WorldWideScience

Sample records for measure alcohol consumption

  1. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  2. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  3. Associations of alcohol consumption with clinical and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, Marie B.; De Keyser, Jacques

    Evaluation of: Foster M, Zivadinov R, Weinstock-Guttman B et al. Associations of alcohol consumption with clinical and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis. J. Neuroimmunol. 243(1-2), 61-68 (2012). While the harmful effects of alcohol abuse are well documented, experimental and clinical data support a

  4. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Raninen, Jonas; Pennay, Amy; Dietze, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Survey data remain a crucial means for monitoring alcohol consumption, but there has been limited work done to ensure that surveys adequately capture changes in per-capita consumption in Australia. In this study, we explore how trends in consumption from two major Australian surveys compare with an official measure of per-capita consumption between 2001 and 2014 and examine age-specific trends in drinking. Data were from five waves of the cross-sectional National Health Survey (total n = 113 279) and 12 waves of the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Study (average n = 12 347). Overall and age-specific estimates of annual alcohol consumption were derived and compared with official per-capita consumption and previous analyses of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey. In terms of overall consumption, both surveys broadly reflected trends in per-capita consumption, especially the decline that has been observed since 2007/2008. Age-specific trends were broadly similar, with the recent decline in consumption clearly concentrated among teenagers and young adults. The main Australian monitoring surveys remain useful monitoring tools for alcohol consumption in Australia. There is consistent evidence that the recent declines in Australian per-capita consumption have been driven by sharp falls in drinking among young people, a trend that requires further study. [Livingston M, Callinan S, Raninen J, Pennay A, Dietze PM. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  6. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  7. Measuring spatial and temporal trends of nicotine and alcohol consumption in Australia using wastewater-based epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; Gartner, Coral; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Steve; O'Brien, Jake; Tscharke, Benjamin J; Been, Frederic; Gerber, Cobus; White, Jason; Thai, Phong; Bruno, Raimondo; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2018-06-01

    Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain priority public health issues world-wide. As participation in population-based surveys has fallen, it is increasingly challenging to estimate accurately the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an alternative approach for estimating substance use at the population level that does not rely upon survey participation. This study examined spatio-temporal patterns in nicotine (a proxy for tobacco) and alcohol consumption in the Australian population via WBE. Daily wastewater samples (n = 164) were collected at 18 selected wastewater treatment plants across Australia, covering approximately 45% of the total population. Nicotine and alcohol metabolites in the samples were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Daily consumption of nicotine and alcohol and its associated uncertainty were computed using Monte Carlo simulations. Nation-wide daily average and weekly consumption of these two substances were extrapolated using ordinary least squares and mixed-effect models. Nicotine and alcohol consumption was observed in all communities. Consumption of these substances in rural towns was three to four times higher than in urban communities. The spatial consumption pattern of these substances was consistent across the monitoring periods in 2014-15. Nicotine metabolites significantly reduced by 14-25% (P = 0.001-0.008) (2014-15) in some catchments. Alcohol consumption remained constant over the studied periods. Strong weekly consumption patterns were observed for alcohol but not nicotine. Nation-wide, the daily average consumption per person (aged 15-79 years) was estimated at approximately 2.5 cigarettes and 1.3-2.0 standard drinks (weekday-weekend) of alcohol. These estimates were close to the sale figure and apparent consumption, respectively. Wastewater-based epidemiology is a feasible method for objectively evaluating the geographic, temporal and weekly profiles of

  8. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE...... consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE....... The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3. L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE...

  9. Forecasting Alcohol Consumption in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Slováčková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a forecast of developments in alcohol consumption based on current alcohol consumption per capita (expressed in litres of pure alcohol, and time series extrapolations. Alcohol consumption is to be considered from the vantage point of knowing the specifics of the product and the consequences of its excessive consumption. The predictive methodology makes use of the Box‑Jenkins method; the ARIMA model, taking into account the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation process, which is a prerequisite for the successful identification of a time series model; model parameter estimation; appropriate transformations of time series; determining the order of differentiation and subsequent verification of the model. The chosen methodology for future trends in alcohol consumptions is a prerequisite for the proposed optional measures to control alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Due to the long term nature of the process to draw up and implement alcohol consumption regulation measures, the forecast covers the forthcoming 10 years.

  10. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  11. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  12. Alcohol Consumption: Measuring the Risk of Household Poverty - Case of the Urban District of Toamasina - Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SARPE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The individual consumer of alcohol, often the household head, loses part of his income to buy alcohol. Excessive consumption of alcohol causes social costs (support costs of illness, family trauma, car accident, job loss and productivity etc.. Its effects on the health of the individual drinker are asymptomatic. If it is the case of a disease of alcoholism, the household must bear the costs of care, and those whose low-income or average income is below the permanent poverty, are confronted with a financial difficulty, drawing their savings and even selling their property to address this shortfall. The accumulation of costs caused by alcohol consumption is then a catastrophic expense for the household. The aim of the study is to show to what point we can calculate the risk of household poverty with an alcoholic individual head of household between the two periods: "disease free" and "appearance of the disease of alcoholism" Having obtained the value of the poverty line, a mathematical modeling of the expense of alcohol was made to derive an orientation axis to minimize the risk of poverty.

  13. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  14. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on measures of simulated driving: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Iudakhina, Elizaveta; Desbrow, Ben; McCartney, Danielle

    2017-05-01

    Driving simulators are used in a wide range of research settings to help develop an understanding of driver behavior in complex environments. Acute alcohol impairment is an important research topic for traffic safety and a large number of studies have indicated levels of simulated driving impairment imposed by alcohol across a range of performance outcome variables. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of acute alcohol consumption on simulated driving performance by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence. The online databases PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science (via Thomas Reuters) and Scopus were searched to identify studies that measured simulated car driving performance under control ('no alcohol' or 'placebo alcohol' ingestion) and intervention (acute alcohol ingestion) conditions, using repeated-measures experimental designs. Primary research outcomes were standard deviation of lane position (SDLP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP); (total number of lane crossings (LC) and average speed (Speed) were secondary research outcomes). Meta-analytic procedures were used to quantify the effect of acute alcohol consumption on vehicle control, and to determine the influence of methodological variables (i.e. the duration of the simulated driving task, the limb of the BAC curve (ascending vs. descending) and the type of driving simulator employed (i.e. car vs. PC-based)) on the magnitude of the performance change due to alcohol consumption. 423 records were screened, and 50 repeated-measures trials (n=962 participants, 62% male) derived from 17 original publications were reviewed. 37 trials (n=721 participants) used a 'placebo alcohol' comparator to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on SDLP (32/37) and SDSP (22/37). Alcohol consumption significantly increased SDLP by 4.0±0.5cm (95% CI: 3.0, 5.1) and SDSP by 0.38±0.10km⋅h -1 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.57). Regression analyses indicate BAC (p=0.004) and driving

  15. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  16. Unrecorded Alcohol Consumption: Quantitative Methods of Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    unrecorded alcohol; methods of estimation In this paper we focused on methods of estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Present methods of estimation of unrevorded alcohol consumption allow only approximate estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Tacking into consideration the extreme importance of such kind of data, further investigation is necessary to improve the reliability of methods estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption.

  17. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  18. Analysis and interpretation of specific ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate, and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent for the quantitative measurement of regional alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Mørland, Jørg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites in sewage streams and the subsequent estimation of consumption rates of the parent compounds have previously been demonstrated for pharmaceuticals and narcotics. Ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide are excreted in urine following the ingestion of alcohol, and are useful biomarkers for the identification of acute alcohol consumption. This study reports a novel ion-exchange-mediated chromatographic method for the quantitative measurement of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent, and presents a novel calculation method for the purposes of relating the resulting sewage concentrations with rates of alcohol consumption in the region. A total of 100 sewage samples covering a 25-day period were collected from a treatment plant servicing approximately 500,000 people, and analyzed for levels of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide. The resulting data were then used to estimate combined alcohol consumption rates for the region, and the results were compared with alcohol related sales statistics for the same region. Ethyl glucuronide was found to be unstable in sewage effluent. Ethyl sulfate was stable and measurable in all samples at concentrations ranging from 16 to 246 nM. The highest concentrations of the alcohol biomarker were observed during weekend periods. Sixty one percent of the total mass of ethyl sulfate in sewage effluent corresponds to alcohol consumption on Friday and Saturday. Sales statistics for alcohol show that consumption in the region is approximately 6,750 kg/d. The quantity of ethyl sulfate passing through the sewage system is consistent with consumption of 4,900 to 7,800 kg/d.   Sewage epidemiology assessments of ethyl sulfate can provide accurate estimates of community alcohol consumption, and detailed examination of the kinetics of this biomarker in sewage streams can also identify time-dependent trends in alcohol consumption patterns. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Tattoos, piercings, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have found a link between body tattoos or piercings and risky behavior. However, these studies only examined survey data but not real behavior. Young men (mean = 20.6 years) and women (mean = 20.2 years) leaving a bar were asked whether they wore tattoos and piercings or not and were requested to breathe into a breathalyzer in order to evaluate their alcohol consumption. It was found that participants with piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos revealed higher levels of alcohol consumption. Piercings and tattoos could serve as signs of alcohol consumption for educators, parents, and physicians. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  1. Alcohol and caffeine consumption and decreased fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, R B; Gray, R H; Zacur, H

    1998-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol and caffeine on conception. Prospective observational study. Healthy volunteers in two manufacturing facilities. One hundred twenty-four women who provided daily urine samples for measurement of steroid hormones and hCG, and prospective information about alcohol and caffeine consumption. Probability of conception per 100 menstrual cycles. There was >50% reduction in the probability of conception during a menstrual cycle during which participants consumed alcohol. Caffeine consumption did not independently affect the probability of conception but may enhance alcohol's negative effect. Women who abstained from alcohol and consumed less than one cup of coffee or its equivalent per day conceived 26.9 pregnancies per 100 menstrual cycles compared with 10.5 per 100 menstrual cycles among those who consumed any alcohol and more than one cup of coffee per day. This study revealed an independent dose-related negative effect of alcohol consumption on the ability to conceive. Our results suggest that women who are attempting to conceive should abstain from consuming alcohol.

  2. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that alcohol consumption, both observational (self-reported) and estimated by genetic instruments, is associated with a risk of atrial fibrillation and to determine whether people with high cardiovascular risk are more sensitive towards...... alcohol than people with low risk. METHODS: We used data for a total of 88,782 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 and 2001-2003 and the Copenhagen General Population Study 2003-2010. Information on incident cases of atrial fibrillation was obtained from a validated nationwide...... register. As a measure of alcohol exposure, both self-reported consumption and genetic variations in alcohol metabolizing genes (ADH1B/ADH1C) were used as instrumental variables. The endpoint was admission to hospital for atrial fibrillation as recorded in a validated hospital register. RESULTS: A total...

  3. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  4. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol consumption and tolerance of Neurospora crassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alcohol consumption and tolerance of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa was investigated in this study. This fungus is able to utilize both native alcohol and non-native alcohols as carbon sources, yet little is known about the enzymes involved in these processes. The deletion of alcohol dehydroge...

  6. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas in 2012: implications for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Monteiro, Maristela; Roerecke, Michael; Smith, Blake; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the Americas in 2012. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality). Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012) compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost), especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

  7. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas in 2012: implications for alcohol policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Shield

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost in the Americas in 2012. METHODS: Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH. The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality. RESULTS: Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012 compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost, especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

  8. Analyzing the effect of selected control policy measures and sociodemographic factors on alcoholic beverage consumption in Europe within the AMPHORA project: statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, Michela; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the methods used to investigate variations in total alcoholic beverage consumption as related to selected control intervention policies and other socioeconomic factors (unplanned factors) within 12 European countries involved in the AMPHORA project. The analysis presented several critical points: presence of missing values, strong correlation among the unplanned factors, long-term waves or trends in both the time series of alcohol consumption and the time series of the main explanatory variables. These difficulties were addressed by implementing a multiple imputation procedure for filling in missing values, then specifying for each country a multiple regression model which accounted for time trend, policy measures and a limited set of unplanned factors, selected in advance on the basis of sociological and statistical considerations are addressed. This approach allowed estimating the "net" effect of the selected control policies on alcohol consumption, but not the association between each unplanned factor and the outcome.

  9. Social interactions, trust and risky alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Abdu Kedir

    2016-12-01

    The association of social capital and alcohol consumption is one of the most robust empirical findings in health economics of the past decade. However, the direction of the relationship between the two is heavily dependent on which dimension of social capital is studied and which alcohol measure is used. In this paper, we examine the effect of social interactions and generalised trust on drinking in the general Danish population survey. Participants (n = 2569) were recruited as part of a larger study. The double-hurdle model for the volume of alcohol consumption and the multivariate logistic model for heavy episodic drinking were estimated. We found evidence that social networking with male friends, membership in voluntary organisations, and generalised trust were significantly associated with the mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking. We also observed that social support at the community level had a buffering effect against heavy episodic drinking. The findings support previous findings in which social interactions and generalised trust were found to predict individuals' volume of drinking and heavy episodic drinking. However, the results varied across the indicators.

  10. "Risky Business": The College Transition, Loneliness, and Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Elizabeth M.; Fife, Eric M.; Nelson, C. Leigh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 296 students at a large southeastern university completed a series of measures designed to assess the connection between loneliness and alcohol use in the first college year. Results showed a somewhat surprising negative relationship between loneliness and alcohol consumption: As loneliness decreased, consumption increased. The…

  11. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontitis in older Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hach, M; Holm-Pedersen, P; Adegboye, A R A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis at 20 years follow-up and to investigate whether long-term alcohol consumption is related to periodontitis in old age. DESIGN: Participants aged 65 years or older in 2003, from...... the longitudinal study Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), were invited to participate in the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Study. METHODS: Clinical periodontal attachment loss was calculated to determine the progress of periodontitis. Alcohol consumption was measured at CCHS follow-ups in 1981-1983, 1991...... alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis and to assess the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on periodontitis. RESULTS: The results show that heavy drinkers in 1981-1983 had a higher odds ratio for having periodontitis compared to light drinkers (OR = 4.64 95% CI...

  12. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    Since the 1960s wine consumption has decreased dramatically in especially the Southern European countries whereas the countries in the northern parts of Europe have experienced a substitution from beer and spirits toward wines. In this sense there has been a process of convergence taking place...... regarding per capita consumption of wine among the European countries. Also for the total consumption of alcohol, i.e. the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits, the hypothesis of convergence seems to hold. In the same time span the number of alcohol related diseases as e.g. liver diseases, have...... changed significantly in the same direction as the developments in alcohol consumption. The changes in the consumption levels of alcohol in general -- and wine in particular -- are influenced by many factors of which health arguments may have played a crucial role. The alcohol policies of the European...

  13. Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörük, Barış K

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States. State-level per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits was analyzed using difference-in-differences econometric methods. United States. Five treatment states that repealed their laws restricting Sunday alcohol sales during 1990-2007 and 12 control states that retained their Sunday alcohol laws during the same period. Outcome measures are state-level per capita consumption of overall alcohol, beer, wine and spirits. Among the states that legalized Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages, Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Mexico experienced significant increases in overall alcohol consumption (P sales in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on per capita alcohol consumption was insignificant (P = 0.964 and P = 0.367). Three out of five states in the United States that repealed their laws restricting Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages during 1990-2007 experienced significant increases in per capita alcohol consumption. This finding implies that increased alcohol availability leads to an increase in alcohol consumption. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    on the relationship between liver cirrhosis mortality and alcohol consumption is included. The conclusion is that the total level of alcohol consumption as well as the specific beverages - beer, wine and spirits - contributes to liver cirrhosis mortality, but the present study also reveals that directly addressing...

  15. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18...... prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.2%. There was a clear inverse dose-response-relation between reported alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection. The relation persisted after control for potential confounding factors. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for H. pylori infection...... among persons who consumed up to 10, 10 to 20, and more than 20 gm of alcohol per day compared with non-drinkers were 0.93 (0.77-1.13), 0.82 (0.65-1.04), and 0.71 (0.55-0.92). The inverse relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection was even stronger when individuals with an indication...

  16. Oxytocin reduces alcohol consumption in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J R; Wenner, S M; Freestone, D M; Romaine, C C; Parian, M C; Christian, S M; Bohidar, A E; Ndem, J R; Vogel, I R; O'Kane, C M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) negatively affects millions of people every year in the United States, and effective treatments for AUD are still needed. The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise for reducing alcohol drinking in mice and rats. Because oxytocin also plays a key role in complex prosocial behaviors like bonding and attachment, we tested the effect of oxytocin on alcohol drinking in prairie voles, a species that both consumes high amounts of alcohol and forms oxytocin dependent social bonds in a manner similar to humans. Oxytocin treatment (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) reduced alcohol consumption in male and female prairie voles in animals that had access to 15% ethanol vs water every other day for 12 alcohol drinking sessions. In animals with continuous access to 15% alcohol and water, oxytocin (3.0mg/kg) reduced alcohol consumption only in the first hour of access after treatment, with no significant effects on consumption over the 24-hr period. In an open field locomotor test, oxytocin (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect overall locomotor activity; however, ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) increased locomotor activity in males and females, and produced anxiolytic effects (increased time in the center of an open field) in females only. Because prairie voles have been shown to match the alcohol consumption of their cage mate, we evaluated the relationship between cage mates' alcohol drinking. There was an overall pattern of social facilitation (consumption by one cage mate predicted consumption by the other cage mate); however, we found significant individual differences across cages in which many cages did not show significant matching, and, in some cases one cage mate's consumption negatively predicted the other cage mate's consumption. Overall, our data provide support for the potential of oxytocin as a treatment to reduce alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  18. Alcohol consumption, masculinity, and alcohol-related violence and anti-social behaviour in sportspeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Forrest, Walter; Greenlees, Iain; Rhind, Daniel; Jowett, Sophia; Pinsky, Ilana; Espelt, Albert; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Sonderlund, Anders Larrabee; Vergani, Matteo; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. Cross-sectional. A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e.g., hit/assaulted, vandalism, sexual assault). Logistic regressions examined predictors of alcohol-related violence/aggression and anti-social behaviours. Significant bivariate relationships between masculinity, within-sport violence, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour were found for both men and women (p'smasculinity and alcohol consumption in men and women were related to an increased odds of having conducted an aggressive, violent and/or anti-social act in the past 12 months when intoxicated. Odds ratios were largest for relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport violence, and interpersonal violence/aggression (p'smasculinity and excessive drinking. Interventions that reduce excessive alcohol consumption, masculine norms and associated within-sport violence, could be effective in reducing alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in UK sportspeople. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preoperative Alcohol Consumption and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Grønkjær, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To systematically review and summarize the evidence of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type. BACKGROUND:: Conclusions in studies on preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications have...... been inconsistent. METHODS:: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO citations. Included were original studies of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications occurring within 30 days of the operation.......30-2.49), prolonged stay at the hospital (RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31), and admission to intensive care unit (RR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). Clearly defined high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of postoperative mortality (RR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.50-4.78). Low to moderate preoperative alcohol...

  20. Sub-clinical Alcohol Consumption and Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Michael D; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2017-06-01

    While it is well established that gambling disorder is associated with alcohol use disorder, less is known regarding whether sub-clinical alcohol consumption increases gambling behavior. This study examined the effects of varying levels of alcohol consumption on clinical and cognitive measures. The sample consisted of 572 non-treatment seeking gamblers age 18-29 who were divided into three groups: non-current drinkers, current drinkers who did not qualify for an alcohol use disorder, and those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). All subjects were assessed on gambling pathology, severity and impulsivity using the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling and the Barratt Impulsive Scale-11 and select cognitive tests. In all of the clinical measures, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group was significantly more likely than the non-current and current drinkers to be a pathologic gambler and to be impulsive, compulsive and depressed. On cognitive tasks, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group had significantly worse strategy use on a spatial working memory task than both other groups. This study suggests that the relationship between alcohol and gambling may only exist when pathology in both alcohol consumption and gambling behavior is present. Examining this relationship with alcohol consumption as a continuous variable would provide additional insight into the potential effects alcohol consumption has on gambling behavior.

  1. Alcohol consumption and gender in rural Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tui Agaapapalagi Lauilefue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shawn S Barnes1,4, Christian R Small2,4, Tui Agaapapalagi Lauilefue1, Jillian Bennett3, Seiji Yamada11University of Hawaii John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 3Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, HI, USA; 4Outbound Eye Health International, Honolulu, HI, USAIntroduction and aims: There are significant gender differences in alcohol consumption throughout the world. Here we report the results of an alcohol consumption survey on the rural island of Savaii, in the Pacific nation of Samoa.Design and methods: Eleven villages were selected for sampling using a randomized stratified cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1049 inhabitants over the age of 40 years (485 males and 564 females were surveyed about alcohol consumption over the past year, and a 72.2% participation rate was achieved.Results: A significant gender difference in alcohol consumption was found: 97.3% of women and 59.4% of men reported no alcohol consumption over the past year. This is one of the most significant gender differences in alcohol consumption in the world. No significant difference between genders was seen in those who consume only 1–5 alcoholic drinks per week (P=0.8454. However, significantly more males than females consumed 6–25 drinks per week (P<0.0001, 26–75 drinks per week (P<0.0001, and 75+ drinks per week (P<0.0001.Discussion and conclusion: This extreme gender difference in alcohol consumption is attributed to several factors, both general (alcoholic metabolism rates, risk-taking behaviors, general cultural taboos, etc and specific to Samoa (church influence, financial disempowerment, and Samoan gender roles.Keywords: Pacific, Samoa, gender, alcohol, behavior 

  2. Alcohol consumption among patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mathilde L; Larsen, Julie R; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate alcohol consumption among Danish adults with diabetes and to investigate whether certain comorbidities are related to a high alcohol intake. METHODS: A total of 162,283 participants responded to the Danish National Health Survey 2013 (questionnaire study, response rate 54.......0%). Variables on the participants were extracted from the survey and 6.5% of respondents reported having diabetes. High alcohol consumption was defined as >21 (men) or >14 (women) standard drinks per week. RESULTS: High alcohol consumption was reported by 11.2 % of men and 4.3% of women with diabetes...... a problematic alcohol intake (men OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.86, palcohol within the last year (men 13.5%; women 28.2%) compared with participants...

  3. Knowledge, Attitude and Consumption Pattern of Alcoholic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    SSBs) remains a public health problem among the young adults. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and consumption pattern of alcohol and SSBs among the undergraduate students. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was ...

  4. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine Hydroperoxide Content of Rat Liver and Brain. ... one group was given 20 % ethanol (5 g/kg) and the other the same volume of normal saline, orally once a day for 6 weeks.

  5. Experiences of alcohol consumption and taking antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ART) adherence among patients. Adoption of hegemonic notions of masculinity may encourage health-risk behaviours, such as alcohol consumption, and discourage health-enhancing behaviours, such as ART adherence among men.

  6. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  7. Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that adult per-capita alcohol consumption, as estimated from self-reports of nationally representative surveys, underestimates 'true' consumption, as measured as the sum of recorded and unrecorded consumption. The proportion of total adult alcohol per capita reported in representative surveys is usually labelled 'coverage'. The aim of the present paper was to estimate coverage for South Africa under different scenarios of alcohol use assessment and 'true' consumption. Five nationally representative surveys from South Africa were used to estimate the prevalence of drinking and the grams per day among current drinkers. All surveys used a complex multi-stage sampling frame that was accounted for by using survey weights. The total (recorded and unrecorded), the recorded and the adjusted total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa served as different estimates of the 'true' consumption. South Africa. Alcohol use information was assessed on a total of 8115, 16 398 and 13 181 adults (15 years or older) in surveys from the years 2003, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Two surveys in 2012 included 27 070 and 18 688 adults. Coverage of the alcohol use reported in the surveys was calculated, compared with the 'true' adult per-capita alcohol. The survey data covered between 11.8% [2005; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 9.3-16.2%)] and 19.4% (2003; 95% UI = 14.9-24.2%) of the total alcohol used per capita. The highest coverage of 27.9% (95% UI = 22.4-36.8%) was observed when looking only at recorded alcohol in 2003. Evidence from five nationally representative surveys assessing alcohol use suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  10. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries. We performed analyses using the Aalen...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...... additive hazards model.Results: During follow-up (1,085,049 person-years), a total of 1718 alcohol-related events occurred. The joint effect of very high alcohol consumption (>21 [>28] drinks per week in women [men]) and low education on alcohol-related events exceeded the sum of their separate effects...

  11. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  12. Alcohol tax, consumption and mortality in tsarist Russia: is a public health perspective applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Stickley, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The public health perspective on alcohol comprises two main tenets: (i) population drinking impacts on alcohol-related harm and (ii) population drinking is affected by the physical and economic availability of alcohol, where alcohol taxes are the most efficient measure for regulating consumption. This perspective has received considerable empirical support from analyses of contemporary data mainly from Europe and North America. However, as yet, it has been little examined in a historical context. The aims of the present article are to use data from tsarist Russia to explore (i) the relation between changes in the tax on alcohol and per capita alcohol consumption and (ii) the relation between per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. The material comprised annual data on alcohol taxes, alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. The tax and alcohol consumption series spanned the period 1864-1907 and the mortality data covered the period 1870-94. The data were analysed by estimating autoregressive integrated moving average models on differenced data. Changes in alcohol taxes were significantly associated with alcohol consumption in the expected direction. Increases in alcohol consumption, in turn, were significantly related to increases in alcohol mortality. This study provides support for the utility of the public health perspective on alcohol in explaining changes in consumption and alcohol-related harm in a historical context. We discuss our findings from tsarist Russia in the light of experiences from more recent alcohol policy changes in Russia.

  13. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...

  14. Alcohol consumption, sleep, and academic performance among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce A; Wolfson, Amy R

    2009-05-01

    Three independent lines of inquiry have found associations between alcohol use and academic performance, sleep and academic performance, and alcohol use and sleep. The present study bridges this research by examining the links among alcohol use, sleep, and academic performance in college students. Personal interview surveys were conducted with a random sample of 236 students (124 women) at a liberal arts college. The interviews measured alcohol consumption, gender, academic class, weekday and weekend bedtimes and rise times, and daytime sleepiness; 95% of the sample granted permission to obtain grade-point average (GPA) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores from official college records. Ordinary least squares regressions showed that alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of four sleep patterns: the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep, the difference between weekday and weekend nighttime sleep hours (oversleep), and the difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes (bedtime delay). Women and students with late sleep schedules were more apt to report daytime sleepiness. SAT score was the strongest predictor of GPA. However, gender, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness also were significant predictors when other variables were controlled. In addition to alcohol's direct relationship with GPA, mediational analysis indicated that alcohol had indirect effects on sleepiness and GPA, primarily through its effect on sleep schedule. The findings show how alcohol use among college students is related to sleep-wake patterns and further support the connection between alcohol use and grades.

  15. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  16. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol

  17. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.

  18. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  19. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  20. Association between perceived stress, alcohol consumption levels and obesity in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Jin; Kim, Hae-Joon; Doo, Miae

    2016-01-01

    Coping with stress often leads to unhealthy behaviors that can have an impact on the development of obesity. Therefore, this study is investigate the effect of perceived stress level on alcohol consumption habits, as well as the effect of the interaction between alcohol consumption habits and stress level on obesity in Koreans. We analyzed perceived stress, alcohol consumption habits (alcohol consumption status, quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test) and the anthropometrics of 6,229 subjects from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The gender-based differences of the effect of the perceived level of stress on alcohol consumption habits and anthropometric measurements, as well as the interaction of the perceived level of stress and alcohol consumption habits on prevalence or ORs of obesity were analyzed. The subjects with high perceived stress showed higher proportions for unhealthy alcohol consumption habits than those with low perceived stress [ORs (95% CIs)=1.35 (1.19-1.54), 1.95 (1.68-2.26), and 1.87 (1.60-2.19) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Men showed significant interactions between the perceived stress and all alcohol consumption habits with respect to obesity [ORs (95% CIs)=1.28 (1.06-1.55), 1.81 (1.52-2.16), and 1.40 (1.17-1.68) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Among women, interactions between the perceived stress and alcohol consumption status [ORs (95% CIs)=0.70 (0.60-0.83)] and alcohol consumption quantity [ORs (95% CIs)=0.93 (0.54-1.36)] in relation to obesity were found to be significant. Our study demonstrated that the perceived stress influenced alcohol consumption habits that may have impacted obesity.

  1. The effect of alcohol price on dependent drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.

  2. Neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Ballvé, Anna; Grau-López, Laia; Morillas, Rosa María; Planas, Ramón

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the different acute and chronic neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption that affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Several mechanisms can be implicated depending on the disorder, ranging from nutritional factors, alcohol-related toxicity, metabolic changes and immune-mediated mechanisms. Recognition and early treatment of these manifestations is essential given their association with high morbidity and significantly increased mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.

  4. Alcohol consumption is associated with high concentrations of urinary hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; de la Torre, Rafael; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Flores, Gemma; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Fiol, Miguel; Vila, Joan; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquín; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, Jose; Sáez, Guillermo; Covas, María-Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we reported the presence of hydroxytyrosol in red wine and higher human urinary recovery of total hydroxytyrosol than that expected after a single red wine intake. We hypothesized that the alcohol present in wine could promote endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation. The objective was to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and urinary hydroxytyrosol concentrations. This was a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, an intervention study directed at testing the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Participants included 1045 subjects, aged 55-80 y, who were at high cardiovascular risk. Alcohol consumption was estimated through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Urinary hydroxytyrosol and ethyl glucuronide, a biomarker of alcohol consumption, were measured. Urinary ethyl glucuronide concentrations were directly related to alcohol and wine consumption (P logistic regression analyses showed a significant linear trend (P 20 g (2 drinks)/d and >10 g (1 drink)/d alcohol in men and women, respectively, were associated (P wine as a source of hydroxytyrosol and alcohol as an indirect promoter of endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com/isrctn/ as ISRCTN 35739639.

  5. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  6. Association of alcohol consumption with lipid profile in hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to be closely related with alterations in blood lipid levels as well as in blood pressure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and blood lipid levels in hypertensive men. A cross-sectional study involving participants (n = 2014) aged 20-69 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009. Demographic characteristics, dietary intake and medical history were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, alcohol consumption was negatively associated with risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C; odds ratio (OR): 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22-0.40 in heavy (≥30 g/day) drinkers; P for trend consumption (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.53-2.72 in heavy drinkers; P for trend consumption. These data suggest that alcohol consumption differentially affected lipid measures according to the amount of alcohol intake in hypertensive men.

  7. Effects of alcohol-induced working memory decline on alcohol consumption and adverse consequences of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.

  8. Longitudinal Association Of Alcohol Consumption To Periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Hach, Maria; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    pocket depth (PPD) and calculation of clinical attachment level (CAL). Periodontitis was defined according to severe periodontitis as ≥2 interproximal sites with CAL ≥6mm (not on the same tooth) and ≥1 interproximal site with PPD ≥5mm (Page & Eke 2007). Alcohol consumption and relevant covariates were...

  9. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Awareness of Associated Neuro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated alcohol consumption and awareness of associated neuropsychological implications in foetal and early childhood development in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The design was descriptive survey and the sample was 300 expectant women who were drawn through ...

  11. Student estimations of peer alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Mcalaney, John; Pischke, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Social Norms Approach, with its focus on positive behaviour and its consensus orientation, is a health promotion intervention of relevance to the context of a Health Promoting University. In particular, the approach could assist with addressing excessive alcohol consumption. AIM: ...

  12. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  13. Alcohol Consumption among College Students: Chief Student Affairs Officers' Perspectives on Evidence-Based Alcohol Consumption Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, David F., III

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students can lead to negative consequences for those consuming alcohol as well as for their classmates. The 2002 report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Task Force on College Drinking described a "three-in-one" evidence-based approach for alcohol consumption reduction…

  14. The relationship between concussion and alcohol consumption among university athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradey Alcock

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated concussion as a potential risk factor for increased alcohol consumption in university athletes. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 41 university students (37% with a history of concussion completed self-report measures, while electrodermal activation (EDA was recorded for each participant to capture baseline physiological arousal. Results: As expected, concussion status significantly predicted alcohol consumption over and above athletic status, b = 0.34, p = 0.034, 95% CI [0.195, 4.832], such that those with a prior concussion history engaged in greater alcohol consumption. Importantly, concussion status also significantly predicted baseline physiological arousal, b = −0.39, p = 0.014, 95% CI [−0.979, −0.120], such that those with a history of concussion exhibited lower EDA. Conclusions: Elevated alcohol consumption among athletes is a pronounced associate of concussion in sports and may be a behavioral reflection of disruption to the orbitofrontal cortex – an area implicated in inhibition. Keywords: Concussion, Arousal, Risk taking, Alcohol consumption, Athletes

  15. Alcohol consumption and augmentation index in healthy young men: The ARYA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, M.J.C.A. van; Beulens, J.W.J.; Bos, W.J.W.; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, whereas increased alcohol intake is related to hypertension and intracerebral hemorrhage. We studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the augmentation index (AIx), a measure

  16. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate

  17. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  18. Alcohol consumption for simulated driving performance: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Alcohol consumption may decrease simulated driving performance in alcohol consumed people compared with non-alcohol consumed people via changes in SDSD, LPSD, speed, MLPD, LC and NA. More well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are recommended.

  19. Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Survey of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Islamic religion, not being in marital union, consuming an alcoholic herbal brew and considering alcohol was beneficial to health were strong predictors of alcohol consumption. We conclude that the prevalence of alcohol consumption is high among this cohort of Ghanaian women. Women should be screened for ...

