancy

  9. Analysis of ex-core detector response measured during nuclear ship Mutsu land-loaded core critical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, M.; Abe, J.I.; Kuribayashi, K.

    1987-01-01

    There are some cases where the ex-core neutron detector response is dependent not only on the fission source distribution in a core but also on neutron absorption in the borated water reflector. For example, an unexpectedly large response variation was measured during the nuclear ship Mutsu land-loaded core critical experiment. This large response variation is caused largely by the boron concentration change associated with the change in control rod positioning during the experiment. The conventional Crump-Lee response calculation method has been modified to take into account this boron effect. The correction factor in regard to this effect has been estimated using the one-dimensional transport code ANISN. The detector response variations obtained by means of this new calculation procedure agree well with the measured values recorded during the experiment

  10. Critical considerations about the use of poverty measures in the study of cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, Sebastián J

    2017-06-01

    Developmental psychology and developmental cognitive neuroscience generated evidence at different levels of analysis about the influences of poverty on neurocognitive development (i.e., molecular, neural activation, cognition, behaviour). In addition, different individual and environmental factors were identified as mediators of such influences. Such a complexity is also illustrated through the many poverty conceptual and operational definitions generated by social, human and health sciences. However, to establish the causal relationships between the different factors of poverty and neurocognitive outcomes is still an issue under construction. Most studies of this area apply classic unidimensional poverty indicators such as income and maternal education. Nonetheless, this approach does not take into adequate consideration the variability of neurocognitive outcomes depending on the type of poverty measures, and the dynamic nature of changes during development. This creates a virtual underestimation of the complexity imposed by the involved mediating mechanisms. The scientific and policy implications of this underestimation include the risk of not adequately addressing children rights and developmental opportunities. This article proposes to explore such scenario, which is necessary for the reconsideration of the criteria used to analyse the influences of poverty on child development in general and neurocognitive development in particular. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. The impact of culture and education on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo

    2003-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology has frequently considered visuospatial and non-verbal tests to be culturally and educationally fair or at least fairer than verbal tests. This paper reviews the cross-cultural differences in performance on visuoperceptual and visuoconstructional ability tasks and analyzes the impact of education and culture on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements. This paper compares: (1) non-verbal test performance among groups with different educational levels, and the same cultural background (inter-education intra-culture comparison); (2) the test performance among groups with the same educational level and different cultural backgrounds (intra-education inter-culture comparisons). Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between educational level and performance on common non-verbal neuropsychological tests. When neuropsychological test performance in different cultural groups is compared, significant differences are evident. Performance on non-verbal tests such as copying figures, drawing maps or listening to tones can be significantly influenced by the individual's culture. Arguments against the use of some current neuropsychological non-verbal instruments, procedures, and norms in the assessment of diverse educational and cultural groups are discussed and possible solutions to this problem are presented.

  12. Kinetics of Natural Attenuation: Review of the Critical Chemical Conditions and Measurements at Bore Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Atteia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical conditions that should favour the biodegradation of organic pollutants. Thermodynamic considerations help to define the reaction that can occur under defined chemical conditions. The BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene degradation is focused on benzene, as it is the most toxic oil component and also because it has the slowest degradation rate under most field conditions. Several studies on benzene degradation allow the understanding of the basic degradation mechanisms and their importance in field conditions. The use of models is needed to interpret field data when transport, retardation, and degradation occur. A detailed comparison of two existing models shows that the limits imposed by oxygen transport must be simulated precisely to reach correct plumes shapes and dimensions, and that first-order kinetic approaches may be misleading. This analysis led us to develop a technique to measure directly biodegradation in the field. The technique to recirculate water at the borehole scale and the CO2 analysis are depicted. First results of biodegradation show that this technique is able to easily detect the degradation of 1 mg/l of hydrocarbons and that, in oxic media, a fast degradation rate of mixed fuel is observed.

  13. A critical review of the measurement of ice adhesion to solid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Andrew; Lian, Yongsheng

    2018-04-01

    Ice adhesion is an issue spanning a wide range of technical fields. In the aerospace industry, ice accretion has led to a large number of casualties and costs the industry billions of dollars every year. To design effective anti-/de-icing systems, the adhesion of ice to surfaces must be understood. In this review paper, the authors surveyed for papers providing methods for the measurement of ice adhesion. 113 papers were identified for comparison, with data being extracted from 58 papers with common test surfaces (aluminum, steel, Teflon® (Chemours), and polyurethane). The methods used were categorized and data were compared based on their precision and the trends they demonstrated. Conceptual problems were identified with the tests used in the literature and discussed, and open questions relevant to testing the adhesion of ice were identified. Several key parameters affecting ice adhesion identified from the literature were temperature, surface roughness, strain rate, and impact velocity. Their effects on adhesion strength were discussed. While researching this topic, it was discovered that many papers did not report the strain rate in their tests, and the vast majority of papers did not correct their data for stress concentrations on the surface, either of which has been shown to cause variation in the data by one order of magnitude. Data compared from the literature typically spanned one to three orders of magnitude. The causes of these variations were discussed.

  14. The Measurement of Maximal (Anaerobic Power Output on a Cycle Ergometer: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak Driss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests and limits of the different methods and protocols of maximal (anaerobic power ( assessment are reviewed: single all-out tests versus force-velocity tests, isokinetic ergometers versus friction-loaded ergometers, measure of during the acceleration phase or at peak velocity. The effects of training, athletic practice, diet and pharmacological substances upon the production of maximal mechanical power are not discussed in this review mainly focused on the technical (ergometer, crank length, toe clips, methodological (protocols and biological factors (muscle volume, muscle fiber type, age, gender, growth, temperature, chronobiology and fatigue limiting in cycling. Although the validity of the Wingate test is questionable, a large part of the review is dedicated to this test which is currently the all-out cycling test the most often used. The biomechanical characteristics specific of maximal and high speed cycling, the bioenergetics of the all-out cycling exercises and the influence of biochemical factors (acidosis and alkalosis, phosphate ions… are recalled at the beginning of the paper. The basic knowledge concerning the consequences of the force-velocity relationship upon power output, the biomechanics of sub-maximal cycling exercises and the study on the force-velocity relationship in cycling by Dickinson in 1928 are presented in Appendices.

  15. Comparing Science Virtual and Paper-Based Test to Measure Students’ Critical Thinking based on VAK Learning Style Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyidah, T. H.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.

    2017-02-01

    This research was comparing virtual and paper-based test to measure students’ critical thinking based on VAK (Visual-Auditory-Kynesthetic) learning style model. Quasi experiment method with one group post-test only design is applied in this research in order to analyze the data. There was 40 eight grade students at one of public junior high school in Bandung becoming the sample in this research. The quantitative data was obtained through 26 questions about living thing and environment sustainability which is constructed based on the eight elements of critical thinking and be provided in the form of virtual and paper-based test. Based on analysis of the result, it is shown that within visual, auditory, and kinesthetic were not significantly difference in virtual and paper-based test. Besides, all result was supported by quistionnaire about students’ respond on virtual test which shows 3.47 in the scale of 4. Means that student showed positive respond in all aspet measured, which are interest, impression, and expectation.

  16. A critical review of measures to reduce radioactive doses from drinking water and consumption of freshwater foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.; Voitsekhovitch, O.V.; Haakanson, L.; Hilton, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following a radioactive fallout event, there are a number of possible intervention measures to reduce radioactive doses to the public via the surface water pathway. We have critically reviewed the options available to decision-makers in the event of radioactive contamination of surface waters. We believe that the most effective and viable measures to reduce radioactivity in drinking water are those which operate at the water treatment and distribution stage. Intervention measures to reduce concentrations of radioactivity in rivers and reservoirs are expected to be much less viable and efficient at reducing doses via the drinking water pathway. Bans on consumption of freshwater fish can be effective, but there are few viable measures to reduce radioactivity in fish prior to the preparation stage. Lake liming and biomanipulation have been found to be ineffective for radiocaesium, although the addition of potassium to lakewaters appears promising in some situations. Lake liming may be effective in reducing radiostrontium in fish, though this has not, to our knowledge, been tested. De-boning fish contaminated by strontium is probably the most effective food preparation measure, but salting and freezing can also reduce radiocaesium concentrations in fish. The provision of accurate information to the public is highlighted as a key element of countermeasure implementation

  17. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Sedentary time in older adults: a critical review of measurement, associations with health, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Jennifer L; Ashe, Maureen C; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Brown, Wendy J; Buman, Matthew P; Chastin, Sebastien; Gardiner, Paul A; Inoue, Shigeru; Jefferis, Barbara J; Oka, Koichiro; Owen, Neville; Sardinha, Luís B; Skelton, Dawn A; Sugiyama, Takemi; Dogra, Shilpa

    2017-11-01

    Sedentary time (ST) is an important risk factor for a variety of health outcomes in older adults. Consensus is needed on future research directions so that collaborative and timely efforts can be made globally to address this modifiable risk factor. In this review, we examined current literature to identify gaps and inform future research priorities on ST and healthy ageing. We reviewed three primary topics:(1) the validity/reliability of self-report measurement tools, (2) the consequences of prolonged ST on geriatric-relevant health outcomes (physical function, cognitive function, mental health, incontinence and quality of life) and(3) the effectiveness of interventions to reduce ST in older adults. A trained librarian created a search strategy that was peer reviewed for completeness. Self-report assessment of the context and type of ST is important but the tools tend to underestimate total ST. There appears to be an association between ST and geriatric-relevant health outcomes, although there is insufficient longitudinal evidence to determine a dose-response relationship or a threshold for clinically relevant risk. The type of ST may also affect health; some cognitively engaging sedentary behaviours appear to benefit health, while time spent in more passive activities may be detrimental. Short-term feasibility studies of individual-level ST interventions have been conducted; however, few studies have appropriately assessed the impact of these interventions on geriatric-relevant health outcomes, nor have they addressed organisation or environment level changes. Research is specifically needed to inform evidence-based interventions that help maintain functional autonomy among older adults.This consensus statement has been endorsed by the following societies: Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy, Exercise & Sports Science Australia, Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging, Society of Behavioral Medicine, and the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine.

