WorldWideScience

Sample records for measure bone lead

  1. Coherent scattering and matrix correction in bone-lead measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of K-shell x-ray fluorescence of lead in bone has been used in many studies of the health effects of lead. This paper addresses one aspect of the technique, namely the coherent conversion factor (CCF) which converts between the matrix of the calibration standards and those of human bone. The CCF is conventionally considered a constant but is a function of scattering angle, energy and the elemental composition of the matrices. The aims of this study were to quantify the effect on the CCF of several assumptions which may not have been tested adequately and to compare the CCFs for plaster of Paris (the present matrix of calibration standards) and a synthetic apatite matrix. The CCF was calculated, using relativistic form factors, for published compositions of bone, both assumed and assessed compositions of plaster, and the synthetic apatite. The main findings of the study were, first, that impurities in plaster, lead in the plaster or bone matrices, coherent scatter from non-bone tissues and the individual subject's measurement geometry are all minor or negligible effects; and, second, that the synthetic apatite matrix is more representative of bone mineral than is plaster of Paris. (author)

  2. In vivo measurements of bone lead content in residents of southern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamblin, C.; Gordon, C.L.; Webber, C.E.; Muir, D.C.F.; Chettle, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    In 111 subjects not occupationally exposed, bone lead content increased steadily with age in both men and women. Higher than expected bone lead levels were observed in two-thirds of 27 subjects working in occupations with potential for lead exposure. Five of 8 patients who displayed symptoms which might have been due to lead poisoning had increased bone lead levels. In vivo bone lead measurements reflect the cumulative extent of exposure to environmental and occupational sources of lead and allow the assessment of abnormal exposures. (Author)

  3. L-shell x-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone: accuracy and precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Andrew C.; Carroll, Spencer; Khan, Fuad A.; Moshier, Erin L.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Tang, Shida; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the accuracy and precision of a method for in vivo measurements of lead in bone using L-shell x-ray fluorescence (LXRF), the former via comparison with independent measurements of lead in bone obtained using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) following acid digestion. Using LXRF, the lead content of adult human cadaver tibiae was measured, both as intact legs and as dissected tibiae with overlying tissue removed, the latter at several proximal-distal locations. After LXRF, each tibia was divided into nine cross-sectional segments, which were further separated into tibia core and surface samples for AAS measurement. The proximal-distal variability of AAS-measured core and surface tibia lead concentrations has been described elsewhere (the lead concentration was found to decrease towards both ends of the tibia). The subjects of this paper are the proximal-distal variability of the LXRF-measured lead concentrations, the measurement uncertainty and the statistical agreement between LXRF and AAS. There was no clear proximal-distal variability in the LXRF-measured concentrations; the degree of variability in actual tibia lead concentrations is far less than the LXRF measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty was dominated by counting statistics and exceeded the estimate of lead concentration in most cases. The agreement between LXRF and AAS was reasonably good for bare bone measurements but poor for intact leg measurements. The variability of the LXRF measurements was large enough, for both bare bone and intact leg measurements, to yield grave concerns about the analytical use of the technique in vivo. (author)

  4. Development of bone-lead reference materials for validating in vivo XRF measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.J.; Zong, Y.Y.; Matthews, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    A number of biological reference materials (RM) have been prepared in our laboratory specifically for validating analytical methods for the determination of Pb in biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, liver, and bone). The RM's were developed using animal (goats and cows) that are routinely dosed with lead acetate to produce proficiency test samples for blood lead (and erythrocyte protoporphyrin). In cases where an animal becomes injured or infirm, the veterinarian in charge may recommend that the animal be euthanized. In such cases, samples of bone, brain, liver, and other tissues containing lead are removed at autopsy. Currently, we have collected bone samples from nine goats and one cow that were dosed with lead over periods ranging from 1 to 10 years. During the autopsy, the epiphyses (bone joints) are separated from each long bone. Skin, muscle, and other adhering tissues are dissected or scraped from each bone. Bone marrow is also removed. All bare bones are currently stored at -70 degrees C until analyses for Pb are conducted

  5. Uncertainty calculations for the measurement of in vivo bone lead by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, J M; Fleming, D E B

    2009-01-01

    In order to quantify the bone lead concentration from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement, typically two estimates of the lead concentration are determined by comparing the normalized x-ray peak amplitudes from the Kα 1 and Kβ 1 features to those of the calibration phantoms. In each case, the normalization consists of taking the ratio of the x-ray peak amplitude to the amplitude of the coherently scattered photon peak in the spectrum. These two Pb concentration estimates are then used to determine the weighted mean lead concentration of that sample. In calculating the uncertainties of these measurements, it is important to include any covariance terms where appropriate. When determining the uncertainty of the lead concentrations from each x-ray peak, the standard approach does not include covariance between the x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered feature. These spectral features originate from two distinct physical processes, and therefore no covariance between these features can exist. Through experimental and simulated data, we confirm that there is no observed covariance between the detected Pb x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered photon signal, as expected. This is in direct contrast to recent work published by Brito (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6125-39). There is, however, covariance introduced in the calculation of the weighted mean lead concentration due to the common coherent normalization. This must be accounted for in calculating the uncertainty of the weighted mean lead concentration, as is currently the case. We propose here an alternative approach to calculating the weighted mean lead concentration in such a way as to eliminate the covariance introduced by the common coherent normalization. It should be emphasized that this alternative approach will only apply in situations in which the calibration line intercept is not included in the calculation of the Pb concentration from the spectral data: when the source of the intercept is well

  6. Dosimetry study for a new in vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) bone lead measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Huiling; Chettle, David; Luo Liqiang; O'Meara, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    A new 109 Cd γ-ray induced bone lead measurement system has been developed to reduce the minimum detectable limit (MDL) of the system. The system consists of four 16 mm diameter detectors. It requires a stronger source compared to the 'conventional' system. A dosimetry study has been performed to estimate the dose delivered by this system. The study was carried out by using human-equivalent phantoms. Three sets of phantoms were made to estimate the dose delivered to three age groups: 5-year old, 10-year old and adults. Three approaches have been applied to evaluate the dose: calculations, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and experiments. Experimental results and analytical calculations were used to validate MC simulation. The experiments were performed by placing Panasonic UD-803AS TLDs at different places in phantoms that representing different organs. Due to the difficulty of obtaining the organ dose and the whole body dose solely by experiments and traditional calculations, the equivalent dose and effective dose were calculated by MC simulations. The result showed that the doses delivered to the organs other than the targeted lower leg are negligibly small. The total effective doses to the three age groups are 8.45/9.37 μSv (female/male), 4.20 μSv, and 0.26 μSv for 5-year old, 10-year old and adult, respectively. An approval to conduct human measurements on this system has been received from the Research Ethics Board based on this research

  7. Feasibility study for the in vivo measurement of lead in bone using L-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Slatkin, D.N.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    Lead deposits in bone were detected by x-ray fluorescence using x-rays from either a 125 I or a 109 Cd source. Measurements were taken from tibia in intact human legs, post-mortem. On the basis of preliminary measurements, it was concluded that an exposure of one rad is adequate for determination of lead in bone. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of L-x-rays, used in the technique developed for this study, are compared with those of K-x-rays

  8. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of bone lead in the study of human lead metabolism: Serum lead, whole blood lead, bone lead, and cumulative exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cake, K.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Webber, C.E.; Gordon, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical studies of lead's effect on health have relied on blood lead levels to indicate lead exposure. However, this is unsatisfactory because blood lead levels have a half-life of approximately 5 weeks, and thus reflect recent exposure. Over 90% of the lead body burden is in bone, and it is thought to have a long residence time, thus implying that measurements of bone lead reflect cumulative exposure. So, measurements of bone lead are useful in understanding the long-term health effects of lead. Ahlgren reported the first noninvasive measurements of bone lead in humans, where γ-rays from 57 Co were used to excite the K series x-rays of lead. The lead detection system at McMaster University uses a 109 Cd source which is positioned at the center of the detector face (HPGe) and a near backscatter (∼160 degrees) geometry. This arrangement allows great flexibility, since one can sample lead in a range of different bone sites due to a robust normalization technique which eliminates the need to correct for bone geometry, thickness of overlying tissue, and other related factors. The effective radiation dose to an adult during an x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement is extremely low, being 35 nSv. This paper addresses the issue of how bone, whole blood, and serum lead concentrations can be related in order to understand a person's lead exposure history

  9. Curve fitting using a genetic algorithm for the X-ray fluorescence measurement of lead in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, L.; McMaster University, Hamilton; Chettle, D.R.; Nie, H.; McNeill, F.E.; Popovic, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the potential application of the genetic algorithm in the analysis of X-ray fluorescence spectra from measurement of lead in bone. Candidate solutions are first designed based on the field knowledge and the whole operation, evaluation, selection, crossover and mutation, is then repeated until a given convergence criterion is met. An average-parameters based genetic algorithm is suggested to improve the fitting precision and accuracy. Relative standard deviation (RSD%) of fitting amplitude, peak position and width is 1.3-7.1, 0.009-0.14 and 1.4-3.3, separately. The genetic algorithm was shown to make a good resolution and fitting of K lines of Pb and γ elastic peaks. (author)

  10. Bias correction by use of errors-in-variables regression models in studies with K-X-ray fluorescence bone lead measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Angeles, Gustavo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard

    2011-01-01

    In-vivo measurement of bone lead by means of K-X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) is the preferred biological marker of chronic exposure to lead. Unfortunately, considerable measurement error associated with KXRF estimations can introduce bias in estimates of the effect of bone lead when this variable is included as the exposure in a regression model. Estimates of uncertainty reported by the KXRF instrument reflect the variance of the measurement error and, although they can be used to correct the measurement error bias, they are seldom used in epidemiological statistical analyzes. Errors-in-variables regression (EIV) allows for correction of bias caused by measurement error in predictor variables, based on the knowledge of the reliability of such variables. The authors propose a way to obtain reliability coefficients for bone lead measurements from uncertainty data reported by the KXRF instrument and compare, by the use of Monte Carlo simulations, results obtained using EIV regression models vs. those obtained by the standard procedures. Results of the simulations show that Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression models provide severely biased estimates of effect, and that EIV provides nearly unbiased estimates. Although EIV effect estimates are more imprecise, their mean squared error is much smaller than that of OLS estimates. In conclusion, EIV is a better alternative than OLS to estimate the effect of bone lead when measured by KXRF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Braune, B.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  12. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in bone using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, Henry; Jenkins, Mark; Lodwick, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Full text. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape and radiological characteristics of the midshaft of the human leg and includes tissue substitutes for cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle which have been formulated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to provide the desired characteristics of density x-ray attenuation, and calcium content. The phantom includes a set of simulated tibia bones, each containing a precisely known concentration of stable lead, that can be easily inserted into the leg. Formerly, of a set of plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster of-paris, each containing a known lead content, was the consensus standard calibration phantom. Tissue substitute materials used in the new anthropometric calibration phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the plaster-of-paris phantoms and its realistic appearance provides a practical means of evaluating the variability in measurements results due to the changes in subject-detector positioning. Use of the new anthropometric calibration phantom results in a energy spectrum that closely resembles the spectrum observed when measuring a human subject. The energy spectrum produced by the plaster-of-paris phantom lacks the substantial Compton Scattering component produced by the leg muscle mass which leads to unrealistic estimates of in vivo measurement sensitivity. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for in vivo measurement of stable lead in bone, using an efficiency derived from the new anthropometric phantom, ranges from 18,6 parts per million (ppm) to 26,3 ppm using the K β1,3 /Elastic ratio or the K 1 /Elastic ratio, respectively. These values are significantly greater than the MDL cited in the literature obtained using a efficiency derived the conventional cylindrical plaster-of-paris phantom. Likewise, the realistic shape of the new

  13. Release of lead from bone in pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, W.I.; Angle, C.R.; Stanek, K.L.; Kuntzelman, D.; Reese, Y.R.; Kuehnemann, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations and isotope ratios of lead in blood, urine, 24-h duplicate diets, and hand wipes were measured for 12 women from the second trimester of pregnancy until at least 8 months after delivery. Six bottle fed and six breast fed their infants. One bottle feeder fell pregnant for a second time, as did a breast feeder, and each was followed semicontinuously for totals of 44 and 54 months, respectively. Bone resorption rather than dietary absorption controls changes in blood lead, but in pregnancy the resorption of trabecular and cortical bone are decoupled. In early pregnancy, only trabecular bone (presumably of low lead content) is resorbed, causing blood leads to fall more than expected from hemodilution alone. In late pregnancy, the sites of resorption move to cortical bone of higher lead content and blood leads rise. In bottle feeders, the cortical bone contribution ceases immediately after delivery, but any tendency for blood leads to fall may be compensated by the effect of hemoconcentration produced by the postpartum loss of plasma volume. In lactation, the whole skeleton undergoes resorption and the blood leads of nursing mothers continue to rise, reaching a maximum 6-8 months after delivery. Blood leads fall from pregnancy to pregnancy, implying that the greatest risk of lead toxicity lies with first pregnancies

  14. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  15. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Vernon G., E-mail: vthomas@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E. [Metals Toxicology Laboratory, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  16. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E.

    2009-01-01

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  17. Localized accumulation of lead within and among bones from lead-dosed goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretacci, Yan; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of where lead (Pb) accumulates and how it is distributed, within the bones of dosed goats. Adult goats were periodically dosed with Pb over a number of years for the primary purpose of producing blood pools containing endogenously bound Pb, for the New York State Blood Lead Proficiency Testing Program. Bone samples (e.g., primarily tibia, femur, humerus, and radius) were collected post-mortem from 11 animals and were analyzed for Pb content by acid digestion and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS or GFAAS). Average tibia Pb levels were found to correlate strongly with the cumulative Pb dose (r 2 =0.81). However, the concentration of Pb in different bones and even within a small area of the same bone varied tremendously. Blood-rich trabecular (spongy) bone, such as the patella and calcaneus, were much more enriched in Pb than was cortical (compact) bone. In some dosed animals, the Pb concentration in the tibia was markedly higher at the proximal and distal ends of the bone compared to the mid-shaft. The implications of these findings with regard to the noninvasive measurement of lead in bone by XRF methods are discussed.

  18. Localized accumulation of lead within and among bones from lead-dosed goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretacci, Yan [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Parsons, Patrick J., E-mail: pparsons@wadsworth.org [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The principal aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of where lead (Pb) accumulates and how it is distributed, within the bones of dosed goats. Adult goats were periodically dosed with Pb over a number of years for the primary purpose of producing blood pools containing endogenously bound Pb, for the New York State Blood Lead Proficiency Testing Program. Bone samples (e.g., primarily tibia, femur, humerus, and radius) were collected post-mortem from 11 animals and were analyzed for Pb content by acid digestion and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS or GFAAS). Average tibia Pb levels were found to correlate strongly with the cumulative Pb dose (r{sup 2}=0.81). However, the concentration of Pb in different bones and even within a small area of the same bone varied tremendously. Blood-rich trabecular (spongy) bone, such as the patella and calcaneus, were much more enriched in Pb than was cortical (compact) bone. In some dosed animals, the Pb concentration in the tibia was markedly higher at the proximal and distal ends of the bone compared to the mid-shaft. The implications of these findings with regard to the noninvasive measurement of lead in bone by XRF methods are discussed.

  19. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. Methods This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. Results This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0. ConclusionS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0.

  20. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. METHODS This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/ kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. RESULTS This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0. CONCLUSIONS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0.

  1. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, I. E-mail: ivo@ansto.gov.au; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R.A.; Cohen, D.D

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  2. Cellular lead toxicity and metabolism in primary and clonal osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.J.; Rosen, J.F.; Pounds, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    A knowledge of bone lead metabolism is critical for understanding the toxicological importance of bone lead, as a toxicant both to bone cells and to soft tissues of the body, as lead is mobilized from large reservoirs in hard tissues. To further understand the processes that mediate metabolism of lead in bone, it is necessary to determine lead metabolism at the cellular level. Experiments were conducted to determine the intracellular steady-state 210 Pb kinetics in cultures of primary and clonal osteoblastic bone cells. Osteoblastic bone cells obtained by sequential collagenase digestion of mouse calvaria or rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) cells were labeled with 210 Pb as 5 microM lead acetate for 20 hr, and kinetic parameters were determined by measuring the efflux of 210 Pb from the cells over a 210 -min period. The intracellular metabolism of 210 Pb was characterized by three kinetic pools of 210 Pb in both cell types. Although the values of these parameters differed between the primary osteoblastic cells and ROS cells, the profile of 210 Pb was remarkably similar in both cell types. Both types exhibited one large, slowly exchanging pool (S3), indicative of mitochondrial lead. These data show that primary osteoblastic bone cells and ROS cells exhibit similar steady-state lead kinetics, and intracellular lead distribution. These data also establish a working model of lead kinetics in osteoblastic bone cells and now permit an integrated view of lead kinetics in bone

  3. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  4. Measurement of fluoride in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Harrision, J.E.; Hancock, R.; McNeill, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The fluorine concentration in bone biopsy samples was measured by neutron activation analysis. The fluorine content was expressed in terms of the calcium content. Samples were irradiated in a reactor to induce the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F and 48 Ca(n,γ) 49 Ca reactions and after rapid transport from the reactor the resulting activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Reproducibility was better than 10% for the F/Ca ratio. The detection limit for F is 50 μg. This nondestructive technique will be used to assess the effect of fluoride therapy on bone metabolism of patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. (author)

  5. Application of a novel bone osteotomy plate leads to reduction in heat-induced bone tissue necrosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekić, Marijo; Davila, Slavko; Hrskanović, Mato; Bekić, Marijana; Seiwerth, Sven; Erdeljić, Viktorija; Capak, Darko; Butković, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown substantial effect thermal damage can have on new bone formation following osteotomy. In this study we evaluated the extent of thermal damage which occurs in four different methods of osteotomy and the effects it can have on bone healing. We further wanted to test whether a special osteotomy plate we constructed can lead to diminished heat generation during osteotomy and enhanced bone healing. The four methods evaluated included osteotomy performed by chisel, a newly constructed osteotomy plate, Gigly and oscillating saw. Twelve adult sheep underwent osteotomy performed on both tibiae. Bone fragments were stabilized using a fixation plate. Callus size was assessed using standard radiographs. Densitometry and histological evaluation were performed at 8 weeks following osteotomy. Temperature measurements were performed both in vivo during the operation, and ex vivo on explanted tibiae. The defects healed without complications and showed typical course of secondary fracture healing with callus ingrowth into the osteotomy gap. Radiographic examination of bone healing showed a tendency towards more callus formation in bones osteotomized using Gigly and oscillating saw, but this difference lacked significance. Use of Gigly and oscillating saw elicited much higher temperatures at the bone cortex surface, which subsequently lead to slightly impaired bone healing according to histological analysis. BMD was equal among all bones. In conclusion, the time required for complete healing of the defect differed depended greatly on the instruments used. The newly constructed osteotomy plate showed best results based on histological findings of capillary and osteoblast density.

  6. Lead concentrations in the bones of city and country doves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegfried, W.R.; Frost, P.G.H.; Redelinghuys, E.P.; van der Merwe, R.P.

    The lead content of bones of laughing doves Streptopelia senegalensis was assayed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A significant difference in the mean lead content was found between two groups of wild doves. The one group was taken in the city of Cape Town, and the other group 50 km away in rural farmland near Stellenbosch. The bones of the urban doves contained on average seven times more lead per unit weight of tissue than those of their rural con-specifics. Concentrations of lead in the bones of rural and urban doves are approximately 70% and 80% below those recorded for corresponding pigeon Columba livia populations in Pennsylvania, USA. These differences between urban and rural populations are believed to reflect the relatively greater degree of lead in the atmosphere of the urban environment, presumably as a result of motor car exhaust emissions. 2 references, 1 table.

  7. Blood Lead, Bone Turnover, and Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Peters, Tracy L; Beard, John D; Umbach, David M; Keller, Jean; Mariosa, Daniela; Allen, Kelli D; Ye, Weimin; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead and bone turnover may be associated with the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to assess whether these factors were also associated with time from ALS diagnosis to death through a survival analysis of 145 ALS patients enrolled during 2007 in the National Registry of Veterans with ALS. Associations of survival time with blood lead and plasma biomarkers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX)) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnostic certainty, diagnostic delay, site of onset, and score on the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale. Hazard ratios were calculated for each doubling of biomarker concentration. Blood lead, plasma CTX, and plasma PINP were mutually adjusted for one another. Increased lead (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.84) and CTX (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.89) were both associated with shorter survival, whereas higher PINP was associated with longer survival (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83), after ALS diagnosis. No interactions were observed between lead or bone turnover and other prognostic indicators. Lead toxicity and bone metabolism may be involved in ALS pathophysiology. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Lead and osteoporosis: Mobilization of lead from bone in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K. (Environmental Defense Fund, WA (USA)); Schwartz, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Mahaffey, K. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Although it has been known that humans accumulate lead in bone, mineralized tissue has been considered primarily as a sequestering compartment and not as a site of toxic action for lead. However, experimental data indicate that bone lead can be released during conditions of demineralization, such as pregnancy and lactation. We have examined lead status in women, before and after menopause, using the NHANES II dataset compiled between 1976 and 1980. In 2981 black and white women there was a highly significant increase in both whole blood and calculated plasma lead concentrations after menopause. The results indicate that bone lead is not an inert storage site for absorbed lead. Moreover, lead may interact with other factors in the course of postmenopausal osteoporosis, to aggravate the course of the disease, since lead is known to inhibit activation of vitamin D, uptake of dietary calcium, and several regulatory aspects of bone cell function. The consequences of this mobilization may also be of importance in assessing the risks of maternal lead exposure to fetal and infant health.

  9. Toxicity of uranium and lead on osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, S.; Thiebault, C.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B.; Malaval, L.

    2007-01-01

    Bone is one of the main retention organs affected by uranium (U) and lead (Pb). Intoxications have been documented to inhibit bone formation and impair bone modeling and remodeling. However, only few studies dealt with cellular and molecular mechanisms of their toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute cytotoxicity of U and Pb and their phenotypic effects on ROS17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. The most likely forms of the toxics in contact with cells after blood contamination were selected for cell exposure. Results show that whatever their speciation, bone cells are always more sensitive to Pb than to U. Moreover, Pb is toxic when it is left free in the exposure medium or when it is complexed with bicarbonate, cysteine or citrate, but not with albumin or phosphate. U is more cytotoxic when it is complexed with transferrin than with bicarbonate. A direct correlation between toxicity and cellular accumulation could be observed. Beside, exposure of U or Pb to bone cells induces a speciation-dependant variation of RNA expression of two markers of bone formation and mineralization: osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). OCN and BSP-expression could be activated in sub-toxic condition, respectively, by Pb-albumin (1.6-fold) and U-bicarbonate (2.3-fold). In the meantime, U-transferrin and Pb-citrate lead to an inhibition of the two markers. This study shows a complex mechanism of toxicity of two heavy metals with a significant phenotypic impact on osteoblastic cells highly dependant on metal speciation which controls cell accumulation. (authors)

  10. Interaction betwen Lead and Bone Protein to Affect Bone Calcium Level Using UV-Vis Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Z.; Azharuddin, A.; Aflanie, I.; Kania, N.; Suhartono, E.

    2018-05-01

    This present study aim to evaluate the interactions between lead (Pb) and with bone protein by UV-Vis approach. In addition, this prsent study also aim to investigate the effect of Pb on bone calcium (Ca) level. The present study was a true experimental study design to examine the impact of Pb exposure in bone of male rats (Rattus novergicus). The study involved 5 groups, P1 was the control group, while the other (P2-P5) were the case group with exposure of Pb in different concentration within 4 weeks. At the end of the exposure, the interaction between Pb and protein was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometric method, and the Ca level was determined using permanganometric method. The results shows that that there is an interaction between Pb and bone protein. The result also shows that the value of the binding constant of Protein-Pb is 32.71. It means Pb have an high affinity to bind with bone protein, which promote a further reaction to induced the release of bone Ca from the bone protein. In conclusion, this present study found an obvious relationship between Pb and bone protein which promote a further reaction to increase the releasing of bone calcium.

  11. Bone lead levels in an environmentally exposed elderly population in shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Weisskopf, Marc; Nie, Linda H

    2018-06-01

    This study looked at measurements of lead (Pb) in a pilot population of environmentally exposed elderly residents of Shanghai, China and presented the first set of bone Pb data on an elderly Chinese population. We found that with environmental exposures in this population using K-shell x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) bone Pb measurements 40% of the individuals had bone Pb levels above the nominal detection limit with an average bone lead level of 4.9 ± 3.6 μg/g. This bone lead level is lower than comparable values from previous studies of community dwelling adults in US cities. This population had a slightly higher geometric mean blood Pb of 2.6 μg/dL than the adult US population. The main conclusion of this data is that in Shanghai there is environmental exposure to Pb, measured through blood and bone, which should be further investigated to assess the health impact of this exposure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Bone lead (Pb) content at the tibia is associated with thinner distal tibia cortices and lower volumetric bone density in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy K.O.; Beattie, Karen A.; Bhargava, Aakash; Cheung, Marco; Webber, Colin E.; Chettle, David R.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting evidence suggests that bone lead or blood lead may reduce areal bone mineral density (BMD). Little is known about how lead at either compartment affects bone structure. This study examined postmenopausal women (N = 38, mean age 76 ± 8, body mass index (BMI): 26.74 ± 4.26 kg/m2) within the Hamilton cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), measuring bone lead at 66% of the non-dominant leg and at the calcaneus using 109Cadmium X-ray fluorescence. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters were obtained from peripheral quantitative computed tomography images (200 μm in-plane resolution, 2.3 ± 0.5 mm slice thickness) of the same 66% site and of the distal 4% site of the tibia length. Blood lead was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and blood-to-bone lead partition coefficients (PBB, log ratio) were computed. Multivariable linear regression examined each of bone lead at the 66% tibia, calcaneus, blood lead and PBB as related to each of volumetric BMD and structural parameters, adjusting for age and BMI, diabetes or antiresorptive therapy. Regression coefficients were reported along with 95% confidence intervals. Higher amounts of bone lead at the tibia were associated with thinner distal tibia cortices (−0.972 (−1.882, −0.061) per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral) and integral volumetric BMD (−3.05 (−6.05, −0.05) per μg Pb/g of bone mineral). A higher PBB was associated with larger trabecular separation (0.115 (0.053, 0.178)), lower trabecular volumetric BMD (−26.83 (−50.37, −3.29)) and trabecular number (−0.08 (−0.14, −0.02)), per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral after adjusting for age and BMI, and remained significant while accounting for diabetes or use of antiresorptives. Total lead exposure activities related to bone lead at the calcaneus (8.29 (0.11, 16.48)) and remained significant after age and antiresorptives-adjustment. Lead accumulated in bone can have a mild insult on bone structure; but

  13. Bone mineral content measurement by bone mineral analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Itsuo; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Fukunaga, Masao; Torizuka, Kanji; Kosaka, Tadako.

    1976-01-01

    With a bone mineral analyzer (Studsvik Bone Scanner 7102), bone mineral content (BMC) was validated using various concentrations of standard CaCO 3 . Seventy-five normal subjects, nineteen patients with rheumathoid arthritis (RA) and twenty-two patients with abnormal thyroid function were investigated by this method. Some inherent problems concerning the present measurements were also discussed. Reproducibility of BMC in sixteen normal subjects during a four months interval was +-4% on the mid-shaft of the radius and +-5% on the distal head of the radius, respectively. Although correlation of the single energy method and the dual energy method with the bone scanner was high (r=0.970), the single energy method was probably underestimated due to the fat layer. BMC in normal subjects was highest in 30th and 40th decades for both males and females, and gradually decreased with aging. Males had higher BMC and BMC/bone width than did females. All of the stage 1 group of RA patients, according to roentgenographic staging, revealed normal BMC, but most of stage 2 and 3 groups had abnormally low BMC, suggesting that progression of the disease may be an important factor in BMC values. The BMC of hyperthyroid patients was low, whereas that of euthyroid patients was normal. Serial measurements of BMC in a hyperparathyroid patient and a hyperthyroid patient revealed distinct recurrence of BMC after treatment. (Evans, J.)

  14. L-line x-ray fluorescence of cortical bone lead compared with the CaNa2EDTA test in lead-toxic children: public health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.F.; Markowitz, M.E.; Bijur, P.E.; Jenks, S.T.; Wielopolski, L.; Kalef-Ezra, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    Mild to moderate lead toxicity (blood lead, 25-55 micrograms/dl) is a preventable pediatric illness affecting several million preschool children (lead-toxic children) in the United States. In-hospital lead-chelation treatment is predicated upon a positive CaNa 2 EDTA test, which is difficult to perform and impractical in large populations. After the development of an L-line x-ray fluorescence technique (LXRF) that measures cortical bone lead content safely, rapidly, and noninvasively, this study was initiated in lead-toxic children to compare LXRF with the CaNa 2 EDTA test. Moreover, LXRF provided the opportunity to quantify bone lead content. From blood lead and LXRF alone, 90% of lead-toxic children were correctly classified as being CaNa 2 EDTA-positive or -negative. In 76% of 59 lead-toxic children, bone lead values measured by LXRF were equal to or greater than those measured in normal and industrially exposed adults. These results indicate that LXRF may be capable of replacing the CaNa 2 EDTA test. When considered with the known neurotoxic effects on children of low levels of exposure to lead, these results also suggest that either an excessively narrow margin of safety or insufficient safety is provided by present U.S. guidelines, which classify an elevated blood lead concentration as 25 micrograms/dl or greater

  15. Blood lead levels and bone turnover with weight reduction in women

    OpenAIRE

    RIEDT, CLAUDIA S.; BUCKLEY, BRIAN T.; BROLIN, ROBERT E.; AMBIA-SOBHAN, HASINA; RHOADS, GEORGE G.; SHAPSES, SUE A.

    2008-01-01

    High bone turnover states are known to raise blood lead levels (BPb). Caloric restriction will increase bone turnover, yet it remains unknown if weight reduction increases BPb due to mobilization of skeletal stores. We measured whole blood Pb levels (206Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 73 women (age 24–75 years; BMI 23– 61 kg/m2) before and after 6 months of severe weight loss (S-WL), moderate weight loss (M-WL), or weight maintenance (WM). Baseline BPb levels were relat...

  16. Measurement of bone blood flow in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; Lehner, C.E.; Pearson, D.W.; Kanikula, T.; Adler, G.; Venci, R.; Lanphier, E.H.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Bone blood flow in sheep tibia has been estimated via the measurement of the perfusion limited clearance of 41 Ar from the bone mineral matrix following fast neutron activation of 44 Ca. Tibia blood flows were estimated for the intact sheep, and after the installation of an intramedullary pressure tap to elevate bone marrow pressure by saline infusion. The results indicate that normal blood flow in the tibia is in the range of 1.1 to 3.7 ml/100ml-min in the intact animal and at normal marrow pressure. With an elevated intramedullary pressure of approximately 100 mmHg, the bone blood flow measured varied around 0.5 to 1.1 ml/100ml-min. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Reduced Bone and Body Mass in Young Male Rats Exposed to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see whether there would be differences in whole blood versus tibia lead concentrations over time in growing rats prenatally. Lead was given in the drinking water at 30 mg/L from the time the dams were pregnant until offspring was 28- or 60-day-old. Concentrations of lead were measured in whole blood and in tibia after 28 (28D and 60 days (60D in control (C and in lead-exposed animals (Pb. Lead measurements were made by GF-AAS. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the concentration of whole blood lead between Pb-28D (8.0±1.1 μg/dL and Pb-60D (7.2±0.89 μg/dL, while both significantly varied (P<0.01 from controls (0.2 μg/dL. Bone lead concentrations significantly varied between the Pb-28D (8.02±1.12 μg/g and the Pb-60D (43.3±13.26 μg/g lead-exposed groups (P<0.01, while those exposed groups were also significantly higher (P<0.0001 than the 28D and 60D control groups (Pb < 1 μg/g. The Pb-60D group showed a 25% decrease in tibia mass as compared to the respective control. The five times higher amount of lead found in the bone of older animals (Pb-60D versus Pb-28D, which reinforces the importance of using bone lead as an exposure biomarker.

  18. Bone assessment via thermal photoacoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  19. Quantitative in vivo elemental analysis using X-ray fluorescence and scattering techniques. Applications to cadmium, lead and bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ulf.

    1994-05-01

    The X-ray fluorescence technique for in vivo determination of cadmium concentration in the human body has been considerably improved so that the minimum concentration now is 10 μg/g for a skin-organ distance of 50 mm and a measurement time of 30 minutes. The technique has been used for measurements of cadmium in the kidney cortex of 60 non-occupationally exposed persons, showing twice the concentration (26±9 μg/g) in a sub-group of frequent tobacco smokers compared with a group of non-smokers (10±11 μg/g). Concentrations of lead in the skeleton of 112 persons have been measured at three bone sites (finger bone, tibia, heel bone) using in vivo XRF techniques either based on Co-57 or Cd-109 sources. There was a good correlation between lead levels at the three bone sites as well as to cumulative exposure index. However, the association between the amount of chelatable lead and measured bone lead levels was poor. The retention of lead in the skeleton of 14 retired workers, now studied for up to 18 years after retirement, shows a half-time of 16 years. 43 refs

  20. In vivo quantification of lead in bone with a portable x-ray fluorescence system--methodology and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, L H; Sanchez, S; Newton, K; Grodzins, L; Cleveland, R O; Weisskopf, M G

    2011-02-07

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology to quantify lead (Pb) in bone in vivo. A portable XRF device was set up and optimal settings of voltage, current, and filter combination for bone lead quantification were selected to achieve the lowest detection limit. The minimum radiation dose delivered to the subject was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. An ultrasound device was used to measure soft tissue thickness to account for signal attenuation, and an alternative method to obtain soft tissue thickness from the XRF spectrum was developed and shown to be equivalent to the ultrasound measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.82). We tested the correlation of in vivo bone lead concentrations between the standard KXRF technology and the portable XRF technology. There was a significant correlation between the bone lead concentrations obtained from the standard KXRF technology and those obtained from the portable XRF technology (ICC = 0.65). The detection limit for the portable XRF device was about 8.4 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness. The entrance skin dose delivered to the human subject was about 13 mSv and the total body effective dose was about 1.5 µSv and should pose minimal radiation risk. In conclusion, portable XRF technology can be used for in vivo bone lead measurement with sensitivity comparable to the KXRF technology and good correlation with KXRF measurements.

  1. In Vivo Quantification of Lead in Bone with a Portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) System – Methodology and Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, LH; Sanchez, S; Newton, K; Grodzins, L; Cleveland, RO; Weisskopf, MG

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a portable XRF technology to quantify lead (Pb) in bone in vivo. A portable XRF device was set up and optimal setting of voltage, current, and filter combination for bone lead quantification were selected to achieve the lowest detection limit. The minimum radiation dose delivered to the subject was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. An ultrasound device was used to measure soft tissue thickness to account for signal attenuation, and an alternative method to obtain soft tissue thickness from the XRF spectrum was developed and shown to be equivalent to the ultrasound measurements (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC=0.82). We tested the correlation of in vivo bone lead concentrations between the standard KXRF technology and the portable XRF technology. There was a significant correlation between the bone lead concentrations obtained from the standard KXRF technology and those obtained from the portable XRF technology (ICC=0.65). The detection limit for the portable XRF device was about 8.4 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness. The entrance skin dose delivered to the human subject was about 13 mSv and the total body effective dose was about 1.5 μSv and should pose a minimal radiation risk. In conclusion, portable XRF technology can be used for in vivo bone lead measurement with sensitivity comparable to the KXRF technology and good correlation with KXRF measurements. PMID:21242629

  2. In vivo quantification of lead in bone with a portable x-ray fluorescence system-methodology and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, L H; Sanchez, S; Newton, K; Weisskopf, M G; Grodzins, L; Cleveland, R O

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology to quantify lead (Pb) in bone in vivo. A portable XRF device was set up and optimal settings of voltage, current, and filter combination for bone lead quantification were selected to achieve the lowest detection limit. The minimum radiation dose delivered to the subject was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. An ultrasound device was used to measure soft tissue thickness to account for signal attenuation, and an alternative method to obtain soft tissue thickness from the XRF spectrum was developed and shown to be equivalent to the ultrasound measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.82). We tested the correlation of in vivo bone lead concentrations between the standard KXRF technology and the portable XRF technology. There was a significant correlation between the bone lead concentrations obtained from the standard KXRF technology and those obtained from the portable XRF technology (ICC = 0.65). The detection limit for the portable XRF device was about 8.4 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness. The entrance skin dose delivered to the human subject was about 13 mSv and the total body effective dose was about 1.5 μSv and should pose minimal radiation risk. In conclusion, portable XRF technology can be used for in vivo bone lead measurement with sensitivity comparable to the KXRF technology and good correlation with KXRF measurements. (note)

  3. Lead post-mortem intake in human bones of ancient populations by (109)Cd-based X-ray fluorescence and EDXRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebôcho, J; Carvalho, M L; Marques, A F; Ferreira, F R; Chettle, D R

    2006-12-15

    In this work we measured the lead concentration in human bones of Middle Age by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence system based on (109)Cd radioactive source. The detection system consists on a Ge hyperpure detector. This system, conceived for in vivo Pb analysis in bone, is portable, non-destructive and is based on lead K lines detection. The analysed bones are part of two collections of bones both from the end of Middle Age and submitted for some years to a lead polluted burial environment. The bones of one collection were buried initially on the soil in a convent, in Lisbon (Portugal) and further on, kept in a lead coffin for around 100 years. The second collection contains bones buried permanently on the soil around an old church on the south of Portugal. This place became a parking car for around 20 years. In this work we studied the distribution of Pb in cortical bone, and trabecular regions from the outside surface to the inner part of the bone and the results are compared with the obtained ones by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The obtained values present a strong contamination of Pb in spongy bones kept in the lead coffin with concentrations ranging from 250 to 350mugPb/g bone mineral, and 4 to 7mugPb/g bone mineral for bones buried in the soil. Good agreement was observed between the results obtained by the two techniques.

  4. A negative bone scan leads to an unusual diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A bone scan looking for osteomyelitis or a more sinister pathology was performed on a 7-year-old boy with Von Willebrand''s disease. He presented with symptoms of pain in the left groin and a lump, although there had been no history of direct trauma, and an X-ray report stating that there was an irregular ill-defined area of bony destruction seen in the lower aspect of the left ischium. Blood pool images of the pelvis were acquired soon after an injection of MDP and three hours later a whole body bone scan was done. Results of the bone scan showed that the radiolucent lesion in the left ilium seen on the plain radiographs was not metabolically active on the technetium MDP study. Features compatible with a response to an intraosseous or sub-periosteal haematoma were seen when reviewing the original X-rays and, as there was a spontaneous resolution of the patient''s symptoms, this was considered to be the diagnosis. This study shows that a negative bone scan, which rules out an active bone lesion, is of value in making a diagnosis when used in conjunction with X-rays and a knowledge of the patient''s history

  5. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-04-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition.

  6. In vivo x-ray fluorescence estimation of bone lead concentrations in Queensland adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.; Baddeley, H.; Kenardy, J.A.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    A group of 200 Queensland adults without known health problems had in-vivo estimation of finger bone lead concentrations using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). Forty of these subjects had elevated levels of bone lead of 25 ppm or more, consistent with exposure to the metal. Although the correlation between Queensland residence during childhood and raised bone lead levels was not significant, there were significant correlations between childhood residence in a painted wooden house and raised levels, and between occupational exposure and raised levels. Of the 40 subjects with elevated lead levels only two had neither a history of occupational exposure or childhood residence in a wooden house, whereas 11 of the 25 who had a history of both occupational and residential exposure were positive. The data are consistent with lead in housepaint, or absorbed during occupational exposure, being the two major sources of raised bone lead concentrations. (author)

  7. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n = 12) to 1000 ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90 days while control group (n = 8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ + Na + )/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant.

  8. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-02-15

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ + Na + )/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B; Roschger, A; Wastl, A; Hofstaetter, J G; Wobrauschek, P; Simon, R; Thaler, H W; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K; Streli, C

    2013-11-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H.W.; Roschger, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. PMID:23932972

  11. Establishing a method to measure bone structure using spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramyar, M.; Leary, C.; Raja, A.; Butler, A. P. H.; Woodfield, T. B. F.; Anderson, N. G.

    2017-03-01

    Combining bone structure and density measurement in 3D is required to assess site-specific fracture risk. Spectral molecular imaging can measure bone structure in relation to bone density by measuring macro and microstructure of bone in 3D. This study aimed to optimize spectral CT methodology to measure bone structure in excised bone samples. MARS CT with CdTe Medipix3RX detector was used in multiple energy bins to calibrate bone structure measurements. To calibrate thickness measurement, eight different thicknesses of Aluminium (Al) sheets were scanned one in air and the other around a falcon tube and then analysed. To test if trabecular thickness measurements differed depending on scan plane, a bone sample from sheep proximal tibia was scanned in two orthogonal directions. To assess the effect of air on thickness measurement, two parts of the same human femoral head were scanned in two conditions (in the air and in PBS). The results showed that the MARS scanner (with 90μm voxel size) is able to accurately measure the Al (in air) thicknesses over 200μm but it underestimates the thicknesses below 200μm because of partial volume effect in Al-air interface. The Al thickness measured in the highest energy bin is overestimated at Al-falcon tube interface. Bone scanning in two orthogonal directions gives the same trabecular thickness and air in the bone structure reduced measurement accuracy. We have established a bone structure assessment protocol on MARS scanner. The next step is to combine this with bone densitometry to assess bone strength.