  20. West African Transnational Immigrants' Perspectives on Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshiswaka, Daudet Ilunga; Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Osideko, Anuoluwapo

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is a common belief that alcohol consumption can lead to chronic ailments. While research shows that the prevalence of alcohol consumption among immigrants is associated with acculturation, there is a gap in the research with respect to examining alcohol consumption patterns within subgroups of immigrants such as transnational…

  1. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris, R Adron

    2006-10-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower amounts of alcohol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild-type littermates. In the same test, knockout mice of both sexes showed a strong reduction of preference for saccharin compared to control mice. In contrast, under conditions of limited (4 h) access (light phase of the light/dark cycle), null mutant mice did not show any differences in consumption of saccharin, but they showed significantly reduced intake of sucrose. To determine the possible cause for reduction of ethanol preference and intake, we studied other ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the preprodynorphin gene. There were no differences between null mutant and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, acute ethanol withdrawal, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. These results indicate that deletion of preprodynorphin leads to substantial reduction of alcohol intake in female mice, and suggest that this is caused by decreased orosensory reward of alcohol (sweet taste and/or palatability).

  2. Effect of alcohol consumption on the liver detoxication capacity as measured by [13C]methacetin- and [methyl-13C]methionine-breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Forberger, Anke; Wigger, Marianne

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic microsomal and mitochondrial functions by using the 13CO2-breath test in healthy subjects either before or after the consumption of red wine. Fourteen adults received [13C]methacetin and [methyl-13C]methionine together with a standardised dinner. Expired air samples were taken over 6 h. After a wash-out period, the subjects consumed 0.4 ml ethanol/kg/day together with dinner over a 10-day period. Thereafter, 13C-tracer administration was repeated under identical conditions. The 13CO2-enrichments were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The mean cumulative percentage 13C-dose recovery (CPDR) after administration of [13C]methacetin and [methyl-13C]methionine either without or with red wine consumption amounted to 38.2+/-6.3 vs. 36.3+/-6.7% (p=0.363) and 9.5+/-3.3 vs. 8.8+/-2.5% (p=0.47), respectively. Moderate alcohol consumption does not induce significant short-term changes of the microsomal and the mitochondrial functions of the human liver in healthy subjects.

  3. Effect of alcohol consumption on the liver detoxication capacity as measured by [13C2]aminopyrine and L-[1-13C]phenylalanine breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Wigger, Marianne

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic microsomal and cytosolic functions by using the 13CO2 breath test in healthy subjects either before or after consumption of red wine. Twelve adults received [13C2]aminopyrine and L-[1-13C]phenylalanine together with a standardised dinner. Expired air samples were taken over 6 h. After a wash-out period, the subjects consumed 0.4 ml ethanol per kg per day together with dinner over a 7.5-day period on average. Thereafter, 13C-tracer administration was repeated under identical conditions. The 13CO2 enrichments were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The mean cumulative percentage 13C-dose recovery after administration of [13C2]aminopyrine and L-[1-13C]phenylalanine either without or with red wine consumption amounted to 17.0+/-4.4 vs. 14.7+/-3.1% (p=0.170) and 14.0+/-2.8 vs. 11.5+/-3.9% (p=0.084), respectively. Moderate alcohol consumption does not induce significant short-term changes of the microsomal and the cytosolic function of the human liver in healthy subjects.

  4. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone st...

  5. The costs of hazardous alcohol consumption in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Tobias; Verheyen, Frank; Linder, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption in Germany is a main threat to health. By using insurance claim data from the German Statutory Health Insurance and a classification strategy based on ICD10 diagnoses-codes we analyzed a sample of 146,000 subjects with more than 19,000 hazardous alcohol consumers. Employing different regression models with a control function approach, we calculate life years lost due to alcohol consumption, annual direct and indirect health costs, and the burden of pain and suffering measured by the Charlson-Index and assessed pain diagnoses. Additionally, we simulate the net accumulated premium payments over expenses in the German Statutory Health Insurance and the Statutory Pension Fund for hazardous alcohol consumers from a lifecycle perspective. In total, €39.3 billion each year result from hazardous alcohol consumption with an average loss of 7 years in life expectancy. Hazardous alcohol consumers clearly do not "pay their way" in the two main German social security systems and also display a higher intangible burden according to our definitions of pain and suffering.

  6. Decline in alcohol consumption in Estonia: combined effects of strengthened alcohol policy and economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Jarno

    2011-01-01

    To describe alcohol policy changes in parallel to consumption changes in 2005-2010 in Estonia, where alcohol consumption is among the highest in Europe. Review of pertinent legislation and literature. Alcohol consumption decreased since 2008, while alcohol excise tax, sales time restrictions and ad bans have increased since 2005. An economic downturn started in 2008. The precise roles of policy changes and the economic downturn in the decline of alcohol consumption, and whether the decrease will be sustained, are still unclear.

  7. Drinking status but not acute alcohol consumption influences delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the following: (a) the effects of acute alcohol on delay discounting; (b) the effects of drinking status on delayed discounting; and (c) whether these effects differ according to reward type (alcohol vs. money). Heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 96) were randomized to receive either an acute dose of alcohol at 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg or placebo in a between-subjects, double-blind design. Delay discounting of alcohol and monetary rewards was measured using a hyperbolic model, with higher scores indicative of greater delay discounting. ANOVA of discount scores indicated a main effect of reward type, where all participants had higher discount scores for alcohol versus money rewards. A main effect of drinking status was also observed, where heavier drinkers had higher discount scores compared with lighter drinkers. We did not observe a main effect of acute alcohol use on delay discounting or the hypothesized interactions between acute alcohol use and drinking status with reward type. Our data suggest that heavier drinkers discount the value of delayed rewards more steeply than lighter drinkers. Delay discounting may therefore be a promising marker of heavy alcohol consumption in social drinkers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  9. Alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption: a systematic review of longitudinal studies published since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David; Noel, Jonathan; Landon, Jane; Thornton, Nicole; Lobstein, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption is a major global public health concern. Previous reviews have concluded that exposure to alcohol marketing was associated with earlier drinking initiation and higher alcohol consumption among youth. This review examined longitudinal studies published since those earlier reviews. Peer-reviewed papers were identified in medical, scientific and social science databases, supplemented by examination of reference lists. Non-peer-reviewed papers were included if they were published by organizations deemed to be authoritative, were fully referenced and contained primary data not available elsewhere. Papers were restricted to those that included measures of marketing exposure and alcohol consumption for at least 500 underage people. Multiple authors reviewed studies for inclusion and assessed their quality using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Quality Assessment Tool for Observation Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Twelve studies (ranging in duration from 9 months to 8 years), following nine unique cohorts not reported on previously involving 35 219 participants from Europe, Asia and North America, met inclusion criteria. All 12 found evidence of a positive association between level of marketing exposure and level of youth alcohol consumption. Some found significant associations between youth exposure to alcohol marketing and initiation of alcohol use (odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.69), and there were clear associations between exposure and subsequent binge or hazardous drinking (odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.15). Mediators included marketing receptivity, brand recognition and alcohol expectancies. Levels of marketing exposure among younger adolescents were similar to those found among older adolescents and young adults. Young people who have greater exposure to alcohol marketing appear to be more likely subsequently to initiate alcohol use and engage in binge and hazardous drinking. © 2016 Society for the Study of

  10. Reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages prompts reductions in alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Inge; Oldham, Melissa; Jones, Andrew; Field, Matt; Angus, Colin; Robinson, Eric

    2018-05-14

    To test whether reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages would reduce voluntary alcohol consumption in a laboratory (study 1) and a real-world drinking environment (study 2). Additionally, we modelled the potential public health benefit of reducing the standard serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom. Studies 1 and 2 were cluster-randomized experiments. In the additional study, we used the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model to estimate the number of deaths and hospital admissions that would be averted per year in the United Kingdom if a policy that reduces alcohol serving sizes in the on-trade was introduced. A semi-naturalistic laboratory (study 1), a bar in Liverpool, UK (study 2). Students and university staff members (study 1: n = 114, mean age = 24.8 years, 74.6% female), residents from local community (study 2: n = 164, mean age = 34.9 years, 57.3% female). In study 1, participants were assigned randomly to receive standard or reduced serving sizes (by 25%) of alcohol during a laboratory drinking session. In study 2, customers at a bar were served alcohol in either standard or reduced serving sizes (by 28.6-33.3%). Outcome measures were units of alcohol consumed within 1 hour (study 1) and up to 3 hours (study 2). Serving size condition was the primary predictor. In study 1, a 25% reduction in alcohol serving size led to a 20.7-22.3% reduction in alcohol consumption. In study 2, a 28.6-33.3% reduction in alcohol serving size led to a 32.4-39.6% reduction in alcohol consumption. Modelling results indicated that decreasing the serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages by 25% could reduce the number of alcohol-related hospital admissions and deaths per year in the United Kingdom by 4.4-10.5% and 5.6-13.2%, respectively. Reducing the serving size of alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom appears to lead to a reduction in alcohol consumption within a single drinking occasion. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction

  11. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unre...

  12. Explaining reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption: a test of an extended social identity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; McCafferty, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    To test the role of group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol consumption to a group identity in shaping reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption. The study had a 2 (behaviour: identity-defining/alcohol vs. non-identity defining/caffeine) × 2 (norm: low vs. heavy consumption) between-subjects factorial design. Group identification and personal attitudes towards alcohol/caffeine consumption were included as measured predictors. Participants were 83 undergraduate students (44 female, 38 male, one unspecified) at a University in Scotland. Predictor and outcome variables included questionnaire measures of group (student) identification, personal attitudes to alcohol/caffeine consumption, the perceived importance of alcohol/caffeine consumption to group identity, and behavioral intentions to consume alcohol/caffeine. Personal attitude and group identification moderated the impact of norm information on consumption intentions, but only for alcohol consumption, and not caffeine consumption. For alcohol, norm information did affect intended consumption (ps ≤ .034), with the crucial exception of high identifiers who had favourable personal attitudes towards alcohol consumption. Instead, these individuals resist norm information (ps = .458 and .174), showing no decrease in intentions in the face of norm information that emphasised relatively 'low' levels of consumption. The impact of norm information on alcohol consumption intentions depends on group-based factors such as group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol to a group identity. When both of these factors are high, and an individual also personally favours the behaviour, the potential for norm-based interventions to fail is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbæk, Morten

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time...... to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) was used for 39 612 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy from 1997 to 2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to alcohol intake. RESULTS......: In nulliparous women neither moderate nor high alcohol intake was related with longer waiting time to pregnancy compared with a low intake. In parous women, a modest association was seen only among those with an intake of >14 drinks per week (subfecundity OR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7). Women who...

  15. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, pbilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  16. Quantifying the global contribution of alcohol consumption to cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, Jakob; Imtiaz, Sameer; Neufeld, Maria; Rylett, Margaret; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-05-25

    The global impact of alcohol consumption on deaths due to cardiomyopathy (CM) has not been quantified to date, even though CM contains a subcategory for alcoholic CM with an effect of heavy drinking over time as the postulated underlying causal mechanism. In this feasibility study, a model to estimate the alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) of CM deaths based on alcohol exposure measures is proposed. A two-step model was developed based on aggregate-level data from 95 countries, including the most populous (data from 2013 or last available year). First, the crude mortality rate of alcoholic CM per 1,000,000 adults was predicted using a negative binomial regression based on prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and adult alcohol per capita consumption (APC) (n = 52 countries). Second, the proportion of alcoholic CM among all CM deaths (i.e., AAF) was predicted using a fractional response probit regression with alcoholic CM crude mortality rate (from Step 1), AUD prevalence, APC per drinker, and Global Burden of Disease region as predictions. Additional models repeated these steps by sex and for the wider Global Burden of Disease study definition of CM. There were strong correlations (>0.9) between the crude mortality rate of alcoholic CM and the AAFs, supporting the modeling strategy. In the first step, the population-weighted mean crude mortality rate was estimated at 8.4 alcoholic CM deaths per 1,000,000 (95% CI: 7.4-9.3). In the second step, the global AAFs were estimated at 6.9% (95% CI: 5.4-8.4%). Sex-specific figures suggested a lower AAF among females (2.9%, 95% CI: 2.3-3.4%) as compared to males (8.9%, 95% CI: 7.0-10.7%). Larger deviations between observed and predicted AAFs were found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The model proposed promises to fill the gap to include AAFs for CM into comparative risk assessments in the future. These predictions likely will be underestimates because of the stigma involved in all fully alcohol

  17. Alcohol and burden of disease in Australia: the challenge in assessing consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeil, Rowan P; Room, Robin; Matthews, Sharon; Lloyd, Belinda

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the major avoidable risk factors for disease, illness and injury in the Australian community. Population health scientists and economists use estimates of alcohol consumption in burden of disease frameworks to estimate the impact of alcohol on disease, illness and injury. This article highlights challenges associated with estimating alcohol consumption in these models and provides a series of recommendations to improve estimates. Key challenges in measuring alcohol consumption at the population level are identified and discussed with respect to how they apply to burden of disease frameworks. Methodological advances and limitations in the estimation of alcohol consumption are presented with respect to use of survey data, population distributions of alcohol consumption, consideration of 'patterns' of alcohol use including 'bingeing', and capping exposure. Key recommendations for overcoming these limitations are provided. Implications and conclusion: Alcohol-related burden has a significant impact on the health of the Australian population. Improving estimates of alcohol related consumption will enable more accurate estimates of this burden to be determined to inform future alcohol policy by legislators. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Is response to price equal for those with higher alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joshua; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Petrie, Dennis; Doran, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    To determine if taxation policies that increase the price of alcohol differentially reduce alcohol consumption for heavy drinkers in Australia. A two-part demand model for alcohol consumption is used to determine the price elasticity of alcohol. Quantile regression is used to determine the price elasticity estimates for various levels of consumption. The study uses Australian data collected by the National Drug Strategy Household Survey for the years 2001, 2004 and 2007. Measures of individual annual alcohol consumption were derived from three waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey; alcohol prices were taken from market research reports. For the overall population of drinkers, a 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a 0.96% (95% CI -0.35%, -1.57%) reduction in alcohol consumption. For those in the highest 10% of drinkers by average amount consumed, a 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a 1.26% (95% CI 0.82%, 1.70%) reduction in consumption. Within Australia, policies that increase the price of alcohol are about equally effective in relative terms for reducing alcohol consumption both for the general population and among those who drink heavily.

  19. Impact of a new alcohol policy on homemade alcohol consumption and sales in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaev, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    To describe the effects of Russian policy since 2006 affecting price and availability on the consumption of recorded and unrecorded alcohol, with specific reference to homemade alcohol, and to investigate other factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing. Consumption and preferred beverage data were collected from RLMS-HSE nationwide panel surveys from 1994 to 2013, with a detailed analysis of 2012 data (18,221 respondents aged 16+ years). Official statistics on manufactured alcohol sales, regional price increase and real disposable income were used. Homemade distilled spirits (samogon) consumption decreased together with that of recorded and unrecorded manufactured spirits since 2000. The consumption of spirits was partially replaced by the consumption of beer and wine. These trends in alcohol consumption were interrupted in 2008-2013. The interruption was more likely affected by the economic crisis and recession than by the new alcohol policy. Social networks and availability of unrecorded alcohol were more important predictors of homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing than was a recorded alcohol price increase. Homemade alcohol consumption does not replace the declining market for recorded spirits in Russia. The effects of economic and social factors on homemade alcohol consumption are greater than are the short-term effects of the new alcohol policy. The very recent (2015) reduction of the minimum unit price of vodka may be premature. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-05-01

    Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers' consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Alcohol consumption and Tax Differentials Between Beer, Wine and Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    Several public health interest groups in the United States have recently called for equalization of the federal tax on a unit of alcohol in beer, in wine and in spirits. This paper provides some new empirical evidence of what effect alcohol tax differentials have on total alcohol consumption. The data indicate that the greatest decrease in alcohol consumption results from an increase in spirits taxes, followed by beer taxes and then wine taxes. This suggests that the existing generally accept...

  2. Headache is associated with lower alcohol consumption among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues,Renan Barros; Domingues,Simone Aires

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between headache and alcohol consumption among medical students. 480 medical students were submitted to a questionnaire about headaches and drinking alcohol. Headache was assessed by ID-Migraine and functional disability was evaluated with MIDAS. The evaluation of alcohol consumption was assessed with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). There was significantly lower proportion of students with drinking problem among stude...

  3. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies pro...

  4. Is alcohol and community sport a good mix? Alcohol management, consumption and social capital in community sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco C; Wolfenden, Luke; Gillham, Karen; Kingsland, Melanie; Richardson, Ben; Wiggers, John

    2015-06-01

    Community sports clubs provide an important contribution to the health and wellbeing of individuals and the community; however, they have also been associated with risky alcohol consumption. This study assessed whether a club's alcohol management strategies were related to risky alcohol consumption by members and levels of social capital, as measured in terms of participation in and perceived safety of the club. A total of 723 sports club members from 33 community football clubs in New South Wales, Australia, completed a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) and a management representative from each club also completed a CATI. The club representative reported on the club's implementation of 11 alcohol management practices, while club members reported their alcohol consumption and perceived levels of safety at the club and participation in the club. A structural equation model identified having the bar open for more than four hours; having alcohol promotions; and serving intoxicated patrons were associated with increased risky alcohol consumption while at the club; which in turn was associated with lower levels of perceived club safety and member participation. The positive contribution of community sports clubs to the community may be diminished by specific inadequate alcohol management practices. Changing alcohol management practices can reduce alcohol consumption, and possibly increase perceived aspects of social capital, such as safety and participation. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  6. Alcohol Consumption Increases Post-Operative Infection but Not Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes multiple comorbidities with potentially negative outcome after operations. The aims are to study the association between alcohol consumption and post-operative non-surgical site infections and mortality and to determine the impact of peri-operative...... alcohol consumption and mortality was found. Meta-analyses of RCTs showed that interventions reduce infections but not mortality in patients with alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day increases post-operative non-surgical site infections. Alcohol...... for observational studies and RCTs. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies and five RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed more infections in those consuming more than two units of alcohol per day compared with drinking less in both unadjusted and adjusted data. No association between...

  7. Moderate alcohol consumption and chronic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Clowry, Catherine M; Murray, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Drinking within recommended limits is highly prevalent in much of the world, and strong epidemiological associations exist between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of several major chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, and breast cancer. In many cases, plausible...... biological mediators for these associations have been identified in randomized trials, but gold standard evidence that moderate drinking causes or prevents any chronic disease remains elusive and important concerns about available evidence have been raised. Although long-term randomized trials to test...... suggests that objections to the execution of a full-scale, long-term clinical trial of moderate drinking on chronic disease are increasingly untenable. We present potential lessons learned for such a trial and discuss key features to maximize its feasibility and value....

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies in the Czech Republic and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, Helena; Nome, Siri; Dobiášová, Karolína; Zvolský, Miroslav; Henriksen, Roger; Tulupova, Elena; Kmecová, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    The Czech Republic is characterized by high alcohol consumption and is well known as the world's biggest consumer of beer. In contrast, the alcohol consumption in Norway is relatively low. In this article, we describe and discuss alcohol policy development in the Czech Republic since the mid-1980s to the present and its impact on the alcohol consumption and compare our findings, including the dynamics of the total alcohol consumption and the development of drinking patterns among young people, with the situation in Norway. The study uses the methodology of "process tracing". Selected national statistics, research outcomes and related policy documents were analyzed to identify possible relations between the alcohol consumption and the alcohol policy in two different environments and institutional/policy settings. There was a clear difference in alcohol consumption trends in both countries in the last three decades. Norway was characterized by low alcohol consumption with tendency to decline in the last years. In contrast, the Czech Republic showed an upward trend. In addition, alcohol consumption among Czech youth has been continuously increasing since 1995, whereas the opposite trend has occurred in Norway since the late 1990s. The results revealed that the alcohol-control policies of the Czech Republic and Norway were significantly different during the study period. Norway had a very restrictive alcohol policy, in contrast to the liberal alcohol policy adopted in the Czech Republic, in particular after political transition in 1990. Liberalization of social life together with considerable decline of alcohol price due to complete privatization of alcohol production and sale contributed to an increase of the alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Persistently high alcohol consumption among general population and its growth among young people in the Czech Republic pose social, economic and health threats. Norway could provide the inspiration to Czech politicians

  10. The relationship between alcohol consumption and related harm among young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group.

  11. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (palcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  12. Characteristics and correlates of alcohol consumption among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA) tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB), heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of ...

  13. Pattern of alcohol consumption among males and females and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... majority engaged in problem drinking despite awareness of the health problems associated with alcohol consumption. Hence there is dire need for deliberate Government policy to regulate the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages in view of the health, social, and economic consequences associated ...

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Consumption Pattern of Alcoholic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High consumption of alcoholic and sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) remains a public health problem among the young adults. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and consumption pattern of alcohol and SSBs among the undergraduate students. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain ...

  15. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  16. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...

  17. Risky Sexual Behaviour Associated with Alcohol Consumption among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been known to be responsible for several negative forms, of behavior, actions, attitudes and social ills. The link between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior has also been established. As the scorge of HIV ravages the population, the ...

  18. Alcohol consumption stimulates early stemps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Tol, van A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  19. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  20. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As efforts to reduce maternal and childhood mortality rates continue to yield results in Nigeria, it is time to put more emphases on the health of children. Alcohol consumption is one of the few modifiable risk factors for poor pregnancy outcome. This study assessed the consumption of alcohol among pregnant ...

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, A. van; Fournier, N.; Gent, T. van; Paul, J.L.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the

  2. Alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Lavandeira

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: No clear effect is observed for alcohol consumption. Due to the limited evidence, no conclusion can be drawn for beer or wine consumption. There is little research available on the effect of alcohol on lung cancer risk for people who have never smoked, and more studies are urgently needed on this topic.

  3. Prenatal Alcohol Consumption Between Conception and Recognition of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Clare; Hutchinson, Delyse; Burns, Lucy; Wilson, Judy; Elliott, Elizabeth; Allsop, Steve; Najman, Jake; Jacobs, Sue; Rossen, Larissa; Olsson, Craig; Mattick, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Current estimates of the rates of alcohol-exposed pregnancies may underestimate prenatal alcohol exposure if alcohol consumption in early trimester 1, prior to awareness of pregnancy, is not considered. Extant literature describes predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy; however, alcohol consumption prior to awareness of pregnancy is a distinct behavior from consumption after becoming aware of pregnancy and thus may be associated with different predictors. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by women prior to awareness of their pregnancy, and trajectories of change to alcohol use following pregnancy recognition. Pregnant women (n = 1,403) were prospectively recruited from general antenatal clinics of 4 public hospitals in Australian metropolitan areas between 2008 and 2013. Women completed detailed interviews about alcohol use before and after recognition of pregnancy. Most women (n = 850, 60.6%) drank alcohol between conception and pregnancy recognition. Binge and heavy drinking were more prevalent than low-level drinking. The proportion of women who drank alcohol reduced to 18.3% (n = 257) after recognition of pregnancy. Of women who drank alcohol, 70.5% ceased drinking, 18.3% reduced consumption, and 11.1% made no reduction following awareness of pregnancy. Socioeconomic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of alcohol use, with drinkers more likely to be of high rather than low SES compared with abstainers (OR = 3.30, p alcohol use prior to pregnancy recognition, age, pregnancy planning, and illicit substance use. In this sample of relatively high SES women, most women ceased or reduced drinking once aware of their pregnancy. However, the rate of alcohol-exposed pregnancies was higher than previous estimates when the period prior to pregnancy recognition was taken into account. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Associations between work stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasse, R M; Nijhuis, F J; Kok, G

    1998-02-01

    To test an interactional model on the associations between work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Cross-sectional survey. The study was part of a Worksite Health Project including an Employee Assistance Programme and a Health Promotion Programme in the Netherlands. Participants were blue-collar workers from two Municipal Garbage Collecting Departments and white-collar workers from a Pharmaceutical Company (N = 471). Measurements included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status), work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Type of work-site (blue- or white-collar) and smoking behaviour were used as covariates. Regression analyses resulted in three major findings. First, in the presence of stress, abstinence increased the risk of sickness absence compared with moderate drinking. We failed to find a significant relationship between excessive drinking and sickness absence. Secondly, stress mediated the associations between stressor and alcohol consumption, and between stressor and sickness absence, although stressors also directly predicted sickness absence. The association between abstinence and sickness absence could reflect medical problems of abstainers or a lack of skills for coping with stress. The failure to find a significant detrimental effect of excessive drinking may have been due to use of a low threshold for excessive drinking and/or low power. Prospective studies are needed to gain insight in causal relationships between the variables concerned.

  5. The association between time perspective and alcohol consumption in university students: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenstock, Jane; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Levels of alcohol consumption among students and young people are particularly high. Time perspective describes the varying value individuals place on outcomes in the present and future. In general, it has been found that individuals prefer to receive a gain today rather than in the future. There is evidence that time perspective is associated with addictive health behaviours, including alcoholism and cigarette smoking, but less evidence of its association with non-addictive, but hazardous, levels of alcohol consumption. The objective was to determine if there is an association between time perspective and hazardous alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire was administered to willing undergraduate students attending a convenience sample of lectures in two university faculties. Hazardous alcohol consumption was defined as a score of ≥8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and time perspective was measured using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS). Participants were 322 undergraduate university students in two faculties at a university in Northern England, UK. Hazardous alcohol consumption was reported by 264 (82%) respondents. After controlling for potential confounding by socio-demographic variables, greater consideration of future consequences was associated with lower odds of reporting hazardous drinking [odds ratio = 0.28; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.54]. Interventions aimed at increasing future orientated time perspective may be effective in decreasing hazardous alcohol consumption in students.

  6. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  7. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-12-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  8. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  9. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Allebeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim: This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women. The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion: Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in

  10. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  11. Effect of Alcohol References in Music on Alcohol Consumption in Public Drinking Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Slettenhaar, H.G.J.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs

  12. An experimental trial exploring the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in a cohort of male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Fergus G; Williams, Damien J; Goodall, Christine A; Murer, Jeffrey S; Donnelly, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants' experiences of the trial. Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour.

  13. Mood and implicit alcohol expectancy processes: predicting alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAE) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli-including mood states-and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, this study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. College students (N = 146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the laboratory, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the laboratory. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak blood alcohol concentration in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the laboratory for females. The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs-as indicated by longer RTs-predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores the need for

  14. Interaction between alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption, and risk for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    St?rmer, T; Wang-Gohrke, S; Arndt, V; Boeing, H; Kong, X; Kreienberg, R; Brenner, H

    2002-01-01

    MaeIII Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in exon 3 of the alcohol dehydrogenase II was assessed in serum from 467 randomly selected German women and 278 women with invasive breast cancer to evaluate the interaction between a polymorphism of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption and risk for breast cancer. In both groups, usual consumption of different alcoholic beverages was asked for using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We used multivariable logistic ...

  15. Exposure to Alcohol Commercials in Movie Theaters Affects Actual Alcohol Consumption in Young Adult High Weekly Drinkers: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  16. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  17. Alcohol consumption among university students: a Sino-German comparison demonstrates a much lower consumption of alcohol in Chinese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Jahn, Heiko J; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Kraemer, Alexander

    2016-08-11

    Alcohol use is reported in university students with discrepancy between countries. The study objectives were to assess prevalence and associated factors of alcohol consumption among university students in Germany and China. Data used were from 1853 Chinese and 3306 German university students. Alcohol consumption frequency was measured by a question "How often did you drink alcohol in the last three months?" with six possible responses, which were later collapsed into three categories of "At least once a week", "Less than once a week" and "Never". Problem drinking was measured by the CAGE test and defined as a CAGE score of two or more (four as the maximum). Simple and multivariable logistic regressions were used for association analyses. German students reported more often "At least once a week" drinking (59.8 vs. 9.0 %). Among Germans, women drank less often "At least once a week" (OR = 0.40, 0.30-0.53). Among Chinese, a higher BMI was associated with drinking "At least once a week" (OR = 1.09, 1.02-1.18). Age revealed a positive association with "At least once a week" drinking in Chinese (1.33, 1.21-1.46) but a negative association in Germans (OR = 0.97, 0.94-0.99). Having a father with high educational level was positively related to "At least once a week" drinking in both countries (OR = 4.25, 2.67-6.78 for Chinese; OR = 1.32, 1.01-1.72 for Germans). Doing less than once a week physical exercise was negatively associated with "At least once a week" drinking in Chinese and German students (OR = 0.27, 0.15-0.48 for Chinese; OR = 0.69, 0.49-0.96 for Germans). Among the German students, 20.3 % reported problem drinking. Being a female (OR = 0.32, 0.26-0.40) and performing less than once a week physical activity (OR = 0.73, 0.56-0.95) were negatively associated with problem drinking, while having a father with high educational level (OR = 1.32, 1.09-1.60) and experiencing higher level of perceived stress (OR = 1.08, 1

  18. Prospective effects of possible selves on alcohol consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F; Park, Chang G; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents' alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents' alcohol consumption. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  20. Spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in Belgian cities: A wastewater-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaerts, Tim; Covaci, Adrian; Kinyua, Juliet; Neels, Hugo; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, scientific evidence has emerged that wastewater-based epidemiology can deliver complementary information concerning the use of different substances of abuse. In this study, the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology in monitoring spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in different populations in Belgium has been examined. Concentrations of ethyl sulphate, a minor Phase-II metabolite of ethanol, in 163 influent wastewater samples from eight wastewater treatment plants in Belgium in the period 2013-2015 were measured with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and used to estimate alcohol consumption. The highest levels of alcohol consumption were detected in the metropoles Antwerp and Brussels compared to smaller villages. Annual variations were detected, with a higher alcohol consumption measured in 2013 compared with 2014. The weekly pattern showed a clear week and weekend difference in alcohol use, with intermediate levels on Monday and Friday. The results were extrapolated and a use of 5.6L pure alcohol per year per inhabitant aged 15+ has been estimated in Belgium. The comparison with available information on drinking habits of the Belgian population further demonstrated the usefulness of the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. This is the largest wastewater-based epidemiology study monitoring alcohol consumption to date, demonstrating that objective and quick information on spatio-temporal trends in alcohol consumption on a local and (inter)national scale can be obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of the validity and reliability of alcohol retail sales data for monitoring population levels of alcohol consumption: a Scottish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption.

  2. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  3. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-10-01

    An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, INTERVENTION; n=45, CONTROL) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club ( 19%; 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm ( 38%; 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); psports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. ACTRN12609000224224. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Prevalence of alcohol consumption among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of those who drank alcohol (42.6%) were experimenting with alcohol, though 5.4% drank due to addiction. Majority (39.3%) bought their drinks from stores and supermarkets. The most Common problems experienced by the drinkers were fatigue, alcohol made them behave in ways they later regretted and it hurt ...

  5. Alcohol consumption moderates the link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence in an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker Barnwell, Sara; Earleywine, Mitch; Gordis, Elana B

    2005-06-01

    The link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence remains poorly understood. Some people use cannabis regularly without signs of dependence; others show dependence despite using less. This study examined alcohol consumption as a moderator of this association. A sample of 476 people (primarily Caucasian men) who used cannabis at least once per week reported their alcohol consumption, cannabis use, and cannabis dependence symptoms in an Internet survey. Regressions revealed significant interactions between measures of cannabis use and alcohol consumption when predicting cannabis dependence. Cannabis use covaried with cannabis dependence, particularly in people who consumed alcohol frequently or in large amounts per week. Despite limitations, these data suggest that alcohol may decrease the safety of cannabis consumption. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  7. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  8. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAmlung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks (APTs that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink in a sample of ninety-one young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p < .01, although absolute consistency was high for both versions (>95%. Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  10. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  11. [Alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy in Argentina: prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mariana B; Filippetti, Vanessa Arán; Cremonte, Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Describe alcohol consumption by Argentine women before and during pregnancy and identify the factors associated with consumption- and pregnancy-related changes. Cross-sectional observational study. Women were interviewed after giving birth and receiving care at two perinatal health care centers in Santa Fe, Argentina. Sociodemographic information, data on their alcohol use, and other information were obtained from the participants. A descriptive analysis of consumption prevalence rates was made and the factors associated with patterns of alcohol use were identified by means of repeated measure analysis. Of the 614 participants, 75.2% had had at least one alcoholic drink (standard unit) during pregnancy and 83.3% had done so in the previous year; 15.1% admitted having at least one episode of binge drinking (five or more drinks) during pregnancy and 27.6% in the year prior to pregnancy. Only 30.6% of the women said they had made any change in consumption during the previous year; of those, 55.6% reduced their consumption and 41.8% stopped drinking. Women who consumed the most alcohol before and during pregnancy reported higher consumption by their partners, smoked, and had more permissive attitudes about alcohol use during pregnancy. A specific prevention plan is required in Argentina to reduce alcohol use in pregnant women, adjusted to local patterns of use, with interventions that include couples, and focused on the youngest women, those who use tobacco, and those who have more permissive attitudes about alcohol use.

  12. [Harmful alcohol consumption: prevalence, trends, health burden, reduction strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Грузева, Татьяна С; Дуфинец, Василий А; Замкевич, Виктория Б

    2016-01-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption constitutes a significant cause of the global burden of disease, causing more than 200 different diseases, 5.9% of all deaths worldwide, causing substantial medical and social costs, major economic loss, slowing progress towards the strategic goals of human development. to substantiate approaches to the formation of a national strategy to combat the harmful use of alcohol in Ukraine based on the analysis of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related health and social problems and international experience and recommendations of WHO. The study was based on analysis of the extent and patterns of alcohol consumption in Ukraine, levels, structure and dynamics of morbidity and mortality from diseases associated with alcohol abuse; investigation of preventive activities in primary healthcare, the existing problems and doctors' needs for prevention alcohol abuse, national and international experience on this problem.This work usesbibliosemantic, medical, statistical, sociological, epidemiological methods. The information base are: European Health for All Database (HFA-DB)for 2000-2012,Center of Medical Statistics, Ministry of Health of Ukraine for 2000-2015, questionnaire survey of physicians in primary care, strategic and policy documents of WHO, WHO Regional Office for Europe. In Ukraine, as in most countries in the WHO European Region prevalence of alcohol is high. In the ranking of the WHO European Region Ukraine ranks fifth in alcohol consumption per capita. The structure of consumption of alcoholic drinks is dominated by strong spirits (48%). There has been a negative trend for this indicator from 5.4 liters in 2002 to 15.6 liters in 2012.The dominant pattern of alcohol consumption is characterized by early onset of alcohol consumption, significant frequency, large doses, mostly strong alcohol beverages, with significant share of low-quality alcohol. This factor contributes to high levels of morbidity. A total of546.3 thousandpeople

  13. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-06-21

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease.