  19. A new method for studying iodine metabolism; the isotopic equilibrium method - kinetic and quantitative aspects of measurements made on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.

    1964-05-01

    The isotopic equilibrium method which has been developed in the case of the rat has made it possible to measure the absolute values of the principal parameters of iodine metabolism in this animal. The quantities and concentrations of iodine have been measured in the thyroid gland and in the plasma with a sensitivity of 0.001 μg of 127 I. This sensitivity has made it possible to measure pools as small as the iodide and the free iodotyrosines of the thyroid and to demonstrate the absence of free iodotyrosines in the plasma of the normal rat. In vivo, the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the iodine content of the thyroid gland and to calculate the intensity of this gland's secretion without removing it. By double labelling with 125 I and 131 I the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the flux, intensity of the intrathyroidal recycling as well as the turnover rates of all the iodine containing compounds of the thyroid gland. For this gland no precursor-product relationship has been found between The iodotyrosines (MIT and DIT) and the iodothyronines (T 4 and T 3 ). The absence of this relationship is due to the heterogeneity of the thyroglobulin turnover. It has been shown furthermore that there exists in the plasma an organic fraction of the iodine which is different to thyroglobulin and which is renewed more rapidly than the circulating hormones T 3 and T 4 . The isotopic equilibrium method is very useful for series measurements of iodine. It makes it possible furthermore to improve the biochemical fractionations by adding carriers without affecting the subsequent 127 I measurements. (author) [fr

  20. Study on the method of determining the sub-criticality of a reactor via the measurement of core neutron flux spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Aifeng; Jiang Xiaofeng; Zhang Shaohong

    2007-01-01

    A new methodology based on rigorous reactor physics theory astead of the point reactor assumption was proposed to determine or monitor the sub-criticality ora reactor, especially the sub-critical reactor of ADS, via the measurement of in-core flux spatial distribution. Preliminary numerical studies on the 1st ADS sub-critical experimental facilities-Venus No.1 in China have demonstrated the feasibility of this new method. Related discussions pointed out the potential applications of the method. (authors)

  1. A summary of the low angle x-ray atomic scattering factors which have been measured by the critical voltage effect in High Energy Electron Diffraction (HEED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.G.; Fisher, R.M.

    1987-08-01

    A tabulated summary of all the accurate (/approximately/0.1%) low-angle x-ray atomic scattering (form) factors which have been determined by the systematic critical voltage technique in HEED is presented. For low atomic number elements (Z/approx lt/40) the low angle form factors can be significantly different to best free atom values, and so the best band structure calculated and/or x-ray measured form factors consistent with the critical voltage measurements are also indicated. At intermediate atomic numbers Z≅40→50 only the very low-angle form factors appear to be different to the best free atom values, and even then only by a small amount. For heavy elements (Z/approx lt/70) the best free atom form factors appear to agree very closely with the critical voltage measured values and so, in this case, critical voltage measurements give very accurate measurements of Debye-Waller factors. 48 refs

  2. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-01-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions. (orig.) [de

  3. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-02-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions.

  4. Clinical measurement of various aspects of hearing impairment and their relation to auditory functioning: the development of an Auditory Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    In terms of disability and handicap, problems in auditory function involve much more than a reduced sensitivity to soft sounds, the most commonly used measure of hearing impairment. In daily life, many hearing-impaired (HI) listeners suffer more from impaired processing of audible sounds, than from

  5. Revisiting the Idea of "Critical Aspects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming Fai; Ki, Wing Wah

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, two new strands of research have evolved from the phenomenographic research tradition: the first concerns advancement of the variation theory of learning, whilst the second involves development of the learning study approach. In this paper, the conceptual frameworks of phenomenography, variation theory, and learning studies are…

  6. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences

  7. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y; Lavie, J M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences. Les auteurs presentent une analyse des

  8. Measuring the health systems impact of disease control programmes: a critical reflection on the WHO building blocks framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Griffiths, Ulla K; Closser, Svea; Burchett, Helen; Marchal, Bruno

    2014-03-25

    The WHO health systems Building Blocks framework has become ubiquitous in health systems research. However, it was not developed as a research instrument, but rather to facilitate investments of resources in health systems. In this paper, we reflect on the advantages and limitations of using the framework in applied research, as experienced in three empirical vaccine studies we have undertaken. We argue that while the Building Blocks framework is valuable because of its simplicity and ability to provide a common language for researchers, it is not suitable for analysing dynamic, complex and inter-linked systems impacts. In our three studies, we found that the mechanical segmentation of effects by the WHO building blocks, without recognition of their interactions, hindered the understanding of impacts on systems as a whole. Other important limitations were the artificial equal weight given to each building block and the challenge in capturing longer term effects and opportunity costs. Another criticism is not of the framework per se, but rather how it is typically used, with a focus on the six building blocks to the neglect of the dynamic process and outcome aspects of health systems.We believe the framework would be improved by making three amendments: integrating the missing "demand" component; incorporating an overarching, holistic health systems viewpoint and including scope for interactions between components. If researchers choose to use the Building Blocks framework, we recommend that it be adapted to the specific study question and context, with formative research and piloting conducted in order to inform this adaptation. As with frameworks in general, the WHO Building Blocks framework is valuable because it creates a common language and shared understanding. However, for applied research, it falls short of what is needed to holistically evaluate the impact of specific interventions on health systems. We propose that if researchers use the framework, it

  9. Aspects Regarding the Establishment of the Scale Coefficient in the Case of Distances Measurements in an Geodetic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Ortelecan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the possibility to establish the coefficient of scale towards the total station scale triangulation network in the conduct of geodetic and topographic observations in the points with known coordinates (old points or points whose coordinates we want to determine (new points. The purpose of the study is undertaken to simplify computing operations to reduce distances measured from the topographic surface to the Stereo 70 projection plan.

  10. Measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, G.

    2007-01-01

    In the four beam times we performed at the FRM-II, we were able to show that the spectrometer works in principle and that a determination of a with it is possible. A set of routines has been written for decoding and analyzing the raw data. The routines are written in C using the ROOT libraries and can be easily adapted or expanded. We have found a reliable way to extract the proton count rates from the data by building pulseheight spectra for each measurement, subtracting background measurements from those and fitting the resulting peak with a Gaussian. The background of the measurements was studied in detail. The background caused by electrons from neutron decay is very well understood and conforms quantitatively to our expectation. Due to the spatial resolution of our detector and the time resolution provided by our DAQ electronics, we were able to study correlated electron-proton pairs from one neutron decay event. They form a clearly visible peak in a time- and channel-distance spectrum, which can be shifted in the channel-dimension by varying the voltages applied to the lower and upper E x B electrodes. Performing a pulseheight analysis for both involved particles allowed us to obtain a fairly clean energy spectrum of the background caused by electrons from neutron decay in our detector. Using these correlations for data analysis may be of interest for future neutron decay experiments which use segmented detectors. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, G.

    2007-08-29

    In the four beam times we performed at the FRM-II, we were able to show that the spectrometer works in principle and that a determination of a with it is possible. A set of routines has been written for decoding and analyzing the raw data. The routines are written in C using the ROOT libraries and can be easily adapted or expanded. We have found a reliable way to extract the proton count rates from the data by building pulseheight spectra for each measurement, subtracting background measurements from those and fitting the resulting peak with a Gaussian. The background of the measurements was studied in detail. The background caused by electrons from neutron decay is very well understood and conforms quantitatively to our expectation. Due to the spatial resolution of our detector and the time resolution provided by our DAQ electronics, we were able to study correlated electron-proton pairs from one neutron decay event. They form a clearly visible peak in a time- and channel-distance spectrum, which can be shifted in the channel-dimension by varying the voltages applied to the lower and upper E x B electrodes. Performing a pulseheight analysis for both involved particles allowed us to obtain a fairly clean energy spectrum of the background caused by electrons from neutron decay in our detector. Using these correlations for data analysis may be of interest for future neutron decay experiments which use segmented detectors. (orig.)

  12. Aspect of the conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    1990-11-01

    This thesis is about the study of several physical and mathematical aspects of critical phenomena at two dimensions. These phenomena have remarkable symmetry properties in the coordonnates changes keeping the angles. They are named conformal theories

  13. Measuring the sustainability of a natural system by using multi-criteria distance function methods: Some critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Balteiro, L; Belavenutti, P; Ezquerro, M; González-Pachón, J; Ribeiro Nobre, S; Romero, C

    2018-05-15

    There is an important body of literature using multi-criteria distance function methods for the aggregation of a battery of sustainability indicators in order to obtain a composite index. This index is considered to be a proxy of the sustainability goodness of a natural system. Although this approach has been profusely used in the literature, it is not exempt from difficulties and potential pitfalls. Thus, in this paper, a significant number of critical issues have been identified showing different procedures capable of avoiding, or at least of mitigating, the inherent potential pitfalls associated with each one. The recommendations made in the paper could increase the theoretical soundness of the multi-criteria distance function methods when this type of approach is applied in the sustainability field, thus increasing the accuracy and realism of the sustainability measurements obtained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of critical areas of carotid stent navigation by measurement of resistive forces in vitro, using silicone phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.; Kesavadas, T.; Baier, R.E.; Hoffmann, K.R.; Schafer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Manipulation of surgical tools in neuro-endovascular surgery presents problems that are unique to this procedure. Navigating tools through arterial complexities without appropriate visual or force feedback information often causes tool snagging, plaque dislocations and formation of thrombosis from the damage of the arterial wall by the tools. Identifying the critical areas in the vasculature during navigation of endovascular tools, will not only ensure safer surgical planning but also reduce risks of vessel damage. In the present research, resistive forces of stent navigation were measured in-vitro using silicone phantoms and clinically relevant surgical devices. The patterns of variation of the forces along the path of the stent movement were analyzed and mapped along the path of stent movement using a color code. It was observed that the forces changed along the length of the vessel, independent of the insertion length but based on the curvature of the vessel and the contact area of the device in the vessel lumen. (orig.)