  12. The relationship between blood lead levels and periodontal bone loss in the United States, 1988-1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, Bruce A; Hirsch, Rosemarie; Brody, Debra J

    2002-01-01

    An association between bone disease and bone lead has been reported. Studies have suggested that lead stored in bone may adversely affect bone mineral metabolism and blood lead (PbB) levels. However, the relationship between PbB levels and bone loss attributed to periodontal disease has never been reported. In this study we examined the relationship between clinical parameters that characterize bone loss due to periodontal disease and PbB levels in the U.S. population. We used data from the T...

  13. Measurement of lead compound in stack gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y; Hori, M; Tanikawa, N

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and particle-size distribution of lead compounds in the exhaust gas from various stationary sources are examined. The stationary sources concern lead production from battery scraps, lead smelting of cable mold, steel production from iron scraps, plastic combustion furnace, and a heavy oil boiler. A lead concentration of 0.2-100 mg/cu m in exhaust gas is detected. Furthermore, exhaust gas lead compounds are affected by the raw materials used.

  14. Factors affecting the precision of bone mineral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormack, J.; Evil, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses some statistical aspects of absorptiometric bone mineral measurements. In particular, the contribution of photon counting statistics to overall precision is estimated, and methods available for carrying out statistical comparisons of bone loss and determining their precision are reviewed. The use of replicate measurements as a means of improving measurement precision is also discussed. 11 refs

  15. Lithium attenuates lead induced toxicity on mouse non-adherent bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, Mahsan; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Shahhoseini, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a poisonous heavy metal that occurs in all parts of environment and causes serious health problems in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of lithium against lead nitrate induced toxicity in non-adherent bone marrow stem cells. Trypan blue and MTT assays represented that exposure of the cells to different concentrations of lead nitrate decreased viability in a dose dependent manner, whereas, pretreatment of the cells with lithium protected the cells against lead toxicity. Lead reduced the number and differentiation status of bone marrow-derived precursors when cultured in the presence of colony stimulating factor (CSF), while the effect was attenuated by lithium. The cells treated with lead nitrate exhibited cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, anion superoxide production, but lithium prevented lead action. Moreover, apoptotic indexes such as PARP cleavage and release of HMGB1 induced by lead, were protected by lithium, suggesting anti-apoptotic effect of lithium. Immunoblot analysis of histone H3K9 acetylation indicated that lithium overcame lead effect on acetylation. In conclusion, lithium efficiently reduces lead toxicity suggesting new insight into lithium action which may contribute to increased cell survival. It also provides a potentially new therapeutic strategy for lithium and a cost-effective approach to minimize destructive effects of lead on bone marrow stem cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Melatonin reduces lead levels in blood, brain and bone and increases lead excretion in rats subjected to subacute lead treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Plata, Everardo; Quiroz-Compeán, Fátima; Ramírez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Barrientos, Eunice Yáñez; Rodríguez-Morales, Nadia M; Flores, Alberto; Wrobel, Katarzina; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Méndez, Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Robles, Juvencio; Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva

    2015-03-04

    Melatonin, a hormone known for its effects on free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, can reduce lead toxicity in vivo and in vitro.We examined the effects of melatonin on lead bio-distribution. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate (10, 15 or 20mg/kg/day) with or without melatonin (10mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days. In rats intoxicated with the highest lead doses, those treated with melatonin had lower lead levels in blood and higher levels in urine and feces than those treated with lead alone, suggesting that melatonin increases lead excretion. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we first assessed whether lead/melatonin complexes were formed directly. Electronic density functional (DFT) calculations showed that a lead/melatonin complex is energetically feasible; however, UV spectroscopy and NMR analysis showed no evidence of such complexes. Next, we examined the liver mRNA levels of metallothioneins (MT) 1 and 2. Melatonin cotreatment increased the MT2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats that received the highest doses of lead. The potential effects of MTs on the tissue distribution and excretion of lead are not well understood. This is the first report to suggest that melatonin directly affects lead levels in organisms exposed to subacute lead intoxication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Lead on the Interpretation of Bone Samples with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamed Shahedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to tracing and identifying the elements available in bone sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS. The bone samples were prepared from the thigh of laboratory rats, which consumed 325.29 g/mol lead acetate having 4 mM concentration in specified time duration. About 76 atomic lines have been analyzed and we found that the dominant elements are Ca I, Ca II, Mg I, Mg II, Fe I, and Fe II. Temperature curve and bar graph were drawn to compare bone elements of group B which consumed lead with normal group, group A, in the same laboratory conditions. Plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density were determined by considering Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE condition in the plasma. An inverse relationship has been detected between lead absorption and elements like Calcium and Magnesium absorption comparing elemental values for both the groups.

  18. Non-invasive clinical measurements of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive methods are now available for measurement of both compact and trabecular bone on both the appendicular and axial skeleton. Radiogrammetry and photodensitometry both are subject to large errors in areas of heavy tissue cover but precise measurements can be made on the hand bones. Single-photon absorptiometry with 125 I provides a more accurate and precise measure of appendicular compact bone, which is particularly useful for screening of metabolic bone disease and for monitoring renal osteodystrophy. Dual-photon absorptiometry with 153 Gd provides a measurement of the femoral neck and of the lumbar spine and hence is the most diagnostically sensitive measurement method. It is also the most sensitive for monitoring bone changes

  19. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments [fr

  20. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-06-02

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments.

  1. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  2. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, S; Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G.; Calvo, E.; Rodriguez-Salvanes, F.; Diaz-Curiel, M.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934±217 mg, 878±83 mg, 149±14 mg and 29±7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298±24 mg/cm 2 , 455±32 mg/cm 2 , 617±60 mg/cm 2 and 678±163 mg/cm 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement

  4. Association between Bone Turnover, Micronutrient Intake, and Blood Lead Levels in Pre-and Postmenopausal Women, NHANES 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W.; Cromer, Barbara A.; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. Objectives We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20–85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Methods Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log-transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. Results In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%–45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%–43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%–19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%–22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Conclusions Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre-and postmenopausal women. PMID:20688594

  5. Association between bone turnover, micronutrient intake, and blood lead levels in pre- and postmenopausal women, NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W; Cromer, Barbara A; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20-85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%-45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%-43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%-19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%-22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre- and postmenopausal women.

  6. Measurement of absolute bone blood flow by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmias, C.; Cockshott, W.P.; Garnett, E.S.; Belbeck, L.W.

    1986-03-01

    A method of measuring bone blood flow has been developed using /sup 18/F sodium fluoride and positron emission tomography. The blood flow levels are in line with those obtained experimentally from microsphere embolisation. This investigative method could be applied to elucidate a number of clinical questions involving bone perfusion.

  7. Estimation of Penetrated Bone Layers During Craniotomy via Bioimpedance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Daniel; Rohe, Lucas; Niesche, Annegret; Mueller, Meiko; Radermacher, Klaus; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    Craniotomy is the removal of a bone flap from the skull and is a first step in many neurosurgical interventions. During craniotomy, an efficient cut of the bone without injuring adjoining soft tissues is very critical. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of estimating the currently penetrated cranial bone layer by means of bioimpedance measurement. A finite-element model was developed and a simulation study conducted. Simulations were performed at different positions along an elliptical cutting path and at three different operation areas. Finally, the validity of the simulation was demonstrated by an ex vivo experiment based on use of a bovine shoulder blade bone and a commercially available impedance meter. The curve of the absolute impedance and phase exhibits characteristic changes at the transition from one bone layer to the next, which can be used to determine the bone layer last penetrated by the cutting tool. The bipolar electrode configuration is superior to the monopolar measurement. A horizontal electrode arrangement at the tip of the cutting tool produces the best results. This study successfully demonstrates the feasibility to detect the transition between cranial bone layers during craniotomy by bioimpedance measurements using electrodes located on the cutting tool. Based on the results of this study, bioimpedance measurement seems to be a promising option for intra operative ad hoc information about the bone layer currently penetrated and could contribute to patient safety during neurosurgery.

  8. Thermomechanical measurements of lead halide single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nitsch, Karel; Rodová, Miroslava

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 234, č. 2 (2002), s. 701-709 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2010926 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : PbX 2 (X=Cl, Br, I) * coefficients of linear thermal expansion * polymorphism in lead halides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2002

  9. Outcomes of bone density measurements in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Rowbotham, David S

    2016-01-29

    Some guidelines recommend that patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease undergo bone density scanning. We assessed the bone density results in a cohort of patients with coeliac disease. We searched bone density reports over two 5-year periods in all patients from Auckland District Health Board (2008-12) and in patients under 65 years from Counties Manukau District Health Board (2009-13) for the term 'coeliac.' Reports for 137 adults listed coeliac disease as an indication for bone densitometry. The average age was 47 years, body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2), and 77% were female. The median time between coeliac disease diagnosis and bone densitometry was 261 days. The average bone density Z-score was slightly lower than expected (Z-score -0.3 to 0.4) at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, but 88-93% of Z-scores at each site lay within the normal range. Low bone density was strongly related to BMI: the proportions with Z-score 30 kg/m(2) were 28%, 15%, 6% and 0% respectively. Average bone density was normal, suggesting that bone density measurement is not indicated routinely in coeliac disease, but could be considered on a case-by-case basis for individuals with strong risk factors for fracture.

  10. Preoperative measurement of canine primary bone tumors, using radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Berg, J.; Bengston, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Specimens of 20 canine primary bone tumors (18 osteosarcoma, 2 fibrosarcoma) were examined to compare the maximal axial length of gross tumor with the length of the lesion seen on preoperative radiographs and 99mTc methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphic images. Radiographs defined the length of the tumor to within +/- 10% of the gross measurement for 6 (30%), underestimated it for 12 (60%), and overestimated it for 2 (10%) specimens. Bone scintigraphy defined tumor length within +/- 10% for 8 (40%), underestimated it for 1 (5%), and overestimated it for the remaining 11 (55%) specimens. Use of radiographic evaluation alone could result in underestimation of the diaphyseal extent of a primary bone tumor, with risk of incomplete resection. Bone scan images tend to overestimate tumor length and, therefore, may provide safer resection guidelines

  11. Radiolabeled microsphere measurements of alveolar bone blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.L.; Jeffcoat, M.K.; Goldhaber, P.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolabeled microspheres were injected into the left cardiac ventricle in healthy adult dogs to quantify blood in maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse contour were monitored throughout each experiment. Blood flow in maxillary alveolar bone was more than 30 % greater (p<.001) than in mandibular alveolar bone. Alveolar bone blood flow (mean +- S.D.) measured as ml/min per gram was 0.12 +- .02 in the maxilla compared to 0.09 +- .02 in the mandible. The cardiovascular parameters monitored were constant immediately prior to the injection of microspheres and remained unchanged during and following injection. It is possible that radiolabeled microspheres can be used to quantify the circulatory changes in alveolar bone during the development of destructive periodontal disease in dogs. (author)

  12. Lead sorption characteristics of various chicken bone part-derived chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Cho, Ju-Sik; Delaune, Ronald D; Ok, Yong Sik; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-01-18

    Recycling food waste for beneficial use is becoming increasingly important in resource-limited economy. In this study, waste chicken bones of different parts from restaurant industry were pyrolyzed at 600 °C and evaluated for char physicochemical properties and Pb sorption characteristics. Lead adsorption isotherms by different chicken bone chars were carried out with initial Pb concentration range of 1-1000 mg L -1 at pH 5. The Pb adsorption data were better described by the Langmuir model (R 2  = 0.9289-0.9937; ARE = 22.7-29.3%) than the Freundlich model (R 2  = 0.8684-0.9544; ARE = 35.4-72.0%). Among the chars derived from different chicken bone parts, the tibia bone char exhibited the highest maximum Pb adsorption capacity of 263 mg g -1 followed by the pelvis (222 mg g -1 ), ribs (208 mg g -1 ), clavicle (179 mg g -1 ), vertebrae (159 mg g -1 ), and humerus (135 mg g -1 ). The Pb adsorption capacities were significantly and positively correlated with the surface area, phosphate release amount, and total phosphorus content of chicken bone chars (r ≥ 0.9711). On the other hand, approximately 75-88% of the adsorbed Pb on the chicken bone chars was desorbable with 0.1 M HCl, indicating their recyclability for reuse. Results demonstrated that chicken bone char could be used as an effective adsorbent for Pb removal in wastewater.

  13. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergler, Sandra; Man, Stella A. de; Boot, Annemieke M.; Heus, Karen G.C.B.B.; Huijbers, Wim A.R.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  14. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Care and Service Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Medical Department ASVZ, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Man, Stella A. de [Amphia Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Breda (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke M. [University of Groningen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Heus, Karen G.C.B.B. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Paediatrics, Sophia Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huijbers, Wim A.R. [Beatrix Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  15. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, L.

    2003-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  16. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.; Romanek, Christopher S.; Ferrandis, Pablo; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure

  17. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro, E-mail: pedroalvarez@geol.uniovi.es [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Departament of Geology, University of Oviedo, C/Jesús Arias de Velasco, s/n, 33005 Oviedo (Spain); Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Romanek, Christopher S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ferrandis, Pablo [Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez-Haro, Mónica [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure.

  18. Bone mineral measurements and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteopenia) is a major factor in the development of osteoporotic fractures in women after the menopause. The pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been pursued by dual lines of investigation: (1) development of a model to describe involutional bone loss, (2) identification of those factors which result in some healthy women having a greater risk for osteoporosis than others. Bone mineral measurements have been made using in vivo neutron activation analysis and whole body counting for the measurement of total body calcium (TBCa), single photon absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral content of the distal radius and dual photon absorptiometry for measurement of the bone density of the spine. TBCa is higher in men than women and is lost at a slow linear rate in men. Blacks have a skeletal mass about 8-9% higher than Caucasians. Women have a similar loss of TBCa to men prior to menopause, but then have an accelerated rate of loss after menopause. The change in bone density of the radius and spine with increasing age is also best described by a 2 phase regression in women, with appreciable loss after age 50

  19. [The morphofunctional state of the bone marrow in lead and zinc intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimtseva, T M; Pashkevich, I A; Salmina, A B

    2006-01-01

    The nucleolus is a compulsory nuclear structure of all cells of eukaryotes. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nuclei show the functional activity of a cell, the rate of its synthesis of RNA and portents, and its metabolic state. Heavy metals (zinc chloride and lead acetate) were comparatively investigated for their effects on the nucleolar apparatus of bone marrow cells in in vivo experiments. Zinc chloride and lead acetate were ascertained to damage the nucleolar apparatus of cells, thus decreasing their transcriptional activity or irreversibly damaging them.

  20. Intraoperative bone and bone marrow sampling: a simple method for accurate measurement of uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyen, W.J.G.; Buijs, W.C.A.M.; Kampen, A. van; Koenders, E.B.; Claessens, R.A.M.J.; Corstens, F.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate estimation of bone marrow uptake of radiopharmaceuticals is of crucial importance for accurate whole body dosimetry. In this study, a method for obtaining normal bone marrow and bone during routine surgery without inconvenience to volunteers is suggested and compared to an indirect method. In five volunteers (group 1), 4 MBq 111 In-labelled human polyclonal IgG ( 111 In-IgG) was administered 48h before placement of a total hip prosthesis. After resection of the femoral head and neck, bone marrow was aspirated from the medullary space with a biopsy needle. In five patients, suspected of having infectious disease (group 2), bone marrow uptake was calculated according to a well-accepted method using regions of interest over the lumbar spine, 48h after injection of 75 MBq 111 In-IgG. Bone marrow uptake in group 1 (4.5 ±1.3%D kg -1 ) was significantly lower than that in group 2 (8.5 ± 2.1%D kg -1 ) (P<0.01). Blood and plasma activity did not differ significantly for both groups. This method provides a system for directly and accurately measuring uptake and retention in normal bone marrow and bone of all radiopharmaceuticals at various time points. It is a safe and simple procedure without any discomfort to the patient. Since small amounts of activity are sufficient, the radiation dose to the patient is low. (author)

  1. The study of the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of bones of Catla catla due to lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, P L R M; Krishnakumar, N; Vadivelu, M; Vijayasundaram, V

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of lead-intoxicated bones of Catla catla at subchronic (15.5 ppm) exposure, and also to determine whether the effects of Pb intoxication can be reversed with the chelating agent meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the bones of freshwater fingerlings Catla catla by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The FT-IR spectra of the lead-exposed bones show significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to lead exposure. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the lead-exposed bones were less than those of the control group, and there was an increase in the mineral contents of the bones after DMSA treatment. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the subchronic lead exposure results in severe loss of bone minerals. The overall decrease in the FT-IR band intensity of Pb-exposed bones relative to the control indicates a decrease in the biochemical constituents like proteins and lipids. The increase in the band intensity after treatment with chelating agent DMSA indicates increased biochemical constituents, showing that the subchronic effects of lead can be reversed by DMSA. The amide I bands observed at 1654 cm(-1) in the present study suggest that the protein is dominated by alpha-helical structure.

  2. Pure hydroxyapatite phantoms for the calibration of in vivo X-ray fluorescence systems of bone lead and strontium quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Eric; Kirkham, Brian; Heyd, Darrick V; Pejović-Milić, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Plaster of Paris [poP, CaSO4·(1)/(2) H2O] is the standard phantom material used for the calibration of in vivo X-ray fluorescence (IVXRF)-based systems of bone metal quantification (i.e bone strontium and lead). Calibration of IVXRF systems of bone metal quantification employs the use of a coherent normalization procedure which requires the application of a coherent correction factor (CCF) to the data, calculated as the ratio of the relativistic form factors of the phantom material and bone mineral. Various issues have been raised as to the suitability of poP for the calibration of IVXRF systems of bone metal quantification which include its chemical purity and its chemical difference from bone mineral (a calcium phosphate). This work describes the preparation of a chemically pure hydroxyapatite phantom material, of known composition and stoichiometry, proposed for the purpose of calibrating IVXRF systems of bone strontium and lead quantification as a replacement for poP. The issue with contamination by the analyte was resolved by preparing pure Ca(OH)2 by hydroxide precipitation, which was found to bring strontium and lead levels to bone mineral component of NIST SRM 1486 (bone meal), as determined by powder X-ray diffraction spectrometry.

  3. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Connie; Cheong, Jennifer; Jackson, George; Elmore, David; McCabe, George; Martin, Berdine

    2007-01-01

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41 Ca and measuring urinary 41 Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41 Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3 H-tetracycline ( 3 H-TC) as a proxy for 41 Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3 H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats

  4. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergler, Sandra; de Man, Stella A.; Boot, Annemieke M; Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; Huijbers, Wim A. R.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children

  5. Bone composition measured by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.; Hukins, D.W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten composite samples consisting of cortical bone and adipose tissue, in known proportions, were made. The intensity of monochromatic x-rays (energy 8 keV) scattered by these samples was determined as a function of the modulus of the scattering vector, K. The ratio of the heights of peaks at K values of around 134 and 22 nm -1 provided a measure of the ratio of adipose tissue to bone mineral in these samples. This method was then used to determine the ratio of adipose tissue to mineral in samples of trabecular bone from 16 vertebral bodies. The results were correlated with measurements of the bone composition determined by ashing (r = 0.66) and histomorphometry (r = 0.66). Furthermore, the ashing and histomorphometry results were correlated with each other (r = 0.68). The feasibility of using higher energy x-rays (35-80 keV) for obtaining the same information from bone within the body is briefly discussed. (author)

  6. Lead and arsenic in bones of birds of prey from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo, R.; Taggart, M.; Meharg, A.A

    2003-11-01

    Raptors feeding on species targeted by hunters in upland habitats suffer from lead poisoning. - The bones (humerus and/or femur) of 229 birds of prey from 11 species were analyzed for Pb and As to evaluate their exposure to Pb shot. The species with the highest mean Pb levels were red kite (Milvus milvus) and Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus), and the species with the lowest levels were Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Red kite also had the highest mean As level, an element present in small amounts in Pb shot. Elevated bone Pb concentrations (>10 {mu}g/g dry weight) were found in 10 birds from six species. Clinical signs compatible with lethal Pb poisoning and/or excessive bone Pb concentrations (>20 {mu}g/g) were observed in one Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), one red kite, and one Eurasian griffon. Pb poisoning has been diagnosed in eight upland raptor species in Spain to date.

  7. Lead and arsenic in bones of birds of prey from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, R.; Taggart, M.; Meharg, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Raptors feeding on species targeted by hunters in upland habitats suffer from lead poisoning. - The bones (humerus and/or femur) of 229 birds of prey from 11 species were analyzed for Pb and As to evaluate their exposure to Pb shot. The species with the highest mean Pb levels were red kite (Milvus milvus) and Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus), and the species with the lowest levels were Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Red kite also had the highest mean As level, an element present in small amounts in Pb shot. Elevated bone Pb concentrations (>10 μg/g dry weight) were found in 10 birds from six species. Clinical signs compatible with lethal Pb poisoning and/or excessive bone Pb concentrations (>20 μg/g) were observed in one Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), one red kite, and one Eurasian griffon. Pb poisoning has been diagnosed in eight upland raptor species in Spain to date

  8. Effect measure modification of blood lead-air lead slope factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Meng, Qingyu; Cohen, Jonathan; Davis, J Allen; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant literature finding that susceptibility factors, including race and ethnicity, age, and housing, directly influence blood lead levels. No study has explored how susceptibility factors influence the blood lead-air lead relationship nationally. The objective is to evaluate whether susceptibility factors act as effect measure modifiers on the blood lead-air lead relationship. Participant level blood lead data from the 1999 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with air lead data from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Linear mixed effects models were run with and without an air lead interaction term for age group, sex, housing age, or race/ethnicity to determine whether these factors are effect measure modifiers for all ages combined and for five age brackets. Age group and race/ethnicity were determined to be effect measure modifiers in the all-age model and for some age groups. Being a child (1-5, 6-11, and 12-19 years) or of Mexican-American ethnicity increased the effect estimate. Living in older housing (built before 1950) decreased the effect estimate for all models except for the 1-5-year group, where older housing was an effect measure modifier. These results are consistent with the peer-reviewed literature of time-activity patterns, ventilation, and toxicokinetics.

  9. Quantitative metacarpal bone measurements before and after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus

    1986-01-01

    The outer (D) and inner diameter (d) of the second metacarpal bone, the combined cortical thickness (D-d), cortical area (D 2 -d 2 ) and bone mass ((D 2 d 2 /D 2 ) were measured in 74 renal transplant (RT) recipients at the time of renal transplantation and in a prospective analysis of 60 recipients after transplantation. The RT patient group was made up of recipients who after renal transplanation developed osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures (RT-ON/SF) and an age- and sex-matched renal control group of subjects who did not develop these complications (RT-C). At the time of renal transplantation, in renal transplant recipient men and women, significantly reduced values in D, D-d and D 2 -d 2 was noticed. These findings could be explained by a higher ratio of bone resoprtion than formation at the periosteal surface. Following renal transplantation, significant increases in d were seen with significant decreases in D-d, D 2 -d 2 and (D 2 -d 2 )/D 2 , probably due to endosteal bone resorption, whereas D was unchanged compared with normal control persons. In the total group and in RT-ON/SF women, D decreased significantly and in ON/SF, increased significantly with significant decrease in bone mass compared with normal women whereas no significant changes in the parameters were seen in RT-C women. These findings indicate that bone loss after transplantation continues at the periosteal surface in women. The bone loss was most markedly demonstrated in women, who subsequently develop osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures, probably due to combined periosteal and endosteal resorption of calcified bony tissue. (orig.)

  10. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  11. Iodide-assisted total lead measurement and determination of different lead fractions in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2012-07-01

    Lead and its compounds are toxic and can harm human health, especially the intelligence development in children. Accurate measurement of total lead present in drinking water is crucial in determining the extent of lead contamination and human exposure due to drinking water consumption. The USEPA method for total lead measurement (no. 200.8) is often used to analyze lead levels in drinking water. However, in the presence of high concentration of the tetravalent lead corrosion product PbO(2), the USEPA method was not able to fully recover particulate lead due to incomplete dissolution of PbO(2) particles during strong acid digestion. In this study, a new procedure that integrates membrane separation, iodometric PbO(2) measurement, strong acid digestion and ICP-MS measurement was proposed and evaluated for accurate total lead measurement and quantification of different lead fractions including soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2) in drinking water samples. The proposed procedure was evaluated using drinking water reconstituted with spiked Pb(2+), spiked particulate Pb(II) carbonate and in situ formed or spiked PbO(2). Recovery tests showed that the proposed procedure and the USEPA method can achieve 93-112% and 86-103% recoveries respectively for samples containing low PbO(2) concentrations (0.018-0.076 mg Pb per L). For samples containing higher concentrations of PbO(2) (0.089-1.316 mg Pb per L), the USEPA method failed to meet the recovery requirement for total lead (85-115%) while the proposed method can achieve satisfactory recoveries (91-111%) and differentiate the soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2).

  12. Protein malnutrition induces bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells commitment to adipogenic differentiation leading to hematopoietic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mayara Caldas Ramos; Lima, Fabiana da Silva; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Hastreiter, Araceli; Curi, Rui; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2013-01-01

    Protein malnutrition (PM) results in pathological changes that are associated with peripheral leukopenia, bone marrow (BM) hypoplasia and alterations in the BM microenvironment leading to hematopoietic failure; however, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this context, the BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cells intimately related to the formation of the BM microenvironment, and their differentiation into adipocytes is important because adipocytes are cells that have the capability to negatively modulate hematopoiesis. Two-month-old male Balb/c mice were subjected to protein-energy malnutrition with a low-protein diet containing 2% protein, whereas control animals were fed a diet containing 12% protein. The hematopoietic parameters and the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells in the BM were evaluated. MSCs were isolated from BM, and their capability to produce SCF, IL-3, G-CSF and GM-CSF were analyzed. The expression of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α as well as the expression of PPAR-γ and SREBP mRNAs were evaluated in MSCs together with their capability to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. The malnourished animals had anemia and leukopenia as well as spleen and bone marrow hypoplasia and a reduction in the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells from BM. The MSCs of the malnourished mice presented an increased capability to produce SCF and reduced production of G-CSF and GM-CSF. The MSCs from the malnourished animals showed increased expression of PPAR-γ protein and PPAR-γ mRNA associated with an increased capability to differentiate into adipocytes. The alterations found in the malnourished animals allowed us to conclude that malnutrition committed MSC differentiation leading to adipocyte decision and compromised their capacity for cytokine production, contributing to an impaired hematopoietic microenvironment and inducing the bone marrow failure commonly observed in protein malnutrition states.

  13. Protein Malnutrition Induces Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Commitment to Adipogenic Differentiation Leading to Hematopoietic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mayara Caldas Ramos; Lima, Fabiana da Silva; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Hastreiter, Araceli; Curi, Rui; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2013-01-01

    Protein malnutrition (PM) results in pathological changes that are associated with peripheral leukopenia, bone marrow (BM) hypoplasia and alterations in the BM microenvironment leading to hematopoietic failure; however, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this context, the BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cells intimately related to the formation of the BM microenvironment, and their differentiation into adipocytes is important because adipocytes are cells that have the capability to negatively modulate hematopoiesis. Two-month-old male Balb/c mice were subjected to protein-energy malnutrition with a low-protein diet containing 2% protein, whereas control animals were fed a diet containing 12% protein. The hematopoietic parameters and the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells in the BM were evaluated. MSCs were isolated from BM, and their capability to produce SCF, IL-3, G-CSF and GM-CSF were analyzed. The expression of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α as well as the expression of PPAR-γ and SREBP mRNAs were evaluated in MSCs together with their capability to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. The malnourished animals had anemia and leukopenia as well as spleen and bone marrow hypoplasia and a reduction in the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells from BM. The MSCs of the malnourished mice presented an increased capability to produce SCF and reduced production of G-CSF and GM-CSF. The MSCs from the malnourished animals showed increased expression of PPAR-γ protein and PPAR-γ mRNA associated with an increased capability to differentiate into adipocytes. The alterations found in the malnourished animals allowed us to conclude that malnutrition committed MSC differentiation leading to adipocyte decision and compromised their capacity for cytokine production, contributing to an impaired hematopoietic microenvironment and inducing the bone marrow failure commonly observed in protein malnutrition states. PMID:23516566

  14. Mapping the Pairwise Choices Leading from Pluripotency to Human Bone, Heart, and Other Mesoderm Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kyle M; Chen, Angela; Koh, Pang Wei; Deng, Tianda Z; Sinha, Rahul; Tsai, Jonathan M; Barkal, Amira A; Shen, Kimberle Y; Jain, Rajan; Morganti, Rachel M; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Fernhoff, Nathaniel B; George, Benson M; Wernig, Gerlinde; Salomon, Rachel E A; Chen, Zhenghao; Vogel, Hannes; Epstein, Jonathan A; Kundaje, Anshul; Talbot, William S; Beachy, Philip A; Ang, Lay Teng; Weissman, Irving L

    2016-07-14

    Stem-cell differentiation to desired lineages requires navigating alternating developmental paths that often lead to unwanted cell types. Hence, comprehensive developmental roadmaps are crucial to channel stem-cell differentiation toward desired fates. To this end, here, we map bifurcating lineage choices leading from pluripotency to 12 human mesodermal lineages, including bone, muscle, and heart. We defined the extrinsic signals controlling each binary lineage decision, enabling us to logically block differentiation toward unwanted fates and rapidly steer pluripotent stem cells toward 80%-99% pure human mesodermal lineages at most branchpoints. This strategy enabled the generation of human bone and heart progenitors that could engraft in respective in vivo models. Mapping stepwise chromatin and single-cell gene expression changes in mesoderm development uncovered somite segmentation, a previously unobservable human embryonic event transiently marked by HOPX expression. Collectively, this roadmap enables navigation of mesodermal development to produce transplantable human tissue progenitors and uncover developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo measurement of bone aluminum in population living in southern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K.; Aslam,; Pejovic-Milic, A.; Chettle, D. R. [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3, Canada and Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    The harmful biological effect of excessive aluminum (Al) load in humans has been well documented in the literature. Al stored in bone, for instance due to dialysis treatment or occupational exposure, can interfere with normal bone remodeling leading to osteodystrophy, osteoarthritis, or osteomalacia. On the other hand, the relationship between chronic Al exposure and the risk of Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. In this work, the feasibility of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) for measuring Al levels in the human hand bone, using the thermal neutron capture reaction {sup 27}Al(n,{gamma}){sup 28}Al, is reported. This noninvasive diagnostic technique employs a high beam current Tandetron accelerator based neutron source, an irradiation/shielding cavity, a 4{pi} NaI(Tl) detector system, and a new set of hand bone phantoms. The photon spectra of the irradiated phantom closely resemble those collected from the hands of nonexposed healthy subjects. A protocol was developed using the newly developed hand phantoms, which resulted in a minimum detectable limit (MDL) of 0.29 mg Al in the human hand. Using the ratio of Al to Ca as an index of Al levels per unit bone mass, the MDL was determined as 19.5{+-}1.5 {mu}g Al/g Ca, which is within the range of the measured levels of 20-27 {mu}g Al/g Ca[ICRP, Report of the Task Group on Reference Man, Publication 23 (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975)] found in other in vivo and in vitro studies. Following the feasibility studies conducted with phantoms, the diagnostic technique was used to measure Al levels in the hand bones of 20 healthy human subjects. The mean hand bone Al concentration was determined as 27.1{+-}16.1 ({+-}1 SD) {mu}g Al/g Ca. The average standard error (1{sigma}) in the Al/Ca is 14.0 {mu}g Al/g Ca, which corresponds to an average relative error of 50% in the measured levels of Al/Ca. These results were achieved with a dose equivalent of 17.6 mSv to a hand and an effective dose of 14.4 {mu}Sv. This

  16. Lead determinations in human bone by particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibel, M A; Savage, J M; Robertson, J D; Ehmann, W D [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Markesbery, W R [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Chronic lead (Pb) intoxication has been linked to Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Lead, like many heavy elements, tends to accumulate in bone. Pixe is a powerful analytical tool which permits the determination of Pb at the {mu}g/g level without requiring sample digestion. GFAAS is one of the most sensitive methods for the determination of Pb and is capable of determining ng/g levels is solution. For bone analyses by GFAAS, sample dissolution and a matrix modifier are required. Rib bone samples were analyzed for Pb by PIXE and GFAAS. IAEA Animal Bone (H-5) was used as a secondary standard for Pb with both methods to ensure accuracy. The range of Pb concentrations in human rib bone was 1.4-11.5 {mu}/g for the trabecular surface by PIXE, 1.3-45 {mu}g/g for the cortical surface by PIXE, and 1.54-11.75 {mu}g/g for whole bone by GFAAS. No significant difference p.<0.05 was found for AD versus control for either surface or for whole bone. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Lead determinations in human bone by particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deibel, M.A.; Savage, J.M.; Robertson, J.D.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic lead (Pb) intoxication has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lead, like many heavy elements, tends to accumulate in bone. Pixe is a powerful analytical tool which permits the determination of Pb at the μg/g level without requiring sample digestion. GFAAS is one of the most sensitive methods for the determination of Pb and is capable of determining ng/g levels is solution. For bone analyses by GFAAS, sample dissolution and a matrix modifier are required. Rib bone samples were analyzed for Pb by PIXE and GFAAS. IAEA Animal Bone (H-5) was used as a secondary standard for Pb with both methods to ensure accuracy. The range of Pb concentrations in human rib bone was 1.4-11.5 μ/g for the trabecular surface by PIXE, 1.3-45 μg/g for the cortical surface by PIXE, and 1.54-11.75 μg/g for whole bone by GFAAS. No significant difference (p.<0.05 was found for AD versus control for either surface or for whole bone. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Quantitative computed tomography in measurement of vertebral trabecular bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, M.; Johnell, O.; Jonsson, K.; Redlund-Johnell, I.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone mineral concentration (BMC) can be done by several modalities. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can be used for measurements at different sites and with different types of bone (trabecular-cortical). This study presents a modified method reducing the influence of fat. Determination of BMC was made from measurements with single-energy computed tomography (CT) of the mean Hounsfield number in the trabecular part of the L1 vertebra. The method takes into account the age-dependent composition of the trabecular part of the vertebra. As the amount of intravertebral fat increases with age, the effective atomic number for these parts decreases. This results in a non-linear calibration curve for single-energy CT. Comparison of BMC values using the non-linear calibration curve or the traditional linear calibration with those obtained with a pixel-by-pixel based electron density calculation method (theoretically better) showed results clearly in favor of the non-linear method. The material consisted of 327 patients aged 6 to 91 years, of whom 197 were considered normal. The normal data show a sharp decrease in trabecular bone after the age of 50 in women. In men a slower decrease was found. The vertebrae were larger in men than in women. (orig.)

  19. Lead induces chondrogenesis and alters transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mesenchymal cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuscik, Michael J; Ma, Lin; Buckley, Taylor; Puzas, J Edward; Drissi, Hicham; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2007-09-01

    It has been established that skeletal growth is stunted in lead-exposed children. Because chondrogenesis is a seminal step during skeletal development, elucidating the impact of Pb on this process is the first step toward understanding the mechanism of Pb toxicity in the skeleton. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Pb alters chondrogenic commitment of mesenchymal cells and to assess the effects of Pb on various signaling pathways. We assessed the influence of Pb on chondrogenesis in murine limb bud mesenchymal cells (MSCs) using nodule formation assays and gene analyses. The effects of Pb on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling was studied using luciferase-based reporters and Western analyses, and luciferase-based assays were used to study cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), beta-catenin, AP-1, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling. We also used an ectopic bone formation assay to determine how Pb affects chondrogenesis in vivo. Pb-exposed MSCs showed enhanced basal and TGF-beta/BMP induction of chondrogenesis, evidenced by enhanced nodule formation and up-regulation of Sox-9, type 2 collagen, and aggrecan, all key markers of chondrogenesis. We observed enhanced chondrogenesis during ectopic bone formation in mice preexposed to Pb via drinking water. In MSCs, Pb enhanced TGF-beta but inhibited BMP-2 signaling, as measured by luciferase reporter assays and Western analyses of Smad phosphorylation. Although Pb had no effect on basal CREB or Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activity, it induced NFkappaB signaling and inhibited AP-1 signaling. The in vitro and in vivo induction of chondrogenesis by Pb likely involves modulation and integration of multiple signaling pathways including TGF-beta, BMP, AP-1, and NFkappaB.

  20. MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Punyanitya, M; Shapses, S; Heshka, S; Heymsfield, S B

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Previous research using regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods to measure BMAT has reported inconsistent findings on the relationship between BMAT and dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA)-measured bone mineral density (BMD). In the present study, total body and pelvic BMAT were evaluated in 56 healthy women (age 18-88 yrs, mean +/- SD, 47.4 +/- 17.6 yrs; BMI, 24.3 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2)) with T1-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BMD was measured using the whole-body DXA mode (GE Lunar DPX, software version 4.7). A strong negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and BMD (total-body BMD, R = -0.743, P BMAT and BMD (total-body BMD, R = -0.443, P BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for age, weight, total body fat, and menopausal status (partial correlation: total-body BMD, R = -0.553, P BMAT was also highly correlated with age (pelvic BMAT, R = 0.715, P BMAT, R = 0.519, P BMAT is thus strongly inversely correlated with DXA-measured BMD independent of other predictor variables. These observations, in the context of DXA technical concerns, support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density.

  1. Methodologies for the measurement of bone density and their precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Radiographic methods of determining bone density have been available for many years, but recently most of the efforts in this field have focused on the development of instruments which would accurately and automatically measure bone density by absorption, or by the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT). Single energy absorptiometers using I-125 have been available for some years, and have been used primarily for measurements on the radius, although recently equipment for measuring the os calcis has become available. Accuracy of single energy measurements is about 3% to 5%; precision, which has been poor because of the difficulty of exact repositioning, has recently been improved by automatic methods so that it now approaches 1% or better. Dual energy sources offer the advantages of greater accuracy and the ability to measure the spine and other large bones. A number of dual energy scanners are now on the market, mostly using gadolinium-153 as a source. Dual energy scanning is capable of an accuracy of a few percent, but the precision when scanning patients can vary widely, due to the difficulty of comparing exactly the same areas; 2 to 4% would appear to be typical. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can be used to directly measure the trabecular bone within the vertebral body. The accuracy of single-energy QCT is affected by the amount of marrow fat present, which can lead to underestimations of 10% or more. An increase in marrow fat would cause an apparent decrease in bone mineral. However, the precision can be quite good, 1% or 2% on phantoms, and nearly as good on patients when four vertebrae are averaged. Dual energy scanning can correct for the presence of fat, but is less precise, and not available on all CT units. 52 references

  2. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1991-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.)

  3. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  4. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenberg, D.; Kalender, W.A.; Banzer, D.; Schmilinsky, G.; Heyse, M.; Fischer, E.; Schneider, U.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen; Krankenhaus Zehlendorf, Berlin

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for measuring bone mineral content of lumbar vertebrae is increasingly used internationally. The effect of using conventional CT (single energy CT, SE-CT) and dual energy CT (DE-CT) on reproducibility has been examined. We defined a standard measurement protocol, which automatically evaluates a calibration phantom. This should ensure an in vivo reproducibility of 1 to 2%. Reference data, which has been obtained with this protocol from 113 normal subjects, using SE-CT ad DE-CT, are presented. (orig.) [de

  5. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor deletion leads to reduced bone strength and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2013-10-01

    Bone is permanently remodeled by a complex network of local, hormonal and neuronal factors that affect osteoclast and osteoblast biology. In this context, a role for gastro-intestinal hormones has been proposed based on evidence that bone resorption dramatically falls after a meal. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is one of the candidate hormones as its receptor, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR), is expressed in bone. In the present study we investigated bone strength and quality by three-point bending, quantitative x-ray microradiography, microCT, qBEI and FTIR in a GIPR knockout (GIPR KO) mouse model and compared with control wild-type (WT) animals. Animals with a deletion of the GIPR presented with a significant reduction in ultimate load (--11%), stiffness (-16%), total absorbed (-28%) and post-yield energies (-27%) as compared with WT animals. Furthermore, despite no change in bone outer diameter, the bone marrow diameter was significantly increased and as a result cortical thickness was significantly decreased by 20% in GIPR deficient animals. Bone resorption at the endosteal surface was significantly increased whilst bone formation was unchanged in GIPR deficient animals. Deficient animals also presented with a pronounced reduction in the degree of mineralization of bone matrix. Furthermore, the amount of mature cross-links of collagen matrix was significantly reduced in GIPR deficient animals and was associated with lowered intrinsic material properties. Taken together, these data support a positive effect of the GIPR on bone strength and quality. © 2013.