  14. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Ch; Papassava, M; Golias, Ch; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide although the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Dietary factors, dietary supplements, and physical activity might be important in the prevention of the disease. In the majority of studies published, it was observed that high consumption of meat, alcohol and dairy products has been linked to a greater risk. Specifically, alcohol use, and particularly heavy use, may cause cancers of liver, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity, with risks for the aero-digestive cancers. Moderate use among women has been related with increases in breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal environment and in parallel, containing chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), may alter tumor cell growth. In this mini review, the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk is analyzed.

  15. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  17. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Gillham, Karen E; Kennedy, Vanessa J; Ramsden, Robyn L; Colbran, Richard W; Weir, Sarah; Wiggers, John H

    2013-08-16

    Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted 'happy hour' promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs.

  18. Cancers Attributable to Alcohol Consumption in Nigeria: 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kolawole Odutola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAlcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for many cancers but less attention has been paid to the fraction of those cancers that are attributable to alcohol consumption. In this study, we evaluated the incidence and population attributable fraction (PAF of cancers associated with alcohol consumption in Nigeria.MethodsWe obtained data on incidence of cancers from two population-based cancer registries (PBCRs in Nigeria and identified cancer sites for which there is strong evidence of an association with alcohol consumption based on the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph 100E. We computed the PAF for each cancer site by age and sex, using prevalence and relative risk estimates from previous studies.ResultsBetween 2012 and 2014 study period, the PBCRs reported 4,336 cancer cases of which 1,627 occurred in males, and 2,709 occurred in females. Of these, a total of 1,808 cancer cases, 339 in males and 1,469 in females, were associated with alcohol intake. The age standardized incidence rate (ASR of alcohol associated cancers was 77.3 per 100,000. Only 4.3% (186/4,336 of all cancer cases or 10.3% (186/1,808 of alcohol associated cancers were attributable to alcohol consumption. Some 42.5% (79/186 of these cancers occurred in males while 57.5% (107/186 occurred in females. The ASR of cancers attributable to alcohol in this population was 7.2 per 100,000. The commonest cancers attributable to alcohol consumption were cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx in men and cancer of the breast in women.ConclusionOur study shows that 4.3% of incident cancers in Nigeria can be prevented by avoiding alcohol consumption. While the incidence of cancers associated with alcohol intake is high, the proportion attributable to alcohol consumption is much lower suggesting that the number of cancers that may be prevented by eliminating alcohol intake in this population is relatively low.

  19. [Associations between mortality and alcohol consumption in Lithuanian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabauskas, Vilius; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Veryga, Aurelijus

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess alcohol-related mortality that potentially might explain an increasing trend in overall mortality of Lithuanian population, which started after 2000 and peaked in 2005. An empiric analysis of national mortality and other statistical data as well as their international comparisons. An analysis of available data clearly indicates that a decline in mortality in 1998-2000, i.e. during the beginning of the National Programme of Health, as well as its increase in 2001 and 2005 were predominantly determined by cause-specific deaths of two groups: deaths from diseases of the circulatory system (mainly ischemic heart disease) and alcohol consumption-related deaths (liver cirrhosis, accidental poisoning by alcohol, accidents, etc.). A certain proportion of deaths, which were caused by alcohol, were wrongly assigned to the deaths from diseases of the circulatory system due to uncertainties in filling-in death certificates. By approximate estimates, at least one-quarter of increase in all-cause mortality between 2002-2004 and 2005-2007 could be explained by an increase in alcohol consumption, accounting for additional 880 deaths on average per year. In the year 2007, 12.6% (n=5760) of all deaths were somehow related to alcohol consumption. A comparative analysis demonstrated that mortality and alcohol consumption trends were going in parallel over the last decade. The systemic decline in mortality observed in Lithuania from 1995 stopped in 2000 after a decrease in alcohol taxes, which resulted in an increase in alcohol accessibility and consumption. An average annual increase in alcohol consumption over the period of 2001-2004 was 7%; it increased up to 17% in 2005 and accounted for 12% annual increase on average within 2005-2007. Negative trends in alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Lithuanian population most notably registered in 2001 and 2005 were largely influenced by uncontrollable increase in alcohol consumption over the

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, I C; Joosten, M M; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W A A; Witkamp, R F; Hendriks, H F J

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is limited. Therefore, our objective was to study whether moderate alcohol consumption immediately after a mental stressor attenuates the stress response. Twenty-four healthy men (age 21-40 y, BMI 18-27 kg/m 2 ) participated in a placebo-controlled trial. They randomly consumed 2 cans (660 mL, ∼26 g alcohol) of beer or alcohol-free beer immediately after a mental stressor (Stroop task and Trier Social Stress Test). Physiological and immunological stress response was measured by monitoring heart rate and repeated measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), white blood cells and a set of cytokines. After a mental stressor, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were 100% and 176% more reduced at 60 min (P = 0.012 and P = 0.001, respectively) and 92% and 60% more reduced at 90 min (P stress recovery period after beer consumption than after alcohol-free beer consumption (P stress response as reflected by decreasing plasma ACTH and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Methods Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Conclusion Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. Short summary There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption. PMID:29329359

  2. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ben; Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption.

  3. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Bülow Pedersen, I.; Knudsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible....... CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism - irrespective of age and sex. Autoimmune thyroid disease seems to be much more dependent on environmental factors than hitherto anticipated....

  4. Divergent drinking patterns and factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption (the case of Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaev, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    Unrecorded homemade alcohol consumption has been less examined in the literature. Previous studies of homemade alcohol in Russia have almost entirely focused upon the use of samogon (moonshine) attributed to the northern style of drinking. No systematic analysis is available regarding the production and consumption of homemade wine. This paper explores the drinking patterns demonstrated by consumers of samogon and homemade wine in Russia. The main factors affecting the consumption of these beverages are investigated. Data were collected from a 2014 nationwide survey of 14,986 respondents aged 15+ years. Beverage preferences, volume of consumed alcohol, drinking habits, and alcohol availability were the main measures reported. Demographic, socio-economic, spatial, and policy-related factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption are examined using logistic regression. The percentages of samogon and homemade wine consumers were similar, although a greater volume of samogon in pure alcohol was consumed compared to homemade wine. The groups of samogon and homemade wine consumers showed very little overlap. Unlike homemade wine consumers, samogon drinkers consumed larger amounts of alcohol and were more engaged in frequent and excessive drinking, drinking without meals and drinking in marginal public settings. Gender, education, regional affiliation, and type of residence showed opposite associations with regard to the consumption of samogon and homemade wine. Availability of homemade alcohol in the neighbourhood was the most influential predictor due to respondents' own production, presence of homemade alcohol in friendship networks and at illegal market. The prices of manufactured alcohol and the consumption of homemade alcohol did not show significant relationships. Consumers of samogon and homemade wine demonstrate contrasting drinking patterns that are largely driven by different factors. Samogon is consumed in a more hazardous manner, whereas homemade wine is

  5. Beverage Alcohol Choice Among University Students: Perception, Consumption and Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liana SALANTA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze and compare the beverage alcohol choice among university students. The study was carried out on a total of 1069 students (men and women from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage consumption, perception and preference. The main reasons associated with alcohol consumption were relaxation and socialization followed by taste and flavour. The most respondents are attracted by flavor and aroma of the favourite beverage. The participants in the study were not heavy social drinkers (only 1.7 % of participants consume alcohol every day. Beer and wine, were the alcoholic beverages ranked in the top of preferences. Our findings can provide information for educators and policymakers in Romania to implement target-orientated interventions against alcohol abuse at universities. The results of this study may also add evidence to university administrators and public health educators elsewhere dealing with students from Romania.

  6. Impact of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning advertisements on alcohol consumption, affect, and implicit cognition in heavy-drinking young adults: A laboratory-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has

  7. Analytical assessment of the effects of alcohol consumption on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D Edebatu, O E Osuagwu, E E Nwabuze, A I Chijioke, I R N Jecinta ... Recognition of the consequences of alcohol and abuse on physical and mental health as well as socio-occupational life are necessary steps for initiating appropriate action to reduce the harm/dangers from alcohol consumption. This work was motivated ...

  8. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  9. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbaek, Morten

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time to pregna...

  11. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  12. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  13. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  14. The Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in College Students: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The

  15. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design A two (sex) × two (movie:

  16. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims - This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design - A two (sex) x two (movie:

  17. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The

  18. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  19. Suicide Ideation, Alcohol Consumption, Motives, and Related Problems: Exploring the Association in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between suicide ideation (SI) and alcohol misuse among college students are inconsistent, leading to conflicting clinical implications. We aimed to clarify this relationship in order to determine the utility of regarding alcohol misuse as a risk factor for SI in this population. Unselected college students (N = 545) completed an online survey including measures of alcohol consumption, problems, drinking motives, SI, and related variables. Our results suggest alcohol misuse is not a correlate of SI among college students; therefore, one should not assume that students who misuse alcohol are necessarily at increased risk for SI. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Comprovação empírica de uma medida relacionada ao excessivo consumo de álcool em brasileiros / Empirical Verification of a Measurement Related to the Excessive Alcohol Consumption in Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton S. Formiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O consumo de álcool entre universitários tem sido um problema determinante para as relações interpessoais e desenvolvimento acadêmico, mas também um problema que traz um prejuízo social, econômico e de saúde. Medidas tem surgido e sugerida a reavaliação de outras para identificar o fenômeno do consumo de álcool. Porém, o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT ainda tem sido o instrumento mais utilizado em estudos no mundo, o qual tem se revelado consistente. O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a consistência interna e fatorial do AUDIT em universitários em diferentes estados brasileiros. O AUDIT e dados sociodemográficos foram respondidos por 639 universitários dos dois sexos, acima de 18 anos, distribuídos em diferentes cursos superiores de instituições particulares e públicas em quatro estados no Brasil. Realizando distintos cálculos estatísticos, observaram-se indicadores psicométricos que revelaram confiabilidade na medida do AUDIT na amostra pesquisada. Este procedimento tanto garantiu a medida sobre a identificação do problema do consumo de álcool quanto observou-se que, independente do contexto educacional dos universitários, nos referidos estados brasileiros, todos os respondentes revelaram problemas com o consumo alcoólico. ABSTRACT: The consumption of alcohol in college students has been a crucial problem for interpersonal relationships and academic development; but it is also a problem that means a social, economic and health damage. It has been emerged and suggested measures to be ratified to identify the phenomenon of alcohol consumption. However, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT is still the most used instrument in world studies, the same one that has remained constant. The present research aims to assess the internal and factorial consistency of the AUDIT in college students from different Brazilian States. A total of 639 college students of both sexes

  1. Pricing as a means of controlling alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Sinha, Kompal; Vandenberg, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Reducing the affordability of alcohol, by increasing its price, is the most effective strategy for controlling alcohol consumption and reducing harm. We review meta-analyses and systematic reviews of alcohol tax/price effects from the past decade, and recent evaluations of tax/price policies in the UK, Canada and Australia. While the magnitudes of price effects vary by sub-group and alcoholic beverage type, it has been consistently shown that price increases lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. There remains, however, a lack of consensus on the most appropriate taxation and pricing policy in many countries because of concerns about effects by different consumption level and income level and disagreement on policy design between parts of the alcoholic beverage industries. Recent developments in the research highlight the importance of obtaining accurate alcohol price data, reducing bias in estimating price responsiveness, and examining the impact on the heaviest drinkers. There is a need for further research focusing on the substitution effects of taxation and pricing policies, estimation of the true tax pass-through rates, and empirical analysis of the supply-side response (from alcohol producers and retailers) to various alcohol pricing strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B T; Corbin, W; Fromme, K

    2001-01-01

    Research is reviewed on the association between alcohol outcome expectancies and consumption which has led many to argue that manipulating expectancies might be a route to manipulating consumption for problem prevention and treatment. Studies indirectly and directly evaluating this latter position are reviewed. Expectancies predicting treatment outcome: two studies have shown that the more positive expectancies held at treatment, the poorer is treatment outcome, but five other studies have failed to find this. Three related studies have shown that the more negative expectancies held at treatment, the better the treatment outcome. This evaluation provides evidence inconsistent with the main position for positive expectancy and limited support for negative. Expectancy manipulations and ad libitum consumption: three studies in the laboratory have shown that increasing positive expectancies through word priming increases subsequent consumption and two studies have shown that increasing negative expectancies decreases it. A single study in the field showed a similar relationship. This evaluation provides evidence consistent with the main position but is limited by measuring consumption changes over only 1-2 hours. Prevention programmes with expectancy components: seven projects are reviewed in which positive expectancies were targeted, but only two report an expectancy change analysis and in both cases the expectancy change did not relate to subsequent consumption. This evaluation provides evidence inconsistent with the main position. Expectancy challenge: two related studies are reviewed in which positive expectancy challenges reduce subsequent consumption but changes in expectancy were not evaluated as predictors of consumption change. Two studies are reviewed which found a reduction in positive expectancy following expectancy challenge but no reduction in consumption. One study is reviewed in which when negative expectancy was increased in treatment there was a

  3. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  4. Model for voluntary wine and alcohol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, L; Roig, R; Cascón, E; Brunet, M J; Fornós, N; Sabaté, M; Raga, X; Batista, J; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C

    1997-08-01

    It has been suggested that moderate consumption of ethanol and wine has a protective effect on human health. Animal models used to date for alcohol consumption can not mimic real situations in humans because the consumption is forced and/or excessive. The present study proposes to determine the effects of a voluntary and ad lib consumption model more similar to that of human behavior. Male Wistar rats had free access to either standard diet and water or the same diet plus red wine, sweet wine, or a solution equivalent to red wine (13.5% ethanol) or to sweet wine (20% ethanol + 130 g/L sucrose) for 30 days or 6 months. Daily wine consumption was 15.8 +/- 0.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/day for sweet and red wines, respectively. The consumption of each of the alcoholic solutions was similar to that of the wine they were simulating. Drinking wine or ethanol did not affect food and water intakes or growth rate. Plasma metabolites were not substantially affected by consumption of wine or ethanol. Although moderate and high wine consumption did not change the activity of plasma marker enzymes of tissue damage, the consumption of the 2 alcoholic solutions caused a long-term increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase. It seems that wine consumption protects the organism from hepatic lesions induced by ethanol alone.

  5. Pattern of Alcohol Consumption among Men Consumers in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Saeed; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor with acute and chronic health consequences and social impacts, which is more prominent among men. There is no precise statistics on the scope of alcohol consumption in Iran; however, there is some evidences showing an increasing trend, particularly among young generation. In order to evaluate the scope of this issue in Kerman, a large city in the south-east of Iran, this exploratory study was designed to approach a group of people having an experience of alcohol use in 2014. Samples were recruited to the study using a snowball sampling. 200 eligible subjects were questioned about the type of alcohol consumed, frequency of use, and other factors associated with alcohol consumption. In order to maximize the validity of responses, data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The main alcoholic drinks consumed by individuals were the homemade distillates (46%), wine (22%), beer (14%), distilled spirits (11%), and medical alcohol (7%), respectively. The majority of individuals participating in the study (73%) used mostly homemade drinks; moreover, 63%, 26%, 9%, and 2% of subjects took monthly or less, two to four times a month, two to three times a week, and at least four times a week, respectively. Only 2% of the subjects were heavy consumers of alcoholic beverages. Due to the lack of control over homemade alcoholic beverages, its high levels can be a huge potential risk. Furthermore, it seems that both factors of access and price to be very effective in the amount of alcoholics taken by individuals. Therefore, further studies in this area will help to reduce the harm caused by alcohol consumption.

  6. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this stud...... consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression....

  7. Alcohol Consumption in Diabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preya J. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the association between lifetime alcohol consumption and significant liver disease in type 2 diabetic patients with NAFLD. Methods. A cross-sectional study assessing 151 patients with NAFLD at risk of clinically significant liver disease. NAFLD fibrosis severity was classified by transient elastography; liver stiffness measurements ≥8.2 kPa defined significant fibrosis. Lifetime drinking history classified patients into nondrinkers, light drinkers (always ≤20 g/day, and moderate drinkers (any period with intake >20 g/day. Result. Compared with lifetime nondrinkers, light and moderate drinkers were more likely to be male (p=0.008 and to be Caucasian (p=0.007 and to have a history of cigarette smoking (p=0.000, obstructive sleep apnea (p=0.003, and self-reported depression (p=0.003. Moderate drinkers required ≥3 hypoglycemic agents to maintain diabetic control (p=0.041 and fibrate medication to lower blood triglyceride levels (p=0.044. Compared to lifetime nondrinkers, light drinkers had 1.79 (95% CI: 0.67–4.82; p=0.247 and moderate drinkers had 0.91 (95% CI: 0.27–3.10; p=0.881 times the odds of having liver stiffness measurements ≥8.2 kPa (adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index. Conclusions. In diabetic patients with NAFLD, light or moderate lifetime alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with liver fibrosis. The impact of lifetime alcohol intake on fibrosis progression and diabetic comorbidities, in particular obstructive sleep apnea and hypertriglyceridemia, requires further investigation.

  8. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de Vocht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016 were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C and attempts to reduce consumption. Results Sixty-seven percent of participants reported using alcohol, with a small negative trend of about 2 % reduction over 12 months in the studied period (P < 0.01. These include ~25 % higher risk drinkers and ~10 % regular binge drinkers. About 20 % of higher risk drinkers indicated they were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Attempts were lowest in December (−20 %; 95 % CI 0–35 %, but increases significantly in January (+41 %; 95 % CI 16–73 % compared with other months (P < 0.001, indicating a small net gain; at least in attempts to reduce. However, there was no evidence that the increased motivation in January was accompanied by a reported decrease in consumption or binge drinking events. This could be an artefact of the use of AUDIT questions, but could also reflect a disconnect between attempting to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent change; maybe as a result of lack of continuing support. Conclusions January is associated with moderate increased attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. However, we find little evidence of a change in alcohol consumption. In part, this may be due to temporal insensitivity of the AUDIT questions.

  9. Interactions Between Energy Drink Consumption and Sleep Problems: Associations with Alcohol Use Among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption and sleep problems are both associated with alcohol use among adolescents. In addition, caffeine consumption (including energy drinks) is associated with sleep problems. However, information about how these three constructs may interact is limited. The goal of this study was to examine potential interactions between energy drink consumption and sleep problems in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use among young adolescents. Coffee and soda consumption were also examined for comparison. Methods: Participants from the Camden Youth Development Study were included ( n  = 127; mean age = 13.1; 68% Hispanic, 29% African American) and questionnaire measures of frequency of caffeinated beverage consumption (energy drinks, coffee, and soda), sleep (initial insomnia, sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, and sleep duration), and alcohol consumption were used. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactions between caffeinated beverage consumption and sleep in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use. Results: Energy drink consumption interacted with initial insomnia and daytime fatigue to concurrently predict particularly frequent alcohol use among those with either of these sleep-related problems and energy drink consumption. The pattern of results for coffee consumption was similar for insomnia but reached only a trend level of significance. Results of analyses examining soda consumption were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Young adolescents who both consume energy drinks and experience initial insomnia and/or daytime fatigue are at particularly high risk for alcohol use. Coffee consumption appears to be associated with similar patterns. Longitudinal research is needed to explain the developmental pathways by which these associations emerge, as well as mediators and moderators of these associations.

  10. A typology of alcohol consumption among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Cronin, M; Perry, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    information from studies that produced types of alcohol consumption among young people. Method Quantitative and qualitative literature investigating the different types of drinkers among young people [aged 12–24 years], published in peer reviewed journals, were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review...... In total, 13 studies were eligible for inclusion: 11 quantitative, one qualitative and one mixed methods. Six classes of drinkers were formed within this typology. Abstainers reported no alcohol consumption. Light drinkers reported drinking small amounts of alcohol infrequently. In comparison, social......Background Currently, alcohol consumption levels are significantly higher among younger age groups. However, previous research has noted the diversity of motivations and patterns. These patterns of drinking have yet to be synthesised into a typology. The aim of the current study was to synthesise...

  11. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Livestock Products Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, ... by alcohol-induced oxidative stress and ..... This work was supported by Konkuk University in. 2013. ... American Family Physician.

  12. Social network effects in alcohol consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Dwyer, Debra S

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in explaining drinking behavior among adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer selection to purge the potential biases from the estimates of peer influence. Our peer group measures are drawn not only from the nomination of close friends, but also from classmates. Drinking behavior among the peer groups was constructed using the peers' own report of their alcohol consumption. Controlling for parent level characteristics, and other demographic parameters, we find that a 10% increase in the proportion of classmates who drink will increase the likelihood of drinking participation and frequency by approximately four percentage points. We also find evidence to show that the influence of close friends, while still significant, diminishes in magnitude after accounting for unobserved environmental confounders. Our findings support the literature that peer effects are important determinants of drinking behavior even after controlling for potential biases. Effective policy aimed at reducing alcohol consumption among adolescents would consider these significant peer effects. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol consumption and violence among Argentine adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mariaelena Pierobon; Mariam Barak; Sahel Hazrati; Kathryn H. Jacobsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between alcohol and violence among Argentine youth. Methods: Data from the 2007 Argentina Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), a nationally representative survey of middle school students, were examined using age-adjusted logistic regression models. Results: Of the 1,328 participating students aged 13 to 15 years old, 51.9% reported drinking alcohol in the previous month, with higher rates among males (p = 0.04) and older s...

  14. Western Australian students' alcohol consumption and expenditure intentions for Schoolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, the immediate post-school period (known as 'Schoolies') is associated with heavy drinking and high levels of alcohol-related harm. This study investigated students' intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies to inform interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm among this group. An online survey was administered to students in their senior year of schooling. Included items related to intended daily alcohol consumption during Schoolies, amount of money intended to be spent on alcohol over the Schoolies period, and past drinking behaviour. On average, participants (n=187) anticipated that they would consume eight standard drinks per day, which is substantially higher than the recommended maximum of no more than four drinks on a single occasion. Participants intended to spend an average of A$131 on alcohol over the Schoolies period. Although higher than national guidelines, intended alcohol consumption was considerably lower than has been previously documented during Schoolies events. The substantial amounts of money expected to be spent during Schoolies suggest this group has adequate spending power to constitute an attractive target market for those offering alternative activities that are associated with lower levels of alcohol-related harm.

  15. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. A longitudinal analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of posttraumatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A C; Browne, D; Bryant, R A; O'Donnell, M; Silove, D; Creamer, M; Horsley, K

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies investigating the impact of alcohol ingestion on the emergence of posttraumatic psychological symptoms have generated contradictory findings. One thousand forty-five patients, admitted to hospital following traumatic injury were assessed during hospitalisation for patterns of alcohol consumption prior to the injury and also during the month prior to reassessment at 3 months. Anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed post accident and at 3 months. In a sub sample (n=167), blood alcohol levels were measured at the time of admission to emergency departments. Moderate alcohol consumption prior to and following the accident predicted lower levels of psychological distress at 1 week and 3 months. No significant relationship was found between the blood alcohol level and psychiatric outcomes. PTSD predicted the emergence of alcohol abuse following the accident, suggesting self-medication in a subgroup of survivors. The impact of alcohol consumption upon injury severity and the nature of injury was not controlled for and some non-participation may have been related to patterns of alcohol consumption. We relied on retrospective reports of alcohol use obtained shortly after the traumatic injury to index prior alcohol use and these reports may have been influenced by mood states at the time of recall. Our follow-up was limited to 3 months and there is a need for longer-term assessment of the relationship between prior alcohol use and subsequent posttraumatic adjustment. Given the potential impact of alcohol use on traumatic injury and post-injury recovery, we advocate active screening and early intervention strategies that focus on moderate alcohol usage.

  17. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  18. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Medindo consumo de álcool: análise fatorial confirmatória do Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT Midiendo consumo de alcohol: análisis factorial confirmatorio del Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT Measuring alcohol consumption: confirmatory factor analysis of The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walberto Silva dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    to AUDIT , the participants responded to two others correlated instruments - CAGE and EAFUA - and to biosocialdemographic questions. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated the adequacy of the model of three factors, with goodness of fit indexes (χ²/gl=63,29, CFI=0,98, AGFI=0,98 e RMSEA=0,05 statistically higher than the structure of one and two factors. Finally, resorting to Pearson's r correlations and the comparison of means, both convergent and criterion validity of AUDIT were confirmed, attesting its proposal of measuring alcohol consumption and demonstrating its applicability in the screening of problem drinkers.

  20. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20...... randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. RESULTS: In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence...... interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded...

  1. Social Desirability Bias in the Reporting of Alcohol Consumption: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wilson, Amanda; Attia, John; Sheeran, Paschal; Miller, Peter; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-05-01

    To investigate reporting of alcohol consumption, we manipulated the contexts of questions in ways designed to induce social desirability bias. We undertook a two-arm, parallel-group, individually randomized trial at an Australian public university. Students were recruited by email to a web-based "Research Project on Student Health Behavior." Respondents answered nine questions about their physical activity, diet, and smoking. They were unknowingly randomized to a group presented with either (A) three questions about their alcohol consumption or (B) seven questions about their alcohol dependence and problems (under a prominent header labeled "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test"), followed by the same three alcohol consumption questions from (A). A total of 3,594 students (mean age = 27, SD = 10) responded and were randomized: 1,778 to Group A and 1,816 to Group B. Outcome measures were the number of days they drank alcohol, the typical number of drinks they consumed per drinking day, and the number of days they consumed six or more drinks. The primary analysis included participants with any alcohol consumption in the preceding 4 weeks (1,304 in Group A; 1,340 in Group B) using between-group, two-tailed t tests. In Groups A and B, respectively, means (and SDs) of the number of days drinking were 5.89 (5.92) versus 6.06 (6.12), p = .49; typical number of drinks per drinking day: 4.02 (3.87) versus 3.82 (3.76), p = .17; and number of days consuming six or more drinks: 1.69 (2.94) versus 1.67 (3.25), p = .56. We could not reject the null hypothesis because earlier questions about alcohol dependence and problems showed no sign of biasing the respondents' subsequent reports of alcohol consumption. These data support the validity of university students' reporting of alcohol consumption in web-based studies.

  2. Alcohol consumption and violence among Argentine adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Mariaelena; Barak, Mariam; Hazrati, Sahel; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between alcohol and violence among Argentine youth. Data from the 2007 Argentina Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), a nationally representative survey of middle school students, were examined using age-adjusted logistic regression models. Of the 1,328 participating students aged 13 to 15 years old, 51.9% reported drinking alcohol in the previous month, with higher rates among males (p=0.04) and older students (pbullying, used tobacco or drugs, or skipped school without permission were approximately twice as likely as other drinkers to have engaged in violent activities. Public health interventions targeting violence among young adolescents should be developed in combination with alcohol education programs. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption in Canada in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Taylor, Benjamin; Kehoe, Tara; Patra, Jayadeep; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-31

    Alcohol is a substantial risk factor for mortality according to the recent 2010 World Health Assembly strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol which outlined the need to characterize and monitor this burden. Accordingly, using new methodology we estimated 1) the number of deaths caused and prevented by alcohol consumption, and 2) the potential years of life lost (PYLLs) attributable to alcohol consumption in Canada in 2005. Mortality attributable to alcohol consumption was estimated by calculating Alcohol-Attributable Fractions (AAFs) (defined as the proportion of mortality that would be eliminated if the exposure was eliminated) using data from various sources. Indicators for alcohol consumption were obtained from the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey 2008 and corrected for adult per capita recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption. Risk relations were taken from the Comparative Risk Assessment within the current Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Due to concerns about the reliability of information specifying causes of death for people aged 65 or older, our analysis was limited to individuals aged 0 to 64 years. Calculation of the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the AAFs was performed using Monte Carlo random sampling. Information on mortality was obtained from Statistics Canada. A sensitivity analysis was performed comparing the mortality results obtained using our study methods to results obtained using previous methodologies. In 2005, 3,970 (95% CI: 810 to 7,170) deaths (4,390 caused and 420 prevented) and 134,555 (95% CI: 36,690 to 236,376) PYLLs were attributable to alcohol consumption for individuals aged 0 to 64 years. These figures represent 7.7% (95% CI: 1.6% to 13.9%) of all deaths and 8.0% (95% CI: 2.2% to 14.1%) of all PYLLs for individuals aged 0 to 64 years. The sensitivity analysis showed that the number of deaths as measured by this new methodology is greater than that if mortality was estimated using previous

  4. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption in Canada in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shield Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a substantial risk factor for mortality according to the recent 2010 World Health Assembly strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol which outlined the need to characterize and monitor this burden. Accordingly, using new methodology we estimated 1 the number of deaths caused and prevented by alcohol consumption, and 2 the potential years of life lost (PYLLs attributable to alcohol consumption in Canada in 2005. Methods Mortality attributable to alcohol consumption was estimated by calculating Alcohol-Attributable Fractions (AAFs (defined as the proportion of mortality that would be eliminated if the exposure was eliminated using data from various sources. Indicators for alcohol consumption were obtained from the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey 2008 and corrected for adult per capita recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption. Risk relations were taken from the Comparative Risk Assessment within the current Global Burden of Disease (GBD study. Due to concerns about the reliability of information specifying causes of death for people aged 65 or older, our analysis was limited to individuals aged 0 to 64 years. Calculation of the 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the AAFs was performed using Monte Carlo random sampling. Information on mortality was obtained from Statistics Canada. A sensitivity analysis was performed comparing the mortality results obtained using our study methods to results obtained using previous methodologies. Results In 2005, 3,970 (95% CI: 810 to 7,170 deaths (4,390 caused and 420 prevented and 134,555 (95% CI: 36,690 to 236,376 PYLLs were attributable to alcohol consumption for individuals aged 0 to 64 years. These figures represent 7.7% (95% CI: 1.6% to 13.9% of all deaths and 8.0% (95% CI: 2.2% to 14.1% of all PYLLs for individuals aged 0 to 64 years. The sensitivity analysis showed that the number of deaths as measured by this new methodology is greater than that if

  5. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  6. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  7. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The association between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and breast cancer specific mortality was investigated in 1,052 women diagnosed with early breast cancer in a prospective cohort of 29,875 women. Known clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic risk factors were...... evaluated and adjusted for in multivariate analysis. We found a modest but significant association between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence with a median follow-up of six years after date of diagnosis, both when using baseline measures of alcohol intake (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1...

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Association of Alcohol-Related Social Media Use with Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brenda L; Lookatch, Samantha J; Ramo, Danielle E; McKay, James R; Feinn, Richard S; Kranzler, Henry R

    2018-06-01

    Despite the pervasive use of social media by young adults, there is comparatively little known about whether, and how, engagement in social media influences this group's drinking patterns and risk of alcohol-related problems. We examined the relations between young adults' alcohol-related social media engagement (defined as the posting, liking, commenting, and viewing of alcohol-related social media content) and their drinking behavior and problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems with alcohol-related social media engagement. Summary baseline variables regarding the social media platform used (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), social media measures assessed (e.g., number of alcohol photographs posted), alcohol measures (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Timeline Follow back Interview), and the number of time points at which data were collected were extracted from each published study. We used the Q statistic to examine heterogeneity in the correlations between alcohol-related social media engagement and both drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems. Because there was significant heterogeneity, we used a random-effects model to evaluate the difference from zero of the weighted aggregate correlations. We used metaregression with study characteristics as moderators to test for moderators of the observed heterogeneity. Following screening, 19 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The primary findings indicated a statistically significant relationship and moderate effect sizes between alcohol-related social media engagement and both alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.44, p social media engagement and drinking behavior or these were measured on different occasions and (ii) whether measurements were taken by self-report or observation of social media engagement. We found moderate-sized effects across the 19

  9. Caffeinated alcohol consumption profiles and associations with use severity and outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. © 2013.

  10. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  11. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lertpitakpong Chanida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1 cost components included in the estimation; (2 the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies.

  12. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between alcohol-induced oxidative stress and tissue phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PC-OOH) content of rat liver and brain. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group was given 20 % ethanol (5 g/kg) and the other the same volume of normal saline, orally ...

  13. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth; Mansour, Sandra; Steiger, Howard

    2009-04-01

    To investigate behavior-outcome expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Women with BN (N = 29), women with BN and a co-morbid lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; N = 18), and control women (N = 24), completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating- and alcohol-related symptoms, as well as questionnaires measuring expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, both bulimic groups reported greater positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction and eating; expectancy endorsements were also predictive of the severity of eating-related symptoms. Compared with the other groups, the bulimic group with comorbid lifetime AUD had elevated positive alcohol-related expectancies, and alcohol expectancy endorsements predicted severity of alcohol-related symptoms. Women with BN endorsed more positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, and eating, whereas women with BN and a lifetime comorbid AUD endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies. The results are consistent with expectancy theory in that positive expectancy endorsements were associated with symptom severity in a syndrome-specific manner. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with BN. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...... increased odds ratios were lower when subjects with an alcohol diagnosis at inpatient care during 1980-84 were excluded in the analyses. On the whole, our findings are not conclusive. The strong, but imprecise associations between stressful working conditions and severe alcohol problems, are however...

