Three experiments were conducted to develop a computer-based measure of individual differences in resultant achievement motivation (RAM) on the basis of level-of-aspiration, achievement motivation, and dynamics-of-action theories. In Experiment 1, the number of atypical shifts and greater responsiveness to incentives on 21 trials with choices among easy, intermediate, and difficult levels of an achievement-oriented game were positively correlated and were found to differentiate the 62 subjects (31 men, 31 women) on the amount of time they spent at a nonachievement task (watching a color design) 1 week later. In Experiment 2, test-retest reliability was established with the use of 67 subjects (15 men, 52 women). Point and no-point trials were offered in blocks, with point trials first for half the subjects and no-point trials first for the other half. Reliability was higher for the atypical-shift measure than for the incentive-responsiveness measure and was higher when points were offered first. In Experiment 3, computer anxiety was manipulated by creating a simulated computer breakdown in the experimental condition. Fifty-nine subjects (13 men, 46 women) were randomly assigned to the experimental condition or to one of two control conditions (an interruption condition and a no-interruption condition). Subjects with low RAM, as demonstrated by a low number of typical shifts, took longer to choose the achievement-oriented task, as predicted by the dynamics-of-action theory. The difference was evident in all conditions and most striking in the computer-breakdown condition. A change of focus from atypical to typical shifts is discussed.
Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen; Strati, Anna; Watson, Jesse S.
We investigated the premise that observation measures of instruction are indicators of effective teaching, using the definition of effectiveness articulated by departments of education: teaching that boosts student achievement. We argued that student motivation is equally as important as achievement in the evaluation of teaching effectiveness…
Helmreich, Robert L.
Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.
It is known to all that motivation is one of the most important elements in EFL learning.This study analyzes the type of English learning motivations and learning achievements within non-English majors’ students (Bilingual program in Highway School and Architecture) in Chang’an University, who has been considered English as the foreign language. This thesis intends to put forward certain strategies in promoting foreign language teaching.
Haydel, Angela Michelle
The purpose of this dissertation was to advance theoretical understanding about fit between the personal resources of individuals and the characteristics of science achievement tasks. Testing continues to be pervasive in schools, yet we know little about how students perceive tests and what they think and feel while they are actually working on test items. This study focused on both the personal (cognitive and motivational) and situational factors that may contribute to individual differences in achievement-related outcomes. 387 eighth grade students first completed a survey including measures of science achievement goals, capability beliefs, efficacy related to multiple-choice items and performance assessments, validity beliefs about multiple-choice items and performance assessments, and other perceptions of these item formats. Students then completed science achievement tests including multiple-choice items and two performance assessments. A sample of students was asked to verbalize both thoughts and feelings as they worked through the test items. These think-alouds were transcribed and coded for evidence of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational engagement. Following each test, all students completed measures of effort, mood, energy level and strategy use during testing. Students reported that performance assessments were more challenging, authentic, interesting and valid than multiple-choice tests. They also believed that comparisons between students were easier using multiple-choice items. Overall, students tried harder, felt better, had higher levels of energy and used more strategies while working on performance assessments. Findings suggested that performance assessments might be more congruent with a mastery achievement goal orientation, while multiple-choice tests might be more congruent with a performance achievement goal orientation. A variable-centered analytic approach including regression analyses provided information about how students, on
CORTES, JUAN B.; AND OTHERS
THE VARIABLE, ACADEMIC MOTIVATION (N AC), WAS MEASURED BY A PROJECTIVE TEST. A SCORING MANUAL WITH HIGH INTER-SCORER RELIABILITY WAS ALSO PREPARED. THE 1964 FRESHMAN CLASS OF GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY (N EQUALS 957) PARTICIPATED IN THE STUDY. ACADEMIC MOTIVATION CORRELATED POSITIVELY AND SIGNIFICANTLY FOR BOTH MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS WITH GRADE POINT…
Full Text Available Different means can be applied to assess noncognitive personality aspects: projective, semi-projective, self-report, and objective. However, so far little attention has been paid towards the different fakability of these methods. The present study investigated this question with different achievement motivation instruments. The instruments were randomly administered to three student groups: fake bad (n = 41, fake good (n = 37, and control group (n = 41. The faking groups were given specific faking instructions while the control group only received the standard instructions. All instruments were applied computer-assisted. The results show that all tests are fakeable with the exception of the objective measure which could not be faked good as was expected. The effect sizes (d ranged from .10 to 2.36. Cut-off scores for the detection of faking were computed based on sensitivity as well as specificity. Moreover, they were tested within a second student sample (n = 123. Sensitivity and specificity values are reported. The practical implications for test authors and practitioners are discussed.
Cook, David A; Castillo, Richmond M; Gas, Becca; Artino, Anthony R
Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Two hundred and thirty-two secondary school students participated in a medical simulation-based training activity at an academic medical center. Pre-activity ITIS (implicit theory [mindset] domains: incremental, entity) and AGQ-R (achievement goal domains: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), post-activity CLI (cognitive load domains: intrinsic, extrinsic, germane) and task persistence (self-directed repetitions on a laparoscopic surgery task) were measured. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was > 0.70 for all domain scores except AGQ-R performance-avoidance (alpha 0.68) and CLI extrinsic load (alpha 0.64). Confirmatory factor analysis of ITIS and CLI scores demonstrated acceptable model fit. Confirmatory factor analysis of AGQ-R scores demonstrated borderline fit, and exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-domain model for achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance and avoidance). Correlations among scores from conceptually-related domains generally aligned with expectations, as follows: ITIS incremental and entity, r = -0.52; AGQ-R mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance, r = 0.71; mastery-approach and performance-approach, r = 0.55; performance-approach and performance-avoidance, r = 0.43; mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance, r = 0.36; CLI germane and extrinsic, r = -0.35; ITIS incremental and AGQ-R mastery-approach, r = 0.34; ITIS incremental and CLI germane, r = 0.44; AGQ-R mastery
Undergraduates given a self-concept scale, a sentence completion exercise, and story cues related to academic achievement generally expressed positive attitudes toward success; but students of both sexes with high self-esteem tended to associate success with a male, and those with lower self-esteem attributed success to a female. (Author)
Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh
Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students' academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007-2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. In view of our observations, students' academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation.
Full Text Available With ambiguous authorizations and responsibilities there are no precise and measurable pointers for the efficiency and effectiveness of the public administration. The authorizations and responsibilities of the administration are measureable if there isprecise information supported with measurable indicators. The final result of such setting will influence the motivation of the public administration that is to say, increasing of its effectiveness and efficiency. The aim of this paper is to analyze the states regarding the measuring and the evaluation of the work of the civil servants, the procedures for evaluation and if there are clear indicators though which the achievements of the workers can be measured and their influence to the motivation of the employees in public sector. The main direction in the process of reformation of the administration in Macedonia is creation of professional depoliticized, effective and efficiently civil oriented administration in accordance to theprinciple parliament democracy and responsibility.Suchdetermination means strengthening of the principle of the law ruling and working according to the law. Beside that it is necessary to strengthen the formal rules and the formal working and management to press the informal public and administrative section, culture and habits, then establishment of more flexible type of management in public administration oriented to results and aims, larger autonomy as larger responsibility in order to increase the effectiveness and the efficiency of the public administration. The significant basis for achievements of these aims is the establishment of public authorizations and responsibilities and precise indicators for measurement of the work that will influence to effectiveness and motivation of the state administration.
Arslan, Serhat; Akcaalan, Mehmet; Yurdakul, Cengiz
The objective of this investigation is to make a study of the relationship between achievement goals and science motivation. Research data were collected from 295 university students. Achievement goals and science motivation scales were utilized as measure tools. The link between achievement goals orientation and science motivation was…
Derakhshanrad, Seyed Alireza; Piven, Emily
Background: Research has shown that in order for recovery from a stroke to occur, motivation for recovery has been essential component of rehabilitation. Researchers and clinicians have tended to categorize stroke survivors subjectively into two groups: those who have been motivated or unmotivated, perhaps due to the paucity of objective measures that distinguish the groups. Since classification of clients based on subjective inference would be prone to bias, this pilot study aimed to establi...
Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie
Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background.…
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of the characteristics of achievement motive of future physical education teachers. Starting from understanding of the importance of achievement motive for the successful accomplishment of professional goals and roles of teachers, the aim of our research is to examine the level of achievement motive, the characteristics of its structure and differences according to gender. The instrument MOP2002 (Franceško et al., 2002a was applied, which presupposes the complex structure of this motive. The sample consisted of 373 students (263 male and 110 female of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Belgrade. The results show that their achievement motive is characterized by the tendency towards high level of presence, and its structure is in the largest degree determined by the components accomplishing goals as a source of pleasure and perseverance in accomplishing goals, which is followed by orientation towards planning. The component competing with others is demonstrated in a moderate degree and it is least expressed. It was shown that female students have a larger degree of achievement motive when compared to male students, and accomplishing goals as a source of pleasure and perseverance in accomplishing goals mostly contribute to the difference in structure of achievement motive. It can be expected that the achievement motive, with the structure and degree of presence determined in our respondents, will contribute that they, as future teachers, become a good motivational model and the creators of a desirable motivational climate.
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Onoe, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of motivation, concentrating on the motivation to learn and gain monetary rewards. We compared the activation in the brain obtained during reported high states of motivation for learning, with the ones observed when the motivation was based on monetary reward. Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes.
McClelland, Dave C.; Alschuler, Alfred S.
Two efforts were made to develop achievement motivation in school children and to observe the effect of such training on their behavior in and out of school. These studies were undertaken because: (1) Achievement motivation might help children think more seriously about their work habits and career planning; (2) It might improve the grades of…
van der Sluis, S.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Posthuma, D.
Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis
Al-Hoorie, Ali H.
This paper investigates the attitudinal/motivational predictors of second language (L2) academic achievement. Young adult learners of English as a foreign language (N = 311) completed several self-report measures and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test. Examination of the motivational profiles of high and low achievers revealed that…
Intelligence explains some variance in students’ school achievement, but not all. Motivation and parenting have been well-documented as non-cognitive predictors and are crucial to students’ school achievement. Better performance of students under Eastern culture could be attributed to motivation and parenting. The present research is dedicated to exploring the associations among motivation and parenting, as well as their specific and joint predictive power for school achievement, independent ...
Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores
This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.
Luis Fernando Gamboa
Full Text Available This paper provides new evidence on the effect of pupils’ self-motivation on academic achievement in science across countries. By using the OECD´s Programme for International Student Assessment 2006 (PISA 2006 test, we find that self-motivation has a positive effect on students’ performance. Instrumental Variables Quantile Regression is used to analyze the existence of different estimated coefficients over the scores distribution, allowing us to deal with the potential endogeneity of self-motivation. We find that the impact of intrinsic motivation on academic performance depends on the pupil’s score. Our findings support the importance of designing focalized programs for different populations that foster their motivation towards learning.
Elena V. Vorobyeva
Full Text Available Achievement motivation is a psychological category which implies a desire to achieve significant (powerful results in certain sphere. According to the results of psychophysiological research people who are motivated for success are very active before they are instructed by the researcher which proves that they aimed at the perception of the referent situation and the intense level of expectations. One of the vital issues today is a problem how genes influence human behaviour. Thus on the basis of contemporary researches we can conclude that such influence is regulated by brain processes.
This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…
Career self efficacy, achievement motivation and organizational commitments are considered as predictors of lecturers‟ conflict preventive behaviours in tertiary institutions in Oyo town. 300 lecturers (149 male and 151 female) of the four tertiary institutions were randomly sampled. What is the relative contributions of each ...
Christensen, Emily Fast
The purpose of this research was to test an intervention of choices in homework on the achievement and intrinsic motivation of seventh-grade science students at a middle school. The intervention was based on concepts from the cognitive evaluation theory of Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1985). The subjects were sixteen heterogeneous classes of seventh-grade students, who were divided among four teachers. Two randomly chosen classes from each teacher received choices in their homework and the remaining two classes of each teacher received similar homework assignments without choices. Two hypotheses were developed for this study: (1) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in intrinsic motivation as measured on a motivation orientation measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework, and (2) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in achievement on an achievement measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework. Having choices in homework did not increase intrinsic motivation or achievement. However, students who did their homework did significantly better on the posttest, and students who were more intrinsically motivated did significantly better on the posttest. Just doing the homework was important for achievement, and intrinsic motivation was linked to achievement.
Full Text Available Educational psychology has recently reflected a policy shift from focusing on “what goes wrong” in schools, including psychological, physical, and educational disabilities, to recognizing and promoting strengths and positive aspects of students and their environments. Within this scope, some lines of research have examined the extent to which setting personal high standards influences such positive outcomes as educational achievement and high level of motivation. The present study was motivated by the concern that Iranian English language teachers' setting high standards, i.e. perfectionism, may predict English language learners’ motivation and language achievement. Through cluster random sampling, a total of 30 English language teachers with more than one year of experience and 300 elementary English language learners were selected from English Language Institutes in Fars province, Iran. Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism scale and Motivations Underlying English Language Learning questionnaire were used to measure teachers' perfectionism and learners’ language learning motivation, respectively. The learners' final scores in the English courses were collected as a measure of their language learning achievement. The result of simple regression analysis revealed that the teachers' perfectionism did not predict English language learners’ motivation and language achievement. In other words, Iranian English language teachers' perfectionism did not account for any variance in these two variables of interest. Keywords: Perfectionism, Motivation, Language Learning Achievement
Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese
Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between achievement motives, achievement goals, learning strategies (deep, surface, and strategic), and academic achievement in a hierarchical model. Participants were 229 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.2 years) of psychology and economics at the University of Bergen, Norway. Variables were measured by means of items from the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS), the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, and an achievement goal scale. Correlation analysis showed that academic achievement (examination grade) was positively correlated with performance-approach goal, mastery goal, and strategic learning strategies, and negatively correlated with performance-avoidance goal and surface learning strategy. A path analysis (structural equation model) showed that achievement goals were mediators between achievement motives and learning strategies, and that strategic learning strategies mediated the relationship between achievement goals and academic achievement. This study integrated previous findings from several studies and provided new evidence on the direct and indirect effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement.
Elliot, A.J.; Aldhobaiban, N.; Murayama, K.; Kobeisy, A.; Gocłowska, M.A.; Khyat, A.
In this research, we investigate impression management (IM) as a substantive personality variable by linking it to differentiated achievement motivation constructs, namely achievement motives (workmastery, competitiveness, fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance,
HELTZEL, FRANCES B.
THIS RESEARCH SOUGHT TO MEASURE M TIVATION UNDERLYING ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL, SPECIFICALLY OF STUDENTS IN VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS. PARALLEL INSTRUMENTS OF 42 ITEMS WERE CONSTRUCTED TO MEASURE MOTIVE FOR STRIVING, BASED ON MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEED FOR SECURITY, BELONGINGNESS, ESTEEM, AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION. STRENGTH OF…
Bipp, T.; Dam, van K.
In the current study, we investigated the role of three basic motivational needs (need for power, affiliation, achievement) as antecedents of goals within the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework, and examined their combined predictive validity with regard to academic performance in a sample of 120
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…
Pangemanan, Sifrid S.; Saerang, David Paul Elia; Rondonuwu, Mariska
The reason students can facing the world of competition because they have a motivation. A thing that help students to get their motivation when they are not get a motivation by themself is through extrinsic motivational factors. There are two objectives of this research are to analyze the effect of extrinsic motivational factors towards student achievement and to identify the most influental factors on student achievement. The method is multiple linear regression analysis to examine the effec...
Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.
To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…
Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.
To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.
The underachievement of gifted children is an area of concern for many parents, teachers and educators generally. Although the study of student underachievement has a long educational history, it is more productive to consider what motivates gifted students to do well. Students tend to be motivated when they find their ...
Ali H. Al-Hoorie
Full Text Available This paper investigates the attitudinal/motivational predictors of second language (L2 academic achievement. Young adult learners of English as a foreign language (N = 311 completed several self-report measures and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test. Examination of the motivational profiles of high and low achievers revealed that attachment to the L1 community and the ought-to L2 self were negatively associated with achievement, while explicit attitudes toward the L2 course and implicit attitudes toward L2 speakers were positively associated with it. The relationship between implicit attitudes and achievement could not be explained either by social desirability or by other cognitive confounds, and remained significant after controlling for explicit self-report measures. Explicit–implicit congruence also revealed a similar pattern, in that congruent learners were more open to the L2 community and obtained higher achievement. The results also showed that neither the ideal L2 self nor intended effort had any association with actual L2 achievement, and that intended effort was particularly prone to social desirability biases. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available The study was based on a theoretical presumption that social climate and relationships in the class can be in specific ways connected with students’ achievement motivation. Previous research in the area of student motivation was mostly based on self-reports and was therefore focused on explicit motives, i.e. personal goals which the respondents strived for. Self-report measures of motivation, however, can be affected by biases and misperceptions of one’s own self. Our study approached achievement motivation at its implicit, i.e. non-conscious level. It was conducted with students in five classes of a secondary school, N = 138, 107 female and 31 male, with an average age of 17 years. The respondents were administered a sociometric questionnaire and the projective Thematic Apperception Test (TAT in McClelland´s adaptation using Heckhausen´s content-analytical clue for the measurement of achievement motivation. The hypothesized relation between social position in class and achievement motivation was only partly supported. Affiliation was unrelated to achievement motivation, even when analyzed for both achievement motives separately. We found a slight negative relationship between influence in the class and achievement motivation, especially with the motive to achieve success. These results, partly diverging from theoretical presumptions, can be explained in terms of specific features of the sample as well as a general methodological disparity in previous research, especially a lack of differentiation between implicit and explicit motives in the interpretation of the findings.
This study assessed the relation between school-social motivation and student academic achievement. A factor analysis was performed on a set of school-social items selected a priori from three measures of school motivation: the Inventory of School Motivation, the General Achievement Goals Orientation Scale, and the Facilitating Conditions Scale. Three factors with fewer items represented Global Motivation, Peer Help, and Social Power. Hierarchical regression analysis showed social motivation measures were weak predictors of achievement scores in the various content areas. Findings are discussed in the context of Qatari education and culture.
Jul 30, 2013 ... organizational psychology, Akinboye (2001) described motivation as ―the ... more solid cognitive representations point an individual towards a specific end. ... Goldstein (1993) emphasizes that conflict is a very complex ...
We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor
This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p students' achievement motivation.
Introduces the concept of learned hopelessness, with special attention on its development from the helplessness theory of depression, and its application to studies of achievement motivation. Highlights conceptual and assessment issues that arise in researching learned hopelessness and achievement motivation. (DSK)
Smith, Robert L.; Troth, William A.
Investigated the achievement motivation training component of psychological education. The subjects were 54 late-adolescent pupils. The experimental training program had as its objectives an increase in academic achievement motivation, internal feelings of control, and school performance, and a reduction of test anxiety. Results indicated…
The objective of this study is to analyze the structure of the achievement motive domain for samples from five states in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that data collected from the various samples will reflect the basic facets suggested by the definitional framework of achievement motivation. It was also hypothesized that the ...
Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng
Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…
Herges, Rebecca M.; Duffield, Stacy; Martin, William; Wageman, Justin
Mathematics achievement among K-12 students has been a long-standing concern in schools across the United States. A possible solution to this mathematics achievement problem is student motivation. A survey was administered to 65 mathematics students at a Midwestern middle school to determine their beliefs and attitudes related to motivation and…
This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…
Full Text Available Several indications that indicate student in low achievement motivation, among others: (1 lack of enthusiasm to follow the lesson, (2 less attention to the teacher, (3 the students have not targeted yet, (4 students tend to ignore the task, (5 (6 students are less harmonious with teachers, (7 students are lazy to learn, and (8 some students feel scared with the teacher. Students 'perceptions of teacher's social support are factors that allegedly influence students' achievement motivation. This study aims to determine the relationship of students' perceptions of the social support of teachers with achievement motivation. The method used throughout this research is quantitative with regression technique. Samples numbered to 206 students of SMA Negeri 1 V Koto Timur Padang Pariaman, and selected by proportional random sampling. The instrument used is the student's perception scale of teacher's social support and achievement motivation. The research findings indicate that there is a significant correlation between around teacher's social support with student achievement motivation.
Gruber, Nicole; Kreuzpointner, Ludwig
There are several methods of implicit measurement. A very valid and wide spread assessment of motives by using the technique of projection are picture story exercises (PSE). Graphology, as theory of inferences on personality and motives by analyses of handwriting, is another one. The presented study examines the commons of these both measurement methods and their prediction of achievement behaviour. So, the achievement motive of 189 students was assessed using the PSE of Heckhausen (1963) and...
Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities. Cross-lagged models showed that achievement predicted intrinsic motivation from Grades 1 to 2, and from Grades 2 to 4. However, intrinsic motivation did not predict achievement at any time. This developmental pattern of association was gender invariant. Contrary to the hypothesis that motivation and achievement are reciprocally associated over time, our results point to a directional association from prior achievement to subsequent intrinsic motivation. Results are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Furia, Andrea C; Lee, Rebecca E; Strother, Myra L; Huang, Terry T-K
To develop and refine a scale of motivational factors related to healthy weight achievement and maintenance and to examine differences by gender and weight status. A cross-sectional survey of 300 university students aged 18-24 years. Factor analysis yielded 6 factors-Intrinsic (Cronbach's alpha=0.73): affective motivation, self-efficacy/interest; Extrinsic (Cronbach's alpha=0.68): social reward, peer pressure, lack of choice, and authority influence. Males and normal-weight students showed higher affective motivation and overall intrinsic motivation compared to females and overweight students, (PIntrinsic motivational factors and gender differences should be considered in developing obesity prevention interventions in this age-group.
Full Text Available In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancement and success in an organizational setting and with individual performance. Moreover, Emotional Intelligence is considered an antecedent to resilience. The present study aims to investigate the role of resilience and emotional intelligence in achievement motivation, verifying if emotional intelligence mediates the relationship among resilience and achievement motivation. Participants are 488 Italian workers, aged between 18 and 55 years. The findings confirm the significant role played by emotional intelligence on resilience and on motivation to achievement.
Full Text Available Education is very important for humans, through the education throughout the world will increasingly flourish. However, if faced with the activities within the learning process, not a few men (students who have less motivation in learning activities. This resulted in fewer maximal learning processes and in turn will affect student achievement. This study focuses to discuss matters relating to the motivation to learn and student achievement, with the aim of strengthening the importance of motivation in the learning process so that a clear relationship with student achievement. The method used is descriptive analysis and simple correlation to the 97 students taking the course introduction to Microeconomics and Indonesian. The conclusion from this research is the students have a good record if it has a well and motivated as well, and this study concludes their tie's difference between learning motivation and achievement of students on two different courses.
Elliot, Andrew J.; Aldhobaiban, Nawal; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A.; Khyat, Aber
In the present research we investigate impression management (IM) as a substantive personality variable by linking it to differentiated achievement motivation constructs, namely achievement motives (workmastery, competitiveness, fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance). Study 1 revealed that IM was a positive predictor of workmastery and a negative predictor of competitiveness (with and without self-deceptive enh...
Firoozeh Khamoushi; Arash Parsa Moghaddam; Mahtab Sadeghi; Ali Akbar Parvizifard; Akram Ahmadzadeh
Introduction: Students are often similar in terms of learning ability and talent. However, there are remarkable differences in their academic performance during their schooling, which can be due to the differences in their academic motivation and achievement motivation. The current study was carried out to compare achievement motivation and academic achievement among the students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive Analytical cross-sec...
Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities.…
Paola Magnano; Giuseppe Craparo; Anna Paolillo
In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancemen...
Magnano, Paola; Facoltà di Scienze dell'Uomo e della Società, Università degli studi Kore, Enna, Italia.; Craparo, Giuseppe; Facoltà di Scienze dell'Uomo e della Società, Università degli studi Kore, Enna, Italia.; Paolillo, Anna; Dipartimento Filosofia, Pedagogia e Psicologia, Università degli Studi di Verona, Verona, Italia.
In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancemen...
This article advances an attributional theory of motivation and emotion, with achievement strivings as the theoretical focus. Causes of success and failure share three common properties: locus, stability, and controllability. Stability of causes influences changes in expectancy of success. Expectancy and affect guide motivated behavior.…
Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy
The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Hermans, Hubert J. M.; And Others
Results indicate that the achievement motivation and the debilitating anxiety of the child manifest themselves in the social interaction patterns both within the family and within the classroom. (Authors)
Xu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yangang; Mellor, David; Duan, Liqiong
Previous research suggests that there is a relationship between social contexts (e.g., economic growth, engagement in wars) and motives within populations. In particular, high achievement motive is associated with subsequent economic growth, which in turn increases power motive. Increased national achievement and power motives have been argued to precede social changes that lead to decreased affiliation motives, and engagement in wars. The present study aimed to examine differences in achievement, power, and affiliation motives between 266 college students in China (a nation with sustained high economic growth) and 255 college students in the USA (a nation with previously strong but now slowing economic growth, and engaged in war). Analysis of personal strivings suggested that Chinese college students showed significantly higher levels of achievement motive than the American college students, but American college students showed significantly higher levels of affiliation motive than Chinese college students. Overall, males exhibited higher achievement motivation than females. No significant interaction effects were found for gender by location for any of the three motives. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research.
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Seishu; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Achievement motivation can be defined as a recurrent need to improve one's past performance. Despite previous functional imaging studies on motivation-related functional activation, the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) morphology and achievement motivation has never been investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry and a questionnaire (achievement motivation scale) to measure individual achievement motivation and investigated the association between rGM density (rGMD) and achievement motivation [self-fulfillment achievement motivation (SFAM) and competitive achievement motivation (CAM) across the brain in healthy young adults (age 21.0 ± 1.8 years, men (n = 94), women (n = 91)]. SFAM and rGMD significantly and negatively correlated in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). CAM and rGMD significantly and positively correlated in the right putamen, insula, and precuneus. These results suggest that the brain areas that play central roles in externally modulated motivation (OFC and putamen) also contribute to SFAM and CAM, respectively, but in different ways. Furthermore, the brain areas in which rGMD correlated with CAM are related to cognitive processes associated with distressing emotions and social cognition, and these cognitive processes may characterize CAM.
Elliot, Andrew J; Aldhobaiban, Nawal; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Khyat, Aber
In this research, we investigate impression management (IM) as a substantive personality variable by linking it to differentiated achievement motivation constructs, namely achievement motives (workmastery, competitiveness, fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance). Study 1 revealed that IM was a positive predictor of workmastery and a negative predictor of competitiveness (with and without self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) controlled). Studies 2a and 2b revealed that IM was a positive predictor of mastery-approach goals and mastery-avoidance goals (without and, in Study 2b, with SDE controlled). These findings highlight the value of conceptualising and utilising IM as a personality variable in its own right and shed light on the nature of the achievement motive and achievement goal constructs. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Ajogbeje Oke James
Full Text Available The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268 College of Education students offering mathematics as one of their subject combination, was selected using purposive sampling techniques. Three research instruments namely: Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS, Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT were used to collect data for the study. Data collected for the study were analyzed using correlational analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that a significantly low negative correlation coefficient existed between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. There is a negative and significant correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation. Similarly, a positive and significant correlation coefficient also exists between achievement motivation and mathematics achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt activity based strategies and conducive learning environment in order to reduce college students’ anxieties in mathematics learning.