  15. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections and calculational methods for the advanced neutron source against the FOEHN critical experiments measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Gehin, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are ∼ 13%, while the average differences are < 8%

  16. Comparison of bending strain effect on the critical current degradation of Bi-2223 tapes through different measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Dizon, John R.C.; Katagiri, Kazumune; Kuroda, Tsuneo

    2006-01-01

    Unlike in the tests under tension, transverse compression and torsion, the bending test of HTS tapes requires lots of time and effort since the sample should be bent or mounted successively onto sample holders having different bending radius at room temperature, and then cooled down to measure the critical current, I c , up to 77 K at each step. In this process, the effect of repeated thermal cycle on the I c degradation can not be ignored. The establishment of a practical and effective measurement method of the critical current as a function of bending strain for HTS tapes should be considered. A ρ-shaped sample holder which provides a series of bending strains to HTS tapes was newly devised. In this case, the connection of Bi-2223 tapes to current terminal blocks was done mechanically. Using this sample holder, the bending strain effect on the I c degradation behavior in Bi-2223 tapes in the easy bending mode was investigated, and discussed them comparing with other data obtained by different testing methods, namely, the conventional bending method using FRP sample holders and the Goldacker-type continuous bending test rig. Commercially available Bi-2223 tapes which have different reinforcing structures were supplied for this study. By using the newly devised ρ-shaped sample holder, it was possible to obtain a bending strain characteristic of I c in Bi-2223 tapes at one time cooling which lessened the testing time significantly when compared with other testing methods and supply good reproducible data. The I c degradation behavior in Bi-2223 tapes was similar to the cases using FRP sample holders although it showed slightly higher I c values

  17. 'aspect' - a new spectrometer for the measurement of the angular correlation coefficient a in neutron beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmer, O; Grinten, M G D; Heil, W; Glück, F

    2000-01-01

    The combination of the coefficient a of the antineutrino/electron angular correlation with the beta asymmetry of the neutron provides a sensitive test for scalar and tensor contributions to the electroweak Lagrangian, as well as for right-handed currents. A method is given for measuring a with high sensitivity from the proton recoil spectrum. The method is based on a magnetic spectrometer with electrostatic retardation potentials such as used for searches of the neutrino mass in tritium beta decay. The spectrometer can also be used for similar studies using radioactive nuclei.

  18. Measuring the absorbed dose in critical organs during low rate dose brachytherapy with 137 Cs using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, A.; Gonzalez, P.R.; Furetta, C.; Azorin, J.; Andres, U.; Mendez, G.

    2003-01-01

    Intracavitary Brachytherapy is one of the most used methods for the treatment of the cervical-uterine cancer. This treatment consists in the insertion of low rate dose 137 Cs sources into the patient. The most used system for the treatment dose planning is that of Manchester. This planning is based on sources, which are considered fixed during the treatment. However, the experience has shown that, during the treatment, the sources could be displaced from its initial position, changing the dose from that previously prescribed. For this reason, it is necessary to make measurements of the absorbed dose to the surrounding organs (mainly bladder and rectum). This paper presents the results of measuring the absorbed dose using home-made LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Measurements were carried out in-vivo during 20 minutes at the beginning and at the end of the treatments. Results showed that the absorbed dose to the critical organs vary significantly due to the movement of the patient during the treatment. (Author)

  19. Skin Perfusion Pressure Measurement to Assess Improvement in Peripheral Circulation after Arterial Reconstruction for Critical Limb Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiko; Onozuka, Atsuko; Obitsu, Yukio; Komai, Hiroyoshi; Koizumi, Nobusato; Saiki, Naozumi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the utility of skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measurement in evaluating the outcome of vascular constructions for critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Methods: We retrospectively studied 19 lower limbs in 18 patients who underwent arterial reconstruction for CLI from whom SPP measurements had been obtained pre- and postoperatively between 2008 and 2010. Six limbs whose ulcers had healed postoperatively were classified into group H, 7 limbs whose ulcers had not healed into group U, and 6 limbs without ulcers into group N. SPP values were compared among these groups. Results: The preoperative SPP values in all groups were <30 mmHg, without significant differences among the groups. The SPP values in groups H and N significantly improved after operation, and those in group U were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Conclusions: SPP measurement before and after arterial reconstruction is useful to assess improvement in tissue circulation and to predict the likelihood of wound healing. An SPP value ≥30 mmHg was considered necessary for wound healing, supporting the findings of the few reports in the literature on the usefulness of SPP for assessing vascular reconstruction effects on ulcer wound healing. PMID:23555459

  20. Spatial Variability of Soil-Water Storage in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory: Measurement and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Bales, R. C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the spatial distribution of soil moisture in mountain environments is confounded by multiple factors, including complex topography, spatial variably of soil texture, sub-surface flow paths, and snow-soil interactions. While remote-sensing tools such as passive-microwave monitoring can measure spatial variability of soil moisture, they only capture near-surface soil layers. Large-scale sensor networks are increasingly providing soil-moisture measurements at high temporal resolution across a broader range of depths than are accessible from remote sensing. It may be possible to combine these in-situ measurements with high-resolution LIDAR topography and canopy cover to estimate the spatial distribution of soil moisture at high spatial resolution at multiple depths. We study the feasibility of this approach using six years (2009-2014) of daily volumetric water content measurements at 10-, 30-, and 60-cm depths from the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. A non-parametric, multivariate regression algorithm, Random Forest, was used to predict the spatial distribution of depth-integrated soil-water storage, based on the in-situ measurements and a combination of node attributes (topographic wetness, northness, elevation, soil texture, and location with respect to canopy cover). We observe predictable patterns of predictor accuracy and independent variable ranking during the six-year study period. Predictor accuracy is highest during the snow-cover and early recession periods but declines during the dry period. Soil texture has consistently high feature importance. Other landscape attributes exhibit seasonal trends: northness peaks during the wet-up period, and elevation and topographic-wetness index peak during the recession and dry period, respectively.

  1. Unkonventionelle massnahmen der geldpolitik: eine kritische Beurteilung. Non-coventional measures of momentary policy: a critical assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Rohde

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article a recently observable very expansive monetary policy and especially the additional use of so called non-conventional measures of monetary policy is discussed in the case of the European Central Bank The goal of research is to analyse first to what extend the non-conventional measures of monetary policy are useful instruments to support the monetary policy of the Eurosystem, which is focusing more strictly on developments of interest rates and interest rate levels than on developments of the quantity of money since 2003/2004, when the ECB had changed its monetary policy strategy. Secondly the non-conventional measures, implemented by the ECB, are observed at the background of the institutional arrangements of the Eurosystems recent monetary policy, which is characterized in short by free and unlimited allotment of central bank money. So if there exist no shortage of central bank money within the banking system of the Eurosystem the question has to be analyzed why for example measures of Quantitative Easing should be necessary to make monetary policy more efficient. Afterwards the intensions of the ECB to use non-conventional measures are discussed in detail. This involves an intensive look on the sense of the intended return of actually very low interest rates to the aim of the ECB of maintaining inflation rates below, but close to 2%. Also a critical look is thrown on the background of the intended sizeable impact on the balance sheet of the Eurosystem by purchasing bonds or securities or by using targeted long term refinancing operations (TLTROs. And at least dangers of the implicitly intended depreciation of the Euro exchange rates are discussed. All in all these intensions of the ECB seems to be not the right way to lead to a proper solution of actually existing economic problems within the Eurozone.

  2. Clinically Practical Approach for Screening of Low Muscularity Using Electronic Linear Measures on Computed Tomography Images in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrutin, Egor; Moisey, Lesley L; Zhang, Roselyn; Khattab, Jenna; Todd, Emma; Premji, Tahira; Kozar, Rosemary; Heyland, Daren K; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2017-12-06

    Computed tomography (CT) scans performed during routine hospital care offer the opportunity to quantify skeletal muscle and predict mortality and morbidity in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Existing methods of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) quantification require specialized software, training, and time commitment that may not be feasible in a clinical setting. In this article, we explore a new screening method to identify patients with low muscle mass. We analyzed 145 scans of elderly ICU patients (≥65 years old) using a combination of measures obtained with a digital ruler, commonly found on hospital radiological software. The psoas and paraspinal muscle groups at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) were evaluated by using 2 linear measures each and compared with an established method of CT image analysis of total muscle CSA in the L3 region. There was a strong association between linear measures of psoas and paraspinal muscle groups and total L3 muscle CSA (R 2 = 0.745, P < 0.001). Linear measures, age, and sex were included as covariates in a multiple logistic regression to predict those with low muscle mass; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of the combined psoas and paraspinal linear index model was 0.920. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to evaluate intrarater and interrater reliability, resulting in scores of 0.979 (95% CI: 0.940-0.992) and 0.937 (95% CI: 0.828-0.978), respectively. A digital ruler can reliably predict L3 muscle CSA, and these linear measures may be used to identify critically ill patients with low muscularity who are at risk for worse clinical outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. The measurement and calculation of the kinetic parameter {beta}{sub eff}/{Lambda} of a small high-temperature like, critical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallerbos, E.J.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that it is well possible to determine the kinetic parameter {beta}{sub eff}/{Lambda} in a neutronically very slow system by means of noise measurements in the critical state. The advantages of this technique are that it can be conducted in a critical reactor directly, and that no special measurement equipment is needed. The comparison to calculated values for four configurations, which differ in the amount of moderation in the core region, shows a satisfactory agreement. (author)

  4. Physical Aspects of Healthy Aging: Assessments of Three Measures of Balance for Studies in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina D. Ceria-Ulep

    2010-01-01

    Results. The EPESE and NHANES batteries of tests were not sufficiently challenging to allow successful discrimination among subjects in good health, even older subjects. The GBPS allowed objective quantitative measurements, but the test-retest correlations generally were not high. The GBPS variables correlated with age only when subjects stood on a foam pad; they also were correlated with anthropometric variables. Conclusion. Both EPESE and NHANES balance tests were too easy for healthy subjects. The GBPS had generally low reliability coefficients except for the most difficult testing condition (foam pad, eyes closed. Both height and body fat were associated with GBPS scores, necessitating adjusting for these variables if using balance as a predictor of future health.