  6. Measurement of MC5 antibody distribution in blood and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.K.; Gonzales, R.; Kasliwal, R.; Lear, J.; Feyerabend, A.; Ceriani, R.; Bunn, P.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bone marrow is most often the dose-limiting organ in radioimmunotherapy. Controversy exists over optimal methods of estimating dose exposure to bone marrow. The purpose of this paper is to compare bone marrow activity from serial blood samples versus bone marrow biopsy specimens as measures of dose exposure to bone marrow. Peripheral blood samples and bone marrow biopsy specimens were obtained at 48 and 168 hours after infusion from 12 female patients infused with iodine-131-labeled MC5 antibody. The percentage of bone marrow in each biopsy specimen was assumed to be equivalent to the percentage of active bone marrow estimated to be in the pelvis. Activity present in the bone marrow as calculated with use of the estimated bone marrow mass for an adult female and then compared with the peripheral blood activity

  7. Measurement of the Muon Stopping Power in Lead Tungstate

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M., Jr.; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Garcia-Bonilla, A C; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Marin, J; Merino, G; Molina, J; Molinero, A; Navarrete, J J; Oller, J C; Puerta Pelayo, J; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Villanueva Munoz, C; Willmott, C; Yuste, C; Albajar, C; Blanco Otano, M; de Trocóniz, J F; Garcia Raboso, A; Lopez Berengueres, J O; Cuevas, J; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Lloret Iglesias, L; Naves Sordo, H; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chuang, S H; Diaz Merino, I; Diez Gonzalez, C; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Gonzalez Sanchez, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Jorda, C; Lobelle Pardo, P; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Marco, R; Martinez Rivero, C; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Sobron Sanudo, M; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Albert, E; Alidra, M; Ashby, S; Auffray, E; Baechler, J; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Bally, S L; Barney, D; Beaudette, F; Bellan, R; Benedetti, D; Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; Olesen, G; Onnela, A; Orimoto, T; Orsini, L; Perez, E; Perinic, G; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petiot, P; Petrilli, A; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Pintus, R; Pirollet, B; Postema, H; Racz, A; Ravat, S; Rew, S B; Rodrigues Antunes, J; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M; Ryjov, V; Sakulin, H; Samyn, D; Sauce, H; Schäfer, C; Schlatter, W D; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Sciaba, A; Segoni, I; Sharma, A; Siegrist, N; Siegrist, P; Sinanis, N; Sobrier, T; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Spiropulu, M; Stöckli, F; Traczyk, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Veillet, L; Veres, G I; Voutilainen, M; Wertelaers, P; Zanetti, M; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Meier, F; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Sibille, J; Starodumov, A; Betev, B; Caminada, L; Chen, Z; Cittolin, S; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Dambach, S; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Eggel, C; Eugster, J; Faber, G; Freudenreich, K; Grab, C; Hervé, A; Hintz, W; Lecomte, P; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Marchica, C; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Nardulli, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Punz, T; Rizzi, A; Ronga, F J; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M C; Sordini, V; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Trüb, P; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Zelepoukine, S; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Tsirigkas, D; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y; Lei, Y J; Lin, S W; Lu, R S; Schümann, J; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Velikzhanin, Y; Wang, C C; Wang, M; Adiguzel, A; Ayhan, A; Azman Gokce, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Karaman, T; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kurt, P; Önengüt, G; Önengüt Gökbulut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Zeyrek, M; Deliomeroglu, M; Demir, D; Gülmez, E; Halu, A; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Levchuk, L; Lukyanenko, S; Soroka, D; Zub, S; Bostock, F; Brooke, J J; Cheng, T L; Cussans, D; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grant, N; Hansen, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hill, C; Huckvale, B; Jackson, J; Mackay, C K; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Smith, V J; Velthuis, J; Walton, R; Bell, K W; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Geddes, N I; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Murray, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Williams, J H; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; MacEvoy, B C; Magnan, A M; Marrouche, J; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    A large sample of cosmic ray events collected by the CMS detector is exploited to measure the specific energy loss of muons in the lead tungstate of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The measurement spans a momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The results are consistent with the expectations over the entire range. The calorimeter energy scale, set with 120 GeV/c electrons, is validated down to the sub-GeV region using energy deposits, of order 100 MeV, associated with low-momentum muons. The muon critical energy in lead tungstate is measured to be 160+5/-6 plus or minus 8 GeV, in agreement with expectations. This is the first experimental determination of muon critical energy.

  8. Limited Associations between Keel Bone Damage and Bone Properties Measured with Computer Tomography, Three-Point Bending Test, and Analysis of Minerals in Swiss Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine G. Gebhardt-Henrich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage is a wide-spread welfare problem in laying hens. It is unclear so far whether bone quality relates to keel bone damage. The goal of the present study was to detect possible associations between keel bone damage and bone properties of intact and damaged keel bones and of tibias in end-of-lay hens raised in loose housing systems. Bones were palpated and examined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (PQCT, a three-point bending test, and analyses of bone ash. Contrary to our expectations, PQCT revealed higher cortical and trabecular contents in fractured than in intact keel bones. This might be due to structural bone repair after fractures. Density measurements of cortical and trabecular tissues of keel bones did not differ between individuals with and without fractures. In the three-point bending test of the tibias, ultimate shear strength was significantly higher in birds with intact vs. fractured keel bones. Likewise, birds with intact or slightly deviated keel bones had higher mineral and calcium contents of the keel bone than birds with fractured keel bones. Calcium content in keel bones was correlated with calcium content in tibias. Although there were some associations between bone traits related to bone strength and keel bone damage, other factors such as stochastic events related to housing such as falls and collisions seem to be at least as important for the prevalence of keel bone damage.

  9. The usefulness of measurement of whole body count in assessing bone marrow metastasis in cancer patients with increased periarticular bone uptake on follow-up bone scan: a comparison with bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seong Chan; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin

    2003-01-01

    Increased periarticular uptake could be associated with peripheral bone marrow expansion in cancer patients with axial bone marrow metastasis. We compared bone scan and bone marrow scan to investigate whether the increased whole body count in patients with increased periarticular uptake on bone scan is useful in the diagnosis of axial marrow metastasis, and evaluate the role of additional bone marrow scan in these cases. Twelve patients with malignant diseases who showed increased periarticular uptake on bone scan were included. Whole body count was measured on bone scan and it is considered to be increased when the count is more than twice of other patients. Bone marrow scan was taken within 3-7 days. Five hematologic malignancy, 3 stomach cancer, 2 breast cancer, 1 prostate cancer and 1 lung canner were included. All three patients with increased whole body count on bone scan showed axial marrow suppression and peripheral marrow expansion. Eight of 9 patients without increased whole body count showed axial marrow suppression and peripheral marrow expansion. One turned out to be blastic crisis of chronic myelogeneous leukemia, and seven showed normal axial marrow with peripheral marrow expansion in chronic anemia of malignancy. The last one without increased whole body count showed normal bone marrow scan finding. Increased whole body count on bone scan could be a clue to axial bone marrow metastasis in cancer patients with increased periarticular uptake, and bone marrow scan is a valuable method for differential diagnosis in these cases

  10. Du-Zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) Cortex Extract Alleviates Lead Acetate-Induced Bone Loss in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shanshan; Zheng, Hongxing; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Hai

    2018-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Du-Zhong cortex extract (DZCE) on lead acetate-induced bone loss in rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: group I (control) was provided with distilled water. Group II (PbAc) received 500 ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 60 days. Group III (PbAc+DZCE) received 500 ppm lead acetate in drinking water, and given intragastric DZCE (100 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days. Group IV (DZCE) was given intragastric DZCE (100 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days. The bone mineral density, serum biochemical markers, bone histomorphology, and bone marrow adipocyte parameters were analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, biochemistry, histomorphometry, and histopathology, respectively. The results showed that the lumbar spine and femur bone mineral density was significantly decreased in PbAc group compared with the control (P  0.05, vs. control and DZCE group). Serum calcium and serum phosphorus in the PbAc+DZCE group were greater than that in the PbAc group (P control group (P control, and DZCE groups (P > 0.05). Serum OPG and OPG/RANKL ration were significantly higher in the PbAc+DZCE group than that in the PbAc group (P control group, but those were restored in the PbAc+DZCE groups. The bone marrow adipocyte number, percent adipocyte volume per tissue volume (AV/TV), and mean adipocyte diameter were significantly increased in the PbAc group compared to the control (P control group were not significant. The results above indicate that the Du-Zhong cortex extract has protective effects on both stimulation of bone formation and suppression of bone resorption in lead-exposed rats, therefore, Du-Zhong cortex extract has the potential to prevent or treat osteoporosis resulting from lead expose.

  11. Overview on heavy flavour measurements in lead-lead collisions at the CERN-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mischke, Andre

    2013-01-01

    High energy collisions of heavy atomic nuclei allow to create and carefully study a high-density, colour-deconfined state of strongly-interacting matter. According to calculations from lattice Quantum-Chromodynamics, under the conditions of high energy density and temperature reached in such collisions, the phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is expected to occur, where the colour confinement of quarks and gluons into hadrons should vanish and chiral symmetry should be restored. Heavy-flavour particles, containing charm and beauty, are unique probes of the conditions of the medium formed in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy. In this report recent measurements on open and hidden heavy-flavour production in lead-lead collisions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are presented and discussed.

  12. DXA measurements in rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine

    2011-01-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients...

  13. Establishing quiescence in human bone marrow stem cells leads to enhanced osteoblast marker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rumman, Mohammad; Kassem, Moustapha

    Human bone marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hBMSC) are cells that retain a multi-lineage differentiation potential and are thus increasingly being investigated for use in clinical applications. In vivo BMSC, which comprise approximately 0.1% of the bone marrow compartment, are thought to mai...

  14. Exploring thermal anisotropy of cortical bone using temperature measurements in drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khurshid

    2016-05-12

    Bone drilling is widely used in orthopaedics for fracture treatment, reconstructive surgery and bone biopsy. Heat generation in bone drilling can cause rise in bone temperature resulting in prolonged healing time or loosening of fixation. The purpose of this study was to investigate thermal anisotropy of bone by measuring the level of temperature in bone drilling with and without cooling conditions in two anatomical directions. Drilling tests were performed on bovine cortical bone. A total of fifteen specimens were used to obtain data for statistical analysis. Temperature near the cutting zone was measured in two anatomical directions. i.e. along the longitudinal and circumferential direction. Temperature distribution was also found in the two prescribed directions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify significant drilling parameter affecting bone temperature. Drilling speed, feed rate and drill size were found influential parameters affecting bone temperature. Higher drilling speed, feed rate, and large drill size were found to cause elevated temperature in bone. Much lower temperature was measured in bone when cooling fluid was supplied to the drilling region. Experimental results revealed lower temperatures in the circumferential direction compared to the longitudinal direction. Thermal anisotropy for heat transport was found in the bone. This study recommends lower drilling speed and feed rate and cooling for controlling rise in bone temperature.

  15. Measurement Of Lead Equivalent Thickness For Irradiation Room: An Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Azuhar Ripin; Husaini Salleh; Mohd Khairusalih Mohd Zin; Muhammad Jamal Muhd Isa; Mohd Faizal Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has established that the irradiation room must have a sufficient thickness of shielding to ensure that requirements for the purpose of radiation protection of patients, employees and the public are met. This paper presents a technique using americium-241 source to test and verify the integrity of the shielding thickness in term of lead equivalent for irradiation room at health clinics own by MOH. Results of measurement of 8 irradiation rooms conducted in 2014 were analyzed for this presentation. Technical comparison of the attenuation of gamma rays from Am-241 source through the walls of the irradiation room and pieces of lead were used to assess the lead equivalent thickness of the walls. Results showed that almost all the irradiation rooms tested meet the requirements of the Ministry of Health and is suitable for the installation of the intended diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Some specific positions such as door knobs and locks, electrical plug sockets were identified with potential to not met the required lead equivalent thickness hence may contribute to higher radiation exposure to workers and the public. (author)

  16. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    3D data sets of human tibia bone biopsies acquired by a micro-CT scanner. In order to justify the newly proposed approach, the measures of complexity of the bone architecture were compared with the results of traditional 2D bone histomorphometry. The proposed technique is able to quantify...

  17. DXA measurements in Rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine; Andersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jytte Bieber; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2011-09-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients with RTT do have low BMD when correcting for smaller bones by examination with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared areal BMD (aBMD(spine) and aBMD(total hip) ) and volumetric bone mineral apparent density (vBMAD(spine) and vBMAD(neck) ) in 61 patients and 122 matched healthy controls. Further, spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD of patients were associated with clinical risk factors of low BMD, low-energy fractures, MECP2 mutation groups, and X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Patients with RTT had reduced bone size on the order of 10% and showed lower values of spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD (p bone mass and small bones are evident in RTT, indicating an apparent low-bone-formation phenotype. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Neutron transmission measurements of zinc and lead single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements of zinc and lead single crystals have been carried out in a neutron wavelength band from 0.03 to 0.55 nm at different orientations of the crystal with regard to the beam direction. The measurements were performed using both time-of-flight and fixed-angle scattering spectrometers installed in front of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. It was found that the position of the observed dips in the neutron transmission measurements corresponded to the reflections from the (h k l) planes of the hexagonal zinc single crystal which was cut along the (0 0 2) plane, while in the case of lead, the single crystal was cut perpendicular to the (3 1 1) plane. The reflectivity from the (0 0 2) plane of zinc was determined using both transmission and reflection methods. The maximum reflectivity was found to be 55% when the zinc crystal was orientated at 45 0 to the beam direction. The wavelength spread of the observed reflectivity curve was found to be in agreement with the calculated one, taking into consideration the spectrometer's resolution and the crystal mosaic spread. (author)

  19. Determination of lead in bone tissues by axially viewed inductively coupled plasma multichannel-based emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Marco; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Dalla Riva, Simona; Soggia, Francesco; Frache, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    A new procedure for determining low levels of lead in bone tissues has been developed. After wet acid digestion in a pressurized microwave-heated system, the solution was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma multichannel-based emission spectrometry. Internal standardization using the Co 228.615 nm reference line was chosen as the optimal method to compensate for the matrix effects from the presence of calcium and nitric acid at high concentration levels. The detection limit of the procedure was 0.11 microg Pb g(-1) dry mass. Instrumental precision at the analytical concentration of approximately 10 microg l(-1) ranged from 6.1 to 9.4%. Precision of the sample preparation step was 5.4%. The concentration of lead in SRM 1486 (1.32+/-0.04 microg g(-1)) found using the new procedure was in excellent agreement with the certified level (1.335+/-0.014 microg g(-1)). Finally, the method was applied to determine the lead in various fish bone tissues, and the analytical results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The method is therefore suitable for the reliable determination of lead at concentration levels of below 1 microg g(-1) in bone samples. Moreover, the multi-element capability of the technique allows us to simultaneously determine other major or trace elements in order to investigate inter-element correlation and to compute enrichment factors, making the proposed procedure particularly useful for investigating lead occurrence and pathways in fish bone tissues in order to find suitable biomarkers for the Antarctic marine environment.

  20. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    values decreased with age (P shoulder BMD levels increased significantly with increased body mass index (BMI) (P positive relationship between the increased hip/shoulder BMD differential with BMI supports the conclusion that the shoulder is subject......The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... of osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  1. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  2. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  3. Addition of blood to a phycogenic bone substitute leads to increased in vivo vascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbeck, Mike; Sader, Robert; Ghanaati, Shahram; Najman, Stevo; Stojanović, Sanja; Živković, Jelena M; Mitić, Žarko; Choukroun, Joseph; Kovačević, Predrag; James Kirkpatrick, C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the effects of the addition of blood to the phycogenic bone substitute Algipore ® on the severity of in vivo tissue reaction. Initially, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the bone substitute was conducted to analyze its chemical composition. The subcutaneous implantation model in Balb/c mice was then applied for up to 30 d to analyze the tissue reactions on the basis of specialized histochemical, immunohistochemical, and histomorphometrical methods. The data of the FTIR analysis showed that the phycogenic bone substitute material is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite with some carbonate content. The in vivo analyses revealed that the addition of blood to Algipore ® had a major impact on both angiogenesis and vessel maturation. The higher vascularization seemed to be based on significantly higher numbers of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells. However, mostly macrophages and a relatively low number of multinucleated giant cells were involved in the tissue reaction to Algipore ® . The presented data show that the addition of blood to a bone substitute impacts the tissue reaction to it. In particular, the immune response and the vascularization were influenced, and these are believed to have a major impact on the regenerative potential of the process of bone tissue regeneration. (paper)

  4. Three-dimensional measurement of temporal bone by using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroki; Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Azuma, Hiroji; Itou, Akihiko

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of anatomical indices in human temporal bone has been reported only sporadically using high resolution CT. We developed a method for measuring such indices by computer assisted processing of images obtained by high resolusion CT. Intensive measurement of distances between all anatomical points in the entire temporal bone structure became possible with this method. (author)

  5. Clavicular bone tunnel malposition leads to early failures in coracoclavicular ligament reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jay B; Shaha, James S; Rowles, Douglas J; Bottoni, Craig R; Shaha, Steven H; Tokish, John M

    2013-01-01

    Modern techniques for the treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations have largely centered on free tendon graft reconstructions. Recent biomechanical studies have demonstrated that an anatomic reconstruction with 2 clavicular bone tunnels more closely matches the properties of native coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments than more traditional techniques. No study has analyzed tunnel position in regard to risk of early failure. To evaluate the effect of clavicular tunnel position in CC ligament reconstruction as a risk of early failure. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of CC ligament reconstructions performed with 2 clavicular bone tunnels and a free tendon graft. The population was largely a young, active-duty military group of patients. Radiographs were analyzed for the maintenance of reduction and location of clavicular bone tunnels using a picture archiving and communication system. The distance from the lateral border of the clavicle to the center of each bone tunnel was divided by the total clavicular length to establish a ratio. Medical records were reviewed for operative details and functional outcome. Failure was defined as loss of intraoperative reduction. The overall failure rate was 28.6% (8/28) at an average of 7.4 weeks postoperatively. Comparison of bone tunnel position showed that medialized bone tunnels were a significant predictor for early loss of reduction for the conoid (a ratio of 0.292 vs 0.248; P = .012) and trapezoid bone tunnels (a ratio of 0.171 vs 0.128; P = .004); this correlated to an average of 7 to 9 mm more medial in the reconstructions that failed. Reconstructions performed with a conoid ratio of ≥0.30 were significantly more likely to fail (5/5, 100%) than were those performed lateral to a ratio of 0.30 (3/23, 13.0%) (P < .01). There were no failures when the conoid ratio was <0.25 (0/10, 0%). Conoid tunnel placement was also statistically significant for

  6. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  7. LEAD SLOWING DOWN SPECTROSCOPY FOR DIRECT Pu MASS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressler, Jennifer J.; Smith, Leon E.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2008-01-01

    The direct measurement of Pu in previously irradiated fuel assemblies is a recognized need in the international safeguards community. A suitable technology could support more timely and independent material control and accounting (MC and A) measurements at nuclear fuel storage areas, the head-end of reprocessing facilities, and at the product-end of recycled fuel fabrication. Lead slowing down spectroscopy (LSDS) may be a viable solution for directly measuring not only the mass of 239Pu in fuel assemblies, but also the masses of other fissile isotopes such as 235U and 241Pu. To assess the potential viability of LSDS, an LSDS spectrometer was modeled in MCNP5 and 'virtual assays' of nominal PWR assemblies ranging from 0 to 60 GWd/MTU burnup were completed. Signal extraction methods, including the incorporation of nonlinear fitting to account for self-shielding effects in strong resonance regions, are described. Quantitative estimates of Pu uncertainty are given for simplistic and more realistic fuel isotopic inventories calculated using ORIGEN. A discussion of additional signal-perturbing effects that will be addressed in future work, and potential signal extraction approaches that could improve Pu mass uncertainties, are also discussed

  8. Measured radionuclide production from copper, gold and lead spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, T.A.; Belian, A.P. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Spallation target materials are chosen so as to produce large numbers of neutrons while at the same time avoiding the creation of long-lived radioactive wastes. While there has been considerable research to determine the number of neutrons produced per incident particle for various target materials, there has been less effort to precisely quantify the types and amounts of radionuclides produced. Accurate knowledge of the radioactive species produced by spallation reactions is important for specifying waste disposal criteria for targets. In order to verify the production rates calculated by LAHET, a study has been conducted using the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Cyclotron to measure radionuclide yields from copper, gold, and lead targets.

  9. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low cortical bone density measured by computed tomography in children and adolescents with untreated hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Costin, Gertrude; Gilsanz, Vicente; Pitukcheewanont, Pisit

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether increased thyroid hormones levels have an effect on various bone components (cortical vs cancellous bone). The anthropometric and 3-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (CT) bone measurements, including bone density (BD), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the lumbar spine and femur, and cortical bone area (CBA) of the femur, of 18 children and adolescents with untreated hyperthyroidism were reviewed and compared with those of age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched historical controls. No significant differences in height, weight, body mass index (BMI), or pubertal staging between patients and controls were found. Cortical BD was significantly lower (P hyperthyroidism compared with historical controls. After adjusting for weight and height, no difference in femur CSA between hyperthyroid children and historical controls was evident. No significant correlations among thyroid hormone levels, antithyroid antibody levels, and cortical BD values were found. As determined by CT, cortical bone is the preferential site of bone loss in children and adolescents with untreated hyperthyroidism.

  11. Trapezium Bone Density-A Comparison of Measurements by DXA and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddam Mosegaard, Sebastian; Breddam Mosegaard, Kamille; Bouteldja, Nadia; Bæk Hansen, Torben; Stilling, Maiken

    2018-01-18

    Bone density may influence the primary fixation of cementless implants, and poor bone density may increase the risk of implant failure. Before deciding on using total joint replacement as treatment in osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, it is valuable to determine the trapezium bone density. The aim of this study was to: (1) determine the correlation between measurements of bone mineral density of the trapezium obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans by a circumference method and a new inner-ellipse method; and (2) to compare those to measurements of bone density obtained by computerized tomography (CT)-scans in Hounsfield units (HU). We included 71 hands from 59 patients with a mean age of 59 years (43-77). All patients had Eaton-Glickel stage II-IV trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint osteoarthritis, were under evaluation for trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement, and underwent DXA and CT wrist scans. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.94) between DXA bone mineral density measures using the circumference and the inner-ellipse method. There was a moderate correlation between bone density measures obtained by DXA- and CT-scans with (r = 0.49) for the circumference method, and (r = 0.55) for the inner-ellipse method. DXA may be used in pre-operative evaluation of the trapezium bone quality, and the simpler DXA inner-ellipse measurement method can replace the DXA circumference method in estimation of bone density of the trapezium.

  12. Trapezium Bone Density—A Comparison of Measurements by DXA and CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Breddam Mosegaard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone density may influence the primary fixation of cementless implants, and poor bone density may increase the risk of implant failure. Before deciding on using total joint replacement as treatment in osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, it is valuable to determine the trapezium bone density. The aim of this study was to: (1 determine the correlation between measurements of bone mineral density of the trapezium obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scans by a circumference method and a new inner-ellipse method; and (2 to compare those to measurements of bone density obtained by computerized tomography (CT-scans in Hounsfield units (HU. We included 71 hands from 59 patients with a mean age of 59 years (43–77. All patients had Eaton–Glickel stage II–IV trapeziometacarpal (TM joint osteoarthritis, were under evaluation for trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement, and underwent DXA and CT wrist scans. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.94 between DXA bone mineral density measures using the circumference and the inner-ellipse method. There was a moderate correlation between bone density measures obtained by DXA- and CT-scans with (r = 0.49 for the circumference method, and (r = 0.55 for the inner-ellipse method. DXA may be used in pre-operative evaluation of the trapezium bone quality, and the simpler DXA inner-ellipse measurement method can replace the DXA circumference method in estimation of bone density of the trapezium.

  13. Feasibility of Quantitative Ultrasound Measurement of the Heel Bone in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, S.; Lobker, B.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2010-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures are common in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Reduced mobility in case of motor impairment and the use of anti-epileptic drugs contribute to the development of low BMD. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement of the heel bone is a non-invasive and radiation-free method for measuring bone…

  14. Modeling the effect of levothyroxine therapy on bone mass density in postmenopausal women: a different approach leads to new inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavangar Seyed

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of osteoporosis is a national health emergency. Osteoporosis quietly progresses without symptoms until late stage complications occur. Older patients are more commonly at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. The fracture risk increases when suppressive doses of levothyroxine are administered especially in postmenopausal women. The question is; "When should bone mass density be tested in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy?". Standard guidelines for the prevention of osteoporosis suggest that follow-up be done in 1 to 2 years. We were interested in predicting the level of bone mass density in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy with a novel approach. Methods The study used data from the literature on the influence of exogenous thyroid hormones on bone mass density. Four cubic polynomial equations were obtained by curve fitting for Ward's triangle, trochanter, spine and femoral neck. The behaviors of the models were investigated by statistical and mathematical analyses. Results There are four points of inflexion on the graphs of the first derivatives of the equations with respect to time at about 6, 5, 7 and 5 months. In other words, there is a maximum speed of bone loss around the 6th month after the start of suppressive L-thyroxine therapy in post-menopausal women. Conclusion It seems reasonable to check bone mass density at the 6th month of therapy. More research is needed to explain the cause and to confirm the clinical application of this phenomenon for osteoporosis, but such an approach can be used as a guide to future experimentation. The investigation of change over time may lead to more sophisticated decision making in a wide variety of clinical problems.

  15. THE MEASUREMENT OF BONE QUALITY USING GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURAL FEATURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Huang, Ning; Dong, Xuanliang Neil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, statistical methods for the estimation of bone quality to predict the risk of fracture are reported. Bone mineral density and bone architecture properties are the main contributors of bone quality. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the traditional clinical measurement technique for bone mineral density, but does not include architectural information to enhance the prediction of bone fragility. Other modalities are not practical due to cost and access considerations. This study investigates statistical parameters based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) extracted from two-dimensional projection images and explores links with architectural properties and bone mechanics. Data analysis was conducted on Micro-CT images of 13 trabecular bones (with an in-plane spatial resolution of about 50μm). Ground truth data for bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone strength and modulus were available based on complex 3D analysis and mechanical tests. Correlation between the statistical parameters and biomechanical test results was studied using regression analysis. The results showed Cluster-Shade was strongly correlated with the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and related to mechanical properties. Once the principle thesis of utilizing second-order statistics is established, it can be extended to other modalities, providing cost and convenience advantages for patients and doctors.

  16. Studies of coherent/Compton scattering method for bone mineral content measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Iwanami, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Keiji; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Imamura, Keiko.

    1980-01-01

    A measurement of bone mineral content by a coherent/Compton scattering method was described. A bone sample was irradiated by a collimated narrow beam of 59.6 keV gamma-rays emitted from a 300 mCi 241 Am source, and the scattered radiations were detected using a collimated pure germanium detector placed at 90 0 to the incident beam. The ratio of coherent to Compton peaks in a spectrum of the scattered radiations depends on the bone mineral content of the bone sample. The advantage of this method is that bone mineral content of a small region in a bone can be accurately measured. Assuming that bone consists of two components, protein and bone mineral, and that the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering is independent of material, the coherent to Compton scattering ratio is linearly related to the percentage in weight of bone mineral. A calibration curve was obtained by measuring standard samples which were mixed with Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and H 2 O. The error due to the assumption about the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering and to the difference between true bone and standard samples was estimated to be less than 3% within the range from 10 to 60% in weight of bone mineral. The fat in bone affects an estimated value by only 1.5% when it is 20% in weight. For the clinical application of this method, the location to be analyzed should be selected before the measurement with two X-ray images viewed from the source and the detector. These views would be also used to correct the difference in absorption between coherent and Compton scattered radiations whose energies are slightly different from each other. The absorbed dose to the analyzed region was approximately 150 mrad. The time required for one measurement in this study was about 10 minutes. (author)

  17. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Nieman, Fred H.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. {sup 18}F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  18. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with 18F-fluoride PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J.; Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn; Nieman, Fred H.M.

    2011-01-01

    18 F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent 18 F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average 18 F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. 18 F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. 18 F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that 18 F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  19. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm 2 in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm 2 and 0.765g/cm 2 . Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures

  20. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  1. Method and system for in vivo measurement of bone tissue using a two level energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J. R.; Judy, P. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for radiologically determining the bone mineral content of living human bone tissue independently of the concurrent presence of adipose and other soft tissues. A target section of the body of the subject is irradiated with a beam of penetrative radiations of preselected energy to determine the attenuation of such beam with respect to the intensity of each of two radiations of different predetermined energy levels. The resulting measurements are then employed to determine bone mineral content.

  2. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references

  3. Method to measure the force to pull and to break pin bones of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Murat O; Jie, Hubert; Yin Yee, Yin; Alçiçek, Zayde

    2015-02-01

    A texture measurement device was modified to measure the force required to pull pin bones from King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), snapper (Pagrus auratus), and kahawai (Arripis trutta). Pulled bones were also subjected to tension to measure the breaking force. For all fish, the pulling force depended on the size of the fish, and on the length of the pin bone (P bones. For example, fresh small salmon (about 1500 g whole) required 600 g on average to pull pin bones, and large fish (about 3700 g whole) required 850 g. Longer bones required greater pulling force. The breaking force followed the same trend. In general, the breaking force was greater than the pulling force. This allows the removal of the bones without breaking them. There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference between the forces (both pulling and breaking) from fresh and frozen/thawed samples, although in general frozen/thawed samples required less force to pull. With the quantification of pulling and breaking forces for pin bones, it is possible to design and build better, "more intelligent" pin bone removal equipment. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the VA Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Jain, Nitin; Nie, Huiling; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood lead concentration has been associated with mortality from different causes in several studies. Many effects of lead exposure that might increase risk of death are likely to result from cumulative exposure, for which bone lead is a better biomarker than blood lead. The association between bone lead levels and mortality has not been explored. Methods and Results We prospectively assessed the association between both blood lead and bone lead—analyzed using K-x-ray fluorescence—and mortality among 868 men in the Normative Aging Study. We identified 241 deaths over an average of 8.9 (sd=3.9) years of follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards. Compared to the lowest tertile of patella bone lead, the fully adjusted HR in the highest tertile for all cause and cardiovascular mortality (n=137 deaths) were 2.52 (95% CI: 1.17–5.41) and 5.63 (95% CI: 1.73–18.3), respectively. The age, smoking, and race-adjusted HR for ischemic heart disease mortality (n=62 deaths) in the highest tertile was 8.37 (95% CI: 1.29–54.4). Results were similar for tibia lead. Bone lead was not associated with cancer, and blood lead was not associated with any mortality category. Conclusions We found bone lead to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an environmentally-exposed population with low blood lead levels. This study suggests that cumulative lead exposure from prior decades of high environmental exposures continues to significantly impact risk of death despite recent declines in environmental lead exposure. PMID:19738141

  5. Fusion events lead to truncation of FOS in epithelioid hemangioma of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van IJzendoorn, David G P; de Jong, Danielle; Romagosa, Cleofe

    2015-01-01

    in exon 4 of the FOS gene and the fusion event led to the introduction of a stop codon. In all instances, the truncation of the FOS gene would result in the loss of the transactivation domain (TAD). Using FISH probes we found a break in the FOS gene in two additional cases, in none of these cases...... differential diagnosis of vascular tumors of bone. Our data suggest that the translocation causes truncation of the FOS protein, with loss of the TAD, which is thereby a novel mechanism involved in tumorigenesis....

  6. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: "chemical and ecotoxicological studies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deydier, E; Guilet, R; Cren, S; Pereas, V; Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L

    2007-07-19

    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO(3).2H2O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer.

  7. Acumulación de plomo en hueso y sus efectos en la salud Lead storage in bone and its effects on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Sanín

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos nocivos del plomo han sido conocidos desde tiempos antiguos por su amplia gama; este metal afecta prácticamente todos los órganos y sistemas del cuerpo humano. Recientemente se han documentado efectos tóxicos crónicos en los sistemas cardiovascular y nervioso, con niveles que antes se consideraban seguros. El sitio primario de almacenamiento de plomo en el organismo es el hueso, pero sólo hasta fechas recientes se ha clarificado la significancia toxicológica de este hecho. En este artículo se analiza el papel del plomo en hueso como fuente de exposición endógena, como biomarcador de exposición crónica y como tejido blanco. Se presentan además los avances recientes para la medición de plomo en hueso mediante los rayos X-fluorescentes (XRF. Finalmente se revisa la importancia, para la salud pública, de estudiar y medir el plomo en hueso en lugares con una historia de exposición crónica como la Ciudad de México y en los ambientes ocupacionales, especialmente como fuente remanente de exposición. Se analiza especialmente el caso de mujeres en edad reproductiva, quienes pueden convertirse en fuentes de exposición para el feto y para el niño amamantado.The adverse effects of lead have been known for long since the metal affects practically all organs and systems of the human body. Recently, toxic effects have been reported in the cardiovascular and nervous systems at lead levels previously considered to be secure. The main lead storage site in the body is bone. The toxicologic significance of this fact has been clarified only recently. The present study analyzes the role of lead as an endogenous source of exposure, as a chronic exposure biomarker and as a target organ. Recent advances to measure bone lead through fluorescent X-Rays are discussed. Additionally, the importance of bone lead from a public health perspective in places with a chronic history of exposure such as Mexico City, and in some occupational

  8. Phantom studies of triple photon absorptiometry and bone mineral measurement at a hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, T.J.; Webber, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using triple photon absorptiometry (TPA) for the measurement of bone mineral mass about a hip prosthesis was examined. A theoretical expression describing the variance of TPA measurements was verified using a triple photon source and phantom materials which simulate the soft tissue-bone mineral-metal prosthesis system. The expression for the variance was used to determine an optimized set of photon energies. It was shown that a precision of 3% could be obtained for reasonable measurement times using this optimized set of energies and that TPA should be a feasible approach for measurement of bone mineral about a hip prosthesis. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of torsion angles of long finger bones using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, L.D.; Ishaque, N.; Mauermann, F.; Klose, K.J.; Boehringer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Rotational dislocation at the fracture site is a complication of long finger bone fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges. To evaluate such deformities, we performed CT of the articular surfaces of these bones to demonstrate the torsion angles. Design: We evaluated 10 pairs of cadaver hands. These were placed flat, with the bones of interest perpendicular to the gantry to acquire axial images. The torsion of the long bone axes was defined as the angle between a tangent positioned parallel to the proximal articular surface and a tangent parallel to the distal articular surface of individual bones. Results: The maximum difference between repeated measurements was 4 . Intraobserver differences measured between right and left hands are less than 3 . Conclusion: Side differences in torsion angles exceeding 3 are strongly suspicious of a malrotation after fracture. These measurements might help to plan derotational osteotomy and assess the results of therapy. (orig.)

  10. Lead-zinc interactions in the production of osteocalcin by ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The serum level of osteocalcin, a bone specific protein produced by osteoblasts and used clinically as a marker of osteoblast acceptive, is decreased in lead intoxicated children. Previous studies suggest that the reduced osteocalcin production appears to be the result of impaired transcriptional regulation of this 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 gene product, and not translation. As part of a study to investigate the potential interaction of Pb 2+ with Zn 2+ , and with the zinc fingers of the vitamin D receptor, ROS cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, or 25 μM lead acetate for 24 hr, in the presence of 10, 30, or 50 μM Zn followed by an additional 24 hr treatment with lead with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (100 pg/ml media). At the end of this period a radioimmunoassay was conducted to determine the amount of osteocalcin in the cells and secreted in the media. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 caused an increase in osteocalcin secreted into the media in cultures containing 0 μM lead, but this increase was inhibited by lead in a concentration dependent manner, so that osteocalcin secretion in 10 or 25 μM lead treated groups was less than cultures without 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 treatment. This inhibitory effect of lead was blocked by increasing the medium zinc concentration of 50 μM. Increasing medium Pb 2+ concentrations decreased the amount of 65 Zn taken up by cells by ∼30%, which was nullified by increasing medium Zn. These results suggest that lead produces a localized and specific Zn deficiency in the vitamin D receptor zinc finger, and perhaps other zinc metalloproteins, and that these effects of lead are not mediated through general effects on RNA or protein synthesis

  11. Intercomparison of techniques for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of methods are presently available for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass of both normal individuals and patients with metabolic disorders. Chief among these methods are radiographic techniques such as radiogrammetry, photon absorptiometry, computer tomography, Compton scattering and neutron activation analysis. In this review, the salient features of the bone measurement techniques are discussed along with their accuracy and precision. The advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques for measuring bone mass are summarized. Where possible, intercomparisons are made of the various techniques

  12. Lead isotope measurements on aerosol samples with ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, C.R.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Kramers, J.; Tobler, L.

    2000-01-01

    Size fractionated aerosols were collected with low pressure Berner impactors on a radio/TV tower 110 m above ground on a hill 10 km east of Bern at a total elevation of 1060 m asl. Two different wind sectors were chosen with the goal of assessing any differences in lead concentration and the 3 radiogenic lead isotopes (206,207,208) for east and west wind, respectively. A leaching technique was used to extract the lead quantitatively from the surface of the impaction foils. This method has been proven to be better suited for airborne particles than complete microwave digestion because it is less time consuming and contamination risk is smaller. Blank considerations played a major role in choosing all the chemicals, tubes, beakers and selecting the analytical method. Lead concentrations were determined with GF-AAS and lead isotopes with two different ICP-MS systems, one being a multicollector system. Precision of the simultaneous multicollector system was found to be at least a factor of 3 better than that of the sequentially operating ICP-MS. The small variations in isotope ratios from the two wind sectors can be distinctly seen with this enhanced precision. The observed relative difference in isotope ratios between east- and westwind was ∝0.6% for 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and ∝0.5% for 208 Pb/ 206 Pb. (orig.)

  13. The correlation between R2' and bone mineral measurements in human vertebrae: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brismar, T.B.; Karlsson, M.; Li, T.Q.; Ringertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether MR imaging of trabecular bone structure using magnetic inhomogeneity measurements is related to the amount of bone mineral in human vertebrae. Weight, bone mineral content (BMC DXA ), bone mineral per area (BMA DXA ) and bone mineral density (BMD CT ) were determined in 12 defatted human lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) by weighing, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and CT. Inhomogeneity caused by susceptibility differences between trabecular bone and surrounding water was studied with MR imaging at 1.5 T using the GESFIDE sequence. The pulse sequence determines the transverse relaxation rate R2 * and its two components, the non-reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2) and the reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2'; i. e. relaxation rate due to magnetic susceptibility) in a single scan. Voxel size was 0.9 x 1.9 x 5.0 mm. Positive significant correlations between R2' and weight, BMC DXA , BMA DXA and BMD CT were observed (r > 0.61 and p DXA and BMD CT (r > 0.66 and p DXA . Thus, R2' measurements are related to the amount of bone mineral, but they also provide information which is not obtainable from bone mineral measurements. (orig.) (orig.)

  14. Depth measurements of drilled holes in bone by laser triangulation for the field of oral implantology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, D.; Gayer, C.; Hering, P.

    2012-01-01

    Laser osteotomy is one possible method of preparing beds for dental implants in the human jaw. A major problem in using this contactless treatment modality is the lack of haptic feedback to control the depth while drilling the implant bed. A contactless measurement system called laser triangulation is presented as a new procedure to overcome this problem. Together with a tomographic picture the actual position of the laser ablation in the bone can be calculated. Furthermore, the laser response is sufficiently fast as to pose little risk to surrounding sensitive areas such as nerves and blood vessels. In the jaw two different bone structures exist, namely the cancellous bone and the compact bone. Samples of both bone structures were examined with test drillings performed either by laser osteotomy or by a conventional rotating drilling tool. The depth of these holes was measured using laser triangulation. The results and the setup are reported in this study.

  15. MRI-measured pelvic bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Gantz, M; Punyanitya, M; Heymsfield, S B; Gallagher, D; Albu, J; Engelson, E; Kotler, D; Pi-Sunyer, X; Gilsanz, V

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has shown an inverse relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). There is a lack of evidence at the macro-imaging level to establish whether increased BMAT is a cause or effect of bone loss. This cross-sectional study compared the BMAT and BMD relationship between a younger adult group at or approaching peak bone mass (PBM; age 18.0-39.9 years) and an older group with potential bone loss (PoBL; age 40.0-88.0 years). Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 560 healthy men and women with T1-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An inverse correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and pelvic, total and spine BMD in the younger PBM group (r=-0.419 to -0.461, PBMAT significantly contributed to the regression models with BMD as dependent variable and pelvic BMAT as independent variable (P=0.434-0.928). Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship between pelvic BMAT and BMD is present both in younger subjects who have not yet experienced bone loss and also in older subjects. These results provide support at the macro-imaging level for the hypothesis that low BMD may be a result of preferential differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from osteoblasts to adipocytes.

  16. The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Stephanie; Michels, Nathalie; Polfliet, Carolien; D'Haese, Sara; Roggen, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    The study's aim was to analyse whether children's bone status, assessed by calcaneal ultrasound measurements, is influenced by dairy consumption and objectively measured physical activity (PA). Moreover, the interaction between dairy consumption and PA on bone mass was studied. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 306 Flemish children (6-12 years). Body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography (BodPod), dairy consumption with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, PA with an accelerometer (only in 234 of the 306 children) and bone mass with quantitative ultrasound, quantifying speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and Stiffness Index (SI). Regression analyses were used to study the associations between dairy consumption, PA, SOS, BUA and SI. Total dairy consumption and non-cheese dairy consumption were positively associated with SOS and SI, but no significant association could be demonstrated with BUA. In contrast, milk consumption, disregarding other dairy products, had no significant effect on calcaneal bone measurements. PA [vigorous PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and counts per minute] was positively associated and sedentary time was negatively associated with BUA and SI, but no significant influence on SOS could be detected. Dairy consumption and PA (sedentary time and MVPA) did not show any interaction influencing bone measurements. In conclusion, even at young age, PA and dairy consumption positively influence bone mass. Promoting PA and dairy consumption in young children may, therefore, maximize peak bone mass, an important protective factor against osteoporosis later in life.

