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Sample records for measles vaccine administered

  1. Prior DNA vaccination does not interfere with the live-attenuated measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premenko-Lanier, Mary; Rota, Paul; Rhodes, Gary; Bellini, William; McChesney, Michael

    2004-01-26

    The currently used live-attenuated measles vaccine is very effective although maternal antibody prevents its administration prior to 6 months of age. We are investigating the ability of a DNA vaccine encoding the measles viral hemagglutinin, fusion and nucleoprotein to protect newborn infants from measles. Here, we show that a measles DNA vaccine protects juvenile macaques from pathogenic measles virus challenge and that macaques primed and boosted with this DNA vaccine have anemnestic antibody and cell-mediated responses after vaccination with a live-attenuated canine distemper-measles vaccine. Therefore, this DNA vaccine administered to newborn infants may not hinder the subsequent use of live-attenuated measles vaccine.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis SA 14-14-2 vaccine co-administered with measles vaccine in 9-month-old infants in Sri Lanka.

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    Wijesinghe, Pushpa Ranjan; Abeysinghe, M R Nihal; Yoksan, Sutee; Yao, Yafu; Zhou, Benli; Zhang, Lei; Yaich, Mansour; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Victor, John C

    2014-08-20

    To facilitate introduction of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine (LJEV) into the National Immunization Programme of Sri Lanka, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of co-administration of LJEV and measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Serum immune responses were evaluated post-vaccination on days 28, 180, and 365 using JE neutralization test and anti-measles IgG ELISA. 278 infants received one dose of LJEV and measles vaccine. Of these, 257 were eligible for the per-protocol analysis. On Day 0, 14 infants (5.5%) were seropositive for JE, but none were seropositive for measles. At Day 28, seropositivity rates were 90.7% (95% CI, 86.4-93.9%) for JE and 84.8% (95% CI, 79.8-89.0%) for measles. The geometric mean titer for JE neutralizing antibodies was 111 (95% CI, 90-135), and the geometric mean concentration (GMC) for anti-measles IgG was 375 mI U/mL (95% CI, 351-400 mI U/mL). Over the next year, JE neutralizing antibody responses declined only slightly, with seropositivity at 87.4% (95% CI, 82.6-91.2%) at Day 365. In contrast, measles antibody levels continued to increase over time. Seropositivity for anti-measles IgG reached 97.2% (95% CI, 94.4-98.9%) at Day 365, and the GMC rose to 1202 mI U/mL (95% CI, 1077-1341 mI U/mL). Co-administration of LJEV and measles vaccine was also safe. Most adverse reactions were mild, and no serious adverse events were related to study vaccinations. The safety and immunogenicity of LJEV co-administered with measles vaccine in Sri Lankan infants is similar to that seen in other populations, and our results support use of LJEV at 9 months of age. Live SA 14-14-2 vaccine is now prequalified by the WHO for use in infants in Asia, and other countries may wish to introduce LJEV to combat this devastating disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Measles vaccination using a microneedle patch☆

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    Edens, Chris; Collins, Marcus L.; Ayers, Jessica; Rota, Paul A.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Measles vaccination programs would benefit from delivery methods that decrease cost, simplify logistics, and increase safety. Conventional subcutaneous injection is limited by the need for skilled healthcare professionals to reconstitute and administer injections, and by the need for safe needle handling and disposal to reduce the risk of disease transmission through needle re-use and needlestick injury. Microneedles are micron-scale, solid needles coated with a dry formulation of vaccine that dissolves in the skin within minutes after patch application. By avoiding the use of hypodermic needles, vaccination using a microneedle patch could be carried out by minimally trained personnel with reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to evaluate measles vaccination using a microneedle patch to address some of the limitations of subcutaneous injection. Viability of vaccine virus dried onto a microneedle patch was stabilized by incorporation of the sugar, trehalose, and loss of viral titer was less than 1 log10(TCID50) after storage for at least 30 days at room temperature. Microneedle patches were then used to immunize cotton rats with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine strain. Vaccination using microneedles at doses equaling the standard human dose or one-fifth the human dose generated neutralizing antibody levels equivalent to those of a subcutaneous immunization at the same dose. These results show that measles vaccine can be stabilized on microneedles and that vaccine efficiently reconstitutes in vivo to generate a neutralizing antibody response equivalent to that generated by subcutaneous injection. PMID:23044406

  4. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies compa...