  15. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kanteres, Fotis; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2010-07-01

    This contribution aims to examine systematically the evidence on the impact of the quality of unrecorded alcohol products on health consequences. Systematic computer assisted review of the literature. There are a number of pathways related to alcohol quality that may lead to acute or chronic health problems. The following constituents and contaminants of alcoholic beverages were identified as likely contributors to these problems: (i) toxic metals (e.g. lead) from contaminated water sources or unsuitable distillation equipment; (ii) volatile constituents, such as acetaldehyde or higher alcohols, which may be produced in significant amounts due to faults in production technology or microbiological spoilage; (iii) ethyl carbamate (urethane), a carcinogenic contaminant with major occurrence in certain fruit and sugarcane spirits; (iv) biologically active flavour compounds (e.g. coumarin in cosmetics used as non-beverage alcohol); (v) toxic compounds used to denature alcohol (e.g. methanol or diethyl phthalate). In addition, the often higher ethanol content may have detrimental health effects. These pathways should not be assumed as present for all subcategories of unrecorded alcohol, but are more relevant to certain types and geographic regions. A health impact of unrecorded alcohol over and above the effect of ethanol cannot be excluded. More research is urgently needed, especially with respect to liver disease and alcohol poisoning as endpoints. A feasible approach for new research on the effects of unrecorded alcohol could be based on a representative sample from low socioeconomic regions with high prevalence of unrecorded consumption.

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Alaa M G; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bolla, Manjeet K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. METHODS: A MEDLINE...... cancer-specific mortality, with some evidence of a negative association with all-cause mortality. On the basis of a single study, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-negative disease. There was no association...... with prediagnosis intake for women with ER-negative disease. CONCLUSION: There was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-positive disease. There was weak evidence that moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake is associated...

  18. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Andersen, A

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol intake is causally associated with cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver. In all five Nordic countries, alcohol consumption increased substantially between 1965 (6.5 litres per adult per year) and 1975 (10 litres), but remained at about 10 litres between 1975...... and 1985. The daily consumption of men during the period was substantially higher than that of women, and that of both men and women was higher in Denmark than in the other Nordic countries. In about 2000, an annual total of almost 1,300 cancer cases (1,000 in men and 300 in women) would be avoided...... if alcohol drinking were eliminated. This corresponds to about 29% of all alcohol-related cancers, i.e. in the oesophagus (37%), oral cavity and pharynx (33%), larynx (29%) and liver (15%). About 2% of all cancers in men and 1% in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused...

  19. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  1. Use of social networking sites and alcohol consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Chaput, J-P

    2016-10-01

    Research indicates that screen time (e.g. TV viewing) is associated with alcohol consumption in adolescents; however, very little is known about the link between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and alcohol intake in this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the use of SNSs and alcohol consumption among Canadian middle and high school students, and to test whether this link varies by sex and drinking frequency or intensity. School-based cross-sectional study. Self-reported data on time spent on SNSs, alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained from 10,072 participants within the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide survey of students in grades 7-12 (11-20 years old). Adolescent females who reported daily use of SNSs (≤2 hours/day or >2 hours/day) were more likely than those who use them infrequently or do not use them at all to report both occasional and regular alcohol consumption in the past 12 months, while adolescent males who reported daily use of SNSs were more likely than those who use SNSs infrequently or do not use them at all to report regular alcohol use in the past 12 months. The use of SNSs was also associated with report of binge drinking (defined as drinking five or more drinks on one occasion) in the past 4 weeks in both males and females. Results provide evidence that the use of SNSs is associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents. Differences between males and females in the reported associations warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Daily affect variability and context-specific alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Cynthia D; Arpin, Sarah; McCabe, Cameron T

    2015-11-01

    Research explored the effects of variability in negative and positive affect on alcohol consumption, specifying daily fluctuation in affect as a critical form of emotion dysregulation. Using daily process methodology allows for a more objective calculation of affect variability relative to traditional self-reports. The present study models within-person negative and positive affect variabilities as predictors of context-specific consumption (i.e. solitary vs. social drinking), controlling for mean levels of affect. A community sample of moderate-to-heavy drinkers (n = 47; 49% women) from a US metropolitan area reported on affect and alcohol consumption thrice daily for 30 days via a handheld electronic interviewer. Within-person affect variability was calculated using daily standard deviations in positive and negative affect. Within person, greater negative and positive variabilities are related to greater daily solitary and social consumption. Across study days, mean levels of negative and positive affect variabilities related to greater social consumption between persons; yet, aggregated negative affect variability was related to less solitary consumption. Results affirm affect variability as a unique predictor of alcohol consumption, independent of mean affect levels. Yet, it is important to differentiate social context of consumption, as well as type of affect variability, particularly at the between-person level. These distinctions help clarify inconsistencies in the self-medication literature regarding associations between average levels of affect and consumption. Importantly, consistent within-person relationships for both variabilities support arguments that both negative and positive affect variabilities are detrimental and reflect an inability to regulate emotional experience. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Invocations and intoxication: does prayer decrease alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathaniel M; Fincham, Frank D; Marks, Loren D; Stillman, Tyler F

    2010-06-01

    Four methodologically diverse studies (N = 1,758) show that prayer frequency and alcohol consumption are negatively related. In Study 1 (n = 824), we used a cross-sectional design and found that higher prayer frequency was related to lower alcohol consumption and problematic drinking behavior. Study 2 (n = 702) used a longitudinal design and found that more frequent prayer at Time 1 predicted less alcohol consumption and problematic drinking behavior at Time 2, and this relationship held when controlling for baseline levels of drinking and prayer. In Study 3 (n = 117), we used an experimental design to test for a causal relationship between prayer frequency and alcohol consumption. Participants assigned to pray every day (either an undirected prayer or a prayer for a relationship partner) for 4 weeks drank about half as much alcohol at the conclusion of the study as control participants. Study 4 (n = 115) replicated the findings of Study 3, as prayer again reduced drinking by about half. These findings are discussed in terms of prayer as reducing drinking motives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Consumption of alcohol and risk of alcohol addiction among students in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Witowski, Łukasz; Pawlik, Aleksandra; Krysta, Krzysztof; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in our society is a known, and a widely discussed problem, due to the proven negative impact of excessive usage of spirits on health. Aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of consumption, and risk of an alcoholic disease among Polish students. Study was carried out using an authors' own questionnaire, made of a queries about amount and frequency of alcohol consumption, risky behaviors and knowledge about alcoholism. Research was conducted through community portals (f.e. facebook.com), and within 3 weeks time (from a 10(th) of January to 31(st) of January 2013) 1300 students from different Polish universities participated in it. Out of them, after removal of inadequate questionnaires, group of 1259 students (822 females, 437 males) was selected for further analysis. Average age equaled to 21.5, with the maximum of 27 and minimum of 18 years. For the statistical analysis StatSoft "Statistica" 10.0 software was used. The study shows that 95.5% of students use alcohol (mostly beer and vodka) and they tend to overuse it. 28.86% of respondents drank excessively more than 3 times during the month preceding research, 46% of subjects also had an alcoholic palimpsest more than once, 12.7% need an alcohol to enjoy a party and 0.83% of respondents can't control the amount of a one-time alcohol consumption. 3.32% of students may be in the group of a high alcoholism risk. Alcohol consumption is a common problem among Polish students. Most of respondents, mostly males, drink excessively and potentially risky for their health. There is a remarkable group of students endangered with alcohol addiction.

  5. Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás Santiesteban, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol consumptionin adolescents is a risky behavior that can be prevented. Objective. To determine health care and alcohol consumption pattern in early adolescence and its relation to determinants of health (biological, environmental, social and health system factors). A qualitative-quantitative, crosssectional study was carried out in the four schools belonging to Popular Council 8 of Mario Gutiérrez Ardaya health sector in May, 2013. The study universe was made up of adolescents aged 10-14. The sample was determined through a simple randomized sampling. Surveys were administered to adolescents, parents, educators and senior health staff members to determine alcohol consumption, medical care quality and level of knowledge on the problem. A nominal group with health professionals was created. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescents were included. 54.5% were alcohol users, of which 30.2% were 10-11 years old. Those classified as low risk were prevailing (55.6%). 100% of the senior health staff expressed the need for a methodology of care. 90.4% of education staff considered adolescence as a vulnerable stage. Relatives reported that there should be adolescent-specific medical appointments (61.8%). The nominal group's most important opinions were based on the main features that a consultation for adolescents should have and on the problems hindering proper care. Alcohol consumption was considered high and early start prevailed. Insufficient care to early adolescents who use alcohol was made evident. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  6. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Jody; Arends, Michael A.; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. PMID:27055617

  7. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk reduction: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Costanzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The inverse relationship between low to moderate alcohol consumption and several favorable health outcomes has been well established in many epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. However, several questions still remain controversial.

    Aims: To discuss a number of open questions relating to the healthy effect of a moderate intake of alcohol (especially wine on cardiovascular disease and total mortality. This will be based on findings from the literature, with a particular emphasis on meta-analyses.

    Results and Conclusion: The role of different alcoholic beverages, age and sex, confounding, former drinkers and study design has been discussed. Whether wine is better than beer or spirits, though suggestive, remains to be established. Cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality is significantly reduced both in men and women who are regular drinkers of low amounts of alcohol; however, the predicted protection in women disappears at lower doses than in men. The primary protection of alcohol decreases after adjustment for known variables, thus confirming the importance of confounding in assessing drinking effects, but it remains significant and of undoubted public health value. As the cardiovascular protection by moderate alcohol consumption might have been unduly overestimated by inclusion in control groups of former drinkers, we compared studies that used as a reference group the category of no alcohol intake and/or formally excluded former drinkers with studies which did not: the protection was indeed somewhat lower in the former than in the latter studies, but was still statistically significant. We conclude that the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk or total mortality, consistently described by J-shaped curves, can be reasonably attributed to a combination of both real beneficial (at lower doses and harmful (at higher doses

  9. Alcohol Consumption, Peer Influence and Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influences of Acohol Consumption peer influence and secodnary school stuents attitudes towards schol in some selected secodnary shools in Katsit, Kafanchan, Kaduna State. The study adopted a correlational research design and the population of this study was 200 senior students from four (4) ...

  10. Differences in neurocognitive functioning associated with alcohol consumption in a multiethnic rural cohort: A Project FRONTIER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew Edward

    2016-01-01

    The current study assessed if a neuroprotective effect on cognition from mild alcohol consumption occurs in multiethnic rural communities and if effect differences occur due to gender or ethnicity. Participants were drawn from Project FRONTIER (Facing Rural Obstacles to healthcare Now Through Intervention, Education & Research), a community-based participatory research study assessing aging in a rural, West Texas, multiethnic cohort of participants aged 40 years and older. Alcohol consumption patterns were determined from Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test responses. Cognitive measures included the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Because few participants had greater than a mild alcohol consumption pattern, only abstinent participants and those with mild consumption were compared (N = 1,004 1st observation; N = 256 2nd observation). Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed main effects for alcohol consumption pattern, gender, and ethnicity. Attention was most affected by alcohol consumption pattern followed by verbal memory. Mild alcohol consumption was associated with better performance in these areas. Gender and ethnicity had broad effects on cognitive abilities but inconsistent attention effects. Overall, mild alcohol consumption was associated with better attentional and other abilities compared with abstinence in a rural multiethnic sample. These findings are consistent with previous research and suggest ethnicity and gender are uninvolved in any alcohol neuroprotective effects.

  11. [Spanish adolescents' low perception of risk in alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Relinque, Cristian; Arroyo, Gonzalo Del Moral; Ferrer, Belén Martínez; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu

    2017-08-07

    According to recent studies, Spanish adolescents show low perception of risk in alcohol consumption. The current study aims to analyze the factors that favor this low perception based on the opinion of a group of 32 professional experts on adolescence, family, school, mass media, and local policies. A qualitative methodology was used, based on Grounded Theory, using information from 5 focus groups guided by semi-structured interviews. Twelve factors or subcategories were identified, grouped in 4 general categories: short-term risk, immediacy, and perception of invulnerability ("adolescent thinking" category); benevolent view of alcohol, normalization of consumption, and alcohol-entertainment binomial ("social norms" category); parents' habitual consumption, verbal/non-verbal inconsistency in parental model, risk-free consumption depicted in the mass media, consumption with positive results in the media ("social models" category); and excessive health content, long-term risk ("preventive discourse" category). After discussing the results in the context of the current scientific literature, the article offers various proposals for increasing risk perception in adolescents: stronger impact of contents on short-term risks of alcohol; educational strategies targeted to adolescents to include agents of socialization, especially parents; and policies centered on the substance and reduction of supply.

  12. Alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking, and alcohol dependency among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimunda, Sathya Prakash; Sugunan, Attayuru Purushottaman; Thennarasu, Kandavelu; Pandian, Dhanasekara; Pesala, Kasturi S; Benegal, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the globally recognized causes of health hazards. There are no data on alcohol consumption from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol use among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. A representative sample of 18,018 individuals aged ≥14 years were chosen by multistage random sampling and administered a structured instrument, a modified version of the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) which included sociodemographic details and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The overall prevalence of alcohol consumption was 35% among males and over 6.0% in females, aged 14 and above. Two out of every five alcohol users fit into a category of hazardous drinkers. One-fourth of the total users (23%) are alcohol dependents. Both the hazardous drinking and dependent use are high among males compared to females. Almost 18.0% of male drinkers and 12.0% of female drinkers reported heavy drinking on typical drinking occasions. The predominant beverages consumed were in the category of homebrews such as toddy and handia. The present study highlights the magnitude of hazardous drinking and alcohol dependence in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India and the complex sociocultural differences in the pattern of alcohol use. Based on the AUDIT data, among the population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (aged 14 and above), one out of ten requires active interventions to manage the harmful impact of alcohol misuse.

  13. Total sleep time, alcohol consumption, and the duration and severity of alcohol hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An evening of alcohol consumption often occurs at the expense of sleep time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total sleep time and the duration and severity of the alcohol hangover. METHODS: A survey was conducted among Dutch University students to

  14. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  15. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes: Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control

  16. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes - Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism I in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control subjects

  17. Alcohol regulation, communication strategies and underage alcohol consumption in Spain: Implications for social marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Carla; Sancho-Esper, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it examines the communication strategies pursued by firms related to alcohol beverages in Spain during a decade with major changes in alcohol marketing regulations. Second, it analyzes the relationship between these strategies and underage alcohol consumption before and after 2007. Design/methodology/approach. Panel data methodology is implemented using data from ESTUDES national survey (average sample size 26,000 interviews, 2004-2010) an...

  18. Alcohol consumption after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: 1-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Ilenia; Iossa, Angelo; Spinetti, Elena; Silecchia, Gianfranco

    2018-02-06

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) represents, at present, the most performed bariatric procedure worldwide with excellent long-term results on weight loss and comorbidities control. After the gastrectomy procedure, together with hormonal modification, several changes in taste and habits occur, including the potential modification in alcohol consumption. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the frequency and the amount of alcohol use before and after SG using a modified version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) at 1-year follow-up and eventually to evaluate relationships between different ages and sexes. A total of 142 patients were prospectively enrolled and evaluated before and 1 year after SG with a modified AUDIT. The exclusion criteria were as follows: history of alcohol abuse, presence of psychopathology or cognitive impairments, diabetes mellitus type II decompensated, or previous gastrointestinal, liver, and pancreatic resective surgery. Subgroup analyses were performed between male and female and between under and over 40 years old. The median AUDIT score decreased from 2.70 (range 1-18) before surgery to 1.38 (range 1-7) after 1 year of SG, indicating a marked reduction in alcohol use. The most consumed alcoholic drink was beer (36.6%/n = 52) while after surgery the consumption of beer decreased considerably (21.1%/n = 30). The frequency of alcohol consumption also decreased: at baseline 45% of patients consumed alcoholic drinks "from 2 to 4 times per month", whereas 26 and 39.4% consumed alcohol "never" and "less than once a month," respectively. After surgery, nobody consumed more then six alcoholic drinks. No differences were found between the subgroups in terms of alcohol consumption and social behavior. The alcohol preference is modified and decreased 1 year after SG and this could be related to the strict nutritional follow-up and to the hormonal changes. Studies with large samples and long

  19. High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (psex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neafsey EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Neafsey, Michael A CollinsDepartment of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: We reviewed 143 papers that described the relationship between moderate drinking of alcohol and some aspect of cognition. Two types of papers were found: (1 those that provided ratios of risk between drinkers and nondrinkers (74 papers in total and (2 those that, although they did not provide such ratios, allowed cognition in drinkers to be rated as “better,” “no different,” or “worse” than cognition in nondrinkers (69 papers in total. The history of research on moderate drinking and cognition can be divided into two eras: 1977–1997 and 1998–present. Phase I (1977–1997 was the era of neuropsychological evaluation involving mostly young to middle-aged (18–50 years old subjects. Although initial studies indicated moderate drinking impaired cognition, many later studies failed to confirm this, instead finding no difference in cognition between drinkers and nondrinkers. Phase II (1998–present was and is the era of mental status exam evaluation involving mostly older (≥55 years old subjects. These studies overwhelmingly found that moderate drinking either reduced or had no effect on the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment. When all the ratios of risk from all the studies in phase II providing such ratios are entered into a comprehensive meta-analysis, the average ratio of risk for cognitive risk (dementia or cognitive impairment/decline associated with moderate “social” (not alcoholic drinking of alcohol is 0.77, with nondrinkers as the reference group. The benefit of moderate drinking applied to all forms of dementia (dementia unspecified, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia and to cognitive impairment (low test scores, but no significant benefit against cognitive decline (rate of decline in test scores was found. Both light and moderate

  1. THE ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Kenneth W.; Selvanathan, Saroja

    1991-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the consumption patterns of beer, wine and spirits for Australia using data for the period 1955/56-1985/86. The validity of the demand theory hypotheses demand homogeneity and Slutsky symmetry has been tested using recently developed distribution• free procedures. The findings were that (i) beer and wine were necessities and spirits a strong luxury; (ii) beer and spirits are specific complements; and (iii) the homogeneity and symmetry hypotheses are ...

  2. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Ho, Li-Ming; Lee, Jie-Min; Hwang, Jhe-Yo

    2013-09-08

    The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol's price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (-0.820), wine (-0.955), whisky (-0.587), brandy (-0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan.

  3. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlé, Allan; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Jørgensen, Torben; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible association between alcohol intake and autoimmune Graves' hyperthyroidism. This is a population-based, case-control study. In a well-defined Danish population (2,027,208 person-years of observation), we prospectively identified patients with new overt thyroid dysfunction and studied 272 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. For each patient, we recruited four age-gender-region-matched controls with normal thyroid function (n = 1088). Participants gave detailed information on current and previous alcohol intake as well as other factors to be used for analyses. The association between alcohol intake and development of hyperthyroidism was analysed in conditional multivariate Cox regression models. Graves' patients had a lower reported alcohol consumption than controls (median units of alcohol (12 g) per week: 2 vs 4, P hyperthyroidism. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) compared with the reference group with a recent (last year) consumption of 1-2 units of alcohol per week were as follows: 0 units/week 1·73 (1·17-2·56), 3-10 units/week 0·56 (0·39-0·79), 11-20 units/week 0·37 (0·21-0·65), ≥21 units/week 0·22 (0·08-0·60). Similar results were found for maximum previous alcohol consumption during a calendar year. No interaction was found with the type of alcohol consumed (wine vs beer), smoking habit, age, gender or region of inhabitancy. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism--irrespective of age and gender. Autoimmune thyroid disease seems to be much more dependent on environmental factors than hitherto anticipated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Polygenic risk for alcohol consumption and its association with alcohol-related phenotypes: Do stress and life satisfaction moderate these relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, Gabry W; Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Ligthart, Lannie; Fedko, Iryna O; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2018-02-01

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute about equally to alcohol-related phenotypes in adulthood. In the present study, we examined whether more stress at home or low satisfaction with life might be associated with heavier drinking or more alcohol-related problems in individuals with a high genetic susceptibility to alcohol use. Information on polygenic scores and drinking behavior was available in 6705 adults (65% female; 18-83 years) registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed for all subjects based on the summary statistics of a large genome-wide association meta-analysis on alcohol consumption (grams per day). Outcome measures were quantity of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Stress at home and life satisfaction were moderating variables whose significance was tested by Generalized Estimating Equation analyses taking familial relatedness, age and sex into account. PRSs for alcohol were significantly associated with quantity of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in the past year (R 2 =0.11% and 0.10% respectively). Participants who reported to have experienced more stress in the past year and lower life satisfaction, scored higher on alcohol-related problems (R 2 =0.27% and 0.29 respectively), but not on alcohol consumption. Stress and life satisfaction did not moderate the association between PRSs and the alcohol outcome measures. There were significant main effects of polygenic scores and of stress and life satisfaction on drinking behavior, but there was no support for PRS-by-stress or PRS-by-life satisfaction interactions on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Is alcohol consumption associated with poor academic achievement in university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption showed negative associations with motivation for and subjectively achieved academic performance. University alcohol prevention activities might have positive impact on students′ academic success.

  7. Alcohol Consumption Among Scholarized Adolescents: A Socio-Communitarian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Villarreal-González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships that the individual, family, social and school variables have with the risk of alcohol consumption among adolescents. This is an explanatory causal study. The sample consisted of 1,245 adolescents of both sexes drawn from two secondary level and two pre-university level educational institutions, and were all aged between 12 and 17 years old. Stratified probability sampling was used, taking into account the proportion of students in each grade, level, group and timetable. To analyze the data, a structural equation model was calculated that explained 66% of the variance. The results showed that community social support and family functioning were indirectly related to alcohol consumption. The former was positively and significantly related, through friends’ support and also alcohol use by family and friends, while the latter was related through two paths: firstly, a positive and significant relationship, with family support and alcohol use by family and friends and, secondly, positively through school adjustment and school self-esteem which was negatively related with alcohol consumption. A significant and positive relationship was also observed between family functioning and social support. The results are discussed in terms of the most relevant studies on the subject of this research and the methodological limitations of this study are also considered.

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Violence among Argentine Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Pierobon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the association between alcohol and violence among Argentine youth. Methods: Data from the 2007 Argentina Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS, a nationally representative survey of middle school students, were examined using age-adjusted logistic regression models. Results: Of the 1,328 participating students aged 13 to 15 years old, 51.9% reported drinking alcohol in the previous month, with higher rates among males (p = 0.04 and older students (p < 0.01. Both male and female drinkers were nearly twice as likely as non-drinkers to report being physically attacked, being in a physical fight, and having thoughts about self-directed violence. Among drinkers, those who reported poor mental health, were victims of bullying, used tobacco or drugs, or skipped school without per- mission were approximately twice as likely as other drinkers to have engaged in violent activities. Conclusion: Public health interventions targeting violence among young adolescents should be developed in combination with alcohol education programs. Resumo: Objetivo: Este estudo investigou a associação entre álcool e violência na população de jovens argentinos. Métodos: Dados da Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS de 2007, uma pesquisa representativa em termos nacionais com alunos do ensino médio, foram exami- nados utilizando-se modelos de regressão logística ajustados por idade. Resultados: Dos 1328 alunos participantes entre 13 e 15 anos de idade, 51,9% declararam ter consumido álcool no último mês, com taxas mais elevadas entre meninos (p = 0,04 e alunos mais velhos (p < 0,01. Homens e mulheres que bebem demonstraram estar quase duas vezes mais propensos a relatar agressão física, quando em uma briga física, e pensamentos sobre violência autoinfligida do que aqueles que não bebem. Entre as pessoas que bebem, aquelas que reportaram saúde mental precária, haviam sido vítimas de bullying

  9. Diet, Alcohol Consumption and Serum Lipid Levels of Elderly Men ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Elderly subjects attending quarterly medical lectures organized by a non-governmental organization at the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba were recruited. Information on diet, alcohol consumption and hypertension were obtained and serum lipids were determined using standard cholesterol / low density ...

  10. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among undergraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of alcohol consumption among undergraduates of Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria. ... The health and social effects are so enormous as it predisposes to, and ... with friends and 15% to cool off tension in times of anxiety or depression. ... Keywords: Beer, consequences, friends, intake, misuse, students ...

  11. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Sine; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in patients recently diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: A post hoc analysis study based on a clinical trial population. SETTING: The data reported were collected as part of the Danish Alzheimer...

  12. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) levels in female subjects using combined oral contraceptives. Thirty female subjects who have used combined oral contraceptive ...

  13. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Kasper W.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2017-01-01

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be

  14. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... Ordinioha and Brisibe: Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in South‑South Nigeria. 14. Nigerian Journal ... that they may have, and social and family supports for .... through the mass media, 21 (18.42%) read it in the internet, while 13 .... while all the Muslim respondents and Christians of the. 7th Day ...

  15. Self-control and alcohol consumption among university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the relationship between self-control and alcohol consumption among students at the University of Botswana, and was entrenched within the socialcognitive theory of self-regulation. Data were collected from 135 undergraduate students (42.2% female, 57.8% male) with a mean age of 21.22 years (SD ...

  16. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tabakoff, B.; Saba, L.; Printz, M.; Flodman, P.; Hodgkinson, C.; Goldman, D.; Koob, G.; Richardson, H.N.; Kechris, K.; Bell, R.L.; Hübner, N.; Heinig, M.; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, J.; Legault, L.; Dongier, M.; Conigrave, K.M.; Whitfield, J.B.; Saunders, J.; Grant, B.; Hoffman, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2009), s. 70-70 ISSN 1741-7007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : alcohol consumption * rat * gene expression profiles Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2009

  17. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  18. Risk Perception in Young Women's Collective Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heavy episodic drinking in young women has caused concern among many groups including public health professionals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of young women's alcohol consumption so as to facilitate better health education targeting. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examines…

  19. Correlates of heavy alcohol consumption at Rhodes University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the extent to which students typically overestimate normative drinking and to determine whether these estimates are uniquely implicated in alcohol consumption over and above the role of the various demographic and family variables. Method: An online survey was used to obtain a sample of 2 177 ...

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Viral Hepatitis in Chronic Liver Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Precise assessment of the risks and interactions of alcohol consumption and viral hepatitis in the aetiology of chronic liver disease [CLD] are not locally available. Methodology: 74 patients with CLD and 74 controls were evaluated for Hepatitis B and C infection [anti-HCV, HBsAg]. The type and amount of ...

  1. Effect of Maternal Alcohol Consumption on Epididymal Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the growth of epididymis in neonatal mice. Three groups of adult female mice were used. The pups of group 1 served as control while the pups of groups 2 and 3 were given 30% ethanol (v/v) during pregnancy and during pregnancy and ...

  2. Alcohol consumption and risk type 2 diabetes among older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study aimed to investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes among older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Between 1993 and 1997, 16,330 women aged 49–70 years and free from diabetes were enrolled in one of the Dutch Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  4. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  5. MORTALITY FROM SUICIDE AND ALCOHOLISM, DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Radkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO, the world takes place every year approximately 500 000 suicides and suicide attempts of 7 million. Since 1994, Russia ranks 2nd in the world after Lithuania, in the level of suicides, and is among the countries with the linear dependence of frequency of suicides on the level of alcohol consumption.Purpose. Install a quantitative connection between the frequency of suicide with alcohol consumption and mortality from alcoholism in the world.Material and method. For studies we used the mortality coefficient (MK from suicide and alcohol abuse (number of people/100 thousand of age standardized the population in 159 countries according to the WHO in 2004, the average daily consumption levels of alcoholic beverages: spirits, wine and beer (g/person/day according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. For data analysis we used correlation and regression methods.Results. We found significant positive correlation of mortality coefficient (MK from suicide for men and women with consumption of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine and beer and mortality from alcoholism. The gender differences are revealed. Included in the regression model independent variables (levels of alcohol consumption and mortality from alcoholism explain 66% and 52% of the variability in the frequency of suicides of men and women (dependent variables. A complete rejection of the consumption of alcohol reduces the MK from suicide of men in the world at 39.5 percent, in Russia — at 76.5%; women — 37.9%, in Russia — by 54.3%. According to the regression analysis the average daily level of consumption of strong alcohol in the world is 10.4 g (3.8 kg per year for men, in Russia — 91.8 g (of 33.5 kg per year. The increase in the consumption of strong alcohol to 3 g per day (1 kg per year increases the MK from suicide in men up to 10.8% (1.6 people in the world, in Russia — 2.4% (1.6 people. The increase in the MK of alcoholism of men

  6. Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Whitley, Elise; Lewsey, Jim; Gray, Linsay; Leyland, Alastair H

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors. The Scottish Health Surveys are record-linked cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult population of Scotland. We obtained baseline demographics and data for alcohol consumption (units per week and binge drinking) from Scottish Health Surveys done in 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. We matched these data to records for deaths, admissions, and prescriptions. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable admission or death. The relation between alcohol-attributable harm and socioeconomic status was investigated for four measures (education level, social class, household income, and area-based deprivation) using Cox proportional hazards models. The potential for alcohol consumption and other risk factors (including smoking and body-mass index [BMI]) mediating social patterning was explored in separate regression models. Reverse causation was tested by comparing change in area deprivation over time. 50 236 participants (21 777 men and 28 459 women) were included in the analytical sample, with 429 986 person-years of follow-up. Low socioeconomic status was associated consistently with strikingly raised alcohol-attributable harms, including after adjustment for weekly consumption, binge drinking, BMI, and smoking. Evidence was noted of effect modification; for example, relative to light drinkers living in

  7. Alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria D Coronado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies addressing the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer consistently suggest a modest association and a dose-response relationship. The epidemiologic evidence does not point to a single mechanism to explain the association, and several mechanisms have been proposed. Alcohol consumption is shown to increase levels of endogenous estrogens, known risk factors for breast cancer. This hypothesis is further supported by data showing that the alcohol-breast cancer association is limited to women with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Products of alcohol metabolism are known to be toxic and are hypothesized to cause DNA modifications that lead to cancer. Recent research has focused on genes that influence the rate of alcohol metabolism, with genes that raise blood concentrations of acetaldehyde hypothesized to heighten breast cancer risk. Mounting evidence suggests that antioxidant intake(e.g.folatemayreducealcohol-associatedbreast cancer risk, because it neutralizes reactive oxygen species, a second-stage product of alcohol metabolism. Diets lacking sufficient antioxidant intake, as a result, may further elevate the risk of breast cancer among alcohol consumers. Given that alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide and especially among women in countries of rapid economic growth, a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the known alcohol-breast cancer association is warranted.Avoiding overconsumption of alcohol is recommended, especially for women with known risk factors for breast cancer.Diversos estudios epidemiológicos muestran la asociación del consumo de alcohol con el cáncer de mama de forma consistente, lo que sugiere una modesta asociación, y una relación de dosis-respuesta.La evidencia no apunta a un mecanismo único para explicar la asociación y varios mecanismos han sido propuestos. El consumo de alcohol incrementa los niveles endógenos de estrógeno, un riesgo conocido para cáncer de

  8. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

  9. Proximity of off-premise alcohol outlets and heavy alcohol consumption: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-09-01

    Availability of alcohol has been associated with alcohol consumption in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally whether change in proximity to off-premise (i.e., no consumption on the premises) beer and liquor outlets is associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Distances from 54,778 Finnish Public Sector study participants' homes to the nearest off-premise beer and liquor outlets were calculated using Global Positioning System-coordinates. Between-individual analyses were used to study the effects of distance to the nearest outlet on heavy alcohol use, and within-individual analyses to study the effects of a change in distance on change in heavy use. Mean follow-up time in 2000-2009 was 6.8 (standard deviation 2.0) years. In a between-individual analysis, decrease from ≥500 m to alcohol use in women (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.44), but not in men. In a within-individual analysis decrease from 500 m to 0m in log-transformed continuous distance to the nearest beer outlet increased the odds of heavy alcohol consumption in women by 13% (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). For the corresponding change in distance to liquor outlet the increase was 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09). Change in distance from home to the nearest off-premise alcohol outlet affects the risk of heavy alcohol consumption in women. This evidence supports policies that restrict physical availability of alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Tobacco and alcohol consumption according to workday in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, Vanesa; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Arias, Lucía; Lana, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between smoking and alcohol consumption and the type of working day in the Spanish population Cross-sectional study among employees residing in Spain aged >18 years (N=8,736). We took data from the National Health Survey (2011-2012). Information was collected on the type of working day (morning, afternoon, evening, part-time, reduced hours, and shift-work) and smoking and drinking habits. Demographic characteristics and health- and work-related factors were also taken into account. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated through log-binomial regressions. Among respondents, 32.1% smoked regularly, especially those working the night shift (43.5%). Moderate alcohol consumption was found in 54.8% of workers and excessive consumption in 1.5%. Most of the moderate and heavy drinkers worked part-time, with 57.6% and 1.8% respectively. The aOR of being a smoker was higher among night workers (OR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.01-2.46). None of the work shifts were significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Night shift work was associated with regular smoking. This collective of workers should be monitored closely by occupational health services and regularly undergo programs to control tobacco consumption and smoking-related diseases. Additional research to elucidate the reasons for this association could help to achieve preventive and therapeutic success. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. A local mechanism by which alcohol consumption causes cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that 5.8% of cancer deaths world-wide are attributable to alcohol consumption. The risk of cancer is higher in tissues in closest contact on ingestion of alcohol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mostly produced in the liver, it is not clear why alcohol use preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. It is well known that ethanol causes cell death at the concentrations present in alcoholic beverages; however, this effect may have been overlooked because dead cells cannot give rise to cancer. Here I discuss that the cytotoxic effect of ethanol on the cells lining the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus activates the division of the stem cells located in deeper layers of the mucosa to replace the dead cells. Every time stem cells divide, they become exposed to unavoidable errors associated with cell division (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication and chromosomal alterations occurring during mitosis) and also become highly vulnerable to the genotoxic activity of DNA-damaging agents (e.g., acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens). Alcohol consumption may increase the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus by promoting the accumulation of cell divisions in the stem cells that maintain these tissues in homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenicity of alcohol is important to reinforce the epidemiological evidence and to raise public awareness of the strong link between alcohol consumption and cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol consumption for simulated driving performance: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Salamati, Payman; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Saeidnejad, Mina; Rousta, Mansoureh; Shokraneh, Farhad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption can lead to risky driving and increase the frequency of traffic accidents, injuries and mortalities. The main purpose of our study was to compare simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers, one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed, using a systematic review. In this systematic review, electronic resources and databases including Medline via Ovid SP, EMBASE via Ovid SP, PsycINFO via Ovid SP, PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) via EBSCOhost were comprehensively and systematically searched. The randomized controlled clinical trials that compared simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers, one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed, were included. Lane position standard deviation (LPSD), mean of lane position deviation (MLPD), speed, mean of speed deviation (MSD), standard deviation of speed deviation (SDSD), number of accidents (NA) and line crossing (LC) were considered as the main parameters evaluating outcomes. After title and abstract screening, the articles were enrolled for data extraction and they were evaluated for risk of biases. Thirteen papers were included in our qualitative synthesis. All included papers were classified as high risk of biases. Alcohol consumption mostly deteriorated the following performance outcomes in descending order: SDSD, LPSD, speed, MLPD, LC and NA. Our systematic review had troublesome heterogeneity. Alcohol consumption may decrease simulated driving performance in alcohol consumed people compared with non-alcohol consumed people via changes in SDSD, LPSD, speed, MLPD, LC and NA. More well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are recommended. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Alcohol consumption for simulated driving performance: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh; Payman Salamati; Mahdi Ramezani-Binabaj; Mina Saeidnejad; Mansoureh Rousta; Farhad Shokraneh; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose:Alcohol consumption can lead to risky driving and increase the frequency of traffic accidents,injuries and mortalities.The main purpose of our study was to compare simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers,one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed,using a systematic review.Methods:In this systematic review,electronic resources and databases including Medline via Ovid SP,EMBASE via Ovid SP,PsycINFO via Ovid SP,PubMed,Scopus,Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) via EBSCOhost were comprehensively and systematically searched.The randomized controlled clinical trials that compared simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers,one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed,were included.Lane position standard deviation (LPSD),mean of lane position deviation (MLPD),speed,mean of speed deviation (MSD),standard deviation of speed deviation (SDSD),number of accidents (NA) and line crossing (LC) were considered as the main parameters evaluating outcomes.After title and abstract screening,the articles were enrolled for data extraction and they were evaluated for risk of biases.Results:Thirteen papers were included in our qualitative synthesis.All included papers were classified as high risk of biases.Alcohol consumption mostly deteriorated the following performance outcomes in descending order:SDSD,LPSD,speed,MLPD,LC and NA.Our systematic review had troublesome heterogeneity.Conclusion:Alcohol consumption may decrease simulated driving performance in alcohol consumed people compared with non-alcohol consumed people via changes in SDSD,LPSD,speed,MLPD,LC and NA.More well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are recommended.