  5. Portable gamma spectrometry: measuring soil erosion in-situ at four Critical Zone Observatories in P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, N. K.; Green, S. M.; Chen, Z.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, R.; Yu, K.; Tu, C.; Jia, X.; Li, G.; Peng, X.; Quine, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting patterns of soil erosion, redistribution, and/soil nutrient loss is important for long-term soil conservation and agricultural sustainability. Caesium-137 (137Cs) and other fallout radionuclide inventories have been used over the the last 50 years to track soil erosion, transport and deposition on a catchment scale, and have been shown to be useful for informing models of temporal/spatial soil redistribution. Traditional sampling methods usually involves coring, grinding, sieving, sub-sampling and laboratory analysis using HPGe detectors, all of which can be costly and time consuming. In-situ measurements can provide a mechanism for assessment of 137Cs over larger areas that integrate the spatial variability, and expand turnover of analyses. Here, we assess the applicability of an in-situ approach based on radionuclide principles, and provide a comparison of the two approaches: laboratory vs. in-situ. The UK-China Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) programme provides an ideal research platform to assess the in-situ approach to measuring soil erosion: using a portable gamma spectrometer to determine 137Cs inventories. Four extensive field slope surveys were conducted in the CZO's, which covers four ecosystem types in China: karst, red soil, peri-urban, and loess plateau. In each CZO, 3-6 plots were measured along 2 slope transects, with 3 replicated 1 hour counts of 137Cs in each plot. In addition, 137Cs soil depth and bulk density profiles were also sampled for each plot, and lab-derived inventories calculated using traditional methods for comparison. Accurately and rapidly measuring 137Cs inventories using a portable field detector allows for a greater coverage of sampling locations and the potential for small-scale spatial integration, as well as the ability to re-visit sites over time and continually adapt and improve soil erosion/redistribution models, thus more effectively targeting areas of interest with reduced cost and time constraints.

  6. Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.K.; Glenzer, S.; Edwards, M.J.; Brandon, S.; Clark, D.; Town, R.; Cerjan, C.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Mapoles, E.; Munro, D.; Salmonson, J.; Sepke, S.; Weber, S.; Hatchett, S.; Haan, S.; Springer, P.; Moses, E.; Mapoles, E.; Munro, D.; Salmonson, J.; Sepke, S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.

  7. Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, B K; Glenzer, S; Edwards, M J; Brandon, S; Clark, D; Town, R; Cerjan, C; Dylla-Spears, R; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S; Weber, S; Hatchett, S; Haan, S; Springer, P; Moses, E; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S

    2011-12-16

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.

  8. Use of an oscillation technique to measure effective cross-sections of fissionable samples in critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretiakoff, O.; Vidal, R.; Carre, J.C.; Robin, M.

    1964-01-01

    The authors describe the technique used to measure the effective absorption and neutron-yield cross-sections of a fissionable sample. These two values are determined by analysing the signals due to the variation in reactivity (over-all signal) and the local perturbation in the flux (local signal) produced by the oscillating sample. These signals are standardized by means of a set of samples containing quantities of fissionable material ( 235 U) and an absorber, boron, which are well known. The measurements are made for different neutron spectra characterized by lattice parameters which constitute the central zone within which the sample moves. This technique is used to study the effective cross-sections of uranium-plutonium alloys for different heavy-water and graphite lattices in the MINERVE and MARIUS critical assemblies. The same experiments are carried out on fuel samples of different irradiations in order to determine the evolution of effective cross-sections as a function of the spectrum and the irradiations. (authors) [fr

  9. Measured lifetimes of states in 197Au and a critical comparison with the weak-coupling core-excitation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, H.H.; Kennedy, D.L.; Linard, B.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetimes of five excited states in 197 Au up to an excitation energy of 885 keV were measured by the recoil-distance method (RDM). These levels were populated by Coulomb excitation using both 90 MeV 20 Ne and 120 MeV 35 Cl ion beams. The experimentally determined spectroscopy of the low-lying levels 3/2 + (ground state) and 1/2 + , (3/2) + 2 , 5/2 + and 7/2 + at 77.3, 268.8, 278.9, and 547.5 keV excitation energy, respectively, has been critically compared with the detailed predictions of the de-Shalit weak-coupling core-excitation model. When the model is taken to represent the case of a dsub(3/2) proton hole coupled to a 198 Hg core, the model parameters obtained are in accord with the criteria implicit for weak core coupling and, at the same time, are in remarkably good agreement with virtually all measured E2 and M1 transition rates. (Auth.)

  10. Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conder, J.M.; Lanno, R.P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with toxicity. Objective. The objectives of this research were to: i) develop LD{sub 50}s (total earthworm metal concentration associated with 50% mortality) for Cd, Pb, and Zn; ii) evaluate the LD{sub 50} for Zn in a lethal Zn-smelter soil; iii) evaluate the lethal mixture toxicity of Cd, Pb, and Zn using earthworm metal concentrations and the toxic unit (TU) approach; and iv) evaluate total and fractionated earthworm concentrations as indicators of sublethal exposure. Methods. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny)) were exposed to artificial soils spiked with Cd, Pb, Zn, and a Cd-Pb-Zn equitoxic mixture to estimate lethal CBRs and mixture toxicity. To evaluate the CBR developed for Zn, earthworms were also exposed to Zn-contaminated field soils receiving three different remediation treatments. Earthworm metal concentrations were measured using a procedure devised to isolate toxicologically active metal burdens via separation into cytosolic and pellet fractions. (orig.)

  11. [Use of the critical incident technique in the development of a measurement tool for satisfaction in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourin, C; Daucourt, V; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2001-06-01

    Health care centers will have to set up a regular survey of their patients' satisfaction, in addition to the discharge questionnaire. Few instruments for measuring satisfaction are at present available. A working group associating 10 psychiatric hospitals in Aquitaine conducted a study on the specificity of this measure in psychiatry. To record the patient's perception on the stay in order to identify areas of satisfaction and dissatisfaction as perceived and reported by himself, using a qualitative approach. The critical incident technique was used in 3 volunteer hospitals, in patients hospitalised in psychiatric wards selected by their doctor. Interview using a semi-structured questionnaire were conducted by an investigator external to the departments. Data were analysed in a qualitative way. 32 interviews could be analysed, and 215 events were extracted. These events were classified in 12 themes. The events identified from these interviews have allowed identification of new areas of patient satisfaction, which could be used to build additional items centered on patients' preoccupations.

  12. Organization aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Mehandjiev, N.; Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the BOAT framework discussed in Chapter 1, this chapter describes the organization aspect of the CrossWork approach. It shows how the business requirements identified in the previous chapter can be fulfilled by dynamic organization structures and business processes in Networks of

  13. On the Measure and Mismeasure of Narcissism: A Response to "Measures of Narcissism and Their Relations to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C

    2016-02-01

    Narcissism continues to suffer from a lack of consensual definition. Variability in the definition is reflected in the growing multitude of measures with oftentimes diverging nomological nets. Although the themes of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability appear to have achieved reasonable agreement on their central importance, the lower order structure of each is not well understood and debates remain about how (and whether) they can be integrated into a coherent whole. However, it is clear that a narrow focus on higher order grandiosity without consideration of concomitant vulnerability neglects clinically important features of narcissism. Occasioned by the potential for a new personality disorder model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition, several colleagues and I demonstrated that pathological narcissism, as measured by the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, could not be adequately summarized by the lower order traits of Grandiosity and Attention Seeking, and argued that this should be reflected in the diagnostic manual in some form. Miller, Lynam, and Campbell then subjected these same data to critical reanalysis and interpretation. I respond here to several points raised by Miller and colleagues. In so doing, I highlight areas of agreement, disagreement, and suggest directions for future research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. A NPO project for measurement of environmental neutrons in the peninsula Shimokita after the JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratani, Michi

    2001-01-01

    . He has already successfully detected various radioactive nuclides activated by environmental neutrons of natural level using extremely low background gamma ray spectrometers located in the Ogoya Underground Laboratory. At the JCO accident, he applied his method to samples irradiated in the jewelry boxes, chests, and kitchens in the houses near the accident point by the accidental neutrons. Golden jewelries were borrowed for measurement by the low background gamma ray spectrometers in Ogoya, and the neutron flux at the criticality was obtained. The members of SAS and EGG as audiences of the IES Seminar were deeply impressed with the lecture, especially, simplicity of the method, and they were eager for measurement of natural neutron level in their own environment, Penin. Shimokita. Soon afterwards they visited Ogoya and asked Prof. Komura to help them measure their environmental neutron flux. They applied to the Fund of Aomori Prefecture, Blue Woods Fund, and won 3,000,000 yen during coming 3 years for their theme containing environmental neutron measurement. Discussion: The news of their winning of Blue Woods Fund, Aomori Prefecture, for their theme of environmental neutron measurement seems us to be a bolt out of the blue at preset stage of scientific culture of our country, because it might suggest a beginning of science of the people, science by the people, and science for the people. The situation may suggest a maturity of scientific culture in this region over arguments pro and con regarding the policy for nuclear energy development in the Penin. Shimokita. The global environment may be thought to have attained to a saturation condition. Our society is full of goods. Science and technology for production of goods have been already past culture. Coming science should be science for pleasure and refreshment of human mind as well as various arts, for example, music, picture, sculpture, drama, and literature. (author)