  17. Precision of bone densitometry measurements: When is change true change and does it vary across bone density values?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.C.H.; Griffiths, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The precision error of the bone densitometer is used to interpret significant change in bone mineral density (BMD) in serial studies. The precision error can be expressed as standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variation (CV). The aims of this study are to determine the precision error over a range of BMD values and to demonstrate the application of the precision error in clinical practice. A bone phantom was used consisting of a perspex block with eight compartments containing varying amounts of hydroxyapatite powder to simulate a range of bone densities. The block was scanned 21 times and manual regions placed over each compartment to measure the BMD in each compartment. There were no significant differences in the variances or SD for all eight compartments, that is, over the range of BMD normally encountered in clinical practice. However, the calculated CV show a progressive fall in values as the BMD rises. Therefore, the SD should be used to calculate significant BMD change. In a practise with quality control procedures in place to detect calibration drift and with appropriately trained personnel, a change of approximately 0.05 g/cm 2 is generally regarded as being a significant change at a 95% confidence level. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Busulphan/cyclophosphamide conditioning for bone marrow transplantation may lead to failure of hair regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B W; Wilson, C L; Davis, A L; Spearing, R L; Hart, D N; Heaton, D C; Beard, M E

    1991-01-01

    Following the introduction of bulsulphan and cyclophosphamide (BUCY) conditioning in our unit in 1987, a number of patients noted incomplete scalp hair regrowth following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Between August 1987 and May 1989, 22 patients had undergone allogeneic or autologous BMT in our unit and we recalled for detailed assessment the 14 who were alive and well at least 6 months post grafting. Six patients had experienced incomplete hair regrowth of varying severity 7-27 months following BMT. All those affected had received BUCY conditioning and the four most severely affected were allogeneic BMT recipients. No patient had received any post-BMT chemotherapy or radiation. None of the patients had evidence of graft-versus-host disease. No laboratory test abnormalities distinguished the affected from the unaffected patients. Despite the relatively small number of patients, our results suggest that BUCY has caused permanent damage to the hair follicles of the affected patients. Prolonged alopecia may markedly impair the quality of life for long-term survivors of BMT and this unexpected complication also has significant medicolegal implications.

  19. Spectroscopic Measurement of LEAD-204 Isotope Shift and LEAD-205 Nuclear Spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Peter

    The isotope shift of ('204)Pb and the nuclear spin of 1.4 x 10('7)-y ('205)Pb was determined from a high -resolution optical measurement of the 6p('2) ('3)P(,o) -6p7s('3)P(,1)('o) 283.3-nm resonance line. The value of the shift, relative to ('208)Pb is -140.2(8) x 10('-3)cm(' -1), the negative sign indicating a shift to lower wave numbers. The precision is 3-4 times greater than that of previous measurements. The spin of ('205)Pb l = 5/2 was obtained from the measurement of the relative intensities of its three hyperfine components. This method of absorption spectroscopy determination of ground state nuclear spin is applicable to any stable or longlived isotope. High resolution optical absorption spectra were obtained with a 25.4cm diffraction grating in a 9.1m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer. A signal-averaging scanning technique was used to record the spectra. Increased precision in the isotope shift measurement was attained by using separated isotope samples of ('204)Pb and ('207)Pb. A controlled amount of the later was incorporated in the absorption cell to provide internal calibration by its 6p7s ('3)P(,1)('o) hfs separation. Absorption spectra were recorded for several optical thicknesses of the absorber. A single spin value of increased precision was derived from the entire set of combined data.

  20. Kinetic and mechanism studies of the adsorption of lead onto waste cow bone powder (WCBP) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jihoon; Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the adsorption isotherms, kinetics and mechanisms of Pb²(+) sorption onto waste cow bone powder (WCBP) surfaces. The concentrations of Pb²(+) in the study range from 10 to 90 mg/L. Although the sorption data follow the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm, a detailed examination reveals that surface sorption or complexation and co-precipitation are the most important mechanisms, along with possibly ion exchange and solid diffusion also contributing to the overall sorption process. The co-precipitation of Pb²(+) with the calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HAP) is implied by significant changes in Ca²(+) and PO₄³⁻ concentrations during the metal sorption processes. The Pb²(+) sorption onto the WCBP surface by metal complexation with surface functional groups such as ≡ POH. The major metal surface species are likely to be ≡ POPb(+). The sorption isotherm results indicated that Pb²(+) sorption onto the Langmuir and Freundlich constant q(max) and K( F ) is 9.52 and 8.18 mg g⁻¹, respectively. Sorption kinetics results indicated that Pb²(+) sorption onto WCBP was pseudo-second-order rate constants K₂ was 1.12 g mg⁻¹ h⁻¹. The main mechanism is adsorption or surface complexation (≡POPb(+): 61.6%), co-precipitation or ion exchange [Ca₃(.)₉₃ Pb₁(.)₀₇ (PO₄)₃ (OH): 21.4%] and other precipitation [Pb 50 mg L⁻¹ and natural pH: 17%). Sorption isotherms showed that WCBP has a much higher Pb²(+) removal rate in an aqueous solution; the greater capability of WCBP to remove aqueous Pb²(+) indicates its potential as another promising way to remediate Pb²(+)-contaminated media.

  1. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral density in Shanghai residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Li Deyi; Ma Jixiao; Huang Qiren

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid development of bone mineral density determination technique provides a powerful research tool to diagnose osteoporosis and prevent fracture. Since the beginning of 1995, the research group incooperation with Shanghai 6th people's hospital is carrying on bone density measurements as a part of Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) organized by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of this study is to determine the age of peak bone mass in each study group of Shanghai residents and to quantify differences in bone density as functions of the age and sex of persons in the study groups. At the same time the authors should get the normal human BMD (Bone Mineral Density) reference database specially for Shanghai residents, China. The roles of various life styles, exercise, diet and so on are also investigated

  2. SU-E-P-09: Radiation Transmission Measurements and Evaluation of Diagnostic Lead-Based and Lead-Free Aprons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syh, J [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to ensure that various lead shield apron manufacturers provided accurate attenuation factors regardless of whether the apron was made of lead-based or lead-free equivalent material. Methods: A calibrated ionization survey meter was placed at chest height and 36 cm horizontally away from a solid water phantom on a simulator couch. Measurements were done with or without apron. Radiation field was set to 24cmx24cm with the phantom at 100cm source-to-surface distance. Irradiation time was set for 1 minute at voltages of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp. Current was set at 6mA. Results: Between 60 kVp and 120 kVp, the transmission through 0.50 mm of lead-based apron was between 1.0% and 6.5% with a mean value of 3.2% and a standard deviation (s.d.) of 1.4%. The transmissions through the 0.50 mm lead-free aprons were 1.0 % to 12.0% with a mean value of 6.1% and s.d. of 2.6%. At 120 kVp, the transmission value was 6.5% for 0.50 mm lead-based apron and 11.1% to 12.0% for 0.50 mm lead-free aprons. The radiation transmissions at 80 kVp, measured in two different 0.5 mm lead-free aprons, were 4.3% each. However, only 1.4% transmission was found through the lead-based apron. Overall, the radiation transmitted through the lead-based apron was 1/3 transmission of lead-free at 80kVp, and half value of lead-free aprons at 100 and 120 kVp. Conclusion: Even though lead-based and lead-free aprons all claimed to have the same lead equivalent thickness, the transmission might not be the same. The precaution was needed to exercise diligence in quality assurance program to assure adequate protection to staff who wear it during diagnostic procedures. The requirement for aprons not only should be in certain thickness to meet state regulation but also to keep reasonably achievable low exposure with the accurate labeling from manufacturers.

  3. SU-E-P-09: Radiation Transmission Measurements and Evaluation of Diagnostic Lead-Based and Lead-Free Aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syh, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to ensure that various lead shield apron manufacturers provided accurate attenuation factors regardless of whether the apron was made of lead-based or lead-free equivalent material. Methods: A calibrated ionization survey meter was placed at chest height and 36 cm horizontally away from a solid water phantom on a simulator couch. Measurements were done with or without apron. Radiation field was set to 24cmx24cm with the phantom at 100cm source-to-surface distance. Irradiation time was set for 1 minute at voltages of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp. Current was set at 6mA. Results: Between 60 kVp and 120 kVp, the transmission through 0.50 mm of lead-based apron was between 1.0% and 6.5% with a mean value of 3.2% and a standard deviation (s.d.) of 1.4%. The transmissions through the 0.50 mm lead-free aprons were 1.0 % to 12.0% with a mean value of 6.1% and s.d. of 2.6%. At 120 kVp, the transmission value was 6.5% for 0.50 mm lead-based apron and 11.1% to 12.0% for 0.50 mm lead-free aprons. The radiation transmissions at 80 kVp, measured in two different 0.5 mm lead-free aprons, were 4.3% each. However, only 1.4% transmission was found through the lead-based apron. Overall, the radiation transmitted through the lead-based apron was 1/3 transmission of lead-free at 80kVp, and half value of lead-free aprons at 100 and 120 kVp. Conclusion: Even though lead-based and lead-free aprons all claimed to have the same lead equivalent thickness, the transmission might not be the same. The precaution was needed to exercise diligence in quality assurance program to assure adequate protection to staff who wear it during diagnostic procedures. The requirement for aprons not only should be in certain thickness to meet state regulation but also to keep reasonably achievable low exposure with the accurate labeling from manufacturers

  4. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  5. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute leads to sufficient bone tissue formation already after 3 months: histological and histomorphometrical analysis 3 and 6 months following human sinus cavity augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin; Stuebinger, Stefan; Korzinskas, Tadas; Obreja, Karina; Landes, Constantin; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In this study the de novo bone formation capacity of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute was assessed 3 and 6 months after its insertion into the human sinus cavity. Sinus cavity augmentation was performed in a total of 14 patients (n = 7 implantation after 3 months; n = 7 implantation after 6 months) with severely atrophic maxillary bone. The specimens obtained after 3 and 6 months were analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with special focus on bone metabolism within the residual bone and the augmented region. This study revealed that bone tissue formation started from the bone-biomaterial-interface and was directed into the most cranial parts of the augmented region. There was no statistically significant difference in new bone formation after 3 and 6 months (24.89 ± 10.22% vs 31.29 ± 2.29%), respectively. Within the limits of the present study and according to previously published data, implant insertion in regions augmented with this bone substitute material could be considered already after 3 months. Further clinical studies with bone substitute materials are necessary to validate these findings. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Drilling electrode for real-time measurement of electrical impedance in bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Xue, Yuan; Zhang, Jianxun

    2014-03-01

    In order to prevent possible damages to soft tissues, reliable monitoring methods are required to provide valuable information on the condition of the bone being cut. This paper describes the design of an electrical impedance sensing drill developed to estimate the relative position between the drill and the bone being drilled. The two-electrode method is applied to continuously measure the electrical impedance during a drill feeding movement: two copper wire brushes are used to conduct electricity in the rotating drill and then the drill is one electrode; a needle is inserted into the soft tissues adjacent to the bone being drilled and acts as another electrode. Considering that the recorded electrical impedance is correlated with the insertion depth of the drill, we theoretically calculate the electrode-tissue contact impedance and prove that the rate of impedance change varies considerably when the drill bit crosses the boundary between two different bone tissues. Therefore, the rate of impedance change is used to determine whether the tip of the drill is located in one of cortical bone, cancellous bone, and cortical bone near a boundary with soft tissue. In vitro experiments in porcine thoracic spines were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the impedance sensing drill. The experimental results indicate that the drill, used with the proposed data-processing method, can provide accurate and reliable breakthrough detection in the bone-drilling process.

  7. Comparative study of measured heart cycle phase durations: standard lead ECG versus original ascending aorta lead ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Kolmakov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims The present paper aims at evaluating the existing difference in duration measurements of the same heart cycle phases in the standard V3, V4, V5, V6 leads ECG versus original HDA lead ECG of the ascending aorta. Materials and methods The method of changing the filter pass band is used. Its essence is in artificial changing of the conditions of the signal recording carrying the informative indications of the initial information used in hemodynamic equations. The method also enables calculating the percentage deviation from the initial values. The principle of balance of the blood volume entering the heart and the blood volume leaving the heart is used to trace the minimal deviations and their respective recording conditions. Results In each of the V3, V4, V5, V6 ECG leads durations of the same phases have different values. The values measured on the ECG of the ascending aorta and those measured using the standard V4 ECG lead differ slightly. Conclusion For heart cycle phase analysis it is possible to use only the ECG of the ascending aorta and V4 standard lead ECG. Using conventional standard ECG leads causes an error up to 25%.

  8. [Shushu (ancient Chinese numerology) in Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lian-Shi

    2010-10-01

    Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement) is compared with literatures concerning the Shushu (ancient Chinese numerology) of the Qin Dynasty (221 B. C. - 206 B. C. ) and the Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-220 A. D.) in this article. And it is discovered that "the number of heaven and earth" in Yijing (The Book of Change) was implied in the bone-length measurement. The theory of Shushu is hidden in the sized of head, neck, chest, abdomen, back and 4 extremities according to the measurement. The meaning of establishment of bone-length measurement, which is found to have universality, laid in setting down the measurement of meridians. And it is the origin of the proportional measurement of locating acupoints. Checked with the theory of Shushu, errors in the description of bone-length measurement could also be found in Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement) of the present edition, which is helpful for the modern study on the measurement.

  9. Lead Levels in the Bones of Small Rodents from Alpine and Subalpine Habitats in the Tian-Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Ballová

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High mountain areas are an appropriate indicator of anthropogenic lead (Pb, which can reach remote mountain ranges through long distance atmospheric transport. We compared the content of Pb in ecologically equivalent rodent species from Tian-Shan with European mountain ranges including the Tatra, Vitosha and Rila mountains. We used bone tissues from terminal tail vertebrae of small rodents for detection of Pb levels through electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The tailbones of Tian-Shan rodents had significantly lower Pb levels than snow voles from the Tatra Mountains, but there was no significant difference in comparison with the Vitosha and Rila mountains. We can conclude that Tian-Shan shows lower pollution by Pb than the Tatras, which may be a result of prolonged industrialization of north-western Europe and strongly prevailing west winds in this region.

  10. Evaluation of measurement precision errors at different bone density values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.; Wong, J.; Bartlett, M.; Lee, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The precision error commonly used in serial monitoring of BMD values using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptometry (DEXA) is 0.01-0.015g/cm - for both the L2 L4 lumbar spine and total femur. However, this limit is based on normal individuals with bone densities similar to the population mean. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate precision errors over the range of bone density values encountered in clinical practice. In 96 patients a BMD scan of the spine and femur was immediately repeated by the same technologist with the patient taken off the bed and repositioned between scans. Nine technologists participated. Values were obtained for the total femur and spine. Each value was classified as low range (0.75-1.05 g/cm ) and medium range (1.05- 1.35g/cm ) for the spine, low range (0.55 0. 85 g/cm ) and medium range (0.85-1.15 g/cm ) for the total femur. Results show that the precision error was significantly lower in the medium range for total femur results with the medium range value at 0.015 g/cm - and the low range at 0.025 g/cm - (p<0.01). No significant difference was found for the spine results. We also analysed precision errors between three technologists and found a significant difference (p=0.05) occurred between only two technologists and this was seen in the spine data only. We conclude that there is some evidence that the precision error increases at the outer limits of the normal bone density range. Also, the results show that having multiple trained operators does not greatly increase the BMD precision error. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, Brent K; Holt, Andrew P; Kaste, Sue C

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  12. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Brent K; Holt, Andrew P [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C, E-mail: hoffmeister@rhodes.edu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2011-10-07

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  13. An in vivo technique for the measurement of bone blood flow in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Nickles, R.J.; Lehner, C.E.; Lanphier, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique to measure the in vivo clearance of 41 Ar from the bone mineral matrix is demonstrated following fast neutron production of 41 Ar in bone via the 44 Ca(n,α) reaction at 14.1 MeV. At the end of irradiation, the 41 Ar activity is assayed with a Ge(Li) detector where sequential gamma-ray spectra are taken. Following full-energy peak integration, background and dead time correction, the activity of 41 Ar as a function of time is determined. Results indicated that the Ar washout from bone in rats using this technique was approximately 16 ml (100 ml min) -1 and in agreement with other measurement techniques. For sheep the bone perfusion in the tibia was approximately 1.9+-0.2 ml (100 ml min) -1 . (author)

  14. Bone health measured using quantitative ultrasonography in adult males with muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, C I; Smith, J; Denny, A; Tweedale, J; Searle, N D; Winwood, K; Onambele-Pearson, G L

    2016-12-14

    To compare muscle and bone health markers in adult males (aged 20-59 yrs) with and without muscular dystrophy (MD). Participants included 11 Fascioscapulohumeral (FSH), 11 Becker's (Be), 9 limb girdle (LG), 11 Duchenne (DMD), and 14 non-dystrophic controls (CTRL). Physical activity was assessed using Bone (BPAQ) and disability specific (PASIPD) questionnaires. Bone QUS provided T- and Z scores from the Distal Radius (DR) and Mid-shaft tibia (MST). Tibialis anterior cross sectional area (TA ACSA ) was measured using B-mode ultrasound. Grip strength was measured in all but DMD. Physical activity was lower in DMD, FSH and BeMD than CTRL (PPASIPD correlated with grip strength (r=0.65, P<0.01) and TA ACSA (r=0.46, P<0.01). Muscle size, strength, and bone health was lower in adult males with MD compared to adult males without MD, the extent of this is partially determined by physical activity.

  15. In vivo measurement of mechanical properties of human long bone by using sonic sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M. Jayed, E-mail: zed.hossain06@gmail.com; Rahman, M. Moshiur, E-mail: razib-121@yahoo.com; Alam, Morshed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Vibration analysis has evaluated as non-invasive techniques for the in vivo assessment of bone mechanical properties. The relation between the resonant frequencies, long bone geometry and mechanical properties can be obtained by vibration analysis. In vivo measurements were performed on human ulna as a simple beam model with an experimental technique and associated apparatus. The resonant frequency of the ulna was obtained by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis of the vibration response of piezoelectric accelerometer. Both elastic modulus and speed of the sound were inferred from the resonant frequency. Measurement error in the improved experimental setup was comparable with the previous work. The in vivo determination of bone elastic response has potential value in screening programs for metabolic bone disease, early detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of skeletal effects of various therapeutic modalities.

  16. Measurement of bone mineral using multiple-energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanpalmer, Janos; Kullenberg, Ragnar; Hansson, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported a method of determining the amount of bone mineral using triple-energy absorptiometry with a continuous x-ray spectrum. In the present study, the experimental properties of the technique were examined. The accuracy, the influence of fat content and body thickness and the in vitro and in vivo precision were analysed. The results found in this investigation showed that despite the complexity of the technique, the amount of bone mineral can be accurately determined. The in vivo precision was determined to be 3.4%, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), for different skeletal parts. The in vitro precision was found to be 2.1% (CV). Neither the fat content nor the body thickness had any effect on the measured bone mineral values. Excellent linearity and a close correlation were found between the true and the measured bone mineral values. (author)

  17. Studies of cadmium, mercury and lead in man. The value of X-ray fluorescence measurements in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, J

    1996-10-01

    Two XRF methods have been used for in vivo studies of mercury, cadmium and lead. Persons with a history of long-term occupational mercury exposure had elevated mercury concentrations in their kidneys (up to 65 {mu}g/g). The minimum detectable concentration varied between 12 and 45 {mu}g/g. Battery plant workers had elevated cadmium concentrations in their kidneys (up to 350 {mu}g/g) and liver (up to 80 {mu}g/g), with mean values about 3-5 times higher than the general population. The mean ratio between concentrations of cadmium in kidney and liver was 7. Levels in kidney and liver indicated that a simple integration of cadmium in work-place air is not sufficient to describe the body burden. Fingerbone lead in smelters was 6-8 times higher than in members of the general population. The half-time of bone lead in active workers was estimated to about 5 years during the accumulation phase. A model for description of a person`s lead exposure in terms of lead in fingerbone, lead in blood and time of exposure has been developed and can be used, e.g. for retrospective blood lead estimates if the period of exposure and the current fingerbone lead is known. This will be of value for the evaluation of toxic effects of long-term lead exposure when data on previous lead levels are lacking. In total, in vivo measurements of mercury, cadmium and lead give unique information, which has shown to be an important tool for understanding of metal kinetics and toxicity. If the precision and accuracy of the method can be further improved, the technique will also have a given place in the clinical practice. 168 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Major and trace elements in mouse bone measured by surface and bulk sensitive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkoe, I.; Geresi, K.; Ungvari, E.; Szabo, B.; Paripas, B.

    2011-01-01

    surface. By XPS method we measured the composition of the calcinated bone powder, a mixture of the compact and trabecular bone. In the compact bone, the ratio between the cells and the extracellular matrix with minerals is less than in the trabecular bone. The most likely explanation that magnesium, which is characteristically situated in the intracellular space, deliberated during the calcination and appeared homogeneously in the bone powder. Further critical analysis of larger data set is in progress and will be published soon. Acknowledgements. The work was supported in part by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund OTKA Nos. K67873, K72172, K73703 and by cost action No. MP1002. This work was partly carried out as part of the TAMOP-4.2.1.B-10/2/KONV-2010- 0001 project in the framework of the New Hungarian Development Plan.

  19. MRI-measured pelvic bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in younger and older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Chen, Jun; Gantz, Madeleine; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Albu, Jeanine; Engelson, Ellen; Kotler, Donald; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective Recent research has shown an inverse relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). There is a lack of evidence at the macro-imaging level to establish whether increased BMAT is a cause or effect of bone loss. This cross-sectional study compared the BMAT and BMD relationship between a younger adult group at or approaching peak bone mass (PBM) (age 18.0-39.9 yrs) and an older group with potential bone loss (PoBL) (age 40.0-88 yrs). Subjects/Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 560 healthy men and women with T1-weighted whole body magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results An inverse correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and pelvic, total, and spine BMD in the younger PBM group (r=-0.419 to -0.461, P<0.001) and in the older PoBL group (r=-0.405 to -0.500, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, menopausal status, total body fat, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, neither subject group (younger PBM vs. older PoBL) nor its interaction with pelvic BMAT significantly contributed to the regression models with BMD as dependent variable and pelvic BMAT as independent variable (P=0.434 to 0.928). Conclusion Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship between pelvic BMAT and BMD is present both in younger subjects who have not yet experienced bone loss and also in older subjects. These results provide support at the macro-imaging level for the hypothesis that low BMD may be a result of preferential differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from osteoblasts to adipocytes. PMID:22491495

  20. Three-dimensional quantification of structures in trabecular bone using measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2009-01-01

    The study of pathological changes of bone is an important task in diagnostic procedures of patients with metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis as well as in monitoring the health state of astronauts during long-term space flights. The recent availability of high-resolution three-dimensiona......The study of pathological changes of bone is an important task in diagnostic procedures of patients with metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis as well as in monitoring the health state of astronauts during long-term space flights. The recent availability of high-resolution three......-dimensional (3D) imaging of bone challenges the development of data analysis techniques able to assess changes of the 3D microarchitecture of trabecular bone. We introduce an approach based on spatial geometrical properties and define structural measures of complexity for 3D image analysis. These measures...... evaluate different aspects of organization and complexity of 3D structures, such as complexity of its surface or shape variability. We apply these measures to 3D data acquired by high-resolution microcomputed tomography (µCT) from human proximal tibiae and lumbar vertebrae at different stages...

  1. Bone densitometry by gamma ray attenuation measurement. Development of an apparatus for use on medullary casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, E.J.-J.

    1975-01-01

    We proposed to follow changes in the bone mineral content of medullary damage cases by measuring the attenuation of a monoenergetic gamma ray according to the Cameron and Sorenson technique. Apart from their high cost, existing instruments are not designed for this bedside observation of patients. Our aim was therefore to design and develop an easily portable, inexpensive apparatus. The γ radiation is supplied by a sealed 125 I source fitted with a narrow collimator. The battery-operated scintillation detector is that used to detect post-operative phlebites after injection of radio-fibrinogen. The source-detector unit can move to allow a transverse bone mineral content measurement. Data from the detector are processed electronically and the results given: - either graphically on a tracing board which gives an area proportional to the bone mineral content, - or numerically by means of an integrator computing this area and supplying the linear bone density directly. Experiments carried out in vivo showed the apparatus to be sensitive and the measurements reproducible, the results obtained being comparable with those of other authors. Using pieces of embalmed bone moreover an excellent correlation was observed between the bone mineral content obtained after incineration and the results displayed by our apparatus, which can therefore be calibrated [fr

  2. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-05-10

    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  3. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity

  4. Chronic effects of lead (Pb) on bone properties in red deer and wild boar: Relationship with vitamins A and D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Here we study the occurrence of abnormalities on bone tissue composition and turnover mechanisms through the Pb-mediated disruption of vitamins A and D in wild ungulates living in a lead (Pb)-polluted mining area. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the mining area had significantly higher liver and bone Pb levels than controls, which were associated with the depletion of liver retinyl esters and the corresponding increase of free retinol levels both in deer and boar from the mining area. Pb-exposed adult deer had lower carbonate content in bone mineral than controls, which was associated with the increased free retinol percentage. In wild boar, the degree of bone mineralization was also positively associated with higher burdens of retinyl esters. These results suggest that Pb-associated changes in bone composition and mineralization is likely influenced by the depletion of vitamin A in wildlife exposed to environmental Pb pollution. Highlights: ► We studied the effects of Pb pollution on bone and vitamins in wild ungulates from a mining area. ► Pb decreased the carbonate content in bone mineral in adult red deer. ► Pb increased the ratio of free retinol:retinyl esters in red deer and wild boar. ► Changes in vitamin A status were associated with changes in the carbonate content in bone mineral. ► Adverse effect of Pb on vitamin A status may be involved with toxic effects of Pb in bone tissue. -- The effect of Pb on vitamin A status could be involved in disturbances on bone biomeralization in red deer and wild boar living in Pb-polluted mining areas

  5. Measurements of vector boson production in lead–lead and proton–lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowska-Bold, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Photons and weak bosons do not interact strongly and, thus, their production yields provide direct tests of scaling with a number of binary nucleon–nucleon collisions in the heavy-ion environment. In addition, they should be sensitive to the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions (nPDF). Proton-lead collisions also provide an excellent opportunity to test nPDF in a less dense environment than lead–lead via looking at forward–backward production of weak bosons. The ATLAS detector has proven to be an excellent apparatus in measurements involving photons, electrons and muons, the latter being products of weak boson decays, in the high occupancy environment produced in heavy-ion collisions. The experiment has recorded 30nb −1 of proton–lead data and 140μb −1 of lead–lead data, both of which have similar integrated partonic luminosities. We present the prompt photon, Z and W boson yields as a function of centrality, and also differentially in transverse momentum and rapidity, in lead–lead and proton–lead collisions from the ATLAS experiment. For W ± bosons, a lepton charge asymmetry has also been studied, which may also shed light on nPDF

  6. Measurement of bone mineral density using DEXA and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Eichstaedt, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To observe bone loss and bone metabolism status in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2∼L4) and femoral neck using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and analysis of biochemical markers of bone turnover, such as ostecalcin (OSC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked telo-peptide of type I collagen (ICTP), PTH and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D). These markers were measured in 31 5-year survivors after OLT, 34 patients with chronic liver failure (CLF) before OLT and 38 normal subjects. Results: Age-matched Z-score of BMD (Z-score) at L2∼L4 was significantly higher in 5-year survivors than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Incidence of osteoporosis (Z-score<-2.0) in 5-year survivors was significantly lower than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Although serum concentrations of bone formation and bone resorption markers in 5-year survivors were high than those of normal subjects, as compared to patients with CLF before OLT, serum OSC was increased, serum ICTP and BAP were reduced, serum PICP was unchanged. Serum PTH and 25-OH-D level was normal. Conclusions: In 5-year survivors following liver transplantation there was a reduction in bone loss and incidence of osteoporosis and an improvement of bone metabolism

  7. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Poedenphant, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the descriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD spine ) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMC forearm ) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMD spine and BMC forearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMD spine or BMC forearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures. BMC forearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMD spine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMD spine or BMC forearm , whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements. (author)

  8. Measurement of absorbed dose with a bone-equivalent extrapolation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBlois, Francois; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan P.; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water trade mark sign and bone-equivalent material was used for determining absorbed dose in a bone-equivalent phantom irradiated with clinical radiation beams (cobalt-60 gamma rays; 6 and 18 MV x rays; and 9 and 15 MeV electrons). The dose was determined with the Spencer-Attix cavity theory, using ionization gradient measurements and an indirect determination of the chamber air-mass through measurements of chamber capacitance. The collected charge was corrected for ionic recombination and diffusion in the chamber air volume following the standard two-voltage technique. Due to the hybrid chamber design, correction factors accounting for scatter deficit and electrode composition were determined and applied in the dose equation to obtain absorbed dose in bone for the equivalent homogeneous bone phantom. Correction factors for graphite electrodes were calculated with Monte Carlo techniques and the calculated results were verified through relative air cavity dose measurements for three different polarizing electrode materials: graphite, steel, and brass in conjunction with a graphite collecting electrode. Scatter deficit, due mainly to loss of lateral scatter in the hybrid chamber, reduces the dose to the air cavity in the hybrid PEEC in comparison with full bone PEEC by 0.7% to ∼2% depending on beam quality and energy. In megavoltage photon and electron beams, graphite electrodes do not affect the dose measurement in the Solid Water trade mark sign PEEC but decrease the cavity dose by up to 5% in the bone-equivalent PEEC even for very thin graphite electrodes (<0.0025 cm). In conjunction with appropriate correction factors determined with Monte Carlo techniques, the uncalibrated hybrid PEEC can be used for measuring absorbed dose in bone material to within 2% for high-energy photon and electron beams

  9. Measurement of trace cadmium and elements in bone by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlati, R.; Jervis, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was applied to measure quantitatively Cd and other elements in bone samples from control and Cd-fed rats. This method was found to be non-destructive to the bone samples, with no sign of 'radiolytic charring' and was sensitive enough to detect and quantify Cd in bone samples at normal levels for mammals (viz. 0.5-1.0 μg/g) and higher. Two different thermal neutron shield materials were utilized, namely cadmium and boron. The boron shield resulted in a 27% improvement in the detection limit of Cd in bone. The accuracy of ENAA for Cd was assessed by intercomparison with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ETAAS), and the results in fair agreement (±23%) with those from ENAA

  10. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used

  11. Site specific measurements of bone formation using [18F] sodium fluoride PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Glen M; Puri, Tanuj; Siddique, Musib; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Fogelman, Ignac

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with fluorine-18 labelled sodium fluoride ([ 18 F]NaF) allows the quantitative assessment of regional bone formation by measuring the plasma clearance of fluoride to bone at any site in the skeleton. Today, hybrid PET and computed tomography (CT) dual-modality systems (PET/CT) are widely available, and [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT offers a convenient non-invasive method of studying bone formation at the important osteoporotic fracture sites at the hip and spine, as well as sites of pure cortical or trabecular bone. The technique complements conventional measurements of bone turnover using biochemical markers or bone biopsy as a tool to investigate new therapies for osteoporosis, and has a potential role as an early biomarker of treatment efficacy in clinical trials. This article reviews methods of acquiring and analyzing dynamic [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT scan data, and outlines a simplified approach combining venous blood sampling with a series of short (3- to 5-minute) static PET/CT scans acquired at different bed positions to estimate [ 18 F]NaF plasma clearance at multiple sites in the skeleton with just a single injection of tracer.

  12. Distribution of lead in lead-accumulating pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, measured by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodera, Hirofumi; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Terada, Yasuko

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of lead (Pb) accumulated in the pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, a Pb-hyperaccumulator, was measured using synchrotron-radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) at BL37XU of SPring-8. From two dimensional (2D) imagings of Pb at the root, petiole, leaf vein, pinna epidermis and sorus in the Blechnum niponicum, the mechanism for the transportation and accumulation of Pb can be suggested to be as follows: Lead is accumulated in conductive tissues. Most of the Pb solubilized in the rhizosphere is fixed in the conductive tissue, with the remainder being transported with the transpiration stream to the above-ground parts of the plant. Lead transported to the upper parts of the plant ultimately remains at the terminal points of the transpiration stream, including the stomatal apparatus and water pores; it was shown that these sections contain high concentrations of Pb. (author)

  13. Intraoperative mechanical measurement of bone quality with the DensiProbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Sven; Uhlmann, Michael; Schwyn, Robert; Suhm, Norbert; Benneker, Lorin M

    2015-01-01

    Reduced bone stock can result in fractures that mostly occur in the spine, distal radius, and proximal femur. In case of operative treatment, osteoporosis is associated with an increased failure rate. To estimate implant anchorage, mechanical methods seem to be promising to measure bone strength intraoperatively. It has been shown that the mechanical peak torque correlates with the local bone mineral density and screw failure load in hip, hindfoot, humerus, and spine in vitro. One device to measure mechanical peak torque is the DensiProbe (AO Research Institute, Davos, Switzerland). The device has shown its effectiveness in mechanical peak torque measurement in mechanical testing setups for the use in hip, hindfoot, and spine. In all studies, the correlation of mechanical torque measurement and local bone mineral density and screw failure load could be shown. It allows the surgeon to judge local bone strength intraoperatively directly at the region of interest and gives valuable information if additional augmentation is needed. We summarize methods of this new technique, its advantages and limitations, and give an overview of actual and possible future applications. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory results of some biological measures in workers exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, G.C.; Alessio, L.

    1974-12-01

    Erthrocyte ALA-dehydratase (ALAD) activity and blood lead values were studied in different groups of subjects not occupationally exposed to lead and compared with values for exposed workers. The results lead to the conclusion that measurement of ALAD activity is more useful in evaluating possible exposure of general population groups to minimal quantities of lead than in the surveillance of workers in the lead industries.

  15. Structure model index does not measure rods and plates in trabecular bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil L Salmon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure model index (SMI is widely used to measure rods and plates in trabecular bone. It exploits the change in surface curvature that occurs as a structure varies from spherical (SMI = 4, to cylindrical (SMI = 3 to planar (SMI = 0. The most important assumption underlying SMI is that the entire bone surface is convex and that the curvature differential is positive at all points on the surface. The intricate connections within the trabecular continuum suggest that a high proportion of the surface could be concave, violating the assumption of convexity and producing regions of negative differential. We implemented SMI in the BoneJ plugin and included the ability to measure the amounts of surface that increased or decreased in area after surface mesh dilation, and the ability to visualize concave and convex regions. We measured SMI and its positive (SMI+ and negative (SMI- components, bone volume fraction (BV/TV, the fraction of the surface that is concave (CF, and mean ellipsoid factor (EF in trabecular bone using 38 X-ray microtomography (XMT images from a rat ovariectomy model of sex steroid rescue of bone loss, and 169 XMT images from a broad selection of 87 species' femora (mammals, birds, and a crocodile. We simulated bone resorption by eroding an image of elephant trabeculae and recording SMI and BV/TV at each erosion step. Up to 70%, and rarely less than 20%, of the trabecular surface is concave (CF 0.155 – 0.700. SMI is unavoidably influenced by aberrations from SMI-, which is strongly correlated with BV/TV and CF. The plate-to-rod transition in bone loss is an erroneous observation resulting from SMI's close and artefactual relationship with BV/TV. SMI cannot discern between the distinctive trabecular geometries typical of mammalian and avian bone, whereas EF clearly detects birds' more plate-like trabeculae. EF is free from confounding relationships with BV/TV and CF. SMI results reported in the literature should be treated with

  16. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by 125I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using 125 I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare 125 I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using 125 I absorptiometry. At each site the 125 I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it

  17. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Jon-And, C.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Lavstedt, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aims of the study were to adapt a computerized system to epidemiologic conditions, for rapid full-mouth measurements of alveolar bone levels from X5-magnified periapical radiographs and to analyze the variations in measurement due to different system components. Full-mouth measurements of interproximal alveolar bone height in percentage of root and tooth lengths were completed within av average time of 15 min. per set of radiographs. An analysis of variance showed that the examiner variation in measurement of a linear scale distance was 0.02 mm. The measurement accuracy was different for different distances. Each distance (d) measured with this system should therefore be calibrated with the equation Y = -0.007 - 0.014 (log 3d - 1.50) where Y is the estimate of measurement accuracy. The present computerized system enabled rapid recordings and demonstrated good measurement precision and accuracy. These are valuable features in epidemiologic investigations

  18. Measurement of bone mineral contents in Pakistan by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, R.

    1990-01-01

    Vertebral bone mineral content (BMC) was measured with dual photon absorptiometry in 144 normal males and 219 females (ages 11-85 years), 118 patients of hyperthyroidism, 7 of chronic renal failure and 5 each of postmenopausal osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism. Generally males had higher BMC than females. Pattern of age related bone gain and diminution was same in both sexes but the rate of bone loss differed significantly, females having higher rate of bone loss. When compared to Western population lower BMC values in our normals were seen. However, rate of bone loss in our population was lower than that reported in the west. BMC values in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism and chronic renal failure were not significantly different that of age matched normals. The small numbers of cases of post menopausal osteoporosis and hyperpara- thyroidism, tough precluding any generalization, did show lower BMC values. Lower BMC values in our normal population could possibly be explained on racial ground. But in spite of less than ideal dietary status in our normal population in general, the lower rate of bone loss and a lower incidence of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid and chronic renal failure cases can raise the possibility of active vitamin D metabolism component, triggered by utraviolet radiation, having an overall beneficiary effect on the calcium cycle. This calls for a more comprehensive workup. (author)

  19. Intracortical stiffness of mid-diaphysis femur bovine bone: lacunar-canalicular based homogenization numerical solutions and microhardness measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Ilige S; Hamade, Ramsey F

    2017-09-01

    Microscale lacunar-canalicular (L-C) porosity is a major contributor to intracortical bone stiffness variability. In this work, such variability is investigated experimentally using micro hardness indentation tests and numerically using a homogenization scheme. Cross sectional rings of cortical bones are cut from the middle tubular part of bovine femur long bone at mid-diaphysis. A series of light microscopy images are taken along a line emanating from the cross-section center starting from the ring's interior (endosteum) ring surface toward the ring's exterior (periosteum) ring surface. For each image in the line, computer vision analysis of porosity is conducted employing an image segmentation methodology based on pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) recently developed by the authors. Determined are size and shape of each of the lacunar-canalicular (L-C) cortical micro constituents: lacunae, canaliculi, and Haversian canals. Consequently, it was possible to segment and quantify the geometrical attributes of all individual segmented pores leading to accurate determination of derived geometrical measures such as L-C cortical pores' total porosity (pore volume fraction), (elliptical) aspect ratio, orientation, location, and number of pores in secondary and primary osteons. Porosity was found to be unevenly (but linearly) distributed along the interior and exterior regions of the intracortical bone. The segmented L-C porosity data is passed to a numerical microscale-based homogenization scheme, also recently developed by the authors, that analyses a composite made up of lamella matrix punctuated by multi-inclusions and returns corresponding values for longitudinal and transverse Young's modulus (matrix stiffness) for these micro-sized spatial locations. Hence, intracortical stiffness variability is numerically quantified using a combination of computer vision program and numerical homogenization code. These numerically found stiffness values of the homogenization

  20. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT

  1. Does bone measurement on the radius indicate skeletal status. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Chesney, R.W.; Lange, T.A.; Lindgren, U.; Smith, E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Single-photon (I-125) absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) of the distal third of the radius, and dual-photon absorptiometry (Gd-153) was used to measure total-body bone mineral (TBBM), as well as the BMC of major skeletal regions. Measurements were done in normal females, normal males, osteoporotic females, osteoporotic males, and renal patients. The BMC of the radius predicted TBBM well in normal subjects, but was less satisfactory in the patient groups. The spinal BMC was predicted with even lower accuracy from radius measurement. The error in predicting areal density (bone mass per unit projected skeletal area) of the lumbar and thoracic spine from the radius BMC divided by its width was smaller, but the regressions differed significantly among normals, osteoporotics, and renal patients. There was a preferential spinal osteopenia in the osteoporotic group and in about half of the renal patients. Bone measurements on the radius can indicate overall skeletal status in normal subjects and to a lesser degree in patients, but these radius measurements are inaccurate, even on the average, as an indicator of spinal state

  2. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  3. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Alkanl, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Kuscu, L.; Laleli, Y.; Eksioglu, F.; Sepici, B.; Gunel, U.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density, BMD, of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last RCM in San Diego, CA, October 7-10,1996. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone. To this end, bone mineral density measurements, trace element studies, neutron activation analysis, fluoride analysis and atomic absorption analysis were undertaken and resulting data were analysed

  4. Increased extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells by different mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Ryota, E-mail: hryota@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Katoh, Youichi, E-mail: katoyo@juntendo-urayasu.jp [Juntendo University Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yuki [Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Takasu 2-5-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0023 (Japan); Itoh, Seigo; Daida, Hiroyuki [Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nakazato, Yuji [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka 2-1-1, Urayasu-shi, Chiba 279-0022 (Japan); Okada, Takao [Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells found in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the common progenitors for both adipocyte and osteoblast. An increase in marrow adipogenesis is associated with age-related osteopenia and anemia. Both extracellular and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) are versatile signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation. We have recently reported that upon treatment of BMSCs with insulin and dexamethasone, both high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} enhanced adipocyte accumulation, which suggested that increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} caused by bone resorption may accelerate adipocyte accumulation in aging and diabetic patients. In this study, we used primary mouse BMSCs to investigate the mechanisms by which high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} may enhance adipocyte accumulation. In the process of adipocyte accumulation, two important keys are adipocyte differentiation and the proliferation of BMSCs, which have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Use of MTT assay and real-time RT-PCR revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (ionomycin)-dependent adipocyte accumulation is caused by enhanced proliferation of BMSCs but not enhanced differentiation into adipocytes. Using fura-2 fluorescence-based approaches, we showed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} (addition of CaCl{sub 2}) leads to increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Flow cytometric methods revealed that high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK independently of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The inhibition of ERK by U0126 and PD0325901 enhanced the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes. These data suggest that increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} provides the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes by the suppression of ERK activity independently of increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, which results in BMSC proliferation. - Highlights:

  5. 38 CFR 21.7672 - Measurement of courses not leading to a standard college degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not leading to a standard college degree. 21.7672 Section 21.7672 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Assistance for Members of the Selected Reserve Course Assessment § 21.7672 Measurement of courses not leading to a standard college degree. (a) Overview. (1) Courses not leading to a standard college degree may...