  5. Potency Studies of live- Attenuated Viral Vaccines Administered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We critically carried out a potency study in 1992 and 1997 on measles and poliovirus vaccines administered at five different vaccination centers in the metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. using WHO guidelines on titration of live- viral vaccines, our results revealed that only 6 (16.7%) of 36 measles vaccine (MV) vials and 11 ...

  6. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpsvax® Mumps Vaccine ... Biavax® II (as a combination product containing Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  7. Evaluation of a Booster Dose of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Co-Administered with Measles, Yellow Fever and Meningitis A Vaccines in 9-month-old Malian Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Fadima C; Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Doumbia, Moussa; Coulibaly, Flanon; Diallo, Fatoumata; Traoré, Awa; Kodio, Mamoudou; Kelly, Corey L; Fitzpatrick, Meagan; Kotloff, Karen; Victor, John C; Neuzil, Kathleen

    2018-04-12

    Rotavirus vaccines given to infants are safe and efficacious. A booster dose of rotavirus vaccine could extend protection into the second year of life in low resource countries. We conducted an open-label, individual-randomized trial in Bamako, Mali. We assigned 600 9- to 11-month old infants to measles (MV), yellow fever (YFV), and meningococcal A conjugate vaccines with or without pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV). We assessed non-inferiority of seroconversion and seroresponse rates (<10% difference) to MV, YFV and MenAV. We compared the seroresponse to PRV. Seroconversion to measles occurred in 255/261 (97.7%) and 246/252 (97.6%) of the PRV and control group; difference, 0.1% (95% CI, - 4.0 to 4.2). Seroresponse to YFV occurred in 48.1% (141/293) of the PRV group compared to 52.2% (153/293) of the control group; difference - 4.1% (95% CI, -12.2 to 4.0). A 4-fold rise in meningococcal A bactericidal titer was observed in 273/292 (93.5%) PRV recipients and 276/293 (94.2%) controls; difference, -0.7% (95% CI, - 5.2 to 3.8). Rises in anti-rotavirus IgA and IgG geometric mean concentrations were higher among PRV recipients (118 [95% CI, 91 to 154] and 364 [95% CI, 294 to 450]) compared to controls (68 [95% CI, 50 to 92] and 153 [95% CI, 114 to 207]. PRV did not interfere with MV and MenAV; this study could not rule out interference with YFV. PRV increased serum rotavirus antibody levels. NCT02286895.

  8. Vaccine platform recombinant measles virus.

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    Mühlebach, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    The classic development of vaccines is lengthy, tedious, and may not necessarily be successful as demonstrated by the case of HIV. This is especially a problem for emerging pathogens that are newly introduced into the human population and carry the inherent risk of pandemic spread in a naïve population. For such situations, a considerable number of different platform technologies are under development. These are also under development for pathogens, where directly derived vaccines are regarded as too complicated or even dangerous due to the induction of inefficient or unwanted immune responses causing considerable side-effects as for dengue virus. Among platform technologies are plasmid-based DNA vaccines, RNA replicons, single-round infectious vector particles, or replicating vaccine-based vectors encoding (a) critical antigen(s) of the target pathogens. Among the latter, recombinant measles viruses derived from vaccine strains have been tested. Measles vaccines are among the most effective and safest life-attenuated vaccines known. Therefore, the development of Schwarz-, Moraten-, or AIK-C-strain derived recombinant vaccines against a wide range of mostly viral, but also bacterial pathogens was quite straightforward. These vaccines generally induce powerful humoral and cellular immune responses in appropriate animal models, i.e., transgenic mice or non-human primates. Also in the recent first clinical phase I trial, the results have been quite encouraging. The trial indicated the expected safety and efficacy also in human patients, interestingly independent from the level of prevalent anti-measles immunity before the trial. Thereby, recombinant measles vaccines expressing additional antigens are a promising platform for future vaccines.