  15. Transport measurements in superconductors: critical current of granular high TC ceramic superconductor samples; Medidas de transporte em supercondutores: corrente critica de supercondutores granulares de alta temperatura critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, W.A.C., E-mail: wagner.passos@univasf.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (IPCM/UNIVASF), Juazeiro do Norte, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas em Ciencia dos Materiais; Silva, E.B. [Companhia Energetica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work presents a method to obtain critical current of granular superconductors. We have carried out transport measurements (ρxT curves and VxI curves) in a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} sample to determine critical current density of it. Some specimens reveal a 'semiconductor-like' behavior (electrical resistivity decreases with increasing temperatures above critical temperature T{sub c} of material) competing with superconductor behavior. Due to high granular fraction of the sample, these competition is clearly noted in ρxT curves. Measurements carried out from 0 to 8500 Oe of applied field show the same behavior, and the critical current density of the samples is shown. (author)

  16. Advanced electrical current measurements of microdischarges: evidence of sub-critical pulses and ion currents in barrier discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Petr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Kudrle, Vít; Hoder, Tomáš

    2018-04-01

    Electrical current measurements in corona or barrier microdischarges are a challenge as they require both high temporal resolution and a large dynamic range of the current probe used. In this article, we apply a simple self-assembled current probe and compare it to commercial ones. An analysis in the time and frequency domain is carried out. Moreover, an improved methodology is presented, enabling both temporal resolution in sub-nanosecond times and current sensitivity in the order of tens of micro-amperes. Combining this methodology with a high-tech oscilloscope and self-developed software, a unique statistical analysis of currents in volume barrier discharge driven in atmospheric-pressure air is made for over 80 consecutive periods of a 15 kHz applied voltage. We reveal the presence of repetitive sub-critical current pulses and conclude that these can be identified with the discharging of surface charge microdomains. Moreover, extremely low, long-lasting microsecond currents were detected which are caused by ion flow, and are analysed in detail. The statistical behaviour presented gives deeper insight into the discharge physics of these usually undetectable current signals.

  17. Measuring the critical current in superconducting samples made of NT-50 under pulse irradiation by high-energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, P.G.; Vladimirova, N.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Goncharov, I.N.; Zajtsev, L.N.; Zel'dich, B.D.; Ivanov, V.I.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Khvostov, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of tests of superconducting samples of an uninsulated wire of the 0.5 mm diameter, containing 1045 superconducting filaments of the 10 μm diameter made of NT-50 superconductor in a copper matrix, are given. The upper part of the sample (''closed'') is placed between two glass-cloth-base laminate plates of the 50 mm length, and the lower part (''open'') of the 45 mm length is immerged into liquid helium. The sample is located perpendicular to the magnetic field of a superconducting solenoid and it is irradiated by charged particle beams at the energy of several GeV. The measurement results of permissible energy release in the sample depending on subcriticality (I/Isub(c) where I is an operating current through the sample, and Isub(c) is a critical current for lack of the beam) and the particle flux density, as well as of the maximum permissible fluence depending on subcriticality. In case of the ''closed'' sample irradiated by short pulses (approximately 1 ms) for I/Isub(c) [ru

  18. Transport critical current measurement apparatus using liquid nitrogen cooled high-T(c) superconducting magnet with variable temperature insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, G; Kitaguchi, H; Tshuchiya, Y; Nishimura, T; Kato, T

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an apparatus to investigate transport critical current (I(c)) as a function of magnetic field and temperature using only liquid nitrogen. The apparatus consists of a (Bi,Pb)(2)Sr(2)Ca(2)Cu(3)O(10) (Bi-2223) superconducting magnet, an outer dewar, and a variable temperature insert (VTI). The magnet, which is operated in depressurized liquid nitrogen, generates magnetic field up to 1.26 T. The sample is also immersed in liquid nitrogen. The pressure in the VTI is controlled from 0.02 to 0.3 MPa, which corresponds to temperature ranging from 66 to 88 K. We have confirmed the long-term stable operation of the Bi-2223 magnet at 1 T. The temperature stability of the sample at high transport current was also demonstrated. The apparatus provides easy-operating I(c) measurement environment for a high-T(c) superconductor up to 500 A in magnetic fields up to 1 T and in temperatures ranging from 66 to 88 K.

  19. Numerical investigations on contactless methods for measuring critical current density in HTS: application of modified constitutive-relation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Itoh, T.; Ikuno, S.

    2011-01-01

    A fast method is proposed for calculating the shielding current density in an HTS. The J-E constitutive relation is modified so as not to change the solution. A numerical code is developed on the basis of the proposed method. The permanent magnet method is successfully simulated by means of the code. A fast method has been proposed for calculating the shielding current density in a high-temperature superconducting thin film. An initial-boundary-value problem of the shielding current density cannot be always solved by means of the Runge-Kutta method even when an adaptive step-size control algorithm is incorporated to the method. In order to suppress an overflow in the algorithm, the J-E constitutive relation is modified so that its solution may satisfy the original constitutive relation. A numerical code for analyzing the shielding current density has been developed on the basis of this method and, as an application of the code, the permanent magnet method for measuring the critical current density has been investigated numerically.

  20. Critical evaluation of measured rotational-vibrational transitions of four sulphur isotopologues of S16O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, Roland; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Kumar, Praveen; Poirier, Bill

    2018-03-01

    A critical evaluation and validation of the complete set of previously published experimental rotational-vibrational line positions is reported for the four stable sulphur isotopologues of the semirigid SO2 molecule - i.e., 32S16O2, 33S16O2, 34S16O2, and 36S16O2. The experimentally measured, assigned, and labeled transitions are collated from 43 sources. The 32S16O2, 33S16O2, 34S16O2, and 36S16O2 datasets contain 40,269, 15,628, 31,080, and 31 lines, respectively. Of the datasets collated, only the extremely limited 36S16O2 dataset is not subjected to a detailed analysis. As part of a detailed analysis of the experimental spectroscopic networks corresponding to the ground electronic states of the 32S16O2, 33S16O2, and 34S16O2 isotopologues, the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) procedure is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels. The rovibrational levels and their vibrational parent and asymmetric-top quantum numbers are compared to ones obtained from accurate variational nuclear-motion computations as well as to results of carefully designed effective Hamiltonian models. The rovibrational energy levels of the three isotopologues having the same labels are also compared against each other to ensure self-consistency. This careful, multifaceted analysis gives rise to 15,130, 5852, and 10,893 validated rovibrational energy levels, with a typical accuracy of a few 0.0001 cm-1 , for 32S16O2, 33S16O2, and 34S16O2, respectively. The extensive list of validated experimental lines and empirical (MARVEL) energy levels of the S16O2 isotopologues studied are deposited in the Supplementary Material of this article, as well as in the distributed information system ReSpecTh (http://respecth.hu).

  1. Do scores on three commonly used measures of critical thinking correlate with academic success of health professions trainees? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David; Loeffler, Kim; Schipper, Shirley; Vandermeer, Ben; Allan, G Michael

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether the three commonly used measures of critical thinking correlate with academic success of medical professionals in training. The search for English-language articles (from 1980 to 2011) used Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library on Ovid, Proquest Dissertations, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, PsychINFO, and references of included articles. Studies comparing critical thinking with academic success among medical professionals were included. Two authors performed study selection independently, with disagreement resolved by consensus. Two authors independently abstracted data on study characteristics, quality, and outcomes, with disagreement resolved by a third author. Critical thinking tests studied were the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI), and Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. Correlation coefficients were pooled in meta-analysis. The search identified 557 studies: 52 met inclusion for systematic review, 41 of which were meta-analyzed. Critical thinking was positively correlated with academic success, r=0.31 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.26, 0.35), with a moderate statistical heterogeneity (I=67%). In subgroup analysis, only student type had statistical significance for correlation, although bias was likely due to low numbers for some student types. In direct comparison, using studies that employed two critical thinking tests, the CCTDI (r=0.23, 95% CI 0.15, 0.30) was significantly inferior (PCritical thinking was moderately correlated with academic success of medical professionals in training. The CCTDI was inferior to the CCTST in correlating with academic success.

  2. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  3. Proceedings of the first annual Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    This document represents the published proceedings of the first annual Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Project (NCSTP) Workshop, which took place May 12--14, 1992, in Gaithersburg, Md. The conference consisted of four sessions, each dealing with a specific aspect of nuclear criticality safety issues. The session titles were ''Criticality Code Development, Usage, and Validation,'' ''Experimental Needs, Facilities, and Measurements,'' ''Regulation, Compliance, and Their Effects on Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety,'' and ''The Nuclear Criticality Community Response to the USDOE Regulations and Compliance Directives.'' The conference also sponsored a Working Group session, a report of the NCSTP Working Group is also presented. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  4. Observability in electric power networks: identification critical measures methods; Observabilidade em redes de energia eletrica: metodos de identificacao de medidas criticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London Junior, Joao Bosco Augusto

    1997-07-01

    One of the most important functions of the control and operation centers is to maintain service reliability in a electrical power system. In order to obtain a reliable operation of the power system, it is important to identify the critical measurements, and then to improve the measurement system using pseudo measurements. The goal of this work is to determine more efficient methods for critical measurement identification. A brief review of the some methods for observability analysis as well as two methodologies to identify critical measurements are presented. The first method has a combinatorial nature; the second one is supported by uni modular M matrix (incidence matrix of measurements for branches) and A matrix (incidence matrix of branch for nodes). The second method needs a combinatorial algorithm to be feasible, so that it becomes a slow method. Two new methods for critical measurements identification are presented in this work: the first one is based on the theory developed by Bretas (1996a), to analyse observability using graph paths; the second methods is supported y the Slutsker and Scudder (1987) theory, where identification is reached throughout the analysis of the jacobian matrix. (author)