  14. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, E T; Laughlin, G A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. A research visit between 1988-1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements: Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be achieved with low levels of drinking that are unlikely to be

  16. Risks and guidelines for the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Daily average intake of alcohol during pregnancy has consistently been associated with short term adverse outcomes such as miscarriage, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction, a large variety of malformations, as well as long term adverse outcomes such as foetal alcohol syndrome, mental...... in accordance with the official recommendations, although a large proportion of women of child bearing age and pregnant women drink alcohol, especially before recognition of pregnancy. The discrepancy between guidelines and the information practice of health personnel is likely to continue to exist because...... retardation and general impairment of cognitive functions including intelligence, attention, learning abilities as well as social and behavioural functions. Weekly average consumption and alcohol binge drinking (usually defined as ≥ 5 drinks on a single occasion) independently of high daily average intake has...

  17. Unrecorded alcohol consumption: its economics and its effects on alcohol control in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, S; Osterberg, E

    2000-12-01

    The starting point of this paper is the fact that no country has complete records of alcohol consumption. In addition to being a matter or statistical accuracy, unrecorded alcohol also plays an important role in alcohol policy discussions. Furthermore, its quantity is bound to basic economic laws. These latter two aspects are the main interest in this paper, which discusses, first, what is really meant by unrecorded alcohol consumption and what kind of categories are included in it. The next task is to discuss the economics of different categories of unrecorded alcohol and the mechanisms which lead to increases or decreases in them. The examples in this part of the paper come from the Nordic countries. Arguments about increased smuggling and illegal distilling have always been used against alcohol policy restrictions in the Nordic countries. Recently the level of travellers' alcohol imports and border trade have also been used for the same purpose. In the European Union the task to harmonize alcohol excise taxes is partly given to increased travellers' duty-free allowances and market forces. This policy has already led to reductions in alcohol taxation both in Denmark and Sweden.

  18. Older adults' alcohol consumption and late-life drinking problems: a 20-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Moos, Bernice S

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify changes in patterns of alcohol consumption over a 20-year interval among older women and men, and to examine the associations between guideline-defined excessive drinking and late-life drinking problems. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASURES: A community sample of 719 adults between 55 and 65 years of age who consumed alcohol at or prior to baseline participated in a survey of alcohol consumption and drinking problems and was followed 10 years and 20 years later. The likelihood of excessive drinking declined over the 20-year interval as adults matured into their 70s and 80s. However, at ages 75-85, 27.1% of women and 48.6% of men consumed more than two drinks per day or seven drinks per week. At comparable guideline levels of alcohol consumption, older men were more likely to have drinking problems than were older women. Consumption of more than two drinks per day or seven drinks per week was identified as a potential conservative guideline for identifying excessive drinking associated with an elevated likelihood of drinking problems. A substantial percentage of older adults who consume alcohol engage in guideline-defined excessive drinking and incur drinking problems. The finding that older men may be more likely than older women to experience problems when they drink beyond guideline levels suggests that alcohol guidelines for men should not be set higher than those for women.

  19. Older Adults’ Alcohol Consumption and Late-Life Drinking Problems: A 20-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The aim was to identify changes in patterns of alcohol consumption over a 20-year interval among older women and men, and to examine the associations between guideline-defined excessive drinking and late-life drinking problems. Design, Participants, and Measures A community sample of 719 adults between 55 and 65 years of age who consumed alcohol at or prior to baseline participated in a survey of alcohol consumption and drinking problems and was followed 10 years and 20 years later. Findings The likelihood of excessive drinking declined over the 20-year interval as adults matured into their 70s and 80s. However, at ages 75–85, 27% of women and 49% of men consumed more than 2 drinks per day or 7 drinks per week. At comparable guideline levels of alcohol consumption, older men were more likely to have drinking problems than were older women. Consumption of more than 2 drinks per day or 7 drinks per week was identified as a potential conservative guideline for identifying excessive drinking associated with an elevated likelihood of drinking problems. Conclusions A substantial percentage of older adults who consume alcohol engage in guideline-defined excessive drinking and incur drinking problems. The finding that older men may be more likely than older women to experience problems when they drink beyond guideline levels suggests that alcohol guidelines for men should not be set higher than those for women. PMID:19438836

  20. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Effects of body weight and alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holcomb Valerie B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, which can eventually lead to type-2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption is a protective factor against insulin resistance, and thus protects against the development of type-2 diabetes. The mechanism by which alcohol protects against the development of type-2 diabetes is not well known. To determine the mechanism by which alcohol improves insulin sensitivity, we fed water or alcohol to lean, control, and obese mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol consumption and body weights affect overlapping metabolic pathways and to identify specific target genes that are regulated in these pathways. Method Adipose tissue dysfunction has been associated with the development of type-2 diabetes. We assessed possible gene expression alterations in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT. We obtained WAT from mice fed a calorie restricted (CR, low fat (LF Control or high fat (HF diets and either water or 20% ethanol in the drinking water. We screened the expression of genes related to the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin regulation using a gene array composed of 384 genes. Results Obesity induced insulin resistance and calorie restriction and alcohol improved insulin sensitivity. The insulin resistance in obese mice was associated with the increased expression of inflammatory markers Cd68, Il-6 and Il-1α; in contrast, most of these genes were down-regulated in CR mice. Anti-inflammatory factors such as Il-10 and adrenergic beta receptor kinase 1 (Adrbk1 were decreased in obese mice and increased by CR and alcohol. Also, we report a direct correlation between body weight and the expression of the following genes: Kcnj11 (potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11, Lpin2 (lipin2, and Dusp9 (dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase 9. Conclusion We show that alcohol consumption increased insulin sensitivity. Additionally, alterations

  2. The Role of Friendship Reciprocity in University Freshmen's Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Helge; Stok, F Marijn; Renner, Britta

    2017-07-01

    The similarity of friends in the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption is explored. During their first semester, 57 psychology freshmen indicated weekly drinking frequency and quantity and nominated the three peers of this group they liked most. These nominations were then used to derive the weekly alcohol consumption of friends that either did or did not reciprocate a nomination. Multilevel modeling of weekly variations showed that individuals' drinking frequency was similar to peers who reciprocated a friendship (b = 0.15, p = .001), but not to non-reciprocating peers (b = -0.01, p = .720). In contrast, weekly variation in quantity of individual students' drinking was similar to both reciprocating (b = 0.11, p = .018) and non-reciprocating peers' drinking (b = 0.10, p = .014). Yet across all weeks, quantity tended only to be similar to non-reciprocating peers (b = 0.49, p = .020). Freshmen might spend drinking time with peers who reciprocate a friendship, but are similar regarding the quantity of drinks consumed to all people they find interesting. Thus, alcohol consumption is used strategically for social purposes. This social purpose should also be acknowledged in alcohol-reduction interventions. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Who 'likes' alcohol? Young Australians' engagement with alcohol marketing via social media and related alcohol consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrotte, Elise R; Dietze, Paul M; Wright, Cassandra J; Lim, Megan S

    2016-10-01

    To describe patterns of 'liking' alcohol marketing social media pages, and determine related alcohol consumption patterns among young Australians. Participants were 1,001 Australians aged 15-29 years who completed a cross-sectional online survey. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used. A quarter (249/1001, 24.9%) liked at least one of the alcohol marketing social media pages, most commonly brands of spirits, cider and alcohol retailers. Underage participants were as likely as older participants to report liking these pages. Alcohol marketing social media use was significantly and independently associated with male gender, living outside a major city, ever using illegal drugs and early age of first alcohol consumption (all pmarketing social media use (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8, p=marketing pages is common regardless of age, and associated with riskier alcohol consumption, among young Australians. There is a need to develop strategies to reduce the exposure to, and potential impact of, alcohol marketing social media pages on young Australians, and ensure these pages are neither accessible to nor targeting underage social media users. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  5. PROFILE OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN HIGH SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ferraz dos Anjos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, psychoactive substance, harmful to health, has been widely accepted and consumed by society in a premature manner. The Brazilian contemporaneous reality has demonstrated a high number of adolescents who consume alcohol on regularly basis, and nowadays, its damages start to be evident, hence the importance of contextualizing this issue in relation to adolescents. This study aims to determine the profile of alcohol consumption in adolescent students of a public high school in a city of the inland of Bahia, Brazil. It is a descriptive study with quantitative approach, conducted with 98 male and female students, and a structured questionnaire used to collect data, which was analyzed with aid of descriptive statistics. The survey was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee Involving Human Beings, of the State Perfil do consumo de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes University of Southwest Bahia – campus of Jequié-Bahia, Brazil under Protocol 179/2009. It was perceived that most of the teenagers had already consumed alcohol prematurely, with minimaldifference between male and female gender. Several of these adolescents continue consuming too much and too often, influenced by friends, family and media. It can be concluded that it is imperative to insert educational methodological proposals at schools which should instruct about premature and indiscriminate alcohol consumption, addressing principally risk factors and possible biopsychosocial complications

  6. Profile of alcohol consumption in high school adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ferraz dos Anjos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, psychoactive substance, harmful to health, has been widely accepted and consumed by society in a premature manner. The Brazilian contemporaneous reality has demonstrated a high number of adolescents who consume alcohol on regularly basis, and nowadays, its damages start to be evident, hence the importance of contextualizing this issue in relation to adolescents. This study aims to determine the profile of alcohol consumption in adolescent students of a public high school in a city of the inland of Bahia, Brazil. It is a descriptive study with quantitative approach, conducted with 98 male and female students, and a structured questionnaire used to collect data, which was analyzed with aid of descriptive statistics. The survey was approved by the Ethics inResearch Committee Involving Human Beings, of the State University of Southwest Bahia –campus of Jequié-Bahia, Brazil under Protocol 179/2009. It was perceived that most of the teenagers had already consumed alcohol prematurely, with minimal difference between male and female gender. Several of these adolescents continue consuming too much and too often, influenced by friends, family and media. It can be concluded that it is imperative to insert educational methodological proposals at schools which shouldinstruct about premature and indiscriminate alcohol consumption, addressing principally risk factors and possible biopsychosocial complications.

  7. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AS A RISK FACTOR TO ACQUIRE OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Higuera-Sainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the epidemiological panorama of overweight, obesity and presents alcohol consumption as a major risk factor for acquiring these health conditions. It also describes the definition of alcohol, its pharmacology, the role of alcohol consumption in overweight and obesity, the combination of alcoholic beverages with sugary drinks and concludes with a series of recommendations to limit alcohol consumption and in consequence to avoid or reduce the overweight and obesity caused in part by the abuse of this substance.

  8. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol.

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson's Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Silvana S; Rose, Tanith C; Hughes, Clarissa J; Smith, Lesley A

    2015-01-01

    The association between Parkinson's disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Relevant literature from 2000-2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias.

  10. Parenting styles and alcohol consumption among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Fernando Santana; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between alcohol consumption in adolescence and parenting styles of socialization among Brazilian adolescents. The sample was composed of 273 adolescents, 58% whom were males. Instruments were: 1) Sociodemographic Questionnaire; 2) Demand and Responsiveness Scales; 3) Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Study analyses employed multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression. Maternal, but not paternal, authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles were directly related to adolescent alcohol intake. The style that mothers use to interact with their children may influence uptake of high-risk behaviors.

  11. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R.; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day (PD) PD26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed ratio (FR) 16-lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low adolescent drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and had faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood whereas the low consumers were no different than controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent

  12. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Joosten, M.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Joosten, M.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is

  15. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society....

  16. Alcohol use, cigarette consumption and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op den Velde, W; Aarts, PGH; Falger, PRJ; Hovens, JE; van Duijn, H; de Groen, JHM; van Duijn, MAJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: The relationship between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 147 male former members of the civilian resistance against the Nazi occupation of Holland during World War II. Methods: The subjects were interviewed at home. Measures

  17. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  18. The population attributable risk of hypertension from heavy alcohol consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Larbi, E B; Stamler, J; Dyer, A; Cooper, R; Paul, O; Shekelle, R B; Lepper, M

    1984-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and hypertension was studied in 11,899 men aged 40-55 years. The prevalence of hypertension among heavy drinkers was significantly higher than among those who did not drink heavily. Heavy drinking was defined as consumption of five or more drinks daily or four or more drinks daily. A total of 136 persons fulfilled the five drinks or more per day definition and 230, the four drinks daily definition. The population-attributable risk of hypertension co...

  19. Ethylglucuronide in the urine as a marker of alcohol consumption during pregnancy: Comparison with four alcohol screening questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraguti, Giampiero; Ciolli, Paola; Carito, Valentina; Battagliese, Gemma; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ciafrè, Stefania; Tirassa, Paola; Ciccarelli, Rosaria; Cipriani, Alessia; Messina, Marisa Patrizia; Fiore, Marco; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2017-06-05

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is an ethanol metabolite and EtG is used as a biomarker of alcohol drinking. EtG can be detected in the blood and in several biological matrices including urine, hair and nails. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a strong risk factor for fetus health so in the recent years different strategies to reveal alcohol use have been planning including the use of screening questionnaires as the AUDIT-C, T-ACE and TWEAK. The present study aims to investigate in pregnant women the specificity and predictive value of the AUDIT-C, T-ACE and TWEAK plus a food diary in use in Sapienza University Hospital compared with the results of urine EtG measurement. Seventy pregnant women were enrolled and examined. Urine samples were provided by pregnant women immediately after the interviews. EtG determinations were performed by Enzyme Immunoassay with a cut-off established at 100ng/mL. Data show that 34.28% of the enrolled pregnant women overcame the EtG cut off. No direct correlation was found between EtG data and the alcohol screening interviews showing lower levels of alcohol consumption, although T-ACE revealed the same at risk percentage. However, a significant concordance was observed with food diary data and T-ACE only in patients with higher EtG urinary concentration. This study provides clinical evidence that the diagnosis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy only based on indirect methods, such as questionnaires and food diary, may significantly underestimate alcohol use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and incidence of aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S C; Wolk, A; Bäck, M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are modifiable lifestyle factors with important impact on public health. It is unclear whether these factors influence the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To investigate the associations of alcohol consumption and smoking, including smoking intensity and time since cessation, with AVS incidence in two prospective cohorts. This analysis was based on data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, comprising 69 365 adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for AVS incidence and death by linkage to the Swedish National Patient and Causes of Death Registers. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1249 cases of AVS (494 in women and 755 in men) were recorded. Compared with never drinkers of alcohol (lifelong abstainers), the risk of AVS was significantly lower in current light drinkers (1-6 drinks per week [1 drink = 12 g alcohol]; multivariable HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). The risk of AVS increased with increasing smoking intensity. Compared with never smokers, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.85) in current smokers of ≥30 pack-years. Former smokers who had quit smoking 10 or more years previously had similar risk for AVS as never smokers. This study suggests that current light alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of AVS, and indicates that the association between smoking and AVS risk is reversible. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. Adolescent alcohol use reflects community-level alcohol consumption irrespective of parental drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use are typically conceptualized at the individual level, and school- and community-level risk factors have received little attention. Based on the theoretical understanding of youth alcohol consumption as a reflection of community social practice, we analyzed...... whether adolescent drunkenness was related to community-level adult alcohol use (AAC), when taking individual and school-level risk factors for drunkenness into account. Furthermore, we investigated whether the association between community-level AAC and adolescent drunkenness was attenuated after...

  2. Individual Popularity, Peer Group Popularity Composition and Adolescents? Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Gommans, Rob; M?ller, Christoph M.; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking. Participants were 800 adolescents (M age?=?14.73; SDage?=?1.00; 51.6?% girls) from 31 classrooms who completed peer ratings of popularity and self-reports of alcohol consumption. Results showed that dri...

  3. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches inc...

  4. Medical marijuana laws, traffic fatalities, and alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...

  5. Brand-Specific Consumption of Flavored Alcoholic Beverages among Underage Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600

  6. Effects of alcohol retail privatization on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Lawrence, Briana; Campbell, Carla Alexia

    2012-04-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is the third-leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. This systematic review is one in a series exploring effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms. The focus of this review was on studies evaluating the effects of the privatization of alcohol retail sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Using Community Guide methods for conducting systematic reviews, a systematic search was conducted in multiple databases up to December 2010. Reference lists of acquired articles and review papers were also scanned for additional studies. A total of 17 studies assessed the impact of privatizing retail alcohol sales on the per capita alcohol consumption, a well-established proxy for excessive alcohol consumption; 9 of these studies also examined the effects of privatization on the per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages that were not privatized. One cohort study in Finland assessed the impact of privatizing the sales of medium-strength beer (MSB) on self-reported alcohol consumption. One study in Sweden assessed the impact of re-monopolizing the sale of MSB on alcohol-related harms. Across the 17 studies, there was a 44.4% median increase in the per capita sales of privatized beverages in locations that privatized retail alcohol sales (interquartile interval: 4.5% to 122.5%). During the same time period, sales of nonprivatized alcoholic beverages decreased by a median of 2.2% (interquartile interval: -6.6% to -0.1%). Privatizing the sale of MSB in Finland was associated with a mean increase in alcohol consumption of 1.7 liters of pure alcohol per person per year. Re-monopolization of the sale of MSB in Sweden was associated with a general reduction in alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, there is strong evidence that privatization of retail alcohol sales leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The economic costs of alcohol consumption in Thailand, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiboonsuwan Khannika

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that the adverse consequences of alcohol impose a substantial economic burden on societies worldwide. Given the lack of generalizability of study results across different settings, many attempts have been made to estimate the economic costs of alcohol for various settings; however, these have mostly been confined to industrialized countries. To our knowledge, there are a very limited number of well-designed studies which estimate the economic costs of alcohol consumption in developing countries, including Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to estimate these economic costs, in Thailand, 2006. Methods This is a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study. The estimated costs in this study included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included health care costs, costs of law enforcement, and costs of property damage due to road-traffic accidents. Indirect costs included costs of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and costs of reduced productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity. Results The total economic cost of alcohol consumption in Thailand in 2006 was estimated at 156,105.4 million baht (9,627 million US$ PPP or about 1.99% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Indirect costs outweigh direct costs, representing 96% of the total cost. The largest cost attributable to alcohol consumption is that of productivity loss due to premature mortality (104,128 million baht/6,422 million US$ PPP, followed by cost of productivity loss due to reduced productivity (45,464.6 million baht/2,804 million US$ PPP, health care cost (5,491.2 million baht/339 million US$ PPP, cost of property damage as a result of road traffic accidents (779.4 million baht/48 million US$ PPP, and cost of law enforcement (242.4 million baht/15 million US$ PPP, respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that the cost ranges from 115,160.4 million baht to 214

  8. The economic costs of alcohol consumption in Thailand, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Teerawattananon, Yot; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Lertpitakpong, Chanida; Thitiboonsuwan, Khannika; Neramitpitagkul, Prapag; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2010-06-09

    There is evidence that the adverse consequences of alcohol impose a substantial economic burden on societies worldwide. Given the lack of generalizability of study results across different settings, many attempts have been made to estimate the economic costs of alcohol for various settings; however, these have mostly been confined to industrialized countries. To our knowledge, there are a very limited number of well-designed studies which estimate the economic costs of alcohol consumption in developing countries, including Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to estimate these economic costs, in Thailand, 2006. This is a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study. The estimated costs in this study included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included health care costs, costs of law enforcement, and costs of property damage due to road-traffic accidents. Indirect costs included costs of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and costs of reduced productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity). The total economic cost of alcohol consumption in Thailand in 2006 was estimated at 156,105.4 million baht (9,627 million US$ PPP) or about 1.99% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Indirect costs outweigh direct costs, representing 96% of the total cost. The largest cost attributable to alcohol consumption is that of productivity loss due to premature mortality (104,128 million baht/6,422 million US$ PPP), followed by cost of productivity loss due to reduced productivity (45,464.6 million baht/2,804 million US$ PPP), health care cost (5,491.2 million baht/339 million US$ PPP), cost of property damage as a result of road traffic accidents (779.4 million baht/48 million US$ PPP), and cost of law enforcement (242.4 million baht/15 million US$ PPP), respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that the cost ranges from 115,160.4 million baht to 214,053.0 million baht (7,102.1 - 13,201 million US$ PPP

  9. Abusive alcohol consumption among adolescents: a predictive model for maximizing early detection and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Ferreira, M; de Moraes, C L; Braga, J U; Reichenheim, M E; da Veiga, G V

    2018-03-17

    To present a predictive model of alcohol abuse among adolescents based on prevalence projections in various population subgroups. Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 785 adolescents enrolled in the second year of high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Socio-economic, demographic, family, individuals, and school-related variables were examined as potential predictors. The logit model was used to estimate the prevalence projections. Model fitting was examined in relation to the observed data set, and in a subset, that was generated from 200 subsamples of individuals via a bootstrap process using general fit estimators, discrimination, and calibration measures. About 25.5% of the adolescents were classified as positive for alcohol abuse. Being male, being 17-19 years old, not living with mothers, presenting symptoms suggestive of binge eating, having used a strategy of weight reduction in the last 3 months, and, especially, being a victim of family violence were important predictors of abusive consumption of alcohol. While the model's prevalence projection in the absence of these features was 8%, it reaches 68% in the presence of all predictors. Knowledge of predictive characteristics of alcohol abuse is essential for screening, early detection of positive cases, and establishing interventions to reduce consumption among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Alcohol consumption prevalence in civil servants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Aragonés, Josep Maria; Abadia Castelló, Cristina

    Temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome (TMDS) includes a number of clinical conditions involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the muscles involved in mastication, or both. The symptoms of TMDS include decreased mobility, masticatory muscle pain, TMJ pain, functional alteration accompanied by articular noises, myofascial pain or deviation of the mouth opening. Work with visual display terminals (VDTs) has become widespread in the past several years and the conditions associated with this type of work have been associated with the appearance of certain musculoskeletal pathologies. Our objective was to conduct a review of the scientific literature onthe possible association between TMDS and work with VDTs. A search of the literature in MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Plus Library, CINHAL, Scielo and Google Academic was performed.We included those studies involving workers using VDTs and the outcome measures had to include references to TMDS symptoms. A total of 112 articles were identified, of which finally 11 were selected for in-depth review. Given the heterogeneity of the results and the nature of the studies, we conclude that currently there is insufficient evidence to support a consistent relationship between TMDS pathology and work with VDTs. There is insufficient evidence linking the presence of TMDS with ergonomic and postural aspects, an association that should not be totally ruled out from a pathophysiological point of view and biological plausibility. Further studies are needed to better assess this relationship. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  11. The impact of policy changes on consumer behaviour and alcohol consumption in Scania, Sweden 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafström, Martin; Ostergren, Per-Ölof

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the hypothesis that a gradual deregulation of traveller allowances, starting in 2001 and ending in 2004, on alcoholic beverages changed consumer behaviours that ultimately led to an increase in alcohol consumption in southern Sweden between in 2005 compared with 1999. The data for this general population random sample prospective cohort study with repeated measurements were collected in 1999 (T1) and in 2005 (T2) in the county of Scania, analysing the answers from 8612 individuals, who at T1 were alcohol consumers and 18-80 years old. Aggregate age-adjusted general mean alcohol consumption did not change significantly between T1 and T2. Significant downward changes were found in a number of demographical and socioeconomic sub-groups. Generalized linear model analyses indicated that the uptake of buying alcohol from a private person was associated with significantly higher consumption (P consuming illicitly distilled spirits or buying alcohol abroad were significantly associated with lower consumption at follow-up. Interaction effects between changing consumer behaviours were also identified. The deregulation of the cross-border trade of alcohol into Sweden did not, within our sample, lead to an increase in consumption. There were, however, significant decreases in consumption levels within different socio-demographic sub-groups. In relation to changing consumer behaviours both upward and downward shifts in drinking trends were observed. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do managed alcohol programs change patterns of alcohol consumption and reduce related harm? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, Tim; Pauly, Bernie; Chow, Clifton; Gray, Erin; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Perkin, Kathleen; Zhao, Jinhui

    2016-05-09

    Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a harm reduction strategy for people with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing. MAPs provide controlled access to alcohol usually alongside accommodation, meals, and other supports. Patterns of alcohol consumption and related harms among MAP participants and controls from a homeless shelter in Thunder Bay, Ontario, were investigated in 2013. Structured interviews were conducted with 18 MAP and 20 control participants assessed as alcohol dependent with most using non-beverage alcohol (NBA). Qualitative interviews were conducted with seven participants and four MAP staff concerning perceptions and experiences of the program. Program alcohol consumption records were obtained for MAP participants, and records of police contacts and use of health services were obtained for participants and controls. Some participants' liver function test (LFT) results were available for before and after MAP entry. Compared with periods off the MAP, MAP participants had 41 % fewer police contacts, 33 % fewer police contacts leading to custody time (x (2) = 43.84, P detox admissions (t = -1.68, P = 0.06), and 32 % fewer hospital admissions (t = -2.08, P = 0.03). MAP and control participants shared similar characteristics, indicating the groups were broadly comparable. There were reductions in nearly all available LFT scores after MAP entry. Compared with controls, MAP participants had 43 % fewer police contacts, significantly fewer police contacts (-38 %) that resulted in custody time (x (2) = 66.10, P detox admissions (t = -2.19, P = 0.02), and 47 % fewer emergency room presentations. NBA use was significantly less frequent for MAP participants versus controls (t = -2.34, P detox episodes, and police contacts leading to custody, reduced NBA consumption, and decreases in some alcohol-related harms. These encouraging trends are being investigated in a larger national study.

  14. How Harmonious and Obsessive Passion for Alcohol and Marijuana Relate to Consumption and Negative Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, Mai-Ly N; Neighbors, Clayton; Hove, M Christina; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M

    2015-09-01

    Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults' passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention.

  15. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  16. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    OpenAIRE

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, J?rgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volat...

  17. Hello Sunday Morning: Alcohol, (non)consumption and selfhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennay, Amy; MacLean, Sarah; Rankin, Georgia

    2016-02-01

    Hello Sunday Morning (HSM) is an online program that encourages people to commit to a period of non-drinking and blog about their experiences. The purpose of this paper is to explore how HSM members negotiated their periods of abstention, with a focus on how not drinking influenced their narratives of selfhood. Thematic analysis was undertaken of 2844 blog posts from 154 Victorians who signed up to HSM in 2013 or 2014. Analysis revealed three key narratives of selfhood offered by participants: (1) abstinence resulting in a disrupted sense of self, (2) non-consumption facilitating the development of a new healthy self, and (3) anti-consumption facilitating the development of a resistant self. Individuals construct and maintain their sense of self through consumption (or non-consumption) activities, and this occurs within the broader context of the relationship between selfhood, consumption and culture. HSM members developed narratives of self by drawing on a range of wider discursive structures concerning pleasure, healthism and resistance. The typologies of non-drinking selves identified in this paper could be disseminated through platforms such as HSM to support people who are new to non-drinking in choosing how they might construct and enact alternative selfhoods in contexts where alcohol consumption is deeply embedded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of osteoporotic fracture with smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, F; Birong, D; Changquan, H; Hongmei, W; Yanling, Z; Wen, Z; Li, L

    2011-05-01

    To observe the association of osteoporotic fracture with habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise among very old people. A cross-sectional study conducted in Dujiangyan Sichuan China. 703 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians (67.76% women, mean age 93.48 years) resident in Dujiangyan. Medical history of osteoporosis and the statement of fracture and habits (current and former) of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise were collected. In women, subjects with current or former habit of alcohol consumption had significantly higher prevalence osteoporotic fracture than those without this habit; but subjects with former habit of exercise had significantly lower prevalence osteoporotic fracture than those without this habit. However, in men, there was no significant difference in prevalence of these habits between subjects with and without osteoporotic fracture. After adjust for age, gender, sleep habits educational levels, religion habits and temperament, we found that former habit of alcohol consumption had a significant odds ratio (OR=2.473 95% CI (1.074, 5.526)) for osteoporotic fracture. In summary, among nonagenarians and centenarians, among habits (current and former) of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise, there seems to be significant association of osteoporotic fracture only with current or former habits of alcohol consumption, former habit of exercise. The habit of alcohol consumption might be associated with a greater risk of osteoporotic fracture, but the former habit of exercise might be associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic fracture.

  19. Alcohol consumption and mortality: is wine different from other alcoholic beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J; Crozier, A; Lean, M E

    2001-08-01

    Alcohol has been an integral part of the diets of many cultures for thousands of years, and formed the basis of early antiseptics. However, many health professionals have been loath to recommend its moderate consumption. Fears of increased risks of cancers, strokes and coronary heart disease (CHD), as well as its role in accidents, violence, psychological and social decline (when consumed in excess) meant that alcohol was viewed as generally detrimental to health. Recent reports have examined some of these fears and suggest that the moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, particularly red wine, may actually protect against the development of CHD. Evidence for the influence of alcoholic drinks on strokes and cancer is less clear. This review discusses the chemical differences between red wine and other alcoholic beverages and their possible effects on the development of CHD, stroke and cancer. Both clinical and experimental evidence suggest that red wine does indeed offer a greater protection to health than other alcoholic beverages. This protection has been attributed to grape-derived antioxidant polyphenolic compounds found particularly in red wine.

  20. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  1. Regional alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Shipton, Deborah; Walsh, David; Whyte, Bruce; McCartney, Gerry

    2015-01-07

    Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010-11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol

  2. The moderating role of social networks in the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes. PMID:24462223

  3. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    INTRODUCTION: A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. METHODS: The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and

  4. Chronic voluntary alcohol consumption results in tolerance to sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of alcohol in hybrid mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous two bottle choice test is the most common measure of alcohol consumption but there is remarkably little information about the development of tolerance or dependence with this procedure. We showed that C57BL/6JxFVB/NJ and FVB/NJxC57BL/6J F1 hybrid mice demonstrate greater preference for and consumption of alcohol than either parental strain. In order to test the ability of this genetic model of high alcohol consumption to produce neuroadaptation, we examined development of alcohol tolerance and dependence after chronic self-administration using a continuous access two-bottle choice paradigm. Ethanol-experienced mice stably consumed about 16–18 g/kg/day of ethanol. Ethanol-induced withdrawal severity was assessed (after 59 days of drinking) by scoring handling-induced convulsions; withdrawal severity was minimal and did not differ between ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 71 days of drinking, the rate of ethanol clearance was similar for ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 77 days of drinking, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) was tested daily for 5 days. Ethanol-experienced mice had a shorter duration of LORR. For both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice, blood ethanol concentrations taken at gain of righting reflex were greater on day 5 than on day 1, indicative of tolerance. After 98 days of drinking, ethanol-induced hypothermia was assessed daily for 3 days. Both ethanol-experienced and –naïve mice developed rapid and chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, with significant group differences on the first day of testing. In summary, chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption in F1 hybrid mice produced rapid and chronic tolerance to both the sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol; additionally, a small degree of metabolic tolerance developed. The development of tolerance supports the validity of using this model of high alcohol consumption in genetic studies of alcoholism. PMID:23313769

  5. Prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and knowledge of drug/alcohol-related sexual assaults among Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Villa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is the most widely used substance among adolescents, exceeding the use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The study aims at investigating the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and prevalence and knowledge of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA among Italian adolescents. Methods: The study population was a sample of 512 students of secondary education (high school from 3 public schools in Milan, Italy. Two hundred and fourty-nine boys and 263 girls aged 15 to 21 years old (M = 16.2, SD = 2.1 answered a specially structured anonymous questionnaire. Results: Recent problem drinking (‘every day’ or ‘once a week’ was reported from 9% (‘wine’ up to 28% (‘beer’ of students. Cannabis and rave drugs usage (ranged from ‘every day’ to ‘once only in a while’ were reported by up to 38% (‘cannabis’ and 2% (‘rave drugs’ of students. Beer was the most popular type of alcoholic beverage (81% with respect to wine (62% and hard liquor (66%. Only a small percentage of participants stated that they were informed about the possible addiction to alcohol (5% and its negative social consequences (3%. Nevertheless, almost all the students (92% declared that alcohol consumption was less dangerous than other psychoactive substances. Finally, most students stated to know DFSA phenomenon (77% and were victims or witness (13% of a DFSA event. Conclusion: Psychoactive substances consumption remains a serious problem among Italian adolescents. For a successful alcohol strategy there is a need to implement preventive measures and counseling approaches in school. Increasing the knowledge of the negative effects of alcohol/drugs use might also lead to a better prevention of the DFSA phenomenon.