  9. The immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine when co-administered with conjugated meningococcal C vaccine to healthy children: A phase IIIb, randomized, multi-center study in Italy.

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    Durando, Paolo; Esposito, Susanna; Bona, Gianni; Cuccia, Mario; Desole, Maria Giuseppina; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Gabutti, Giovanni; Pellegrino, Angelo; Salvini, Filippo; Henry, Ouzama; Povey, Michael; Marchetti, Federico

    2016-08-05

    Multiple vaccination visits and administrations can be stressful for infants, parents and healthcare providers. Multivalent combination vaccines can deliver the required number of antigens in fewer injections and clinic visits, while vaccine co-administration can also reduce the number of visits. This non-inferiority study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of co-administering a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine with conjugated meningococcal C (MenC) vaccine in a large cohort of healthy Italian toddlers. Healthy subjects aged 13-15months were randomized (2:1:1) to receive single doses of either: co-administered MMRV+MenC at the same visit (MMRV+MenC group); or MMRV followed 42days later by MenC (MMRV group); or MenC followed 42days later by MMRV (MenC group). Blood samples were collected before and 43days after vaccination. Antibody titers against MMRV were measured using ELISA. Functional-anti-meningococcal-serogroup activity (rSBAMenC) was assessed using a serum bactericidal test. Solicited local and general reactions were recorded for up to 4 and 42days post-vaccination, respectively. Non-inferiority of MMRV+MenC to MMRV (post-dose-1 seroconversion rates) and MMRV+MenC to MenC (post-dose-1 seroprotection rates) was achieved if the lower limit (LL) of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the group difference was ⩾-10% for each antigen. 716 subjects were enrolled in the study. At 42days post-vaccination, the MMRV seroconversion rates were 99.3% (measles), 94.5% (mumps), 100% (rubella) and 99.7% (varicella) in the MMRV+MenC group, and 99.4%, 93.2%, 100% and 100%, respectively, in the MMRV group. The seroprotection rates against rSBA-MenC were 98.3% in the MMRV+MenC group and 99.3% in the MenC group. Non-inferiority was reached for all the vaccine antigens. The safety profiles were as expected for these vaccines. The immune responses elicited by co-administered MMRV+MenC were non-inferior to those elicited by MMRV or MenC alone and

  10. A Recombinant Measles Vaccine with Enhanced Resistance to Passive Immunity.

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    Julik, Emily; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge

    2017-09-21

    Current measles vaccines suffer from poor effectiveness in young infants due primarily to the inhibitory effect of residual maternal immunity on vaccine responses. The development of a measles vaccine that resists such passive immunity would strongly contribute to the stalled effort toward measles eradication. In this concise communication, we show that a measles virus (MV) with enhanced hemagglutinin (H) expression and incorporation, termed MVvac2-H2, retained its enhanced immunogenicity, previously established in older mice, when administered to very young, genetically modified, MV-susceptible mice in the presence of passive anti-measles immunity. This immunity level mimics the sub-neutralizing immunity prevalent in infants too young to be vaccinated. Additionally, toward a more physiological small animal model of maternal anti-measles immunity interference, we document vertical transfer of passive anti-MV immunity in genetically-modified, MV susceptible mice and show in this physiological model a better MVvac2-H2 immunogenic profile than that of the parental vaccine strain. In sum, these data support the notion that enhancing MV hemagglutinin incorporation can circumvent in vivo neutralization. This strategy merits additional exploration as an alternative pediatric measles vaccine.