  6. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and reliability of bone mineral density measurements around acetabular cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    in measuring bone density (BMD) in complex anatomic structures which might be overcome using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT).PurposeTo test inter- and intra-observer agreement and reliability of in-house segmentation software measuring BMD adjacent to acetabular cup and to compare measurements performed...... with single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT in cemented and cementless cups.Material and Methods: Twenty-four acetabular cups inserted in porcine hip specimens were scanned with SECT and DECT. Bone density was measured in a three-dimensional volume adjacent to the cup. Double measurements were performed.......Results: BMD derived from SECT was approximately four times higher than that of DECT. In both scan modes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was >0.90 with no differences between repeated measurements, except for uncemented cups where a statistically significant difference of 11 mg/cm3 was found...

  7. Measurements of the static friction coefficient between bone and muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Sharon; Castel, David; Gefen, Amit

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed at measuring the static coefficient of friction (mu) between bone and skeletal muscle tissues in order to support finite element (FE) modeling in orthopaedic and rehabilitation research, where such contact conditions need to be defined. A custom-made friction meter (FM) that employs the load cell and motion-controlled loading arm of a materials testing machine was designed for this study. The FM was used to measure mu between fresh ulna bones and extensor muscles surrounding the ulna, which were harvested from five young adult pigs. Mean bone-muscle mu were between 0.36 and 0.29, decreased with the increase in loads applied on the bone (p<0.05) and plateaued at a mean approximately 0.3 for loads exceeding 4 N. Hence, for FE modeling of bone-muscle contacts through which loads with magnitudes of kgs to 10s-of-kgs are transferred, assuming mu of approximately 0.3 appears to be appropriate.

  8. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  9. 38 CFR 21.7670 - Measurement of courses leading to a standard, undergraduate college degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement of courses leading to a standard, undergraduate college degree. 21.7670 Section 21.7670 Pensions, Bonuses, and... leading to a standard, undergraduate college degree. Except as provided in § 21.7672, VA will measure a...

  10. Instrument for bone mineral measurement using a microprocessor as the control and arithmetic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Hardy, W.H. II.

    1975-11-01

    A self-contained instrument for the determination of bone mineral content by photon absorptometry is described. A high-resolution detection system allows measurements to be made at up to 16 photon energies. Control and arithmetic functions are performed by a microprocessor. Analysis capability and limitations are discussed

  11. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    .08 degrees, ICC = 0.91. Discussion: The present data support The Navicular Position Test as a reliable test of the navicular bone position during rest and loading measured in a simple test set-up. Conclusion: The Navicular Position Test was shown to have a high intraday-, intra- and inter-tester reliability...

  12. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  13. A measurement instrument for bone mineral content of adult and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaofang

    1996-01-01

    The γ radiation source was used in bone mineral content measurement analysis of adult and children and a new instrument is developed successfully. It's precision is +2%. The advantage of this instrument is light, cheap and reliable. It can be used widely in medical science and clinic for diagnosis on certain diseases and research work

  14. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Alkan, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Kuscu, L.; Laleli, Y.; Eksioglu, F.; Sepici, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density (BMD) of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last two Research Coordinated Meetings, in San Diego, CA, October 1996 and Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 1998. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone

  15. The outcome of bone mineral density measurements on patients referred from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia Inez; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Rosenzweig, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing and the general practitioner is integral to identifying these patients. It is, therefore, of interest to characterize the referral pattern of patients scheduled for determination of bone density by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Alt......) increased the predictive value considerably. A low BMI is a good indicator for referral of women less than 60 yr for measurements of bone density. Forty-five percent of the referred women from general practitioners had a normal BMD....

  16. Osteoblast-specific deletion of Pkd2 leads to low-turnover osteopenia and reduced bone marrow adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhousheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Polycystin-1 (Pkd1 interacts with polycystin-2 (Pkd2 to form an interdependent signaling complex. Selective deletion of Pkd1 in the osteoblast lineage reciprocally regulates osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis. The role of Pkd2 in skeletal development has not been defined. To this end, we conditionally inactivated Pkd2 in mature osteoblasts by crossing Osteocalcin (Oc-Cre;Pkd2+/null mice with floxed Pkd2 (Pkd2flox/flox mice. Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null (Pkd2Oc-cKO mice exhibited decreased bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, cortical thickness, mineral apposition rate and impaired biomechanical properties of bone. Pkd2 deficiency resulted in diminished Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expressions in bone and impaired osteoblastic differentiation ex vivo. Expression of osteoblast-related genes, including, Osteocalcin, Osteopontin, Bone sialoprotein (Bsp, Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (Phex, Dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1, Sclerostin (Sost, and Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 were reduced proportionate to the reduction of Pkd2 gene dose in bone of Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/+ and Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null mice. Loss of Pkd2 also resulted in diminished peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ expression and reduced bone marrow fat in vivo and reduced adipogenesis in osteoblast culture ex vivo. Transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ and Yes-associated protein (YAP, reciprocally acting as co-activators and co-repressors of Runx2 and PPARγ, were decreased in bone of Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null mice. Thus, Pkd1 and Pkd2 have coordinate effects on osteoblast differentiation and opposite effects on adipogenesis, suggesting that Pkd1 and Pkd2 signaling pathways can have independent effects on mesenchymal lineage commitment in bone.

  17. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  18. Method and system for in vivo measurement of bone tissue using a two level energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Cameron, J.R.; Judy, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for radiologically determining the bone mineral content of living human bone tissue independently of the concurrent presence of adipose and other soft tissues. A target section of the body of the subject is irradiated with a beam of penetrative radiations of preselected energy to determine the attenuation of such beam with respect to the intensity of each of two radiations of different predetermined energy levels. The resulting measurements are then employed to determine bone mineral content according to the following relationship: I = (I 0 ) exp [(μBM/sup M/BM) - (μST/sup M/ST)] wherein I 0 is the unattentuated intensity of the radiations in the beam, μ is the mass attenuation coefficient, M is mass in g/cm 2

  19. Micro-computerised tomography optimisation for the measurement of bone mineral density around titanium dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.; Swain, M.; Duncan, W.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dental implants (screws) are commonly used to replace missing teeth by forming a biological union with bone ('osseointegration'). Micro-computerised tomography (μCT) may be useful for measuring bone mineral density around dental implants. Major issues arise because of various artefacts that occur with polychromatic X-rays associated bench type instruments that may compromise interpretation of the observations. In this study various approaches to minimise artefacts such as; beam hardening, filtering and edge effects are explored with a homogeneous polymeric material, Teflon, with and without an implant present. The implications of the limitations of using such polychromatic μCT systems to quantify bone mineral density adjacent to the implant are discussed. (author)

  20. Feasibility of measurement of bone turnover markers in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaczewicz, Jaroslaw; Karczmarewicz, Elzbieta; Pludowski, Pawel; Zabek, Jakub; Kowalski, Jan; Lukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wozniacka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of bone turnover markers (BTMs) for the assessment of bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), according to the guidelines of the International Osteoporosis Foundation and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The study included 43 female SLE patients. Serum procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin, PTH, 25(OH)D, anti-cardiolipin, anti-dsDNA, and anti-nucleosome levels were measured. PINP and CTX levels were elevated in SLE patients aged > 45 in comparison to those aged 45 (p < 0.001). No significant difference in PINP, osteocalcin or CTX levels was found with respect to season, neither in the entire SLE group, nor in the under-45 or over-45 groups. Previous glucocorticoid treatment was not associated with difference in BTMs. Increased BTMs in SLE appear to predominantly reflect the pattern of bone remodeling related to age. Increased PINP is expected to be the most frequent outcome among BTMs. Better diagnoses of bone disturbances with BTMs performed in accordance with international reference standards need to be included in the approach to SLE patients, in addition to bone mineral density assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Bone aluminum measurements in patients with end-stage renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Long-term use of aluminum-based phosphate binders and trace aluminum contamination of dialysate solution have led to increased body burden of this metal in patients with end-stage renal disease. Aluminum accumulates in bone and has been associated with the development of a renal osteodystrophy, called aluminum-induced osteomalacia. At present, bone biopsy is the method of diagnosis of this condition. When examined by quantitative histomorphometry, the aluminum accumulation was reported to correlate with the severity of the osteomalacia. This project was therefore undertaken to investigate the possibility of developing a non-invasive technique using neutron activation analysis for the direct in vivo assessment of bone aluminum levels. A bilateral exposure of the patient's hand is performed at the patient port of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The induced activity is then counted for 5 min using four 4'' x 4'' x 16'' NaI(T1) detectors arranged in a quasi-4! geometry. In addition to Al, Ca is also detected and serves as each individual's internal standard for the volume of bone mass irradiated. The Al/Ca ratio provides an index of the amount of elevated aluminum per unit bone mass. When this ratio is multiplied by the total body calcium value, an estimate of total skeletal aluminum is obtained. These measurements will be presented for a pilot study of ten asymptomatic renal patients

  2. Measurement of the speed of sound in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok-Kyoung [Maritime Security Research Center, KIOST, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A new method for measuring the speed of sound (SOS) in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics (TRA) focusing system was proposed and validated with measurements obtained by using the conventional pulse-transmission technique. The SOS measured in 14 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using the two methods was highly correlated each other, although the SOS measured by using the TRA focusing system was slightly lower by an average of 2.2 m/s. The SOS measured by using the two methods showed high correlation coefficients of r = 0.92 with the apparent bone density, consistent with the behavior in human trabecular bone in vitro. These results prove the efficacy of the new method based on the principle of TRA to measure the SOS in trabecular bone.

  3. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density, trace elements and immunocytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K; Alkan, S.; Yilmaz, G.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary purposes of the coordinated research program was to measure BMD of the healthy population of the ages between 15 and 49 based on the protocol discussed during the first research coordination meeting, RCM, in Vienna, December 12-15, 1994. The work carried out since then can be divided into several topics. Each of these subjects will be summarized in the following sections. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used for determination of Ca, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn and Cu in bone samples. Sample preparation is a critical step prior to AAS. It requires the oxidation of organic matter of biological samples to prepare a solution ready for analysis of mineral elements. For bone samples, for dissolution purposes several acid or acid mixtures can be used. For the preparation of bone samples for AAS, cleaned, separated from blood, muscle and fat, powdered and homogenized bone samples were dissolved in nitric acid. Different dissolution procedures such as hot plate dissolution, dissolution at room temperature and microwave dissolution were tried. After these experiments, microwave dissolution procedure was chosen as the main digestion method for its following advantages: Rapid dissolution (only 8 minutes), complete digestion, minimal reagent consumption, sample integrity which allows volatile element determination, lower reagent blank and potential automation. Bone samples weighing approximately 300 mg will be irradiated with thermal neutrons at Cekmece Nuclear Research Center, TR-2 Reactor in Istanbul. Gamma rays of the radioactive isotopes of the samples will be measured with the nuclear spectroscopy system at the Department of Chemistry, METU. We have already analyzed five bone samples (cortical and trabecular parts separately) weighing approximately 200 mg, both short and long irradiation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NUT), USA

  4. Development of the in vivo measurement system of bone mineral content using monoenergetic gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardocci, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    A system, developed for in vivo measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) using monoenergetic gamma-rays of 241 Am, is described. It presents a discussion of the theoretical and practical aspects of the technique, with details of acquisition and data processing and also discusses the calibration procedure used. The results obtained with in vivo measurements are presented and BMC values of clinically normal subjects and chronic renal patients are compared. (author)

  5. Electron spin resonance (ESR dose measurement in bone of Hiroshima A-bomb victim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Explosion of the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki corresponds to the only historical moment when atomic bombs were used against civilians. This event triggered countless investigations into the effects and dosimetry of ionizing radiation. However, none of the investigations has used the victims' bones as dosimeter. Here, we assess samples of bones obtained from fatal victims of the explosion by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR. In 1973, one of the authors of the present study (SM traveled to Japan and conducted a preliminary experiment on the victims' bone samples. The idea was to use the paramagnetism induced in bone after irradiation to measure the radiation dose. Technological advances involved in the construction of spectrometers, better knowledge of the paramagnetic center, and improvement in signal processing techniques have allowed us to resume the investigation. We obtained a reconstructed dose of 9.46 ± 3.4 Gy from the jawbone, which was compatible with the dose distribution in different locations as measured in non-biological materials such as wall bricks and roof tiles.

  6. Electron spin resonance (ESR) dose measurement in bone of Hiroshima A-bomb victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Explosion of the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki corresponds to the only historical moment when atomic bombs were used against civilians. This event triggered countless investigations into the effects and dosimetry of ionizing radiation. However, none of the investigations has used the victims’ bones as dosimeter. Here, we assess samples of bones obtained from fatal victims of the explosion by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). In 1973, one of the authors of the present study (SM) traveled to Japan and conducted a preliminary experiment on the victims’ bone samples. The idea was to use the paramagnetism induced in bone after irradiation to measure the radiation dose. Technological advances involved in the construction of spectrometers, better knowledge of the paramagnetic center, and improvement in signal processing techniques have allowed us to resume the investigation. We obtained a reconstructed dose of 9.46 ± 3.4 Gy from the jawbone, which was compatible with the dose distribution in different locations as measured in non-biological materials such as wall bricks and roof tiles. PMID:29408890

  7. Measurement of Dijet Cross Sections in ep Interactions with a Leading Neutron at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, J.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the production of dijet events with a leading neutron in ep interactions at HERA. Differential cross sections for photoproduction and deep inelastic scattering are presented as a function of several kinematic variables. Leading order QCD simulation programs are compared with the measurements. Models in which the real or virtual photon interacts with a parton of an exchanged pion are able to describe the data. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations based on pion exchange are found to be in good agreement with the measured cross sections. The fraction of leading neutron dijet events with respect to all dijet events is also determined. The dijet events with a leading neutron have a lower fraction of resolved photon processes than do the inclusive dijet data.

  8. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals

  9. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-11-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals. (HLW)

  10. Lead effects on development and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells promote Th2 immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Donghong; Mondal, Tapan K.; Lawrence, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Although lead (Pb) has significant effects on the development and function of macrophages, B cells, and T cells and has been suggested to promote allergic asthma in mice and humans, Pb modulation of bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and the resultant DC effects on Th1 and Th2 development have not been examined. Accordingly, we cultured BM cells with murine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) ± PbCl 2 . At day 10, culture supernatant (SN) and non-adherent cells were harvested for analysis. Additionally, day 10 non-adherent BM-DCs were harvested and recultured with mGM-CSF + LPS ± Pb for 2 days. The day 10 Pb exposure significantly inhibited BM-DC generation, based on CD11c expression. Although fewer DCs were generated with Pb, the existing Pb-exposed DCs had significantly greater MHC-II expression than did the non-Pb-exposed DCs. However, these differences diminished upon LPS stimulation. After LPS stimulation, CD80, CD86, CD40, CD54, and MHC-II were all up-regulated on both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs expressed significantly less CD80 than did DCs. The CD86:CD80 ratio suggests a Pb-DC potential for Th2 cell development. After LPS stimulation, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), and TNF-α levels significantly increased with both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs produced significantly less cytokines than did DCs, except for IL-10, which further supports Pb-DC preferential skewing toward type-2 immunity. In vitro studies confirm that Pb-DCs have the ability to polarize antigen-specific T cells to Th2 cells. Pb-DCs also enhanced allogeneic and autologous T cell proliferation in vitro, and in vivo studies suggested that Pb-DCs inhibited Th1 effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The Pb effect was mainly on DCs, rather than on T cells, and Pb's modification of DC function appears to be the main cause of Pb's promotion of type-2-related immunity, which may relate to Pb's enhanced activation of the Erk/MAP kinase pathway

  11. Down-regulation of mTOR leads to up-regulation of osteoprotegerin in bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Makio; Kondo, Ayami

    2009-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. mTOR, which is the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a kinase and central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. By using Rapamycin, we studied whether mTOR pathway is associated with OPG protein production in the mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. Rapamycin markedly increased the level of soluble OPG in ST2 cells. This antibiotic treatment resulted in the suppression of phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin had no effects on the proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis of the cells. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4, which can induce OPG protein in ST2 cells, also resulted in a decrease in the density of the phospho-mTOR-band, suggesting that the suppression of the phospho-mTOR pathway is necessary for OPG production in ST2 cells. Thus, suitable suppression of mTOR phosphorylation is a necessary requirement for OPG production in bone marrow stromal cells.

  12. Measuring Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juice Using a Pencil Lead Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David; Friend, Jeffrey; Kariuki, James

    2010-01-01

    A pencil lead successfully served as an electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial orange juice. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electrochemical probe to measure the current produced from the oxidation of ascorbic acid with a variety of electrodes. The data demonstrate that the less expensive pencil lead electrode gives…

  13. Objectively measured physical activity and bone strength in 9-year-old boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Luís B; Baptista, Fátima; Ekelund, Ulf

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyze the relationship between intensity and duration of physical activity and composite indices of femoral neck strength and bone-mineral content of the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and total body. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry in 143 girls and 150 boys (mean age: 9.7 years). Measurement of bone-mineral content, femoral neck bone-mineral density, femoral neck width, hip axis length, and total body fat-free mass was performed with dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry. Compressive [(bone-mineral density x femoral neck width/weight)] and bending strength [(bone-mineral density x femoral neck width(2))/(hip axis length x weight)] express the forces that the femoral neck has to withstand in weight bearing, whereas impact strength [(bone-mineral density x femoral neck width x hip axis length)/(height x weight)] expresses the energy that the femoral neck has to absorb in an impact from standing height. Analysis of covariance (fat-free mass and age adjusted) showed differences between boys and girls of approximately 9% for compressive, 10% for bending, and 9% for impact strength. Stepwise regression analysis using time spent at sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity as predictors revealed that vigorous physical activity explained 5% to 9% of femoral neck strength variable variance in both genders, except for bending strength in boys, and approximately 1% to 3% of total body and femoral neck bone-mineral content variance. Vigorous physical activity was then used to categorize boys and girls into quartiles. Pairwise comparison indicated that boys in the third and fourth quartiles (accumulation of >26 minutes/day) demonstrated higher compressive (11%-12%), bending (10%), and impact (14%) strength than boys in the first quartile. In girls, comparison revealed a difference between the fourth (accumulation of >25 minutes/day) and first quartiles for bending strength (11%). We did not observe any

  14. Bone material strength index as measured by impact microindentation is altered in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgo, F; Hamdy, N A T; Rabelink, T J; Kroon, H M; Claessen, K M J A; Pereira, A M; Biermasz, N R; Appelman-Dijkstra, N M

    2017-03-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by excess growth hormone (GH) production by the pituitary adenoma. The skeletal complications of GH and IGF-1 excess include increased bone turnover, increased cortical bone mass and deteriorated microarchitecture of trabecular bone, associated with a high risk of vertebral fractures in the presence of relatively normal bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate tissue-level properties of bone using impact microindentation (IMI) in well-controlled patients with acromegaly aged ≥18 years compared to 44 controls from the outpatient clinic of the Centre for Bone Quality. In this cross-sectional study, bone material strength index (BMSi) was measured in 48 acromegaly patients and 44 controls with impact microindentation using the osteoprobe. Mean age of acromegaly patients (54% male) was 60.2 years (range 37.9-76.5), and 60.5 years (range 39.8-78.6) in controls (50% male). Patients with acromegaly and control patients had comparable BMI (28.2 kg/m 2  ± 4.7 vs 26.6 kg/m 2  ± 4.3, P = 0.087) and comparable BMD at the lumbar spine (1.04 g/cm 2  ± 0.21 vs 1.03 g/cm 2  ± 0.13, P = 0.850) and at the femoral neck (0.84 g/cm 2  ± 0.16 vs 0.80 g/cm 2  ± 0.09, P = 0.246). BMSi was significantly lower in acromegaly patients than that in controls (79.4 ± 0.7 vs 83.2 ± 0.7; P acromegaly after reversal of long-term exposure to pathologically high GH and IGF-1 levels. Our findings also suggest that methods other than DXA should be considered to evaluate bone fragility in patients with acromegaly. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Repeated conservation threats across the Americas: High levels of blood and bone lead in the Andean Condor widen the problem to a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Guillermo M; Pérez, Miguel A; Torres Bianchini, Laura; Sampietro, Luciano; Bravo, Guillermo F; Jácome, N Luis; Astore, Vanesa; Lambertucci, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife lead exposure is an increasing conservation threat that is being widely investigated. However, for some areas of the world (e.g., South America) and certain species, research on this subject is still scarce or only local information is available. We analyzed the extent and intensity of lead exposure for a widely distributed threatened species, the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). We conducted the study at two different scales: 1) sampling of birds received for rehabilitation or necropsy in Argentina, and 2) bibliographic review and extensive survey considering exposure event for the species' distribution in South America. Wild condors from Argentina (n = 76) presented high lead levels consistent with both recent and previous exposure (up to 104 μg/dL blood level, mean 15.47 ± 21.21 μg/dL and up to 148.20 ppm bone level, mean 23.08 ± 31.39 ppm). In contrast, captive bred individuals -not exposed to lead contamination- had much lower lead levels (mean blood level 5.63 ± 3.08 μg/dL, and mean bone level 2.76 ± 3.06 ppm). Condors were exposed to lead throughout their entire range in continental Argentina, which represents almost sixty percent (>4000 km) of their geographical distribution. We also present evidence of lead exposure events in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Lead poisoning is a widespread major conservation threat for the Andean Condor, and probably other sympatric carnivores from South America. The high number and wide range of Andean Condors with lead values complement the results for the California Condor and other scavengers in North America suggesting lead poisoning is a continental threat. Urgent actions are needed to reduce this poison in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling elemental strontium in human bone based on in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurements in osteoporotic females self-supplementing with strontium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, H; Chettle, D R; Pejović-Milić, A

    2016-01-01

    An in-house custom I-125 excited in vivo x-ray fluorescence (IVXRF) system was used to perform bone strontium (Sr) measurements in individuals suffering from osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. These individuals, who were self-administering with Sr supplements of their choice, were measured frequently, ranging from weekly to biweekly to monthly, over four years, as part of the Ryerson and McMaster Sr in Bone Research Study. Based on these data collected, data from eight subjects were used to perform kinetic modeling of Sr in human bone. Power and exponential models were used to model the data based on one and two compartmental systems. Model parameters included: mean normalized baseline bone Sr signal, half-life and bone Sr uptake. A one compartmental exponential model applied to finger and ankle bone measurements gave half-lives of (508  ±  331) d and (232  ±  183) d, respectively, but did not show statistically significant differences (p  =  0.087 96). However, the values fall within literature estimates. When a two compartmental model was applied to finger bone measurements, half-lives of (300  ±  163) d and (2201  ±  1662) d were observed. Ankle bone data gave half-lives of (156  ±  117) d and (1681  ±  744) d. A two sample t-test, assuming unequal variances, showed these half-lives to be statistically different in both the finger and ankle bone measurements (p  =  0.0147 and p  =  0.00711, respectively). Common kinetic parameters amongst the different subjects could not be unambiguously identified due to the wide scatter of data, leading to an inconclusive kinetic model. The wide distribution of data is suggested to be physiological since technical and positioning factors were eliminated as possible causes. This outcome indicates the need for a more controlled study and further understanding of the physiological mechanism of Sr absorption. (paper)

  17. A comparison of hand-wrist bone and cervical vertebral analyses in measuring skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Paola; Mancini, Marta; Andreani, Federico

    2006-11-01

    To compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand-wrist bone analysis and by cervical vertebral analysis. A radiographic hand-wrist bone analysis and cephalometric cervical vertebral analysis of 30 patients (14 males and 16 females; 7-18 years of age) were examined. The hand-wrist bone analysis was evaluated by the Bjork index, whereas the cervical vertebral analysis was assessed by the cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) method. To define vertebral stages, the analysis consisted of both cephalometric (13 points) and morphologic evaluation of three cervical vertebrae (concavity of second, third, and fourth vertebrae and shape of third and fourth vertebrae). These measurements were then compared with the hand-wrist bone analysis, and the results were statistically analyzed by the Cohen kappa concordance index. The same procedure was repeated after 6 months and showed identical results. The Cohen kappa index obtained (mean +/- SD) was 0.783 +/- 0.098, which is in the significant range. The results show a concordance of 83.3%, considering that the estimated percentage for each case is 23.3%. The results also show a correlation of CVMS I with Bjork stages 1-3 (interval A), CVMS II with Bjork stage 4 (interval B), CVMS III with Bjork stage 5 (interval C), CVMS IV with Bjork stages 6 and 7 (interval D), and CVMS V with Bjork stages 8 and 9 (interval E). Vertebral analysis on a lateral cephalogram is as valid as the hand-wrist bone analysis with the advantage of reducing the radiation exposure of growing subjects.

  18. Bone mineral density (BMD) and computer tomographic measurements of the equine proximal phalanx in correlation with breaking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, P; Horváth, C; Ferencz, V; Tóth, B; Váradi, A; Szenci, O; Bodó, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important fracture risk predictor in human medicine, studies in equine orthopedic research are still lacking. We hypothesized that BMD correlates with bone failure and fatigue fractures of this bone. Thus, the objectives of this study were to measure the structural and mechanical properties of the proximal phalanx with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to correlate the data obtained from DXA and computer tomography (CT) measurements to those obtained by loading pressure examination and to establish representative region of interest (ROI) for in vitro BMD measurements of the equine proximal phalanx for predicting bone failure force. DXA was used to measure the whole bone BMD and additional three ROI sites in 14 equine proximal phalanges. Following evaluation of the bone density, whole bone, cortical width and area in the mid-diaphyseal plane were measured on CT images. Bones were broken using a manually controlled universal bone crusher to measure bone failure force and reevaluated for the site of fractures on follow-up CT images. Compressive load was applied at a constant displacement rate of 2 mm/min until failure, defined as the first clear drop in the load measurement. The lowest BMD was measured at the trabecular region (mean +/- SD: 1.52 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; median: 1.48 g/cm2; range: 1.38-1.83 g/cm2). There was a significant positive linear correlation between trabelcular BMD and the breaking strength (P = 0.023, r = 0.62). The trabecular region of the proximal phalanx appears to be the only significant indicator of failure of strength in vitro. This finding should be reassessed to further reveal the prognostic value of trabecular BMD in an in vivo fracture risk model.

  19. Transplanted Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modify the In Vivo Microenvironment Enhancing Angiogenesis and Leading to Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeschi, Maria Rosa; El Backly, Rania; Capelli, Chiara; Daga, Antonio; Patrone, Eugenio; Introna, Martino; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2015-01-01

    Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) show properties similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), although controversial data exist regarding their osteogenic potential. We prepared clinical-grade UC-MSCs from Wharton's Jelly and we investigated if UC-MSCs could be used as substitutes for BM-MSCs in muscoloskeletal regeneration as a more readily available and functional source of MSCs. UC-MSCs were loaded onto scaffolds and implanted subcutaneously (ectopically) and in critical-sized calvarial defects (orthotopically) in mice. For live cell-tracking experiments, UC-MSCs were first transduced with the luciferase gene. Angiogenic properties of UC-MSCs were tested using the mouse metatarsal angiogenesis assay. Cell secretomes were screened for the presence of various cytokines using an array assay. Analysis of implanted scaffolds showed that UC-MSCs, contrary to BM-MSCs, remained detectable in the implants for 3 weeks at most and did not induce bone formation in an ectopic location. Instead, they induced a significant increase of blood vessel ingrowth. In agreement with these observations, UC-MSC-conditioned medium presented a distinct and stronger proinflammatory/chemotactic cytokine profile than BM-MSCs and a significantly enhanced angiogenic activity. When UC-MSCs were orthotopically transplanted in a calvarial defect, they promoted increased bone formation as well as BM-MSCs. However, at variance with BM-MSCs, the new bone was deposited through the activity of stimulated host cells, highlighting the importance of the microenvironment on determining cell commitment and response. Therefore, we propose, as therapy for bone lesions, the use of allogeneic UC-MSCs by not depositing bone matrix directly, but acting through the activation of endogenous repair mechanisms. PMID:25685989

  20. Disrupted bone remodeling leads to cochlear overgrowth and hearing loss in a mouse model of fibrous dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Akil

    Full Text Available Normal hearing requires exquisite cooperation between bony and sensorineural structures within the cochlea. For example, the inner ear secretes proteins such as osteoprotegrin (OPG that can prevent cochlear bone remodeling. Accordingly, diseases that affect bone regulation can also result in hearing loss. Patients with fibrous dysplasia develop trabecular bone overgrowth resulting in hearing loss if the lesions affect the temporal bones. Unfortunately, the mechanisms responsible for this hearing loss, which could be sensorineural and/or conductive, remain unclear. In this study, we used a unique transgenic mouse model of increased Gs G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR signaling induced by expression of an engineered receptor, Rs1, in osteoblastic cells. These ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ mice showed dramatic bone lesions that histologically and radiologically resembled fibrous dysplasia. We found that ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ mice showed progressive and severe conductive hearing loss. Ossicular chain impingement increased with the size and number of dysplastic lesions. While sensorineural structures were unaffected, ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ cochleae had abnormally high osteoclast activity, together with elevated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (Rankl mRNA expression. ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ cochleae also showed decreased expression of Sclerostin (Sost, an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway that normally increases bone formation. The osteocyte canalicular networks of ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ cochleae were disrupted and showed abnormal osteocyte morphology. The osteocytes in the ColI(2.3+/Rs1+ cochleae showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13 and TRAP, both of which can support osteocyte-mediated peri-lacunar remodeling. Thus, while the ossicular chain impingement is sufficient to account for the progressive hearing loss in fibrous dysplasia, the deregulation of bone remodeling extends to the

  1. Determination of bone mineral density at distal radius measured by single photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Hitomi, Go; Murakami, Akihiko; Suemori, Shinji; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Ishii, Koshi; Hiji, Hiroo

    1988-01-01

    We have discussed the index of the bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal radius measured by single photon absorptiometry. Initially, the shape at the distal radius was evaluated using an X-ray photogram of the forearm and a calculation formula of the cross-sectional area at the distal radius was performed using an X-CT photogram of the forearm. A new index for the bone mineral density (modified BMD, mBMD), bone mineral content/cross-sectional area, at the distal radius was obtained for 154 young normal subjects (20 ∼ 44 yrs.). No significant differences in the mBMD values between young normal males and females, except for the group 20 ∼ 24 year-old group, were observed. Furthermore, a significantly decreased in the mBMD values with aging was observed in females between the ages of 20 ∼ 24 and 40 ∼ 44. However, no significant changes in the mBMD values were recognized in the men. Thus, it was shown that the new BMD index, mBMD, was useful for evaluating the changes of the bone mass. (author)

  2. Measurement of hand bone mineral content using single-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoll, J.J.; Smith, M.A.; Law, E.; Tothill, P.; Reid, D.; Brown, N.; Nuki, G.

    1987-01-01

    A single photon absorption imaging technique has been developed to assess the bone mass of the hand, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or bronchial asthma. A modified rectilinear scanner images the hand by transmission scanning in a water bath with a 7.4 GBq 125 I source. A microcomputer is used to calculate the bone mineral distribution, and the total bone mineral content (BMC) of the hand is determined from that distribution. The precision (coefficient of variation) of the measurement is 1.9%. A control population of 20 men and 58 women has been studied to determine normal variations in hand bone mineral content with age, sex, body size, hand volume and years since menopause. The normal men are found to have an average hand BMC of 25.1 g with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 22%, which is reduced to 12% by normalising for body size using span. The normal women had an average hand BMC of 18.0 g +- 15%. The CV is reduced to 13% by normalising for span and years post-menopause. (author)

  3. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G.; Haras, G.; Mann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  4. Measuring the stopping power of α particles in compact bone for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, L.; Rodríguez, L. M.; Fregenal, D.; Bernardi, G.; Olivares, C.; Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; González, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The stopping power of α particles in thin films of decalcified sheep femur, in the range of 1.5 to 5.0 MeV incident energy, was measured by transmission of a backscattered beam from a heavy target. Additionally, the film elemental composition was determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). These data will be used to measure boron concentration in thin films of bone using a spectrometry technique developed by the University of Pavia, since the concentration ratio between healthy tissue and tumor is of fundamental importance in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The present experimental data are compared with numerical simulation results and with tabulated stopping power data of non-decalcified human bone.

  5. MRI-measured pelvic bone marrow adipose tissue is inversely related to DXA-measured bone mineral in younger and older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wei; Chen, Jun; Gantz, Madeleine; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Albu, Jeanine; Engelson, Ellen; Kotler, Donald; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective Recent research has shown an inverse relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). There is a lack of evidence at the macro-imaging level to establish whether increased BMAT is a cause or effect of bone loss. This cross-sectional study compared the BMAT and BMD relationship between a younger adult group at or approaching peak bone mass (PBM) (age 18.0-39.9 yrs) and an older group with potential bone loss (PoBL) (age 40.0-88 yrs). S...

  6. Comparison among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, modified dixon method, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in measuring bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Gong, Xiuqun; Weiss, Jessica; Jin, Ye

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI)), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI). Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 (P BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 (P < 0.001) in femoral necks. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  7. Comparison among T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Modified Dixon Method, and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Measuring Bone Marrow Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Methods. Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Results. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 in femoral necks. Conclusion. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  8. Field trial using bone meal amendments to remediate mine waste derived soil contaminated with zinc, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, I.R.; Orueetxebarria, M.; Hodson, M.E.; Schofield, P.F.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2008-01-01

    Bone meal amendments are being considered as a remediation method for metal-contaminated wastes. In various forms (biogenic, geogenic or synthetic), apatite, the principal mineral constituent of bone, has shown promise as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soils via the formation of insoluble phosphates of Pb and possibly other metals. The efficacy of commercially available bovine bone meal in this role was investigated in a field trial at Nenthead, Cumbria with a mine waste derived soil contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd. Two 5 m 2 plots were set up; the first as a control and the second, a treatment plot where the soil was thoroughly mixed with bone meal to a depth of 50 cm at a soil to amendment ratio of 25:1 by weight. An array of soil solution samplers (Rhizon SMS TM ) were installed in both plots and the soil pore water was collected and analysed for Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb regularly over a period of 2 a. Concurrently with the field trial, a laboratory trial with 800 mm high and 100 mm wide leaching columns was conducted using identical samplers and with soil from the field site. A substantial release of Zn, Pb, Cd and Ca was observed associated with the bone meal treatment. This release was transient in the case of the leaching columns, and showed seasonal variation in the case of the field trial. It is proposed that this effect resulted from metal complexation with organic acids released during breakdown of the bone meal organic fraction and was facilitated by the relatively high soil pH of 7.6-8.0. Even after this transient release effect had subsided or when incinerated bone meal was substituted in order to eliminate the organic fraction, no detectable decrease in dissolved metals was observed and no P was detected in solution, in contrast with an earlier small column laboratory study. It is concluded that due to the relative insolubility of apatite at above-neutral pH, the rate of supply of phosphate to soil solution was insufficient to result in

  9. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm 3 , which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm 3 , requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm 3 ) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm 3 and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0.05, Tukey's HSD

  10. Bone metabolic activity measured with positron emission tomography and [18F] fluoride ion in renal osteodystrophy: Correlation with bone histomorphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; Goodman, W.G.; Hoh, C.K.; Choi, Y.; Nissenson, A.R.; Salusky, I.B.; Phelps, M.E.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors evaluated the bone metabolic activity in patients with renal osteodystrophy using positron emission tomography and [ 18 F] fluoride ion. Eight patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), and three had low-turnover bone disease. Eleven normal subjects were also studied, and three of the eight HPT patients were reevaluated after therapy. A rate constant (K) describing the net transport of [ 18 F] fluoride ion into a bound compartment in bone was calculated using both a three-compartment model and Patlak graphical analysis. Values of K were compared with biochemical data and with histomorphometric indices. The results indicate that K is significantly higher (P 18 F] fluoride ion can differentiate low turnover from high turnover lesions of renal osteodystropy and provide quantitative estimates of bone cell activity that correlate with histomorphometric data

  11. Bone blood flow measured by 41Ar clearance formed by 44Ca(n,α)41Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Nickles, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A technique to measure regional inert gas washout in bone, in vivo, by measuring 41 Ar clearance formed by fast-neutron activation of 44 Ca has been developed. Following fast-neutron irradiation of whole rats, the perfusion-limited clearance of 41 Ar was measured for both dead and living rats. The clearance rate for the live rats indicate that the bone perfusion is in the range of 3 to 20 ml/100 Argon distribution volume

  12. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  13. Measurement of forward-backward multiplicity correlations in lead-lead, proton-lead, and proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D' amen, G.; D' Auria, S.; D' Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell' Acqua, A.; Dell' Asta, L.; Dell' Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gasnikova, K.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; Gentsos, C.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, G.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gravila, P. M.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grevtsov, K.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Groh, S.; Grohs, J. P.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guan, W.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Hadef, A.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanisch, S.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hartmann, N. M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hayakawa, D.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J. J.; Heinrich, L.; Heinz, C.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Henkelmann, S.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Herget, V.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooberman, B. H.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn' ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S. -C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, S.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Huo, P.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Ishijima, N.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Ito, F.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, P.; Jain, V.; Jakobi, K. B.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanneau, F.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G. -Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, H.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Jivan, H.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, S.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Juste Rozas, A.; Köhler, M. K.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kaji, T.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kaluza, A.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kanjir, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Kawade, K.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khader, M.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kilby, C. R.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E. -E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koehler, N. M.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolb, M.; Koletsou, I.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kondrashova, N.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kosek, T.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Kowalewska, A. B.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozakai, C.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kravchenko, A.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Krizka, K.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kucuk, H.; Kuday, S.; Kuechler, J. T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuger, F.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kukla, R.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunigo, T.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; Kwan, T.; Kyriazopoulos, D.; La Rosa, A.; La Rosa Navarro, J. L.; La Rotonda, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lammers, S.; Lampl, W.; Lançon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lanfermann, M. C.; Lang, V. S.; Lange, J. C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Lasagni Manghi, F.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Law, A. T.; Laycock, P.; Lazovich, T.; Lazzaroni, M.; Le, B.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Quilleuc, E. P.; LeBlanc, M.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, C. A.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, B.; Lefebvre, G.; Lefebvre, M.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehan, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leight, W. A.; Leisos, A.; Leister, A. G.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lemmer, B.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzi, B.; Leone, R.; Leone, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Leontsinis, S.; Lerner, G.; Leroy, C.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Lester, C. G.; Levchenko, M.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levy, M.; Lewis, D.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, C.; Li, H.; Li, H. L.; Li, L.; Li, L.; Li, Q.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Liblong, A.; Lichard, P.; Lie, K.; Liebal, J.; Liebig, W.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S. C.; Lin, T. H.; Lindquist, B. E.; Lionti, A. E.; Lipeles, E.; Lipniacka, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, B.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Llorente Merino, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loevschall-Jensen, A. E.; Loew, K. M.; Loginov, A.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, B. A.; Long, J. D.; Long, R. E.; Longo, L.; Looper, K. A.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Lopez Paredes, B.; Lopez Paz, I.; Lopez Solis, A.; Lorenz, J.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Losada, M.; Lösel, P. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lu, H.; Lu, N.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Luedtke, C.; Luehring, F.; Lukas, W.; Luminari, L.; Lundberg, O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Luzi, P. M.; Lynn, D.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Lyubushkin, V.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Y.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macdonald, C. M.; Maček, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Madaffari, D.; Madar, R.; Maddocks, H. J.; Mader, W. F.; Madsen, A.; Maeda, J.; Maeland, S.; Maeno, T.; Maevskiy, A.; Magradze, E.; Mahlstedt, J.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maier, A. A.; Maier, T.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Malaescu, B.; Malecki, Pa.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Malone, C.; Maltezos, S.; Malyukov, S.; Mamuzic, J.; Mancini, G.; Mandelli, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Maneira, J.; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mann, A.; Manousos, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mansour, J. D.; Mantifel, R.; Mantoani, M.; Manzoni, S.; Mapelli, L.; Marceca, G.; March, L.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marjanovic, M.; Marley, D. E.; Marroquim, F.; Marsden, S. P.; Marshall, Z.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, B.; Martin, T. A.; Martin, V. J.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Martin-Haugh, S.; Martoiu, V. S.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massa, L.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mättig, P.; Mattmann, J.; Maurer, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; Mazini, R.; Mazza, S. M.; Mc Fadden, N. C.; Mc Goldrick, G.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McClymont, L. I.; McDonald, E. F.; Mcfayden, J. A.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Medinnis, M.; Meehan, S.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meineck, C.; Meirose, B.; Melini, D.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Melo, M.; Meloni, F.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, H.; Miano, F.; Middleton, R. P.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Milesi, M.; Milic, A.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Minami, Y.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mistry, K. P.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mohapatra, S.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Monden, R.; Mondragon, M. C.; Mönig, K.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montalbano, A.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Mori, D.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Mortensen, S. S.; Morvaj, L.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Mullier, G. A.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Murillo Quijada, J. A.; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Muškinja, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nachman, B. P.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Naranjo Garcia, R. F.; Narayan, R.; Narrias Villar, D. I.; Naryshkin, I.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nguyen Manh, T.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nooney, T.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Norjoharuddeen, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O' grady, F.; O' Neil, D. C.; O' Rourke, A. A.; O' Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Oleiro Seabra, L. F.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Pacheco Rodriguez, L.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, A. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pascuzzi, V. R.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M. -A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Ravinovich, I.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rosien, N. -A.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Savic, N.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C. -L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2017-06-28

    Two-particle pseudorapidity correlations are measured in √sNN = 2.76TeV Pb + Pb, √sNN = 5.02TeV p + Pb, and √s = 13 TeV pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with total integrated luminosities of approximately 7μb–1, 28 nb–1, and 65 nb–1, respectively. The correlation function CN12) is measured as a function of event multiplicity using charged particles in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.4. The correlation function contains a significant short-range component, which is estimated and subtracted. After removal of the short-range component, the shape of the correlation function is described approximately by 1 + < a21 > 1/2η1η2 in all collision systems over the full multiplicity range. The values of < a21 >1/2 are consistent for the opposite-charge pairs and same-charge pairs, and for the three collision systems at similar multiplicity. The values of < a21 >1/2 and the magnitude of the short-range component both follow a power-law dependence on the event multiplicity. Here, the short-range component in p + Pb collisions, after symmetrizing the proton and lead directions, is found to be smaller at a given η than in pp collisions with comparable multiplicity.