  5. Safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.U.

    1997-01-01

    It is assumed that in an accelerator-driven system (ADS) the same type of accidents can be envisaged as in critical reactors. After briefly describing the basic safety features of ADS, the first investigations of the behaviour of an accelerator driven fast oxide reactor during an unprotected loss-of-flow accident and the investigation of reactivity accidents in a large sodium-cooled ADS are presented

  6. Measurement of the angular correlation coefficient a between electron and antineutrino in neutron β-decay with the spectrometer aSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonobe, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Neutron β-decay is parametrized by several measurable correlation coefficients which are used to determine parameters of the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The aim of the retardation spectrometer aSPECT is to measure the electron-antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a with an unprecedented accuracy of well below 1%. The coefficient is extracted from a high precision measurement of the proton energy spectrum. A central point of this PhD thesis is the analysis of the background, motivated by the observations of discharges during the beam time of 2011, and an earlier indication for a dependence on the retardation potential. During this thesis, several measurements were conducted off-line, without ionizing particles from neutron decay. An 'internal' background (X-rays and ions) was identified. It has an influence of 10 -5 to 10 -4 on Δa/a depending on the vacuum level (∼10 -9 mbar) and the spectrometer settings. Within the analysis of the data from the beam time in 2013, a model was built to correct for backgrounds present in neutron decay experiment, taking into account its time dependence. The correction is about 3% on the coefficient for standard settings and vacuum but it can reach 7% for unfavorable settings. To reduce the background, a drift electric field was applied close to the maximum of the retardation potential. Additional measurements performed during this beam time included tests of systematics, in particular the edge effect (beam profile) and different electrode settings. In order to obtain the final result, the analysis has to be extended by including the different corrections and by comparing with simulations of the systematic effects. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the influence exerted by different dental specialty backgrounds and measuring instrument reproducibility on esthetic aspects of maxillary implant-supported single crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Samriddhi; Ho, Yu Lau Elaine; Hao, Jie; Lang, Niklaus P; Mattheos, Nikos

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the influence exerted by different dental specialty backgrounds as well as the validity and reproducibility of the Pink Esthetic Score/White Esthetic Score (PES/WES) and the modified Implant Crown Aesthetic Index (mod-ICAI) on the assessment of esthetic aspects of maxillary implants supported single-tooth prosthesis. A total of fourteen examiners (Two orthodontists, two prosthodontists, two oral surgeons, two periodontists, two dental technicians, two dental assistants, and two postgraduate students in Implant Dentistry evaluated 20 photographs of single-implant-supported crowns and five photographs of unrestored teeth of esthetic zone in a two part study. The examiners assessed the photographs with each index (Pink Esthetic Score/White Esthetic Score and modified Implant Crown Aesthetic Index), twice with a week's interval. Orders of photographs were rearranged in the second assessment. Kruskal-Wallis test results showed significant differences among all the six specialties (P ≤ 0.001). DAs and periodontists had significantly better ratings than other specialties with both indices. Prosthodontists had the lowest mean rank scores regardless of the index. Interobserver agreement was also lowest between the two prosthodontists (4-28%), rest of the groups had low-to-moderate agreement (20-80%) when limited allowance was accepted. With mod-ICAI, more interobserver agreement was noted within the specialty group than with PES/WES. The PES/WES and the modified ICAI can be reliable estimates of esthetic outcomes. The assessor degree of specialization affected the esthetic evaluation with both the PES/WES and the modified ICAI. DAs and periodontists were identified to provide more favorable ratings than other specialties while prosthodontists were most critical in this study. With modified ICAI, more interobserver agreement within specialty resulted. The interexaminer agreement may be increased if more tolerance of 1-2 points is considered. © 2014 John Wiley

  8. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  9. Measurements of {sup 60}Co in spoons activated by neutrons during the JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura in 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, J.; Hult, M. E-mail: mikael.hult@irmm.jrc.be; Komura, K.; Arnold, D.; Holmes, L.; Johnston, P.N.; Laubenstein, M.; Neumaier, S.; Reyss, J.-L.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Tagziria, H.; Van Britsom, G.; Vasselli, R

    2004-07-01

    Neutron activated items from the vicinity of the place where the JCO criticality accident occurred have been used to determine the fluence of neutrons around the facility and in nearby residential areas. By using underground laboratories for measuring the activation products, it is possible to extend the study to also cover radionuclides with very low activities from long-lived radionuclides. The present study describes {gamma}-ray spectrometry measurements undertaken in a range of underground laboratories for the purpose of measuring {sup 60}Co more than 2 years after the criticality event. The measurements show that neutron fluence determined from {sup 60}Co activity is in agreement with previous measurements using the short-lived radionuclides {sup 51}Cr and {sup 59}Fe. Limits on contamination of the samples with {sup 60}Co are evaluated and shown to not greatly affect the utility of neutron fluence determinations using {sup 60}Co activation.

  10. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  12. Measurements of the parametric decay of CO2 laser radiation into plasma waves at quarter critical density using ruby laser Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuss, J.J.; Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.

    1977-11-01

    We report the results of small-angle ruby laser Thomson scattering measurements of the parametric excitation of plasma waves by CO 2 laser radiation at quarter-critical density in a laser-heated gas target plasma. From supplementary data obtained from interferometry and large-angle ruby laser scattering we infer that the threshold conditions for a convective decay are satisfied

  13. The relationship between students critical thinking measured by science virtual test and students logical thinking on eighth grade secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurismawati, R.; Sanjaya, Y.; Rusyati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between students’ critical thinking skill and students’ logical thinking skill of Junior High School students in Tasikmalaya city. The respondent consists of 168 students from eighth grade at three public schools in Tasikmalaya City. Science Virtual Test and Test of Logical Thinking were used in this research study. Science virtual test instrument consist of 26 questions with 5 different topics. IBM SPSS 23.00 program was used for analysis of the data. By the findings; students’ critical thinking skill has significant differences in elements of generating purpose, embodying point of view, utilizing concept and making implication and consequence. By Post Hoc LSD Test, from those four elements, there are significant differences between concrete - transitional groups and transitional – concrete groups. There is positive and weak correlation between students’ critical thinking and students’ logical thinking attainment.

  14. Experiment to measure the effects of biaxial strain on the critical current of NbTi superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Twisted multifilament, copper-clad NbTi superconductors have been axially and biaxially strained at 4.2K with a 7.5T background field. A simply-constructed cryogenic loading frame was built and used to strain the conductor. Results on 1.27 mm x 3.13 mm conductor have shown that degradation of less than .3 percent of critical current occurred when the wire was biaxially strained to +3260 μepsilon in the axial direction and -1875 μepsilon in the transverse direction. Degradation approaches 3 percent of critical current at approximately 6000 μepsilon in the axial direction only

  15. High-sucrose diets in male rats disrupt aspects of decision making tasks, motivation and spatial memory, but not impulsivity measured by operant delay-discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alanna; Dogra, Vimi R; Reichelt, Amy C

    2017-06-01

    Excessive consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is proposed to produce functional changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, leading to perturbations in behavioural control. Impairments in behavioural control have been observed in obese people on tasks that involve making choices, including delay-discounting, indicative of increased impulsivity. In this study we examined the impact of 2h daily access to 10% sucrose (or no sucrose in controls) in young male rats on behavioural tasks reliant on hippocampal function including delay-discounting, T-maze forced choice alternation and place recognition memory, as well as progressive ratio to measure motivation. We observed deficits in place recognition memory and T-maze forced choice alternation, indicative of hippocampal deficits in rats with a history of sucrose consumption. Moreover, rats with a history of sucrose consumption were less motivated to lever press for rewards on a progressive ratio schedule. However, rats with a history of sucrose consumption performed equally to control animals during the delay-discounting task, suggesting that they discounted for reward size over a delay in a manner comparable to control animals. These findings indicate that high-sucrose diets impact on spatial and working memory processes, but do not induce impulsive-like choice behaviours in rats, suggesting that unhealthy diet choices may not influence this aspect of decision-making behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mindfulness as an Alternative for Supporting University Student Mental Health: Cognitive-Emotional and Depressive Self-Criticism Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad Abid; Mongrain, Myriam; Vora, Khushboo; Pirbaglou, Meysam; Azargive, Saam; Changoor, Tina; Wayne, Noah; Guglietti, Crissa; Macpherson, Alison; Irvine, Jane; Rotondi, Michael; Smith, Dawn; Perez, Daniel; Ritvo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Increases in university-based mental health problems require alternative mental health programs, applicable to students with elevated psychological risks due to personality traits. This study examined the cognitive-emotional outcomes of a university mindfulness meditation (MM) program and their relationship with Self-Criticism (SC), a personality…

  17. The relationship among critical thinking skill measured by science virtual test, gender, andmotivation in 9th grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandi, R. A. U. I.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship among critical thinking skill, gender and motivation in 9th grade students of Junior High School in Kuningan. This descriptive study used purposive sampling that comprised 110 ninth grade students taken from three junior high school that has good computer literacy and use 2013 curriculum. The data were obtained through Science Virtual Test on living things and environmental sustainability theme, respondent identity, and science motivation questionnaire (SMQ). Female students scored highest on generating purpose skill (M = 73.81), while male students performed better on generating implication and consequences skill (M = 78.01) where both groups differed significantly (p = 0.011). Students scored highest on generating purpose skill for high and moderate motivation group, while for the lowest score, moderate and low motivation group performed it on making assumption skill. Additionally, some critical thinking elements differed significantly by motivation to learn science. Despite, there was no correlation between students’ critical thinking and motivation (r = 0.155, p > 0.05). The finding indicated that students’ critical thinking is not differed by gender and not affected by motivation to learn science.