Mubeen, Sarwat; Reid, Norman
Motivation is an inner force that activates and provides direction to our thought, feelings and actions. Two main characteristics of motivation are goal directed behavior and persistence. Motivated people persistently work for the goal until it is achieved. This paper explores the nature of motivation in the context of learning and seeks to relate…
Ayundawati, Dyah; Setyosari, Punaji; Susilo, Herawati; Sihkabuden
This study aims for know influence of problem-based learning strategies and achievement motivation on learning achievement. The method used in this research is quantitative method. The instrument used in this study is two fold instruments to measure moderator variable (achievement motivation) and instruments to measure the dependent variable (the…
Kraus, Alexandra; Scholderer, Joachim
According to recent neurobiological models, food choices are influenced by two separate reward systems: motivational wanting (incentive salience of the reward) and affective liking (hedonic pleasure associated with the reward). Both are assumed to have conscious and unconscious components. Applying...... such promising conceptual frameworks within consumer research would not only be helpful for understanding human appetite but also has implications for predicting consumer behaviour. Since the affective liking system has strong similarities to contemporary attitude theories, implicit and explicit measures...... of evaluation could be applied. However, no comparable procedures have been developed for the motivational wanting component; generally accepted “low-tech” measures are therefore still lacking! Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and test implicit measures of wanting that can be used as dependent...
significantly after the intervention (team player, competitiveness, self-confidence and achiever). Other changes following the intervention included an overall increase in the scores in the subscale 'work habits' (planning/organisation, initiative, team player). Apart from revealing an increase in achievement motivation, the ...
Perry, James L.; Vandenabeele, Wouter
This article takes stock of public service motivation research to identify achievements, challenges, and an agenda for research to build on progress made since 1990. After enumerating achievements and challenges, the authors take stock of progress on extant proposals to strengthen research. In
Juliana Beatriz Stover
Full Text Available The aim of this study consists in testing a predictive model of academic achievement including motivation and learning strategies as predictors. Motivation is defined as the energy and the direction of behaviors; it is categorized in three types of motivation –intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985. Learning strategies are deliberate operations oriented towards information processing in academic activities (Valle, Barca, González & Núñez, 1999. Several studies analysed the relationship between motivation and learning strategies in high school and college environments. Students with higher academic achievement were intrinsically motivated and used a wider variety of learning strategies more frequently. A non-experimental predictive design was developed. The sample was composed by 459 students (55.2% high-schoolers; 44.8% college students. Data were gathered by means of sociodemographic and academic surveys, and also by the local versions of the Academic Motivation Scale –EMA, Echelle de Motivation en Éducation (Stover, de la Iglesia, Rial Boubeta & Fernández Liporace, 2012; Vallerand, Blais, Briere & Pelletier, 1989 and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory –LASSI (Stover, Uriel & Fernández Liporace, 2012; Weinstein, Schulte & Palmer, 1987. Several path analyses were carried out to test a hypothetical model to predict academic achievement (Kline, 1998. Results indicated that self-determined motivation explained academic achievement through the use of learning strategies. The final model obtained an excellent fit (χ2=16.523, df= 6, p=0.011; GFI=0.987; AGFI=0.955; SRMR=0.0320; NFI=0.913; IFI=0.943; CFI=0.940. Results are discussed considering Self Determination Theory and previous research.
Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack
Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…
Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily
This study investigated the effects of intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, classroom engagement and extrinsic motivation on reading development among youth. Using a nationally representative sample of students in the US, the researchers followed students longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Reading achievement was measured using…
Hustinx, Paul W. J.; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel
During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary school students. Two measures of achievement…
Arman Hakim Nasution
Full Text Available This article presents a meta analysis of the experimental and survey literature that has examined the effect of achievement motivation, as a part of the big five personality factors, and entrepreneurial leadership quality. This quantitative study review 20 studies based on independent samples (N = 6209. Summary analysis is provided to support the hypothesis in which the achievement motivation has a correlation with entrepreneurial leadership quality on a fairness procedural. Result indicates that the achievement motivation influences the quality of entrepreneurial leadership in a significant value (rc = 0.26. This finding is relevant to all stakeholders (educators, governments, and parents to make a better decision on the development of entrepreneurial leadership policies.
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…
Yaman, Hakan; Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü
The aim of this study is to reveal whether there is relation between achievement motivations of teacher candidates according to their cognitive styles and motivation styles or not. This study was designed as a quantitative study due to collecting quantitative data and running statistical analyses. Both comparative and correlational survey methods…
Wang, Cheng-Lung; Liou, Pey-Yan
Taiwanese students are featured as having high academic achievement but low motivational beliefs according to the serial results of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Moreover, given that the role of context has become more important in the development of academic motivation theory, this study aimed to examine the relationship…
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between styles of creativity and achievement motivation in EFL and Non- EFL learners. There were few studies conducted on the relationship between styles of creativity and achievement motivation among nursing, midwifery and foreign language learners. To this end, an ex-post facto study was done. Ninety EFL and Non- EFL learners took part in the study. It was a correlational descriptive study and sampling method was convenient. The values of these variables were measured through- Creativity Questionnaire (Duckworth, 2007; Runco, 2001 and Motivation Questionnaire (Vallerand, 1992. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for achievement motivation was 0.713, and for styles of creativity was 0.818. Based on the results, it can be said that there was a significant correlation between the RIBS and achievement motivation among Non- EFL learners. However, another creativity styles and achievement motivation were not statistically significant. The results also revealed that there were significant differences between learner's creativity in two groups on RIBS scale, avoiding novelty scale and academic selfefficacy scale. The results of the test have also shown that there were significant differences between learners' creativity in two groups in RIBS Scale. Therefore, the creativity of individuals changes the direction of achievement motivation. As implications, educators and teachers can apply efficient strategies and techniques in language classes in order to promote positive motivation and increase creativity among the students to learn language and raise the proficiency of their learners.
Bipp, T.; Steinmayr, R.; Spinath, B.
In the present study we examined the nomological network of achievement motivation and personality by inspecting the relationships between four goal orientations (learning, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, work avoidance), the Big Five personality traits, and intelligence. Within a
Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.
Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609
Artino, Anthony R; La Rochelle, Jeffery S; Durning, Steven J
A challenge for medical educators is to better understand the personal factors that lead to individual success in medical school and beyond. Recently, educational researchers in fields outside medicine have acknowledged the importance of motivation and emotion in students' learning and performance. These affective factors have received less emphasis in the medical education literature. This longitudinal study examined the relations between medical students' motivational beliefs (task value and self-efficacy), achievement emotions (enjoyment, anxiety and boredom) and academic achievement. Second-year medical students (n=136) completed motivational beliefs and achievement emotions surveys following their first and second trimesters, respectively. Academic achievement was operationalised as students' average course examination grades and national board shelf examination scores. The results largely confirmed the hypothesised relations between beliefs, emotions and achievement. Structural equation modelling revealed that task value beliefs were positively associated with course-related enjoyment (standardised regression coefficient [β] = 0.59) and were negatively related to boredom (β= -0.25), whereas self-efficacy beliefs were negatively associated with course-related anxiety only (β = -0.47). Furthermore, student enjoyment was positively associated with national board shelf examination score (β = 0.31), whereas anxiety and boredom were both negatively related to course examination grade (β= -0.36 and -0.27, respectively). The overall structural model accounted for considerable variance in each of the achievement outcomes: R(2) = 0.20 and 0.14 for the course examination grade and national board shelf examination score, respectively. This study suggests that medical students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions are important contributors to their academic achievement. These results have implications for medical educators striving to understand the
The thrust of the study was to examine the relationship among achievement motivation, self-esteem, locus of control and academic performance of university students in a Nigerian University. The purpose was to determine the extent university student\\'s academic performance was influenced by these criterion variables.
Putwain, David W.; Kearsley, Rebecca; Symes, Wendy
Previous work has suggested that creativity self-beliefs show only small relations with academic achievement and may only be related to intrinsic, not extrinsic motivation. We set out to re-examine these relationships accounting for the multifaceted and process embedded nature of creativity self-beliefs and the full domain range of extrinsic…
Furia, Andrea C.; Lee, Rebecca E.; Strother, Myra L.; Huang, Terry T-K.
Objectives: To develop and refine a scale of motivational factors related to healthy weight achievement and maintenance and to examine differences by gender and weight status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 300 university students aged 18-24 years. Results: Factor analysis yielded 6 factors--Intrinsic (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73): affective…
Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit
The present study examined to which extent different motivational concepts contribute to the prediction of school achievement among adolescent students independently from intelligence. A sample of 342 11th and 12th graders (age M = 16.94; SD = .71) was investigated. Students gave self-reports on domain-specific values, ability self-perceptions,…
Yilmaz, Emrullah; Kaygin, Hüseyin
The aim of this study is to reveal the relation between lifelong learning tendency and achievement motivation. The sampling of the study consisted of 570 prospective teachers attending a pedagogical formation course at two universities in Turkey in 2016. Relational screening model was used in the study and the data were collected through…
Martin, Larry G.
A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)
Froiland, John Mark; Mayor, Päivi; Herlevi, Marjaana
Numerous studies indicate that intrinsic motivation predicts academic achievement. However, relatively few have examined various subtypes of intrinsic motivation that predict overall achievement, such as motivation for exercise and physical activity. Based upon the 16 basic desires theory of personality, the current study examined the motives of…
JULIO ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ PIENDA
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to identify whether there are combinations of multiple goals that lead to different motivational profiles. The sample is made up of 1924 university students. By means of cluster analysis, six motivational profiles were identified. The results indicate that the motivationalprofile that comprises students who are motivated to learn, but also to achieve better results that the rest and to avoid making a bad impression on them are the students who report better academic achievement and also the students who believe they have a higher level of knowledge in the academic subjects they are studying. However, students with a learning oriented motivational profile value the tasks more, have more control over their learning process, and have lower levels of anxiety.
Waskiewicz, Rhonda A
To determine the extent of the relationship between students' inherent motivation to achieve in a doctor of pharmacy program and their motivation to achieve on a single low-stakes test of content knowledge. The Attitude Toward Learning Questionnaire (ATL) was administered to 66 third-year pharmacy students at the beginning of the spring 2011 semester, and the Student Opinion Scale (SOS) was administered to the same group immediately following completion of the Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Significant differences were found in performance approach and work avoidance based on situational motivation scores. Situational motivation was also found to be directly correlated with performance and mastery approaches and inversely correlated with work avoidance. Criteria were met for predicting importance and effort from performance and mastery approaches and work avoidance scores of pharmacy students. The ability to predict pharmacy students' motivation to perform on a low-stakes standardized test of content knowledge increases the test's usefulness as a measure of curricular effectiveness.
Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate to perceptions of the intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety in a sample of university athletes representing various team sports. Although some studies have demonstrated that task orientation and mastery climate are associated with adaptive emotional patterns and ego orientation and performance climate are linked to less adaptive emotions, others have not verified these findings. In the present study, structural equation modeling was used to test these links. The results showed that perceptions of a performance climate were associated with ego orientation, whereas perceptions of a mastery climate were linked to task orientation. Furthermore, no significant links were found between task orientation and direction of competitive anxiety, while it was shown that the impact of ego orientation on the intensity and direction of cognitive and somatic anxiety was exerted through self-confidence. No significant direct links were found between motivational climates and competitive anxiety, thus implying that motivational climates may have an indirect impact on affective responses through the different goal orientations. The findings of the present study are discussed along with suggestions for examining situational and individual difference variables that may explain the relationships between intensity and direction of competitive anxiety and achievement goals and motivational climates.
Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.
Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.
:This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test, achievement motivation test, and the math experience questionnaire. A significant positive correlation was found between math self-concept and math achievement in all four math domains (measurement, rela...
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara tingkat kecerdasan dengan prestasi belajar matematika (2 Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara motivasi berprestasi dengan prestasi belajar matematika (3 Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kebiasaan belajar dengan prestasi belajar matematika (4 Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara tingkat kecerdasan, motivasi berprestasi, dan kebiasaan belajar matematika dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa semester 1 kelas XI IPA SMAN 1 Bojong. Jumlah sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 40 orang siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif korelatif sehingga data dianalisa untuk mendeskripsikan hubungan antara tingkat kecerdasan, motivasi berprestasi, dan kebiasaan belajar matematika dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa. Instrumen pengambilan data menggunakan dokumentasi dan angket, dan dianalisa menggunakan regresi dan korelasi linier sederhana, serta regresi dan korelasi linier berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara : (1 tingkat kecerdasan dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa, (2 motivasi berprestasi dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa, (3 kebiasaan belajar dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa (4 tingkat kecerdasan, motivasi berprestasi dan kebiasaan belajar matematika dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa. The purpose of this study is (1 To determine the relationship between the level of intelligence and academic achievement of mathematics (2 To determine the relationship between achievement motivation and learning achievement in mathematics (3 To determine the relationship between study habits and academic achievement of mathematics (4 To determine the relationship between level of intelligence, achievement motivation and study habits mathematics learning achievement of student mathematics 1st semester of grade XI IPA SMAN 1 Bojong. The number of samples in this study were 40 students.This research was descriptive
Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J
Little research has been conducted on achievement motivation and memory and, more specifically, on achievement goals and memory. In the present research, the authors conducted two experiments designed to examine the influence of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals on immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory. The experiments revealed differential effects for achievement goals over time: Performance-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on an immediate recognition test, whereas mastery-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on a delayed recognition test. Achievement goals had no influence on overall recognition memory and no consistent influence on know responding across experiments. These findings indicate that it is important to consider quality, not just quantity, in both motivation and memory, when studying relations between these constructs.
Huang, Songshan (Sam)
Measuring tourist motivation has always been a challenging task for tourism researchers. This paper aimed to increase the understanding of tourist motivation measurement by comparing two frequently adopted motivation measurement approaches: self-perception (SP) and importance-rating (IR) approaches. Results indicated that both SP and IR scales were highly reliable in terms of internal consistency. However, respondents tended to rate more positively in the SP scale than in the IR scale. Factor...
Using the Turkish portion of the Programme for International Student Assessment dataset ( N = 4,848; 51% boys, 49% girls; age, M = 15.81 years, SD = 0.28), this study investigated factors associated with mathematics achievement among Turkish students. Three different models were estimated using the method of balanced repeated replication with Fay's method and taking into account the presence of five plausible values of the dependent variable. Results showed that male students and older students had better mathematics proficiency. Socio-economic status and school resources also played a significant role in explaining student achievement in mathematics. Finally, students who were more open to problem solving, who attributed their failure to external factors, and who were intrinsically motivated to learn mathematics achieved higher scores. Policy implications are provided.
Kristin Anderson Moore
Full Text Available Research indicates that educational, economic, and life success reflect children’s nonacademic as well as academic competencies. Therefore, longitudinal surveys that assess educational progress and success need to incorporate nonacademic measures to avoid omitted variable bias, inform development of new intervention strategies, and support mediating and moderating analyses. Based on a life course model and a whole child perspective, this article suggests constructs in the domains of child health, emotional/psychological development, educational achievement/attainment, social behavior, and social relationships. Four critical constructs are highlighted: self-regulation, agency/motivation, persistence/diligence, and executive functioning. Other constructs that are currently measured need to be retained, including social skills, positive relationships, activities, positive behaviors, academic self-efficacy, educational engagement, and internalizing/emotional well-being. Examples of measures that are substantively and psychometrically robust are provided.
Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer
In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users.
Feri, Rose; Soemantri, Diantha; Jusuf, Anwar
This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students' autonomous motivation and tutors' autonomy support in medical students' academic achievement. This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis). Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors' autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students' autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students' academic achievement (β=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors' autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students' academic achievement (β = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students' autonomous motivation and tutors' autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students' academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R 2 = 0.042). Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students' educational background, our study shows that tutors' autonomy support is inconsistent with students' academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students' academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students' educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students' academic achievement.
Soemantri, Diantha; Jusuf, Anwar
Objectives This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support in medical students’ academic achievement. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis). Results Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors’ autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students’ autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students’ academic achievement (β=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors’ autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students’ academic achievement (β = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students’ academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.042). Conclusions Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students’ educational background, our study shows that tutors’ autonomy support is inconsistent with students’ academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students’ academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students’ educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students’ academic achievement. PMID:28035054
Full Text Available The scientific literature provides empirical evidence on the relationship between school engagement and numerous important variables of the adolescents’ educational context. The school engagement has been related, among other important constructs, with burnout of both teachers and students, school performance, satisfaction with the school, behavioral disruption, goal orientation and motivational climate in the classroom. Because of it, the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational class climate and students’ academic achievement, with school engagement acting as a mediator. A sample of 2028 teenagers completed various instruments to measure the perception of motivational climate, perceived basic psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support provided by the teacher, and academic achievement. The data were analyzed using a structural equation model with observed variables (path analysis. The results have shown a significant relationship between motivational climate and school engagement, and of this with academic achievement. It should also be highlighted the direct relationship of perceived competence and perceived autonomy support with perception of academic success. Of the three variables to be predicted (Portuguese and Mathematics marks and Academic success, the largest percentage of variance explained was the one of academic success. The results are discussed within the framework of achievement goal theory, the self-determined motivation, and in terms of contributing practical issues to adolescents’ teaching-learning process.
This study examined the relationships between academic motivation-intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation-and mathematics achievement among 363 Indian adolescents in India and 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in India. In contrast, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. While intrinsic motivation was a statistically significant positive predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada, extrinsic motivation was a statistically significant negative predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Amotivation was not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Implications of the findings for pedagogy and practice are discussed.
Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary
Motivational deficits are a key determinant of poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia. These impairments are typically evaluated using various clinical rating scales; however, the degree of convergence between motivation scores derived from different instruments is not clear. In the present study, we measured motivational deficits in 62 patients with schizophrenia using 5 scores derived from 3 different instruments. We found that the scores from these different instruments were highly inter-correlated, and largely independent of severity of other symptom domains (e.g., depression). Our findings suggest that clinical ratings scales evaluating motivational deficits are tapping into a similar underlying construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...
Hendriks Vettehen, P.G.J.; Snippenburg, L.B. van
The present article discusses the problem of separating the motivation conceptempirically from other relevant concepts in research on mass media audiences. For about half a century, audience researchers use questionnaire items with adistinct format as measurements of motivations for media exposure.
Schatt, Matthew D.
Motivation plays a role in nearly all human decision-making processes. Regardless of the situation, little may be achieved without the appropriate harnessing of motivation. The same is true in the music classroom. Research appears to indicate that motivation plays a crucial role in human development and achievement. The achievement motivation…
Pelletier, L G; Tuson, K M; Haddad, N K
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure of client motivation for therapy, the Client Motivation for Therapy Scale. This scale is designed to measure client's Intrinsic Motivation, four forms of regulation for Extrinsic Motivation (integrated, identified, introjected, and external regulation), and Amotivation for therapy. These subscales correspond to different forms of motivation identified by Deci and Ryan (1985) and fall along a self-determination continuum. An experimental version of the scale, along with related scales, was distributed to a total sample of 138 clients involved in therapy. The results supported the factor structure of the scale and revealed a satisfactory level of internal consistency. Correlations among the subscales revealed a simplex pattern that, in general, provides support for the self-determination continuum and the construct validity of the scale. Implications for research on client motivation for therapy are discussed.
Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…
Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.
With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents' motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city…
J.I. Rotgans (Jerome)
textabstractDo students who are motivated behave differently in terms of their learning in the classroom and perform better than students who are less or not motivated? Understanding if and how motivational beliefs (e.g. self-efficacy judgments or task-value beliefs) are related to academic
Zhu, Yan; Leung, Frederick K. S.
The importance of motivation in learning has been widely recognized. However, due to its multidimensional and complex nature, it appears difficult to synthesize research findings on motivation across studies. Heated debates about the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on learning and their interaction have been going on since the terms…
Zhao, Xin; Xu, Yiwenjie; Fu, Junjun; Maes, Joseph H R
Previous studies examining effects of working memory (WM) updating training revealed mixed results. One factor that might modulate training gains, and possibly also transfer of those gains to non-trained cognitive tasks, is achievement motivation. In the present Studies 1 and 2, students with either a high (HAM) or low (LAM) achievement motivation completed a 14-day visuospatial WM updating training program. In Study 2, the students also performed a set of tasks measuring other executive functions and fluid intelligence prior to and after training. In both studies, the HAM students displayed a larger training gain than the LAM students. Study 2 revealed that after training, both groups showed better performance on the near-transfer but not far-transfer tasks. Importantly, the differential training gain was not associated with better post-training performance for the HAM compared to the LAM students on any of the transfer tasks. These results are taken to support a modulatory role of achievement motivation on WM training benefits, but not on transfer of those benefits to other tasks. Possible reasons for the general improvement on the near-transfer tasks and the absence of a modulatory role of achievement motivation on transfer-task performance are discussed.
Asawa, Kailash; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Bhat, Nagesh; Bapat, Salil; Gupta, Vivek; Jalihal, Sagar
There are several factors which influence oral hygiene behavior of an individual. Educational achievements, career aspirations and achievement motives of individuals are some of those factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether educational achievements, career aspirations and achievement motives have associations with oral hygiene behavior among dental students of Udaipur, India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all (n=200) 1st year dental students from all dental colleges of Udaipur City, India. Self-administered structured questions were used to assess their educational achievements, career aspirations and oral hygiene behavior (OHB). Achievement motives were assessed using Achievement Motive Scale developed by Lang and Fries (2006). Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression tests were used in data analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Students with better educational achievements undergone regular dental check-up (30.48%) (p=0.03) and used other oral hygiene aids (90.24%) (p=0.01). Tooth brushing frequency, time and replacement time of tooth brush were found to be significantly associated with career aspiration (p=0.007; p=0.002; p=0.00 respectively). Achievement motives did not have statistically significant association with oral hygiene behavior. Educational achievements and career aspirations appear to be associated with oral hygiene behavior of young dental students. Students with higher career aspirations practiced better oral hygiene behavior. There was no significant relationship between achievement motives and oral hygiene behavior.
Kizilgunes, Berna; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra
The authors proposed a model to explain how epistemological beliefs, achievement motivation, and learning approach related to achievement. The authors assumed that epistemological beliefs influence achievement indirectly through their effect on achievement motivation and learning approach. Participants were 1,041 6th-grade students. Results of the…
Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Lou, Jiunn-Horng
This paper is a report of an exploration of job stress, achievement motivation and occupational burnout in male nurses and to identify predictors of occupational burnout. Since the Nightingale era, the nursing profession has been recognized as 'women's work'. The data indicate that there are more female nurses than male nurses in Taiwan. However, the turnover rate for male nurses is twice that of female nurses. Understanding the factors that affect occupational burnout of male nurses may help researchers find ways to reduce the likelihood that they will quit. A survey was conducted in Taiwan in 2008 using a cross-sectional design. A total of 121 male nurses participated in the study. Mailed questionnaires were used to collect data, which were analysed using descriptive statistics and stepwise multiple regression. The job stress of male nurses was strongly correlated with occupational burnout (r = 0.64, P job stress was the only factor to have a statistically significant direct influence on occupational burnout, accounting for 45.8% of the variance in this. Job stress was comprised of three dimensions, of which role conflict accounted for 40.8% of the variance in occupational burnout. The contribution of job stress to occupational burnout of male nurses was confirmed. As occupational burnout may influence the quality of care by these nurses, nurse managers should strive to decrease male nurses' job stress as this should lead to a reduction of negative outcomes of occupational burnout.
Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu
The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…
Randler, Christoph; Hummel, Eberhard; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter
There are a wide range of student emotions in academic settings, but apart from emotions such as interest and well-being, disgust is a negative emotion which might be relevant in biology education, for instance, during dissection or when encountering living animals. This paper addresses the issue of situational disgust during a course at the university using living animals and prepared mounts. The course covers a wide range of organisms from protists (e.g. Paramecium) through invertebrates to vertebrates and uses many methods (e.g. microscopy, dissection, and behavioral observations) and specific content (anatomy, structure, and behavior). The dissection of the trout was rated as most disgusting, followed by working with living woodlice, living earthworms, and living snails. The least disgusting lessons were those dealing with microscopy, mammalian skulls, honeybee dance, and bird flight. Based on animals, macro-invertebrates were rated as most disgusting and mammals as least disgusting. Concerning methods, observing through a microscope was perceived as being least disgusting, followed by experiments without animals, then followed by experiments with living animals and, most disgusting, dissection. Disgust was correlated negatively with interest, well-being, and competence but positively with pressure and boredom. Thus, low disgust is related to high interest, well-being, and competence, while higher disgust is related to higher pressure and boredom. The results show a need for measuring situational disgust in addition to survey studies. They also suggest that perceived disgust negatively affects intrinsic motivation. This has implications for biology teaching, because carrying out dissections or experiencing living animals in the classroom may have a detrimental effect on motivation.
Chen, Lung Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Kee, Ying Hwa; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Shui, Shang-Hsueh
In this study, the hierarchical model of achievement motivation [Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the "classic" and "contemporary" approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. In P. Pintrich & M. Maehr (Eds.), "Advances in motivation and achievement"…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of learned optimism on achievement motivation and academic resilience in female adolescents. This study was a quasi design, pre- and post-test control group and the subjects were selected among adolescents who were members of the Center for Intellectual Development of Children and Adolescents in Isfahan. These subjects selected by randomly style and divided into two experimental and control groups. They were 20 female adolescents aged between 13 to 15 years. The experimental group received optimism training in 7 sessions. Measuring tools were Hermance Achievement motivation questionnaire and Samuel’s academic resilience questionnaire. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. The results showed that learned optimism had a significant effect on achievement motivation and it’s subscales (confidence and perseverance but it had no effect on other subscales (foresight and hard working. As well as learned optimism had no effect on academic resilience and it’s subscales (communication skills, orientation for the future, orientation for the problem-based. Based on these results focus on emotional and optimism in educational system leads to increase motivation in students and prevent failure and school drop.
Lyndon, Mataroria P; Henning, Marcus A; Alyami, Hussain; Krishna, Sanjeev; Zeng, Irene; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Hill, Andrew G
The aim of this study was to identify burnout and quality of life profiles of medical students and determine their associations with academic motivation and achievement on progress tests using a person-oriented approach. Medical students (n = 670) in Year 3 to Year 5 at the University of Auckland were classified into three different profiles as derived from a two-step cluster analysis using World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF scores and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory scores. The profiles were used as independent variables to assess differences in academic motivation and achievement on progress tests using a multivariate analysis of co-variance and repeated measures analysis of co-variance methods. The response rate was 47%. Three clusters were obtained: Higher Burnout Lower Quality of Life (n = 62, 20%), Moderate Burnout Moderate Quality of Life (n = 131, 41%), and Lower Burnout Higher Quality of Life (n = 124, 39%). After controlling for gender and year level, Higher Burnout Lower Quality of Life students had significantly higher test anxiety (p motivation (p students are associated with differences in academic motivation and achievement over time.
A large number of non-English majors seldom consider what strategies of learning English they are using to regulate their motivation and how their motivation is related to achievement. Data were collected from 4000 college non-English-majors at Guizhou University using a questionnaire. This paper contrasts students' motivation and strategies of learning English. Some teaching approaches are offered to motivate students to do their best in attaining higher achievement.
Imhof, Margarete; Spaeth-Hilbert, Tatjana
Based on a cognitive motivational process model of learning, the impact of studying behavior on learning outcome is investigated. First-year students (N = 488) participated in the study. Two research questions were addressed: (1) Can cognitive-motivational variables and objective study behavior predict individual learning? (2) Which factors drive…
[Objective] The aim was to explore the achievement motivation of the university student village officials in the suburbs of Beijing.[Method] The research made an investigation on 429 university student village officials in the suburbs of Beijing by the Achievements Motive Scale (AMS). [ Result] The achievement motivation of these student village officials was not on a high level, but they tended to pursue the success motivation rather than the motivation to avoid failures obviously. There was a significant difference in the achievement motivation between different genders, majors and jobs. The males' motivation for success was higher than the females'. The motivation of avoiding failures among officials in Humanities was higher than in Science and in Fine Art. And the university student village officials in professional and technical posts or in business posts rated the motivation to avoid failures more important than in basic management posts. But achievement motivations in different urban-rural areas, educational levels, political backgrounds, whether student leaders or not, and durations were no definite differences. Besides, it had a significant effect on these student village officials' achievement motivation whether advices and suggestions were accepted; if yes,the motivation was higher. [ Conclusion] This study had provided stability and development for building rural talent groups.