  6. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  7. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...... at ethanol concentrations between 150 and 500 mM. Mean ADH activity was higher in antral specimens than in those from the gastric corpus of the same subjects. ADH activity decreased with increasing age in males, while the values in females aged 41-60 years were higher than those in women aged 20-40 or 61...... is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle...

  8. Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (≤3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Univariate analyses were used to find potential confounders, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust for these confounders. Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons were used to determine differences between alcohol groups. Results Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P FIQ total score (P = 0.01), physical function (P fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower fibromyalgia symptoms and better QOL compared to no alcohol consumption. The reasons for these results are unclear. Since recent studies have demonstrated that γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) levels are low in fibromyalgia, and alcohol is known to be a GABA-agonist, future studies should examine whether alcohol could have a salutary effect on pain and other symptoms in fibromyalgia. PMID:23497427

  9. Studies in youth, drug and alcohol consumption at the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten; Demant, Jakob Johan; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    or providing genuine contribution to the sociological analysis and understanding of youth cultures. From the mid-00 s and forward however, a range of analytical tools were developed at Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research (CRF) in order to understand the relationship between youth, drug and alcohol use......Background: During the 90 s and especially in the beginning of the 00 s research in youth, drug and alcohol consumption increased markedly in Denmark. Much of this research was applied and placed in a dilemma between reproducing existing social problem characterizations of youthful behaviors...... and to move beyond the applied perspective into a more social science analytical approach. Aim: The article investigates the relationship developments between drug and alcohol research and youth research in Denmark in general, with a special focus on research conducted at CRF. Specifically, we will focus...

  10. Relationship between alcohol consumption and periodontal tissue condition in community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwama, Kana; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Reiko; Stegaroiu, Roxana; Shibata, Satoko; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2018-03-25

    To examine the associations among alcohol consumption level, dietary intake and other lifestyle factors, and periodontal condition, in community-dwelling elderly Japanese of a specific age. The relationship between alcohol consumption level and periodontitis is a controversial issue. Participants were 438 dentate elders aged 73 years from a larger cohort survey of elders in Niigata City, Japan. Data collected from oral examination of each participant, including number of the existing teeth, mean probing pocket depth and mean clinical attachment level (CAL) were used for the analyses. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a lifestyle habit questionnaire were used to assess food and alcohol consumption, smoking experience, frequency of tooth brushing, interdental brush use, and visits to a dental clinic during the previous year. Blood glucose control was assessed by the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Body mass index was calculated from height and weight measurements. The relationships between each variable and the individual mean CAL were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. According to logistic regression analysis, the mean CAL was significantly associated with the number of existing teeth (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90; P dwelling elderly Japanese (aged 73 years) compared with non-drinking. Our results provide new evidence that high alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of periodontal disease and its progression. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Testing the incentive-sensitization theory with at-risk drinkers: wanting, liking, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafin, Brian D; Marlatt, G Alan; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Motivational models of addiction typically propose that alcohol and drugs are desired because of their hedonic effects (i.e., increasing pleasure or reducing distress). In contrast, the incentive-sensitization theory proposes that wanting motivation and liking motivation are separable and that after repeated substance use, motivation shifts from liking to wanting. Using a sample of 85 at-risk drinkers (as defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism), in the current study we examined the separability of liking motivation and wanting motivation for alcohol and whether years of drinking experience was associated with an increased role for wanting motivation and a decreased role for liking motivation. Consumption was measured with a free-drinking task. Wanting motivation was assessed immediately before drinking, and liking was assessed immediately after drinking had begun. The results indicated that (a) wanting motivation predicted variance of consumption unique from that accounted for by liking motivation, (b) longer drinking experience was associated with a decreased relation between liking motivation and consumption, and (c) longer drinking experience was not associated with an increased relation between wanting motivation and consumption. The results provide partial support for the incentive-sensitization theory.

  12. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kailasapillai, Shalini; Larsen, Elisabeth; Rehm, Maximilien X; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Roerecke, Michael; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-06-01

    Unrecorded alcohol constitutes about 30% of all alcohol consumed globally. The aims of this systematic review were to determine the epidemiology (occurrence, types, prevalence) of unrecorded alcohol consumption in different countries/regions, analyse the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol and examine health outcomes caused by the consumption of unrecorded alcohol, based on either epidemiology or toxicology. A systematic search for, and qualitative analysis of, papers with empirical results on the different categories of unrecorded alcohol, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Unrecorded alcohol was widespread in all regions of the world. Artisanal fermented beverages and spirits were the most common categories of unrecorded alcohol globally, and were available on all continents. In India, industrially produced spirits (country spirits) were most prevalent. In Russia and countries of the former Soviet Union, surrogate alcohols complemented artisanal spirits. Cross-border shopping was the most prevalent method of obtaining unrecorded alcohol in parts of Europe. Ethanol was the most harmful ingredient of unrecorded alcohol, and health consequences due to other ingredients found in unrecorded alcohol were scarce. However, as unrecorded alcohol is usually the least expensive form of alcohol available in many countries, it may contribute to higher rates of chronic and irregular heavy drinking. Very large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. The primary harm from this kind of alcohol arises from the fact that it is typically much cheaper than licit alcohol. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (pmusic (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Differences in alcohol brand consumption between underage youth and adults-United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Chen, Kelsey; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol brand preferences of US underage drinkers have recently been identified, but it is not known whether youth are simply mimicking adult brand choices or whether other factors are impacting their preferences. This study is the first to compare the alcohol brand preferences of underage drinkers and adults. The authors conducted a cross-sectional assessment of youth and adult alcohol brand preferences. A 2012 Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of 1032 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, was used to determine the prevalence of past-30-day consumption for each of 898 alcohol brands, and each brand's youth market share, based on the total number of standard drinks consumed. Data on the brand-specific prevalence of past-30-day or past-7-day consumption among older youth (ages 18-20), adults (ages 21+), and young adults (ages 21-34) was obtained from Gfk MRI's Survey of the Adult Consumer for the years 2010-2012. Overall market shares for each brand, also measured by the total number of standard drinks consumed, were estimated from national data compiled by Impact Databank for the year 2010. Although most alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers were also popular among adult drinkers, there were several brands that appeared to be disproportionately consumed by youth. This article provides preliminary evidence that youth do not merely mimic the alcohol brand choices of adults. Further research using data derived from fully comparable data sources is necessary to confirm this finding.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Alcohol Consumption in Two Regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Christina D.; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Korzhynskyy, Yuriy; Ostapchuk, Lyubov; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Chan, Priscilla H.; Xu, Ronghui; Wertelecki, Wladimir

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are thought to be a leading cause of developmental disabilities worldwide. However, data are lacking on alcohol use among pregnant women in many countries.. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by pregnant women in Ukraine. Methods Cross sectional screening of pregnant women was conducted in two regions of Ukraine during the recruitment phase of an ongoing clinical study that is part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD). Women attending a routine prenatal visit at one of two participating regional centers were asked about alcohol consumption. Quantity and frequency of alcoholic beverages consumed in the month around conception and in the most recent month of pregnancy were measured using a standard interview instrument. Results Between 2007 and 2012, 11,909 pregnant women were screened on average in the second trimester of pregnancy. Of these, 92.7% reported being ever-drinkers. Among ever-drinkers, 54.8% reported drinking alcohol in the month around conception, and 12.9% consumed at least three drinks on at least one day in that time period. In the most recent month of pregnancy, 46.3% continued to report alcohol use and 9.2% consumed at least three drinks per day. Significant predictors of average number of drinks or heavier drinking per day in either time period in pregnancy included lower gravidity, being single, unmarried/living with a partner, or separated, lower maternal education, smoking, younger age at initiation of drinking and higher score on the TWEAK screening test for harmful drinking. Conclusions These findings support the need for education/intervention in women of childbearing age in Ukraine, and can help inform targeted interventions for women at risk of an alcohol exposed pregnancy. The initiation of a standard screening protocol in pregnancy is a step in the right direction. PMID:24834525

  16. Easing the pain of an economic downturn: macroeconomic conditions and excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, María E; Fang, Hai; French, Michael T

    2012-11-01

    Individuals can react to financial stress in a variety of ways, such as reducing discretionary spending or engaging in risky behaviors. This article investigates the effect of changing macroeconomic conditions (measured by the unemployment rate in the state of residence) on one type of risky behavior: excessive alcohol consumption. Using unique and recent panel data from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and estimating fixed-effects models, we find that changes in the unemployment rate are positively related to changes in binge drinking, alcohol-involved driving, and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Some differences are present among demographic groups, primarily in the magnitude of the estimated effects. These results contradict previous studies and suggest that problematic drinking may be an indirect and unfortunate consequence of an economic downturn. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. EASING THE PAIN OF AN ECONOMIC DOWNTURN: MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND EXCESSIVE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    DÁVALOS, MARÍA E.; FANG, HAI; FRENCH, MICHAEL T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals can react to financial stress in a variety of ways, such as reducing discretionary spending or engaging in risky behaviors. This paper investigates the effect of changing macroeconomic conditions (measured by the unemployment rate in the state of residence) on one type of risky behavior: excessive alcohol consumption. Using unique and recent panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and estimating fixed-effects models, we find that changes in the unemployment rate are positively related to changes in binge drinking, alcohol-involved driving, and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Some differences are present among demographic groups, primarily in the magnitude of the estimated effects. These results contradict previous studies and suggest that problematic drinking may be an indirect and unfortunate consequence of an economic downturn. PMID:21913282

  18. Alcohol consumption and risk for coronary heart disease among men with hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Ascherio, A.; Spiegelman, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk for hypertension, which is in itself a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data on the association between alcohol consumption and CVD among individuals with hypertension are scarce. Objective: To assess whether alcohol

  19. Alcohol Consumption and Risk for Coronary Heart Disease among Men with Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Ascherio, A.; Spiegelman, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk for hypertension, which is in itself a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data on the association between alcohol consumption and CVD among individuals with hypertension are scarce. Objective: To assess whether alcohol

  20. Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on

  1. Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul H; Vincent, Ann; Clauw, Daniel J; Luedtke, Connie A; Thompson, Jeffrey M; Schneekloth, Terry D; Oh, Terry H

    2013-03-15

    Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (≤ 3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Our study demonstrates that low and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower fibromyalgia symptoms and better QOL compared to no alcohol consumption. The reasons for these results are unclear. Since recent studies have demonstrated that γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) levels are low in fibromyalgia, and alcohol is known to be a GABA-agonist, future studies should examine whether alcohol could have a salutary effect on pain and other symptoms in fibromyalgia.

  2. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  3. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  4. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; de Haan, H.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Olivier, B.; Verster, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol

  5. Alcohol consumption and risky drinking patterns in Malaysia: findings from NHMS 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B Abdul; Kamarudin, Rozanim Bt; Manickam, Mala; Abd Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Saari, Riyanti Bt

    2014-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia. We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics. The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking. There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of dehydration, moderate alcohol consumption, and rehydration on cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Leveritt, Michael; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of mild-moderate dehydration on alcohol-induced deteriorations in cognitive functions. Sixteen healthy males participated in a single-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study involving 4 experimental trials (separated by ≥7 d). In each trial, participants were dehydrated by 2.5% body mass through exercise. After 1 h recovery in a thermo-neutral environment (22 ± 2 °C, 60-70% relative humidity) 4 tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to the participants (test 1). In two of the trials, participants were provided with water equivalent to either 50% or 150% body mass loss and given salt (NaCl) capsules (50 mmol/L). A set volume of alcohol or placebo was then consumed in each trial, incorporating the conditions: dehydration-placebo (DP), dehydration-alcohol (DA), partial rehydration-alcohol (PA), and full rehydration-alcohol (FA). The same 4 CANTAB tasks were then re-administered (test 2). Subjective ratings of mood and estimates of alcohol intoxication and driving impairment were also recorded in each trial. Alcohol consumption caused deterioration on 3 of the 4 CANTAB measures (viz., choice reaction time, executive function and response inhibition). This reduction in performance was exacerbated when participants were dehydrated compared to trials where full rehydration occurred. Subjective ratings of impairment and intoxication were not significantly different between any of the trials where alcohol was consumed; however ratings for alcohol trials were significantly higher than in the placebo trial. These findings suggest that rehydration after exercise that causes fluid loss can attenuate alcohol-related deterioration of cognitive functions. This may pose implications for post match fluid replacement if a moderate amount of alcohol is also consumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drinking without thinking: an implicit measure of alcohol motivation predicts failure to control alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafin, Brian D; Marlatt, G Alan; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2008-11-01

    Addiction is characterized by dyscontrol - substance use despite intentions to restrain. Using a sample of at-risk drinkers, the present study examined whether an implicit measure of alcohol motivation (the Implicit Association Test [IAT]; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480) would predict dyscontrol of alcohol use. Participants completed an IAT and, to elicit motivation to restrain alcohol use, were instructed that greater consumption in a taste test would impair performance on a later task for which they could win a prize. All participants viewed aversive slides and then completed a thought-listing task. Participants either exerted self-control by suppressing negative affect and thoughts regarding the slides or did not exert self-control. Post-manipulation, the groups did not differ in mood, urge to drink or motivation to restrain consumption. During the subsequent taste test, participants whose self-control resources were depleted consumed more alcohol than did those in the control group. Additionally, the IAT, but not an explicit measure of alcohol motivation, more strongly predicted alcohol use when self-control resources were depleted. The results indicate that the IAT may have utility in predicting dyscontrolled alcohol use.

  8. Alcohol consumption and its related harms in The Netherlands since 1960: relationships with planned and unplanned factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbe, Ronald A; Derickx, Mieke; Allamani, Allaman; Massini, Giulia

    2014-10-01

    to establish which unplanned (social developments) and planned (alcohol policy measures) factors are related to per capita consumption and alcohol-related harms in the Netherlands. linear regression was used to establish which of the planned and unplanned factors were most strongly connected with alcohol consumption and harms. Artificial Neural Analysis (ANN) was used to inspect the interconnections between all variables. mothers age at birth was most strongly associated with increase in consumption. The ban on selling alcoholic beverages at petrol station was associated with a decrease in consumption. The linear regression of harms did not show any relation between alcohol policy measures and harms. The ANN-analyses indicate a very high interconnectedness between all variables allowing no causal inferences. Exceptions are the relation between price of beer and wine and the consumption of these beverages and the relation between a decrease in transport mortality and the increased use of breathalyzers tests and a restriction of paracommercial selling. unplanned factors are most strongly associated with per capita consumption and harms. ANN-analysis indicates that price of alcoholic beverages, breath testing, and restriction of sales may have had some influence. The study's limitations are noted.

  9. Correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in older adults with depression: the NESDO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J.F.; Kok, R.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; van der Mast, R.C.; Naarding, P.; Voshaar, R.C.O.; Stek, M.L.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; de Waal, M.W.M.; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO).

  10. Correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in older adults with depression : the NESDO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Julia F.; Kok, Rob M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Naarding, Paul; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Stek, Max L.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Comijs, Hannie C.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO).

  11. Correlates of Alcohol Abstinence and At-Risk Alcohol Consumption in Older Adults with Depression: the NESDO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Kok, R.M.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.; Verhaak, P.F.; Waal, M.W. de; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO).

  12. Correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in older adults with depression: the NESDO Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Kok, R.M.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Waal, M.W.M. de; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO).

  13. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  14. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  15. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Alcohol Consumption Across Youth and Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Daniel E; Clark, Shaunna L; Copeland, William E; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Angold, Adrian; Maes, Hermine; Liu, Youfang; Kumar, Gaurav; Erkanli, Alaattin; Patkar, Ashwin A; Silberg, Judy; Brown, Tyson H; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Eaves, Lindon; van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Sullivan, Patrick F; Costello, E J

    2015-08-01

    The public health burden of alcohol is unevenly distributed across the life course, with levels of use, abuse, and dependence increasing across adolescence and peaking in early adulthood. Here, we leverage this temporal patterning to search for common genetic variants predicting developmental trajectories of alcohol consumption. Comparable psychiatric evaluations measuring alcohol consumption were collected in three longitudinal community samples (N=2,126, obs=12,166). Consumption-repeated measurements spanning adolescence and early adulthood were analyzed using linear mixed models, estimating individual consumption trajectories, which were then tested for association with Illumina 660W-Quad genotype data (866,099 SNPs after imputation and QC). Association results were combined across samples using standard meta-analysis methods. Four meta-analysis associations satisfied our pre-determined genome-wide significance criterion (FDR<0.1) and six others met our 'suggestive' criterion (FDR<0.2). Genome-wide significant associations were highly biological plausible, including associations within GABA transporter 1, SLC6A1 (solute carrier family 6, member 1), and exonic hits in LOC100129340 (mitofusin-1-like). Pathway analyses elaborated single marker results, indicating significant enriched associations to intuitive biological mechanisms, including neurotransmission, xenobiotic pharmacodynamics, and nuclear hormone receptors (NHR). These findings underscore the value of combining longitudinal behavioral data and genome-wide genotype information in order to study developmental patterns and improve statistical power in genomic studies.

  16. Alcohol consumption and mortality in Russia since 2000: are there any changes following the alcohol policy changes starting in 2006?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of Russian alcohol control policy on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality for the period 2000-2010. Narrative review including statistical analysis. Trends before and after 2006 are compared, 2006 being the date of implementation of the Russian government's long-term strategy to reduce alcohol-related harms. Mortality data were taken from the World Health Organization (WHO) database 'Health for All'. Data on recorded alcohol consumption were taken from the WHO, based on the Russian Statistical Service (Rosstat). For unrecorded consumption, the calculations of Alexandr Nemtsov were used. Russian public opinion surveys on drinking habits were utilized. Treatment data on alcohol dependence were obtained from the Moscow National Research Centre on Addictions. Information on alcohol policy was obtained from official reports. Marked fluctuations in all-cause and alcohol-associated mortality in the working-age population were observed during the reviewed period. A decrease in total consumption and mortality was noted since the end of 2005, when the Russian government initially adopted the regulation of alcohol production and sale. The consumption changes were driven by decreases in recorded and unrecorded spirit consumption, only partly compensated for by increases in beer and wine consumption. Alcohol is a strong contributor to premature deaths in Russia, with both the volume and the pattern of consumption being detrimental to health. The regulations introduced since 2006 seem to have positive effects on both drinking behavior and health outcomes. However, there is an urgent need for further alcohol-control strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm.

  17. Alcohol Consumption: A Comparison of 1978 and 1982 Data at One University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnick, Bernard C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared results of 1982 alcohol use survey at the University of Northern Colorado with a similar 1978 study. Results indicated a continued high level use of alcohol among the students. Taste was selected as the number one reason for alcohol consumption. Alcoholics Anonymous and campus resources were identified as sources of problem assistance.…

  18. Changes in Alcohol Consumption: United States, 2001-2 to 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Rise B.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Documenting changes in alcohol consumption is critical for assessing future health service and alcohol treatment needs, evaluating efforts to modify drinking behavior and understanding the impact of shifting demographics and social norms. For the period since the year 2000, published data on drinking trends have been scarce and inconsistent. Methods Using data from two large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adults (2001-2002 and 2012-2013) that contained virtually identical questions on consumption, we assessed differences by period in the prevalence of drinking, volume of intake, frequency of drinking and prevalence of ≥monthly heavy episodic drinking (HED) and determined whether changes in consumption were consistent across beverage types and in population subgroups. Results Between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, the prevalence of drinking increased, as did volume and frequency of drinking and prevalence of ≥monthly HED among drinkers. Increases were greater for women than men for all measures and smaller among the formerly married for consumption among drinkers. The increase in overall drinking prevalence was magnified among all race-ethnic minorities, whereas the increase in ≥monthly HED was magnified only among Blacks (all relative to Whites). Conclusions Our findings are suggestive of a “wetter” drinking climate in 2012-2013 than in 2001-2002, indicating the need for continued and expanded efforts to prevent chronic and episodic heavy alcohol consumption. Given the across-the-board increases in alcohol consumption in recent years, policy efforts that address drinking at the population level are supported, even if specific drinking behaviors and subgroups of drinkers are additionally targeted for individualized approaches. PMID:25620731

  19. Alcohol consumption and its impact on the risk of high blood pressure in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher; Suvankulov, Farrukh

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to examine the causal effect of alcohol consumption on the risk of high blood pressure in Russia. Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, we estimated the influence of alcohol consumption on high blood pressure, controlling for social and other factors related to alcohol use. To address the issue of causality, we instrumented alcohol consumption by the number of frequent alcohol drinkers in the household. We found that frequent consumption of vodka and beer has an adverse impact on health. In particular, frequent vodka consumption increases the likelihood of high blood pressure by 2.88% while frequent beer consumption increases it by 2.06%. Controlling for the endogeneity of frequent alcohol consumption using the instrumental variable method produces an even larger effect for frequent vodka consumption, with a marginal effect of 7.23%. Prevention policies as well as government programs aimed at treating alcohol-related health outcomes should take into consideration the significant adverse effect of alcohol consumption on high blood pressure. It is also recommended that policy interventions aimed to address alcohol addiction issues in Russia explicitly differentiate between vodka and beer drinkers. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  2. Alcohol consumption among Asian Americans in the U.S: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review all systematic reviews and meta-analyses of alcohol consumption among Asian Americans in the U.S. An in-depth literature search was conducted using the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC, PsycARTICLES, and CINAHL Plus with Full Text. The keywords used for the search were: Alcohol Consumption, Asian Americans, Social Determinants, and Cultural Differences. The results suggested the determinants of alcohol consumption in American society include gender, race and ethnicity, marital status, membership in social groups, genetic factors, sexual orientation, poverty, place of residence and education. Alcohol consumption among Asian Americans is also dependent on their societal perceptions towards alcohol consumption. Other factors determining the consumption of alcohol include affiliation to different social groups, social-cultural affiliations, acculturation and acculturation stress, and cultural observances.

  3. The impact of stressful life events on excessive alcohol consumption in the French population: findings from the GAZEL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamers, Sara L; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bohl, Alex A; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Major life changes may play a causative role in health through lifestyle factors, such as alcohol. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events on heavy alcohol consumption among French adults. Trajectories of excessive alcohol consumption in 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company for up to 5 years before and 5 years after an event, with annual measurements from 1992. We used repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events, employing generalized estimating equations. For women, excessive alcohol use increased before important purchase (p = 0.021), children leaving home (pdivorce, widowhood, and death of loved one (all pchildren leaving home and retirement, where we observed an increase (all pdivorce and increased after (all pimpact alcohol intake temporarily while others have longer-term implications. Research should disentangle women's and men's distinct perceptions of events over time.

  4. The Relationship between Brand-Specific Alcohol Advertising on Television and Brand-Specific Consumption among Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Ostroff, Joshua; Padon, Alisa A.; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Being able to investigate the relationship between underage drinkers' preferences for particular brands and their exposure to advertising for those brands would represent a significant advance in alcohol marketing research. However, no previous national study has examined the relationship between underage youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising and consumption of those brands. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, internet-based survey of a national sample of 1,031 youths, ages 13-20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all alcohol brands consumed by respondents in the past 30 days. The main outcome measure was brand-specific consumption during the past 30 days, measured as a dichotomous variable. The main predictor variable was exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising on television. The respondents reported which of 20 television shows popular with youth they had watched during the past 30 days. For each respondent, we calculated a standard measure of potential exposure to the brand-specific alcohol advertising that aired on those shows during the preceding 12 months, based on Nielsen (New York, NY) estimates of the youth audience for each show's telecasts. Results Compared to no brand-specific advertising exposure, any exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of brand-specific consumption (adjusted odds ratio 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 2.61-3.49) after controlling for several individual- and brand-level variables. When measured as a continuous variable, the relationship between advertising exposure and brand consumption was nonlinear, with a large association at lower levels of exposure and diminishing incremental effects as the level of exposure increased. Conclusions There is a robust relationship between youth's brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on television and their consumption of those same alcohol brands during the past 30 days. This study provides

  5. Pharmacologically Counteracting a Phenotypic Difference in Cerebellar GABAA Receptor Response to Alcohol Prevents Excessive Alcohol Consumption in a High Alcohol-Consuming Rodent Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Josh Steven; Nipper, Michelle A; Richardson, Ben D; Jensen, Jeremiah; Helms, Melinda; Finn, Deborah Ann; Rossi, David James

    2016-08-31

    Cerebellar granule cell GABAA receptor responses to alcohol vary as a function of alcohol consumption phenotype, representing a potential neural mechanism for genetic predilection for alcohol abuse (Kaplan et al., 2013; Mohr et al., 2013). However, there are numerous molecular targets of alcohol in the cerebellum, and it is not known how they interact to affect cerebellar processing during consumption of socially relevant amounts of alcohol. Importantly, direct evidence for a causative role of the cerebellum in alcohol consumption phenotype is lacking. Here we determined that concentrations of alcohol that would be achieved in the blood after consumption of 1-2 standard units (9 mm) suppresses transmission through the cerebellar cortex in low, but not high, alcohol consuming rodent genotypes (DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, respectively). This genotype-selective suppression is mediated exclusively by enhancement of granule cell GABAA receptor currents, which only occurs in DBA/2J mice. Simulating the DBA/2J cellular phenotype in C57BL/6J mice by infusing the GABAA receptor agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride, into cerebellar lobules IV-VI, in vivo, significantly reduced their alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentrations achieved. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride infusions also significantly decreased sucrose consumption, but they did not affect consumption of water or general locomotion. Thus, genetic differences in cerebellar response to alcohol contributes to alcohol consumption phenotype, and targeting the cerebellar GABAA receptor system may be a clinically viable therapeutic strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of preventable death and illness; and although alcohol use disorders are 50%-60% genetically determined, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such genetic influences are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that genetic differences in

  6. Determining the best population-level alcohol consumption model and its impact on estimates of alcohol-attributable harms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehoe Tara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goals of our study are to determine the most appropriate model for alcohol consumption as an exposure for burden of disease, to analyze the effect of the chosen alcohol consumption distribution on the estimation of the alcohol Population- Attributable Fractions (PAFs, and to characterize the chosen alcohol consumption distribution by exploring if there is a global relationship within the distribution. Methods To identify the best model, the Log-Normal, Gamma, and Weibull prevalence distributions were examined using data from 41 surveys from Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS and from the European Comparative Alcohol Study. To assess the effect of these distributions on the estimated alcohol PAFs, we calculated the alcohol PAF for diabetes, breast cancer, and pancreatitis using the three above-named distributions and using the more traditional approach based on categories. The relationship between the mean and the standard deviation from the Gamma distribution was estimated using data from 851 datasets for 66 countries from GENACIS and from the STEPwise approach to Surveillance from the World Health Organization. Results The Log-Normal distribution provided a poor fit for the survey data, with Gamma and Weibull distributions providing better fits. Additionally, our analyses showed that there were no marked differences for the alcohol PAF estimates based on the Gamma or Weibull distributions compared to PAFs based on categorical alcohol consumption estimates. The standard deviation of the alcohol distribution was highly dependent on the mean, with a unit increase in alcohol consumption associated with a unit increase in the mean of 1.258 (95% CI: 1.223 to 1.293 (R2 = 0.9207 for women and 1.171 (95% CI: 1.144 to 1.197 (R2 = 0. 9474 for men. Conclusions Although the Gamma distribution and the Weibull distribution provided similar results, the Gamma distribution is recommended to model alcohol

  7. Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Harling, Melanie; Strehmel, Petra; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In this cross-sectional study the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects (52.7% response). Methods Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption (≹ 10 items/day), high-risk alcohol consumption (men > 20 g pure alcohol/day, women > 10 g pure alcohol/day)...

  8. Correlates of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Risa; Wilunda, Calistus; Magutah, Karani; Mwaura-Tenambergen, Wanja; Wilunda, Boniface; Perngparn, Usaneya

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies on alcohol consumption in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya. The study was conducted as a preliminary stage of a community-based intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 478 participants aged 18?65?years residing in Ikolomani Sub-county, Kakamega County was conducted in April 2015. Data were collected using ...

  9. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus......, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom....

  10. Alcohol consumption in elderly people across European countries: Results from the Food in Later Life project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz De Almeida, Maria Daniel; Davidson, Kate; De Morais, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify social and cultural aspects of alcohol consumption in a sample of older people living in their own homes, in eight different European countries. We explore several aspects of alcohol consumption, establishing comparisons between genders, age groups and living...... circumstances. The phenomenon of alcohol consumption within these countries and cultures is compared in order to gain a better understanding of similarities and differences....

  11. Living under the influence: normalisation of alcohol consumption in our cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. A positive association between certain characteristics of the urban environment and individual alcohol consumption has been documented in previous research. When developing a tool characterising the urban environment of alcohol in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid we observed that alcohol is ever present in our cities. Urban residents are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption. In this field note, we reflect the normalisation of alcohol in urban environments. We highlight the need for further research to better understand attitudes and practices in relation to alcohol consumption. This type of urban studies is necessary to support policy interventions to prevent and control harmful alcohol use.

  12. Living under the influence: normalisation of alcohol consumption in our cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Villalbí, Joan R; Espelt, Albert; Franco, Manuel

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. A positive association between certain characteristics of the urban environment and individual alcohol consumption has been documented in previous research. When developing a tool characterising the urban environment of alcohol in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid we observed that alcohol is ever present in our cities. Urban residents are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption. In this field note, we reflect the normalisation of alcohol in urban environments. We highlight the need for further research to better understand attitudes and practices in relation to alcohol consumption. This type of urban studies is necessary to support policy interventions to prevent and control harmful alcohol use. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Alcohol in Mayan Guatemala: consumption, distribution, production and composition of cuxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanteres, Fotis; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    To describe the consumption, distribution, production and chemical composition of alcohol, including cuxa (pronounced 'coo sha'), in Nahualá, a highland Mayan municipality in Guatemala. Cuxa is a sugarcane-derived spirit, in part produced clandestinely, that has been distributed in the community for several decades. Key informant interviews with alcohol distributors and consumers, cuxa producers and health professionals, as well as analyses of questionnaires from a sample of 47 spouses who came to the local health centre for problems related to their husband's drinking. Sampling and chemical analysis of cuxa from 12 of 13 identified sales points in the head-town of Nahualá and its nearby settlements (10 km radius). Fieldwork was conducted between November 2007 and March 2008. Alcohol consumption was found to be integrated culturally in this community. The overall drinking culture was marked by irregular heavy drinking occasions, especially around market days, with substantial inebriation and health problems, especially among street inhabiting drinkers. Cuxa contributed to these problems, and cuxa drinking was socially stigmatized. Cuxa was produced both clandestinely and industrially, and sold legally by taverns and illegally by clandestine distributors. The alcoholic strength of the samples was typically between 17 and 19% vol.; clandestinely produced cuxa samples showed acetaldehyde contamination. Measures should be taken to reduce the harm associated with alcohol in this community, including efforts to reduce acetaldehyde levels in cuxa.

  15. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were

  16. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  17. Estimating the Price Elasticity of Demand for Different Levels of Alcohol Consumption among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vinish Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effect of higher alcohol prices on alcohol demand according to one’s level of alcohol consumption is crucial while evaluating the effectiveness of using alcohol taxes as an alcohol-control medium. In this study, I estimate the differential responses to alcohol prices on alcohol demand for young adults by asking whether heavy drinkers are more responsive to higher alcohol prices than light and moderate drinkers. To conduct the analysis, I use the data from the National Long...

  18. Patterns and sources of alcohol consumption preceding alcohol-affected attendances to a New Zealand hospital emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manidipa; Stewart, Rebecca; Ardagh, Michael; Deely, Joanne M; Dodd, Stuart; Bartholomew, Nadia V; Pearson, Scott; Spearing, Ruth; Williams, Tracey; Than, Martin

    2014-08-29

    To perform a descriptive study of the drinking behaviour (amounts, types, sources of alcohol consumed) preceding alcohol-affected presentations to Christchurch Hospital Emergency Department (ED). Over 336 hours in the ED, patients with recent alcohol consumption or alcohol-related attendances were identified, classified as alcohol-affected or alcohol- unaffected, and invited to consent to answering questions on types, amounts and sources of alcohol consumed in the drinking session preceding or implicated in their ED attendance. Demographic information and level of intoxication were also recorded. Data were summarised descriptively. Alcohol-affected patients were more frequently young (16-25 years) and male. Median alcohol consumption was 14 (range 1 to 71) standard drinks. Beer was the most popular beverage (34%), but spirits (23%), ready-to-drink mixes (21%) and wine (20%) were also popular. Liquor stores (45%) were the most popular source of alcohol, followed by on-licence premises (25%), and supermarkets (21%). The popularity of different types of beverages and their source varied according to patient age and gender. Consumption of large amounts, as well as allegedly 'safe' amounts, of a range of alcoholic beverages, most commonly from an off-licence source, contributed to alcohol-affected presentations to the ED. Beverage and source popularity varied by age and gender.