  14. The prediction of cyclic proximal humerus fracture fixation failure by various bone density measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Peter; Grünwald, Leonard; Windolf, Markus

    2018-02-22

    Fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures has remained challenging, but may be improved by careful pre-operative planning. The aim of this study was to investigate how well the failure of locking plate fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures can be predicted by bone density measures assessed with currently available clinical imaging (realistic case) and a higher resolution and quality modality (theoretical best-case). Various density measures were correlated to experimentally assessed number of cycles to construct failure of plated unstable low-density proximal humerus fractures (N = 18). The influence of density evaluation technique was investigated by comparing local (peri-implant) versus global evaluation regions; HR-pQCT-based versus clinical QCT-based image data; ipsilateral versus contralateral side; and bone mineral content (BMC) versus bone mineral density (BMD). All investigated density measures were significantly correlated with the experimental cycles to failure. The best performing clinically feasible parameter was the QCT-based BMC of the contralateral articular cap region, providing significantly better correlation (R 2  = 0.53) compared to a previously proposed clinical density measure (R 2  = 0.30). BMC had consistently, but not significantly stronger correlations with failure than BMD. The overall best results were obtained with the ipsilateral HR-pQCT-based local BMC (R 2  = 0.74) that may be used for implant optimization. Strong correlations were found between the corresponding density measures of the two CT image sources, as well as between the two sides. Future studies should investigate if BMC of the contralateral articular cap region could provide improved prediction of clinical fixation failure compared to previously proposed measures. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationship between bone strength and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Hald; McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    BMD (1.4 g/cm2, respectively). The results showed a difference in the maximum load, in the stress at maximum load, and stiffness among each BMD group (P ... and extrinsic measures of bone strength and BMD was thus demonstrated. The projected change in each of the variables reported, for a 0.1 /cm2 alteration in BMD (within the BMD range evaluated in this study), is as follows: maximum load, 708 N; stress at maximum load, 50 N/mm2; stiffness, 391.6 N/mm; and elastic...... modulus, 108 N/mm2 (P relationship between BMD and bone strength and indicate that BMD screening can be used in fracture risk assessments in production pigs....

  16. In vivo, noninvasive functional measurements of bone sarcoma using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Hannah M.; Hoang, Bang H.; Geller, David; Yang, Rui; Gorlick, Richard; Berger, Jeremy; Tingling, Janet; Roth, Michael; Gill, Jonathon; Roblyer, Darren

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) is an emerging near-infrared imaging technique that noninvasively measures quantitative functional information in thick tissue. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using DOSI to measure optical contrast from bone sarcomas. These tumors are rare and pose technical and practical challenges for DOSI measurements due to the varied anatomic locations and tissue depths of presentation. Six subjects were enrolled in the study. One subject was unable to be measured due to tissue contact sensitivity. For the five remaining subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, optical properties, and quantitative tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids from tumor and contralateral normal tissues were assessed. Statistical differences between tumor and contralateral normal tissue were found in chromophore concentrations and optical properties for four subjects. Low signal-to-noise was encountered during several subject's measurements, suggesting increased detector sensitivity will help to optimize DOSI for this patient population going forward. This study demonstrates that DOSI is capable of measuring optical properties and obtaining functional information in bone sarcomas. In the future, DOSI may provide a means to stratify treatment groups and monitor chemotherapy response for this disease.

  17. Lead Equivalent Thickness Measurement for Mixed Compositions of Barium Plaster Block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Muhammad Jamal Muhammad Isa; Nur Shahriza Zainuddin; Mohd Khairusalih Md Zin; Shahrul Azlan Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of lead equivalent thickness for ionizing radiation exposure room wall shall be performed as stated in Malaysian Standard MS 838. A few numbers of sample blocks with different mixture of barium plaster compositions based and varies certain thickness as a shielding material for exposure room wall belong to a local company were tested by using Cs-137, Co-60 and Am-241 with different activities . Radiations passed through the samples were detected with calibrated survey meter. The distance between radiation source and the detector is about 40 cm. Lead uniformity test on the samples was also determined at three labeled points on the samples. Lead equivalent thicknesses for the samples were evaluated based on a calibration graph that was plotted with lead sheets and with the radiation sources. Results shown that lead equivalent thickness for the samples with same actual physical thickness represent different values for different sources. (author)

  18. The measurement and estimation method of the sorption of lead onto cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Kiyoshi; Tsukamoto, Masaki; Fujita, Tomonari; Sugiyama, Daisuke

    2002-01-01

    Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging material for radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material is a very important parameter when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive waste. In this study, sorption of lead, onto hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), OPC/Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (BFS), Highly containing Flyash and Silica Fume Cement (HFSC) and cement constituent minerals (portlandite, ettringite, hydrotalcite and C-S-H gels (Ca/Si = 0.9 and 1.65)) was measured using the batch sorption technique. Lead is one of the important nuclides for safety assessment. The obtained distribution ratios, Rd values, for sorption of lead onto hydrated (freshly cured) OPC and HFSC are very high:>1000 cm3g-1. The distribution ratio for sorption of lead onto OPC/BFS could not be determined quantitatively due to the precipitation of PbS. Comparing the Rd values onto cements and minerals, it was suggested the sorption onto C-S-H gel phases dominate the sorption for lead onto hydrated cements. Once a cementitious material is altered in the disposal environment, its sorption ability may be affected. The sorption of lead onto degraded OPC and degraded HFSC, which were altered in the presence of distilled water, was also measured. It was observed that the alteration did not cause changes that decreased the sorption of lead onto OPC and HFSC. An approach, in which it is assumed that each of the component phases contributes to the composite material, is proposed and discussed to describe the sorption of lead onto cement using a knowledge of the phase components in a linear additive manner. The results showed reasonably good agreement between the predicted and measured Rd values for lead onto freshly cured and altered cements. (author)

  19. Recql4 haploinsufficiency in mice leads to defects in osteoblast progenitors: Implications for low bone mass phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jieping; Murthy, Sreemala; Winata, Therry; Werner, Sean; Abe, Masumi; Prahalad, Agasanur K.; Hock, Janet M.

    2006-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie skeletal abnormalities in defective Recql4-related syndromes are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to explore the function of Recql4 in osteoblast biology both in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry on adult mouse bone showed Recql4 protein localization in active osteoblasts around growth plate, but not in fully differentiated osteocytes. Consistent with this finding, Recql4 gene expression was high in proliferating mouse osteoblastic MC3T3.E1 cells and decreased as cells progressively lost their proliferation activity during differentiation. Recql4 overexpression in osteoblastic cells exhibited higher proliferation activity, while its depletion impeded cell growth. In addition, bone marrow stromal cells from male Recql4+/- mice had fewer progenitor cells, including osteoprogenitors, indicated by reduced total fibroblast colony forming units (CFU-f) and alkaline phosphatase-positive CFU-f colonies concomitant with reduced bone mass. These findings provide evidence that Recql4 functions as a regulatory protein during osteoprogenitor proliferation, a critical cellular event during skeleton development

  20. Age- and sex-related bone uptake of Tc-99m-HDP measured by whole-body bone scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, W.; Sieweke, N.; Kampen, W.U.; Zuhayra, M.; Henze, E. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Clausen, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Aim of this study was to validate a recently introduced new and easy-to-perform method for quantifying bone uptake of Tc-99m-labelled diphosphonate in a routine clinical setting and to establish a normal data base for bone uptake depending on age and gender. Methods: In 49 women (14-79 years) and 47 men (6-89 years) with normal bone scans as well as in 49 women (33-81 years) and 37 men (27-88 years) with metastatic bone disease whole-body bone scans were acquired at 3 min and 3-4 hours p.i. to calculate bone uptake after correction for both urinary excretion and soft tissue retention. Results: Bone uptake values of various age-related subgroups showed no significant differences between men and women (p>0.05). Furthermore, no differences could be proven between age-matched subgroups of normals and patients with less than 10 metastatic bone lesions, while patients with wide-spread bone metastases revealed significantly increased uptake values. In both men and women highest bone uptake was obtained (p<0.05) in subjects younger than 20 years with active epiphyseal growth plates. In men, bone uptake slowly decreased with age up to 60 years and then showed a tendency towards increasing uptake values. In women, the mean uptake reached a minimum in the decade 20-29 years and then slowly increased with a positive linear correlation of age and uptake in subjects older than 55 years (r=0.57). Conclusion: Since the results proposed in this study are in good agreement with data from literature, the new method used for quantification could be validated in a large number of patients. Furthermore, age- and sex-related normal bone uptake values of Tc-99m-HDP covering a wide range of age could be presented for this method as a basis for further studies on bone uptake. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war die Validierung einer von uns neu entwickelten einfachen Methode zur Quantifizierung des Skelettuptake von Tc-99m-HDP im Rahmen der klinischen Routineanwendung und die Erstellung

  1. Influences of transplantation on metabolic bone diseases in dialysis patients. Measurement of bone density with multiple X-ray photodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, Miho

    1994-01-01

    Renal osteodystrophy is a grave complication in dialysis patients. In this study, we evaluated the effect of renal transplantation (Txp) on metabolic bone diseases in renal transplant recipients (RTR), by multiple scanning X-ray photodensitometry (MD/MS). In only about 10% of RTR, bone metabolism recovered following improvement of renal function 1-2 years after Txp. Most cases showed decreased ΣGS and μ' scores on the MD/MS 1-2 years after Txp. Then ΣGS and μ' gradually increased over a long period. In seven of ten RTR with long-term graft survival (10 years<), ΣGS and μ' scores were within normal limits and densitometry bone patterns were normal. In four of five cases that received ciclosporin and had undergone Txp more than five years before, densitometry bone patterns were normal. Treatment with high doses of steroids due to acute rejection caused a sharp decline of ΣGS and μ' scores. In FK506-medicated RTR, ΣGS and μ' scores 1-2 years after Txp were decreased. In a 21-year-old female patient who had undergone Txp as the age of 13-year-old, there was little bone growth and ΣGS and μ' scores were significantly decreased. (author)

  2. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Placakyte, R.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.

    2012-01-01

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep→eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x P 2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 2 2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to vertical stroke t vertical stroke 2 are in agreement with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Univ. of Belgrade, Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  4. Quantitation of specific myeloid cells in rat bone marrow measured by in vitro /sup 35/S-sulphate incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A F; Rose, M S

    1984-08-01

    A biochemical measurement which can be used for quantitation of specific early myeloid cells in rat bone marrow has been developed. This measurement consists of a rapid, simple assay for the in vitro quantitation of /sup 35/S-sulfate incorporation into rat bone marrow cells. Incubation of bone marrow cells with /sup 35/S-sulfate led to a time-dependent increase in radioactivity obtained in perchloric acid insoluble fractions of bone marrow cell suspensions. This incorporation was inhibited by cyanide and puromycin. Autoradiography has demonstrated the radiolabel to be specifically associated with immature cells of the myeloid series. The cells most active in this respect were eosinophils. When rats were treated with endotoxin, the rate of /sup 35/S-sulfate incorporation was increased. Cell number measurements, using conventional histopathology and a Coulter Counter, demonstrated that endotoxin caused an initial release of mature granulocytes from the bone marrow. The regeneration of this mature population in the marrow was rapid, and was characterized by an increase in the number of immature cells and a concomitant increase in the rate of /sup 35/S-sulfate incorporation measured in preparations of bone marrow cells in vitro. Furthermore, this response to endotoxin has demonstrated that Coulter Counting techniques can be used to distinguish specific populations of cells (e.g. mature granulocytes) within the bone marrow.

  5. Application of a Beamforming Technique to the Measurement of Airfoil Leading Edge Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the use of microphone array technology and beamforming algorithms for the measurement and analysis of noise generated by the interaction of a turbulent flow with the leading edge of an airfoil. Experiments were performed using a setup in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel, where the turbulent inflow is provided by different grids. In order to exactly localize the aeroacoustic noise sources and, moreover, to separate airfoil leading edge noise from grid-generated noise, the selected deconvolution beamforming algorithm is extended to be used on a fully three-dimensional source region. The result of this extended beamforming are three-dimensional mappings of noise source locations. Besides acoustic measurements, the investigation of airfoil leading edge noise requires the measurement of parameters describing the incident turbulence, such as the intensity and a characteristic length scale or time scale. The method used for the determination of these parameters in the present study is explained in detail. To demonstrate the applicability of the extended beamforming algorithm and the experimental setup as a whole, the noise generated at the leading edge of airfoils made of porous materials was measured and compared to that generated at the leading edge of a common nonporous airfoil.

  6. Validation of a physical activity questionnaire to measure the effect of mechanical strain on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Han C G; Bakker, I; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2002-05-01

    Most of the questionnaires available to estimate the daily physical activity levels of humans are based on measuring the intensity of these activities as multiples of resting metabolic rate (METs). Metabolic intensity of physical activities is the most important component for evaluating effects on cardiopulmonary fitness. However, animal studies have indicated that for effects on bone mass the intensity in terms of energy expenditure (metabolic component) of physical activities is less important than the intensity of mechanical strain in terms of the forces by the skeletal muscles and/or the ground reaction forces. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) was applied to investigate the long-term effects of habitual physical activity patterns during youth on health and fitness in later adulthood. The PAQ estimates both the metabolic components of physical activities (METPA) and the mechanical components of physical activities (MECHPA). Longitudinal measurements of METPA and MECHPA were made in a young population of males and females ranging in age from 13 to 32 years. This enabled evaluation of the differential effects of physical activities during adolescence (13-16 years), young adulthood (21-28 years), and the total period of 15 years (age 13-28 years) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in males (n = 139) and females (n = 163) at a mean age of 32 years. The PAQ used in the AGAHLS during adolescence (13-16 years) and young adulthood (21-28 years) has the ability to measure the physical activity patterns of both genders, which are important for the development of bone mass at the adult age. MECHPA is more important than METPA. The highest coefficient of 0.33 (p PAQ was established by comparing PAQ scores during four annual measurements in 200 boys and girls with two other objective measures of physical activity: movement

  7. Complexity of MRI induced heating on metallic leads: Experimental measurements of 374 configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza Gonzalo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MRI induced heating on PM leads is a very complex issue. The widely varying results described in literature suggest that there are many factors that influence the degree of heating and that not always are adequately addressed by existing testing methods. Methods We present a wide database of experimental measurements of the heating of metallic wires and PM leads in a 1.5 T RF coil. The aim of these measurements is to systematically quantify the contribution of some potential factors involved in the MRI induced heating: the length and the geometric structure of the lead; the implant location within the body and the lead path; the shape of the phantom used to simulate the human trunk and its relative position inside the RF coil. Results We found that the several factors are the primary influence on heating at the tip. Closer locations of the leads to the edge of the phantom and to the edge of the coil produce maximum heating. The lead length is the other crucial factor, whereas the implant area does not seem to have a major role in the induced temperature increase. Also the lead structure and the geometry of the phantom revealed to be elements that can significantly modify the amount of heating. Conclusion Our findings highlight the factors that have significant effects on MRI induced heating of implanted wires and leads. These factors must be taken into account by those who plan to study or model MRI heating of implants. Also our data should help those who wish to develop guidelines for defining safe medical implants for MRI patients. In addition, our database of the entire set of measurements can help those who wish to validate their numerical models of implants that may be exposed to MRI systems.

  8. A theoretical analysis of the accuracy of single-energy CT bone-mineral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, E.O.; Evans, W.D.; Owen, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    A relationship has been derived between the in vivo concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite and the in vitro concentration of K 2 HPO 4 solution in a single-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) bone-mineral determination. Under certain simplifying assumptions this relationship is linear. The gradient term has been calculated as a function of scanner effective energy using the measured variation of solvent water density with K 2 HPO 4 concentration; it ranges from 1.17 at 60 keV to 1.21 at 80 keV. The intercept term has been calculated as a function of effective energy, patient age and trabecular bone volume (TBV) by modelling the constituents of whole trabecular bone and using published normal composition data. It varies from about 15 to 25 mg cm -3 at an effective energy of 70 keV and within a TBV range of 5 to 20%. This intercept term may be used as an additive correction which improves the accuracy of single-energy QCT results without significant loss of precision. However, the method is limited by the uncertainties of tissue composition in an individual patient. (author)

  9. Usefulness of quantitative computed tomography for measurement of vertebral bone mineral density in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaura, Kozo

    1986-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the usefullnes of the qantitative computed tomography in mesurement of bone densites of lumbar spine in senile and postmenopausal osteoporosis. The CT-numbers of the spongiosum of the second lumbar spine and K2HPO4 solusion phantom were mesured in the same series scanning, and the bone densities were displayed as concentrations of K2HPO4 solution (QCT-value). The QCT-values are well related with the bone densities which were mesured with single photon absorptiometor (Norland-Cameron) at one third and one sixth distal ends of radiuses. The QCT-values decrease with aging, and the decrement in female is more remarkable than that in male. The decrement of QCT-value starts at in 3rd decade of their life time. It is defferent from the conclusions those were obtained with the measurement of clavicular cortex index, or single photon absorptiometor. The QCT-values of the patients with lumbargo are lower than those of the patients without lumbargo. The QCT-values of the patients without compression fructure in lumbar spine are higher than those of the patients with compression fructure, but the number of the sites of compression fructures in lumbar spine appears to have no effect on the QCT-values. The QCT-values of postmenopausal osteoporosis were improved by the administration of calcium and 1α-OHVit. D3 (0.5 μg/day. for a year). (author)

  10. Measurements of Sr/Ca in bones to evaluate differences in temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.R. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: nemitala@dfn.if.usp.br; Aburaya, J.H.; Rizzutto, M.A. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    Analysis of aragonite from sea shells and coral skeletons showed a clear correlation between the strontium and calcium concentrations for these crystals (Sr/Ca ratio) and seawater temperature obtained by satellites and ship readings. In this work we present the results of a study that correlates Sr/Ca ratio with formation temperature of another calcium crystal, the hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), main mineral compound of teeth and bones from vertebrates. These animals, independent of its thermoregulation pattern (endothermic or ectothermic) have variations of internal temperature along the body. One interesting application of this work is to differentiate warm-blooded animals from cold-blooded ones just by measuring Sr/Ca ratio in their bones. Bones from a crocodile from Caiman yacare species and two dogs, a poodle and a non defined race, were analyzed using PIXE technique and thick target correction. A 1.78 (18) MeV external proton beam was used in LAMFI-USP with an accumulated charge of about 10 {mu}C for probing the samples. Emitted X-rays were collected using Si-PIN detectors (140 keV for Fe). As in coral skeletons, the Sr/Ca ratio of animals is lower in the body's warmer parts and higher in colder parts.

  11. Measurements of Sr/Ca in bones to evaluate differences in temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.R.; Added, N.; Aburaya, J.H.; Rizzutto, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of aragonite from sea shells and coral skeletons showed a clear correlation between the strontium and calcium concentrations for these crystals (Sr/Ca ratio) and seawater temperature obtained by satellites and ship readings. In this work we present the results of a study that correlates Sr/Ca ratio with formation temperature of another calcium crystal, the hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ), main mineral compound of teeth and bones from vertebrates. These animals, independent of its thermoregulation pattern (endothermic or ectothermic) have variations of internal temperature along the body. One interesting application of this work is to differentiate warm-blooded animals from cold-blooded ones just by measuring Sr/Ca ratio in their bones. Bones from a crocodile from Caiman yacare species and two dogs, a poodle and a non defined race, were analyzed using PIXE technique and thick target correction. A 1.78 (18) MeV external proton beam was used in LAMFI-USP with an accumulated charge of about 10 μC for probing the samples. Emitted X-rays were collected using Si-PIN detectors (140 keV for Fe). As in coral skeletons, the Sr/Ca ratio of animals is lower in the body's warmer parts and higher in colder parts

  12. Measuring leading placental edge to internal cervical os: Transabdominal versus transvaginal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Susan Campbell; Hyett, Jon; Henning Pedersen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare the value of transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) approaches for assessing the risk of a low-lying placenta. This involved a comparison of TA and TV measurements between the leading placental edge and the internal cervical os. We also assessed the intra-/interobserver var......We aimed to compare the value of transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) approaches for assessing the risk of a low-lying placenta. This involved a comparison of TA and TV measurements between the leading placental edge and the internal cervical os. We also assessed the intra......-/interobserver variation for these measurements and the efficacy of TA measures in screening for a low placenta. Methodology Transabdominal and TV measurements of the leading placental edge to the internal cervical os were performed on 369 consecutive pregnancies of 16–41 weeks' gestation. The difference (TA-TV) from...... the area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve. Intra-/interobserver variations were also calculated. Results Of the pregnancies, 278 had a leading placental edge that was visible with the TV approach. Differences (TA-TV) ranged from −50 mm to +57 mm. Bland-Altman plot shows that TA...

  13. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs

  14. Dual photon absorptiometry for bone mineral measurements using a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.; Prpic, H.; Blokland, J.A.K.; Camps, J.A.J.; Papapoulos, S.E.; Bijvoet, O.L.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma camera was equipped with a special collimator and arm assembly for bone mineral measurements with dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). The system was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared both with a rectilinear DPA and a dual energy X-ray (DEXA) system. All 3 systems showed a linear response in measurements of 4 vials, containing different amounts of hydroxyapatite. Phantom measurements with the gamma camera system showed a precision of 1.6% to 2.8%. Results obtained in 8 healthy volunteers with rectilinear and gamma camera systems were well correlated (R 2 = 0.78). With the photon beam directed from posterior to anterior, the separation of vertebrae was easy with the gamma camera system. We conclude that bone mineral measurements can be made with a gamma camera for assessment of fracture risk and in the decision process whether a patient needs treatment or not. For follow-up, the precision of DPA with a gamma camera is inadequate. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic measurement of bone mineral: reviewing dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, L.H.; van Doorn, T.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic methods of bone mineral measurement have been reviewed, with particular emphasis on the methods of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Features of the three major brands of DEXA equipment available in Australasia have been summarised. Radiation hazard is considered to be small, with patient effective doses of the order of a few microSieverts. In vivo measurement precision of the order of 1% is achievable for PA scans of the lumbar spine. Lateral scans can achieve measurement precision of the order of 4%. Recent technological developments using X-ray fan beams and multi element detector arrays on C-arm devices have resulted in faster scan times, higher resolution images, and an ability to perform PA and lateral scanning without the need to reposition the patient. Accuracy of DEXA is dependent upon specific instrumentation and data reduction algorithms, but results generally correlate well with ashed bone measurements. Major sources of inaccuracy include inhomogeneous distributions of fat, and machine specific factors such as edge detection algorithms. Lack of absolute inter unit comparability may cause difficulties in clinical practice. 88 refs., 5 figs

  16. Detection of leaded-gasoline usage in catalyst-equipped vehicles: a gamma-ray transmission guage for measuring catalytic converter lead contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    A gamma-ray transmission gauge has been developed for measuring the accumulation of lead inside the catalytic converters of vehicles operated on leaded gasoline. This nondestructive inspection system relates the amount of gamma radiation passing through the catalytic converter to the mass concentration of lead contained in the catalyst bed. Field studies have shown that vehicle usage of 200 L of leaded gasoline (0.34 g of Pb/L) can be detected at the 95% confidence level. Based on tests with one vehicle burning 1000 L of leaded gasoline, the accumulation rate of lead on the catalytic converter was relatively constant, accounting for 45% of the total lead consumed. Subsequent usage of unleaded gasoline resulted in no significant loss of lead from the catalytic converter

  17. Thermal conductivity measurement of HTS tapes and stacks for current lead applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Michael; Weiss, Klaus-Peter; Heller, Reinhard; Fietz, Walter H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of high-temperature-superconductors (HTS) within current leads offers a high potential to save cooling-power. The principle of HTS current leads is well established, e.g. for particle accelerators (LHC-CERN) but also on the commercial sector, which offer HTS current leads ready for use in small scale magnets and magnets systems. Future fusion machines currently under construction like ITER, W7-X or JT-60SA also will use HTS current leads. At the moment the standard material for HTS current leads is a Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO)-AgAu composite tape. The common way to receive high current capacity current leads is to form stacks by sintering or soldering these tapes together. The solder changes the thermal conductivity of the stacks compared to the single tape in the temperature range from 4 K to 60 K. To estimate the heat flux from the warm environment to the cold application the measurement of the thermal conductivity of the soldered stack is mandatory. Therefore the thermal conductivity of stacks with different number of tapes is investigated. To measure the thermal conduction in the current flow direction, the axial heat flow method is used. Combining these results with FEM simulations gives the possibility to estimate the thermal conductivity normal to the flat tape plane. The resulting anisotropic thermal conductivity can be used to model the behaviour of the HTS tape under thermal disturbances more accurately.

  18. Lead precipitation fluxes at tropical oceanic sites determined from 210Pb measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settle, D.M.; Patterson, C.C.; Turekian, K.K.; Cochran, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of lead, 210 Pb, and 210 Po were measured in rain selected for least influence by local sources of contamination at several tropical and subtropical islands (Enewetak; Pigeon Key, Florida; and American Samoa) and shipboard stations (near Bermuda and Tahiti). Ratios expressed as ng Pb/dpm 210 Pb in rain were 250--900 for Pigeon Key (assuming 12% adsorption for 210 Pb and no adsorption for lead), depending on whether the air masses containing the analyzed rain came from the Caribbean or from the continent, respectively; about 390 for the northern Sargasso Sea downwind from emissions of industrial lead in North America; 65 for Enewetak, remote from continental emissions of industrial lead in the northern hemisphere; and 14 near Tahiti, a remote location in the southern hemisphere where industrial lead emissions to the atmosphere are much less than in the northern hemisphere. (The American Samoa sample yielded a higher ratio than Tahiti; the reason for this is not clear but may be due to local Pb sources). The corresponding fluxes of lead to the oceans, based on measured or modeled 210 Pb precipitation fluxes, are about 4 ng Pb/cm 2 y for Tahiti, 10 for Enewetak, and 270 for the Sargasso Sea site, and between 110 to 390 at Pigeon Key

  19. Comparison of Singh index accuracy and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density measurement for evaluating osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamat, M. R.; Rostampour, N.; Zofaghari, Sh. J.; Hoseyni-Panah, H.; Javdan, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Singh index is an inexpensive simple method to evaluate bone density, commonly used to assess osteoporosis is based on the radiological appearance of the trabecular bone structure of the proximal femur on a plain antero-posterior radiograph. The purpose of this study was to compare between Singh index and bone mineral density measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Materials and Methods: Three orthopedists evaluated radiographs of 72 patients suspected with osteoporosis. The inter-observer agreements of the Singh index were obtained by using kappa statistics. The bone mineral density of proximal femur was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in all patients, and then the bone mineral density results were compared with those of Singh index by using reference radiographic charts of the Singh index method. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density. A Norland XR46 system was used for the investigations. Results: The inter-observer agreement kappa values were 0.01, 0.07 and 0.09 (mean value: 0.05) and the strength of the observer agreements was negligible. The obtained Osteoporosis prevalence among the studied patients was 38.9%. Conclusion: The inter-observer variation was large, there was no any correlation between the Singh index and bone densitometry. So, the index cannot be used; for evaluating and osteoporosis diagnosis, because of its low reliability.

  20. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  1. The ratio 1660/1690 cm(-1) measured by infrared microspectroscopy is not specific of enzymatic collagen cross-links in bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlay, Delphine; Duclos, Marie-Eve; Gineyts, Evelyne; Bertholon, Cindy; Viguet-Carrin, Stéphanie; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Bertrand, Dominique; Roger, Thierry; Hartmann, Daniel J; Chapurlat, Roland; Boivin, Georges

    2011-01-01

    In postmenopausal osteoporosis, an impairment in enzymatic cross-links (ECL) occurs, leading in part to a decline in bone biomechanical properties. Biochemical methods by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are currently used to measure ECL. Another method has been proposed, by Fourier Transform InfraRed Imaging (FTIRI), to measure a mature PYD/immature DHLNL cross-links ratio, using the 1660/1690 cm(-1) area ratio in the amide I band. However, in bone, the amide I band composition is complex (collagens, non-collagenous proteins, water vibrations) and the 1660/1690 cm(-1) by FTIRI has never been directly correlated with the PYD/DHLNL by HPLC. A study design using lathyritic rats, characterized by a decrease in the formation of ECL due to the inhibition of lysyl oxidase, was used in order to determine the evolution of 1660/1690 cm(-1) by FTIR Microspectroscopy in bone tissue and compare to the ECL quantified by HPLC. The actual amount of ECL was quantified by HPLC on cortical bone from control and lathyritic rats. The lathyritic group exhibited a decrease of 78% of pyridinoline content compared to the control group. The 1660/1690 cm(-1) area ratio was increased within center bone compared to inner bone, and this was also correlated with an increase in both mineral maturity and mineralization index. However, no difference in the 1660/1690 cm(-1) ratio was found between control and lathyritic rats. Those results were confirmed by principal component analysis performed on multispectral infrared images. In bovine bone, in which PYD was physically destructed by UV-photolysis, the PYD/DHLNL (measured by HPLC) was strongly decreased, whereas the 1660/1690 cm(-1) was unmodified. In conclusion, the 1660/1690 cm(-1) is not related to the PYD/DHLNL ratio, but increased with age of bone mineral, suggesting that a modification of this ratio could be mainly due to a modification of the collagen secondary structure related to the mineralization process.

  2. The Ratio 1660/1690 cm−1 Measured by Infrared Microspectroscopy Is Not Specific of Enzymatic Collagen Cross-Links in Bone Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlay, Delphine; Duclos, Marie-Eve; Gineyts, Evelyne; Bertholon, Cindy; Viguet-Carrin, Stéphanie; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Bertrand, Dominique; Roger, Thierry; Hartmann, Daniel J.; Chapurlat, Roland; Boivin, Georges

    2011-01-01

    In postmenopausal osteoporosis, an impairment in enzymatic cross-links (ECL) occurs, leading in part to a decline in bone biomechanical properties. Biochemical methods by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are currently used to measure ECL. Another method has been proposed, by Fourier Transform InfraRed Imaging (FTIRI), to measure a mature PYD/immature DHLNL cross-links ratio, using the 1660/1690 cm−1 area ratio in the amide I band. However, in bone, the amide I band composition is complex (collagens, non-collagenous proteins, water vibrations) and the 1660/1690 cm−1 by FTIRI has never been directly correlated with the PYD/DHLNL by HPLC. A study design using lathyritic rats, characterized by a decrease in the formation of ECL due to the inhibition of lysyl oxidase, was used in order to determine the evolution of 1660/1690 cm−1 by FTIR Microspectroscopy in bone tissue and compare to the ECL quantified by HPLC. The actual amount of ECL was quantified by HPLC on cortical bone from control and lathyritic rats. The lathyritic group exhibited a decrease of 78% of pyridinoline content compared to the control group. The 1660/1690 cm−1 area ratio was increased within center bone compared to inner bone, and this was also correlated with an increase in both mineral maturity and mineralization index. However, no difference in the 1660/1690 cm−1 ratio was found between control and lathyritic rats. Those results were confirmed by principal component analysis performed on multispectral infrared images. In bovine bone, in which PYD was physically destructed by UV-photolysis, the PYD/DHLNL (measured by HPLC) was strongly decreased, whereas the 1660/1690 cm−1 was unmodified. In conclusion, the 1660/1690 cm−1 is not related to the PYD/DHLNL ratio, but increased with age of bone mineral, suggesting that a modification of this ratio could be mainly due to a modification of the collagen secondary structure related to the mineralization process. PMID:22194900

  3. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs

  4. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Barr, Ronald D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm{sup -2} for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm{sup -2}). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences

  5. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm -2 for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm -2 ). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences between

  6. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  7. Radiation exposure of radiologists during angiography: Dose measurements outside the lead apron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.; Przetak, C.; Teubert, G.; Ewen, K.; Moedder, U.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide practical information to angiographers concerning radiation exposure to body parts not covered by lead aprons. Individual doses to the neck and hands of radiologists measured in micro-Sieverts were obtained during the course of 80 angiographies of various types. The number of diagnostic and interventional procedures, which might lead to exceeding permissible doses, have been calculated. Possibilities of estimating doses during angiography by means of parameters such as screening times were examined statistically. Especially with regard to the hands, estimations of the doses are insufficient (correlation r=0.21). Radiologists who undertake much angiographic and particularly interventional work may reach exposure levels requiring protective measures in addition to lead aprons. (orig.) [de

  8. Accuracy of cancellous bone volume fraction measured by micro-CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Hvid, I

    1999-01-01

    Volume fraction, the single most important parameter in describing trabecular microstructure, can easily be calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions of micro-CT images. This study sought to quantify the accuracy of this measurement. One hundred and sixty human cancellous bone specimens...... which covered a large range of volume fraction (9.8-39.8%) were produced. The specimens were micro-CT scanned, and the volume fraction based on Archimedes' principle was determined as a reference. After scanning, all micro-CT data were segmented using individual thresholds determined by the scanner...

  9. Study on measurement of leading and trailing edges of blades based on optical scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bi; Liu, Hongguang; Bao, Longxiang; Li, Di

    2017-10-01

    In the field of aeronautics, the geometry and dimensional accuracy of the blade edges has a large influence on the aerodynamic performance of aero engine. Therefore, a non-contact optical scanning system is established to realize the measurement of leading and trailing edges of blades in a rapid, precise and efficient manner in the paper. Based on the mechanical framework of a traditional CMM, the system is equipped with a specified sensing device as the scanning probe, which is made up by two new-style laser scanning sensors installed at a certain angle to each other by a holder. In the measuring procedure, the geometric dimensions of the measured blade edges on every contour plane are determined by the contour information on five transversals at the leading or trailing edges, which can be used to determine the machining allowance of the blades. In order to verify the effectiveness and practicality of the system set up, a precision forging blade after grinded is adopted as the measured object and its leading and trailing edges are measured by the system respectively. In the experiment, the thickness of blade edges on three contour planes is measured by the optical scanning system several times. As the experiment results show, the repeatability accuracy of the system can meet its design requirements and the inspecting demands of the blade edges. As a result, the optical scanning system could serve as a component of the intelligent manufacturing system of blades to improve the machining quality of the blade edges.

  10. The interchangeability of radioisotope and X-ray based measurements of bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, J.D.; Webber, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured with a Novo radioisotope based dual photon densitometer and with a Lunar X-ray densitometer in 94 subjects attending a Metabolic Bone Disease Clinic. There was a strong correlation between results obtained from each machine. The correlation coefficients for the spine and femoral neck were 0.97 and 0.88, respectively. Differences between results from each machine were normally distributed with a mean bias of 37.5% (spine) and 27.8% (femur), arising principally from differences in machine calibration. In each case the BMD was greater measured by X-ray absorptiometry. The range for the bias was approximately 25-50% for the spine and 10-45% for the femoral neck. The results from these two machines are not interchangeable. When subjects participating in long term studies using a radioisotope densitometer are transferred to an X-ray densitometer, an individual conversion factor must be measured at each site for each subject. (author)

  11. Dual photon absorptiometry measurement of the lumbar bone mineral content. Methodology - Reproductibility - Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Duboeuf, F.; Delmas, P.D.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made with a DPA apparatus (Novo Lab 22a) on different phantoms and on volunteers in an attempt to evaluate the system precision. The reproductibility was found in the range of 0.98 to 4.10 % in the case of in vitro measurements, depending on the geometry of the phantoms used, and in the range of 1.6 to 2.94 % for volunteers after repositioning. Secondly, the BMD in the lumbar spine of normal women and normal men was estimated. In control females, the BMD is well fitted to the age by a cubic regression. The maximum value of the BMD is found in this case at the age of 31.5 and the maximum rate of bone loss takes place at 57. Total bone loss between 31.5 and the elderly is about 32 %. In control males, results are more scattered and are represented by a simple linear regression. The average mineral loss between 30 and 80 years is 11.5 % in this area of measurement [fr

  12. Pre-administration of safe exogenous substance minimizes radiation induced bone-marrow aplsia which may otherwise lead to hematopoietic disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manju Lata; Verma, Savita; Ranjan, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Radiation induces injuries to biological system primarily by producing free radicals and also by directly interacting with cellular entities. In irradiated animals hematopoietic system gets severely affected leading to inactive microenvironment, damaged blood vessels and non functional endothelial cells of the marrow. Vascular damage inhibits the efficacy of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of fibroblast further contribute to the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. Various findings have revealed the occurrence of radiation induced aplasia and vascular damage cause large number of RBCs occupying the space and intrusion of fibrotic cells in the marrow of irradiated mice. Administration of effective radioprotective agents prior to irradiation has been amply reported for significant decline in the grade of vascular damage and inclusion of marrow fibrous tissues in these animals. In addition the formulations have also shown the presence stem cell population which is efficient to proliferate, differentiate and ultimately enrich bone marrow cellularity within 25-40 days depending on type of radiation and its dose and dose rate. Protection to bone marrow is multi-factorial phenomenon out of which inhibition of radiation induced free radical generation has been recognized as the key factor but essentially not the lone one. Protection to colony forming ability of bone marrow is also critically important which occurs mainly due to DNA protection and up-regulation of repair pathways. Preservation of microenvironment for providing stem cells to remain functional is lately reported as equally prominent factor. Our studies on a combination of two compounds of natural origin, administered to lethally irradiated animals have shown recovery in stem/precursor cells of all hematopoietic lineages. Major entities related to hematopoietic system were found nearly 90% recovered within 30 days. Current talk is focused

  13. Americium-241 use of measurement lead equivalent thickness for medical x-ray room: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Saleh; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohd Firdaus Abd Rahman; Zainal Jamaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Lead equivalent thickness measurement of a shielding material in diagnostic radiology is very important to ensure that requirements for the purpose of radiation protection of patients, employees and the public are met. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has established that the irradiation room must have sufficient shielding thickness, for example for general radiography it must be at least equal to 2.0 mm of Pb, for panoramic dental radiography at least equal to 1.5 mm of Pb and for mammography should be a minimum of 1.0 mm of Pb. This paper presents a technique using americium-241 source to test and verify the integrity of the shielding thickness in term of lead equivalent for X-ray room at health centres. Results of measurement of 30 irradiation rooms conducted from 2009 to mid 2010 were analyzed for this presentation. Technical comparison of the attenuation of gamma rays from Am-241 source through the walls of the irradiation room and pieces of lead were used to assess the lead equivalent thickness of the walls. Results showed that 96.7 % of the irradiation rooms tested meet the requirements of the Ministry of Health and is suitable for the installation of the intended diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Some specific positions such as door knobs and locks, electrical plug sockets were identified with potential to not met the required lead equivalent thickness hence may contribute to higher radiation exposure to workers and the public. (author)

  14. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.E.; Nielsen, H.; Thomsen, C.; Soerensen, P.G.; Karle, H.; Christoffersen, P.; Henriksen, O.; Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen; Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen

    1989-01-01

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow-up examinations. At the time of diagnosis the T1 relaxation times of the vertebral bone marrow were significantly prolonged compared with normal values. The T1 relaxation times of the vertebral bone marrow in patients with MDS showed significantly lower values compared with patients with acute leukemia and did not differ from patients with polycythemia vera. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of soil lead bioavailability and influence of soil types and properties: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kaihong; Dong, Zhaomin; Wijayawardena, M A Ayanka; Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Semple, Kirk

    2017-10-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widespread heavy metal which is harmful to human health, especially to young children. To provide a human health risk assessment that is more relevant to real conditions, Pb bioavailability in soils is increasingly employed in the assessment procedure. Both in vivo and in vitro measurements for lead bioavailability are available. In vivo models are time- consuming and expensive, while in vitro models are rapid, economic, reproducible, and reliable while involving more uncertainties. Uncertainties in various measurements create difficulties in accurately predicting Pb bioavailability, resulting in the unnecessary remediation of sites. In this critical review, we utilised available data from in vivo and in vitro studies to identify the key parameters influencing the in vitro measurements, and presented uncertainties existing in Pb bioavailability measurements. Soil type, properties and metal content are reported to influence lead bioavailability; however, the differences in methods for assessing bioavailability and the differences in Pb source limit one's ability to conduct statistical analyses on influences of soil factors on Pb bioavailability. The information provided in the review is fundamentally useful for the measurement of bioavailability and risk assessment practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervical Length & Leading Placental Edge to Internal OS Measurements - TA vs TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue Campbell; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    Brief Description of the Purpose of the Study: To compare cervical length/leading placental edge from the internal cervical os measurements obtained by both transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) approach and to assess intra / inter-observer variation for these measurements. Methods: Cross...... sectional study of 374 consecutive pregnancies with gestation 12 weeks to term. The cervical length was estimated as the distance from internal to external os, and the placenta / cervix distance as the leading placental edge to internal cervical os. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the two methods....... Importance of the Conclusions: TA estimates of cervix and placental edge position did not reflect the estimates obtained by TV assessment. As both measures are important markers of pregnancy outcome and management, the transabdominal method in the present form is insuffi- cient in clinical management....