Aziz, Tian Abdul; Purnomo, Yoppy Wahyu; Pramudiani, Puri
The purpose of the present study was to investigate Indonesian pre-service teachers' motivation and achievement goal who studied abroad. The participants of the study were two Indonesian students who enrolled at Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Department on one public university in Ankara, Turkey. Semi structured interview and classroom observation were conducted to understand participants' motivation, achievement goal and the ways to develop it. Findings of the study indicated that by considering Self-Determination Theory participants demonstrated various types of motivation, to wit: amotivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to study. In addition, in compliance with the 3 x 2 achievement goal model, they held multiple types of achievement goals. Different types of motivations and achievement goals led them to exhibit different means in developing their motivations and achievement goals. Implications of the study are discussed.
Bakadorova, Olga; Raufelder, Diana
Considering the essential role that socio-motivational relationships at school play with respect to achievement motivation, this study examined the differences between students with a low school self-concept and students with a high school self-concept in a large sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N= 1088; M[subscript Age]= 13.7) in secondary…
De Castella, Krista; Byrne, Don; Covington, Martin
A classic distinction in the literature on achievement and motivation is between fear of failure and success orientations. From the perspective of self-worth theory, these motives are not bipolar constructs but dimensions that interact in ways that make some students particularly vulnerable to underachievement and disengagement from school. The…
Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Demirhan, Giyasettin
The aim of this study was to analyse whether conducting physical education lessons according to different motivational climates leads to a significant difference between students' achievement goals, motivational strategies and attitudes towards physical education. Participants (81-ninth grade students) were allocated to one of three experimental…
The current study investigated the relationship between students' attitudes towards school, values of education, achievement motivation and academic achievement. Accordingly, the study adopted a correlation research design. To achieve the objectives of the study, 362 students using systematic sampling technique were taken from grade 9 students of…
S. H. Sulistijo
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the differences in learning outcomes of between students that are given the Physics learning models of Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and guided inquiry, between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. This study was an experimental study with a 2x2x2 factorial design. The study population was the students of class X of SMAN 1 Toroh Grobogan of academic year 2016/2017. Samples were obtained by cluster random sampling technique consists of two classes, class X IPA 3 is used as an experimental class using ISTAD model and class X IPA 4 as the control class using guided inquiry model. Data collection techniques using test techniques for learning outcomes, and technical questionnaire to obtain the data of students' achievement motivation. Analysis of data using two-way ANOVA. The results showed that: (1 there is a difference between the learning outcomes of students with the ISTAD Physics models and with the physics model of guided inquiry. (2 There are differences in learning outcomes between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. (3 There is no interaction between ISTAD and guided inquiry Physics models learning and achievement motivation of students.
WOOD, FRANK H.
THIS INVESTIGATION FOCUSED ON THE USEFULNESS OF A PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING MEASURES OF THE MOTIVATION OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES TO ACHIEVE IN READING WHICH DID NOT REQUIRE WRITTEN OR ORAL VERBAL RESPONSES FROM THE SUBJECTS. MEASURES OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WERE CORRELATED WITH TEACHER RATINGS OF EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE IN…
To motivate students to learn English requires teachers to utilise more motivational strategies in order to improve students' achievements. Thus, the aims of this article are to discuss whether motivational strategies affect students' achievements in respect of the scores and focus on which motivational strategies influenced students' achievements at
The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found
Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling
This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…
Full Text Available This paper sheds light on the link between achievement goals, motivation, and parental expectations in a sample of 600 students attending higher education institutions in Kosovo. Aside from exploring the stipulated link between the constructs, the research aims to discover whether cultural differences mediate expected results. The results proved that the mastery of goals positively correlates to intrinsic motivation in addition to which curiosity as a subscale of intrinsic motivation positively predicted preferences for the mastery of goals. As expected, performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals, correlated to extrinsic motivation with extrinsic motivation, successfully predict preferences for both types of performance goals. The data proved that among students in Kosovo, all types of goals correlated to intrinsic motivation. Achievement goals were differentiated in extrinsic motivation with mastery goals correlating rather weakly to only one subscale of extrinsic motivation.
Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.
Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.
Winter, David G
Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan
This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…
Kim, Jung-In; Chung, Hyewon
Informed by achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories, we explored the role of cultural/contextual factors on Korean students' achievement motivation. Specifically, we examined the role of the Korean middle school students' family orientation as a mediator between their perceptions of parent goals or motivating styles and their…
Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Vermue, Carlien; Deinum, Jan
Our study focused on describing first-year university students’ motivational profiles and their achievement. 755 students in the faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences participated in the study. Data on academic motivation was collected before the start of the program, data on achievement at
Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen
This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…
Dja'far, Veri Hardinansyah; Cahyono, Bambang Yudi; Bashtomi, Yazid
This research aimed at examining Indonesian EFL Teachers' perception of students' motivation and English for Specific Purposes (ESP) learning achievement. It also explored the strategies applied by teachers based on their perception of students' motivation and ESP learning achievement. This research involved 204 students who took English for…
Anderson, Patricia N.
The expectancy-value model of achievement motivation, first described by J. Atkinson (1957) and refined by J. Eccles and her colleagues (1983, 1992, 1994) predicts achievement motivation based on expectancy for success and perceived task value. Cost has been explored very little. To explore the possibility that cost is different from expectancy…
Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin
In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…
Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Vermue, Carlien; Deinum, Jan
Our study focused on describing first-year university students’ motivational profiles and their achievement. 755 students in the faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences participated in the study. Data on academic motivation was collected before the start of the program, data on achievement at
Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.
In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…
Overseas research has shown that achievement emotions have direct relationships with ＂achievement outcome＂ and＂achievement activities＂. The purpose of the present study aimed to compare the relationships betweenachievement emotions, motivation, and language learning strategies of high, mid and low achievers in Englishlanguage learning at an international university in a southern province in China. Quantitative data were collectedthrough a questionnaire survey of 74 （16 males, 58 females） TESL major students. Results indicated that studentsin general experienced more positive than negative achievement emotions; more intrinsically rather thanextrinsically motivated to learn English; and quite frequently used a variety of learning strategies to overcome theirlearning difficulties. However, Year Four low-achievers experienced more negative achievement emotions. Theyseldom used metacognitive, affective and social learning strategies, and they had lower degrees of intrinsicmotivation. Implications for institutional support for at risk students are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between teachers’ interpersonal relationship and their perception about supervision implementation and their contribution toward their work achievement motivation. The data were obtained from 55 teachers as the sample by stratified proportional random sampling. The data were analyzed by means of correlation and multiple regression technique. The results of this study show that the contribution of interpersonal relationship variable was 28% to work achievement. Meanwhile, the teachers’ perception of supervision implementation variable contributes 17% to work achievement motivation variable. The contribution of the two dependent variables was 41% to work achievement motivation variable.
Dragoljub Višnjić; Dragan Martinović; Jelena Ilić; Živorad Marković
The relations of students achievement and motivation for involvement in PE classes were examined in a sample of 247 seventh-grade elementary school students of both sexes. The independent variables in the study were: sex, general success of the previous grade, PE grade, students’ opinion on sufficiency of knowledge acquired through instruction process, students’ involvement in sport. The scale for measurement of motivation consisted of 29 items obtained by adaptation of the Scale for measurem...
Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn
Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.
Ming, Dan; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Rui; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Qiu, Jiang; Xu, Zhan; Zhang, Qinglin
The motive to achieve success (MAS) and motive to avoid failure (MAF) are two different but classical kinds of achievement motivation. Though many functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have explored functional activation in motivation-related conditions, research has been silent as to the brain structures associated with individual differences in achievement motivation, especially with respect to MAS and MAF. In this study, the voxel-based morphometry method was used to uncover focal differences in brain structures related to MAS and MAF measured by the Mehrabian Achieving Tendency Scale in 353 healthy young Chinese adults. The results showed that the brain structures associated with individual differences in MAS and MAF were distinct. MAS was negatively correlated with regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/orbitofrontal cortex while MAF was negatively correlated with rGMV in the mPFC/subgenual cingulate gyrus. After controlling for mutual influences of MAS and MAF scores, MAS scores were found to be related to rGMV in the mPFC/orbitofrontal cortex and another cluster containing the parahippocampal gyrus and precuneus. These results may predict that compared with MAF, the generation process of MAS may be more complex and rational, thus in the real world, perhaps MAS is more beneficial to personal growth and guaranteeing the quality of task performance.
Baker, Robert W.; Siryk, Bohdan
Administered the Academic Motivation Scale to three successive classes of college freshmen (N=944). Results indicated the Academic Motivation Scale's reliability was more than adequate for research use and significantly related to validity criteria reflecting motivation for academic work. (JAC)
Full Text Available Background The increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight is a global trend, whereas the number of studies devoted to the psycho-social functioning of the overweight young is comparatively small. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlations between the occurrence of overweight and obesity during adolescence and achievement motivation and self-esteem levels, taking into consideration the sex and age of subjects. Participants and procedure Altogether, 72 subjects were included in the study. Of them, 36 were overweight (n = 16; BMI = 25-29.9 or obese (n = 20; BMI ≥ 30, whereas the control group (n = 36 comprised individuals with standard body weight. Both the overweight/obese group and the control group were composed of 18 females and 18 males. The age range of subjects was 14-21 (M = 17.32; SD = 2.61. The M. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Questionnaire of Measuring Achievement Motivation (by M. Widerszal-Bazyl, and also a socio-demographic survey, were applied. Results Overweight and obese individuals are characterized by lower (average or low self-esteem and achievement motivation (they are characterized by a lower perseverance level while performing tasks, perceive time in a less dynamic way, are less future-oriented, and their self-confidence level is lower than individuals with standard body weight, and who are characterized by high self-esteem and average achievement motivation. In the scope of school mark average, and also of planning higher academic education, there are no intergroup differences. Sex, and also age, does not differentiate overweight or obese individuals in the scope of self-esteem or achievement motivation. Differences occur in the case of comparing individuals of the same sex. Overweight or obese women are characterized by a lower self-esteem level than those whose body mass index is normal. Overweight or obese men are characterized by a lower self-esteem and achievement motivation
Full Text Available The article makes the theoretical analysis of the features of professional performance of civil servants and officials of local self-government bodies. The significant level of staff turnover among civil servants and the significant level of registered unemployed among the persons who had previously worked in these structures was revealed. The article carries out the theoretical analysis of psychological researches, which testify to the existence of direct correlation between the level of achievement motivation and success in an entrepreneurial activity. The purpose has been set to study the peculiar properties of achievement motivation of civil servants and officials of local self-government bodies. The researches have shown that the level of motivation for the achievement has a straightforward connection with the success of entrepreneurship. The purpose is to study the peculiarities of the motivation of achievement of civil servants and officials of local self-government bodies. There is the possibility for engagement of fired civil servants to entrepreneurial activities. The empirical study of achievement motivation peculiarities of female employees has been conducted. A statistically significant inverse correlation between the level of achievement motivation and the length of civil service has been established. The paper substantiates the need in further research aimed at uncovering the factors responsible for the inverse correlation between the level of achievement motivation and the term of service in the civil service.
Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C
Contemporary research suggests that task and ego achievement goal orientations affect students' intrinsic motivation in physical education. This research has assessed intrinsic motivation as a unidimensional contruct, however, which is inconsistent with the more contemporary postulates of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991) which states that intrinsic motivation is only one type of motivation. To date, research has not addressed whether different types of motivation at the situational level are influenced by the proneness to adopt task or ego involvement. To examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in PE. Middle school children (182 male, 136 female; M age = 13.2 years). Responded to questionnaires assessing their dispositional goal orientation (POSQ; Roberts, Treasure, & Balague, 1998) and situational motivation (SIMS; Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) in PE. Task orientation was found to be positively associated with more self-determined types of situational motivation. Ego orientation was weakly related to less self-determined motivation. An extreme group split was conducted to create four goal groups and goal profile analyses conducted. A significant MANOVA was followed by univariate analyses, post hoc comparisons, and calculated effect sizes, which revealed that groups high in task orientation reported more motivationally adaptive responses than groups low in task orientation. The results suggest that a high level of task orientation singularly or in combination with ego orientation fosters self-determined situational motivation in the context of PE.
Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel
The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether or not there was a significant differencein students’ listening motivation and achievement after they were taught by dramamovies viewing technique. The objects of the study were 60 eleventh graders. A quasiexperimental design was used in this study.Data were collected by using motivationquestionnaire and listening achievement tests. The results showed that the students whowere treated by drama movies viewing technique achieved higher mean score inlistening motivation (80.57 and listening achievement (81.46. Drama movies viewingtechnique also gave contribution in listening motivation (31.9% and listeningachievement (61.8%.Keywords: drama movies viewing techniques, listening motivation, and listeningAchievement.
Chambers, David W
Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.
Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the fact that motivation is linked directly to the learning process and educational achievement, this study endeavored to identify strategies to improve students’ educational achievement motivation at Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: To conduct this descriptive-analytical study, 368 students from Guilan University of Medical Sciences were selected using simple random sampling from 2013-2014. All of the Guilan University of Medical Sciences’ students met the general eligibility criteria except guest students. The questionnaire included five domains of economic, socio-cultural, educational, geo-regional, and personality factors in educational achievement motivation. Through using descriptive and inferential statistics (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, the compiled data were analyzed at the significance level of 0.05. Results: Data analysis revealed that socio-cultural factors have the maximum score (64.14 ± 9.92 and geo-regional factors have the minimum score (19.01±3.63 on the participants’ educational achievement motivation. What is more, a significant difference was revealed between educational field and educational effective factors as well as educational level and educational effective factors (p<0.011, p<0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Given that the socio-cultural factors had the maximum score on the students’ educational achievement motivation, it is recommended that university officials take these factors into account, and attempt to plan to provide appropriate strategies to enhance their students’ motivation, specifically their educational achievement motivation.
This study investigated the question of whether a student's expectancy, values and negative affect influenced their deep information processing approach and achievement at the end of the first and second academic year. Five hundred and sixty-five first-year students completed a self-report questionnaire on three different occasions. The…
This study investigated the question of whether a student's expectancy, values and negative affect influenced their deep information processing approach and achievement at the end of the first and second academic year. Five hundred and sixty-five first-year students completed a self-report
This paper examines the extent to which the worth of College women as judged by them influenced certain domains of achievement related contexts. Female students (N = 560) attending Kwara State College of Education at Ilorin and Oro participated in this study. In each College, the 280 female students who were ...
Freiberger, Verena; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit
To study the role of students' competence beliefs and their perceived teachers' ability evaluations for intrinsic motivation and achievement in math, 459 second graders from 27 German classrooms were examined. Students provided self-reports on their intrinsic motivation, competence beliefs and perceived teachers' ability evaluations in math.…
Wolters, Christopher A.; Denton, Carolyn A.; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.
The purpose of this study was to extend the research on adolescents' motivation for reading by examining important group differences and the relation of motivation to standardized achievement. Adolescents (N = 406) ranging from grade 7 to grade 12 completed a self-report survey that assessed 13 different aspects of their reading motivation…
McClintic-Gilbert, Megan S.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla
The present study examined the extent to which middle school students' (N = 90) learning strategies mediated the relationship between their motivational orientations and academic achievement. Survey data revealed that higher degrees of intrinsic motivation predicted the use of both deep and surface learning strategies, whereas higher degrees of…
McCoy, Dana Charles; Wolf, Sharon; Godfrey, Erin B.
This study examined the role that Ghanaian caregivers' values toward education play in shaping students' intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for learning, and the ways these values and motivational orientations predict school attendance and achievement. Study participants included 88 students (M?=?11.63 years; 48% female) from two primary…
Moore, Lori L.; Grabsch, Dustin K.; Rotter, Craig
This study sought to examine student motives for participating in a residential leadership learning community for incoming freshmen using McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory (McClelland, 1958, 1961). Eighty-nine students began the program in the Fall 2009 semester and were administered a single, researcher-developed instrument. Responses to…
Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini
In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…
Hustinx, P.W.J.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel
During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary
Schwinger, Malte; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit
It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test.…
Acat, M. Bahaddin; Dereli, Esra
The purpose of this study was to identify problems and motivation sources and strategies of decision-making of the students' attending preschool education teacher department, was to determine the relationship between learning motivation and strategies of decision-making, academic achievement of students, was to determine whether strategies of…
Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang
This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…
Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Rintamaa, Margaret; Anderman, Eric M.; Anderman, Lynley H.
The authors examined 1,781 rural students' reading motivation and behavior across the transition from middle to high school. Using expectancy-value theory, they investigated how motivational variables predicted changes in reading behavior and achievement across the transition in terms of their expectancies, values, and out-of-school reading…
Su, C-H.; Cheng, C-H.
This paper aims to investigate how a gamified learning approach influences science learning, achievement and motivation, through a context-aware mobile learning environment, and explains the effects on motivation and student learning. A series of gamified learning activities, based on MGLS (Mobile Gamification Learning System), was developed and…
Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Vermue, Carlien Elske; Deinum, Jan Folkert
Our study focused on describing first-year university students' motivational profiles and examining differences in academic achievement based on these profiles. Data on academic motivation of 755 students in the field of mathematics and natural sciences were collected before the start of their bachelor's degree program; data on GPA were collected…
Keller, Melanie M.; Neumann, Knut; Fischer, Hans E.
This paper examines students' achievement and interest and the extent to which they are predicted by teacher knowledge and motivation. Student achievement and interest are both considered desirable outcomes of school instruction. Teacher pedagogical content knowledge has been identified a major predictor of student achievement in previous…
Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Park, Daeun; Maloney, Erin A.; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.
School-entry math achievement is a strong predictor of math achievement through high school. We asked whether reciprocal relations among math achievement, math anxiety, and entity motivational frameworks (believing that ability is fixed and a focus on performance) can help explain these persistent individual differences. We assessed 1st and 2nd…
de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs
The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…
Mekarina, M.; Ningsih, Y. P.
This classroom action research is based by the facts that the students motivation and achievement mathematics learning is less. One of the factors causing is learning that does not provide flexibility to students to empower the potential of the brain optimally. The aim of this research was to improve the student motivation and achievement in mathematics learning by implementing brain based learning approach. The subject of this research was student of grade XI in senior high school. The research consisted of two cycles. Data of student achievement from test, and the student motivation through questionnaire. Furthermore, the finding of this research showed the result of the analysis was the implementation of brain based learning approach can improve student’s achievement and motivation in mathematics learning.
Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; van der Werf, Greetje; Kuyper, Hans
Although a bulk of literature shows that perceived social support (PSS) influences academic achievement, the mechanisms through which this effect operates received little empirical attention. The present study examined the multiple mediational effects of motivational beliefs (competence beliefs and
The long-term goal of this research is to accommodate the students’ perceptions of the influence of the lecturer’s leadership in teaching and learning activities and the students’ self-efficacy to the students’ achievement motivation. This research used questionnaires which distributed to the respondents and the data obtained were processed quantitatively with path analysis. The results showed that the significance influence of leadership on the lecturer only accounted for 1.4%, while the effect of self-efficacy of the student is very significant on the students’ achievement motivation, which amounted to 84.5%. The conclusions are that the lecturer leadership has no significant effect on the students’ achievement motivation, but self-efficacy has a great effect. The implication of this conclusion is that important to growing self-efficacy’s students to improve the students’ achievement motivation.
Han, Jing; Lu, Qingsheng
Achievement motivation as one of the most important parts in learning motivation indicates a concern with success in competition with some standard of excellence. Learners who are highly motivated to learn a language are likely to use a variety of strategies. Besides achievement motivation, goal setting, a very important cognitive mediator between…
Negar HOMAYONI IZAD
Full Text Available Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, were used: i Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand and Briere (2001 Interpersonal Behaviour Scale to measure social support of trainers, ii Gill and Deeter (1988 Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ to measure achievement motivation, and iii Scanlan, Simons, Car penter, Schmidt and Keeler (1993 Sport Commitment Model to measure sport commitment. Procedure: The questionnaires were administered to participants in person by the first author after training sessions in sport stadiums. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between perceived coaches' social support and sport achievement motivation and commitment for both male and female participants. However, on all of the above measures females scored significantly more positive ratings than their male c ounterparts. Results of regression analyses conducted separately for males and females showed that relatedness support is the strongest predictor for sport achievement motivation and commitment for males, whereas autonomy support was the strongest predicto r for sport commitment amongst females. Implications: These findings are of particular interest in understanding the impact of perceived coaching support for young male and female athletes, especially if coached exclusively by the same gender.
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the motivational potential of psychology students using an egoskopiya method. Heart rate and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed the Mehrabian achievement motivation test. Thirty students of the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 20 and 30 years participated. The psychodiagnostic study involved 136 students from the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 18 and 49 years. To determine the lateral organization profiles of sensory and motor functions, a computer-based testing program termed “Profile” was used. The Compact Russian Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ-77 was used to evaluate the features of temperament. The results revealed that people with a strong motivation to succeed exhibited a predominance of right features in their lateral organization profiles. Their cardiovascular systems were in more activated states than those of the people who were extremely motivated to avoid failure. The observed temperament features of psychology students with different levels of achievement motivation indicated that the level of achievement motivation is related to the properties of temperament such that students with lower levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to avoid failure exhibited the temperament traits of Neuroticism and Impulsivity in addition to low values on the scales for the Sensitivity to Sensations, Intellectual Ergonicity, and Sensitivity to Probabilities. High levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to strive toward success corresponded to the psychology students’ propensities for Sensitivity to Sensations, high levels of Intellectual Ergonicity, high levels of Sensitivity to Probabilities and low values on the scales of Impulsivity and Neuroticism.
Harris, Yael; Clauser, Steven B.
CMS has initiated the Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) to improve the quality of nursing home care. Central to the NHQI is the public reporting of nursing home quality measures that serve as the basis for the Initiative's communication and quality improvement program. This article provides an overview of the NHQI, focusing on the role of nursing home quality measures in achieving improvements in nursing home care. We also describe the evolution of quality measurement in nursing homes, a...
Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...
Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.
Bakadorova, Olga; Raufelder, Diana
It is now well known that adolescence is frequently marked by a decline in students' achievement motivation, which in turn is often associated with a decline in individual school self-concept. Less is known about the mediating role of socio-motivational support in the association between individual school self-concept and achievement motivation.…
Sofian, Siti Siryani; Rambely, Azmin Sham
Students' evaluation is important in order to determine the effectiveness of a learning program. A game and recreational activity (GaRA) is a problem-based learning (PBL) method that engages students in a learning process through games and activity. The effectiveness of GaRA can be determined from an application of fuzzy conjoint analysis (FCA) to diminish fuzziness in determining individual perceptions. This study involves a survey collected from 68 students participating in a Mathematics Discovery Camp organized by a UKM research group, named PRISMatik, from two different schools. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of modules delivered to motivate students towards mathematics subject in the form of GaRA through different factors. There were six games conducted for the participants and their perceptions based on the evaluation of six criterias were measured. A seven-point Likert scale, which indicates seven linguistic terms, was used to collect students' preferences and perceptions on each module of GaRAs. Scores of perceptions were transformed into degrees of similarity using fuzzy set conjoint analysis. Results found that interest, effort and team work was the strongest values obtained from GaRA modules in this camp as participants indicated their strong agreement that these criteria fulfilled their preferences in most module. Participants also stated that almost all attributes fulfilled their preference in each module regardless their individual academic achievement. Thus the method demonstrated that modules delivered through PBL approach has effectively motivated students through six attributes introduced. The evaluation using FCA implicated the successfulness of a fuzzy approach to evaluate fuzziness obtained in the Likert-scale and has shown its ability in ranking the attributes from most preferred to least preferred.
Previous research has shown that matching person variables with achievement contexts can produce the best motivational outcomes. The current study examines whether this is also true when matching entity and incremental beliefs with the appropriate motivational climate. Participants were led to believe that a personal attribute was fixed (entity belief) or malleable (incremental belief). After thinking that they failed a test that assessed the attribute, participants performed a second (related) task in a context that facilitated the pursuit of either performance or learning goals. Participants were expected to exhibit greater effort on the second task in the congruent conditions (entity belief plus performance goal climate and incremental belief plus learning goal climate) than in the incongruent conditions. These results were obtained, but only for participants who either valued competence on the attribute or had high achievement motivation. Results are discussed in terms of developing strategies for optimizing motivation in achievement settings.
Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Cooper, M. Lynne; Lee, Christine M.
A multidimensional measure assessing distinct motivations for and against sex was shown to be reliable, valid, and configurally invariant among incoming first-year college students. Three Motivations Against Sex Questionnaire subscales were developed to measure motivations "against" sexual behavior (Values, Health, Not Ready) to complement and…
Datu, Jesus Alfonso D
Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p amotivation β = -.19, p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.
Jang, Leong Yeok; Liu, Woon Chia
This study sought to better understand the adoption of multiple achievement goals at an intra-individual level, and its links to emotional well-being, learning, and academic achievement. Participants were 480 Secondary Two students (aged between 13 and 14 years) from two coeducational government schools. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed the…
Clayton, Karen E; Zusho, Akane
In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually based sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. This mixed-methods study examined why Jamaican undergraduate students are motivated or unmotivated and how this relates to the extant literature on achievement motivation. This study was conducted in two phases and consisted of 175 and 189 Jamaican undergraduate students across phases one and two, respectively. First, a qualitative investigation using open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews explored Jamaican undergraduate students' conceptualization of motivation and the factors that positively or negatively impacted their motivation. The second phase consisted of using prototype theory to capture a hierarchical cognitive representation of Jamaican students' motivation using coded themes derived from phase one of the study. The overall results indicated that personal, cognitive, contextual, and sociocultural factors are important determinants of Jamaican undergraduate students' academic motivation and that sociocultural (e.g., familial, economic, religious) factors appear to play a more critical role in impacting their motivation. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student's perceptions of parents' attitudes toward science. The Children's Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students' levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students' overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students' academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students' perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students' motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.
Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar
We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive.
O'Rourke, Daniel J.; Smith, Ronald E.; Smoll, Frank L.; Cumming, Sean P.
Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season), mastery climate scor...
AlZboon, Saleem Odeh
The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…
Fan, Weihua; Dempsey, Allison G.
This study examined the mediating role of student school motivation in linking student victimization experiences and academic achievement among a nationally representative sample of students in 10th grade. Structural equation modeling supported that there were significant associations between student victimization and academic achievement for high…
de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs
The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their
Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien
Research in higher education on the effects of student-centred versus lecture-based learning environments generally does not take into account the psychological need support provided in these learning environments. From a self-determination theory perspective, need support is important to study because it has been associated with benefits such as autonomous motivation and achievement. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of different learning environments on students' motivation for learning and achievement, while taking into account the perceived need support. First-year student teachers (N= 1,098) studying a child development course completed questionnaires assessing motivation and perceived need support. In addition, a prior knowledge test and case-based assessment were administered. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was set up consisting of four learning environments: (1) lectures, (2) case-based learning (CBL), (3) alternation of lectures and CBL, and (4) gradual implementation with lectures making way for CBL. Autonomous motivation and achievement were higher in the gradually implemented CBL environment, compared to the CBL environment. Concerning achievement, two additional effects were found; students in the lecture-based learning environment scored higher than students in the CBL environment, and students in the gradually implemented CBL environment scored higher than students in the alternated learning environment. Additionally, perceived need support was positively related to autonomous motivation, and negatively to controlled motivation. The study shows the importance of gradually introducing students to CBL, in terms of their autonomous motivation and achievement. Moreover, the study emphasizes the importance of perceived need support for students' motivation. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the achievement motivation levels of the amateur football players based upon the importance of motivation on the athletes’ successes. The research group comprises 243 voluntary amateur football players who actively participated in the competitions during 2016-2017 season in Elazig. In the study, “Sports-Specific Achievement Motivation Scale” that was developed by Willis (1982 and adapted to Turkish by Tiryaki and Godelek (1997 was used. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 22 programme. The margin of error was accepted as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha value was found as ,78. Consequently; when the subscales of achievement motivation of the amateur soccer players participating in the study were analyzed with some variables, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those aged 22-24 years and those aged 25-27 years in approach success. In the team playing year variable, the statistical significance was found between the ones who have 1 year football history in the team and those who are 5 years or more in the approach success. It was observed the approach to achievement motivation increased as the experience of playing for a team increased. As for the year of working with a trainer variable, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between those who had 1 year past with coach and those who had 2 years past with the motivation to avoid failure.