  19. Effectiveness of policies maintaining or restricting days of alcohol sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  1. An exploration of adolescents' decisions to abstain or refrain from alcohol consumption in Australian social settings: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrad, Sue; de, Charlotte; Aylward, Paul; Wiechula, Rick

    2015-10-01

    A significant number of Australian adolescents consume alcohol, with almost two thirds of them doing so at risky levels. This is continuing to increase despite recent National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines stipulating that no alcohol is the safest option. Measures initiated to reduce and prevent alcohol consumption by adolescents have limited effectiveness. Consumption of alcohol by Australian adolescents is a national concern because of the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on adolescents' social, physical and neurological development, as well as other short- and long-term health risks, and the negative impact of alcohol-related violence and injury on the community. Understanding adolescents' decisions to abstain or refrain from alcohol consumption may provide valuable insights to assist in dealing with this significant social and health issue, more particularly about the mechanisms used by adolescents or their ability to make decisions about resisting or abstaining from alcohol consumption when exposed to alcohol in their social setting(s). The review aimed to synthesize the best available qualitative evidence on the decisions made or mechanisms used by adolescents who abstain or refrain from consuming alcohol in any social setting where alcohol is available. Adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years who reside in Australia.The phenomenon of interest was abstinence from or resistance to alcohol consumption when exposed to alcohol in social situations.This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data, including, but not limited to,designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, action research and exploratory studies. A three-step search strategy was used. An initial search to identify keywords only was undertaken in Medline and CINAHL. This was followed by an expanded search using all identified keywords and index terms specific to each included database. The reference lists of included papers were then searched for

  2. Alcohol, poverty and social exclusion: Alcohol consumption among the homeless and those at risk of social exclusion in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero, Sonia; Vázquez, José Juan; Martín, Rosa María

    2016-06-14

    The work analyzes different aspects related to alcohol consumption among homeless people and people at risk of social exclusion. The data was gathered from a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 188) and a sample of people at risk of social exclusion (n = 164) matched in sex, age, and origin (Spaniards vs. foreigners). The results showed that homeless people present a greater consumption of alcohol and have experienced more problems derived from its consumption than people at risk of social exclusion. Most of the homeless people who had alcohol-related problems had had them prior to their homelessness, and they stated they had poorer health and had experienced a greater number of homelessness episodes. Despite the relevance of problems related to alcohol among our sample, only a small percentage of the sample had participated in treatment programs for alcohol consumption.

  3. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  4. Late-Life and Life History Predictors of Older Adults of High-Risk Alcohol Consumption and Drinking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55–65 to age 75–85. Design, Setting, Participants A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. Measurements At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Results Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10-year and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Conclusion Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. PMID:19969428

  5. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Tyng Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods: Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Results: Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the

  6. Changes in alcohol consumption following a reduction in the price of spirits: a natural experiment in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Jean-Luc; Gmel, Gerhard; Zurbrügg, Christoph; Kuo, Meichun; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-10-01

    To discover what changes in alcohol consumption had occurred in subgroups defined by age, sex, volume of drinking and drinking occasions, following a reduction in the price of spirits in Switzerland in July 1999. Quasi-experimental. Longitudinal general-population survey with baseline 3 months before and follow-up 3 months after price change. Probabilistic telephone sample of 1347 individuals with at least monthly consumption on average in the previous 6 months at both interviews. The response rate at baseline was 74,8% and the attrition rate from baseline to follow-up 20.2%. Alcohol consumption was assessed by means of a beverage-specific graduated-frequency measure. High volume of drinking was defined as 40 + g/day for men and 20 + g/day for women. Binge drinking was defined as six + drinks on an occasion for men and four + drinks for women. Spirits consumption increased significantly (by 28.6%) in the total sample, and specifically in young males and in individuals who were low-volume drinkers at baseline. Consumption of alcohol overall, or of wine or beer, did not change significantly. No indication of effects of substitution was found. Spirits consumption showed price-responsiveness in the early postintervention period. This finding is of particular interest, as (a) the increase in spirits consumption took place at a time of generally declining consumption of alcohol in Switzerland; and (b) in contrast to the findings of most studies, the intervention, namely price reduction, increased availability.

  7. Correlates of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Risa; Wilunda, Calistus; Magutah, Karani; Mwaura-Tenambergen, Wanja; Wilunda, Boniface; Perngparn, Usaneya

    2017-05-10

    Studies on alcohol consumption in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya. The study was conducted as a preliminary stage of a community-based intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 478 participants aged 18-65 years residing in Ikolomani Sub-county, Kakamega County was conducted in April 2015. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We defined current drinkers as participants who consumed any alcoholic product in the preceding one month, and hazardous/high-risk drinkers as participants with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score of 8 and above. We summarised data using descriptive statistics and used logistic regression to explore for the correlates of each of current alcohol consumption and hazardous/high-risk alcohol consumption. The sex-standardized prevalence of current alcohol drinkers was 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8%-37.2%). The prevalence was higher in men (54.6%) than in women (8.9%). The mean AUDIT score among current drinkers was 16.9 (SD 8.2) and the sex-standardized prevalence of hazardous/high-risk alcohol drinking was 28.7% (95% CI: 24.1%-34.0%). Traditional brews were the most commonly consumed types of alcohol and most drinkers took alcohol in the homes of alcohol sellers/brewers. In multivariate analyses, the number of drinkers in the family, the number of friends who are drinkers and the attitude towards alcohol intake were positively associated with current alcohol drinking status, and with hazardous/high-risk alcohol consumption. Women were less likely to be current drinkers and hazardous/high-risk drinkers than were men. Other socio-demographic factors were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. The prevalence of alcohol consumption in the study area was higher than the national level estimate of 13.3%. The

  8. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Estimating changes in unrecorded alcohol consumption in Norway using indicators of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, T

    1998-10-01

    To assess the value of using indicators of alcohol-related harm to estimate changes in unrecorded per capita consumption of alcohol. Unrecorded consumption was estimated from the discrepancy between the observed changes in a number of alcohol-related harm indicators and the changes that would be expected from changes in recorded consumption. The results were compared with estimates of unrecorded consumption from survey data. Four indicators of alcohol-related harm were used: alcohol-related mortality, assaults, drunken driving, and suicide. Estimates of unrecorded consumption from survey data for five different years were used as benchmarks. The best performing indicators were alcohol-related mortality, suicide and assaults, in that order. Combining these indicators yielded a prediction error averaging 12% in comparison with the benchmarks. The method seems worthy of further applications, but it should be regarded as a supplement rather than as a substitute for other approaches.

  11. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

     Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... than age and sex, classical socioeconomic factors do not play a great a role in determining drinking patterns. Social integrative factors in particular influence women's drinking. Conclusions: With respect to the rest of Europe and North America, Danes consume high levels of alcohol with a large...

  12. Consumption Of Counterfeit Alcohol In Contemporary Russia: The Role Of Cultural And Structural Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Kotelnikova

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Russians believe that counterfeit alcohol may cause death. Nevertheless, alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in contemporary Russia as are branded clothes, accessories and audio products. This paper aims to reveal whether counterfeit alcohol consumers are distinctive in terms of structure and culture. It investigates the prevalence and structure of counterfeit alcohol purchasing and consumption; attitudes and beliefs about counterfeit alcohol; and predictors of counte...

  13. An empirical analysis of the relationship between the consumption of alcohol and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    The question whether intake of alcohol is associated with liver cirrhosis mortality is analyzed using aggregate data for alcohol consumption, alcohol related diseases and alcohol policies of 16 European countries. The empirical analysis gives support to a close association between cirrhosis morta...... mortality and intake of alcohol - and the latter also concerns each of the specific beverages, i.e. spirits, wine and beer, where other studies usually only find evidence of spirits and wine related to liver cirrhosis mortality.  ...

  14. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring Emotions in the Consumption Experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Richins, Marsha L

    1997-01-01

    Although consumption-related emotions have been studied with increasing frequency in consumer behavior, issues concerning the appropriate way to measure these emotions remain unresolved This article reviews the emotion measures currently used in consumer research and the theories on which they are based; it concludes that the existing measures are unsuited for the purpose of measuring consumption-related emotions. The article describes six empirical studies that assess the domain of consumpti...

  16. [Alcohol consumption--risk behavior in institutionalized teenagers of a Lugoj investment center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Cristina; Stoian, Iasmina Rodica; Suciu, Oana; Bredicean, Cristina; Olariu, T R

    2010-01-01

    In the performed study we investigated alcohol consumption--a frequent risk behavior that occurs in teenagers. The institutionalization of children from disturbed family could be a facilitator factor for alcohol consumption. A new group with different habits of the members is created and the information exchange could be useful or noxious. A transversal inquiry, with CORT (Comportamente cu Risc la Tineri--Risk Behaviors in Young People) questionnaire applying in a sample with 64 teenagers, which live in an Investment Center from Lugoj. We selected 16 items referring to alcohol consumption and the social environment. Obtained results showed frequent alcohol consumption in the social environment (group of friends--85% and disorganized family--debut of alcohol consumption under 8 years in boys group). The places of alcohol consumption are bars, restaurants (73% boys), in the Investment Center (59% boys and 29% girls), in the friends' houses, on the street. They consume alcohol in group and alone. The boys became drunk frequent (20% affirmed that became drunk more than 40 times in the last month). Discontent about relation inside the group increases the alcohol consumption outside the group. The alcohol consumption as a learned behavior in the origin disorganized family could be disseminated in the Centers for Children Protection.

  17. Hepcidin regulation in wild-type and Hfe knockout mice in response to alcohol consumption: evidence for an alcohol-induced hypoxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Mandy L; Murphy, Therese L; Bridle, Kim R; Anderson, Gregory J; Crawford, Darrell H G; Fletcher, Linda M

    2009-08-01

    Expression of Hamp1, the gene encoding the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin, is inappropriately low in HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis and Hfe knockout mice (Hfe(-/-)). Since chronic alcohol consumption is also associated with disturbances in iron metabolism, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on hepcidin mRNA expression in Hfe(-/-) mice. Hfe(-/-) and C57BL/6 (wild-type) mice were pair-fed either an alcohol liquid diet or control diet for up to 8 weeks. The mRNA levels of hepcidin and ferroportin were measured at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and protein expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) was measured by western blot. Hamp1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased and duodenal ferroportin expression was increased in alcohol-fed wild-type mice at 8 weeks. Time course experiments showed that the decrease in hepcidin mRNA was not immediate, but was significant by 4 weeks. Consistent with the genetic defect, Hamp1 mRNA was decreased and duodenal ferroportin mRNA expression was increased in Hfe(-/-) mice fed on the control diet compared with wild-type animals and alcohol further exacerbated these effects. HIF-1alpha protein levels were elevated in alcohol-fed wild-type animals compared with controls. Alcohol may decrease Hamp1 gene expression independently of the HFE pathway possibly via alcohol-induced hypoxia.

  18. Estimating the effect of native Indian population on county alcohol consumption: the example of Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, M; Layne, N; Williams, R T

    Multiple regression analysis of cross-sectional 1985-1986 Ontario county data indicated that the presence of Native Indians on reserves is a significant factor in explaining differences in county alcohol consumption levels. Consumption in counties with reserves was higher than in those without reserves by roughly 1.48 liters of absolute alcohol per adult; consumption increased as the Native reserve population increased (p less than 0.05). When income, employment, household crowding, type of industrial activity, northern isolation, and tourism were included, we could account for over 60% of the variation in alcohol consumption between Ontario counties (p less than 0.01). Every extra $1,000 in income per tax return was associated with a 0.297-liter reduction in absolute alcohol consumption. Efforts to reduce alcohol consumption in the Native population would have their greatest impact when associated with improved economic conditions.

  19. Individual Popularity, Peer Group Popularity Composition and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Rob; Müller, Christoph M; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking. Participants were 800 adolescents (M age  = 14.73; SD age  = 1.00; 51.6 % girls) from 31 classrooms who completed peer ratings of popularity and self-reports of alcohol consumption. Results showed that drinking was higher among popular than unpopular adolescents, higher among popular adolescents surrounded by less popular classmates, and lower in classrooms with more variability in popularity. Thus, beyond individual popularity, peer group popularity composition also should be taken into account when investigating antisocial and health risk behaviors in adolescence such as drinking.

  20. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). METHODS: We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age......BACKGROUND: Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible......-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. RESULTS: The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae...

  1. Personality, lifestyles, alcohol and drug consumption in a sample of British medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, C H; Kamali, F

    1995-05-01

    Personality characteristics and lifestyle variables were assessed in two cohorts of second-year medical students at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK as part of a psychopharmacology 'teach-in' in 1993 and 1994. The pooled sample included 186 students: 77 men, 109 women, mean age 20.4 +/- 1.8 years. Measures included the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and a questionnaire concerning consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs, and physical exercise. The results were compared, where possible, with a similar survey in Newcastle upon Tyne medical students in 1983 and 1984. Personality variables, prevalence of cigarette smoking, levels of caffeine consumption and participation in sports had not changed significantly over the decade. There appeared to be a modest overall increase in alcohol consumption and in the 1993 and 1994 cohorts of students, 25.5% of those who drank alcohol exceeded recommended low risk levels (comparable data not available for 1983 and 1984). Reported use of cannabis and other illicit drugs had more than doubled, and in the present survey 49.2% of students recorded using cannabis and 22% had tried other illicit drugs. Corresponding figures for 1983 and 1984 were 20.9% for cannabis and 3.3% for other illicit drugs. Anxiety levels were not measured in 1983 and 1984 but in the present survey 39.3% of the students had anxiety ratings within the clinically significant range. The high levels of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, and the high anxiety ratings, in this sample of medical students are a cause for concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Anticipating and addressing event-specific alcohol consumption among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pettigrew

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various specific events and celebrations are associated with excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. End-of-school celebrations such as Schoolies in Australia are of particular concern given high levels of documented harm among underage and young drinkers. The present study investigated high school students’ expectations of their Schoolies celebrations to inform future interventions to reduce adverse outcomes among members of this vulnerable group and other young people involved in similar rites of passage. Methods A link to an online survey was distributed via high schools and Schoolies-related websites. The survey included qualitative questions that invited respondents to discuss (i aspects of Schoolies they were looking forward to most and least and (ii their perceptions of the likely consequences if they refrained from consuming alcohol during the event. In total, 435 students provided responses. Results Respondents discussed the role of Schoolies in marking their transition to adulthood. Their comments revealed a cross-temporal focus indicating that Schoolies is simultaneously symbolic of the past, present, and future. Through its ability to enhance social interaction, alcohol was perceived to have a vital role in realising the potential of this event to signify and facilitate this temporal progression. Conclusions Results suggest interventions that treat Schoolies as an isolated event that occurs in specific locations may fail to appreciate the extent to which these events transcend time for those involved. Instead, harm reduction is likely to involve a reconceptualisation of the event among both participants and authority figures to facilitate the provision of alternative pastimes to drinking during Schoolies that yield similar social benefits.

  3. Anticipating and addressing event-specific alcohol consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Jongenelis, Michelle I

    2016-07-29

    Various specific events and celebrations are associated with excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. End-of-school celebrations such as Schoolies in Australia are of particular concern given high levels of documented harm among underage and young drinkers. The present study investigated high school students' expectations of their Schoolies celebrations to inform future interventions to reduce adverse outcomes among members of this vulnerable group and other young people involved in similar rites of passage. A link to an online survey was distributed via high schools and Schoolies-related websites. The survey included qualitative questions that invited respondents to discuss (i) aspects of Schoolies they were looking forward to most and least and (ii) their perceptions of the likely consequences if they refrained from consuming alcohol during the event. In total, 435 students provided responses. Respondents discussed the role of Schoolies in marking their transition to adulthood. Their comments revealed a cross-temporal focus indicating that Schoolies is simultaneously symbolic of the past, present, and future. Through its ability to enhance social interaction, alcohol was perceived to have a vital role in realising the potential of this event to signify and facilitate this temporal progression. Results suggest interventions that treat Schoolies as an isolated event that occurs in specific locations may fail to appreciate the extent to which these events transcend time for those involved. Instead, harm reduction is likely to involve a reconceptualisation of the event among both participants and authority figures to facilitate the provision of alternative pastimes to drinking during Schoolies that yield similar social benefits.

  4. Impact of acute alcohol consumption on lethality of suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Hyung Keun; Yoo, Seong Ho; Lee, Jaewon; Cho, Sung Joon; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Ham, Keunsoo; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-05-01

    The influence of acute alcohol consumption on the factors related to suicide remains understudied. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between blood alcohol content (BAC) and the lethality of suicide methods. Autopsy data on 315 South Korean suicide completers with a positive BAC were collected from a nationwide pool between May 2015 and November 2015, and the methods were dichotomised as suicide methods of low lethality (SMLL; drug/chemical overdose and sharp objects, n=67) and suicide methods of high lethality (SMHL; everything else, n=243). BAC at the time of autopsy and various suicide-related factors of these two groups were compared with logistic regression analyses. Compared to suicide completers with a BAC in the lowest range of 0.011-0.049%, suicide completers with a BAC in the range of 0.150-0.199% were more likely to use SMHL (odds ratio [OR]: 3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.221-10.874). Additionally, the adoption of SMHL was significantly associated with the absence of a psychiatric illness (OR: 0.433, 95% CI: 0.222-0.843) and a younger age; the OR for high BAC among subjects in their 40s was 0.266 (95% CI: 0.083-0.856); in their 50s, 0.183 (95% CI: 0.055-0.615); and in their 60s, 0.057 (95% CI: 0.015-0.216). The relationship between BAC and suicide method lethality was represented by a bell-shaped pattern in which suicide methods of high lethality were more likely to be used by suicide completers with mid-range BAC levels. The increased impulsivity and impairments in particular executive functions, including planning and organization, associated with acute alcohol use may influence the selection of a particular suicide method based on its lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leads to the exercise of questionable judgment, unreliability, failure to control impulses, and... alcohol dependence; (4) Evaluation of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence by a licensed clinical social... diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence, the individual has successfully completed impatient or...

  6. Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shue; Li, Junjuan; Shearer, Gregory C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuntao; Jin, Cheng; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-04-01

    Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited. Objective: We sought to determine the association between total alcohol intake, the type of alcohol-containing beverage, and the 6-y (2006-2012) longitudinal change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations in a community-based cohort. Design: A total of 71,379 Chinese adults (mean age: 50 y) who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and did not use cholesterol-lowering agents during follow-up were included in the study. Alcohol intake was assessed via a questionnaire in 2006 (baseline), and participants were classified into the following categories of alcohol consumption: never, past, light (women: 0-0.4 servings/d; men: 0-0.9 servings/d), moderate (women: 0.5-1.0 servings/d; men: 1-2 servings/d), and heavy (women: >1.0 servings/d; men: >2 servings/d). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the associations between baseline alcohol intake and the change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, liver function, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Results: An umbrella-shaped association was observed between total alcohol consumption and changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Compared with never drinkers, past, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers experienced slower decreases in HDL cholesterol of 0.012 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.008, 0.016 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), 0.013 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.010, 0.016 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), 0.017 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.009, 0.025 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), and 0.008 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.005, 0.011 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), respectively ( P alcohol consumption was associated with the

  7. Consumo de alcohol y otras drogas en el medio laboral Consumption of alcohol and other drugs in the occupational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Ochoa Mangado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol y otras drogas tiene una elevada prevalencia en la sociedad en general, y también entre la población trabajadora, repercutiendo sobre el medio laboral. La repercusión del consumo de estas sustancias en el medio laboral es muy importante (enfermedades, accidentes laborales, absentismo, incapacidades laborales, disminución de la productividad…. Se valora la necesidad de una política en el medio laboral encaminada a prevenir o minimizar los riesgos laborales derivados del consumo de estas sustancias, con programas de prevención y apoyo que aporten información básica de referencia y orienten al abordaje asistencial de los trabajadores afectados.The consumption of alcohol and other drugs has high prevalencia in the society in general, and in the population of workers especially, affecting on the occupational area. The repercussion of the consumption of these substances in the working enviroment is very important (diseases, occupational accidents, absenteeism, occupational disabilities, decrease of the productivity…. They are necessary political measurements in the occupational area to prevent and to minimize the risks derived from the consumption of these substances. There should be included programs of prevention and support, which offer basic information and orientation to the medical aproach of the affected workers.

  8. Measurement of forearm oxygen consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1988-01-01

    The classical forearm technique widely used for studies of skeletal muscle metabolism requires arterial cannulation. To avoid arterial puncture it is becoming more common to arterialize blood from a contralateral hand vein by local heating. This modification and the classical method have produced...... blood flow and decreases skeletal muscle blood flow. This facilitates mixing of superficial blood with deep venous blood. Contralateral heating increased deep venous oxygen saturation and abolished the pronounced glucose-induced increase in oxygen consumption observed in the control experiments after...... contradictory results regarding the contribution of skeletal muscle to glucose-induced thermogenesis. The effect on forearm circulation and the metabolism of heating the contralateral hand was examined before and after an oral glucose load. The results suggest that contralateral heating increases subcutaneous...

  9. Personalised digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in community-dwelling populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Eileen Fs; Beyer, Fiona R; Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Muirhead, Colin; Redmore, James; O'Donnell, Amy; Newham, James J; de Vocht, Frank; Hickman, Matthew; Brown, Heather; Maniatopoulos, Gregory; Michie, Susan

    2017-09-25

    intervention or with face-to-face interventions for reducing hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption in people living in the community and reported a measure of alcohol consumption. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 57 studies which randomised a total of 34,390 participants. The main sources of bias were from attrition and participant blinding (36% and 21% of studies respectively, high risk of bias). Forty one studies (42 comparisons, 19,241 participants) provided data for the primary meta-analysis, which demonstrated that participants using a digital intervention drank approximately 23 g alcohol weekly (95% CI 15 to 30) (about 3 UK units) less than participants who received no or minimal interventions at end of follow up (moderate-quality evidence).Fifteen studies (16 comparisons, 10,862 participants) demonstrated that participants who engaged with digital interventions had less than one drinking day per month fewer than no intervention controls (moderate-quality evidence), 15 studies (3587 participants) showed about one binge drinking session less per month in the intervention group compared to no intervention controls (moderate-quality evidence), and in 15 studies (9791 participants) intervention participants drank one unit per occasion less than no intervention control participants (moderate-quality evidence).Only five small studies (390 participants) compared digital and face-to-face interventions. There was no difference in alcohol consumption at end of follow up (MD 0.52 g/week, 95% CI -24.59 to 25.63; low-quality evidence). Thus, digital alcohol interventions produced broadly similar outcomes in these studies. No studies reported whether any adverse effects resulted from the interventions.A median of nine BCTs were used in experimental arms (range = 1 to 22). 'B' is an estimate of effect (MD in quantity of drinking, expressed in g/week) per unit increase in the BCT, and is a way to report whether individual

  10. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Tyng; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Haardörfer, Regine; Crawford, Natalie D; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old) and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old) from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source) compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT) and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the relationship between district-level violent

  11. Overlapping genetic and environmental influences among men's alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, J E; Prom-Wormley, E; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and problems are associated with interpersonal difficulties. We used a twin design to assess in men the degree to which genetic or environmental influences contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support. The sample included adult male-male twin pairs (697 monozygotic and 487 dizygotic) for whom there were interview-based data on: alcohol consumption (average monthly alcohol consumption in the past year); alcohol problems (lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms); romantic conflict and warmth; friend problems and support; and relative problems and support. Key findings were that genetic and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and romantic conflict; genetic factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and romantic conflict; and common and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and friend problems. Recognizing and addressing the overlapping genetic and environmental influences that alcohol consumption and problems share with romantic quality and other indicators of social support may have implications for substance use prevention and intervention efforts.

  12. Current alcohol policy in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the state alcohol policy is presented. The dynamics of total alcohol consumption, unregistered alcohol consumption and alcohol sales in Belarus were evaluated for the period 1980-2009. It was shown that the implementation of measures within the framework of the state alcohol policy resulted in a significant reduction in unregistered alcohol consumption and a slight reduction in total alcohol consumption.

  13. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Nandi; Pienaar, David C; Ataguba, John E; Volmink, Jimmy; Kredo, Tamara; Jere, Mlenga; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-11-04

    Alcohol is estimated to be the fifth leading risk factor for global disability-adjusted life years. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising may reduce exposure to the risk posed by alcohol at the individual and general population level. To date, no systematic review has evaluated the effectiveness, possible harms and cost-effectiveness of this intervention. To evaluate the benefits, harms and costs of restricting or banning the advertising of alcohol, via any format, compared with no restrictions or counter-advertising, on alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (May 2014); CENTRAL (Issue 5, 2014); MEDLINE (1966 to 28 May 2014); EMBASE (1974 to 28 May 2014); PsychINFO (June 2013); and five alcohol and marketing databases in October 2013. We also searched seven conference databases and www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/ in October 2013. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified and those of relevant systematic reviews or guidelines, and contacted researchers, policymakers and other experts in the field for published or unpublished data, regardless of language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series (ITS) studies that evaluated the restriction or banning of alcohol advertising via any format including advertising in the press, on the television, radio, or internet, via billboards, social media or product placement in films. The data could be at the individual (adults or adolescent) or population level. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one small RCT (80 male student participants conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2009) and three ITS studies (general population studies in Canadian provinces conducted in the 1970s and 80s).The RCT

  14. Alcohol consumption and symptoms as predictors for relapse of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol consumption levels and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms may serve as easily quantifiable markers for AUD relapse after remission and might help prevention workers identify at-risk individuals. We investigated the predictive value of alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms on relapse. Data are from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). We selected 506 people in ≥12-month DSM-5 AUD remission at baseline and assessed their status at 3-year follow-up. AUD symptoms and drinking patterns were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Time since remission was assessed retrospectively at baseline and ranged from 1 to 48 years. Predictors for relapse were examined using Cox regression analysis. Cumulative AUD relapse rate was 5.6% at 5 years, 9.1% at 10 years and 12.0% at 20 years. Relapse was predicted by both medium (15-28/22-42 drinks weekly for women/men) and high (≥29/43) past alcohol intake, 6+ lifetime AUD symptoms, 'impaired control over use', and at-risk (≥8/15) current intake. The risk of relapse was especially high when medium or high past intake or 6+ lifetime symptoms coincided with current at-risk drinking. Only a minority of people in DSM-5 AUD remission relapsed, but the risk of relapse increased substantially with the presence of at least one of the risk factors. Moreover, at-risk current drinking coupled with other risk factors substantially increased the likelihood of relapse. Therefore, current drinking may provide an adequate reference point for relapse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol consumption in elderly people across European countries: Results from the Food in Later Life project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz De Almeida, Maria Daniel; Davidson, Kate; De Morais, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify social and cultural aspects of alcohol consumption in a sample of older people living in their own homes, in eight different European countries. We explore several aspects of alcohol consumption, establishing comparisons between genders, age groups and living...

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  17. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  18. Male and female alcohol consumption and live birth after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment i...

  19. Alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder in a general population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Sharmila S.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between overall or specific alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder (AMD), a synonym for age-related macular degeneration, in a general population. Alcohol consumption and risk of early or late incident AMD (iAMD) were examined among all

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujun; Xie, Yimeng; Brossoie, Nancy; Roberto, Karen A.; Redican, Kerry J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High levels of alcohol consumption have been shown to be related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and other chronic disease and is an important variable in the global burden of disease. Purpose: This study explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among older Chinese adults in mainland…

  1. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  2. Hazardous alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland: a cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence of a cultural shift towards heavier alcohol consumption among university students, especially women. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous alcohol consumption (HAC) among university students with particular reference to gender and to compare different modes of data collection in this population.

  3. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Academic Retention in First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Gary; Lonbaken, Barb

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to identify relationships between alcohol consumption and first-to-second-year student retention among college students. Methods: 820 students in general education courses completed an online wellness assessment at four separate time points, including questions related to alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed…

  5. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  7. Effects of alcohol consumption on the allergen-specific immune response in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Roursgaard, Martin; Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that chronic alcohol consumption impairs the T-helper 1 (Th1) lymphocyte-regulated cell-mediated immune response possibly favoring a Th2 deviation of the immune response. Moreover, a few epidemiological studies have linked alcohol consumption to allergen-specific IgE sensitization....

  8. [Urban alcohol consumption among secondary school students in Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnan, N'Cho Simplice; Zengbé-Acray, Pétronille; Ekou, Franck Kokora; Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Sablé, Parfait Stéphane; Oussou, Konan Roland; Cissé, Sanansi; Soumahoro, Sory Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is both a health and social risk factor. Few studies have been conducted on alcohol use among students in Côte d'Ivoire. This study was designed to determine factors associated with alcohol consumption among secondary school students in Côte d'Ivoire. A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2011 among public secondary school students in Abidjan. One class for each year of study was randomly selected. Multivariate analysis was conducted between alcohol consumption and independent variables. A total of 316 students participated in the survey. The mean age (SD) of the study population was 16.1 (2.7) years. One hundred and fourteen respondents (36.1%) reported having already drunk alcohol. Age of first alcohol consumption was 10-14 years among girls (48.8%) and 15-19 years among boys (49.3%). Multivariate logistic regression identified the following factors associated with alcohol use among students: Christian religion, more pocket money, living with parents who drink alcohol and the student's perception of alcohol as a refreshing drink or having an antidepressant effect. In the light of the determinants of alcohol consumption and the students'suggestions in our study, it appears essential to involve students in actions concerning alcohol abuse.

  9. [Validation of the AUDIT test for identifying risk consumption and alcohol use disorders in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérula de Torres, L A; Fernández-García, J A; Arias-Vega, R; Muriel-Palomino, M; Márquez-Rebollo, E; Ruiz-Moral, R

    2005-11-30

    To validate the AUDIT test for identifying women with excess alcohol consumption and/or dependency syndrome (DS). Descriptive study to validate a test. Two primary care centres and a county drug-dependency centre. 414 women from 18 to 75 recruited at the clinic. Interventions. Social and personal details were obtained through personal interview, their alcohol consumption was quantified and the AUDIT and MALT questionnaires were filled in. Then the semi-structured SCAN interview was conducted (gold standard; DSM-IV and CIE-10 criteria), and analyses were requested (GGT, GOT, GPT, VCM). 186 patients were given a follow-up appointment three-four weeks later (retest). Intra-observer reliability was evaluated with the Kappa index, internal consistency with Cronbach s alpha, and the validity of criteria with indexes of sensitivity and specificity, predictive values and probability quotients. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the test and the most effective cut-off point, a ROC analysis was run. 11.4% (95% CI, 8.98-13.81) were diagnosed with alcohol abuse (0.5%) or DS (10.9%). The Kappa coefficients of the AUDIT items ranged between 0.685 and 0.795 (PAUDIT is a questionnaire with good psycho-measurement properties. It is reliable and valid for the detection of risk consumption and DS in women.

  10. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption in Spanish University Alumni: Nine Years of Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to empirically identify different profiles of Spanish university alumni, based on their alcohol use over 9 years, and to further characterize them. A cohort study was carried out between 2005 and 2015 among university students (Compostela Cohort-Spain; n2015 = 415. Alcohol consumption was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. A two-stage cluster analysis, based on their AUDIT total scores was carried out separately for males and females. The further characterization of every profile was based on demographic data, age at onset of alcohol use, positive alcohol-related expectancies, tobacco and cannabis use, as well as their answers to some European Addiction Severity Index items. Five different clusters were identified: Low users (29.2%, Moderated users (37.2%, At-risk users (14.2%, Decreasing users (13.2% and Large users (6.2% for females, and Low users (34.4%, At-risk users (25.6%, High-risk users (15.6%, Decreasing users (14.4% and Large users (10.0% for males. Being a cannabis user or a smoker was positively associated to those more hazardous clusters in both genders. Regarding females, significant differences in the age of onset and high positive expectancies were found. However, there were few significant differences among the groups in relation to their employment status and social relations. The results reveal the existence of different typologies of alcohol users among university alumni, with differences among males and females. Modifying positive expectancies, limiting access to alcohol at a young age, and reducing uses of other substances uses are key to promote healthier alcohol use profiles and to prevent hazardous uses.

  11. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption.

  12. Alcohol consumption and the risk of morbidity and mortality for different stroke types - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roerecke Michael

    2010-05-01

    higher risks than men, and the risks for mortality were higher compared to the risks for morbidity. Conclusions These results indicate that heavy alcohol consumption increases the relative risk of any stroke while light or moderate alcohol consumption may be protective against ischemic stroke. Preventive measures that should be initiated are discussed.

  13. A cross-cultural investigation of college student alcohol consumption: a classification tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Kitsantas, Anastasia; Anagnostopoulou, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study, the authors attempted to identify high-risk subgroups for alcohol consumption among college students. American and Greek students (N = 132) answered questions about alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, attitudes toward drinking, advertisement influences, parental monitoring, and drinking consequences. Heavy drinkers in the American group were younger and less religious than were infrequent drinkers. In the Greek group, heavy drinkers tended to deny the negative results of drinking alcohol and use a permissive attitude to justify it, whereas infrequent drinkers were more likely to be monitored by their parents. These results suggest that parental monitoring and an emphasis on informing students about the negative effects of alcohol on their health and social and academic lives may be effective methods of reducing alcohol consumption. Classification tree analysis revealed that student attitudes toward drinking were important in the classification of American and Greek drinkers, indicating that this is a powerful predictor of alcohol consumption regardless of ethnic background.