  18. Study of critical current density from ac susceptibility measurements in (La1-xYx)2Ba2CaCu5O2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, P.K.; Ravi, S. . sravi@iitg.ernet.in

    2008-01-01

    We have prepared a series of compounds (La 1-x Y x ) 2 Ba 2 CaCu 5 O 2 for x = 0 to 0.5 by adding a CaCuO 2 layer to the parent compound La 2 Ba 2 Cu 4 O 2 and by doping Y in place of La. These materials are also prepared by adding 5 wt% of Ag to enhance the intergranular coupling and critical current density. X-ray diffraction measurements show that all the samples are essentially in single phase form and the patterns could be refined using P4/mmm space group in tetragonal cell. The typical lattice parameters are found to be a = b 3.856 A, c = 11.576 A for x = 0.5 sample. Temperature variations of dc electrical resistivity measured on the above samples show that they exhibit superconductivity with T c ranging from 60 to 75 K. Temperature and ac field amplitude variation of ac susceptibility have been measured on the above samples. The field variation of ac susceptibility data has been analyzed by using Bean critical state model. Using both temperature and field variations of ac susceptibility data, the material dependent parameters, such as critical current density as a function of temperature and effective volume fraction grains have been estimated. The Ag doped samples show relatively large critical current density compared to pure samples due to improved intergranular coupling. (author)

  19. Measurements of convective heat transfer to vertical upward flows of CO{sub 2} in circular tubes at near-critical and supercritical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahlan, H., E-mail: hussamzahlan@gmail.com [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Groeneveld, D. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tavoularis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We present and discuss results of thermal–hydraulic measurements in CO{sub 2} for the near critical and supercritical pressure region. • We report the full heat transfer and pressure drop database. - Abstract: An extensive experimental program of heat transfer measurements has been completed recently at the University of Ottawa's supercritical pressure test facility (SCUOL). Thermal–hydraulics tests were performed for vertical upflow of carbon dioxide in directly heated tubes with inner diameters of 8 and 22 mm, at high subcritical, near-critical and supercritical pressures. The test conditions, when converted to water-equivalent values, correspond to conditions of interest to current Super-Critical Water-Cooled Reactor designs, and include many measurements under conditions for which few data are available in the literature. These data significantly complement the existing experimental database and are being used for the derivation and validation of a new heat transfer prediction method in progress at the University of Ottawa. The same data are also suitable for the assessment of the accuracy of other heat transfer prediction methods and fluid-to-fluid scaling laws for near-critical and supercritical pressures. In addition, they permit further examination of previously suggested relationships describing the critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer coefficient at high subcritical pressures and the boundaries of the deteriorated/enhanced heat transfer regions for near-critical and supercritical pressures. The measurements reported in this paper cover several subcritical heat transfer modes, including single phase liquid heat transfer, nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, post-dryout heat transfer and superheated vapor heat transfer; they also cover several supercritical heat transfer modes, including heat transfer to liquid-like supercritical fluid and heat transfer to vapor-like supercritical fluid, which occurred in the

  20. Revue des aspects hydrodynamiques des réacteurs catalytiques gaz-liquide-solide à lit fixe arrosé Hydrodynamics of Gas-Liquid-Solid Trickle-Bed Reactors: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attou A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bien que les aspects hydrodynamiques soient d'une importance primordiale lors de la conception et du fonctionnement d'un réacteur gaz-liquide-solide à lit fixe arrosé, les méthodes de calcul prédictif proposées sont restées fort rudimentaires. La plupart des études portant sur ce sujet ont été menées dans des conditions quasi atmosphériques alors que les réacteurs industriels fonctionnent à des pressions élevées. C'est seulement récemment que quelques résultats expérimentaux ont été obtenus à des hautes pressions, et des corrélations ont été proposées dans ces conditions pour prédire la transition entre les régimes ruisselant et pulsé, la perte de pression et le taux de rétention de liquide. L'objectif de cet article est double. D'une part, une synthèse y est présentée ; elle fait état des connaissances acquises sur les divers aspects hydrodynamiques du réacteur triphasique à lit fixe, incluant les récents développements réalisés à hautes pressions. D'autre part, les modèles et les corrélations actuels de transitions de régimes, de la perte de pression et du taux de rétention de liquide sont soumis à une analyse critique en confrontant leurs prédictions à l'ensemble des données expérimentales obtenues pour un large intervalle de la pression de fonctionnement du réacteur. Des conclusions objectives ont pu être tirées concernant les aptitudes des corrélations et des modèles actuels à être utilisées pour les calculs de conception des réacteurs triphasiques à lit fixe industriels. Malheureusement, il apparaît qu'aucun modèle de transitions entre les régimes ruisselant et pulsé n'est satisfaisant. Seule la corrélation empirique de Larachi et al. (1993 s'avère être jusqu'à présent la méthode la plus précise pour prédire la position de la frontière entre les régimes ruisselant et pulsé dans un large domaine de la pression de fonctionnement. Par ailleurs, aucune corr

  1. Metacognitive Aspects of Executive Function Are Highly Associated with Social Functioning on Parent-Rated Measures in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonje Torske

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is characterized by social dysfunction. Even though executive dysfunction has been recognized as important in understanding ASD, the findings are inconsistent. This might be due to different definitions of executive function (EF, which part of EF that has been studied, structured vs. unstructured tasks, inclusion of different moderators (age, IQ, sex and different diagnostic categories within the spectrum. The main finding is that people with ASD have more EF difficulties than normal controls and more difficulties on open-end tasks than on structured cognitive tasks. Since some EF difficulties may not be observable in a laboratory setting, informant measures might have higher ecological validity than neuropsychological tests. Evidence suggests that executive dysfunctions are associated with social impairments, but few studies have investigated the details of this relationship, and it remains unclear what types of EF deficits are relevant for the social problems of individuals with ASD. Here we investigated which EF domains were associated with various domains of social function on parent-rated measures. A total of 86 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ASD were included and tested for general cognitive abilities. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations between SRS scores and age, sex, total IQ and the BRIEF indexes. The Metacognition Index from the BRIEF added significantly to the prediction of the SRS total score and the subscales Social Communication, Social Motivation and Autistic Mannerisms. The findings suggest that metacognitive aspects of EF are of particular importance for social abilities in children and adolescents with ASD. Earlier research has shown that typically developing (TD children have a different relationship between EF and social function than

  2. Pulsed critical current measurements of NbTi in perpendicular and parallel pulsed magnetic fields using the new Cryo-BI-Pulse System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehr, V; Tan, K S; Hopkins, S C; Glowacki, B A; Keyser, A De; Bockstal, L Van; Deschagt, J

    2006-01-01

    Rapid transport current versus high magnetic field characterisation of high-irreversibility type II superconductors is important to maximise their critical parameters. HTS conductors are already used to produce insert coils that increase the fields of conventional magnets made from NbTi (Nb, Ta) 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al wires. There is fundamental interest in the study of HTS tapes and wires in magnetic fields higher than 21T, the current limit of superconducting magnets producing a DC field. Such fields can be obtained by using pulse techniques. High critical currents cannot be routinely measured with a continuous current applied at liquid helium, hydrogen or neon temperatures because of thermal and mechanical effects. A newly developed pulsed magnetic field and pulsed current system which allows rapid J c (B, T) measurements of the whole range of superconducting materials was tested with a multifilamentary NbTi wire in perpendicular and parallel orientations

  3. Development of a three dimensional homogeneous calculation model for the BFS-62 critical experiment. Preparation of adjusted equivalent measured values for sodium void reactivity values. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manturov, G.; Semenov, M.; Seregin, A.; Lykova, L.

    2004-01-01

    The BFS-62 critical experiments are currently used as 'benchmark' for verification of IPPE codes and nuclear data, which have been used in the study of loading a significant amount of Pu in fast reactors. The BFS-62 experiments have been performed at BFS-2 critical facility of IPPE (Obninsk). The experimental program has been arranged in such a way that the effect of replacement of uranium dioxied blanket by the steel reflector as well as the effect of replacing UOX by MOX on the main characteristics of the reactor model was studied. Wide experimental program, including measurements of the criticality-keff, spectral indices, radial and axial fission rate distributions, control rod mock-up worth, sodium void reactivity effect SVRE and some other important nuclear physics parameters, was fulfilled in the core. Series of 4 BFS-62 critical assemblies have been designed for studying the changes in BN-600 reactor physics from existing state to hybrid core. All the assemblies are modeling the reactor state prior to refueling, i.e. with all control rod mock-ups withdrawn from the core. The following items are chosen for the analysis in this report: Description of the critical assembly BFS-62-3A as the 3rd assembly in a series of 4 BFS critical assemblies studying BN-600 reactor with MOX-UOX hybrid zone and steel reflector; Development of a 3D homogeneous calculation model for the BFS-62-3A critical experiment as the mock-up of BN-600 reactor with hybrid zone and steel reflector; Evaluation of measured nuclear physics parameters keff and SVRE (sodium void reactivity effect); Preparation of adjusted equivalent measured values for keff and SVRE. Main series of calculations are performed using 3D HEX-Z diffusion code TRIGEX in 26 groups, with the ABBN-93 cross-section set. In addition, precise calculations are made, in 299 groups and Ps-approximation in scattering, by Monte-Carlo code MMKKENO and discrete ordinate code TWODANT. All calculations are based on the common system