Melita Puklek Levpušček
Full Text Available The study examines various aspects of student teachers' initial motivation for educational psychology course and the motivation's effect on student teachers' engagement in a specific academic activity and on the final course achievement. At the beginning of the academic year 2004/2005 undergraduate student teachers filled in the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, Pintrich et al., 1991, the part which assesses students' motivational orientations. During the academic year students prepared and then presented to their colleagues their seminar work in groups. After each presentation, members of the group assessed the quality of their individual preparation, analyzed the quality of group work and assessed their part of the seminar presentation. Students' achievement was measured by an exam after completing the entire educational psychology course. The results showed that those students who had found the educational psychology course interesting and useful, and who had participated in the course because of extrinsic reasons prepared seminar work better and assessed their seminar presentation with higher marks than those with low motivation for the course. Students' engagement in individual study and self-assessment of seminar presentation were related to the final course grade. In addition, students' perception of the course as interesting and useful (task value independently predicted final course grade, over and above the account of previous academic achievement.
Daniel J. O'Rourke
Full Text Available Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season, mastery climate scores on the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 scale were positively related to global self-esteem scores and to a measure of relative motivational autonomy that reflects the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation continuum, whereas ego climate scores were negatively related to self-esteem and autonomy. Longitudinal analyses revealed that early-season mastery climate predicted positive changes in self-esteem over the course of the season, whereas ego climate predicted decreased self-esteem. Consistent with predictions derived from Self-Determination Theory, a meditational analysis revealed that these self-esteem changes were mediated by changes in autonomous motivation.
Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.
Siti Lailatul Khoiriyah
Full Text Available Considering the important of understanding about the attitude, motivation and the personality of the students in the English learning process, this research is aimed at finding the relationship between attitude and motivation which are acknowledged as influential factors in speaking achievement across their personality factors. Sixty Non-EFL students of Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang who take English as their compulsory subject were participated as the research sample. They were the fourth semester undergraduate taking TOEFL and Speaking Course. Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (AMTB, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, speaking test and TOEFL-like test were administered. The results of this research revealed that there was significant correlation among attitude, motivation and speaking achievement of extrovert and Introvert students.
Results: Six factors were analyzed as predictors of achievement motivation including (rational, cultural based, ethical, religious circuit, control and organization. None of them were significant predictors. The relationship between gender and achievement motivation were significant. A correlation between gender, family atmosphere and achievement motivation was not observed in this study. Conclusion: The family atmosphere with various aspects of motivation may effect on development of students and educational success in Yazd high school students.
Full Text Available The relations of students achievement and motivation for involvement in PE classes were examined in a sample of 247 seventh-grade elementary school students of both sexes. The independent variables in the study were: sex, general success of the previous grade, PE grade, students’ opinion on sufficiency of knowledge acquired through instruction process, students’ involvement in sport. The scale for measurement of motivation consisted of 29 items obtained by adaptation of the Scale for measurement of motives of sports’ achievement. Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and chi square test were preformed. It was established that male students manifested higher motivation that the females. The assumptions: that females will have better PE grades that the male students; that students’ success was negatively related to involvement in sport; that PE grade was connected to involvement in sport; that general success was negatively related to students’ involvement in PE and that PE grade is positively related to students’ motivation for involvement in instruction, were not confirmed.
Laura López Bernad
The present research inspects the relationship between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) and achievement motivation in a sample of students (N=57) belonging to the string department at the Conservatorio Profesional de Música and specializing in violin, viola, violoncello and bass violoncello. The evaluation methods were: the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24), to test Perceived Emotional Intelligence, and the Escala Atribucional de Motivación de Logro (EAML, Attributive Motivation Scale) to...
Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård
This is the accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article This research explored the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the 2 x 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort. A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between intrinsic motivation and increased work effort was more positive for employees with h...
Myrseth, Helga; Notelaers, Guy; Strand, Leif Åge; Borud, Einar Kristian; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold
To adapt the four-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised (GMQ-R) to measure the motivation for engaging in electronic gaming, and to validate the internal structure and investigate the criterion validity of the new Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire (EGMQ). The GMQ-R was adapted to measure motivation for playing video games and the new instrument was tested on a sample of Norwegian conscripts selected randomly from the pool of conscripts who started their military service between 2013 and 2015. The questionnaire was administered to all those who had played video games during the last 6 months and consisted of 853 gamers (86.8% men, mean age = 19.4 years). All participants completed the EGMQ, as well as other measures of gaming behaviour, gaming problems, boredom, loneliness and depression. The confirmatory factor analyses showed that the proposed EGMQ (measuring enhancement, coping, social and self-gratification motives) displayed satisfactory fit and internal consistency. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that gender emerged as a significant predictor (P motivational dimensions explained an additional 5.8-38.8% of the variance. Coping and self-gratification predicted gaming problems (P motivational dimensions were also predicted differentially by indicators of psychosocial wellbeing, indicating divergent validity of the four motives. The four-dimensional Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Automated persuasion is the Holy Grail of quantitatively biased data base designers. However, data base histories are, at best, probabilistic estimates of customer behavior and do not make use of more sophisticated qualitative motivational profiling tools. While usually absent from web designer thinking, qualitative motivational profiling can be…
Full Text Available Implicit measurements are sensitive for influences of experimenter and situation. An assessment using computers could therefore avert those negative effects, if there is an adequate translation to computer (Blankenship, 2010. We split the implicit achievement motive into the two components hope of success (HS and fear of failure (FF and investigated the effects of input condition (handwritten vs. keyboard, administration (online vs. computer vs. human experimenter and picture-position for each of these two components. Therefore 140 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 18 experimental groupsof a counterbalance within-between-design and assessed with the Thematic-Apperception-Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963. The outcome is that handwriting increases the HS-score, whereby FF- score did not differ in typed and handwritten answers. People instructed by human experimenter show higher FF and lower HS compared tocomputer based tested people in the labor and online There is no statistical significant interaction effectof administration and input condition. There is either no position effect for any of these motive-components. The TAT seems to be more robust than commonly thought.
The impact of cognitive factors on academic achievement is well documented. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating effects of non-cognitive, motivational and situational factors on academic achievement among nursing students. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and/or indirect effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement, and examine whether intrinsic motivation moderates the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on a convenience sample of 170 undergraduate nursing students, in an academic college in northern Israel. Academic motivation, academic self-concept and test anxiety scales were used as measuring instruments. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing multiple mediators' model and examining the moderator effect. A higher self-concept was found to be directly related to greater academic achievement. Test anxiety and intrinsic motivation were found to be significant mediators in the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. In addition, intrinsic motivation significantly moderated the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. The results suggested that institutions should pay more attention to the enhancement of motivational factors (e.g., self-concept and motivation) and alleviate the negative impact of situational factors (e.g., test anxiety) when offering psycho-educational interventions designed to improve nursing students' academic achievements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…
Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier
This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.
Abazaoglu, Ilkay; Aztekin, Serdar
Teacher motivation is one of the factors that affect the realization of the teaching objectives, motivation and academic achievement of student. This study aimed to answer to the question "How is the relation between the students' academic (sciences and mathematics) achievement and teachers' morale/motivation in Singapore, Japan, Finland and…
Busch, H.; Hofer, J.; Chasiotis, A.; Campos, D.
Human behavior is directed by an implicit and an explicit motivational system. The intrinsic form of the implicit achievement motive has been demonstrated to predict the experience of flow. Thus, this achievement flow motive can be considered an integral component of the autotelic personality,
Gonida, Eleftheria N; Cortina, Kai S
Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework (autonomy support, control, interference, cognitive engagement) (1) are predicted by their mastery and performance goals for their child and their beliefs of the child's academic efficacy, and (2) predict student achievement goal orientations, efficacy beliefs, and achievement. Grade-level differences were also investigated. The sample consisted of 282 elementary school (5th grade) and junior high school students (8th grade) and one of their parents. Surveys were used for data collection. Structural equation modelling was applied for data analysis. (1) Autonomy support during homework was predicted by parent mastery goal, parents' control and interference by their performance goal and perceptions of child efficacy, and cognitive engagement as supplementary to homework by parent perceptions of child efficacy. (2) Parental autonomy support, control, and interference were differentially associated with student mastery and performance goal orientations, whereas parent cognitive engagement was associated with student efficacy beliefs. (3) The structural model was the same for elementary and junior high school students but the latent means for a number of variables were different. Different types of parental involvement in homework were associated with different outcomes with parent autonomy support to be the most beneficial one. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Kim, Sun; Hur, Yera; Park, Joo Hyun
The purpose of this study is to investigate the pursuit of achievement goals in medical students and to assess the relationship between achievement goals, learning strategy, and motivation. Two hundred seventy freshman and sophomore premedical students and sophomore medical school students participated in this study, which used the Achievement Goals Scale and the Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Questionnaire. The achievement goals of medical students were oriented toward moderate performance approach levels, slightly high performance avoidance levels, and high mastery goals. About 40% of the students were high or low in all three achievement goals. The most successful adaptive learners in the areas of learning strategies, motivation, and school achievement were students from group 6, who scored high in both performance approach and mastery goals but low in performance avoidance goals. And goal achievement are related to the academic self-efficacy, learning strategies, and motivation in medical students. In the context of academic achievement, mastery goals and performance approach goals are adaptive goals.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effects of two different achievement sport contexts, practice and competition, on the motivational profile of professional/semi-professional athletes. Forty-eight Spanish national/international-level female athletes (basketball = 18; handball = 12; soccer = 11; volleyball = 7, mean age 25.14 ± 3.43 years, agreed to participate in the study. They completed a questionnaire, prior and after training and competition, to assess achievement goals, achievement goal dominance, goal pursuit, motivational climate, motivation, burnout and perceived recovery-exertion. Data analyses revealed that, both in practice and competition, these team-sport athletes overwhelmingly showed a strong mastery-approach achievement goal in dominance as well as in pursuit. A significant finding was that this group of national/international-level, professional/semi-professional athletes not only adopted a mastery-approach achievement goal, but they also actively pursued it. It is also remarkable that this profile remained stable at post-tests, even after a painful defeat in competition, which produced a significant negative effect on the athletes’ burnout (emotional and physical exhaustion and devaluation of sport participation and self-determined motivation. As expected, the difference between total recovery and perceived exertion significantly increased after practice and competition. National/international-level team-sport professional/semi-professional female athletes held and pursue stable mastery-approach goal dominance.
Some informal discussions among educators regarding motivation of students and academic performance have included the topic of magnet schools. The premise is that a focused theme, such as an aspect of science, positively affects student motivation and academic achievement. However, there is limited research involving magnet schools and their influence on student motivation and academic performance. This study provides empirical data for the discussion about magnet schools influence on motivation and academic ability. This study utilized path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to simultaneously investigate the relationships between demographic exogenous independent variables, the independent variable of attending a science or technology magnet middle school, and the dependent variables of motivation to learn science and academic achievement in science. Due to the categorical nature of the variables, Bayesian statistical analysis was used to calculate the path coefficients and the standardized effects for each relationship in the model. The coefficients of determination were calculated to determine the amount of variance each path explained. Only five of 21 paths had statistical significance. Only one of the five statistically significant paths (Attended Magnet School to Motivation to Learn Science) explained a noteworthy amount (45.8%) of the variance.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on motivation and success within the application of blended learning environments in the foreign language class. The research sample is formed by third grade students studying in the tourism and hotel management programs of the faculty for tourism and the faculty of economics and administrative sciences at the Nevsehir Hacı Bektas Veli University (Turkey in fall semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. The research group consists of 62 students and there of 35 students belong to the experimental group and the other 27 persons belong to the control group. While the experimental group was subject to 14 hours online and 6 hours traditional face to face learning, the control group was subject to only 6 hours traditional face to face learning. The research has been completed after a 10 week application. The data on the research have been collected with German course achievement tests via the German Language Learning Motivation Scale. The results reveal that the experimental group of students attending the German classes in blended learning environments has more success and higher motivation compared to the control group attending German language classes in the traditional learning environment. Even if the learners achieve certain success and motivation findings in the classroom and face to face environments performed along with teaching-learning activities mainly in control of the instructor, the success and motivation effect of the blended learning environment could not be achieved.
Bergey, Bradley W.
Self-generated questions are a central mechanism for learning, yet students' questions are often infrequent during classroom instruction. As a result, little is known about the nature of student questioning during typical instructional contexts such as listening to a lecture, including the extent and nature of student-generated questions, how students evaluate their questions, and the relations among questions, motivations, and achievement. This study examined the questions undergraduate students (N = 103) generated during 8 lectures in an introductory chemistry course. Students recorded and appraised their question in daily question logs and reported lecture-specific self-efficacy beliefs. Self-efficacy, personal interest, goal orientations, and other motivational self-beliefs were measured before and after the unit. Primary analyses included testing path models, multiple regressions, and latent class analyses. Overall, results indicated that several characteristics of student questioning during lectures were significantly related to various motivations and achievement. Higher end-of-class self-efficacy was associated with fewer procedural questions and more questions that reflected smaller knowledge deficits. Lower exam scores were associated with questions reflecting broader knowledge deficits and students' appraisals that their questions had less value for others than for themselves. Individual goal orientations collectively and positively predicted question appraisals. The questions students generated and their relations with motivational variables and achievement are discussed in light of the learning task and academic context.
Jing, Ting Jing; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Aralas, Dalia
This study investigates the effect of utilizing Variation Theory Based Strategy on students' algebraic achievement and motivation in learning algebra. The study used quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group research design and involved 56 Form Two (Secondary Two) students in two classes (28 in experimental group, 28 in control group) in Malaysia The first class of students went through algebra class taught with Variation Theory Based Strategy (VTBS) while the second class of students experienced conventional teaching strategy. The instruments used for the study were a 24-item Algebra Test and 36-item Instructional Materials Motivation Survey. Result from analysis of Covariance indicated that experimental group students achieved significantly better test scores than control group. Result of Multivariate Analysis of Variance also shows evidences of significant effect of VTBS on experimental students' overall motivation in all the five subscales; attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. These results suggested the utilization of VTBS would improve students' learning in algebra.
Bársonya, Katalin; Martos, Tamás; Ehmann, Bea; Balázs, Hedvig; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Research on basic human motives (achievement, affiliation, and power) encoded at the emotional level recently returned to the forefront of scientific research. To date, there are only a few studies on the pattern of implicit motives of substance users, so the present study examined opiate users participating in methadone maintenance treatment (N = 80) along these dimensions, comparing them to 40 non-substance users. Participants were asked to create stories on the basis of the pictures of the Thematic Apperception Test. The stories were analyzed using the content analysis method of David Winter (1991). Like other substance user groups, opiate-dependent persons used less achievement and more affiliation notions in creating stories, while there was no significant difference between the two groups concerning power notions. The results proved to be independent of the presence of anxiety and depression symptoms, despite substance users reporting higher levels of these, and suggest that motivational factors are worth considering in treatment planning.
Full Text Available In today’s world of increasing ecological, social and economic issues, the question as to how businesses can become a vehicle towards more sustainable development has become more relevant than ever. Crucial to a more sustainable economy is the successful implementation of sustainable practices through entrepreneurial activities. Although there are attempts to describe how sustainable entrepreneurs differentiate themselves, the question of how some entrepreneurs manage to successfully create a sustainable enterprise, while others do not, remains unanswered. The aim of this research is to find causal patterns that explain the success of sustainable entrepreneurs, using their social performance as a measure. Using a configuration approach-based fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA of 598 Austrian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, we could identify four different combinations of the interconnected variables of innovation orientation, environmental sustainability, resource leveraging and achievement motivation, which all lead to social performance depending on the respective networking intensity of the firms. The only variable that is included in all combinations is environmental sustainability, thus indicating it may be either crucial to or a prerequisite for achieving social performance in SMEs.
Acar Güvendir, Meltem
This study focused on the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation levels of eighth grade students and its relationship with their mathematical achievement. The participants of the study included 6,829 students who took TIMSS in 2011 and 239 mathematics teachers. The data obtained from the student and teacher questionnaires that are included in the…
Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…
Bubulj, Milan; Arsenijevi, Olja; Simic, Jelena
The authors of this paper are engaged in studying the organizational culture and achievement motive, by carrying out their studies among the students of the Faculty of Management in Novi Sad, AP Vojvodina, Serbia. The problem of this paper's research was set by the question: is there a connection of a dominantly present organizational culture and…
Schulze, Salomé; Lemmer, Eleanor
Science education is particularly important for both developed and developing countries to promote technological development, global economic competition and economic growth. This study explored the relationship between family experiences, the motivation for science learning, and the science achievement of a group of Grade Nine learners in South…
This study deals with the research into the relationship between gender, motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. A good command of English is of paramount importance for an individual to be successful in numerous aspects of life such as professional, personal and educational. The aim of this research was to determine…
Mucherah, Winnie; Herendeen, Abbey
This study examined primary school students' reading motivation and performance on the standardized exam. Participants included 901 seventh and eighth grade students from Kenya. There were 468 females and 433 males. Contrary to previous studies, results showed reading challenge and aesthetics, but not efficacy, predicted reading achievement,…
Zhao, X.; Xu, Y.; Fu, J.; Maes, J.H.R.
Previous studies examining effects of working memory (WM) updating training revealed mixed results. One factor that might modulate training gains, and possibly also transfer of those gains to non-trained cognitive tasks, is achievement motivation. In the present Studies 1 and 2, students with either
Weber, Heike S.; Lu, Liping; Shi, Jiannong; Spinath, Frank M.
The present study investigated the roles of cognitive (working memory, intelligence) and motivational variables (self-perceived ability, intrinsic value) in explaining school achievement. The sample consisted of N = 320 German elementary school children in the fourth grade. Working memory and intelligence were assessed in the classroom.…
Estapa, Anne; Nadolny, Larysa
The purpose of the study was to assess student achievement and motivation during a high school augmented reality mathematics activity focused on dimensional analysis. Included in this article is a review of the literature on the use of augmented reality in mathematics and the combination of print with augmented reality, also known as interactive…
Topçu, Sevgi; Leana-Tascilar, Marilena Z.
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-esteem and motivational components and to determine which were the best predictors of academic achievement among Turkish gifted students. Participants in this study were 184 students (76 girls and 108 boys). Sixty-one students were from the fourth grade, 43 from the fifth grade, 34…
Trevino, Naomi Noel; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft
Hispanic students are pursuing higher education more than in previous years and they often represent their family as the first member to attend college (Strage in "Coll Stud J" 33:198-205, 1999). Past educational research has studied the influence of intrinsic motivation on academic achievement in various ethnically diverse elementary,…
Martin, Andrew J.; Lazendic, Goran
The present study investigated the implications of computer-adaptive testing (operationalized by way of multistage adaptive testing; MAT) and "conventional" fixed order computer testing for various test-relevant outcomes in numeracy, including achievement, test-relevant motivation and engagement, and subjective test experience. It did so…
Yu, Rongrong; Singh, Kusum
The authors examined the relationships among teacher classroom practices, student motivation, and mathematics achievement in high school. The data for this study was drawn from the base-year data of High School Longitudinal Study of 2009. Structural equation modeling method was used to estimate the relationships among variables. The results…
Muola, J. M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…
Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet
The purpose of this study is to clarify whether middle school students' mathematics anxiety differentiates or not, according to their low and high achievement motivation and their level of self-esteem stemming from social comparison. This study also aims to clarify the effects of these two variables on mathematics anxiety. The study groups were…
Busato, V.V.; Prins, F.J.; Elshout, J.J.; Hamaker, C.
This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
Tests a model of motivation and achievement with data from 50 teachers and 806 Grade 4-6 students in Taiwan. Autonomy as a construct was shown to have ecological validity in Chinese children. The proposed model fit the data well, showing that maternal involvement and autonomy support, as well as teachers' autonomy support, are important for…
Sumantri, Mohamad Syarif; Whardani, Prayuningtyas Angger
This study aims to determine the relationship between achievement motivation and professional competence with regard to the performance of teachers in public elementary schools in Central Java. The quantitative method is used in this study. The results of this study indicate that (1) there is a significant positive relationship between achievement…
Uwameiye, B. E.; Osho, L. E.
This study investigated attitude and motivation as predictors of academic achievement of students in clothing and textiles. Three colleges of education in Edo and Delta States were randomly selected for use in this study. From each school, 40 students were selected from Year III using simple random technique yielding a total of 240 students. The…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…
Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José
The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.
Allen, Kelly-Ann; Kern, Margaret L.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Waters, Lea
School vision and mission statements are an explicit indication of a school's priorities. Research has found academic motivation, mental health promotion, and school belonging to be the most frequently cited themes in these statements. The present study sought to examine whether these themes relate to student academic achievement, as indicated by…
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate preservice computer teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and achievement motivation levels for educational software development before and after the “Educational Software Design, Development and Evaluation (ESDDE” course. A pretest and post test design without a control group was employed. In 2008, 46 senior students (25 male and 21 female who were enrolled at Computer Education and Instructional Technology department participated in this study.The data were collected by the scale of self-efficacy beliefs towards Educational Software Development (ESD, achievement motivation scale besides student demographics form. Positively, the results revealed that the students’ self efficacy beliefs towards educational software development significantly improved after ESDDE course. Before the course, the students’ self-efficacy beliefs were significantly different according to perceived level of programming competency and gender in favor of male, however after the course there was no significant difference in self-efficacy beliefs regarding gender and perceived level of programming competency. Hence, achievement motivation levels after the course were significantly higher than before while gender and perceived level of programming competency had no significant effect on achievement motivation for ESD. The study is considered to contribute studies investigating gender and computer related self efficacy beliefs in IT education.
Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim
Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.
Finau, Teukava; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.
This paper presents the effects of a cognitive acceleration program in mathematics classes on Tongan students' achievements, motivation and self-regulation. Cognitive Acceleration in Mathematics Education (CAME) is a program developed at King's College and implemented worldwide with the aim of improving students' thinking skills, mathematics…
Adegboyega, Lateef Omotosho
This paper investigated the influence of achievement motivation on Nigerian undergraduates' attitude towards examination. Descriptive survey of the correlational type was employed for the study. One thousand, five hundred and thirty-six (1,536) undergraduates in Nigeria were drawn using purposive and stratified sampling techniques. Four research…
Adkins, Dorothy C.
Research on the differences in motivation to achieve in school among 10 groups of four-year-olds utilized a new, 75-item objective projective test called Gumpgookies. This test was individually administered to approximately 2000 children mainly from low economic backgrounds. The various ethnic and religious groups were compared with respect to…
Tan, Ivy Geok Chin; Sharan, Shlomo; Lee, Christine Kim Eng
In an experiment conducted in 7 eighth-grade (Ages 13-14) classes in Singapore, the authors evaluated the effects of the group investigation method of cooperative learning versus the effects of the traditional whole-class method of instruction on students' academic achievement and on their motivation to learn. The authors also investigated…
Koutsoulis, Michalis K.; Campbell, James Reed
Studied the influence of home environment on male and female high school students' motivation and achievement. Results for 737 Cypriot high school students and their parents show the importance of student self-concept and negative effects for parental pressure. Results suggest the need for closer lines of communication between home and school.…
Bittner, Jenny; Zondervan, Robin
The aim of the present research was to develop pop-up windows that motivate users and evoke a positive user experience. Several variants of achievement eliciting pop-ups were designed and tested on a real business-website. A pre-test examined the effectiveness of 24 combinations of pictures and
Tucker, Irvin B., III
Presents a study that investigated how achievement motivation and risk affect entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs in their selection of occupations. Concludes that the will to be independent and successful is more important to entrepreneurs than for others, while personal risk-taking preferences are not significant in explaining entrepreneurial…
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the predictive and explanatory relationship model between procrastination, motivation, anxiety and academic achievement of university students. Research Methods: In this study, a causal research design was used. The study group consisted of 211 participants. In order to determine their motivation…
Kirkagaç, Senay; Öz, Hüseyin
This study sought to investigate the possible relationship between academic motivation and academic achievement among preservice English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. A total of 200 university students enrolled in an EFL teacher education program at a major state university voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected using…
Marshall, Sandra J.; Wijting, Jan P.
Career Centeredness places a career above other life activities as a source of satisfaction whereas Career Commitment concerns the intention of steadily pursuing a career throughout life. The expectation that Career Centeredness would be more characteristic of masculine women and correlate higher with achievement motivation was generally…
This study uses self-determination theory to explore the mechanisms of filial piety in the academic motivation of eight high-achieving secondary school seniors at an international school in South Korea, resulting in several findings. First, the students attributed their parents' values and expectations as a major source of the students'…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Ho, Amy N.
This study modeled the interrelationships of reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement in two contexts, employing data from 1,159 seventh graders. In the traditional reading/language arts (R/LA) context, all students participated in traditional R/LA instruction. In the intervention R/LA context, 854 students from the full sample…
Zelvis, Rima R.
This study examined the effects of the Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) curriculum on reading achievement of students with various motivational levels. A 2X2 factorial design was used. The sample population consisted of 104 fourth grade students from an upper middle class school system in Connecticut. All students were administered a…
Cameron, Judy; Pierce, W. David; Banko, Katherine M.; Gear, Amber
This study assessed how rewards impacted intrinsic motivation when students were rewarded for achievement while learning an activity, for performing at a specific level on a test, or for both. Undergraduate university students engaged in a problem-solving activity. The design was a 2 * 2 factorial with 2 levels of reward in a learning phase…
This study examined the relationship of motivational climate and differential achievement goals to meta-cognitive self-regulation, regulation of effort, help-seeking and self-handicapping in physical education (PE). The sample consisted of 273 pupils (boys n = 125; girls n = 148) attending 10th grade PE classes in Norway. Both motivational…
Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle
This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…
Zhang, Tao; Solmon, Melinda A.; Gu, Xiangli
Examining how teachers' beliefs and behaviors predict students' motivation and achievement outcomes in physical education is an area of increasing research interest. Guided by the expectancy-value model and self-determination theory, the major purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of teachers' autonomy, competence, and…
Marcon, Rebecca A.