  17. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering with a Leading Proton at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.

    2012-04-18

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep \\rightarrow eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss xIP < 0.1 and covers the range 0.1 < |t| < 0.7 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 < Q2 < 110 GeV2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to |t| < 1 GeV2 are in agreement with next-toleading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models.

  18. Combining Lead Exposure Measurements and Experts' Judgment Through a Bayesian Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Park, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Choi, Sangjun; Jung, Hyejung; Park, Dong-Uk

    2017-11-10

    CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) is a carcinogen-surveillance system employed in many countries. To develop Korean CAREX, the intensity of exposure to lead, as an example, was estimated across industries. Airborne-lead measurement records were extracted from the work-environment measurement database (WEMD), which is a nationwide workplace-monitoring database. Lead measurements were log-transformed; then, the log-transformed geometric means (LGMs) and log-transformed geometric standard deviations (LGSDs) were calculated for each industry. However, the data of many industries was limited. To address this shortcoming, experts' judgments of the lead exposure levels across industries were elicited. Experts provided their estimates of lead exposure levels as the boundary of the 5th and 95th percentiles, and it is assumed that these estimates are based on the log-normal distributions of exposure levels. Estimates of LGM and LGSD were extracted from each expert's response and then combined to quantify the experts' prior distribution. Then, the experts' prior distributions for each industry were updated with the corresponding LGMs and LGSDs calculated from the WEMD data through a Bayesian framework, yielding posterior distributions of the LGM and LGSD. The WEMD contains 83035 airborne-lead measurements that were collected between 2002 and 2007. A total of 17 occupational-hygiene professionals with >20 years of experience provided lead exposure estimates. In industries where measurement data were abundant, the measurement data dominated the posterior exposure estimates. For example, for one industry, 'Manufacture of Accumulator, Primary Cells, and Primary Batteries,' 1152 lead measurements [with a geometric mean (GM) of 14.42 µg m-3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.31] were available and 15 experts' responses (with a GM of 7.06 µg m-3 and a GSD of 4.15) were collected, resulting in a posterior exposure estimate of 14.41µg m-3 as the GM with a GSD of 3.31. For

  19. Vertical bone measurements from cone beam computed tomography images using different software packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Taruska Ventorini; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Moraes, Livia Almeida Bueno; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz, E-mail: tataventorini@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    This article aimed at comparing the accuracy of linear measurement tools of different commercial software packages. Eight fully edentulous dry mandibles were selected for this study. Incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar regions were selected. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained with i-CAT Next Generation. Linear bone measurements were performed by one observer on the cross-sectional images using three different software packages: XoranCat®, OnDemand3D® and KDIS3D®, all able to assess DICOM images. In addition, 25% of the sample was reevaluated for the purpose of reproducibility. The mandibles were sectioned to obtain the gold standard for each region. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated to examine the agreement between the two periods of evaluation; the one-way analysis of variance performed with the post-hoc Dunnett test was used to compare each of the software-derived measurements with the gold standard. The ICC values were excellent for all software packages. The least difference between the software-derived measurements and the gold standard was obtained with the OnDemand3D and KDIS3D (‑0.11 and ‑0.14 mm, respectively), and the greatest, with the XoranCAT (+0.25 mm). However, there was no statistical significant difference between the measurements obtained with the different software packages and the gold standard (p > 0.05). In conclusion, linear bone measurements were not influenced by the software package used to reconstruct the image from CBCT DICOM data. (author)

  20. Vertical bone measurements from cone beam computed tomography images using different software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Taruska Ventorini; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Moraes, Livia Almeida Bueno; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed at comparing the accuracy of linear measurement tools of different commercial software packages. Eight fully edentulous dry mandibles were selected for this study. Incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar regions were selected. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained with i-CAT Next Generation. Linear bone measurements were performed by one observer on the cross-sectional images using three different software packages: XoranCat®, OnDemand3D® and KDIS3D®, all able to assess DICOM images. In addition, 25% of the sample was reevaluated for the purpose of reproducibility. The mandibles were sectioned to obtain the gold standard for each region. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated to examine the agreement between the two periods of evaluation; the one-way analysis of variance performed with the post-hoc Dunnett test was used to compare each of the software-derived measurements with the gold standard. The ICC values were excellent for all software packages. The least difference between the software-derived measurements and the gold standard was obtained with the OnDemand3D and KDIS3D (‑0.11 and ‑0.14 mm, respectively), and the greatest, with the XoranCAT (+0.25 mm). However, there was no statistical significant difference between the measurements obtained with the different software packages and the gold standard (p > 0.05). In conclusion, linear bone measurements were not influenced by the software package used to reconstruct the image from CBCT DICOM data. (author)

  1. Solubility Measurements and Modeling of Zinc, Lead and Iron Sulfides at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carolina Figueroa Murcia, Diana; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    Solubility measurements of sulfides in aqueous solutions are necessary to understand the behaviour of these scaling minerals in geothermal and oil reservoirs. The low solubility levels of Zinc Sulfide (ZnS), Lead Sulfide (PbS) and Iron Sulfide (FeS) make the solubility measurements a challenging...... oxygen atmosphere to avoid the risk of oxidation of sulfide minerals. The solution is kept in an equilibrium cell at constant temperature and pressure with continuous stirring. The concentration of Zn2+, Pb2+, Fe2+ and S2- are measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission spectrometry (ICP...

  2. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension: Further analyses of the normative aging study data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.; Kim, Rokho; Korrick, S. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Harvard Health of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Rotnitzky, A. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In an earlier report based on participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, we found a significant association between the risk of hypertension and lead levels in tibia. To examine the possible confounding effects of education and occupation, we considered in this study five levels of education and three levels of occupation as independent variables in the statistical model. Of 1,171 active subjects seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 563 provided complete data for this analysis. In the initial logistic regression model, acre and body mass index, family history of hypertension, and dietary sodium intake, but neither cumulative smoking nor alcohol ingestion, conferred increased odds ratios for being hypertensive that were statistically significant. When the lead biomarkers were added separately to this initial logistic model, tibia lead and patella lead levels were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for hypertension. In the final backward elimination logistic regression model that included categorical variables for education and occupation, the only variables retained were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and tibia lead level. We conclude that education and occupation variables were not confounding the association between the lead biomarkers and hypertension that we reported previously. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Evaluation method of lead measurement accuracy of gears using a wedge artefact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Masaharu; Takeoka, Fumi; Kubo, Aizoh; Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Osawa, Sonko; Sato, Osamu; Takatsuji, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    The reduction of the vibration and noise of gears is an important issue in mechanical devices such as vehicles and wind turbines. The characteristics of the vibration and noise of gears are markedly affected by deviations of the tooth flank form of micrometre order; therefore, a strict quality control of the tooth flank form is required. The accuracy of the lead measurement for a gear-measuring instrument is usually evaluated using a master gear or a lead master. However, it is difficult to manufacture masters with high accuracy because the helix is a complicated geometrical form. In this paper, we propose a method of evaluating a gear-measuring instrument using a wedge artefact, which includes a highly precise plane surface. The concept of the wedge artefact is described and a mathematical model of the measuring condition of the wedge artefact is constructed. Theoretical measurement results for the wedge artefact are calculated. The wedge artefact is designed and produced on the basis of the theoretical measurement results. A measurement experiment using the wedge artefact is carried out and its effectiveness is verified

  4. Sex differences in bone marrow density measured by quantitative ultrasonometry: For 20 year old college student

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Daejeon Health Institute of Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare the bone marrow density measured by quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) between men and women. Questionnaires for general characteristics were obtained from 104 participants, and then their both calcaneus was measured by using QUS. Sex differences for bone marrow density (BMD) were analyzed by an Independent t-test using the SPSS 19.0 program. Of 104 participants, women and men were 69(66.3%) and 35(33.7%), respectively. T-value of left calcaneus was high significantly in women than that in men(0.443 vs. 0.031, p=0.161) as well as that of right calcaneus(0.555 vs. 0.049, p=0.093). T-value of right calcaneus was high than that of left calcaneus in women and men (not significant, p>0.05). T-value of both calcaneus was increasing with physical activity. T-value of calcaneus was no statistically significant with age and body mass index. The BMD of women is high significantly more than that of men, and BMD is relation with physical activity.

  5. Measurement of temperature induced in bone during drilling in minimally invasive foot surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Noor Azzizah; McKinley, John C

    2018-02-19

    There has been growing interest in minimally invasive foot surgery due to the benefits it delivers in post-operative outcomes in comparison to conventional open methods of surgery. One of the major factors determining the protocol in minimally invasive surgery is to prevent iatrogenic thermal osteonecrosis. The aim of the study is to look at various drilling parameters in a minimally invasive surgery setting that would reduce the risk of iatrogenic thermal osteonecrosis. Sixteen fresh-frozen tarsal bones and two metatarsal bones were retrieved from three individuals and drilled using various settings. The parameters considered were drilling speed, drill diameter, and inter-individual cortical variability. Temperature measurements of heat generated at the drilling site were collected using two methods; thermocouple probe and infrared thermography. The data obtained were quantitatively analysed. There was a significant difference in the temperatures generated with different drilling speeds (pdrilled using different drill diameters. Thermocouple showed significantly more sensitive tool in measuring temperature compared to infrared thermography. Drilling at an optimal speed significantly reduced the risk of iatrogenic thermal osteonecrosis by maintaining temperature below the threshold level. Although different drilling diameters did not produce significant differences in temperature generation, there is a need for further study on the mechanical impact of using different drill diameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex differences in bone marrow density measured by quantitative ultrasonometry: For 20 year old college student

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jeong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the bone marrow density measured by quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) between men and women. Questionnaires for general characteristics were obtained from 104 participants, and then their both calcaneus was measured by using QUS. Sex differences for bone marrow density (BMD) were analyzed by an Independent t-test using the SPSS 19.0 program. Of 104 participants, women and men were 69(66.3%) and 35(33.7%), respectively. T-value of left calcaneus was high significantly in women than that in men(0.443 vs. 0.031, p=0.161) as well as that of right calcaneus(0.555 vs. 0.049, p=0.093). T-value of right calcaneus was high than that of left calcaneus in women and men (not significant, p>0.05). T-value of both calcaneus was increasing with physical activity. T-value of calcaneus was no statistically significant with age and body mass index. The BMD of women is high significantly more than that of men, and BMD is relation with physical activity

  7. Measurements with the high flux lead slowing-down spectrometer at LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, Y.; Romano, C.; Thompson, J.; Watson, T.; Haight, R.C.; Wender, S.A.; Vieira, D.J.; Bond, E.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Michaudon, A.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Schurman, T.; Rochman, D.; Granier, T.; Ethvignot, T.; Taieb, J.; Becker, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) was recently installed at LANL [D. Rochman, R.C. Haight, J.M. O'Donnell, A. Michaudon, S.A. Wender, D.J. Vieira, E.M. Bond, T.A. Bredeweg, A. Kronenberg, J.B. Wilhelmy, T. Ethvignot, T. Granier, M. Petit, Y. Danon, Characteristics of a lead slowing-down spectrometer coupled to the LANSCE accelerator, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 550 (2005) 397]. The LSDS is comprised of a cube of pure lead 1.2 m on the side, with a spallation pulsed neutron source in its center. The LSDS is driven by 800 MeV protons with a time-averaged current of up to 1 μA, pulse widths of 0.05-0.25 μs and a repetition rate of 20-40 Hz. Spallation neutrons are created by directing the proton beam into an air-cooled tungsten target in the center of the lead cube. The neutrons slow down by scattering interactions with the lead and thus enable measurements of neutron-induced reaction rates as a function of the slowing-down time, which correlates to neutron energy. The advantage of an LSDS as a neutron spectrometer is that the neutron flux is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than a standard time-of-flight experiment at the equivalent flight path, 5.6 m. The effective energy range is 0.1 eV to 100 keV with a typical energy resolution of 30% from 1 eV to 10 keV. The average neutron flux between 1 and 10 keV is about 1.7 x 10 9 n/cm 2 /s/μA. This high flux makes the LSDS an important tool for neutron-induced cross section measurements of ultra-small samples (nanograms) or of samples with very low cross sections. The LSDS at LANL was initially built in order to measure the fission cross section of the short-lived metastable isotope of U-235, however it can also be used to measure (n, α) and (n, p) reactions. Fission cross section measurements were made with samples of 235 U, 236 U, 238 U and 239 Pu. The smallest sample measured was 10 ng of 239 Pu. Measurement of (n, α) cross section with 760 ng of Li-6 was also demonstrated. Possible future cross section

  8. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone. (author)

  9. Measurement of leading neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Sunar, D.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Brinkmann, M.; Habib, S.; List, B.; Toll, T.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Murin, P.; Tomasz, F.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Liptaj, A.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Petrukhin, A.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cerny, K.; Pejchal, O.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cozzika, G.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Rahmat, A.J.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Trinh, T.N.; Vallee, C.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Glushkov, I.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Piec, S.; Grab, C.; Zimmermann, T.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Kapichine, M.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Tchoulakov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Stella, B.; Tsakov, I.

    2010-01-01

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x L of the incoming proton's longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb -1 . The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6 2 2 , Bjorken scaling variable 1.5 .10 -4 -2 , longitudinal momentum fraction 0.32 L T 2 LN(3) (Q 2 ,x,x L ), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q 2 , x and x L . Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function. (orig.)

  10. Crocodile bones as archives of pollution exposure: lead contamination in Kakadu National Park, and what's in Sweetheart's Osteoderms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Markich, S.J.; Hammerton, K.M.; Russell, R.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental findings made it then possible to evaluate the hypothesis that the estuarine crocodile osteodermal laminations would record enhanced blood lead concentrations resulting from the ingestion of lead shot. At about 140 days following lead shot ingestion, two osteoderms were removed from each exposed and control animal. SIMS analysis of Pb-208 and Ca-42 signal intensities was then performed on sections that were prepared and analysed using similar methods previously used on field-collected specimens (Twining et al., 1999). These initial findings are consistent with the hypothesis that incremental laminations of the osteoderm will archive a lead signal that responds to enhanced levels of lead in the animal's blood during its life. SEM analysis identified the laminated structure of the osteoderm, however microprobe analysis did not detect appreciable amounts of even Ca and P, although the organic matrix was obviously present. It is proposed that this anomalous result is due to the preparatory tanning of the skin, in acid solution, that could be expected to leach elements from the organic matrix. An analogy is drawn with the decalcified skeletons in the bodies of the Druid sacrifices due their deposition in acid swamp waters in the UK. The challenge is now to sample osteoderms from large crocodiles in the Finniss River, preferably in close proximity to the Rum Jungle mine site, where any archived pollution signal would be more intense, and then repeat this analytical investigation of the osteodermal history of contaminant loadings

  11. Neutron measurements in the stray field produced by 158 GeV/c lead ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Nava, E.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses measurements carried out at CERN in the stray radiation field produced by 158 GeV/c 208 Pb 82+ ions. The purpose was to test and intercompare the response of several detectors, mainly neutron measuring devices, and to determine the neutron spectral fluence as well as the microdosimetric (absorbed dose and dose equivalent) distributions in different locations around the shielding. Both active instruments and passive dosimeters were employed, including different types of Andersson-Braun rem counters, a tissue equivalent proportional counter, a set of superheated drop detectors, a Bonner sphere system and different types of ion chambers. Activation measurements with 12 C plastic scintillators and with 32 S pellets were also performed to assess the neutron yield of high energy lead ions interacting with a thin gold target. The results are compared with previous measurements and with measurements made during proton runs. (author)

  12. A feasibility study for measuring fluorine in bone, in-vivo, using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.; McNeill, F.; Aslam; Byun, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease which is a result of excessive fluoride ingestion and may cause osteosclerosis, osteoporosis and calcification of tendons and ligaments. Endemic levels of fluorosis are commonly reported in areas of the world with naturally high concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. However, fluorosis is difficult to medically diagnose, and due to its prevalence, a non-invasive method for measuring the concentration of fluoride in bone is warranted. A feasibility study has been conducted to determine the possibility of measuring fluorine non-invasively in exposed populations using neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis has been used successfully to measure the amount of fluoride in bone biopsy samples. However, measurement of fluorine is challenging, and has not, to our knowledge, previously been attempted in vivo, as the 20 F isotope has the very short half life of 11s. Transfer from activation counting must therefore be fast. For this study, plaster of Paris powder phantoms doped with varying fluoride concentrations were created to simulate a fist. They were irradiated using a low energy neutron beam at McMaster's Tandem Accelerator facility. The 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction was used as the source of neutrons; the Be target was irradiated with an incident proton energy of 2.15MeV. The fluorine was detected via the neutron capture reaction, 19 F(n,γ) 20 F, using two 20 cm x 5 cm NaI detectors. Fluorine emits a gamma ray at 1633 keV upon decay. A calibration curve of peak area versus phantom fluorine content was created and a detection limit of 1.8 mg F/g Ca, with a corresponding dose of approximately 12 mSv to the hand. This data will be presented and the feasibility of measurement discussed in the context of the delivered dose. In addition, results of the investigation of the competing reaction, 23 Na(n,α) 20 F, will be presented. Data illustrating the relative activation and count rates from fluorine

  13. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a new calibration phantom for in vivo measurement of bone-seeking radionuclides (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Lodwick, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for use in calibrating in vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. The phantom has the external shape and appearance of the human adult knee and contains a realistic femur, patella, tibia, and fibula. Unique formulations of polyurethanes, CaCo 3 , and other trace materials are used in construction of the phantom to produce substitutes for human tissue having the same density, attenuation coefficient, and effective Z as that of human muscle and trabecular bone. The formulation for trabecular bone includes provision for a precisely known quantity of radioactive material that is either uniformly distributed throughout the bone matrix or deposited on the exterior surface. The knee phantom is assembled in three interlocking sections that simplify inserting the skeletal structures and prevent streaming. One or more detectors can easily be positioned on the top or sides of the phantom. Intercomparison measurements of 241 Am in bone using separate arrays of phoswich and germanium detectors demonstrate that a single knee phantom exhibits the same detection efficiency as that using the skull. In vivo measurement of the knee is a desirable alternative to the head if facial contamination is present or when evaluating recent exposure to bone seeking radionuclides, since bones of the knee exhibit more rapid uptake than the skull. In practice, greater measurement efficiency can be obtained by placing detectors over both knees since a larger fraction of the total body activity is observed. Calibration measurements using the new anthropometric knee phantom demonstrate that it is durable, easy to use, and provides consistent results over repeated measurements. (author)

  14. Neutron CT with a multi-detector system leading to drastical reduction of the measuring time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehn, G.; Pfister, G.; Schatz, A.; Goebel, J.; Kofler, R.

    1993-09-01

    By means of numerical simulation methods and their verification with measurements it could be shown that such a detector system can be realized for a line beam and 1-2 detectors per cm. With the maximum available beam width of the fast neutron field at the FRM approximately 20 detectors can be used leading to a reduction of the measuring time to 0,5 - 1 hour. A multi detector system for a line beam of thermal neutrons was constructed, tested and used for CT-measurements. This detector system for the measurement of thinner layers with better spatial resolution could be realized. The electronic discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays has been improved. This discrimination was used in all CT-measurements to get transmission values of both kinds of radiation and to reconstruct to complementary CT-images. The use of a polyenergetic radiation causes spectral shifts in the transmission spectrum leading to artifacts in the reconstructed CT-image. The transmission values must be spectral corrected before image reconstruction, because the image artifacts complicate the image evaluation or make it impossible. A new energy selective procedure for the online spectral correction was developed. This method is based on the concept to measure additionally to the integral transmission value his pulse height spectrum and to do the correction depending on the changes in this pulse height spectrum. (orig./HP) [de

  15. High-precision lead isotope ratio measurement by inductively coupled plasma multiple collector mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Furuta, Naoki.

    1993-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors has been used to measure the lead isotope ratios in solutions of Sanshiro Pond sediment collected at the University of Tokyo, airborne particulates collected at Shinjuku in Tokyo and Merck multielement standard product number 97279494. A thallium correction technique was utilized to allow a simultaneous correction for mass bias. This work followed an earlier interlaboratory comparison study of the above-mentioned solutions using ICP quadrupole mass spectrometry, and has demonstrated a considerable improvement in analytical precision. The following isotope ratio measurements were recorded. Pond sediment solution containing 82 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.762±0.014; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.1424±0.0009; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=37.678±0.034. Airborne particulate solution containing 45 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.969±0.006; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.1528±0.0003; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=37.915±0.021. Merck multielement standard solution containing 100 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=19.255±0.015; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.2238±0.0004; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=38.476±0.021 (All errors are given as ±2 standard deviations). (author)

  16. The measurement of the chemically mobile fraction of lead in soil using isotopic dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, J.; Brand, J.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1992-12-01

    The chemically available fraction of lead in eight soils measured by isotopic dilution analysis using 212 Pb ranged from 7 to 16% of the total content of lead in soil. The soluble fractions achieved values up to 63% of the total content in 1 M NH 4 NO 3 , 1 M MgCl 2 and 0.05 M DTPA solutions. Increasing the contact time between water and soil, the water-soil ratio from 1:1 to 5:1 and increasing the temperature of the soil-water suspension raised the chemically available fraction in soil. Comparing various soil parameters and the mobile fraction of lead, only pH shows a significant correlation. The amphoteric character of lead causes a minimum of mobility about pH 6; pH-values below are responsible for the higher mobility of lead as Pb 2+ , at pH-values above 6 soluble hydroxy and humic acid complexes are formed. (orig.) [de

  17. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  18. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura; Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  19. Measurement of dijet cross sections for events with a leading neutron in photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitweg, J.; Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Pellegrino, A.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Amelung, C.; Bornheim, A.; Brock, I.; Coboeken, K.; Crittenden, J.; Deffner, R.; Hartmann, H.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Kerger, R.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Schnurbusch, H.; Stifutkin, A.; Tandler, J.; Voss, K.C.; Weber, A.; Wieber, H.; Bailey, D.S.; Barret, O.; Brook, N.H.; Foster, B.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Rodrigues, E.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R.J.; Capua, M.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Jeoung, H.Y.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Lim, I.T.; Ma, K.J.; Pac, M.Y.; Caldwell, A.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Mellado, B.; Paganis, S.; Sampson, S.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Klimek, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Przybycien, M.B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A.M.; Kowalski, T.; Przybycien, M.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, D.; Kotanski, A.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Bienlein, J.K.; Borras, K.; Chiochia, V.; Dannheim, D.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Fox-Murphy, A.; Fricke, U.; Goebel, F.; Goers, S.; Goettlicher, P.; Graciani, R.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.F.; Hebbel, K.; Hillert, S.; Koch, W.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labes, H.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Martens, J.; Martinez, M.; Milite, M.; Moritz, M.; Notz, D.; Petrucci, M.C.; Polini, A.; Rohde, M.; Savin, A.A.; Schneekloth, U.; Selonke, F.; Sievers, M.; Stonjek, S.; Wolf, G.; Wollmer, U.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Coldewey, C.; Lopez-Duran Viani, A.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Straub, P.B.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Parenti, A.; Pelfer, P.G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Coppola, N.; Eisenhardt, S.; Markun, P.; Raach, H.; Woelfle, S.; Bussey, P.J.; Bell, M.; Doyle, A.T.; Glasman, C.; Lee, S.W.; Lupi, A.; Macdonald, N.; McCance, G.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Sinclair, L.E.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Waugh, R.; Bohnet, I.; Gendner, N.; Holm, U.; Meyer-Larsen, A.; Salehi, H.; Wick, K.; Carli, T.; Garfagnini, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L.K.; Kcira, D.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Goncalo, R.; Long, K.R.; Miller, D.B.; Tapper, A.D.; Walker, R.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ahn, S.H.; Lee, S.B.; Park, S.K.; Lim, H.; Son, D.; Barreiro, F.; Garcia, G.; Gonzalez, O.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Redondo, I.; Terron, J.; Vazquez, M.; Barbi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D.S.; Ochs, A.; Padhi, S.; Stairs, D.G.; Wing, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Bashkirov, V.; Danilov, M.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R.K.; Ermolov, P.F.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Katkov, I.I.; Khein, L.A.; Korotkova, N.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Solomin, A.N.; Vlasov, N.N.; Zotkin, S.A.; Bokel, C.; Botje, M.; Bruemmer, N.; Engelen, J.; Grijpink, S.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Schagen, S.; van Sighem, A.; Tassi, E.; Tiecke, H.; Tuning, N.; Velthuis, J.J.; Vossebeld, J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L.S.; Gilmore, J.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Kim, C.L.; Ling, T.Y.; Boogert, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Matsushita, T.; Ruske, O.; Sutton, M.R.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Adamczyk, L.; Iannotti, L.; Oh, B.Y.; Okrasinski, J.R.; Saull, P.R.B.; Toothacker, W.S.; Whitmore, J.J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cormack, C.; Hart, J.C.; McCubbin, N.A.; Shah, T.P.; Epperson, D.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Wichmann, R.; Williams, D.C.; Park, I.H.; Pavel, N.; Abramowicz , H.; Dagan, S.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Abe, T.; Fusayasu, T.; Kohno, T.; Umemori, K.; Yamashita, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Inuzuka, M.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Nishimura, T.; Arneodo, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Maselli, S.; Monaco, V.; Peroni, C.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Bailey, D.C.; Fagerstroem, C.-P.; Galea, R.; Koop, T.; Levman, G.M.; Martin, J.F.; Mirea, A.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Butterworth, J.M.; Hayes, M.E.; Heaphy, E.A.; Jones, T.W.; Lane, J.B.; West, B.J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Pawlak, R.; Smalska, B.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wroblewski, A.K.; Zakrzewski, J.A.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Adamus, M.; Gadaj, T.; Deppe, O.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Badgett, W.F.; Chapin, D.; Cross, R.; Foudas, C.; Mattingly, S.; Reeder, D.D.; Smith, W.H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wildschek, T.; Wodarczyk, M.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C.; Cole, J.E.; Frisken, W.R.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Khakzad, M.; Menary, S.

    2001-01-01

    Differential cross sections for dijet photoproduction in association with a leading neutron using the reaction e + +p→e + +n+jet+jet+X r have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 6.4 pb -1 . The fraction of dijet events with a leading neutron in the final state was studied as a function of the jet kinematic variables. The cross sections were measured for jet transverse energies E T jet >6 GeV, neutron energy E n >400 GeV, and neutron production angle θ n <0.8 mrad. The data are broadly consistent with factorization of the lepton and hadron vertices and with a simple one-pion-exchange model

  20. Measurement of dijet cross sections for events with a leading neutron in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitweg, J.; Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Pellegrino, A.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Amelung, C.; Bornheim, A.; Brock, I.; Coboeken, K.; Crittenden, J.; Deffner, R.; Hartmann, H.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Kerger, R.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Schnurbusch, H.; Stifutkin, A.; Tandler, J.; Voss, K.C.; Weber, A.; Wieber, H.; Bailey, D.S.; Barret, O.; Brook, N.H.; Foster, B. E-mail: b.foster@bristol.ac.uk; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Rodrigues, E.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R.J.; Capua, M.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Jeoung, H.Y.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Lim, I.T.; Ma, K.J.; Pac, M.Y.; Caldwell, A.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Mellado, B.; Paganis, S.; Sampson, S.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Klimek, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Przybycien, M.B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A.M.; Kowalski, T.; Przybycien, M.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, D.; Kotanski, A.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Bienlein, J.K.; Borras, K.; Chiochia, V.; Dannheim, D.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Fox-Murphy, A.; Fricke, U.; Goebel, F.; Goers, S.; Goettlicher, P.; Graciani, R.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.F.; Hebbel, K.; Hillert, S.; Koch, W.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labes, H.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Martens, J.; Martinez, M.; Milite, M.; Moritz, M.; Notz, D.; Petrucci, M.C.; Polini, A.; Rohde, M.; Savin, A.A.; Schneekloth, U.; Selonke, F.; Sievers, M.; Stonjek, S.; Wolf, G.; Wollmer, U.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Coldewey, C.; Lopez-Duran Viani, A.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.[and others

    2001-02-26

    Differential cross sections for dijet photoproduction in association with a leading neutron using the reaction e{sup +}+p{yields}e{sup +}+n+jet+jet+X{sub r} have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 6.4 pb{sup -1}. The fraction of dijet events with a leading neutron in the final state was studied as a function of the jet kinematic variables. The cross sections were measured for jet transverse energies E{sub T}{sup jet}>6 GeV, neutron energy E{sub n}>400 GeV, and neutron production angle {theta}{sub n}<0.8 mrad. The data are broadly consistent with factorization of the lepton and hadron vertices and with a simple one-pion-exchange model.

  1. Mechanical torque measurement in the proximal femur correlates to failure load and bone mineral density ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Grote

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of local bone quality is essential for surgeons to determine operation techniques. A device for intraoperative measurement of local bone quality has been developed by the AO-Research Foundation (DensiProbe®. We used this device to experimentally measure peak breakaway torque of trabecular bone in the proximal femur and correlated this with local bone mineral density (BMD and failure load. Bone mineral density of 160 cadaver femurs was measured by ex situ dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The failure load of all femurs was analyzed by side-impact analysis. Femur fractures were fixed and mechanical peak torque was measured with the DensiProbe® device. Correlation was calculated whereas correlation coefficient and significance was calculated by Fisher’s Z-transformation. Moreover, linear regression analysis was carried out. The unpaired Student’s t-test was used to assess the significance of differences. The Ward triangle region had the lowest BMD with 0.511 g/cm2 (±0.17 g/cm2, followed by the upper neck region with 0.546 g/cm2 (±0.16 g/cm2, trochanteric region with 0.685 g/cm2 (±0.19 g/cm2 and the femoral neck with 0.813 g/cm2 (±0.2 g/cm2. Peak torque of DensiProbe® in the femoral head was 3.48 Nm (±2.34 Nm. Load to failure was 4050.2 N (±1586.7 N. The highest correlation of peak torque measured by Densi Probe® and load to failure was found in the femoral neck (r=0.64, P<0.001. The overall correlation of mechanical peak torque with T-score was r=0.60 (P<0.001. A correlation was found between mechanical peak torque, load to failure of bone and BMD in vitro. Trabecular strength of bone and bone mineral density are different aspects of bone strength, but a correlation was found between them. Mechanical peak torque as measured may contribute additional information about bone strength, especially in the perioperative testing.

  2. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  3. Measurement of the suppression and vn of heavy flavor muons in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Qipeng; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has measured the production of heavy flavor muons in 2.76 TeV pp and Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. The measurements are performed over the transverse momentum range 4 < pT < 14 GeV and for five Pb+Pb centrality intervals. Backgrounds arising from in-flight pion and kaon decays, hadronic showers, and mis-reconstructed muons are statistically removed using a template fitting procedure. The heavy flavor muon differential cross-sections and per-event yields are measured in pp and Pb+Pb collisions, respectively. The nuclear modification factor, RAA , is observed to be independent of pT within uncertainties and to be less than unity, which indicates suppressed production of heavy flavor muons in Pb+Pb collisions. The heavy flavor muon yield is measured as a function of the azimuthal angle difference, phi-Psi_{2}, where the experimental event plane angle, Psi_{2} is measured in forward calorimeters that cover 3.2 < |y| < 4.9. Fourier coefficients associated with the cos(2(phi-Psi_{2})) modulation, v...

  4. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering cross section with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2010-06-15

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep{yields}eXp is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data sample covers the range x{sub P} < 0.1 in fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss, 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4measured four-fold differentially in t, x{sub P},Q{sup 2} and {beta}=x/x{sub P}, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. The t and x{sub P} dependences are interpreted in terms of an effective pomeron trajectory and a sub-leading exchange. The data are compared to perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order based on diffractive parton distribution functions previously extracted from complementary measurements of inclusive diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The ratio of the diffractive to the inclusive ep cross section is studied as a function of Q{sup 2}, {beta} and x{sub P}. (orig.)

  6. Quantifying sex, race, and age specific differences in bone microstructure requires measurement of anatomically equivalent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Burghardt, Andrew; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Iuliano, Sandra; Bonaretti, Serena; Bui, Minh; Zebaze, Roger; Seeman, Ego

    2017-08-01

    Individuals differ in forearm length. As microstructure differs along the radius, we hypothesized that errors may occur when sexual and racial dimorphisms are quantified at a fixed distance from the radio-carpal joint. Microstructure was quantified ex vivo in 18 cadaveric radii using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and in vivo in 158 Asian and Caucasian women and men at a fixed region of interest (ROI), a corrected ROI positioned at 4.5-6% of forearm length and using the fixed ROI adjusted for cross sectional area (CSA), forearm length or height. Secular effects of age were assessed by comparing 38 younger and 33 older women. Ex vivo, similar amounts of bone mass fashioned adjacent cross sections. Larger distal cross sections had thinner porous cortices of lower matrix mineral density (MMD), a larger medullary CSA and higher trabecular density. Smaller proximal cross-sections had thicker less porous cortices of higher MMD, a small medullary canal with little trabecular bone. Taller persons had more distally positioned fixed ROIs which moved proximally when corrected. Shorter persons had more proximally positioned fixed ROIs which moved distally when corrected, so dimorphisms lessened. In the corrected ROIs, in Caucasians, women had 0.6 SD higher porosity and 0.6 SD lower trabecular density than men (pmicrostructure requires measurement of anatomically equivalent regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of unilateral cleft lip and palate using anthropometry measurements post-alveolar bone grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simorangkir, H. J.; Hak, M. S.; Tofani, I.

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) requires multiple steps and coordination of multidisciplinary sciences to produce optimal results. Alveolar bone-grafting (ABG) is an important procedure in the treatment of such patients because it influences the eruption of teeth and stabilizes the maxilla. To evaluate the effect and suitability of alveolar bone grafting procedure at Cleft Center Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital on nasal deformity from anthropometry with photogrammetry and aesthetic proportional in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate with UCLP. Patients with UCLP were evaluated post-ABG using anthropometry and photogrammetry to investigate the results anteriorly, laterally, and basally. Anthropometric measurements taken photogrammetrically used 14 points and 11 distance items. Evaluations were made of upper lip length, upper lip projection, and nostril sill elevation for both the cleft and non-cleft sides of patients’ faces. A t-test showed that the values for upper lip length and projection were significantly increased, and a correction test using a Fisher exam gave a value of 1. The ABG treatment protocol for patients with UCLP at the Cleft Lip and Palate Unit at Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital is suitable to be performed; it aesthetically satisfies patients and their families.

  8. Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Joel A.; Ferraro, Francesca; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Alyssa; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith M.; Zaher, Walid; Mortensen, Luke J.; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yusuf, Rushdia; Côté, Daniel; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Scadden, David T.; Lin, Charles P.

    2014-04-01

    Characterization of how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis, expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and related genes, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (for example, pimonidazole). Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy, we determined the absolute pO2 of the bone marrow to be quite low (hypoxic as it is perfused with small arteries that are often positive for the marker nestin. These pO2 values change markedly after radiation and chemotherapy, pointing to the role of stress in altering the stem cell metabolic microenvironment.

  9. A methodology to measure cervical vertebral bone maturation in a sample from low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luciana Barreto Vieira; Caldas, Maria de Paula; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the regression method for determining vertebral age developed by Caldas et al. (2007) by testing this method in children from low-income families of the rural zone. The sample comprised cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 76 boys and 64 girls aged 7.0 to 14.9 years living in a medium-sized city in the desert region of the northeastern region of Brazil, with an HDI of 0.678. C3 and C4 vertebrae were traced and measured on cephalometric radiographs to estimate the bone age. The average age, average hand-wrist age and average error estimated for girls and boys were, respectively, 10.62 and 10.44 years, 11.28 and 10.57 years, and 1.42 and 1.18 years. Based on these results, the formula proposed by Caldas et al. (2007) was not applicable to the studied population, and new multiple regression models were developed to obtain the children's vertebral bone age accurately.

  10. Measurement of the mean radial position of a lead ion beam in the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J; Johnston, S; Schulte, E C; Thivent, E

    1996-01-01

    The intensity of the lead ion beam in the PS, nominally 4×108 charges of Pb53+ per bunch, is too low for the closed orbit measurement system. However, for successful acceleration it is sufficient to know the mean radial position (MRP). A system was thus designed for simultaneous acquisition of revolution frequency and magnetic field. The frequency measurement uses a direct digital synthesiser (DDS), phase-locked to the beam signal from a special high-sensitivity pick-up. The magnetic field is obtained from the so-called B-train. From these two values, the MRP is calculated. The precision depends on the frequency measurement and on the accuracy of the value for the magnetic field. Furthermore, exact knowledge of the transition energy is essential. This paper describes the hardware and software developed for the MRP system, and discusses the issue of calibration, with a proton beam, of the B measurement.

  11. Influence of pregnancy on bone density: a risk factor for osteoporosis? Measurements of the calcaneus by ultrasonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernhard; Schneider, Silke; Rothmund, Ralf; Fehm, Tanja; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Solomayer, Erich-Franz

    2012-04-01

    There are conflicting opinions in the literature about whether pregnancy influences maternal bone density or osteoporosis development. The study aim was to investigate whether there is a significant alteration in maternal bone density during normal pregnancy. Bone mass of 200 pregnant women aged 22-42 years was measured twice with quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) of the heel (Os calcaneum). The first measurement was performed between the 10th and 22nd week of pregnancy, follow-up of 149 women took place 0-9 days postpartum. A questionnaire focusing on data affecting bone metabolism and bone turnover was handed out at the first visit. Median reduction in speed of sound (SOS) was 11 m/s at follow-up indicating a decline of the stiffness during pregnancy. No significant correlation was found between lactation period and the obtained values for stiffness, SOS, T score and Z score. For broadband ultrasonographic attenuation, there was a statistically significant difference (p osteoporosis (n = 30) compared to patients without did not reveal statistical significance during pregnancy. Glucocorticoid therapy, nicotine consumption, physical exercise and nutrition was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). SOS value of women with a twin pregnancy was different over the study period (p pregnancy. Routine evaluation of the bone density in all pregnant women does not seem to be justified; however, it is reasonable in women who present with risk factors. These women could be screened with QUS.

  12. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone density, trace elements, biomechanical properties and immunocytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Korkusuz, F.; Akkas, N.; Laleli, Y.; Kuscu, L.; Gunel, U.

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as an absolute decrease in the amount of bone to a level below required for mechanical support. It is an important bone disease in elderly people in many countries. Unfortunately, there is no reliable statistical data in Turkey for the incidence of osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mass is the important cause in fractures in osteoporosis. Therefore, we intend to study both bone density and other variables such as trace elements, biomechanical properties and other immunocytochemicals in bone, all combined might give an information about the cause and prevention of osteoporosis. (author)

  13. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of buccal bone measurements at dental implants with cone beam computed tomography in the esthetic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient buccal bone is important for optimal esthetic results of implant treatment in the anterior region. It can be measured with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), but background scattering and problems with standardization of the measurements are encountered. The aim was to

  14. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV and scala tympani (ST is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  15. Measurement of Leading Neutron Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2010-01-01

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x_L of the incoming proton's longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb^{-1}. The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6 < Q^2 < 100 GeV^2, Bjorken scaling variable 1.5x10^{-4} < x < 3x10^{-2}, longitudinal momentum fraction 0.32 < x_L < 0.95 and neutron transverse momentum p_T < 0.2 GeV. The leading neutron structure function, F_2^{LN(3)}(Q^2,x,x_L), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q^2, x and x_L. Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function.

  16. Measurement of leading neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Sunar, D.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [Universites Paris VI et VII, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris (France); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Physics and Technology, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2010-08-15

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x{sub L} of the incoming proton's longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb {sup -1}. The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6leading neutron structure function, F{sub 2}{sup LN(3)}(Q{sup 2},x,x{sub L}), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q{sup 2}, x and x{sub L}. Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function. (orig.)