  14. Personality Correlates of Alcohol Consumption and Aggression in a Hispanic College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Linda; Hojnowski, Natalya; Nesterova, Svitlana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the association between alcohol consumption and aggression from a personality trait perspective with 92 self-identified Hispanic college students. They partially replicated a study by Quigley, Corbett, and Tedeshi, which examined the relationships between desired image of power, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related…

  15. Factors associated with alcohol consumption among medical cannabis patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Walton, Maureen A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark A

    2018-02-01

    Chronic pain is the most common reason for medical cannabis certification. Data regarding alcohol use and risky drinking among medical cannabis patients with pain is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and risky drinking in this population. Participants completed surveys regarding demographics, pain-related variables, anxiety, cannabis use, and past six-month alcohol consumption. Alcohol use groups were defined using the AUDIT-C [i.e., non-drinkers, low-risk drinkers, and high-risk drinkers (≥4 for men and ≥3 for women)] and compared on demographic characteristics, pain measures, anxiety, and cannabis use. Overall, 42% (n=330/780) were non-drinkers, 32% (n=251/780) were low-risk drinkers, and 26% (n=199/780) were high-risk drinkers. Compared to non-drinkers, low- and high-risk drinkers were significantly younger whereas a larger proportion of low-risk drinkers reported being African-American compared to non- or high-risk drinkers. High-risk drinkers reported significantly lower pain severity/interference compared to the other groups; high-risk drinkers were also less likely to be on disability compared to other groups. A multinomial logistic regression showed that patients reporting lower pain severity and less disability had greater odds of being classified a high-risk drinker. High-risk drinking appears common among medical cannabis patients. Future research should examine whether such use is concurrent or consecutive, and the relationship of such co-use patterns to consequences. Nevertheless, individuals treating patients reporting medical cannabis use for pain should consider alcohol consumption, with data needed regarding the efficacy of brief alcohol interventions among medical cannabis patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    2016-01-01

    A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and motivations for consumption when mixed with energy drinks (AMED) and mixed with other non-alcoholic beverages (AMOB) using a within-subject design. The most frequent neutral motives reported for AMED consumption included "I like the taste" (66.5%), and "to celebrate a special occasion" (35.2%). 52.6% of AMED consumers reported consuming AMED for at least one of five negative motives, primarily "to get drunk" (45.6%). Despite these negative motives those students reported consuming significantly less alcohol and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions compared to alcohol-only (AO) occasions. Although the motives for consuming AMED and AMOB were comparable, more participants reported consuming AMED "to celebrate a special occasion", "to get drunk", because they "received the drink from someone else" or "because others drink it as well". However, significantly more students reported consuming AMOB than AMED because "It feels like I can drink more alcohol". Alcohol consumption was significantly less on AMED occasions compared to AMOB occasions, and both occasions significantly less than AO occasions. The majority of reasons for consuming AMED relate to neutral motives. Although 52.6% of students reported one or more negative motives for AMED consumption (predominantly "to get drunk") this had no differential effect on total alcohol consumption. The differences in motives suggest AMED is consumed more to enjoy special occasions and as a group-bonding experience, however alcohol consumption is significantly lower on such occasions in comparison to when AMOB or AO are consumed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy and Intended Alcohol Consumption During a Mass-Attended Youth Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole

    2018-04-16

    Mass-attended youth events represent a substantial public health challenge due to high levels of alcohol consumption and corresponding high rates of alcohol-related harm. Although previous research has documented the protective effect of high drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) on alcohol consumption in general, there is a lack of research examining the role of DRSE in reducing consumption during mass-attended youth events and the factors associated with DRSE in these contexts. This study aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors that influence DRSE and drinking intentions to inform interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm during mass-attended events. Australian secondary school students (n = 586; 70% female) in their final two years of high school completed an online survey assessing their alcohol consumption intentions for Schoolies, their perceived degree of DRSE, and other individual and environmental factors. Path analysis was used to assess a mediational model examining factors associated with DRSE and alcohol consumption intentions. DRSE was found to be significantly associated with intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies. Specifically, leavers who believed they would not be able to refuse others' offers of alcoholic drinks reported significantly greater alcohol consumption intentions. Results also revealed that DRSE was enhanced in those respondents who believed there would be a variety of non-drinking activities and non-alcoholic beverages available to them during Schoolies. Results suggest the need to increase leavers' confidence in their ability to refuse unwanted alcoholic beverages and highlight the importance of providing celebration options that do not involve alcohol consumption.

  18. Alcohol use by undergraduate students on their 21st birthday: predictors of actual consumption, anticipated consumption, and normative beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Cameron, Jennifer M; Muse, Lauren; Hauenstein, Jennifer; Simmons, Lisa; Correia, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    Recent research has identified celebration of a 21st birthday as an environmental event during which many college students engage in risky levels of alcohol consumption. The current study examined the relationship between personality and different aspects of alcohol use during 21st birthday celebrations: actual amount consumed for those who had turned 21, anticipated amount consumed for those under the age of 21, and normative beliefs regarding the amount other students consume on their 21st birthdays. Sensation seeking and impulsivity both displayed significant bivariate relationships with all three aspects of 21st birthday drinking. Personality traits did not contribute unique variance to actual 21st birthday drinking after the effects of typical alcohol consumption were accounted for in the models. Impulsivity contributed unique variance to models accounting for anticipated drinking and normative beliefs. Additional research is necessary to better understand the role personality variables play on alcohol consumption during 21st birthday celebrations. Copyright 2009 APA

  19. The Effect of Approach/Avoidance Training on Alcohol Consumption Is Mediated by Change in Alcohol Action Tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharbanee, J.M.; Hu, L.; Stritzke, W.G.K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Rinck, M.; MacLeod, C.

    2014-01-01

    Training people to respond to alcohol images by making avoidance joystick movements can affect subsequent alcohol consumption, and has shown initial efficacy as a treatment adjunct. However, the mechanisms that underlie the training's efficacy are unknown. The present study aimed to determine 1)

  20. The effect of approach/avoidance training on alcohol consumption is mediated by change in alcohol action tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharbanee, J.M.; Hu, L.; Stritzke, W.G.K.; Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; MacLeod, C.

    2014-01-01

    Training people to respond to alcohol images by making avoidance joystick movements can affect subsequent alcohol consumption, and has shown initial efficacy as a treatment adjunct. However, the mechanisms that underlie the training’s efficacy are unknown. The present study aimed to determine 1)

  1. The Relationship Between Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Use Disorders According to DSM-IV and DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    BackgroundAlthough it seems intuitive that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) include excessive alcohol consumption (EAC), this notion is not well established. This study investigates to which degree EAC (defined as >14/21 drinks weekly for women/men and at least three 5+ drinking days per week) and AUD

  2. The relationship between excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders according to DSM-IV and DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Although it seems intuitive that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) include excessive alcohol consumption (EAC), this notion is not well established. This study investigates to which degree EAC (defined as >14/21 drinks weekly for women/men and at least three 5+ drinking days per week) and AUD overlap and

  3. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  4. The relationship between consumption of alcohol and other drugs and problematic Internet use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Sandra; Gómez, Patricia; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús; Rial, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    Alcohol and drug use among adolescents has been causing great concern for decades in Spain and in the European Union as a whole. In addition, the technology boom experienced over the last two decades has contributed to the emergence of a new public healthcare issue: problematic Internet use. The increasing importance that both problems have been gaining in recent years has led some authors to analyze the relationship between alcohol and the consumption of other drugs alongside problematic Internet use, and to provide relevant empirical evidence. Based on a sample of 3,882 Spanish adolescents aged between 12 and 18, the results obtained confirm that there is a relationship between the consumption of alcohol (measured by the AUDIT) and other drugs (measured by the CRAFFT and the CAST), and problematic Internet use (measured by the EUPI-a). Problematic Internet users among them not only have more significant levels of substance use, but also a three-times greater chance of developing hazardous drug use (39.4% vs 13.3%). This highlights the need to develop transversal prevention capable of acting on the common variables to both issues, beyond developing programs focused on specific behaviors. In this sense, values-based education and life skills training should be given priority in prevention.

  5. Low-level alcohol consumption during adolescence and its impact on cognitive control development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Sarah; Mennigen, Eva; Goschke, Thomas; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for maturation of cognitive control and most adolescents start experimenting with alcohol around that time. On the one hand, recent studies indicate that low control abilities predict future problematic alcohol use. On the other hand, binge drinking during young adulthood can (further) impair cognitive control. However, so far no study examined the effects of low-level alcohol use during adolescence. In the present longitudinal fMRI study, we therefore investigated the development of cognitive control in a community-based sample of 92 adolescents at ages 14, 16 and 18. Two different cognitive control functions, i.e. inhibition of pre-potent responses (operationalized by incongruence effects) and switching between different task sets, were measured within one task. Alcohol use in our sample was low (mean: 54 g/week at age 18). The study revealed that neither behavioural nor neural measures of cognitive control function at age 14 predicted alcohol use at age 18 but confirmed established predictors such as gender and personality. As expected, from age 14 to 18, cognitive control abilities were improving (decreased reaction times and/or errors), and activation of cognitive control networks (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area) during incongruent trials increased. Unexpectedly, higher alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with a more pronounced increase in cognitive performance and a smaller increase of neural activation when incongruent trials afforded inhibitory control. We conclude that low-level alcohol use during adolescence does not severely impair ongoing maturation of cognitive control abilities and networks. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui, E-mail: hzhang@wsu.edu; Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  7. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1 − iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1 + CD44 hi mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1 − immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1 − iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1 − CD44 lo Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A + iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3 + iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol consumption induces Th1 immune response upon i

  8. Emergency room visits due to external causes and alcohol consumption - Capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to describe the profile and factors related to alcohol consumption among emergency room visits by external causes. It is a cross-sectional study with data from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency between September and October 2011, in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. Statistical analysis were performed for all cases treated in selected services, comparing the characteristics of the victims, according to the statement of alcohol consumption. 33,289 visits to emergency rooms by external causes in the population above 18 years of age were included. The prevalence of self-reported statement of alcohol consumption among these services was 14.9% for the 24 capitals and the Federal District, and was significantly higher among visits by violent causes than by accidents. For both accidents and violence the associated causes were victims male, black/brown, less educated, members of specific populations, occurrences on public roads. The results support global discussions on the importance of establishing policies and legal measures to restrict the consumption of alcohol and vehicular direction, control advertising of alcoholic beverages, and laws normalizing the functioning of sales points of alcoholic beverages.

  9. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster,1,2 Sarah Benson,2 Andrew Scholey21Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaIntroduction: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.Methods: Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages.Results: A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol included "I like the taste" (58.6%, “To keep me awake” (54.3%, “It gives me energy” (44.3%, "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%, "It increases alertness" (28.8%, “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%, and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%. A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group. The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%, “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%, and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%. No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6% reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions.Conclusion: The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol do so because they like the taste

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption may protect against overt autoimmune hypothyroidism: a population-based casecontrol study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Blow; Knudsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is an important protective risk factor for many autoimmune diseases. We wished to study the association between alcohol consumption and autoimmune hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study, 1997-2001, Denmark. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnose......, or region of inhabitancy. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption seems to confer considerable protection against development of overt autoimmune hypothyroidism irrespective of sex and type of alcohol consumed.......OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is an important protective risk factor for many autoimmune diseases. We wished to study the association between alcohol consumption and autoimmune hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study, 1997-2001, Denmark. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed...... of alcohol per week were as follows: 0 units/week, 1.98 (1.21-3.33); 11-20 units/week, 0.41 (0.20-0.83); and ≥21 units/week, 0.90 (0.41-2.00). Similar results were found for maximum previous alcohol consumption during a calendar year. No interaction was found with type of alcohol consumed (wine vs beer), sex...

  11. Usual alcohol consumption and suicide mortality among the Korean elderly in rural communities: Kangwha Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Jung, Myoungjee; Kimm, Heejin; Sull, Jae-Woong; Lee, Eunsook; Lee, Kwang Ok; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-08-01

    The evidence from prospective studies on whether greater usual alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of death by suicide in the general population is inconclusive. 6163 participants (2635 men; 3528 women) in a 1985 survey among rural residents in Korea aged 55 years and above were followed until 2008. A Cox model was used to calculate HRs of suicide death after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic and health-related confounders. 37 men and 24 women died by suicide. Elderly persons who consumed alcohol daily, 70 g alcohol (5 drinks) or more per drinking day, or 210 g alcohol (15 drinks) or more per week had higher suicide mortality (prisk of suicide death, respectively. Women had a higher relative risk of suicide death associated with alcohol consumption, compared with men. A greater frequency and amount of usual alcohol consumption was linearly associated with higher suicide death. Given the same amount of alcohol consumption, women might have a higher relative risk of suicide than men. Our findings support 'the lower the better' for alcohol intake, no protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption, and a sex-specific guideline (lower alcohol threshold for women) as actions to prevent suicide death. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements within alcohol advertisements and public health campaigns: Relationships with drinking intentions and alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt

    2017-06-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. [A study on the distribution of the consumption of tobacco and alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Masse, H; Aubenque, M

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of tobacco consumption and alcohol-related mortality in France by sex and department is presented for the population aged 45 to 64. It is shown that the "population can be decomposed into two sets such that, for each of them, tobacco and alcohol consumption distributions are log-normal. [It is suggested] that consumption is normal for one set and an endogenous predisposition for the other." (summary in ENG) excerpt

  15. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  16. Ethanol and ethyl glucuronide urine concentrations after ethanol-based hand antisepsis with and without permitted alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Stephan; Below, Elke; Diedrich, Stephan; Wegner, Christian; Gessner, Wiebke; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Bockholdt, Britta; Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Below, Harald

    2016-09-01

    During hand antisepsis, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to alcohol by dermal contact and by inhalation. Concerns have been raised that high alcohol absorptions may adversely affect HCWs, particularly certain vulnerable individuals such as pregnant women or individuals with genetic deficiencies of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We investigated the kinetics of HCWs' urinary concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) during clinical work with and without previous consumption of alcoholic beverages by HCWs. The median ethanol concentration was 0.7 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 0.5-1.9 mg/L; maximum, 9.2 mg/L) during abstinence and 12.2 mg/L (IQR, 1.5-139.6 mg/L; maximum, 1,020.1 mg/L) during alcohol consumption. During abstinence, EtG reached concentrations of up to 958 ng/mL. When alcohol consumption was permitted, the median EtG concentration of all samples was 2,593 ng/mL (IQR, 890.8-3,576 ng/mL; maximum, 5,043 ng/mL). Although alcohol consumption was strongly correlated with both EtG and ethanol in urine, no significant correlation for the frequency of alcoholic hand antisepsis was observed in the linear mixed models. The use of ethanol-based handrub induces measurable ethanol and EtG concentrations in urine. Compared with consumption of alcoholic beverages or use of consumer products containing ethanol, the amount of ethanol absorption resulting from handrub applications is negligible. In practice, there is no evidence of any harmful effect of using ethanol-based handrubs as much as it is clinically necessary. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of Ethyl Glucuronide in Hair for Detection of Alcohol Consumption in Patients After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; von Rothkirch, Gregor; Vettorazzi, Eik; Mueller, Alexander; Lohse, Ansgar W; Frederking, Dorothea; Seegers, Barbara; Nashan, Bjoern; Sterneck, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of alcohol misuse in orthotopic liver transplantation recipients is essential to offer patients support and prevent organ damage. Here, ethyl glucuronide, a metabolite of ethanol found in hair (hEtG), was evaluated for detection of alcohol consumption. In 104 transplant recipients, 31 with underlying alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 73 with non-ALD, hEtG was determined in addition to the alcohol markers urine EtG, blood ethanol, methanol, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Results were compared with patients' self-reports in a questionnaire and with physicians' assessments. By physicians' assessments, 22% of the patients were suspected of consuming alcohol regularly, although only 6% of the patients acknowledged consumption of a moderate or high amount of alcohol. By testing all markers except for hEtG, alcohol consumption was detected in 7% of the patients. When hEtG testing was added to the assessment, consumption was detected in 17% of the patients. Hair-EtG determination alone revealed chronic alcohol consumption of >10 g/d in 15% of the patients. ALD patients had a positive hEtG result significantly more often than non-ALD patients did (32% versus 8%; P = 0.003). Also, the concentration of hEtG was higher in ALD patients (P = 0.049) and revealed alcohol abuse with consumption of >60 g ethanol per day in 23% of ALD and 3% of non-ALD patients. Patients' self-reports and physicians' assessments had a low sensitivity of 27% and 67%, respectively, for detecting regular alcohol intake as indicated by hEtG. Hair-EtG determination improved the detection of liver transplant patients who used alcohol, and revealed regular alcohol consumption in 32% of ALD and 8% of non-ALD patients.

  18. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1987-01-01

    Liver haemodynamics and liver function were measured in 34 alcoholic cirrhotic men before entry and after 12 months (median) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg t.i.d.). Comparing data at entry with those at follow-up in the total patient......, testosterone-treated patients did not differ significantly from placebo-treated patients regarding any of the measured variables. No significant relationships could be demonstrated between ethanol consumption and liver haemodynamics and liver function, but the number of patients consuming more than 100 g...... ethanol per day decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from 22 (65%) before entry to one (3%) during follow-up. In conclusion, oral testosterone treatment of men with alcoholic cirrhosis does not explain the significant improvement of liver haemodynamics and function observed in this study. However...

  19. Amount of alcohol consumption and risk of developing alcoholism in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2007-01-01

    was measured in 19 698 men and women randomly drawn from the Copenhagen Population Register in 1976-78. The study population was linked to three different registers in order to detect alcoholism, and average follow-up time was 25 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for all putative confounders, the risk...... of alcoholism for women increased significantly at 1-7 drinks per week with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 3.53) compared to never/almost never drinking; the HR for drinking monthly was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.85). The risk for men did not increase significantly before 22......-41 drinks per week (HR = 3.81, 95 % CI: 2.18, 6.68) or if they had a daily alcohol intake (HR = 3.55, 95 % CI: 2.11, 5.99). Smoking was independently associated with the risk of alcoholism for both men and women. CONCLUSION: The risk of developing alcoholism increased significantly by very low intakes...

  20. The impact of alcohol consumption on African people in 2012: an analysis of burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Rehm, Jürgen; Dias, Sónia; Babor, Thomas; Parry, Charles D H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of alcohol consumption on deaths and disability in Africa. We estimated alcohol exposure for 2012, and its impact on deaths and disability in Africa using estimates from the WHO Global Health Estimates for outcome data, and the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2014 for risk relations. We provide a scenario that includes the impact of alcohol on HIV/AIDS incidence, and qualitative predictions on future exposure and harm. Overall, alcohol consumption has a large impact on burden of disease and mortality in African countries. Alcohol-attributable disease burden is more important when the impact of alcohol consumption on the incidence and course of HIV/AIDS is taken into account, with alcohol being responsible, in 2012, for 6.4% of all deaths and 4.7% of all DALYs lost in the African region. Alcohol exposure is expected to increase in the next years, and thus alcohol-attributable fractions. The weight of new evidence, especially of alcohol's role in the incidence and course of HIV/AIDS, is particularly relevant to African countries and points to the need for a strong policy response to reduce the alcohol-related burden of disease on the continent. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An ecologically based model of alcohol-consumption decision making: evidence for the discriminative and predictive role of contextual reward and punishment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R

    2009-05-01

    Using insights from Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study assessed the utility of a series of hypothetical role-based alcohol-consumption scenarios that varied in their presentation of rewarding and punishing information. The scenarios, along with measures of impulsive sensation seeking and a self-report of weekly alcohol consumption, were administered to a sample of alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent college-age individuals (N = 170). The results showed scenario attendance decisions were largely unaffected by alcohol-dependence status and variations in contextual reward and punishment information. In contrast to the attendance findings, the results for the alcohol-consumption decisions showed alcohol-dependent individuals reported a greater frequency of deciding to drink, as well as indicating greater alcohol consumption in the contexts of complementary rewarding or nonpunishing information. Regression results provided evidence for the criterion-related validity of scenario outcomes in an account of diagnostic alcohol problems. The results are discussed in terms of the conceptual and predictive gains associated with an assessment approach to alcohol-consumption decision making that combines situational information organized and balanced through the frameworks of Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.

  2. Development and evaluation of a theory- and evidence-based smartphone app to help reduce excessive alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Garnett, C. V.

    2017-01-01

    This PhD research programme aimed to develop and evaluate a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and used the theoretical framework of the Behaviour Change Wheel to guide its development and evaluation. There are many different factors influencing alcohol consumption that can be targeted in an intervention to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. This thesis focuses on the cognitive and motivational factors affecting alcohol consumption. The thesis involves three stages: ...

  3. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-09-06

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes. In support of these mechanisms, fructose intake increases hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL and raises plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in humans. However, epidemiological and fructose-intervention studies have had inconclusive results with respect to liver fat, and there is currently no good human evidence that fructose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts, causes more liver fat accumulation than other energy-dense nutrients. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the seemingly contradicting literature on fructose and NAFLD. We outline fructose physiology, the mechanisms that link fructose to NAFLD, and the available evidence from human studies. From this framework, we conclude that the cellular mechanisms underlying hepatic fructose metabolism will likely reveal novel targets for the treatment of NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance. Finally, fructose-containing sugars are a major source of excess calories, suggesting that a reduction of their intake has potential for the prevention of NAFLD and other obesity-related diseases.

  4. The regional geography of alcohol consumption in England: Comparing drinking frequency and binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Javier Malda; Jivraj, Stephen; Ng Fat, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of MAOA-genotype, alcohol consumption, and aging on violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-03-01

    Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype.

  6. Social and financial resources and high-risk alcohol consumption among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Moos, Bernice S

    2010-04-01

    This study examined long-term mutual predictive associations between social and financial resources and high-risk alcohol consumption in later life. A sample of 55- to 65-year-old older adults (n = 719) was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed social and financial resources and alcohol consumption. Over the 20-year interval, there was evidence of both social causation and social selection processes in relation to high-risk alcohol consumption. In support of a social causation perspective, higher levels of some social resources, such as participation in social activities, friends' approval of drinking, quality of relationship with spouse, and financial resources, were associated with a subsequent increased likelihood of high-risk alcohol consumption. Conversely, indicating the presence of social selection, high-risk alcohol consumption was associated with subsequent higher levels of friends' approval of drinking and quality of the spousal relationship, but lower quality of relationships with extended family members. These findings reflect mutual influence processes in which older adults' social resources and high-risk alcohol consumption can alter each other. Older adults may benefit from information about how social factors can affect their drinking habits; accordingly, information about social causation effects could be used to guide effective prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing the risk that late-life social factors may amplify their excessive alcohol consumption.

  7. Skills Training via Smartphone App for University Students with Excessive Alcohol Consumption: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecki, Mikael; Andersson, Claes; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Fredriksson, Morgan; Berman, Anne H

    2017-10-01

    University students in a study on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) feedback apps were offered participation in a second study, if reporting continued excessive consumption at 6-week follow-up. This study evaluated the effects on excessive alcohol consumption of offering access to an additional skills training app. A total of 186 students with excessive alcohol consumption were randomized to an intervention group or a wait list group. Both groups completed online follow-ups regarding alcohol consumption after 6 and 12 weeks. Wait list participants were given access to the intervention at 6-week follow-up. Assessment-only controls (n = 144) with excessive alcohol consumption from the ongoing study were used for comparison. The proportion of participants with excessive alcohol consumption declined in both intervention and wait list groups compared to controls at first (p effects of app use from emailed feedback on excessive alcohol consumption and study participation. NCT02064998.

  8. An expanding knowledge of the mechanisms and effects of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chisa; Miedema, Michael D; Ofman, Peter; Gaziano, J Michael; Sesso, Howard D

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 2 decades, observational evidence largely supports an association between light to moderate alcohol consumption (up to 1 drink per day in women and up to 2 drinks per day in men) and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), largely driven by a reduction in coronary heart disease. Most studies suggest a nadir in risk in the light to moderate range of alcohol intake, which is then countered by an increase in cardiomyopathy, sudden death, and hemorrhagic stroke at higher drinking levels that offsets potential benefits. The mechanisms of cardioprotective effects of alcohol are complex and there are multiple pathways by which moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of CVD. Recent evidence continues to emerge on the physiologic and genetic mechanisms through which alcohol may reduce the risk of developing CVD. Ongoing debate also lingers whether there are important differences in cardiovascular effects according to alcoholic beverage type (beer vs red wine vs liquor). Another emerging area of interest is the role of alcohol consumption on the development of intermediate cardiovascular endpoints such as hypertension and diabetes that lead to the development of CVD as well as other important cardiovascular sequelae. Alcohol consumption has also been shown to impact the risk of other CVD endpoints including congestive heart failure, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and peripheral artery disease. Overall, alcohol still carries significant public health implications given its plausible benefits on CVD along with its well-documented adverse effects, warranting continued caution and a discussion with one's primary care provider regarding intake.

  9. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries-The impact of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Engholm, Gerda; Pukkala, Eero; Stenbeck, Magnus; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Storm, Hans; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2018-05-05

    Alcohol consumption is an important and preventable cause of cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of the cancer burden in the Nordic countries linked to alcohol and estimate the potential for cancer prevention by changes in alcohol consumption. Using the Prevent macro-simulation model, the number of cancer cases in the Nordic countries over a 30-year period (2016-2045) was modelled for six sites, under different scenarios of changing alcohol consumption, and compared to the projected number of cases if constant alcohol consumption prevailed. The studied sites were colorectal, post-menopausal breast, oral cavity and pharynx, liver, larynx as well as oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The alcohol consumption was based on the categories of non-drinkers/occasional drinkers, light drinkers (12.5 and ≤ 50 g/day) and heavy drinkers (>50 g/day). About 83,000 cancer cases could be avoided in the Nordic countries in a 30-year period if alcohol consumption was entirely eliminated, which is 5.5% of the expected number of cases for the six alcohol-related cancer types. With a 50% reduction in the proportion with moderate alcohol consumption by year 2025, 21,500 cancer cases could be avoided. The number of avoidable cases was highest for post-menopausal breast and colorectal cancer, but the percentage was highest for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The results from this study can be used to understand the potential impact and significance of primary prevention programmes targeted towards reducing the alcohol consumption in the Nordic countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of approach/avoidance training on alcohol consumption is mediated by change in alcohol action tendency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Sharbanee

    Full Text Available Training people to respond to alcohol images by making avoidance joystick movements can affect subsequent alcohol consumption, and has shown initial efficacy as a treatment adjunct. However, the mechanisms that underlie the training's efficacy are unknown. The present study aimed to determine 1 whether the training's effect is mediated by a change in action tendency or a change in selective attention, and 2 whether the training's effect is moderated by individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC. Three groups of social drinkers (total N = 74 completed either approach-alcohol training, avoid-alcohol training or a sham-training on the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT. Participants' WMC was assessed prior to training, while their alcohol-related action tendency and selective attention were assessed before and after the training on the recently developed Selective-Attention/Action Tendency Task (SA/ATT, before finally completing an alcohol taste-test. There was no significant main effect of approach/avoidance training on alcohol consumption during the taste-test. However, there was a significant indirect effect of training on alcohol consumption mediated by a change in action tendency, but no indirect effect mediated by a change in selective attention. There was inconsistent evidence of WMC moderating training efficacy, with moderation found only for the effect of approach-alcohol training on the AAT but not on the SA/ATT. Thus approach/avoidance training affects alcohol consumption specifically by changing the underlying action tendency. Multiple training sessions may be required in order to observe more substantive changes in drinking behaviour.

  11. Where should the safe limits of alcohol consumption stand in light of liver enzyme abnormalities in alcohol consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onni Niemelä

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for abnormal liver enzymes in a large age- and gender stratified population-based sample of apparently healthy individuals with or without alcohol consumption and other health-related risk factors (adiposity, physical inactivity, smoking.Data on alcohol use, smoking, diet and physical activity were recorded using structured questionnaires from 13,976 subjects (6513 men, 7463 women, aged 25-74 years in the national FINRISK studies. Alcohol data was used to categorize the participants into abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities were measured using standard kinetic methods.Male light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers showed significantly higher relative risks of abnormal GGT than abstainers: 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.71, p < 0.01, 2.72 (2.08 to 3.56, p < 0.0005, and 6.10 (4.55 to 7.17, p < 0.0005, respectively. Corresponding values for women were 1.22 (0.99 to 1.51, p = 0.065, 1.90 (1.44 to 2.51, p < 0.0005, and 5.91 (3.80 to 9.17, p < 0.0005. Estimated threshold doses for a significant GGT elevation was 14 standard weekly alcohol doses for men and 7 for women. Excess body weight and age over 40 years modulated the thresholds towards smaller quantities of alcohol. The risk of abnormal GGT was also significantly influenced by physical inactivity and smoking. The relative risks of abnormal ALT activities were increased in male heavy drinkers, especially in those presenting with adiposity and sedentary lifestyle.Alcohol use markedly increases the risk for abnormal liver enzyme activities in those presenting with age over 40 years, obesity, smoking or sedentary lifestyle. The data should be considered in public health recommendations and in the definitions of safe limits of alcohol use.

  12. Alcohol brand use of youth-appealing advertising and consumption by youth and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. Padon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been shown to be an important contributor to the problem of underage drinking in the U.S. More work is needed on identifying and minimizing content with particular appeal to youth. Design and Methods: We tested the association between the youth-appeal of marketing content of televised alcohol advertisements and the brand-specific alcohol consumption of both underage youth and adults. We used existing data from three sources: a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among underage youth (N=1032, a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among adults (N ~13,000, and an analysis of content appealing to youth (CAY in a sample of televised alcohol advertisements (n=96 aired during the youth survey. The association between CAY scores for the 96 alcohol ads and youth (age 13-20 versus adult (age 21+ consumption of those ads’ brands was tested through bivariate and multivariate models. Results: Brand CAY scores were (a positively associated with brand-specific youth consumption after controlling for adult brand consumption; (b positively associated with a ratio of youth-toadult brand-specific consumption; and (c not associated with adult brand consumption. Conclusions: Alcohol brands with youth-appealing advertising are consumed more often by youth than adults, indicating that these ads may be more persuasive to relatively younger audiences, and that youth are not simply mirroring adult consumption patterns in their choice of brands. Future research should consider the content of alcohol advertising when testing marketing effects on youth drinking, and surveillance efforts might focus on brands popular among youth.

  13. Alcohol brand use of youth-appealing advertising and consumption by youth and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padon, Alisa A; Rimal, Rajiv N; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; JernFigan, David H

    2018-02-05

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been shown to be an important contributor to the problem of underage drinking in the U.S. More work is needed on identifying and minimizing content with particular appeal to youth. We tested the association between the youth-appeal of marketing content of televised alcohol advertisements and the brand-specific alcohol consumption of both underage youth and adults. We used existing data from three sources: a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among underage youth ( N =1032), a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among adults ( N ~13,000), and an analysis of content appealing to youth (CAY) in a sample of televised alcohol advertisements ( n =96) aired during the youth survey. The association between CAY scores for the 96 alcohol ads and youth (age 13-20) versus adult (age 21+) consumption of those ads' brands was tested through bivariate and multivariate models. Brand CAY scores were (a) positively associated with brand-specific youth consumption after controlling for adult brand consumption; (b) positively associated with a ratio of youth-toadult brand-specific consumption; and (c) not associated with adult brand consumption. Alcohol brands with youth-appealing advertising are consumed more often by youth than adults, indicating that these ads may be more persuasive to relatively younger audiences, and that youth are not simply mirroring adult consumption patterns in their choice of brands. Future research should consider the content of alcohol advertising when testing marketing effects on youth drinking, and surveillance efforts might focus on brands popular among youth.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: protocol for a factorial randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Garnett

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide and interventions to help people reduce their consumption are needed. Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help harmful and hazardous drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. However, there has been little evaluation of the effectiveness of existing smartphone interventions. A systematic review, amongst other methodologies, identified promising modular content that could be delivered by an app: self-monitoring and feedback; action planning; normative feedback; cognitive bias re-training; and identity change. This protocol reports a factorial randomised controlled trial to assess the comparative potential of these five intervention modules to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Methods A between-subject factorial randomised controlled trial. Hazardous and harmful drinkers aged 18 or over who are making a serious attempt to reduce their drinking will be randomised to one of 32 (25 experimental conditions after downloading the ‘Drink Less’ app. Participants complete baseline measures on downloading the app and are contacted after 1-month with a follow-up questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is change in past week consumption of alcohol. Secondary outcome measures are change in AUDIT score, app usage data and usability ratings for the app. A factorial between-subjects ANOVA will be conducted to assess main and interactive effects of the five intervention modules for the primary and secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study will establish the extent to which the five intervention modules offered in this app can help reduce hazardous and harmful drinking. This is the first step in optimising and understanding what component parts of an app could help to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. The findings from this study will be used to inform the content of a future integrated treatment app and

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: protocol for a factorial randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2016-07-08

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide and interventions to help people reduce their consumption are needed. Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help harmful and hazardous drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. However, there has been little evaluation of the effectiveness of existing smartphone interventions. A systematic review, amongst other methodologies, identified promising modular content that could be delivered by an app: self-monitoring and feedback; action planning; normative feedback; cognitive bias re-training; and identity change. This protocol reports a factorial randomised controlled trial to assess the comparative potential of these five intervention modules to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. A between-subject factorial randomised controlled trial. Hazardous and harmful drinkers aged 18 or over who are making a serious attempt to reduce their drinking will be randomised to one of 32 (2(5)) experimental conditions after downloading the 'Drink Less' app. Participants complete baseline measures on downloading the app and are contacted after 1-month with a follow-up questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is change in past week consumption of alcohol. Secondary outcome measures are change in AUDIT score, app usage data and usability ratings for the app. A factorial between-subjects ANOVA will be conducted to assess main and interactive effects of the five intervention modules for the primary and secondary outcome measures. This study will establish the extent to which the five intervention modules offered in this app can help reduce hazardous and harmful drinking. This is the first step in optimising and understanding what component parts of an app could help to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. The findings from this study will be used to inform the content of a future integrated treatme