Using the Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom (S. Harter, 1980) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (S. Harter, 1985), this study of 222 urban early adolescents (median age=149 months) examined differences in motivation that might affect academic achievement and perceptions of competence. Socioeconomic status…
Jones, Brett D.; Skaggs, Gary
This study provides validity evidence for the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (MUSIC Inventory; Jones, 2012), which measures college students' beliefs related to the five components of the MUSIC Model of Motivation (MUSIC model; Jones, 2009). The MUSIC model is a conceptual framework for five categories of teaching strategies (i.e.,…
Hornstra, Lisette; Kamsteeg, Antoinette; Pot, Sara; Verheij, Lydia
Abundant research in social psychology shows human behaviour is guided by beliefs through two pathways, a deliberate and automatic pathway. Research on student motivation has thus far focused mostly on the deliberate pathway and consequently almost exclusively relied on explicit measures (i.e. self-reports of motivation) to assess student…
Rouse, Kelly Elizabeth
Community colleges have become increasingly more important in America's higher education system. Part of this emphasis has been directly due to President Obama's 2010 directive to produce a competitive workforce in the United States by increasing the community college graduation rate by five million over the next decade (Madhani, 2010). Community colleges allow open admission for students which permits marginally prepared students to enter. These students may lack motivation, which contributes to student attrition (Williams, 2010). The focus of this study is to examine methods that may improve student learning and motivation, which could ultimately lead to higher graduation rates. This study investigates the relationship of gamification to motivation and achievement in a community college microbiology class. Gamification is defined as "the process of adding game mechanics to processes, programs, and platforms that would not traditionally use such concepts" (Swan, 2012). The goal of game-based learning is to increase student motivation and learning. The results of this investigation indicate that educational games increase motivation and achievement of students in a community college microbiology class.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding personality variables and other important psychological traits in the university population appears topical particularly with respect to personality, motivation, health as well as overall academic achievement. A significant role is played by correlations of the monitored variables in relation to selected study specialization. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge on selected personality traits and the level of achievement motivation in a specific group of university students with respect to the diversity of their study specialization. METHODS: The study included a total of 522 students from Palacký University. These were students from the Faculty of Physical Culture (n = 118, Faculty of Education (n = 218 and Faculty of Science (n = 186. In terms of age, the study focused on young adults aged 19 to 26. In the research, psychodiagnostic methods were used to perform diagnostics and to fulfil the overall research plan. All diagnostic methods used are fully standardized and contain domestic normative values. We monitored variables such as personality, achievement motivation and achievement anxiety. Statistical result processing was conducted using the Statgraphics programme v. 9.0. Result processing was made using parametric as well as non-parametric statistical methods (Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman’s correlation. RESULTS: University students specialized in physical culture showed the highest values of extraversion and psychoticism, and clearly the lowest values of neuroticism compared to the students of education and natural sciences. The highest values of openness were observed in the students specialized in sports. In terms of the overall achievement motivation related to study specialization, almost identical values were observed. However, the students of physical culture showed significantly lower values of achievement debilitating anxiety
Nurhidayah, Fajriati; Widodo, Prasetyo Budi; Desiningrum, Dinie Ratri
School education has a major role in improving the quality of eduvation ,00aitems through the students academic achievement motivation. Students academic achievement motivation can be seen by the student perception of the curriculum semester credit system is applied in schools. This research was conducted to determine the relationship between perceptions of curriculum semester credit system with academic achievement motivation in students of SMAN 78 Jakarta. The population was 324 students w...
Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.
Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165
Tosti H. C. Chiang
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of a 3D virtual learning environment based on Second Life on student motivation and achievement in learning English as a second language. Twenty-one university students participate in this study, with the support of an English instructor. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ was used to evaluate students’ intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation and self-efficacy in Second Life. The pre-test and post-test were used to assess students’ learning achievement. The results showed that students’ intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations in English learning in Second Life had a positive influence on their self-efficacy. In addition, students’ self-efficacy of English learning in Second Life was found to positively relate to their learning achievement. Moreover, students’ intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations were found to significantly influence their learning achievement via self-efficacy. In other words, instructors can utilize Second Life to enhance student motivation and achievement in English learning.
Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D
Motivation, defined as the energizing of behavior in pursuit of a goal, is a fundamental element of our interaction with the world and with each other. All animals share motivation to obtain their basic needs, including food, water, sex and social interaction. Meeting these needs is a requirement for survival, but in all cases the goals must be met in appropriate quantities and at appropriate times. Therefore motivational drive must be modulated as a function of both internal states as well as external environmental conditions. The regulation of motivated behaviors is achieved by the coordinated action of molecules (peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc), acting within specific circuits that integrate multiple signals in order for complex decisions to be made. In the past few decades, there has been a great deal of research on the biology and psychology of motivation. This work includes the investigation of specific aspects of motived behavior using multiple levels of analyses, which allows for the identification of the underpinning neurobiological mechanisms that support relevant psychological processes. In this chapter we provide an overview to the volume "The Behavioural Neuroscience of Motivation". The volume includes succinct summaries of; The neurobiology of components of healthy motivational drive, neural measures and correlates of motivation in humans and other animals as well as information on disorders in which abnormal motivation plays a major role. Deficits in motivation occur in a number of psychiatric disorders, affecting a large population, and severe disturbance of motivation can be devastating. Therefore, we also include a section on the development of treatments for disorders of motivation. It is hoped that the collection of reviews in the volume will expose scientists to a breadth of ideas from several different subdisciplines, thereby inspiring new directions of research that may increase our understanding of motivational regulation and
Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J
In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.
Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård
This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Sungur Vural, Semra
Background. There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose. This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (personal relevance, uncertainty, shared control, critical voice, student negotiation), motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, goal orientation), self-regulation, and science achievement. Sample. The sample for this study comprised 802 Grade 8 students from 14 public middle schools in a district of Ankara in Turkey. Design and methods. Students were administered 4 instruments: Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, Goal Achievement Questionnaire, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Science Achievement Test. LISREL 8.7 program with SIMPLIS programming language was used to test the conceptual model. Providing appropriate fit indices for the proposed model, the standardized path coefficients for direct effects were examined. Results. At least one dimension of the constructivist learning environment was associated with students' intrinsic interest, goal orientation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and science achievement. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest predictor of both mastery and performance avoidance goals rather than the approach goals. Intrinsic value was found to be significantly linked to science achievement through its effect on self-regulation. The relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulation and between goal orientation and science achievement were not significant. Conclusion. In a classroom environment supporting student autonomy and control, students tend to develop higher interest in tasks, use more self-regulatory strategies, and demonstrate higher academic performance. Science teachers are highly recommended to consider these findings when designing
Marco van Herpen; C. Mirjam van Praag; Kees Cools
This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship between the perceived characteristics of the complete compensation system and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is not affected by the design of monetary compensation, but by promotion op...
Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf
This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…
Kwon, K Hazel; Halavais, Alexander; Havener, Shannon
Badge systems, a common mechanism for gamification on social media platforms, provide a way for users to present their knowledge or experience to others. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of why social media users publicize their achievements in the form of online badges. Five motivational factors for badge display in public networked environments are distinguished-self-efficacy, social incentives, networked support, passing time, and inattentive sharing-and it is suggested that different badge types are associated with different motivations. System developers are advised to consider these components in their designs, applying the elements most appropriate to the communities they serve. Comparing user motivations associated with badges shared across boundaries provides a better understanding of how online badges relate to the larger social media ecosystem.
Eva Van de gaer
Full Text Available The present study focuses not only on the impact of students' achievement motivation, but also on the influence of achievement motivation of fellow students on status and growth in language and math achievement across Grades 7 and 8. The achievement motivation of schoolmates may create a learning environment that facilitates or impedes learning above and beyond what would be expected on the basis of the individual student's achievement motivation, intelligence and background characteristics. Data from the LOSO-project, a longitudinal study in secondary education, have been analysed using multilevel linear growth curve modeling. It turns out that the effect of achievement motivation, both of individuals and in groups, should not be neglected in explanations of individual progress in achievement, even when ability and background characteristics such as the socio-economic status, age, sex and home language have been controlled for. In addition, the data suggest that especially boys with poor achievement motivation at the start of secondary education are at risk of falling behind with regard to language achievement in the subsequent years.
This study aims to present the design and pilot testing procedures of the two specific self-report questionnaires were used to measure the two key aspects of reading motivation, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation in the field of literary (narrative) reading, and the partial factors that jointly shape them. These instruments were outlined in…
Chandrasena, Wanasinghe Durayalage
This research comprises three inter-related synergistic studies. Study 1 aims to develop a psychometrically sound tool to measure secondary students' science self-concepts, motivation, and aspirations in biology, chemistry, earth and environmental methodology to explicate students' and teachers' views, practices, and personal experiences, to identify the barriers to undertaking science for secondary students and to provide rich insights into the relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with their aspirations and achievement. Study 3 will detect additional issues that may not necessarily be identifiable from the quantitative findings of Study 2. The psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument demonstrated that students' science self-concepts were domain specific, while science motivation and science aspirations were not. Students' self-concepts in general science, chemistry, and physics were stronger for males than females. Students' self-concepts in general science and biology became stronger for students in higher years of secondary schooling. Students' science motivation did not vary across gender and year levels. Though students' science aspirations did not vary across gender, they became stronger with age. In general, students' science self-concepts and science motivation were positively related to science aspirations and science achievement. Specifically, students' year level, biology self-concept, and physics self concept predicted their science and career aspirations. Biology self-concept predicted teacher ratings of students' achievement, and students' general science self-concepts predicted their achievement according to students' ratings. Students' year level and intrinsic motivation in science were predictors of their science aspirations, and intrinsic motivation was a greater significant predictor of students' achievement, according to student ratings. Based upon students' and teachers' perceptions, the
Balsam, Peter D.
Motivation, defined as the energizing of behavior in pursuit of a goal, is a fundamental element of our interaction with the world and with each other. All animals share motivation to obtain their basic needs, including food, water, sex and social interaction. Meeting these needs is a requirement for survival, but in all cases the goals must be met in appropriate quantities and at appropriate times. Therefore motivational drive must be modulated as a function of both internal states as well as external environmental conditions. The regulation of motivated behaviors is achieved by the coordinated action of molecules (peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc), acting within specific circuits that integrate multiple signals in order for complex decisions to be made. In the past few decades, there has been a great deal of research on the biology and psychology of motivation. This work includes the investigation of specific aspects of motived behavior using multiple levels of analyses, which allows for the identification of the underpinning neurobiological mechanisms that support relevant psychological processes. In this chapter we provide an overview to the volume “The Behavioural Neuroscience of Motivation”. The volume includes succinct summaries of; The neurobiology of components of healthy motivational drive, neural measures and correlates of motivation in humans and other animals as well as information on disorders in which abnormal motivation plays a major role. Deficits in motivation occur in a number of psychiatric disorders, affecting a large population, and severe disturbance of motivation can be devastating. Therefore, we also include a section on the development of treatments for disorders of motivation. It is hoped that the collection of reviews in the volume will expose scientists to a breadth of ideas from several different subdisciplines, thereby inspiring new directions of research that may increase our understanding of motivational regulation and
Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle
This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered.
Sri Purnami, Agustina; Adi Widodo, Sri; Charitas Indra Prahmana, Rully
This study aimed to know the improvement of achievement and motivation of learning mathematics by using Team Accelerated Instruction. The research method used was the experiment with descriptive pre-test post-test experiment. The population in this study was all students of class VIII junior high school in Jogjakarta. The sample was taken using cluster random sampling technique. The instrument used in this research was questionnaire and test. Data analysis technique used was Wilcoxon test. It concluded that there was an increase in motivation and student achievement of class VII on linear equation system material by using the learning model of Team Accelerated Instruction. Based on the results of the learning model Team Accelerated Instruction can be used as a variation model in learning mathematics.
B. B. Puplampu
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper reports research on the factor structure of employee motivation as well as provides a tool for measuring the level of employee motivation in Ghanaian organisations. Methodology: The study was designed as exploratory, comparative and cross-sectional. 260 respondents drawn from across the gender, status and job grade hierarchy of 19 organisations participated. The organisations were matched in terms of tenure (over 5years, number of employees (50 or more and geographic location (headquartered in Accra. A 41-item questionnaire on the Level of Motivation (LoM; Characteristics of Employee Motivation (CEM; aspects of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB; Managerial Assumptions about employee behaviour (MA; Contextual Institutional Analysis (IAN and Organisational Leadership Issues (Le was developed and used. The instrument combined fixed response format on a 3-point scale with open-ended responses. Findings: Exploratory Factor Analyses (Varimax Rotation, converging in 26 iterations yielded 6 factors, which account for 60% of the variance. Thematic analyses of both interview and open-ended questionnaire data support the emergent factor structure, providing some tentative indication that employee motivation in the Ghanaian (or indeed African context should be looked at more in an integrated manner rather than in terms of the limiting confines of any one theory of motivation. The 3 items hypothesised to constitute the measure of level of employee motivation loaded neatly onto Factor 6. One-way ANOVA demonstrated no differences in the level of motivation across the organisational samples; this was confirmed by the interview data. Implications/Originality/Value: The implications and value of this research are: that motivation research in Africa does need to focus more on developing an integrated model of employee motivation; also, a simple 3-item but novel tool for measuring the level of employee motivation as well as its
Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf
This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Horowitz, T R; Mosher, N
This paper focuses on two questions: Are Ethiopian high school children who immigrated to Israel achievement motivated? To what extent does the presence or absence of certain components of the achievement construct in the indigenous value system of Ethiopian students affect progress at school? The study is based on pilot research conducted in Israel in 1987 for which the central research questions were: Are elements of motivation to be found in the indigenous value system of Ethiopian students? If so, what is their effect on progress at school? The research is based on a questionnaire administered to 88 Ethiopian students and 85 veteran Israeli students. The main findings of this research are: There are some elements in the socialization of Ethiopian students that can be looked upon as components of achievement motivation. These include a high level of aspiration, the ability to postpone gratification, and obedience. These elements help the Ethiopian children succeed at school. On the other hand, some elements in the socialization of Ethiopian children hinder their progress: conformity restraints on individual creativity and external locus of control.
Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander
Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…
Syawal - Syawal
Full Text Available This research was classroom action research, which aims at improving students' motivation of their poor performance through learning model Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI on VII.3 grade students of SMP Negeri 6 Parepare. Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI can serve individual student differences by adjusting treatment or learning method with students' abilities. The use of this model was emphasizing to create small groups of students that have achievement alike. Students with have low academic achievement based on test results and teacher interview will be grouped into one group and will be given preferential treatment by tutoring intensity rather than the group of high academic achievement. Subjects of this research were students of class VII.3 SMP Negeri 6 Parepare which is consist of 25 students. This research was conducted in two cycles. The procedure of this research involved four phases: (1 planning, (2 Implementation of action, (3 observation, (4 Reflection. The data collection was done by observation, tests, and questionnaires for each cycle after giving treatment through learning model Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI. Data collected were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The results of this research indicate that the Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI can be an alternative method to improve learning motivation of low achievement students. The results of this research also showed that the Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI can be an alternative to problem-solving in the classroom, especially for low achievement students.
This study aims to identify the most dominant factor of the teacher's role as a motivator that influences students' interest and motivation to perform in mathematics achievement. It is conducted in eighth grade of senior high school with 209 students, consisted of five state schools and two private schools from seven regencies in North Sumatera.…
Lindeman, M; Väänänen, M
The two studies describe the development of three complementary scales to the Food Choice Questionnaire developed by Steptoe, Pollard & Wardle (1995). The new items address various ethical food choice motives and were derived from previous studies on vegetarianism and ethical food choice. The items were factor analysed in Study 1 (N=281) and the factor solution was confirmed in Study 2 (N=125), in which simple validity criteria were also included. Furthermore, test-retest reliability was assessed with a separate sample of subjects (N=36). The results indicated that the three new scales, Ecological Welfare (including subscales for Animal Welfare and Environment Protection), Political Values and Religion, are reliable and valid instruments for a brief screening of ethical food choice reasons. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…
McManus, I C; Livingston, G; Katona, Cornelius
The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and indirect effects upon the factors. Helping People was
Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. Methods A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. Results 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and
Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.
Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of perceived motivational structure of classroom on achievement behaviors (the choice of problem, effort, persistence in solving algorithm and flowchart problems. There were 45 high school male students (Mean age = 17 years old in the third grade of computer field in three classes. Classes were divided into two experimental and one control group. Instructional content was given in 10 sessions for 180 minutes. The variables of choice, effort, and persistence were collected by direct as-sessment method. A pre-test and post-test design was used. The Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicated that mastery structure had positive effect on the amount of effort and persistence in solving algorithm and flowchart problems in comparison with control group. Mastery structure in comparison with performance structure increased the amount of effort in solving problems significantly. In addition, an interactive effect between previous achieve-ment and perceived structure of classroom was achieved in a mastery level. The amount of persistence in that of students with very weak previous achievement was more than students with average previous achievement. The find-ing of this study is compatible with the theory of achievement goal and illustrates that the mastery structure plays an effective role in forming achievement behaviors.
Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Collins, Dave; Paes, Roberto R
The interaction of multiple influences on the path to sport success is not yet fully understood by sport scientists. In this study, we examined variation in body size, functional capacities and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players associated with differences in biological maturity status, chronological age and years of training experience. Reflecting the importance of interactive effects, we examined the relationships between the psychological variables and functional capacities. Fifty-eight male basketball players aged 9.5 to 15.5 years were considered. Variables included chronological age, estimated age at peak height velocity, stature, body mass and sitting height by anthropometry; the Work and Family Orientation and Deliberate Practice Motivation Questionnaires were also used. Finally, the Line Drill test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) tests were used as functional capacities indicators for basketball. Variance components models derived from series of multilevel linear regression models revealed a substantial variation by maturity status for body size, functional capacities indicators, mastery and will to excel. The influence of estimated maturity status on mastery and will to excel was independent of age and years of experience. In contrast, no relationships were observed between psychological variables and functional capacities indicators. We conclude that growth-related changes are relevant to understanding players´ motivations for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice. This should be of interest to those involved in the selection and development of youth basketball players.
Full Text Available This research aims to find out the application of Think Pair Share (TPS learning method in improving learning motivation and learning achievement in the subject of Introduction to Accounting I of the Accounting Study Program students of Politeknik Harapan Bersama. The Method of data collection in this study used observation method, test method, and documentation method. The research instruments used observation sheet, questionnaire and test question. This research used Class Action Research Design which is an action implementation oriented research, with the aim of improving quality or problem solving in a group by carefully and observing the success rate due to the action. The method of analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative analysis method. The results showed that the application of Think Pair Share Learning (TPS Method can improve the Learning Motivation and Achievement. Before the implementation of the action, the obtained score is 67% then in the first cycle increases to 72%, and in the second cycle increasws to 80%. In addition, based on questionnaires distributed to students, it also increases the score of Accounting Learning Motivation where the score in the first cycle of 76% increases to 79%. In addition, in the first cycle, the score of pre test and post test of the students has increased from 68.86 to 76.71 while in the second cycle the score of pre test and post test of students has increased from 79.86 to 84.86.
A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...
Solingen, van D.M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; McMullan, J.
Software development is a discipline with specific management difficulties. Collecting relevant data during development is a way to overcome these difficulties. Such data collection for sqftware development is termed "Software Measurement". Software measurement is a powerful aid to quality
Gareau, Alexandre; Gaudreau, Patrick
In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i.e., implicit AM) and efficient executive functioning. A sample of 272 university students completed a questionnaire and a lexical decision task to assess their explicit and implicit AM, respectively, and they also completed working memory capacity measures. Grades were obtained at the end of the semester to examine the short-term prospective effect of implicit and explicit AM, working memory, and their interaction. Results of moderation analyses have provided support for a synergistic interaction in which the association between explicit AM and academic achievement was positive and significant only for individuals with high level of implicit AM. Moreover, working memory was moderating the synergistic effect of explicit and implicit AM. Explicit AM was positively associated with academic achievement for students with average-to-high levels of working memory capacity, but only if their motivation operated synergistically with high implicit AM. The integrative process thus seems to hold better proprieties for achievement than the sole effect of explicit AM. Implications for SDT are outlined. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Miller, William R; Johnson, Wendy R
Client motivation for change, a topic of high interest to addiction clinicians, is multidimensional and complex, and many different approaches to measurement have been tried. The current effort drew on psycholinguistic research on natural language that is used by clients to describe their own motivation. Seven addiction treatment sites participated in the development of a simple scale to measure client motivation. Twelve items were drafted to represent six potential dimensions of motivation for change that occur in natural discourse. The maximum self-rating of motivation (10 on a 0-10 scale) was the median score on all items, and 43% of respondents rated 10 on all 12 items - a substantial ceiling effect. From 1035 responses, three factors emerged representing importance, ability, and commitment - constructs that are also reflected in several theoretical models of motivation. A 3-item version of the scale, with one marker item for each of these constructs, accounted for 81% of variance in the full scale. The three items are: 1. It is important for me to . . . 2. I could . . . and 3. I am trying to . . . This offers a quick (1-minute) assessment of clients' self-reported motivation for change.
The proposal and implementation of an effective motivation program is one of the key management tasks of a company. Improperly designed and applied motivation programs can have a negative impact on employees, who are not motivated to achieve maximum performance. The paper will also deal with the problems of employee motivation and the motivation programs in a selected industrial company. The motivation structure analysis will be based on the general knowledge of the theory of motivation, toge...
Full Text Available This study investigated the role of EFL teachers’ classroom discipline strategies in their teaching effectiveness and their students’ motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. 1408 junior high-school students expressed their perceptions of the strategies their English teachers used (punishment, recognition/reward, discussion, involvement, and aggression to discipline the classroom. The students evaluated their teachers’ teaching effectiveness by completing effective Iranian EFL teacher questionnaire (Moafian, & Pishghadam, 2009. They also filled in Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (GhorbanDordinejad & ImamJomeh, 2011 that assessed their motivation towards learning English as a foreign language. Achievement in English was established based on formal grades students received at the end of the academic year. The results showed that EFL teachers reward and praise students for good behavior and they are not very authoritarian. Further, teaching effectiveness, motivation and achievement in learning English were all found to be related to discipline strategies. The results of path analysis showed that those teachers who used involvement and recognition strategies more frequently were perceived to be more effective teachers; however, students perceived teachers who used punitive strategies as being less effective in their teaching. It was also revealed that in classes where teachers managed disruptive behaviors by using punitive strategies, students had problems in learning as punitive strategies lowered students’ motivation. Teaching effectiveness was found to mediate the effect of punishment on motivation while motivation mediated the effect of punitive strategies on achievement. Motivation was found to have the strongest effect on achievement.
Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)
The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…
Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.
:This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test,
Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.
A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.
Wajda, Theresa A; Kolbe, Richard; Hu, Michael Y; Cui, Annie Peng
To develop measures of consumers' self-evaluative motives of Self-verification, Self-enhancement, and Self-improvement within the context of a mall shopping environment, an initial set of 49 items was generated by conducting three focus-group sessions. These items were subsequently converted into shopping-dependent motive statements. 250 undergraduate college students responded on a 7-point scale to each statement as these related to the acquisition of recent personal shopping goods. An exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors, accounting for 57.7% of the variance, three of which corresponded to the Self-verification motive (five items), Self-enhancement motive (three items), and Self-improvement motive (six items). These 14 items, along with 9 reconstructed items, yielded 23 items retained and subjected to additional testing. In a final round of data collection, 169 college students provided data for exploratory factor analysis. 11 items were used in confirmatory factor analysis. Analysis indicated that the 11-item scale adequately captured measures of the three self-evaluative motives. However, further data reduction produced a 9-item scale with marked improvement in statistical fit over the 11-item scale.
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Williams, Terrinieka T; Chavous, Tabbye M
The persistent underachievement among African American boys has led to increased empirical inquiry, yet little research considers within-group variation in achievement nor positive youth characteristics that help explain positive achievement outcomes. This study conceptualized culturally-based factors (racial pride and religiosity) as adolescent assets that would promote African American boys' achievement and also enhance positive effects of other youth assets (positive educational utility beliefs) on achievement. Our sample included 158 adolescent boys (M = 17.08) from a large, socioeconomically diverse suburban community context. Accounting for demographic background variables, educational utility beliefs were positively associated with academic grade performance. A significant educational utility beliefs and racial pride interaction indicated a stronger, positive association of educational utility beliefs with grade performance among boys with higher racial pride relative to those with lower racial pride. Also, there was a stronger positive association between educational utility beliefs and grades for boys reporting lower religious importance, but boys endorsing both lower educational utility beliefs and religious importance were at highest risk for low grade performance. Overall results suggest the importance of considering culturally-based factors in studying achievement motivation processes among ethnic minority adolescents.
Mega, Carolina; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana
The authors propose a theoretical model linking emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation to academic achievement. This model was tested with 5,805 undergraduate students. They completed the Self-Regulated Learning, Emotions, and Motivation Computerized Battery (LEM-B) composed of 3 self-report questionnaires: the Self-Regulated Learning…
Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.
This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…
Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Green, Jasmine; Dowson, Martin
The aim of the present study was to better understand the combined and unique effects of teacher-student and parent-child relationships in students' achievement motivation and self-esteem. Participants were 3450 high school students administered items assessing their interpersonal relationships, academic motivation and engagement, academic…
Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.
This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…
Deemer, Eric D.; Mahoney, Kevin T.; Ball, Jacqueline Hebert
The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Research Motivation Scale (RMS) in a sample of faculty members (N = 337) in university science departments. It was hypothesized that the RMS would evidence partial measurement invariance across tenure status and noninvariance across gender, given the different sociocultural factors (e.g.,…
Stoeber, Joachim; Becker, Claudia
While some researchers have identified adaptive perfectionism as a key characteristic to achieving elite performance in sport, others see perfectionism as a maladaptive characteristic that undermines, rather than helps, athletic performance. Arguing that perfectionism in sport contains both adaptive and maladaptive facets, the present article presents a study of N = 74 female soccer players investigating how two facets of perfectionism-perfectionistic strivings and negative reactions to imperfection (Stoeber, Otto, Pescheck, Becker, & Stoll, 2007 )-are related to achievement motives and attributions of success and failure. Results show that striving for perfection was related to hope of success and self-serving attributions (internal attribution of success). Moreover, once overlap between the two facets of perfectionism was controlled for, striving for perfection was inversely related to fear of failure and self-depreciating attributions (internal attribution of failure). In contrast, negative reactions to imperfection were positively related to fear of failure and self-depreciating attributions (external attribution of success) and inversely related to self-serving attributions (internal attribution of success and external attribution of failure). It is concluded that striving for perfection in sport is associated with an adaptive pattern of positive motivational orientations and self-serving attributions of success and failure, which may help athletic performance. In contrast, negative reactions to imperfection are associated with a maladaptive pattern of negative motivational orientations and self-depreciating attributions, which is likely to undermine athletic performance. Consequently, perfectionism in sport may be adaptive in those athletes who strive for perfection, but can control their negative reactions when performance is less than perfect.
Osamah Mohammad Ameen Aldalalah
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of webquest on the jordanian students’ of different cognitive style. The independent variables were the instruction (conventional & webquest. The dependent variables were the students’ achievement and motivation. The instructionrating variable is cognitive style (independent & dependent. The study sample consisted of 72 undergraduate educational technology students, information and communication technology students and graphic design students. Inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the data. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and T-TEST was carried out to examine the main effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. The findings of this study showed that students using the webquest instruction performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than students using the conventional instruction. Independent cognitive style students performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than dependent cognitive style students. The webquest instruction was found to help students with dependent cognitive style on achievement and motivation
Sugi, Slamet, Achmad; Martono, S.
Teachers' performance in Temanggung in 2016 did not show maximal result. It was shown from many indicators. The low score of UN, UKG and PKB result. Individual performance was different. Achievement motivation could be seen through their attitude and behavior performances. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of authentic leadership, organizational justice, and achievement motivation on teachers' performance. The objects of this research are authentic leadership, organizational justice, achievement motivation and teachers' performance in Vocational High School Seventeen in Temanggung. The research method used is quantitative. Data collection was done by questioners. Then, the data were analyzed by using Path SPSS 16. The result of this research showed that authentic leadership, organizational justice, achievement motivation had significant effect on teachers' performance in Vocational High School Seventeen in Temanggung.
Simzar, Rahila M; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M
This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students' motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students' motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students' math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students' math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students' motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes.
Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, C K John; Tan, Oon Seng; Ee, Jessie; Koh, Caroline
The project work (PW) initiative was launched in 2000 by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, to encourage application of knowledge across disciplines, and to develop thinking, communication, collaboration, and metacognitive skills. Although PW has been introduced for a few years, few studies have examined the motivation of students in PW, especially with the use of the recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. To use a cluster analytic approach to identify students' achievement goal profiles at an intra-individual level, and to examine their links to various psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Participants were 491 Secondary 2 students (mean age = 13.78, SD = 0.77) from two government coeducational schools. Cluster analysis was performed to identify distinct subgroups of students with similar achievement goal profiles. One-way MANOVAs, followed by post hoc Tukey HSD tests for pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether there was any significant difference amongst clusters in terms of the psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Four distinct clusters of students were identified. The cluster with high achievement goals and the cluster with moderately high goals had the most positive psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes. In contrast, the cluster with very low scores for all four achievement goals had the most maladaptive profile. The study provides support for the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework, and demonstrates that multiple goals can operate simultaneously. However, it highlights the need for cross-cultural studies to look into the approach-avoidance dimension in the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.
Awang-Hashim, Rosa; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Hocevar, Dennis
The relations between motivational constructs, effort, self-efficacy and worry, and statistics achievement were investigated in a sample of 360 undergraduates in Malaysia. Both trait (cross-situational) and state (task-specific) measures of each construct were used to test a mediational trait (r) state (r) performance (TSP) model. As hypothesized,…
Aida, Misako; Watanabe, Satoshi P.
Universities throughout the world are trending toward more performance based methods to capture their strengths, weaknesses and productivity. Hiroshima University has developed an integrated objective measure for quantifying multifaceted faculty activities, namely the "Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator" (A-KPI), in order to…
Hamideh Jafari Koshkouei; Ahmad Shahvarani; Mohammad Hassan Behzadi; Mohsen Rostamy-Malkhalifeh
The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of mathematics self-concept (MSC), motivation to learn mathematics (SMOT) and self-regulation learning (SRL) on students' mathematics academic achievement. This study is of a descriptive survey type. 300 female students at the first grade of high school (the second period) in City Qods, were selected by multiple step cluster sampling method and completed MSC, SMOT and SRL questionnaires. Mathematics academic achievement was measur...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (β = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Madjar, Nir; Bachner, Yaacov G; Kushnir, Talma
Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Nuances in how adults talk about ability may have important consequences for children's sustained involvement and success in an activity. In this study, I tested the hypothesis that children would be less motivated while performing a novel activity if they were told that boys or girls in general are good at this activity (generic language) than if they were told that a particular boy or girl is good at it (non-generic language). Generic language may be detrimental because it expresses normative societal expectations regarding performance. If these expectations are negative, they may cause children to worry about confirming them; if positive, they may cause worries about failing to meet them. Moreover, generic statements may be threatening because they imply that performance is the result of stable traits rather than effort. Ninety-seven 4- to 7-year-olds were asked to play a game in which they succeeded at first but then made a few mistakes. Since young children remain optimistic in achievement situations until the possibility of failure is made clear, I hypothesized that 4- and 5-year-olds would not be affected by the implications of generic language until after they made mistakes; 6- and 7-year-olds, however, may be susceptible earlier. As expected, the older children who heard that boys or girls are good at this game displayed lower motivation (e.g., more negative emotions, lower perceived competence) from the start, while they were still succeeding and receiving praise. Four- and 5-year-olds who heard these generic statements had a similar reaction, but only after they made mistakes. These findings demonstrate that exposure to generic language about ability can be an obstacle to children's motivation and, potentially, their success.
Discussed is the spin motive force (smf) produced by a spin valve, this reflecting its dynamics. Relaxation implies an implicit measurement of the magnetization of the free layer of a valve. It is shown this has implications for the angular dependence of the torque transfer. Some discussion of recent experiments is included
Abrahamsen, F E; Roberts, G C; Pensgaard, A M; Ronglan, L T
The present study is founded on achievement goal theory (AGT) and examines the relationship between motivation, social support and performance anxiety with team handball players (n=143) from 10 elite teams. Based on these theories and previous findings, the study has three purposes. First, it was predicted that the female athletes (n=69) would report more performance worries and more social support use than males (n=74). The findings support the hypothesis for anxiety, but not for social support use. However, females report that they felt social support was more available than males. Second, we predicted and found a positive relationship between the interaction of ego orientation and perceptions of a performance climate on performance anxiety, but only for females. As predicted, perceived ability mediated this relationship. Finally, we predicted that perceptions of a performance climate were related to the view that social support was less available especially for the male athletes. Simple correlation supports this prediction, but the regression analyses did not reach significance. Thus, we could not test for mediation of social support between motivational variables and anxiety. The results illustrate that fostering a mastery climate helps elite athletes tackle competitive pressure.
Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Gómez-Taibo, Mª L; Regueiro, Bibiana; Estévez, Iris; Valle, Antonio
Although numerous studies have tried to explain performance in maths very few have deeply explored the relationship between different variables and how they jointly explain mathematical performance. With a sample of 897 students in 5th and 6th grade in Primary Education and using structural equation modeling (SEM), this study analyzes how the perception of parents’ beliefs is related to children´s beliefs, their involvement in mathematical tasks and their performance. Perceived parental involvement contributes to the motivation of their children in mathematics. Direct supervision of students’ academic work by parents may increase students’ concerns about the image and rating of their children, but not their academic performance. In fact, maths achievement depends directly and positively on the parents’ expectations and children’s maths self-efficacy and negatively on the parents’ help in tasks and performance goal orientation. Perceived parental involvement contributes to children’s motivation in maths essentially conveying confidence in their abilities and showing interest in their progress and schoolwork.
Gray, DeLeon L
Education researchers have consistently linked students' perceptions of "fitting in" at school with patterns of motivation and positive emotions. This study proposes that "standing out" is also helpful for producing these outcomes, and that standing out works in concert with perceptions of fitting in. In a sample of 702 high school students nested within 33 classrooms, principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were each conducted on half of the sample. Results support the proposed structure of measures of standing out and fitting in. Multilevel latent profile analysis was then used to classify students into four profiles of standing out while fitting in (SOFI): Unfulfilled, Somewhat Fulfilled, Nearly Fulfilled, and Fulfilled. A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students of color and those on who paid free/reduced prices lunch were overrepresented in the Unfulfilled and Somewhat Fulfilled profiles. A multilevel path analysis was then performed to assess the direct and indirect associations of profile membership with measures of task value and achievement emotions. Relative to the other profiles, students in the Fulfilled SOFI Profile express greater psychological membership in their classrooms and, in turn, express higher valuing of academic material (i.e., intrinsic value, utility value, and attainment value) and more positive achievement emotions (i.e., more enjoyment and pride; less boredom, hopelessness, and shame). This investigation provides critical insights on the potential benefits of structuring academic learning environments to foster feelings of distinctiveness among adolescents; and has implications for cultivating identities and achievement motivation in academic settings. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The integration of mobile technology into the education is widely proliferated in recent years due to portability, convenience, independence of time, location, flexibility, and so on. However, there are some conflicts among educators, teachers and students with regards to the implications of mobile technology in educational settings. Main challenges are related with hardware limitations such as small screen size, low resolution, etc. technical problems, motivation, engagement and achievement of students and so on. Literature was reviewed in this frame. This study is investigated to both profits and drawbacks of mobile technology and critical points in this consideration. Previous studies declared that there are some critical issues related with these factors and should be taken into consideration for intended integration of mobile technology successfully and effectively into educational settings
Kim, Young-Hoon; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Zou, Zhimin
Contrary to the popular assumption that self-enhancement improves task motivation and future performance, the authors propose that both inflated and deflated self-assessments of performance are linked to an increased likelihood of practicing self-handicapping and having relatively poor performance in future tasks. Consistent with this proposal, we found that irrespective of the level of actual performance, compared with accurate self-assessment, both inflated and deflated self-assessments of task performance are associated with a greater tendency to (a) practice self-handicapping (Study 1: prefer to work under distraction; Study 2: withhold preparatory effort), (b) perform relatively poorly in a subsequent task (Study 3), (c) have relatively low academic achievement (Study 4), and (d) report a relatively low level of subjective well-being (Study 5). The authors discuss these results in terms of their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Artists, creative writers, and musicians have long been interested in the complex motives that spark passionate love, sexual desire, and sexual behavior. Recently, scholars from a variety of disciplines have begun to investigate two questions: “Why do men and women choose to engage in sexual liaisons?” “Why do they avoid such encounters?” Theories abound. Many theorists have complained that there exists a paucity of scales designed to measure the plethora of motives that prompt people to seek out or to avoid sexual activities. In fact, this observation is incorrect. Many such scales of documented reliability and validity do exist. The reason that few scholars are familiar with these scales is that they were developed by psychometricians from a variety of disciplines and are scattered about in an assortment of journals, college libraries, and researchers’ desk drawers, thus making them difficult to identify and locate. This paper will attempt to provide a compendium of all known sexual motives scales, hoping that this will encourage scholars to take a multidisciplinary approach in developing typologies of sexual motives and/or in conducting their own research into the nature of sexual motives.
Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Zvolensky, Michael J
Sexual motives refer to functions served by sexual behavior. The Sex Motivations Scale (SMS) has frequently been used to assess sexual motives. At its development, the SMS demonstrated good internal consistency; convergent, divergent, and criterion validity; and configural invariance across sex, age, and Caucasians and African Americans. Yet the metric and scalar invariance of the SMS has not been examined, nor has the measurement invariance of the SMS across Hispanic and Asian Americans, sexual minority status, and relationship status been tested. The criterion validity of the SMS also has yet to be examined for nonintercourse sexual behaviors, such as sexting. The present study aimed to address these gaps in a diverse sample of 2,201 college students (77.60% female; M age = 22.06; 27.84% Caucasian). Results further affirmed the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the SMS. The convergent and divergent validity of the SMS was supported in relation to positive and negative affect and attachment patterns; and specific SMS subscales demonstrated associations with sexual intercourse behaviors and sexting, supporting the criterion validity of the SMS. These findings suggest the relevance of the SMS in assessing sexual motives across diverse populations and behaviors.
Breda, Carolyn S; Riemer, Manuel
Treatment motivation can be important for treatment adherence and outcomes, yet few measures of motivation are available for youths in mental health settings. These authors describe the psychometric properties of the motivation for youth's treatment scale (MYTS), an 8-item measure with forms for youths and caregivers that assesses their problem recognition and treatment readiness. Results indicate that the MYTS offers practitioners and researchers a brief, psychometrically sound tool for assessing treatment motivation of youths and their caregivers. Multivariate analyses of clinical and non-clinical characteristics of youths and caregivers show that youths' symptom severity consistently predicts treatment motivation for both groups. However, the strain of caring for the youth adds significantly to caregivers' recognition of the youth's troubles. While caregiver and youth motivations correlate, their agreement is low. Caregivers are nearly always more treatment motivated than youths. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for measurement, treatment planning, and future research.
Treatment motivation can be important for treatment adherence and outcomes, yet few measures of motivation are available for youths in mental health settings. These authors describe the psychometric properties of the motivation for youth’s treatment scale (MYTS), an 8-item measure with forms for youths and caregivers that assesses their problem recognition and treatment readiness. Results indicate that the MYTS offers practitioners and researchers a brief, psychometrically sound tool for assessing treatment motivation of youths and their caregivers. Multivariate analyses of clinical and non-clinical characteristics of youths and caregivers show that youths’ symptom severity consistently predicts treatment motivation for both groups. However, the strain of caring for the youth adds significantly to caregivers’ recognition of the youth’s troubles. While caregiver and youth motivations correlate, their agreement is low. Caregivers are nearly always more treatment motivated than youths. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for measurement, treatment planning, and future research. PMID:22407559
Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra
This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…
Wu, Fan; Fan, Weihua
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships among college students' achievement motivation (subjective task value and academic self-efficacy), academic procrastination (delay and missing deadlines) and achievement-related behaviours (effort and persistence). More specifically, the study investigated the mediating role…
Farley, Frank; And Others
The present study was designed to investigate the relationship of birth order to achievement motivation and achievement-related variables employing a random sample of students enrolled in the courses offered through the United States Armed Forces Institute (USAFI) in 1970. (Author)
Helmreich, R. L.; Spence, J. T.; Pred, R. S.
In a study by Matthews, Helmreich, Beane, and Lucker (1980), responses by academic psychologists to the Jenkins Activity Survey for Health Prediction (JAS), a measure of the Type A construct, were found to be significantly, positively correlated with two measures of attainment, citations by others to published work and number of publications. In the present study, JAS responses from the Matthews et al. sample were subjected to a factor analysis with oblique rotation and two new subscales were developed on the basis of this analysis. The first, Achievement Strivings (AS) was found to be significantly correlated with both the publication and citation measures. The second scale, Impatience and Irritability (I/I), was uncorrelated with the achievement criteria. Data from other samples indicate that I/I is related to a number of health symptoms. The results suggest that the current formulation of the Type A construct may contain two components, one associated with positive achievement and the other with poor health.
Helmreich, Robert L.; Spence, Janet T.; Pred, Robert S.
In a study by Matthews et al. (1980), responses by academic psychologists to the Jenkins Activity Survey for Health Prediction, a measure of the Type A construct, were found to be significantly, positively correlated with two measures of attainment, citations by others to published work and number of publications. In the present study, JAS responses from the Matthews et al. sample were subjected to a factor analysis with oblique rotation and two new subscales were developed on the basis of this analysis. The first, Achievement Strivings (AS) was found to be significantly correlated with both the publication and citation measures. The second scale, Impatience and Irritability (I/I), was uncorrelated with the achievement criteria. Data from other samples indicate that I/I is related to a number of health symptoms. The results suggest that the current formulation of the Type A construct may contain two components, one associated with positive achievement and the other with poor health.
Price, Kelly Rae
Women remain under-represented in science career fields and this is especially evident in the physical sciences. Female students maintain equal science interest and achievement to male students in elementary school but by middle and high school they fall behind their male peers. Reasons cited for girls' declining interest in science include battling traditional gender stereotypes, lack of encouragement, and lack of female role models. Four main science concerns related to girls/women as indicated by research literature were science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. In Georgia, some girls have made a break from the research trends by demonstrating their fervor for science through participation in the academic activity, Science Olympiad. The purpose of this study was to examine the science perceptions of girls who demonstrated science success by their participation in Science Olympiad. Utilizing phenomenological and feminist perspectives, the qualitative research method of focus group interviewing was used to address the research questions comprising the four science concerns of female science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. The study participants were all girls/women who participated in Science Olympiad. A total of five focus groups were studied. One of the focus groups had current college undergraduates, former Science Olympians, in it while the others were composed of high school girls. Through the description of their science experiences, the participants shared their perceptions of the four science concerns. When addressing these science concerns, the participants revealed four factors that had most affected their science perceptions: the importance of support, science needs Serious Fun, teachers matter, and the bonuses of extracurricular involvement. In their experiences, the participants found success in science because they had teachers, parents, and peers who supported their academic interests, including science, and
Lee, Ying Li; Chien, Tsai Feng; Kuo, Ming Chuan; Chang, Polun
This study aims to understand the relationship between participating nurses' motivation, achievement and satisfaction before and after they learned to program in Excel Visual Basic for Applications (Excel VBA). We held a workshop to train nurses in developing simple Excel VBA information systems to support their clinical or administrative practices. Before and after the workshop, the participants were evaluated on their knowledge of Excel VBA, and a questionnaire was given to survey their learning motivation and satisfaction. Statistics softwares Winsteps and SPSS were used for data analysis. Results show that the participants are more knowledgeable about VBA as well as more motivated in learning VBA after the workshop. Participants were highly satisfied with the overall arrangement of the workshop and instructors, but didn't have enough confidence in promoting the application of Excel VBA themselves. In addition, we were unable to predict the participants' achievement by their demographic characteristics or pre-test motivation level.
... the organization to provide a flexible mix of enhanced motivators to the 21st Century warriors. This manuscript begins with a review of motivational theory before launching into an assessment of today's Navy...
Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Degol, Jessica Lauren; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue
Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13.2, 14.1, and 15.3 years) coming from ten public secondary schools. Although many studies claim that physical science motivation declines on average over time, we identified seven differential motivational trajectories of ability self-concept and task values, and found associations of these trajectories with science achievement, advanced science course taking, and science career aspirations. Adolescents' ability self-concept and task values in physics and chemistry were also positively related and interlinked over time. Examining how students' motivational beliefs about physical science develop in secondary school offers insight into the capacity of different groups of students to successfully adapt to their changing educational environments.
Full Text Available The present study reports several impacts of implementing multimedia toward teaching and learning process in speaking class at second grade students of Galuh University, Ciamis. Further, the study came from insights on students’ boredom during speaking class which affected their achievement and motivation. Mixed method research design (Creswell, 2013 then employed to answer several proposed hypotheses. For proving the result of its application, observation, questionnaire, pre and post-test were administered to collect the data while both quantitative and qualitative approaches were applied to analyze the collected data from classroom practices. The research findings indicates that multimedia in speaking class got positive responds from students in term of motivation and accomplishment. The great look portrayed from the class that students were enthusiastic, got involved and interested in multimedia provided by teacher during learning process. Moreover, pre and post-tests that are performace-based tests were greatly used to test the effectiveness of multimedia effects during the class. In this side, the researcher employed experiment of two equivalent groups: control and experimental group. It then reported that t-test related is 2.04 out of 1.70 for t- distribution which points out that there is significant difference between the results of both tests. It means that the result of this research agreed that multimedia has good effects for teaching speaking in the scope of students’ interests, feedback and their cognitive aspects. In line with above statements, the further studies is also necessary dealing with other multimedia for obtaining more positive effects toward learning process and those result enables to increase quality of education.
Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R
Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. © 2013.
Ishihara, Toru; Morita, Noriteru; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Okita, Koichi; Sagawa, Masato; Yamatsu, Koji
The aim of this study was to determine, using structural equation modeling, the comprehensive relationships of achievement motivation (self-fulfillment achievement motivation [SFAM] and competitive achievement motivation [CAM]), daily behaviors (exercise habits, screen time, and learning duration), body mass index [BMI], and cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF]) with academic performance among schoolchildren. Three hundred twenty-five schoolchildren (172 males and 153 females; 12-13 years old) were recruited. Academic performance was assessed using the total grade points in 8 academic subjects (GP8); CRF using the 20-m shuttle run; and achievement motivation, daily behaviors, and socioeconomic status using questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was included as a control variable. In males, two cascade associations of achievement motivation to GP8 were detected: (1) SFAM → screen time/learning duration → GP8, and (2) CAM → exercise habit → CRF → GP8 (χ 2 = 8.72, p = .19, AGFI = .92). In females, two cascade associations were also detected: (1) SFAM → screen time/learning habit → GP8, and (2) exercise habit → BMI 2 → GP8 (χ 2 = 6.17, p = .41, AGFI = .93). Our results suggest that greater achievement motivation is associated with academic success via various physiological/behavioral factors, and that these associations differ by gender. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita; Edlin, Margot
This study is designed to examine how intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning efficacy influence academic achievement of international and domestic community college students. Results show that for both international and domestic students, motivation did not directly affect academic achievement. Self-regulated…
Full Text Available Introduction Many factors including self-efficacy and achievement motivation can affect children’s academic progress. Studies have shown that socioeconomic status can affect people’s life, education, and vocation. However, not many studies looked at the relations between the intrinsic factors and socioeconomic status, and between these 2 categories and students’ academic progress in children with learning disabilities. Thus, the present study aimed at examining self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic progress of students with learning disabilities compared with typical students and looking for any possible relation between these variables and socioeconomic status (parental education and occupation. Methods This was a cross sectional study, which included 34 students with learning disabilities and 32 typical students matched on age, gender, and school grade. The participants answered Sherer et al.’s self-efficacy scale (1982 and Herman’s achievement motivation questionnaire (2000. Students’ academic progress was evaluated based on the descriptive scores in the first semester. Findings Scores of children with learning disabilities in self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic progress were significantly lower than those of matched controls (P<0.0001. Results revealed moderate positive correlations between academic progress and different levels of self-efficacy (rs = 0.441, P<0.0001, N = 66; and between academic progress and achievement motivation (rs = 0.645, P<0.0001, N = 66. The results of the correlation analysis demonstrated weak to moderate positive correlations between academic progress and parental education (rs = 0.39, P = 0.001, academic progress and father’s occupation (rs = 0.323, P = 0.008, achievement motivation and parental education (rs = .34, p = 0.009, N = 66, and finally achievement motivation and father’s occupation (rs = 0.285, P = 0.02, N = 66. Conclusions Lower levels of self-efficacy and
Simpkins, Sandra D
Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender.
Mezquita, Laura; Ruiz-Valero, Lucía; Martínez-Gómez, Naiara; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ortet, Generós
Marijuana motives are a proximal variable to marijuana use. This research aimed to adapt and validate the short form of the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM; Simons, Correia, Carey, y Borsari, 1998), the MMM SF, in Spanish. The sample comprised 232 participants (mean age = 25.11 (7.58), 50.43% males) who had tried marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Item and Rasch analyses were performed to choose the final pool of 15 items. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed an adequate 5-factor structure (S-BX2(80) = 121.30, p = .002; NNFI = .944; CFI = .958; IFI = .959; MFI = .915; RMSEA = .047(0.029, 0.063); AIC = -38.70), and the multi-group CFA between males and females showed acceptable fit indices (S-BX2(160) = 230.01, p = .000; NNFI = .900; CFI = .924; IFI = .927; MFI = .860; RMSEA = .062(.043, .078); AIC = -89.99). The questionnaire indicated metric (S-BX2diff (15) = 13.61, p = .556)), scalar (S-BX2diff (15) = 23.15, p = .081)) and error measurement invariance (S-BX2diff (15) = 8.65, p = .895)) between gender groups. The internal consistencies and ordinal omega of the scales were between .79 and .90. In the regression analysis, enhancement, coping and low conformity motives predicted frequency and quantity of marijuana smoked. The best predictor of frequency and quantity consumed during the heaviest smoking period was enhancement, while coping and, to a lesser extent, low conformity, were the only predictors of cannabis-related problems when marijuana frequency and quantity were controlled for. The MMM SF shows adequate psychometric properties and is a suitable instrument to assess marijuana motives, especially during time-limited sessions.
Mashlihatul Umami Umami
Full Text Available This research addresses the issue of whether Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL through REACT (Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating and Transferring strategy is able to enhance motivation and achievement of English Department students‘ in learning grammar. The researcher uses a classroom action research in which it was held for about two cycles. The instruments of collecting the data are observation, rubric, questionaire and test. The researcher analyzes the data using three steps, i.e. students‘ motivation to learn are analyzed by the sheet of observation, each of individuals is also analyzed by fulfilling the questionnaire of self assessment, the progress of students‘ motivation and achievement are all monitored by rubric assessment tool, seven components of REACT strategy in learning is also recorded by the sheets of observation and the statistical analysis using t-test measures the improvement occurred. In addition, the researcher prepares field note and questionnaire to monitor the process of learning. Based on the results of qualitative-quantitative analysis, it can be found that the use of CTL approach especially using project based and cooperative learning improves the students‘ motivation and achievement in learning grammar.
The term "ikigai" describes the state in which people have a positive purpose, a sense of being full and social support. In order to measure this condition and its effects on mental and physical health, an Ikigai scale was constructed. In this study, the Ikigai scale was revised by altering the number of choices for each item, and the revised scale was applied to a group of senior high school students. The purpose of the present study is to discuss the revised scale by comparing its results with those from the original scale. In addition, the relationship between motivation for achievement of a purpose and depression which is an index of mental health is studied. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The revised Ikigai scale was more reliable than the original scale. 2) The correlation between the Ikigai scale and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) demonstrated that our revised scale had greater validity than the original. 3) Male students who had strong motivation for achievement of a purpose were significantly less depressed than those who had no motivation. From these results, it is concluded that the revised Ikigai scale is better than the original scale and in male students, motivation for achievement of a purpose correlates to mental health.
Among 4th-6th-grade students (165 girls, 150 boys) in the Netherlands, the author examined ethnic differences in two aspects of teacher-oriented academic motivation: working in order to please the teacher and dependence on the teacher for academic help. Given higher levels of power distance in Turkish and Moroccan versus Dutch culture, both measures and their correlates were compared for 132 Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch students, and 183 ethnic Dutch students. Analyses showed that Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch students scored higher on pleasing the teacher and dependence on the teacher. For them, but not for the ethnic Dutch students, teacher-oriented motivation was positively related to intrinsic motivation and perceived academic competence. Also, students from all groups reported more dependence on the teacher and more intrinsic motivation the more they appreciated their teachers. Results support the notion that teacher-oriented extrinsic motivation is autonomous, rather than controlled for students from power-distant cultures.
Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia
The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and
Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…
Hornstra, L.; van der Veen, I.; Peetsma, T.; Volman, M.
To gain insight in developmental trajectories of motivation during upper primary school, the present study focused on how different aspects of students' motivation, i.e., task-orientation, self-efficacy, and school investment develop from grade three to six of primary school and how these
Meens, E.E.M.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Klimstra, T.A.; Denissen, J.J.A.
Two main reasons for dropping out of higher education are making an erroneous educational choice (an identity commitment) and lack of motivation. This study examined whether identity formation and motivation among prospective students at the moment of choosing a bachelor's program (N = 8723)
Full Text Available Considering the importance yet paucity of help-seeking in e-learning, the present study investigated the motivational antecedents of help-seeking among online college students. We explored and compared the influences of achievement approach goals from the old and new achievement motivation models (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011 on online students’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93 based on the two models of achievement goals. Our results showed that the new 3 × 2 model was a better fit than the old 2 × 2 model, suggesting that the achievement approach goals of the new model differ from those of the old model conceptually as Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun (2011 posited. Second, our results revealed both unexpected direct and indirect positive influence of performance- and other-approach goals on online students’ help-seeking behaviour through extrinsic motivation. Third, while mastery-approach goals indirectly predicted help-seeking through intrinsic motivation, self- and task-approach predicted help-seeking in a dramatically different manner. Self-approach goals displayed indirect influence on help-seeking through intrinsic motivation similar to mastery-approach, yet task-approach displayed a negative direct influence on help-seeking. These results suggested the potential positive impact of self-approach and the detrimental influence of task-approach goals on help-seeking in e-learning environment. Conceptual issues and pedagogical implications for online instructions are discussed.
Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi
This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…
Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…
Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.
We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…
Nordstrom, Donna E.