  17. Relationship between MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue and hip and spine bone mineral density in African-American and Caucasian participants: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gantz, Madeleine; Chen, Jun; Punyanitya, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Our previous study of Caucasian women demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between BMAT and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and skeletal muscle had an effect on the relationship between BMAT and BMD. In the present study we investigated the relationship between pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT with hip and lumbar spine BMD in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) sample with adjustment for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured VAT, SAT, and skeletal muscle. T1-weighted MRI was acquired for 210 healthy African-American and Caucasian men and women (age 38-52 yr). Hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT had negative correlations with hip and lumbar spine BMD (r = -0.399 to -0.550, P BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for demographics, weight, skeletal muscle, SAT, VAT, total adipose tissue (TAT), menopausal status, lifestyle factors, and inflammatory markers (standardized regression coefficients = -0. 296 to -0.549, P BMAT (standardized regression coefficients = 0.268-0.614, P BMAT and hip and lumbar spine BMD independent of demographics and body composition. These observations support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density.

  18. A coherent/Compton scattering method employing an x-ray tube for measurement of trabecular bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puumalainen, P.; Uimarihuhta, A.; Olkkonen, H.

    1982-01-01

    Results showed that the x-ray generator could be used as a radiation source in the coherent/Compton scattering method of measuring trabecular bone mineral content. The quasimonoenergetic x-ray beam was produced from the continuous bremsstrahlung radiation with the aid of a spectral filter. Of the two measuring arrangements that were tested, the semiconductor detector geometry appeared to give distinctly more reproducible results than the two NaI detector system. However, to improve the counting efficiency of the coherent radiation, the 'coherent' NaI detector could be replaced by a bore-through scintillation probe (bore diameter about 10mm). By placing the x-ray fluorescence target inside the bore, the yield would be considerably higher. The present method is suitable for TBMC measurements of small animal and human peripheral bones. Errors are discussed in relation to increase of bone size. (U.K.)

  19. Stereological measures of trabecular bone structure: comparison of 3D micro computed tomography with 2D histological sections in human proximal tibial bone biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Laib, A.; Koller, B.

    2005-01-01

    Stereology applied on histological sections is the 'gold standard' for obtaining quantitative information on cancellous bone structure. Recent advances in micro computed tomography (microCT) have made it possible to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data non-destructively. However, before the 3D...... methods can be used as a substitute for the current 'gold standard' they have to be verified against the existing standard. The aim of this study was to compare bone structural measures obtained from 3D microCT data sets with those obtained by stereology performed on conventional histological sections...... tibial metaphysis. The biopsies were embedded in methylmetacrylate before microCT scanning in a Scanco microCT 40 scanner at a resolution of 20 x 20 x 20 microm3, and the 3D data sets were analysed with a computer program. After microCT scanning, 16 sections were cut from the central 2 mm of each biopsy...

  20. Influence of ionizing radiation on biogel bone implants observed by luminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarska, St.; Jungner, H.; Borsowska, A.

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of sol-gel-derived bioactive glass thin films coated on glass is described. Biogel is one of the important modern materials, which are applied in medicine to reduce disability and thus to improve the level of human life. A patient with implanted biogel (i.e. bone, tooth) may be subjected to ionizing radiation during X-ray examination or treatment of cancer. Such an irradiation can generate electron and hole traps in the insulator surface layer. Changes in the microstructure of the biogel surface resulting from irradiation were observed using luminescence methods. Results from luminescence measurements after irradiation of a set of biogel samples are discussed in terms of point defects in the glass structure

  1. Measurement of fission cross section with pure Am-243 sample using lead slowing-down spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kai, T.; Fujita, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kimura, Itsuro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Shinohara, Nobuo

    1997-03-01

    By making use of back-to-back type double fission chambers and a lead slowing-down spectrometer coupled to an electron linear accelerator, the fission cross section for the {sup 243}Am(n,f) reaction has been measured relative to that for the {sup 235}U(n,f) reaction in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 10 keV. The measured result was compared with the evaluated nuclear data appeared in ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.2, whose evaluated data were broadened by the energy resolution function of the spectrometer. General agreement was seen between the evaluated data and the measurement except that the ENDF/B-VI data were lower in the range from 15 to 60 eV and that the JENDL-3.2 data seemed to be lower above 100 eV. (author)

  2. Fission cross section measurement of Am-242m using lead slowing-down spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Fujita, Yoshiaki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Kimura, Itsuro; Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    1998-03-01

    By making use of double fission chamber and lead slowing-down spectrometer coupled to an electron linear accelerator, fission cross section for the {sup 242m}Am(n,f) reaction has been measured relative to that for the {sup 235}U(n,f) reaction in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 10 keV. The measured result was compared with the evaluated nuclear data appeared in ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.2, of which evaluated data were broadened by the energy resolution function of the spectrometer. Although the JENDL-3.2 data seem to be a little smaller than the present measurement, good agreement can be seen in the general shape and the absolute values. The ENDF/B-VI data are larger more than 50 % than the present values above 3 eV. (author)

  3. Bone mineral density in healthy Syrian women measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mohamed Adel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA technique is considered as a standard technique for diagnosing osteopenia and osteoporosis and evaluating the severity of such diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the necessity to establish an ethnic-specific reference data for Bone mineral density measurements. Such data are lacking for the Syrian population. The objectives of this study are (1 to establish BMD reference values in a group of healthy Syrian women using DXA technique, (2 to compare with values from other populations, (3 to study the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Syrian women using the manufacturer reference values. A total of 951 healthy Syrian women aged 20-79 years participated in this study. Weight, height, and BMI have been determined. BMD measurements were performed using Lunar Prodigy Advance System (GE. The data were compared with those from other populations. The results have demonstrated the expected decline in BMD with age after peaking at 30-39 years old group. The peak values of the lumbar spine and femur neck were 1.16 (0.12, and 0.95 (0.13 g/cm2, respectively. The results of the Syrian women were compared with those from other populations and the differences were presented. Osteopenia was diagnosed in 35.80% and 60.31% and osteoporosis in 6.23% and 2.72% in lumbar spine and femur neck, respectively, of women 50-59 years of age. These ratios increased to 36.84%, 68.42% and 23.68%, 13.10%, respectively, in the age group more than 59 years. BMD values of the Syrian women were determined for the first time. The results demonstrate the importance of establishing population-specific reference range for BMD values for an accurate assessment of Osteoporosis. High prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was demonstrated in Syrian using the manufacturer reference values.

  4. Temperature Measurement During Polymerization of Bone Cement in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: An In Vivo Study in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo; Manca, Antonio; Kanika, Khanna; Murphy, Kieran; Eminefendic, Haris; Masala, Salvatore; Regge, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the study was to 'in vivo' measure temperature, during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV), within a vertebral body injected with different bone cements. According to the declaration of Helsinki, 22 women (60-80 years; mean, 75 years) with painful osteoporotic vertebral collapse underwent bilateral transpedicular PV on 22 lumbar vertebrae. Two 10-G vertebroplasty needles were introduced into the vertebra under digital fluoroscopy; a 16-G radiofrequency thermoablation needle (Starburst XL; RITA Medical System Inc., USA), carrying five thermocouples, was than coaxially inserted. Eleven different bone cements were injected and temperatures were measured every 30 s until temperatures dropped under 45 o C. After the thermocouple needle was withdrawn, bilateral PV was completed with cement injection through the vertebroplasty needle. Unpaired Student's t-tests, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to evaluate significant differences (p o C), B (from 50 o to 60 o C), and C (below 50 o C). Peak temperature in Group A (86.7 ± 10.7 o C) was significantly higher (p = 0.0172) than that in Groups B (60.5 ± 3.7 o C) and C (44.8 ± 2.6 o C). The average of all thermocouples showed an extremely significant difference (p = 0.0002) between groups. None of the tested cements maintained a temperature ≥45 o C for more than 30 min. These data suggest that back-pain improvement is obtained not by thermal necrosis but by mechanical consolidation only. The relative necrotic thermal effect in vertebral metastases seems to confirm that analgesia must be considered the main intent of PV.

  5. [Lead poisoning: towards a paleo-epidemiologic re-interpretation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Lead is a major public health issue. Its use has been increasing since Neolithic times, climaxing in the Ancient Rome and the nineteenth century. Defining the frequency of plumbism before modern times proves to be a difficult matter because of its various and delayed symptoms, and of diagenetic processes affecting bones. After reviewing various methods of lead measurement in bone and tooth, we will expose ways to ascertain lead measurement interpretation in order to estimate the epidemiology of plumbism in ancient times.

  6. Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

    2012-04-01

    The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide

  7. Measurement of vertebral bone density. Quantitative CT or dual-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergot, C.; Laval-Jeantet, A.M.; Laval-Jeantet, M.H.; Kuntz, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have compared vertebral bone density measurements (QCT and DXA) in women in the postmenopausal period who underwent both examinations. Our aim was to study the results and to define the respective indications of QCT and DXA in various clinical pictures of osteoporosis. The subjects of the study were distributed into various groups according to the presence or absence of vertebral collapse and/or peripheral fractures. The results of the measurements were expressed as Z-scores (deviation from age-normal average) to suppress the age effect and to make comparison between both methods possible. The values of both measurements are significantly lower in case of vertebral involvement. QCT is more sensitive than DXA to discriminate vertebral collapse. A vertebral fragility threshold was defined at a Z-score of-1 with DXA and-1.25 with QCT, corresponding to the best sensitivity for an acceptable specificity. The results of densitometry suggest that there is a peripheral osteoporosis, different from vertebral osteoporosis, as early as the postmenopausal period. Since DXA is easy to implement, it can be used to screen osteoporosis. When the vertebral measurement with DXA is normal although osteoporosis is obvious (previous collapse or fracture), QCT must be used as it is more sensitive

  8. Evaluation of bone mineral density measurement of lumbar vertebrae by volumetric quantitative CT in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuezeng; Wang Liying; Lan Jing; Li Jingxue; Wu Shengyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the validity of volumetric QCT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) in bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and compare the difference in discriminating osteoporotic postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fracture. Methods: One hundred and eighteen postmenopausal women [mean age (62.1±7.0) years] who received thoracolumbar radiographic examination were enrolled and divided into four groups (normal, osteopenia, osteoporotic and osteoporotic fractured group) also based on their BMD value of lumbar vertebra(AP-SPINE) measured by DXA: >(x-bar)-1s, (x-bar)-1s-(x-bar)-2s, 3 . Apparent bone volume to total volume ratio (App BV/TV% ) was calculated on the base of trabecular bone whose CT values were among 60 HU, 80 HU, 100 HU, 120- 400 HU, respectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and calculation of coefficient of determination (R 2 ) were performed for each parameter among the 4 groups. Results: The values of 2D-TRAB, 3D-INT, 3D-TRAB, App 60 BV/TV%, App 80 BV/TV%, App 100 BV/TV% and App 120 BV/TV% in osteoporotic fractured group [(48.8 ± 24.9) mg/cm 3 , (94.4 ± 20.2) mg/cm 3 , (59.3 ± 28.0) mg/cm 3 , (56.1 ± 22.8)%, (43.2 ± 22.2)%, (31.3 ± 19.4)%, (21.3 ± 15.6)%] were significantly lower than those in osteoporotic group [(74.9 ± 21.0) mg/cm 3 , (115.0 ± 14.3) mg/cm 3 , (82.0 ± 23.7) mg//cm 3 , (75.2 ± 16.8)%, (62.6 ± 20.5)%, (48.8 ± 21.7)%, (35.5 ± 20.1)%], osteopenia group [(89.2 ± 23.8) mg/cm 3 , (126.9 ± 12.9)mg/cm 3 , (97.8 ± 25.2) mg/cm 3 , (85.1 ± 13.7)%, (75.1 ± 17.9)%, (62.8 ± 20.9)%, (49.2 ± 21.9)%], and normal group [(120.6 ± 19.4) mg/cm 3 , (154.0 ± 16.3) mg/cm 3 , (131.1 ± 21.1)mg/cm 3 , (95.6 ± 5.3)%, (91.4 ± 8.7)%, (84.7 ± 12.4)% (75.2 ± 15.5)%], P 2 ] and osteoporotic groups [(0.85 ± 0.06) g//cm 2 , P>0.05]. In osteoporotic groups, AP-SPINE was not correlated significantly with other variables except 3D-CORT (R 2 =0.189, P 60,80,100,120 BV/TV% were correlated significantly with 3D

  9. Velocity profile measurement of lead-lithium flows by high-temperature ultrasonic doppler velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Y.; Kunugi, T.; Hirabayashi, Masaru; Nagai, Keiichi; Saito, Junichi; Ara, Kuniaki; Morley, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a high-temperature ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (HT-UDV) technique that has been successfully applied to measure velocity profiles of the lead-lithium eutectic alloy (PbLi) flows. The impact of tracer particles is investigated to determine requirements for HT-UDV measurement of PbLi flows. The HT-UDV system is tested on a PbLi flow driven by a rotating-disk in an inert atmosphere. We find that a sufficient amount of particles contained in the molten PbLi are required to successfully measure PbLi velocity profiles by HT-UDV. An X-ray diffraction analysis is performed to identify those particles in PbLi, and indicates that those particles were made of the lead mono-oxide (PbO). Since the specific densities of PbLi and PbO are close to each other, the PbO particles are expected to be well-dispersed in the bulk of molten PbLi. We conclude that the excellent dispersion of PbO particles enables in HT-UDV to obtain reliable velocity profiles for operation times of around 12 hours. (author)

  10. Measurement of forward-backward multiplicity correlations in lead-lead, proton-lead and proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanisch, Stefanie; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven D; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-06-28

    Two-particle pseudorapidity correlations are measured in $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb, $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV $p$+Pb, and $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV $pp$ collisions at the LHC, with total integrated luminosities of approximately 7 $\\mu\\mathrm{b}^{-1}$, 28 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$, and 65 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$, respectively. The correlation function $C_{\\rm N}(\\eta_1,\\eta_2)$ is measured as a function of event multiplicity using charged particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|<2.4$. The correlation function contains a significant short-range component, which is estimated and subtracted. After removal of the short-range component, the shape of the correlation function is described approximately by $1+\\langle{a_1^2}\\rangle \\eta_1\\eta_2$ in all collision systems over the full multiplicity range. The values of $\\sqrt{\\langle{a_1^2}\\rangle}$ are consistent between the opposite-charge pairs and same-charge pairs, and for the three collision systems at similar multiplicity. The values of $\\sqrt{\\langle{a_1^...

  11. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara; Sakakura, Celso Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC 95% :6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC 95% :6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC 95% :6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC 95% :6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  12. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara [Araraquara Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sakakura, Celso Eduardo [Barretos Dental School, Barretos Educational Fundation, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  13. Bone health measured using quantitative ultrasonography in adult males with muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, C.I.; Smith, J.; Denny, A.; Tweedale, J.; Searle, N.D.; Winwood, K.; Onambele-Pearson, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare muscle and bone health markers in adult males (aged 20-59 yrs) with and without muscular dystrophy (MD). Methods: Participants included 11 Fascioscapulohumeral (FSH), 11 Becker?s (Be), 9 limb girdle (LG), 11 Duchenne (DMD), and 14 non-dystrophic controls (CTRL). Physical activity was assessed using Bone (BPAQ) and disability specific (PASIPD) questionnaires. Bone QUS provided T- and Z scores from the Distal Radius (DR) and Mid-shaft tibia (MST). Tibialis anterior cross ...

  14. Measurement of dijet photoproduction for events with a leading neutron at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, B. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-09-15

    Differential cross sections for dijet photoproduction and this process in association with a leading neutron, e{sup +}+p{yields}e{sup +}+jet+jet+X(+n), have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 40 pb{sup -1}. The fraction of dijet events with a leading neutron was studied as a function of different jet and event variables. Single- and double-differential cross sections are presented as a function of the longitudinal fraction of the proton momentum carried by the leading neutron, x{sub L}, and of its transverse momentum squared, p{sub T}{sup 2}. The dijet data are compared to inclusive DIS and photoproduction results; they are all consistent with a simple pion-exchange model. The neutron yield as a function of x{sub L} was found to depend only on the fraction of the proton beam energy going into the forward region, independent of the hard process. No firm conclusion can be drawn on the presence of rescattering effects. (orig)

  15. Measurement of dijet photoproduction for events with a leading neutron at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, B.

    2009-09-01

    Differential cross sections for dijet photoproduction and this process in association with a leading neutron, e + +p→e + +jet+jet+X(+n), have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 40 pb -1 . The fraction of dijet events with a leading neutron was studied as a function of different jet and event variables. Single- and double-differential cross sections are presented as a function of the longitudinal fraction of the proton momentum carried by the leading neutron, x L , and of its transverse momentum squared, p T 2 . The dijet data are compared to inclusive DIS and photoproduction results; they are all consistent with a simple pion-exchange model. The neutron yield as a function of x L was found to depend only on the fraction of the proton beam energy going into the forward region, independent of the hard process. No firm conclusion can be drawn on the presence of rescattering effects. (orig)

  16. Local velocity measurements in lead-bismuth and sodium flows using the ultrasound doppler velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

    2003-01-01

    We will present measurements of the velocity profiles in liquid sodium and eutectic lead-bismuth by means of the Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (UDV). A sodium flow in a rectangular duct exposed to an external, transverse magnetic field has been examined. To demonstrate the capability of UDV the transformation of the well-known turbulent, piston-like profile to an M-shaped velocity profile for growing magnetic field strength was observed. The significance of artifacts such as caused by the existence of reflecting interfaces in the measuring domain will be discussed. In the sodium case, the measurements were performed through the channel wall. An integrated ultrasonic sensor with acoustic wave-guide has been developed to overcome the limitation of ultrasonic transducers to temperatures lower than 200 .deg. C. This sensor can presently be applied at maximum temperatures up to 800 .deg. C. Stable and robust measurements have been performed in various PbBi flows in our laboratory at FZR as well as at the THESYS loop of the KALLA laboratory of the ForschungsZentrum Karlsruhe (FZK). We will also present experimental results obtained in a PbBi bubbly flow at 250...300 .deg. C. Argon bubbles were injected through a single orifice in a cylindrical container filled with stagnant PbBi. Velocity profiles were measured in the bubble plume. Mean values of the liquid as well as the bubble velocity were extracted from the data and will be presented as function of the gas flow rate

  17. Lead Halide Perovskites as Charge Generation Layers for Electron Mobility Measurement in Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John A; Feuerstein, Markus; Wolff, Christian M; Facchetti, Antonio; Neher, Dieter

    2017-12-06

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites are introduced as charge generation layers (CGLs) for the accurate determination of electron mobilities in thin organic semiconductors. Such hybrid perovskites have become a widely studied photovoltaic material in their own right, for their high efficiencies, ease of processing from solution, strong absorption, and efficient photogeneration of charge. Time-of-flight (ToF) measurements on bilayer samples consisting of the perovskite CGL and an organic semiconductor layer of different thickness are shown to be determined by the carrier motion through the organic material, consistent with the much higher charge carrier mobility in the perovskite. Together with the efficient photon-to-electron conversion in the perovskite, this high mobility imbalance enables electron-only mobility measurement on relatively thin application-relevant organic films, which would not be possible with traditional ToF measurements. This architecture enables electron-selective mobility measurements in single components as well as bulk-heterojunction films as demonstrated in the prototypical polymer/fullerene blends. To further demonstrate the potential of this approach, electron mobilities were measured as a function of electric field and temperature in an only 127 nm thick layer of a prototypical electron-transporting perylene diimide-based polymer, and found to be consistent with an exponential trap distribution of ca. 60 meV. Our study furthermore highlights the importance of high mobility charge transporting layers when designing perovskite solar cells.

  18. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography, intraoral radiography, and periodontal probing for periodontal bone defects measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarlo A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT produces high-quality data about diagnosis and periodontal treatment. To date, there is not enough research regarding periodontal bone measurement using CBCT. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of CBCT in measuring periodontal defects to that of intraoral radiography and probing methods."nMaterials and Methods: Two-hundred and eighteen artificial osseous defects (buccal and lingual infrabony, interproximal, horizontal, crater, dehiscence and fenestration defects were created on 13 mandibles of dry skulls. The mandibles were put into a plexiglass box full of water to simulate soft tissue. CBCT images, radiographic images taken with parallel technique and direct measurements using a WHO periodontal probe were recorded and compared to a standard reference (digital caliper. Inter and intra observe consistencies were assessed using Intra class correlation coefficient and pearson correlation."nResults: Inter and intra observer consistencies were high for CBCT and probing methods (ICC- Intra class correlation coefficient>88%, but moderate for intraoral radiography (ICC-Intra class correlation coefficient > 54%. There were not any significant differences between observers for all techniques (P>0/05. According to paired T-test analysis, mean difference for CBCT technique (0.01 mm was lower than that for probing (0.04 mm and radiography (0.62 mm. CBCT was able to measure all kinds of lesions, but radiography could not measure defects in the buccal and lingual sites."nConclusion: All three modalities are useful for identifying periodontal defects. Compared to probing and radiography, the CBCT technique has the most accuracy in measuring periodontal defects.

  19. 3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freslier Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better

  20. Optimizing a micro-computed tomography-based surrogate measurement of bone-implant contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Matthew J; Parwani, Rachna N; Virdi, Amarjit S; Sumner, Dale R

    2018-03-01

    Histology and backscatter scanning electron microscopy (bSEM) are the current gold standard methods for quantifying bone-implant contact (BIC), but are inherently destructive. Microcomputed tomography (μCT) is a non-destructive alternative, but attempts to validate μCT-based assessment of BIC in animal models have produced conflicting results. We previously showed in a rat model using a 1.5 mm diameter titanium implant that the extent of the metal-induced artefact precluded accurate measurement of bone sufficiently close to the interface to assess BIC. Recently introduced commercial laboratory μCT scanners have smaller voxels and improved imaging capabilities, possibly overcoming this limitation. The goals of the present study were to establish an approach for optimizing μCT imaging parameters and to validate μCT-based assessment of BIC. In an empirical parametric study using a 1.5 mm diameter titanium implant, we determined 90 kVp, 88 µA, 1.5 μm isotropic voxel size, 1600 projections/180°, and 750 ms integration time to be optimal. Using specimens from an in vivo rat experiment, we found significant correlations between bSEM and μCT for BIC with the manufacturer's automated analysis routine (r = 0.716, p = 0.003) or a line-intercept method (r = 0.797, p = 0.010). Thus, this newer generation scanner's improved imaging capability reduced the extent of the metal-induced artefact zone enough to permit assessment of BIC. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:979-986, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. BUSINESS SURVEY LIQUIDITY MEASURE AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Business survey liquidity measure is one of the modifications of the uniform EU business survey methodology applied in Croatia. Consequent liquidity problem have been, since socialist times, one of the major problem for Croatia's business. The problem rapidly increased between 1995 and 2000 and now it again represents the main difficulty for the Croatian economy. In order to improve the forecasting properties of business survey liquidity measure, some econometric models ware applied. Based on the regression analysis we concluded that the changes in the liquidity variable can predict the direction of changes in industrial production with one quarter lead. The results also show that liquidity can be a proxy of the Industrial Confidence Indicator in the observed period. The empirical analysis was performed using quarterly data covering the period from the first quarter 2005 to the fourth quarter 2011. The data sources were Privredni vjesnik (a business magazine in Croatia and the Croatian Bureau of Statistics.

  2. Measurement and simulation of neutron detection efficiency in lead-scintillating fiber calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anelli, M.; Bertolucci, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN (Italy); Bini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Branchini, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Curceanu, C. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN (Italy); De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Di Micco, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' , Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Ferrari, A. [Fondazione CNAO, Milano (Italy); Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Giovannella, S., E-mail: simona.giovannella@lnf.infn.i [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN (Italy); Happacher, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN (Italy); Iliescu, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN (Italy); IFIN-HH, Bucharest (Romania); Martini, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); Miscetti, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN (Italy); Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' , Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Passeri, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Prokofiev, A. [Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University (Sweden); Sciascia, B. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The overall detection efficiency to neutrons of a small prototype of the KLOE lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter has been measured at the neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory, TSL, Uppsala, in the kinetic energy range [5-175] MeV. The measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the overall calorimeter efficiency ranges from 30% to 50%. This value largely exceeds the estimated 8-15% expected if the response were proportional only to the scintillator equivalent thickness. A detailed simulation of the calorimeter and of the TSL beam line has been performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. First data-MC comparisons are encouraging and allow to disentangle a neutron halo component in the beam.

  3. Measurement and simulation of neutron detection efficiency in lead-scintillating fiber calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelli, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Prokofiev, A.; Sciascia, B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall detection efficiency to neutrons of a small prototype of the KLOE lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter has been measured at the neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory, TSL, Uppsala, in the kinetic energy range [5-175] MeV. The measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the overall calorimeter efficiency ranges from 30% to 50%. This value largely exceeds the estimated 8-15% expected if the response were proportional only to the scintillator equivalent thickness. A detailed simulation of the calorimeter and of the TSL beam line has been performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. First data-MC comparisons are encouraging and allow to disentangle a neutron halo component in the beam.

  4. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  5. Measurement of Trabecular Bone Parameters in Porcine Vertebral Bodies Using Multidetector CT: Evaluation of Reproducibility of 3-Dimensional CT Histomorphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hwan; Goo, Jin Mo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon Kyung Chul [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang Bu [Dept. of radiology, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Gi [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Basic and Applied Sciences, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To evaluate the reproducibility of 3-dimensional histomorphometry for the microarchitecture analysis of trabecular bone parameters using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Thirty-six specimens from porcine vertebral bodies were imaged five times with a 64- detector row MDCT system using the same scan protocols. Locations of the specimens were nearly identical through the scans. Three-dimensional structural parameters of trabecular bone were derived from the five data sets using image analyzing software. The features measured by the analysis programs were trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number, trabecular bone pattern factor, structural model index. The structural trabecular parameters showed excellent reproducibility through repeated scanning. Intraclass correlation coefficients of all seven structural parameters were in the range of 0.998 to 1.000. Coefficients of variation of the six structural parameters, excluding structural model index, were not over 1.6%. The measurement of the trabecular structural parameters using multidetector CT and three-dimensional histomophometry analysis program was validated and showed excellent reproducibility. This method could be used as a noninvasive and easily available test in a clinical setting.

  6. Measurements of total lead concentrations and of lead isotope ratios in whole blood by use of inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delves, H.T.; Campbell, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the accurate and precise determination of total lead and its isotopic composition in whole blood using inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sensitivities of up to 3 x 10 6 counts s -1 for 208 Pb at a total lead concentration of 5 μmol l -1 (1 μg ml -1 ) enabled total blood lead levels to be measured in 4 min per sample, with a detection limit of 0.072 μmol l -1 (15 μg l -1 ). The agreement between ICP-MS and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for this analysis was excellent: ICP-MS 0.996 x AAS -0.0165 μmol l -1 ; r 0.994. Isotope ratio measurements required 15 min to achieve the required accuracy and precision both of which were generally better than 0.5% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb and 208 Pb: 206 Pb isotopic lead ratios. The ICP-MS data for these ratios in ten quality control blood specimens has a mean bias relative to isotope dilution mass spectrometry of -0.412% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb ratios and of +0.055% for the 208 Pb: 206 Pb ratios. This level of accuracy and that of the total blood lead measurements is sufficient to permit application of these ICP-MS methods to environmental studies. (author)

  7. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoJung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD in healthy young college women.Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4 and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck. The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm, weight (kg, fat free mass (FFM, kg, percent body fat (%, and body mass index (BMI. Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire.There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014 and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007, while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05. When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024, while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015. Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004. There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025, but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05.BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in life.

  8. Measurement Of Neutron Radius In Lead By Parity Violating Scattering Flash ADC DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zafar [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This dissertation reports the experiment PREx, a parity violation experiment which is designed to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. PREx is performed in hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from March 19th to June 21st. Longitudionally polarized electrons at energy 1 GeV scattered at and angle of θlab = 5.8 ° from the Lead target. Beam corrected pairty violaing counting rate asymmetry is (Acorr= 594 ± 50(stat) ± 9(syst))ppb at Q2 = 0.009068GeV 2. This dissertation also presents the details of Flash ADC Data Acquisition(FADC DAQ) system for Moller polarimetry in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The Moller polarimeter measures the beam polarization to high precision to meet the specification of the PREx(Lead radius experiment). The FADC DAQ is part of the upgrade of Moller polarimetery to reduce the systematic error for PREx. The hardware setup and the results of the FADC DAQ analysis are presented

  9. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2......Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  10. Bone mineral density and metabolic indices in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaim, A; El-Desouki, M; Sulimani, R; Mohammadiah, M

    1991-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism can alter bone metabolism by increasing both bone resorption and formation. The increase in bone resorption predominates, leading to a decrease in bone mass. To assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on bone and mineral metabolism, we measured bone density using single photon absorptiometry in 30 untreated hyperthyroid patients. Patients were categorized into three groups based on sex and alkaline phosphatase levels: 44 sex- and age-matched subjects were used as controls. Bone densities were significanlty lower in all patient groups compared with controls. Alkaline phosphatase was found to be a useful marker for assessing severity of bone disease in hyperthyroid patients as there is significant bone density among patients with higher alkaline phosphatase value. Hyperthyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained alkaline phophatase activity.

  11. Particle size distributions of lead measured in battery manufacturing and secondary smelter facilities and implications in setting workplace lead exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petito Boyce, Catherine; Sax, Sonja N; Cohen, Joel M

    2017-08-01

    Inhalation plays an important role in exposures to lead in airborne particulate matter in occupational settings, and particle size determines where and how much of airborne lead is deposited in the respiratory tract and how much is subsequently absorbed into the body. Although some occupational airborne lead particle size data have been published, limited information is available reflecting current workplace conditions in the U.S. To address this data gap, the Battery Council International (BCI) conducted workplace monitoring studies at nine lead acid battery manufacturing facilities (BMFs) and five secondary smelter facilities (SSFs) across the U.S. This article presents the results of the BCI studies focusing on the particle size distributions calculated from Personal Marple Impactor sampling data and particle deposition estimates in each of the three major respiratory tract regions derived using the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model. The BCI data showed the presence of predominantly larger-sized particles in the work environments evaluated, with average mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) ranging from 21-32 µm for the three BMF job categories and from 15-25 µm for the five SSF job categories tested. The BCI data also indicated that the percentage of lead mass measured at the sampled facilities in the submicron range (i.e., lead) was generally small. The estimated average percentages of lead mass in the submicron range for the tested job categories ranged from 0.8-3.3% at the BMFs and from 0.44-6.1% at the SSFs. Variability was observed in the particle size distributions across job categories and facilities, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore this variability. The BCI results were compared with results reported in the scientific literature. Screening-level analyses were also conducted to explore the overall degree of lead absorption potentially associated with the observed particle size distributions and to identify key issues

  12. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone.

  13. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  14. Accounting for structural compliance in nanoindentation measurements of bioceramic bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Vivanco; Joseph E. Jakes; Josh Slane; Heidi-Lynn Ploeg

    2014-01-01

    Structural properties have been shown to be critical in the osteoconductive capacity and strength of bioactive ceramic bone scaffolds. Given the cellular foam-like structure of bone scaffolds, nanoindentation has been used as a technique to assess the mechanical properties of individual components of the scaffolds. Nevertheless, nanoindents placed on scaffolds may...

  15. Assessment of Bone Status in Inhaled Corticosteroid User Asthmatic Patients with an Ultrasound Measurement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Sasagawa

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The 6 month manegement of asthma in the actual clinical setting, including regular ICS use, might have a harmful influence on the bone status of female asthmatic patients. It may be necessary to manage and treat female patients for potent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, although further analyses of bone status in asthma patient ICS users will be required.

  16. A fully implantable telemetry system for the long-term measurement of habitual bone strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W. C.; Koolstra, J. H.; van Ruijven, L. J.; Korfage, J. A. M.; Langenbach, G. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term in-vivo recordings of habitual bone strain in freely moving animals are needed to better understand the everyday mechanical loading environment responsible for bone-tissue maintenance. However, wireless methods to make such recordings are scarce. We report on the successful customisation

  17. Measurement of guided mode wavenumbers in soft tissue–bone mimicking phantoms using ultrasonic axial transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangang; Su Zhongqing; Cheng Li; Foiret, Josquin; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Human soft tissue is an important factor that influences the assessment of human long bones using quantitative ultrasound techniques. To investigate such influence, a series of soft tissue–bone phantoms (a bone-mimicking plate coated with a layer of water, glycerol or silicon rubber) were ultrasonically investigated using a probe with multi-emitter and multi-receiver arrays in an axial transmission configuration. A singular value decomposition signal processing technique was applied to extract the frequency-dependent wavenumbers of several guided modes. The results indicate that the presence of a soft tissue-mimicking layer introduces additional guided modes predicted by a fluid waveguide model. The modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate covered by the soft-tissue phantom are only slightly modified compared to their counterparts in the free bone-mimicking plate, and they are still predicted by an elastic transverse isotropic two-dimensional waveguide. Altogether these observations suggest that the soft tissue–bone phantoms can be modeled as two independent waveguides. Even in the presence of the overlying soft tissue-mimicking layer, the modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate can still be extracted and identified. These results suggest that our approach can be applied for the purpose of the characterization of the material and structural properties of cortical bone. (paper)

  18. Measurement of anatomical structure of jaw bone trabecula with micro-CT and its accuracy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Guangchun; Zhang Xiaoyan; Jiang Ling; Li Xianglin; Zhang Di; Li Weixing; Jin Xizhen; Jin Dongchun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the anatomic structures of the jaw and to discuss the accuracy of the method. Methods: The mandibular specimens were divided into ankle condylar group (3 specimens, regular trabecular architecture and mandibular body group (5 specimens, irregular trabecular trabecular architecture). Fifteen volumes of interests (VOI) were created in each group and the total of thirty were measured. The mean value and standard deviation of each parameter at each reconstruction voxel size were calculated. Repeated ANOVA test was used to determine whether the significant differences in the values existed between each parameter. Results: The structure model index (SMI) value in mandibular body group had significant difference (P<0.05) at all reconstruction voxel sizes compared with 18 μm group; but in condyle group, the reconstruction voxel size of 36 μm was not significant (P>0.05). The differences of trabecular thickness (Tb. Th), trabecular number (Tb. N) and trabecular separation (Tb. Sp) values between condyle and mandibular body groups were significant at all reconstruction voxel sizes (P<0.05). In condyle group, except for Tb. Th, Tb. N and Tb. Sp, the most parameter values were not significant at reconstruction pixel size of 36μm. In the mandible body group, the differences of all parameter values between different pixel sizes were significant. Conclusion: Micro-CT can reflect the anatomical changes of bone trabecula structure. (authors)

  19. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da; Battaglino, Ricardo; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2013-01-01

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  20. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  1. Bone mineral density in patients with Parkinson's disease measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C H; Chen, C C; Wang, S J; Chia, L G; Yeh, S H [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China)

    1994-03-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in 22 patients (three females, 19 males, aged 58-76 years) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using a M and SE OsteoTech 300 scanner. The BMDs of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae were measured and the mean density was presented as g cm[sup -2]. The BMD of the PD patients was compared with normal BMD values within the same age groups, and the patients were interpreted as normal, suffering mild osteoporosis or severe osteoporosis. The patients were divided into two groups according to (a) the Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) scale as high or low, or based on (b) the duration of the disease as long or short. The results show that the BMD of all the PD patients was lower than those of the normal controls. The PD patients with a high H-Y scale had a higher prevalence of severe osteoporosis. However, the difference between any two groups, separated by the two criteria, is not significant by Fisher's test. We find that PD patients have a higher incidence of severe osteoporosis. (author).

  2. Measurement of Bone: Diagnosis of SCI-Induced Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Karen L; Morse, Leslie R

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail.

  3. Vertebral bone mineral measurement using dual photon absorptiometry and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, S.; Isberg, B.; Lindgren, U.; Huddinge Univ. Hospital

    1988-01-01

    The lumbar spine of 14 cadavers was studied both by 153 Gd dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at 96 and 125 kVp. The intact spine and the individual vertebrae were analyzed. After these measurements the ash content of the vertebral body, the posterior elements, and the transverse processes was determined. The fat content of the vertebral body as well as its volume was also measured. With DPA, the bone mineral content (BMC) determined in situ as well as on excised spine specimens correlated highly with the amount of total vertebral ash (r > 0.92, SEE 0.81, SEE 3 ). The so-called corpus density and central density determinations were less accurate. No difference in accuracy was found between measurements when using 3 mm and 4.5 mm step intervals. Variations in the distribution of mineral between the vertebral body and the posterior elements contribute to the error in predicting vertebral body mineral with DPA. QCT gave a smaller error when a cylindric portion of the vertebral body with a 20 diameter was measured compared with one with a 9 mm diameter, when the dual energy technique was used (p 3 ). Single energy QCT was insignificantly less accurate than dual energy QCT. Only small differences were found between vertebrae with high fat density of the vertebral body when single or dual QCT was used. QCT was more accurate than DPA in the prediction of the mineral density of individual vertebral bodies (p < 0.05) but no difference was found when the average values for the lumbar spine were calculated. (orig.)

  4. PIXE application for measurement of bioaccumulation of lead by marine micro-algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Suzuki, M.

    2000-01-01

    Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were obtained from the Pacific Ocean of Iwate Pref., Japan and purely cultured in nutritive seawater as a culture solution. The culture size for algae was 10-250 ml and every apparatus was small and of low cost. Marine micro-algae were given in different culture solutions including Pb 2+ from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/l. The algae in 5 ml of the culture solution were collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 μm) by suction filtration. The algae on the filter were subjected to PIXE analysis. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb were simultaneously determined. PIXE can do multi-element analysis for a sample of below 1 mg. The quantity of lead in marine micro-algae increases in proportion to the Pb 2+ concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factor (wet weight base) for lead is given as 200±20 ml/g for Nannochloropsis sp. and 1900±400 ml/g for Phaeodactylum sp.. It is shown that PIXE is a powerful tool for the measurement of the bioaccumulation of trace elements. (author)

  5. Measurements of bubble size spectra within leads in the Arctic summer pack ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Norris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The first measurements of bubble size spectra within the near-surface waters of open leads in the central Arctic pack ice were obtained during the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS in August 2008 at 87–87.6° N, 1–11° W. A significant number of small bubbles (30–100 μm diameter were present, with concentration decreasing rapidly with size from 100–560 μm; no bubbles larger than 560 μm were observed. The bubbles were present both during periods of low wind speed (U<6 m s−1 and when ice covered the surface of the lead. The low wind and short open-water fetch precludes production of bubbles by wave breaking suggesting that the bubbles are generated by processes below the surface. When the surface water was open to the atmosphere bubble concentrations increased with increasing heat loss to the atmosphere. The presence of substantial numbers of bubbles is significant because the bursting of bubbles at the surface provides a mechanism for the generation of aerosol and the ejection of biological material from the ocean into the atmosphere. Such a transfer has previously been proposed as a potential climate feedback linking marine biology and Arctic cloud properties.

  6. Electron and hole drift mobility measurements on methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Brian; Long, Qi; Schiff, Eric A. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kottokkaran, Ranjith; Abbas, Hisham; Dalal, Vikram L. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2016-04-25

    We report nanosecond domain time-of-flight measurements of electron and hole photocarriers in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells. The mobilities ranged from 0.06 to 1.4 cm{sup 2}/Vs at room temperature, but there is little systematic difference between the two carriers. We also find that the drift mobilities are dispersive (time-dependent). The dispersion parameters are in the range of 0.4–0.7, and they imply that terahertz domain mobilities will be much larger than nanosecond domain mobilities. The temperature-dependences of the dispersion parameters are consistent with confinement of electron and hole transport to fractal-like spatial networks within nanoseconds of their photogeneration.

  7. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements for efficiency determination of lead shielded plastic scintillator detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Zafar; Negoita, Florin; Tabbassum, Sana; Borcea, Ruxandra; Kisyov, Stanimir

    2017-12-01

    The plastic scintillators are used in different areas of science and technology. One of the use of these scintillator detectors is as beam loss monitors (BLM) for new generation of high intensity heavy ion in superconducting linear accelerators. Operated in pulse counting mode with rather high thresholds and shielded by few centimeters of lead in order to cope with radiofrequency noise and X-ray background emitted by accelerator cavities, they preserve high efficiency for high energy gamma ray and neutrons produced in the nuclear reactions of lost beam particles with accelerator components. Efficiency calculation and calibration of detectors is very important before their practical usage. In the present work, the efficiency of plastic scintillator detectors is simulated using FLUKA for different gamma and neutron sources like, 60Co, 137Cs and 238Pu-Be. The sources are placed at different positions around the detector. Calculated values are compared with the measured values and a reasonable agreement is observed.

  8. Quantitative measurement of bone mineral contents in patients with senile osteoporosis and chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography using X-ray (XCT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using sup(99m)Tc-MDP of the skull were performed in patients with ''senile osteoporosis'' and with chronic renal failure, in order to quantitatively determine bone mineral contents. XCT: In females with postmenopausal osteoporosis (6th decade), the EMI number of frontal bone was significantly low compared with that of control group, of the same age. The EMI number in ''senile osteoporosis'' correlated with the value of serum 25 (OH) D and 1 α - 25 (OH) 2 D. The EMI number in hemodialyzed patients was significantly low compared with that in the control group. On the other hand, the EMI number in non-hemodialyzed chronic renal failure patients showed no significant difference compared with findings in the control group. The EMI number of the frontal bone in patients with partial parathyroidectomy showed a slight rise compared with findings before surgery. Bone scintigram, Bone scan SPECT: Positive scan was seen in patients with long term hemodialysis and increased values of serum Alk-Pase and PTH were often apparent. Scintigraphic improvement in patients with renal osteodystrophy treated with vitamin D 3 showed a good correlation with improvement in serum Alk-Pase values. On S