  4. Muon performance aspects and measurement of the inclusive ZZ production cross section through the four lepton final state with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The ''Large Hadron Collider'' (LHC) is currently the most powerful particle accelerator. It provides particle collisions at a center of mass energy in the Tera-electronvolt range, which had never been reached in a laboratory before. Thereby a new era in high energy particle physics has began. Now it is possible to test one of the most precise theories in physics, the Standard Model of particle physics, at these high energies. The purpose is particularly served by four large experiments installed at the LHC, namely ''A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS'' (ATLAS), the ''Compact-Muon-Solenoid'' (CMS), the ''Large Hadron Collider beauty'' (LHCb) and ''A Large Ion Collider Experiment'' (ALICE). Besides exploring the high energy behavior of the well-established portions of the Standard Model, one of the main objectives is to find the Higgs boson included in the model, but not discovered by any preceding effort. It is of tremendous importance since fermions and heavy electroweak gauge bosons acquire mass because of this boson. Although the success of the Standard Model in describing nature is already undisputed, there are some flaws due to observations inexplicable within this theory only. Therefore searches for physics beyond the Standard Model are promoted at the LHC experiments as well. In order to achieve the defined goals, crucial aspects are firstly precise measurements, to verify Standard Model predictions in detail, and secondly an evaluation of as much information as accessible by the detectors, to recognize new phenomena as soon as possible for subsequent optimizations. Both challenges are only possible with a superior understanding of the detectors. An inevitable contribution to attain this knowledge is a realistic simulation, partially requiring new implementation techniques to describe the very complex instrumentation. The research presented here is performed under the patronage of the ATLAS collaboration with a special focus on measurements done with muon spectrometer

  5. Highly precise (liquid + liquid) equilibrium and heat capacity measurements near the critical point for [Bmim][BF4] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G.; Troncoso, J.; Losada-Pérez, P.; Méndez-Castro, P.; Romaní, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly precise liquid–liquid curves for [Bmim][BF 4 ] + perfluoroctanol are reported. • Critical behavior of heat capacity for the same system was also characterized. • In contrast to previous results, no coulombic/solvophobic crossover for coexistence curve diameter was found. • The system criticality shows characteristics both solvophobic and coulombic. -- Abstract: Liquid + liquid equilibrium of the system [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol using a highly precise methodology based on refractive index measurements was experimentally determined. In addition, isobaric heat capacity near the critical point was obtained. The performance of the new refractive index set-up was successfully checked against the coexistence curve of the system dimethyl carbonate + decane, since highly accurate data are available in the literature. The choice of [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol was motivated by a previous experimental work, whose results suggest that this system could present characteristics of both solvophobic and coulombic behavior, which are the two categories to which an ionic system can belong. Although this was previously observed for other ionic systems, this mixture presented a very striking feature: the diameter of the coexistence curve seemed to change its criticality in the studied temperature range, from solvophobic far away to coulombic close to the critical point. The results of this work reveal that, in fact, [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol presents characteristics of both solvophobic and coulombic criticality, but no evidence of the observed crossover over the experimental temperature range has been found

  6. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  7. Measuring the coefficient of restitution and more: a simple experiment to promote students’ critical thinking and autonomous work

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Manuel Á.; González, Miguel Á.; Vegas, Jesús; Llamas, César

    2017-09-01

    A simple experiment on the determination of the coefficient of restitution of different materials is taken as the basis of an extendable work that can be done by students in an autonomous way. On the whole, the work described in this paper would involve concepts of kinematics, materials science, air drag and buoyancy, and would help students to think of physics as a whole subject instead of a set of, more or less, isolated parts. The experiment can be done either in teaching laboratories or as an autonomous work by students at home. Students’ smartphones and cheap balls of different materials are the only experimental materials required to do the experiment. The proposed work also permits the students to analyse the limitations of a physical model used in the experiment by analysing the approximations considered in it, and then enhancing their critical thinking.

  8. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ... to critically examining the gender-specific aspects of ICT use and its impact on development in ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  9. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  10. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  11. In-pile critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer measurements – A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com

    2017-06-15

    In the 1960s’ and 1970s’ Canada was a world leader in performing in-reactor heat transfer experiments on fuel bundles instrumented with miniature sheath thermocouples. Several Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and Post-CHF experiments were performed in Chalk River’s NRU and NRX reactors on water-cooled 3-, 18-, 19-, 21-, and 36-element fuel bundles. Most experiments were obtained at steady-state conditions, where the power was raised gradually from single-phase conditions up to the CHF and beyond. Occasionally, post-dryout temperatures up to 600 °C were maintained for several hours. In some tests, the fuel behaviour during loss-of-flow and blowdown transients was investigated – during these transients sheath temperatures could exceed 2000 °C. Because of the increasingly more stringent licensing requirements for in-pile heat transfer tests on instrumented fuel bundles, no in-pile CHF and post-dryout tests on fuel bundles have been performed anywhere in the world for the past 40 years. This paper provides details of these unique in-pile experiments and describes some of their heat transfer results.

  12. "Measuring Operational Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library (IIL) and the Impact of Critical Facilities Inclusion in the Process."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) professionals use the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) process to better manage their business operations, measure performance, improve reliability and lower costs. This study examined the operational results of those data centers using ITIL against those that do not, and whether the results change…

  13. Critical Evaluation of the Linkage Between Tick-Based Risk Measures and the Occurrence of Lyme Disease Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2018-01-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is considered the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. The abundance of infected host-seeking nymphs is commonly used to estimate the fundamental risk of human exposure to B. burgdorferi, for the purpose of environmental risk assessment and as an outcome measure when evaluating environmentally based tick or pathogen control methods. However, as this tick-based risk measure does not consider the likelihoods of either human encounters with infected ticks or tick bites resulting in pathogen transmission, its linkage to the occurrence of Lyme disease cases is worth evaluating. In this Forum article, we describe different tick-based risk measures, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and review the evidence for their capacity to predict the occurrence of Lyme disease cases. We conclude that: 1) the linkage between abundance of host-seeking B. burgdorferi-infected nymphs and Lyme disease occurrence is strong at community or county scales but weak at the fine spatial scale of residential properties where most human exposures to infected nymphs occur in Northeast, 2) the combined use of risk measures based on infected nymphs collected from the environment and ticks collected from humans is preferable to either one of these risk measures used singly when assessing the efficacy of environmentally based tick or pathogen control methods aiming to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. burgdorferi, 3) there is a need for improved risk assessment methodology for residential properties that accounts for both the abundance of infected nymphs and the likelihood of human–tick contact, and 4) we need to better understand how specific human activities conducted in defined residential microhabitats relate to risk for nymphal exposures and bites. PMID:27330093

  14. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  15. Examining the Relationship of an All-Cause Harm Patient Safety Measure and Critical Performance Measures at the Frontline of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammer, Christine; Hauck, Loran D; Jones, Cason; Zaiback-Aldinger, Julie; Li, Michael; Classen, David

    2018-02-07

    In 2015, the Institute of Medicine Vital Signs report called for a new patient safety composite measure to lessen the reporting burden of patient harm. Before this report, two patient safety organizations had developed an electronic all-cause harm measurement system leveraging data from the electronic health record, which identified and grouped harms into five broad categories and consolidated them into one all-cause harm outcome measure. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between this all-cause harm patient safety measure and the following three performance measures important to overall hospital safety performance: safety culture, employee engagement, and patient experience. We studied the relationship between all-cause harm and three performance measures on eight inpatient care units at one hospital for 7 months. The findings demonstrated strong correlations between an all-cause harm measure and patient safety culture, employee engagement, and patient experience at the hospital unit level. Four safety culture domains showed significant negative correlations with all-cause harm at a P value of 0.05 or less. Six employee engagement domains were significantly negatively correlated with all-cause harm at a P value of 0.01 or less, and six of the ten patient experience measures were significantly correlated with all-cause harm at a P value of 0.05 or less. The results show that there is a strong relationship between all-cause harm and these performance measures indicating that when there is a positive patient safety culture, a more engaged employee, and a more satisfying patient experience, there may be less all-cause harm.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the

  16. Criticality accident in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    1984-01-01

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author) [pt

  17. An improved Peltier effect-based instrument for critical temperature threshold measurement in cold- and heat-induced urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerl, M; Abajian, M; Krause, K; Altrichter, S; Siebenhaar, F; Church, M K

    2015-10-01

    Cold- and heat-induced urticaria are chronic physical urticaria conditions in which wheals, angioedema or both are evoked by skin exposure to cold and heat respectively. The diagnostic work up of both conditions should include skin provocation tests and accurate determination of critical temperature thresholds (CTT) for producing symptoms in order to be able to predict the potential risk that each individual patient faces and how this may be ameliorated by therapy. To develop and validate TempTest(®) 4, a simple and relatively inexpensive instrument for the accurate determination of CTT which may be used in clinical practice. TempTest(®) 4 has a single 2 mm wide 350 mm U-shaped Peltier element generating a temperature gradient from 4 °C to 44 °C along its length. Using a clear plastic guide placed over the skin after provocation, CTT values may be determined with an accuracy of ±1 °C. Here, TempTest(®) 4 was compared with its much more expensive predecessor, TempTest(®) 3, in inducing wheals in 30 cold urticaria patients. Both TempTest(®) 4 and TempTest(®) 3 induced wheals in all 30 patients between 8 ° and 28 °C. There was a highly significant (P < 0.0001) correlation between the instruments in the CTT values in individual patients. The TempTest(®) 4 is a simple, easy to use, licensed, commercially available and affordable instrument for the determination of CTTs in both cold- and heat-induced urticaria. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Transonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.

  19. How Do We Measure Success in Homelessness Services? : Critically Assessing the Rise of the Homelessness Outcomes Star

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Guy; Pleace, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The Homelessness Outcomes Star (HOS) is probably the most widespread form of outcome measurement employed by homelessness service providers. Developed in the UK, the HOS is now being used by homelessness services in other European countries and Australia, while being promoted internationally as a validated set of key performance indicators. This paper examines the ideological framework that underpins the HOS, as well as the theoretical and methodological approaches that inform its operation. ...

  20. Critical appraisal of cerebral blood flow measured from brain stem and cerebellar regions after 133 Xe inhalation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juge, O.; Meyer, J.S.; Sakai, F.; Yamaguchi, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Shaw, T.

    1979-01-01

    Validity of regional blood flow (rCBF) measurements recorded over the human posterior fossa after 133Xe inhalation was tested. Recording of counts from both brain stem and cerebellum (BSC) was reproducible and contamination by counts derived from surrounding anatomical structures was low and no greater than that found over hemispheres. BSC flow values showed significant correlation with the state of awareness as judged by clinical and EEG evaluation