The purpose of this study was to address the gap in the current literature on community college students in basic math courses by examining motivational, parental and cultural factors as predictors of achievement and persistence of students enrolled in basic skills mathematics courses at a community college. More specifically, this study…
Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…
Alsancak Sirakaya, Didem; Ozdemir, Selçuk
This study examined the effect of a flipped classroom model on students' academic achievement, self-directed learning readiness and motivation. The participants of this study were a total of 66 students who took the "Scientific Research Methods" course and were studying in two different classes in the Faculty of Education at Ahi Evran…
Saeid, Nasim; Eslaminejad, Tahere
Self-directed learning readiness to expand and enhance learning, This is an important goal of higher education, Besides his academic self-efficacy can be improved efficiency and Achievement Motivation, so understanding how to use these strategies by students is very important. Because the purpose this study is determination of relationship between…
Mudrich, Rachel Marie
The purpose of this research study was to determine if project-based learning activities (PBLA) incorporated into an eighth-grade mathematics classroom have an effect on students' academic achievement and motivation toward learning. The control group used the traditional instruction method to cover mathematic objective skills that are Common Core…
Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…
Matthews, Sharon Elizabeth
This study investigated the extent to which there were statistically significant relationships between school administrators' systemic implementation of student voice work and student perceptions (i.e. achievement, motivation, attachment and school climate) and PLAN performance. Student voice was defined as students being equal partners in school…
Magen-Nagar, Noga; Cohen, Lizi
The goal of the research was to examine the contribution of learning strategies as a mediator for motivation and a sense of achievement in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), among students who participate in a unique program in Israel, called "Academy Online--MOOCs in the Israeli Education System." The goal of the program was to…
Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab
The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…
Chu, Hui-Chun; Hung, Chun-Ming
In this study, the game-based development approach is proposed for improving the learning motivation, problem solving skills, and learning achievement of students. An experiment was conducted on a learning activity of an elementary school science course to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. A total of 59 sixth graders from two…
Tsai, Chia-Hui; Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Yeh, Duen-Yian; Lin, Shih-Yun
This study applied a quasi-experimental design to investigate the influence and predictive power of learner motivation for achievement, employing a mobile game-based English learning approach. A system called the Happy English Learning System, integrating learning material into a game-based context, was constructed and installed on mobile devices…
Rahimi, Mehrak; Karkami, Fatemeh Hosseini
This study investigated the role of EFL teachers' classroom discipline strategies in their teaching effectiveness and their students' motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. 1408 junior high-school students expressed their perceptions of the strategies their English teachers used (punishment, recognition/reward,…
Valencia-Vallejo, Nilson; López-Vargas, Omar; Sanabria-Rodríguez, Luis
The present research studies the effects of motivational scaffolding that favor self-efficacy and improve learning achievement in students with different cognitive styles in the Field Dependence/Independence (FDI) dimension, when they interact in an e-learning environment on mathematics. The research has an experimental design with two groups and…
Some of the abnormal children face burden, distraction, interruption, tardiness, or risk factors so that they cannot get an optimum growth without special treatment or intervention. This study was aimed at discovering the influence of parents' involvement to the learning motivation and achievement of children with different abilities. This…
In this research, an experimental study was carried out in social studies 4th grade students to develop students' conceptual achievement and motivation to succeed academically. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of project-based learning (PBL) in social studies. A quasi-experimental research design (pre- and posttest) was used in the…
Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.
Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…
Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.
This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…
Faber, Janke; Luyten, Johannes W.; Visscher, Arend J.
In this study a randomized experimental design was used to examine the effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and motivation in grade three primary education (n schools = 79, n students = 1808). Experimental schools used a digital formative assessment tool whereas
Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet
The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…
Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Landry, Alicia S.
The Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing was used to assess motivational interviewing experiences in a predominantly female, African American sample from the Southeastern United States who received motivational interviewing-based feedback during a multicomponent lifestyle intervention. Motivational interviewing was experienced…
Jessica van Bragt
Abstract The main purpose of this intervention was to measure student’s motivation in English Literature before and after an intervention based Zoltán Dörnyei’s Motivational Self System (2009) and Michael Magid’s (2011) application of the same theory in schools in Singapore. The present
Students must be sufficiently motivated in order to achieve the intended learning outcomes of their college courses. Research in education and psychology has found motivation to be context-dependent. Therefore, students' motivation is likely to differ from one semester to the next according to which courses students are taking. However, there are…
Taormina, Robert J; Gao, Jennifer H
For each of the 5 needs in Maslow's motivational hierarchy (physiological, safety-security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization), operational definitions were developed from Maslow's theory of motivation. New measures were created based on the operational definitions (1) to assess the satisfaction of each need, (2) to assess their expected correlations (a) with each of the other needs and (b) with four social and personality measures (i.e., family support, traditional values, anxiety/worry, and life satisfaction), and (3) to test the ability of the satisfaction level of each need to statistically predict the satisfaction level of the next higher-level need. Psychometric tests of the scales conducted on questionnaire results from 386 adult respondents from the general population lent strong support for the validity and reliability of all 5 needs measures. Significant positive correlations among the scales were also found; that is, the more each lower-level need was satisfied, the more the next higher-level need was satisfied. Additionally, as predicted, family support, traditional values, and life satisfaction had significant positive correlations with the satisfaction of all 5 needs, and the anxiety/worry facet of neuroticism had significant negative correlations with the satisfaction of all the needs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the satisfaction of each higher-level need was statistically predicted by the satisfaction of the need immediately below it in the hierarchy, as expected from Maslow's theory.
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Chantara, Soontornpathai
A student's motivational orientation is considered to be a predictor of a range of related education decisions, from attending classes to choosing a particular course or a profession. This survey study conducted with student volunteers (males = 519; females = 904) enrolled in secondary school science-math academic stream in Thailand investigated the relationship between measures of motivation (achievement goal orientation and physics and biology classroom anxiety) and aspirations for high earning science and math related careers. Results of multiple discriminant analyses showed gender differences in the motivational factors that influence career aspirations. Our interpretation of the findings highlights the significance of cultural beliefs about gender in decision making for careers.
Svetlana Vladimirovna Gutsunaeva
Full Text Available The article reveals the results of empirical research displaying differences in achievement motivation and willingness to take risks depending on the prevalence of collectivist or individualistic attitudes of a personality. The research may contribute to profound knowledge of influence of the factor of belonging to the culture on individual features. The obtained results indicate that the young people with a predominance of individualistic attitudes are more motivated to achievements and inclined to risk than the young people who are collectivists. However, the results also demonstrate that in some socio-demographic groups collectivists – the representatives of the older generation strive to achievements, although they are more cautious in their behavior. The empirical data can be used in a cross-cultural investigations, the results of the study may be useful in the work of psychologist in predicting behavior and social success of the individual in various spheres of activity.
Golmohammadnazhad Bahrami GhR
Full Text Available Aims: In order to improve the quality of education in the scientific and educational centers, usage of communication technologies, especially the Internet, is encouraged and promoted. However, there are not still considerable researches on the role of Internet to improve the quality of education and psychological characteristics of students. The present study investigated the role of using Internet on self-efficacy, educational motivation and achievement of medical students. Instrument & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 363 of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences’ students (174 Internet users and 189 nonusers who had studied in 2013-14 academic year were selected by stratified random sampling method and entered into the study. To collect data, educational motivation scale, Sharer's self-efficacy scale (GSES, Internet using questionnaire which made by researcher and the latest educational grade point averages were used. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and independent samples T tests. Findings: The internet user students had significantly more general self-efficacy (creativity and attempt subscales in comparison to nonusers, but there was no significant difference in perseverance subscale of two groups. Internet user students had more educational achievement and motivation (task of interest subscales, educational effort, social interest, praise gaining, typifying, business continuity, competing in comparison to nonusers. However, there was no significant difference between two groups in social power subscale. Conclusion: Self-efficacy and educational achievement motivation of Internet user students is more than nonusers.
Schüler, Julia; Sheldon, Kennon M.; Fröhlich, Stephanie M.
Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes that all humans have a need for competence. But is this need modulated by individual differences? Our research integrated SDT, which defines psychological needs (including competence) as universally essential experiences, and motive disposition theories, which define psychological needs as individually varying non-conscious motives. A cross-sectional and a longitudinal study showed that felt competence in a sports activity has especially positive effec...
Sadaghiani, Homeyra; Bao, Lei
In our introductory physics courses, we implemented a new homework method, where students are allowed to view the solutions to their assignments before the due date. Through applying this homework system we study students' adaptation to having this type of feedback-in-advance information. In particular, we investigate their motivation in learning physics and study the effectiveness of this method in conjunction with students' motivational level.
Arbabi, Talat; Vollmer, Christian; Dörfler, Tobias; Randler, Christoph
Individuals differ in their timing of sleep (bed times, rise times) and in their preference for morning or evening hours. Previous work focused on the relationship between academic achievement and these variables in secondary school students. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between chronotype and academic achievement in 10-year-old children (n = 1125) attending 4th grade of primary school. They filled a cognitive test (Culture Fair Intelligence Test, CFT 20-R) and questions about rise times and bed times, academic achievement, conscientiousness and motivation. We used the "scales for the assessment of learning and performance motivation" (SELLMO; Skalen zur Erfassung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation for motivation), the short version of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory Children (FFPI-C) to measure conscientiousness, and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess morningness-eveningness. Mean CSM score was 37.84 ± 6.66, midpoint of sleep was 1:36 ± 00:25 and average sleep duration (time in bed) was 10:15 ± 0:48. Morningness orientation was positively related to intelligence, conscientiousness and learning objectives. Eveningness orientation was related to avoidance performance objectives and work avoidance. Early midpoint of sleep, conscientiousness and intelligence were associated with better grades. The multivariate model showed that intelligence was the strongest predictor of good grades. Conscientiousness, motivation, younger age and an earlier midpoint of sleep were positively related to good grades. This is the first study in primary school pupils, and it shows that the relationship between evening orientation and academic achievement is already prevalent at this age even when controlling for important predictors of achievement.
Full Text Available Saleh Alrakaf,1 Ahmed Abdelmageed,2 Mary Kiersma,2 Sion A Coulman,3 Dai N John,3 June Tordoff,4 Claire Anderson,5 Ayman Noreddin,6 Erica Sainsbury,1 Grenville Rose,7 Lorraine Smith11Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Manchester University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 6School of Pharmacy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 7Aftercare, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA.Methods: In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit.Results: In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study.Conclusion: Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and
Alkhateeb, Haitham M
The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.
Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P
To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.
Abdel Meguid, Eiman M; Khalil, Mohammed K
Motivation and learning are inter-related. It is well known that motivating learners is clearly a complex endeavor, which can be influenced by the educational program and the learning environment. Limited research has been conducted to examine students' motivation as a method to assess the effectiveness of dissection in medical education. This study aimed to assess and analyze students' motivation following their dissection experience. A 29-item survey was developed based on the Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction model of motivation. Descriptive statistics were undertaken to describe students' motivation to the dissection experience. T-test and ANOVA were used to compare differences in motivational scores between gender and educational characteristics of students. Dissection activities appear to promote students' motivation. Gender difference was statistically significant as males were more motivated by the dissection experience than females. Comparison between students with different knowledge of anatomy was also significantly different. The study is an important step in the motivational design to improve students' motivation to learn. The outcome of this study provides guidance to the selection of specific strategies to increase motivation by generating motivational strategies/tactics to facilitate learning. Anat Sci Educ 10: 363-371. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
King, Melissa Digennaro
Goals 2000 set forth a bold vision for U.S. students: they would be "first in the world in science and mathematics" by the year 2000. Performance indicators such as the TIMSS-R (1999) and NAEP (2000) reports suggest that U.S. students have not yet reached that goal. This study intended to learn how specific assessment strategies might contribute to improved student performance in science. This quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of formative assessment with reflection on students' motivational beliefs, self-regulatory skills, and achievement in elementary science. The study aimed to find out whether and how classroom applications of formative assessment during science instruction might influence fifth-grade students' attitudes and self-perceptions about science learning, self-regulatory learning behaviors, and achievement. To explore the effects of the assessment intervention, the study utilized a mixed methods approach involving quantitative and qualitative investigations of treatment and control groups during a four-week intervention period. Quantitative measures included student self-report surveys administered pre- and post-treatment and an end-of-unit science test. Qualitative measures included classroom observations, student interviews (post-treatment), and a teacher interview (post-treatment). Findings indicated that the fifth-grade students in this study had positive attitudes toward science and high levels of self-efficacy for science. Results suggested that these elementary students employed a wide variety of cognitive and metacognitive strategies to support science learning. Findings revealed that these fifth graders believed formative assessment with reflection was beneficial for science learning outcomes. Research results did not show that the formative assessment intervention contributed to significant differences between treatment and control groups. However, the data revealed different levels of academic achievement and self
Abdel Meguid, Eiman M.; Khalil, Mohammed K.
Motivation and learning are inter-related. It is well known that motivating learners is clearly a complex endeavor, which can be influenced by the educational program and the learning environment. Limited research has been conducted to examine students' motivation as a method to assess the effectiveness of dissection in medical education. This…
Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Comani, Silvia; Robazza, Claudio
We examined the three-way interactions among competence (actual and perceived), individuals' dispositional goal orientation (task/ego), and perceived sport motivational climate (mastery/performance) in the prediction of pleasant psychobiosocial states (i.e. emotion, cognition, motivation, bodily reaction, movement, performance, and communication) as conceptualized by the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model. The sample consisted of 320 Italian youths (160 girls and 160 boys) aged 13-14 years who were involved in individual or team sports. The assessment included a perceived competence scale, a goal orientation questionnaire, a motivational climate inventory, and pleasant psychobiosocial descriptors. An actual competence scale was also administered to coaches asking them to assess their youngsters. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis showed that perceived competence, actual competence, and task orientation were the strongest predictors of pleasant psychobiosocial states. Moreover, actual competence and perceived competence interacted in different ways with dispositional goal orientations and motivational climate perceptions in the prediction of psychobiosocial states. It is therefore recommended that both constructs be included in motivational research.
McMaster, Fiona; Resnicow, Ken
This paper examines the psychometric properties of the OnePass coding system: a new, user-friendly tool for evaluating practitioner competence in motivational interviewing (MI). We provide data on reliability and validity with the current gold-standard: Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity tool (MITI). We compared scores from 27 videotaped MI sessions performed by student counselors trained in MI and simulated patients using both OnePass and MITI, with three different raters for each tool. Reliability was estimated using intra-class coefficients (ICCs), and validity was assessed using Pearson's r. OnePass had high levels of inter-rater reliability with 19/23 items found from substantial to almost perfect agreement. Taking the pair of scores with the highest inter-rater reliability on the MITI, the concurrent validity between the two measures ranged from moderate to high. Validity was highest for evocation, autonomy, direction and empathy. OnePass appears to have good inter-rater reliability while capturing similar dimensions of MI as the MITI. Despite the moderate concurrent validity with the MITI, the OnePass shows promise in evaluating both traditional and novel interpretations of MI. OnePass may be a useful tool for developing and improving practitioner competence in MI where access to MITI coders is limited. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
In the past, companies used balanced scorecard to measure its performance. Now, balanced scorecard as a performance measurement tool is no longer sufficient because business has been affected by changes to the natural environment and developing social expectations. In order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, companies are beginning to address the risks and opportunities associated with these changes in their longer-term business planning. To turn risks into opportunities, companies...
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that different configurations of the implicit self-concept of intelligence (iSCI and the explicit self-concept of intelligence (eSCI are consistently related to individuals’ performance on different intelligence tests (Dislich, Imhoff, Banse, Altstötter-Gleich, Zinkernagel, & Schmitt, 2012. The results indicated that any discrepant configuration between the iSCI and the eSCI impairs performance. In the present study, how correspondence between the iSCI and the eSCI is related to intelligence test performance as well as personality traits of modesty (low eSCI, high iSCI, narcissism (high eSCI, low iSCI, and achievement motivation was investigated. Furthermore, a moderated mediation analysis showed that the relation between the iSCI-eSCI configurations and intelligence test performance was mediated by achievement motivation for modest individuals.
This cross-cultural study explored associations among teacher-student relationship, students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and students’ academic achievement in grade 5 and 6 students from Vancouver, Canada (n = 102) and Hong Kong, China (n = 207). Hong Kong students perceived their teachers to be more dissatisfied, strict, admonishing, and uncertain, while Vancouver students perceived their teachers to be more helpful and friendly. Students’ levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivatio...
The purpose of this study is to explore consumers’ descriptions of rewarding self-gift behaviour during the entire consumption process, including the motivations and emotions involved and how these encourage towards the achievement of personal oriented goals. The study specifically focuses on luxury self-gifts and attempts to incorporate desires and the cycle of desire with self-gift giving. In doing so, the study adopts an interpretive approach, consistent with the author’s philosophical ass...
Huie, Faye C.; Winsler, Adam; Kitsantas, Anastasia
Students often work in order to meet monetary requirements for college. However, employment reduces the time students can devote to their studies, which can hinder performance. This study examined whether motivation (self-efficacy goal orientation) and self-regulated learning (help-seeking, metacognitive self-regulation, time management and effort…
Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean
The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether academic motivation and academic self-regulated learning predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The study participants consisted of 166 early childhood education majors enrolled in the 2014 spring semester at Georgia Southern University, USA. Data were gathered using…
Aktas, Elif; Yurt, Serap Uzuner
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the learning environment where digital stories are used as a learning material on the motivation, academic success, retention, and students' opinions. The study was carried out with mixed method which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative research approach. The study was implemented…
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on motivation and success within the application of blended learning environments in the foreign language class. The research sample is formed by third grade students studying in the tourism and hotel management programs of the faculty for tourism and the faculty of economics and administrative…
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man
We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…
Whitten, Lary D.
This qualitative study was designed to determine if the teaching population in the state of Arkansas had a more favorable attitude toward specific motivational theories and practices; and to determine if that attitude significantly affected the teacher retention rate and the quality of work produced. The literature reviewed included the role of…
Komarraju, Meera; Karau, Steven J.; Schmeck, Ronald R.
College students (308 undergraduates) completed the Five Factor Inventory and the Academic Motivations Scale, and reported their college grade point average (GPA). A correlation analysis revealed an interesting pattern of significant relationships. Further, regression analyses indicated that conscientiousness and openness explained 17% of the…
Muhammad Mifta Fausan
Full Text Available The learning is an interaction process between students and their environment in order to improve good behavior. The results of observation which has been done in grade V SDN No. 4 Tanjung Batu showed that the students’ motivation and science achievement were low. This was becaused by the learning process which was still product oriented (based on material content, consequently, this lead to limit the learning is merely on memorizing concept activities. One of the learning approach that can be used to solve this problem is the Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL based on Numbered Head Together (NHT. This research aims to determine the effect of CTL based on NHT toward student’s motivation, science achievement, and retention. Subjects in this research were the students of grade V SDN No. 4 Tanjung Batu. This research is a quasi-experimental using post-test only control design. The data obtained were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The research instruments were observation sheets and written test. The results showed that there was significant effect of CTL based on NHT toward students’ motivation, science achievement, and retention. It can be seen from the independent sample t-test results which showed significant value less than 0.05.
Lay, Yoon Fah; Chandrasegaran, A. L.
TIMSS routinely presents very powerful evidence showing that students with more positive motivation toward learning science have substantially higher achievement. The results from TIMSS 2011 are consistent with previous assessments. This study explored the predictive effects of motivation toward learning science on science achievement among…
Wang, Cheng-Lung; Liou, Pey-Yan
The purpose of this study was to examine the pattern of the relationships among motivational beliefs and science achievement of 8th grade Taiwanese students, given that the students in Taiwan have high science academic achievement but low motivational beliefs in science learning on a series of international large-scale assessments. Three…
Malloch, Douglas C.; Michael, William B.
This study was designed to determine whether an unweighted linear combination of community college students' scores on standardized achievement tests and a measure of motivational constructs derived from Vroom's expectance theory model of motivation was predictive of academic success (grade point average earned during one quarter of an academic…
Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.
Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of mastery-approach goal orientation, performance-avoidance goal orientation, self-efficacy, and achievement were employed. Students’ cognitive processing was a...
Karanika-Murray, M.; Michaelides, George
PURPOSE – Although both job design and its broader context are likely to drive motivation, little is known about the specific workplace characteristics that are important for motivation. The purpose of this paper is to present the Workplace Characteristics Model, which describes the workplace characteristics that can foster motivation, and the corresponding multilevel Workplace Design Questionnaire.\\ud \\ud DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – The model is configured as nine workplace attributes desc...
Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin; Solmon, Melinda
This study examined children's motivation in elementary physical education within an expectancy-value model developed by Eccles and her colleagues. Four hundred fourteen students in second and fourth grades completed questionnaires assessing their expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values, and intention for future participation in physical education. Results indicated that expectancy-related beliefs and subjective task values were clearly distinguishable from one another across physical education and throwing. The two constructs were related to each other positively. Children's intention for future participation in physical education was positively associated with their subjective task values and/or expectancy-related beliefs. Younger children had higher motivation for learning in physical education than older children. Gender differences emerged and the findings provided empirical evidence supporting the validity of the expectancy-value model in elementary physical education.
Karakaş, Özge N.
Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 55-60). The aim of this research was to investigate (a) the effects of mastery-approach (MAp) and performance-approach (PAp) goals induced in an autonomous or a controlling condition to students’ intrinsic motivation through an experiment (Study 1), and (b) the relation of an endorsed...
Iwanaga, Shogo; Kanazawa, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Shinichiro
Past studies revealed that employee’s customer orientation was positively and sig-nificantly correlated with her/his job performance as well as her/his customer’s satis-faction. Subsequently studies were conducted to examine the determinants of cus-tomer orientation. These studies generally found three.conscientiousness, agree-ableness, and emotional stability.of the big five personality traits significantly asso-ciated with customer orientation. No study has examined the effect of motives on...
Merkus, H.; Dijk, D. van
The Government of the Netherlands recently informed Parliament about a set of additional measured aimed at achieving the Netherlands' climate targets, set in the Second National Environmental Policy Plan of December 1993. These additional measures should be a further guarantee that 3% reduction in CO 2 emissions will be achieved in 2000 compared to 1990 levels. Energy saving in offices and small companies will be further encouraged. Furthermore, two coal-fired power stations will switch fuels to 10% wood. At present the Netherlands has an installed capacity of about 14,000 MW, about one third of which is coal fired. The Netherlands emission inventory will now be created according to the IPCC methodology, except for temperature correction. 3 tabs
Fulmer, Sara M.; Frijters, Jan C.
Within psychological and educational research, self-report methodology dominates the study of student motivation. The present review argues that the scope of motivation research can be expanded by incorporating a wider range of methodologies and measurement tools. Several authors have suggested that current study of motivation is overly reliant on…
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle
The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…
Lambert, Matthew C.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tomlinson, M. Michele Athay; Stevens, Amy L.
Background: A client's motivation to receive services is significantly related to seeking services, remaining in services, and improved outcomes. The Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale (MYTS) is one of the few brief measures used to assess motivation for mental health treatment. Objective: To investigate if the psychometric properties of the…
Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J Francois; Lacy, Michael G; Fagan, Jesse
Yee (2006) found three motivational factors-achievement, social, and immersion-underlying play in massively multiplayer online role-playing games ("MMORPGs" or "MMOs" for short). Subsequent work has suggested that these factors foster problematic or addictive forms of play in online worlds. In the current study, we used an online survey of respondents (N = 252), constructed and also interpreted in reference to ethnography and interviews, to examine problematic play in the World of Warcraft (WoW; Blizzard Entertainment, 2004-2013). We relied on tools from psychological anthropology to reconceptualize each of Yee's three motivational factors in order to test for the possible role of culture in problematic MMO play: (a) For achievement, we examined how "cultural consonance" with normative understandings of success might structure problematic forms of play; (b) for social, we analyzed the possibility that developing overvalued virtual relationships that are cutoff from offline social interactions might further exacerbate problematic play; and (c) in relation to immersion, we examined how "dissociative" blurring of actual- and virtual-world identities and experiences might contribute to problematic patterns. Our results confirmed that compared to Yee's original motivational factors, these culturally sensitive measures better predict problematic forms of play, pointing to the important role of sociocultural factors in structuring online play.
Eny Eko Sulistyowati
Full Text Available The study aims to determine the influence of family environment in entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship learning in school, as well as the achievement motive against the interest of entrepreneurship of senior high school students throughout Malang. The study uses a quantitative approach. The study population was high school state students throughout Malang. The process of sampling using proportional random sampling technique, resulting in a sample of 347 high school students. Data were analyzed using analysis of quantitative description. The findings show that: (1 the family environment of entrepreneurship education in entrepreneurship affect the interest of students, (2 entrepreneurial learning in schools using learning media has an influence on students 'interest in entrepreneurship, (3 Achievement motive significant effect on students' interest in entrepreneurship. Based on the findings, it can be suggested (1 to the parents to continue to teach children as early as possible to have the properties of an entrepreneur as well as supporting the child when choosing to become entrepreneurs rather than being an employee, (2 to the school, is expected in perform entrepreneurial learning, can follow changes in the business world, using a variety of learning media and increase students' motivation to try to become entrepreneurs by using media appropriate learning in school. Penelitian ini bertujuan guna mengetahui pengaruh pendidikan kewirausahaan di lingkungan keluarga, pembelajaran kewirausahaan di sekolah, serta achievement motive terhadap minat kewirausahaan siswa SMA Negeri se-Kabupaten Malang. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif. Populasi penelitian adalah siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri se-Kabupaten Malang. Proses penarikan sampel menggunakan teknik proportional random sampling, sehingga menghasilkan sampel sejumlah 347 siswa SMA. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis deskripsi kuantitatif. Temuan penelitian
Bong, Mimi; Cho, Catherine; Ahn, Hyun Seon; Kim, Hye Jin
The authors examined whether self-concept, self-efficacy, and self-esteem show differential predictive utility for academic achievement across age groups and domains. More specifically, the relationships of 3 self-constructs with achievement were examined in mathematics for elementary school students and mathematics and language arts for middle…
Vásquez-Colina, María D.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Furner, Joseph M.
This paper reports findings of a pilot study examining the feasibility of a research design to investigate how achievement goals relate to the construct of math anxiety. In addition, we also consider how other important achievement-related behaviors, like self-efficacy, help-seeking, and self-regulation, might also relate to students' math…
Wünschmann, Stephanie; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian; Itzek-Greulich, Heike
Interventions in out-of-school settings have been shown in previous studies to be effectively increase students' science knowledge and motivation, with mixed results on whether they are more effective than teaching at school. In this study, we compared an out-of-school setting in a reptile and amphibian zoo (Landau, Germany) with a sequence of classroom teaching and a control group without teaching on the topic. We compared learning at school (School) and out-of-school learning (Reptilium), which were tested in a randomized field setting with a focus on knowledge and motivation. Sixty-five elementary students participated in either the School group, Reptilium group or control group. We measured knowledge on the topics reptiles and amphibians with a newly developed two-factorial test, calibrated with item response theory, before the intervention, immediately afterwards (posttest) and 2 weeks later (follow-up). Motivation was measured immediately after the intervention. Data analyses were performed using SPSS and Mplus. We conclude that the two interventions appeared highly superior to the control group and that the out-of-school setting in the Reptilium was more effective than the school-only program. Concerning motivation, perception of choice was higher in the Reptilium than in the School group. There were gender-by-treatment interaction effects for knowledge in the posttest and follow-up, for perceived competence and for pressure/tension. Concerning knowledge, boys performed better in the School group than girls but this gender gap was not significant in the Reptilium group. Boys perceived themselves as more competent in the School group while girls reported less pressure/tension in the Reptilium group. In conclusion, encountering living animals in a formal zoo learning arrangement is encouraged in primary school since it supports self-determination (free choice), leads to higher achievement and closes gender disparities in achievement.
Full Text Available In order to identify to what extent competitiveness trait is related to sport performance in soccer, and to what extent the age and sport category can influence these variables, a descriptive cross-sectional study has been developed. The variables age, sport category, sport performance, achievement motivation (Me, motivation to avoid the failure (Mef and competitiveness trait have been assessed in 151 men soccer players (between 14 and 24 y.o. of a Spanish sport club. The results indicated that the sport performance ascends with age. Consequently, a direct relationship between the sport category and the performance has been observed. Me, Mef and competitiveness trait have been associated with the performance and has varied based on the sport category. No correlation between Me, Mef, competitiveness and age of the sportsmen has been found
"The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the
Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Clements, Nicolle T
Research supports the efficacy of both a remedial consent procedure (corrected feedback (CF)) and a motivational consent procedure (incentives) for improving recall of informed consent to research. Although these strategies were statistically superior to standard consent, effects were modest and not clinically significant. This study examines a combined incentivised consent and CF procedure that simplifies the cognitive task and increases motivation to learn consent information. We randomly assigned 104 individuals consenting to an unrelated host study to a consent as usual (CAU) condition (n=52) or an incentivised CF (ICF) condition (n=52). All participants were told they would be quizzed on their consent recall following their baseline assessment and at 4 monthly follow-ups. ICF participants were also informed that they would earn $5 for each correct answer and receive CF as needed. Quiz scores in the two conditions did not differ at the first administration (p=0.39, d=0.2); however, ICF scores were significantly higher at each subsequent administration (second: p=0.003, Cohen's d=0.6; third: pmotivational consent procedure for enhancing recall of study information and human research protections.
Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A
The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India.
Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.
The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373
Kraus, Alexandra Anita; Scholderer, Joachim
For the indirect measurement of approach-avoidance tendencies, two procedures are introduced and compared. The procedures are modifications of the standard IAT and the Recoding-Free IAT (IAT-RF) and use a motivational attribute dimension (approach, avoidance) instead of an evaluative one. Study 1...... (N = 162) assesses their convergent and discriminant validity with respect to self-reported measures of motivation and evaluation, and their predictive validity with respect to actual behavior. Study 2 (N = 205) furthermore compares their validity to evaluative variants of the same test paradigms...
The present study explored the direct influences of teacher classroom practices, including teacher support, conceptual teaching, and procedural teaching, on 9th grade students' mathematics achievement, and the indirect influences of these teacher variables on student mathematics achievement through students' mathematics self-efficacy and interest in mathematics courses. The base year data of High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS: 09) was used for this study. Structural equation modelin...
Chamorro, José L; Torregrosa, Miquel; Sánchez Oliva, David; García Calvo, Tomás; León, Benito
Within the context of the transition from junior-to-senior sport, this study aims in first place to explore differences in young Spanish elite soccer players based on the importance given to getting different achievements in their future (including sport, studies and private life) and, in second place, to explore differences among those players in levels of passion, motivation and basic psychological need. 478 elite youth soccer filled out a questionnaire based on the presented theoretical models. A cluster analysis shows a sport oriented group (N = 98) only interested in becoming a professional, a life spheres balance group (N = 288) characterized by balancing the importance of achievements in the sport sphere, as well as in education and a private life and a group (N = 91) only interested in private life achievements. The life spheres balance group shows higher levels of harmonious passion (η2 = .06, F(2, 475) = 9.990, p passion and motivation, to cope with the transition to professional soccer.
This contribution will review the recoil distance method (RDM), its current range of applications as well as future perspectives for the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range of excited nuclear levels. Recent Doppler-shift lifetime experiments with large gamma-ray spectrometers have achieved a new level of precision and sensitivity, providing new insights into nuclear structure physics. High precision RDM measurements of near-yrast states in various mass regions have revealed dynamic shape effects beyond the framework of collective models and have also allowed to study the interaction between coexisting shapes. The measurement of lifetimes in superdeformed bands has shown that lifetimes can be measured for nuclear excitations, which are only populated with a few percent of the production cross-section of a nucleus. These experiments have also enabled us to study the mechanism of the decay-out of superdeformed bands. Another example for the need of precise lifetime measurements is the recent verifications of the concept of 'magnetic rotation' in nuclei by the experimental observation of the characteristic drop of B(M1) values as a function of angular momentum. These recent breakthroughs have also opened new perspectives for the use of the RDM technique for more exotic regions of nuclei and nuclear excitations. Here the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei, which are not accessible with conventional nuclear reactions using stable beams and targets, is of special interest. Possible experimental approaches and simple estimates for the feasibility of such experiments will be presented. (author)
Ellwood, Robin; Abrams, Eleanor
This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged 13-14 years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on 46 % of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. Implications for science teaching and future research include shifting the current focus in inquiry-based science from a continuum that progresses from teacher-directed to open inquiry experiences to a
This article presents a history of the study of motivation from approximately 1900-1975, focusing on achievement strivings and containing little-known and often surprising facts about the main contributors to this field. Four theorists are highlighted: David McClelland, Kurt Lewin, John Atkinson, and Fritz Heider, each associated with a different theoretical approach (respectively and in order of historical emergence: trait, Gestalt, expectancy/value, and attribution theory). A fifth conception, drive theory, is also represented. In addition, a number of individuals who influenced these theorists and others who followed them are discussed. The article emphasizes the interrelations between the theorists and the interaction between personal and scientific life.
Full Text Available This study examined the mediating effect of perfectionism on the relationship between language learning and foreign language achievement of high school EFL learners. To this end, 400 eleventh grade high school students were recruited through cluster random sampling. They were selected from eight high schools in four cities of Iran (i.e., Tehran, Ahvaz, Semnan, and Kerman. Afterwards, two questionnaires were administered to the participants. The first questionnaire was the shortened form of Gardner’s Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB for EFL learners, and the second one was Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R measuring the level of perfectionism among respondents. Moreover, the participants’ scores on the English final exam held by Iran’s Ministry of Education was considered as the indicator of foreign language achievement. The obtained data were analyzed through Pearson correlations and bootstrap resampling statistical method. The results indicated a positive correlation between all variables. Furthermore, it was revealed that language achievement and language learning motivation were partially mediated by perfectionism.
Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes
The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…
Small, Ruth V.; Snyder, Jaime; Parker, Katie
In recent years, a number of statewide research studies have been conducted to determine the impact of school library media centers and their school library media specialists (SLMSs) on student achievement. Research studies in eighteen states have clearly established the relationship between well-staffed, well-funded school libraries on student…
Heck, DeAnn M.
This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…
Lee, Jie Qi; McInerney, Dennis M.; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ortiga, Yasmin P.
This research aimed to study the relationships between students' future goals (FGs) and their immediate achievement goal orientations (AGOs) among 5733 Singaporean secondary school students (M age = 14.18, SD = 1.26; 53% boys). To this end, we hypothesized that the relationships between like valenced FGs and AGOs (both intrinsic or both extrinsic)…
Araújo, Liliana S.; Cruz, José Fernando A.; Almeida, Leandro S.
This study investigates the perceived role of psychological factors in achieving excellence in scientific research. Six outstanding scientists aged 33-42 were interviewed. Data were analyzed inductively resulting in three main dimensions: personality traits and characteristics, psychological skills and processes, and task-specific strategies.…
Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il
We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…
Stevenson, Harold W.; And Others
Analysis of both cross-sectional and longitudinal data from five studies on the academic achievement and cognitive abilities of the top 10% and the most average 10% of students in grades 1, 5, and 11 found high-ability Asian students outperformed high-ability U.S. students in mathematics but not in reading. (DB)
Lüftenegger, Marko; Kollmayer, Marlene; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara
One of the most intriguing questions for those who study intellectually gifted students is why some of them reach peak performances at school and others don't. Moderator theories of giftedness assume that domain-specific gifts are transformed into achievement in a process influenced by non-cognitive and environmental variables. Thus, the current…
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige
There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level.
Van Soom, Carolien; Donche, Vincent
The low success rate of first-year college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs has spurred many academic achievement studies in which explanatory factors are studied. In this study, we investigated from a person-oriented perspective whether different motivational and academic self-concept profiles could be discerned between male and female first-year college students in STEM and whether differences in early academic achievement were associated with these student groups. Data on autonomous motivation, academic self-concept, and early academic achievement of 1,400 first-year STEM college students were collected. Cluster analyses were used to distinguish motivational profiles based on the relative levels of autonomous motivation and academic self-concept for male and female students. Differences in early academic achievement of the various profiles were studied by means of ANCOVA. Four different motivational profiles were discerned based on the dimensions of autonomous motivation (A) and academic self-concept (S): students scoring high and respectively low on both dimensions (HA-HS or LA-LS), and students scoring high on one dimension and low on the other (HA-LS or LA-HS). Also gender differences were found in this study: male students with high levels of academic self-concept and autonomous motivation had higher academic achievement compared to male students with low levels on both motivational dimensions. For female students, motivational profiles were not associated with academic achievement. The findings partially confirm the internal and external validity of the motivational theories underpinning this study and extend the present insights on identifying subgroup(s) of at risk students in contemporary STEM programs at university level. PMID:25390942
Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos
Examines a study of student motivation in physical education that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. Self-determined motivation was found to positively predict, whereas amotivation was a negative predictor of leisure-time physical activity intentions. (Contains 86 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)
communicating with the class and instructors via e-mail, discussion netforum or chat netforum. Motivation and learning strategies were the two significant factors that explained more than one-third of student achievement measured by class grade. Educators should assist students in mastering different motivational and learning strategies to help them become self-regulated learners.
Full Text Available Emotion is central component of consumer behavior. This concept, that is borrowed from psychology, is now widely and applied studied in marketing. Two major approaches used by marketing researchers are, first, behavior causes emotions and second, emotions cause behavior. In the second approach, marketing researchers study anticipated emotions of the actors and their consequences on the actors’ behavior. The interesting question, how is anticipated emotion of others on the actor’s behavior? This study is purposed to answer that question. The author studies potential emotions of others that accompany future individuals’ achievement when achievement is considered as gift to significant others or prestige source for the individuals. In doing so, the author develops anticipated emotion of others concept, conceptual model, and related propositions. Discussion, direction for further research, and the contributions of the study to the academic and practical worlds are also presented.
Full Text Available Phosphorus underpins the world’s food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the world’s main source of phosphorus—phosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the world’s food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.
Lombardi, Diana R; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A
How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. This study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early in-session statements against change (counter-change talk) were found to be robust predictors of post-treatment worry scores and differentiated treatment responders from nonresponders. Moreover, client motivational language predicted outcomes beyond initial symptom severity and self-report measures of motivation. These results strongly support the relevance of client motivational language outcomes in CBT and provide a foundation for advancing research on motivation for change in a CBT context.
Full Text Available Abstract The paper presents the challenges of cross-country and cross-cultural research on the motivation to become a mathematics teacher based on data from the “Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M”. Referring to studies from cross-cultural psychology, measurement invariance (MI of constructs representing different motivations to become a teacher was examined in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA across the countries that participated in TEDS-M. The data supported metric invariance which means that comparing relationships between motivation and other constructs across countries is permitted, with the exception of extrinsic motivation in Taiwan. Scalar invariance was not supported by the data across countries but across cultures: Scale means can be compared between Germany, Switzerland and (with regard to intrinsic motivation Norway and Poland as well as between Singapore and Taiwan (with regard to the intrinsic motivation and Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand (again regarding intrinsic motivation.
Samson, L.; Detenber, B.H.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: First, it tests how the Motivation Activation Measure [MAM; Lang, A., Bradley, S. D., Sparks Jr, J. V., & Lee, S. (2007). The motivation activation measure (MAM): How well does MAM predict individual differences in physiological indicators of appetitive and
Greene, David L.
Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)
Zorn, Theodore E.
Reviews eight instruments designed to assess motivation to communicate in the classroom, including cross-situational anxiety (communication apprehension and shyness), situational anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Communication Anxiety Inventory, Form State), cross-situational willingness (willingness to communicate and communication…
Bell, Debra A.; Kaplan, Avi; Thurman, S. Kenneth
Working within a self-determination theory (SDT) framework, this study used cluster analysis to examine the naturally occurring types of homeschool-learning environments parents (N = 457) have created. Measures of support for student autonomy, mastery goal structure, and use of conditional regard were adapted for a homeschool context and used as…
Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.
and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena......Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... test session was recorded. All horses could access all three types of social contact in a cross-over design, and an empty arena was used as control. Motivational strength was assessed using elasticity of demand functions, which were estimated based on the number of rewards earned and FR. Elasticities...
Denilson Mendes de Oliveira
Full Text Available Classroom structures constitute motivational aspects to learn, which can be easily manipulated by teachers during mediation of scientific knowledge to ensure students’ engagement. Organization of learning activities, evaluation and autonomy are some examples of such structures. Two types of goals may be developed in classrooms due to different instructional strategies: performance goals and mastery goals. This work’s objectives were to compare instructional strategies of two high school chemistry teachers (Teacher A and Teacher B from two public schools located in Viçosa (Brazil and infer possible motivational patterns found among students. The comparison was based on the achievement goal theory and organized within the three classroom structures. Data were gathered through field notes from participant observation in two Chemistry classes and semi-structured interviews with both of the teachers. It was verified that Teacher A utilized strategies aligned with mastery goals, while Teacher B utilized instructional strategies that were consistent with the two types of goals. It is concluded that this can influence student engagement during Chemistry classes, considering that teachers have an important role in the orchestration of classroom structures, articulating instructional strategies that favor learning and mediation of the scientific knowledge.
Е. А. Сиденко
Full Text Available In our time, gradually increasing dissatisfaction with the results of public school education, their inadequcy to modern requirements and expectations. Real benchmarks of general education in a traditional school, until recently, remained the specific knowledge and skills of individual school subjects. Beyond these substantive results is lost identity of the child, whose development should be meaning and purpose of education. The Federal state educational standard of the second generation was created to solve these problems. In this article the author talks about the difficulties faced by educational institutions in connection with the transition to the federal government general education standard. The author developed and validated a model of training based on the formation of learners’ motivation of achievement through the acquisition of personal meaning.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now
Alfonso Barca Lozano
Full Text Available En este artículo se señalan las principales variables y perfiles motivacionales que describen al alumnado de educación secundaria en Galicia (España. Para ello partimos de dos criterios básicos: por una parte, se analiza la percepción de los alumnos sobre las relaciones familiares padres/hijos en cuanto a la valoración que hacen los padres de la capacidad y del trabajo escolar de los hijos y, por otra parte, se busca obtener esa misma percepción del alumnado a partir de la valoración de su propio rendimiento académico alto y bajo. Finalmente, se pretende establecer una línea secuencial, por orden de prioridad, de aquellos indicadores motivacionales que tienen una mayor capacidad descriptiva del alumnado y poseen un efecto significativo sobre el rendimiento y aprendizaje del alumnado de educación secundaria. In this study, the main motivational variables and profiles which describe Galician (Spain Secondary School pupils are shown. In order to do so, we start from two basic criteria: on one hand, the way in which these pupils perceive the parent-children relationship with regard to how parents value their children’s capacity and their school work is analysed, and on the other hand, starting from the way in which pupils value their own high or low academic achievement, we aim to obtain the same perception as above on the part of the pupils. Finally, the aim is to establish a sequential line, by order of priority, of those motivational indicators which best describe the pupils and which have a significant effect on Secondary School pupil’s achievement and learning.
Maelekanyo C. Mulaudzi
Full Text Available Orientation: Measurement invariance is one of the most precarious aspects of the scale development process without which the interpretation of research findings on population subgroups may be ambiguous and even invalid. Besides tests for validity and reliability, measurement invariance represents the hallmark for psychometric compliance of a new measuring instrument and provides the basis for inference of research findings across a range of relevant population sub-groups. Research purpose: This study tested the measurement invariance of a Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale across levels of academic achievement. Motivation for the study: It is important for any researcher involved in new scale development to ensure that the measurement instrument and its underlying constructs have proper structural alignment and that they both have the same level of meaning and significance across comparable heterogeneous groups. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used, and data were obtained from 369 participants who were selected from three public sector organisations using a probabilistic simple random sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Analysis of Moment Structures software (versions 21.0.0 were used to analyse the data. Main findings: The findings show that all the four invariance models tested have achieved acceptable goodness-of-fit indices. Furthermore, the findings show that the factorial structure of the LPME scale and the meaning of its underlying constructs are invariant across different levels of academic achievement for human resource development (HRD practitioners and learners or apprentices involved in occupational learning programmes. Practical implications: The findings of this study suggest practical implications for HRD scholars as they are enabled to make informed decisional balance comparisons involving educational
TICHINDELEAN Mihai; VINEREAN Simona
The purpose of the paper is to understand and measure consumer's motives as part of the complex mental structure which has as result a certain buying behavior. To achieve this goal, the authors structured the paper in two parts: the first part contains a literature review regarding the concepts of motivation and motives, while the second part tries to measure and explain several dimensions of buying motives by using a statistical analysis tool - exploratory factor analysis.
Samson, L.; Detenber, B.H.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: First, it tests how the Motivation Activation Measure [MAM; Lang, A., Bradley, S. D., Sparks Jr, J. V., & Lee, S. (2007). The motivation activation measure (MAM): How well does MAM predict individual differences in physiological indicators of appetitive and aversive activation? Communication Methods and Measures, 1(2), 113-136] applies in a non-American (i.e. Asian) context, in order to provide evidence for the universality asserted through its theoretica...
Corkin, Danya M.; Horn, Catherine; Pattison, Donna
This study examined differences in students' classroom motivational climate perceptions and motivational beliefs between those enrolled in undergraduate Biology courses that implemented an innovative, active learning intervention and those enrolled in traditional Biology courses (control group). This study also sought to determine whether…
Socio-motivational moderators – Two sides of the same coin?Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students
Full Text Available The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive and test anxiety in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = .53, age span 12–15 years from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = .82, age span 12–16 years were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and test anxiety. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations (MGLMS were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of test anxiety related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of achievement drive; intensifying or mitigating feelings of test anxiety. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985. Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of achievement drive and test anxiety: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.
Jose Miguel Garcia-Ramirez
Full Text Available A través de los proyectos de innovación docente las universidades mejoran y consolidan la calidad de la educación que ofrecen, tomando la creatividad y visibilidad como claves de la motivación por competencias y logro. Método: La investigación se realiza durante el curso académico 2013-14, a través del proyecto de innovación docente “ReiDoCrea” de la Universidad de Granada. Los participantes (N=62, M=22.7, SD=6.6, estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias del Trabajo, se adscribieron voluntariamente al Grupo Experimental (n=30 o al Grupo Control (n=32. El grupo experimental participó en el proyecto, mientras que el grupo control no participó; los instrumentos utilizados fueron dos pruebas objetivas (pre y post del programa de evaluación académica. Resultados: El análisis estadístico muestra que existen diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por el Grupo Experimental (M=83.6, SE=1.259, t(60=3.748, p<.05, d=.95 r=.43 y el Grupo Control (M=77.25, SE=1.14. Conclusiones: En la innovación docente, la motivación por competencias y de logro es clave para desarrollar el pensamiento creativo y mejorar el rendimiento académico. Abstract: Through teaching innovation projects universities improve and consolidate the quality of education they offer, taking creativity and visibility as the key to competence and achievement motivation. Method: The research study was conducted during the academic year 2013-14, through the teaching innovation project "ReiDoCrea" of the University of Granada. The participants (N=62, M=22.7, SD=6.6, students of the Faculty of Labour, voluntarily joined the Experimental Group (n=30 or the Control Group (n=32. The experimental group participated in the project, while the Control Group did not participate; the instruments used were two objective tests (pre and post, part of the academic program evaluation. Results: The statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the
Jose Miguel Garcia-Ramirez
Full Text Available A través de los proyectos de innovación docente las universidades mejoran y consolidan la calidad de la educación que ofrecen, tomando la creatividad y visibilidad como claves de la motivación por competencias y logro. Método: La investigación se realiza durante el curso académico 2013-14, a través del proyecto de innovación docente “ReiDoCrea” de la Universidad de Granada. Los participantes (N=62, M=22.7, SD=6.6, estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias del Trabajo, se adscribieron voluntariamente al Grupo Experimental (n=30 o al Grupo Control (n=32. El grupo experimental participó en el proyecto, mientras que el grupo control no participó; los instrumentos utilizados fueron dos pruebas objetivas (pre y post del programa de evaluación académica. Resultados: El análisis estadístico muestra que existen diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por el Grupo Experimental (M=83.6, SE=1.259, t(60=3.748, p<.05, d=.95, r=.43 y el Grupo Control (M=77.25, SE=1.14. Conclusiones: En la innovación docente, la motivación por competencias y de logro es clave para desarrollar el pensamiento creativo y mejorar el rendimiento académico. Abstract: Through teaching innovation projects universities improve and consolidate the quality of education they offer, taking creativity and visibility as the key to competence and achievement motivation. Method: The research study was conducted during the academic year 2013-14, through the teaching innovation project "ReiDoCrea" of the University of Granada. The participants (N=62, M=22.7, SD=6.6, students of the Faculty of Labour, voluntarily joined the Experimental Group (n=30 or the Control Group (n=32. The experimental group participated in the project, while the Control Group did not participate; the instruments used were two objective tests (pre and post, part of the academic program evaluation. Results: The statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the
van Herpen, M.; van Praag, M.; Cools, K.
This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship
Van Herpen, M; Van Praag, M; Cools, K
This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship
Marniati; Wibawa, S. C.
This experiment aimed to know the rate of college student’s working readiness of fashion’s program study to perform ‘Cipta Karya’ related to cognitive readiness, manner readiness and skill readiness from a variable of fashion’s workmanship and achievement motivation. The subject of the experiment was 43 college students who took Cipta Karya subject. Method of collecting data used questionnaire with five alternative answers to Likert ratio model. Data analysis technique used path analysis (double regression). The instrument validity test used product moment correlation while for instrument reliability used Alpha Cronbach’s grade. The results showed (1) fashion competence was taking effect significantly on working readiness for ‘Cipta Karya’ (2) achievement motivation is taking effect significantly on working readiness for ‘cipta karya’ (3) both variables are positive. This means that fashion competence and achievement motivation have a positive effect on working readiness for ‘cipta karya’ performance.
Morrison, Joanna; Batura, Neha; Thapa, Rita; Basnyat, Regina; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene
A global shortage of health workers in rural areas increases the salience of motivating and supporting existing health workers. Understandings of motivation may vary in different settings, and it is important to use measurement methods that are contextually appropriate. We identified a measurement tool, previously used in Kenya, and explored its validity and reliability to measure the motivation of auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM) and staff nurses (SN) in rural Nepal. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to assess the content validity, the construct validity, the internal consistency and the reliability of the tool. We translated the tool into Nepali and it was administered to 137 ANMs and SNs in three districts. We collected qualitative data from 78 nursing personnel and district- and central-level stakeholders using interviews and focus group discussions. We calculated motivation scores for ANMs and SNs using the quantitative data and conducted statistical tests for validity and reliability. Motivation scores were compared with qualitative data. Descriptive exploratory analysis compared mean motivation scores by ANM and SN sociodemographic characteristics. The concept of self-efficacy was added to the tool before data collection. Motivation was revealed through conscientiousness. Teamwork and the exertion of extra effort were not adequately captured by the tool, but important in illustrating motivation. The statement on punctuality was problematic in quantitative analysis, and attendance was more expressive of motivation. The calculated motivation scores usually reflected ANM and SN interview data, with some variation in other stakeholder responses. The tool scored within acceptable limits in validity and reliability testing and was able to distinguish motivation of nursing personnel with different sociodemographic characteristics. We found that with minor modifications, the tool provided valid and internally consistent measures of motivation among ANMs
Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to try to account for worker motivation as a key factor that might affect the success of an intervention to improve implementation of health worker practices in eight district hospitals in Kenya. In the absence of available tools, we therefore aimed to develop a tool that could enable a rapid measurement of motivation at baseline and at subsequent points during the 18-month intervention study. Methods After a literature review, a self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess the outcomes and determinants of motivation of Kenyan government hospital staff. The initial questionnaire included 23 questions (from seven underlying constructs related to motivational outcomes that were then used to construct a simpler tool to measure motivation. Parallel qualitative work was undertaken to assess the relevance of the questions chosen and the face validity of the tool. Results Six hundred eighty-four health workers completed the questionnaires at baseline. Reliability analysis and factor analysis were used to produce the simplified motivational index, which consisted of 10 equally-weighted items from three underlying factors. Scores on the 10-item index were closely correlated with scores for the 23-item index, indicating that in future rapid assessments might be based on the 10 questions alone. The 10-item motivation index was also able to identify statistically significant differences in mean health worker motivation scores between the study hospitals (p Conclusion The 10-item score developed may be useful to monitor changes in motivation over time within our study or be used for more extensive rapid assessments of health worker motivation in Kenya.
Full Text Available In a longitudinal study conducted on 1130 adolescents (557 male and 573 female in the 1st-6th grades from Belgian secondary schools, we tested the influence of individual factors (motivational constructs, implicit theory of intelligence and self-esteem and environmental determinants (parenting and class environment of academic achievement (grades in mathematics, language arts and GPA at three points in time. Using hierarchical linear models, we observed a decrease of grade over the course of the study, reciprocal relations between motivational constructs, self-esteem and academic achievement, a strong positive impact of supportive parenting and a moderate influence of class environment.
Socio-motivational moderators—two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students
Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael
The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12–15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12–16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher–student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student–student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role. PMID:26583000
Socio-motivational moderators-two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students.
Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael
The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, M age = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12-15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, M age = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12-16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.
Krishnan, Archana; Hunt, Daniel Scot
Positive attitudes toward a new communication technology tend to be a significant motivator in subsequent adoption and use. The recent spurt in the adoption of social media tools such as social networking sites (SNSs) demands the examination of attitudinal variables on motives to use these Web sites. This study explicated a multidimensional measure of attitudes toward SNSs and tested a theoretical model to examine the effect of attitudes on motives to use SNSs and SNS activity. Participants (N=674) completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of measures of attitudes toward SNSs, motives of SNS use, and level of activity. Results showed support for a revised model in which attitudinal variables-ease of use, self-disclosure, and social connection-strongly predicted motives of SNS use such as passing time, information/entertainment, social conformity, and, most importantly, socialization. The motive of using SNSs as a social tool superseded the direct effect of other motives on SNS activity, suggesting that users' primary activity on SNSs was for socialization and for relational development and maintenance.
Full Text Available Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154 answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001, a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001 and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615. Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.
Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto
Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.
A new scale "motivation for return to work" has been constructed to measure depressive patients' motivation to start working again in a stepwise process. The scale showed in 46 patients of a first case management (CM) sample with depressive employees a good correlation with the final social status of the CM. Only the motivated patients were successful returning to work and could be, separated clearly from the most demotivated one. Second, the scale correlated with the duration of sick leave and third showed an inverse correlation with the complete time of CM, suggesting that a successful stepwise return to work requires time. These first results need further examination.
Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.
Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.
Branscum, Paul; Senkowski, Valerie
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a popular value-expectancy model in social and behavioral health. Motivation to comply, one of the theory's constructs, has not been well operationalized and measured in the past, and to date, there has been no assessment of whether level of specificity affects the measurement of the construct. The purpose of this study was to measure the motivation to comply construct across four domains (from general to TACT-behavior specific) and evaluate the potential impact the differences have when identifying determinants of generalized injunctive norms. Students (n = 234) attending a large southwestern university completed a TPB survey related to sleep and physical activity, and were randomized to one of four domains that measured motivation to comply (General domain, n = 58; Health domain, n = 60; Behavioral domain, n = 56; and TACT domain, n = 60). Across both behaviors, motivation to comply measurements did not appear to be affected by changing the level of specificity. Referents for sleep and physical activity were mostly significant, but the effects were small to medium. Future researchers should consider removing motivation to comply measures from TPB surveys to reduce respondent burden or find alternative ways of measuring the construct.
Simmons, Vani N; Heckman, Bryan W; Ditre, Joseph W; Brandon, Thomas H
Although a great deal of research has focused on measuring motivation and readiness to quit smoking, little research has assessed gross motivational changes after a smoker has made an attempt to quit smoking. Unlike previous single-item global measures of motivation to remain abstinent, we developed the abstinence-related motivational engagement (ARME) scale to evaluate the degree to which abstinence motivation is reflected by an ex-smoker's daily experience in areas that include cognitive effort, priority, vigilance, and excitement. The aim of this study was to collect reliability and initial construct validity data on this new measure. Participants were 199 ex-smokers recruited from the community and smoking cessation Web sites. Participants completed online measures including a global motivation measure, the ARME scale, demographic questionnaire, and a measure of cessation self-efficacy. The 16-item ARME questionnaire demonstrated high internal consistency reliability (alpha = .89). Analyses provided support for convergent, discriminant, and construct validity of the scale. ARME demonstrated the predicted correlation with a traditional measure of global cessation motivation, yet, also as predicted, only the ARME was negatively associated with length of abstinence. Moreover, as hypothesized, ex-smokers engaged in the quitting process via ongoing smoking Web site participation showed higher ARME scores than a comparison community sample. A five-item short form demonstrated similar psychometric properties. This study provided initial support for the ARME construct and offers two versions of a reliable instrument for assessing this construct. Future research will examine the ARME as a predictor of cessation outcome and a potential target for relapse prevention.