  11. Soil transmitted helminth infections are not associated with compromised antibody responses to previously administered measles and tetanus vaccines among HIV-1 infected, ART naïve Kenyan adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Storey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, both HIV and helminth infections are prevalent. HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and helminth infections can both compromise immune responses in humans. To determine whether the presence of helminth infection or the treatment of helminth infection alters unstimulated vaccine responses among HIV-1 infected individuals, we conducted two nested serologic studies. Blood samples were collected for HIV disease monitoring and vaccine-specific serologic assays, while stool was evaluated by direct microscopy methods. We compared antibody responses to measles and tetanus vaccines in helminth-infected (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm and/or Schistosoma mansoni and uninfected adults 18 years and older (n = 100. We also compared measles and tetanus antibody responses in Ascaris only-infected adults receiving 400 mg albendazole daily for 3 days (n = 16 vs. placebo (n = 19 in a separate study. In both cohorts, over 70% of participants had measles and tetanus responses above the protective threshold. Prevalence of measles responses were similar between helminth-infected and uninfected individuals (82%, 95% CI: 71–93% vs 72%, 95% CI: 59–85%, as well as log10 tetanus antibody levels (−0.133 IU/mL vs −0.190 IU/mL, p > 0.05, and did not differ by helminth species. In the Ascaris-infected cohort, changes in measles responses and tetanus responses did not differ between those who received anthelminthic vs. placebo (p > 0.05 for both. In these studies, neither helminth infection, nor deworming, appeared to affect previously administered vaccine responsiveness in HIV-1 infected, ART naïve, adults in Kenya.

  12. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

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    S. P. Kaplina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.

  13. Measles Vaccination in the Presence or Absence of Maternal Measles Antibody: Impact on Child Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L.; Garly, May-Lill; Andersen, Andreas; Fisker, Ane B.; Claesson, Mogens H.; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C.; Benn, Christine S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. Methods. To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data from 2 previously published randomized trials of a 2-dose schedule with MV given at 4–6 months and at 9 months of age. In both trials antibody levels had been measured before early measles vaccination. Results. In trial I (1993–1995), the mortality rate was 0.0 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated with MV in the presence of maternal antibody and 32.3 per 1000 person-years without maternal antibody (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0–.52). In trial II (2003–2007), the mortality rate was 4.2 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated in presence of maternal measles antibody and 14.5 per 1000 person-years without measles antibody (MRR, 0.29; 95% CI, .09–.91). Possible confounding factors did not explain the difference. In a combined analysis, children who had measles antibody detected when they received their first dose of MV at 4–6 months of age had lower mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07–.64) between 4–6 months and 5 years. Conclusions. Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4–6 months (earlier than currently recommended) and a booster dose at 9–12 months of age. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. PMID:24829213

  14. [The knowledge of pediatricians in Salvador, Brazil about measles vaccine].

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    Moreira, L A; Carvalho, F M; Silvany-Neto, A M; Peres, M F

    1997-12-01

    The success of international initiatives for the eradication of measles depends in large part on knowledge about vaccination. In 1992, a cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate knowledge about measles vaccine among pediatricians in the Brazilian city of Salvador, Bahia. Of the 506 pediatricians residing in the city, 299 (59%) could be located and responded to a questionnaire containing 15 questions that posed hypothetical situations regarding indications and contraindications for this vaccine. The average number of correct responses was 9.3 out of 15, which illustrates the pediatricians' poor knowledge of measles vaccine. Conditions commonly seen in pediatric practice in Brazil--malnutrition, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, and prematurity--were often erroneously considered contraindications for immunization. More than half (62%) of the pediatricians did not know the correct way to administer the vaccine. Knowledge about the vaccine did not differ according to the length of time that had elapsed since the physicians' university training in pediatrics or as a result of working in health centers operated by the State Health Secretariat. University professors, pediatricians with a postgraduate degree, and those pursuing postgraduate studies scored slightly higher than the rest. These results point to the need to strengthen training on measles vaccination in medical schools and programs of continuing education for pediatricians.

  15. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

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    Wu Qiaozhen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased susceptibility to measles in young infants in China. Measles IgG in 24 measles infants ≤ 9 months of age and their vaccinated mothers was quantitatively measured. The mean measles neutralizing titer in the vaccinated mothers and in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles were compared. Results All the mothers were confirmed to be vaccinated successfully by the presence of measles IgG. Six vaccinated mothers were positive for measles IgM and had high concentrations of measles IgG and the neutralizing antibody, indicating underwent natural boosting. The mean measles neutralizing titer in 18 vaccinated mothers without natural boosting were significantly lower than that in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles (1:37 vs 1:182, P Conclusions Our results suggest that infants born to mothers who acquired immunity to measles by vaccination may get a relatively small amount of measles antibody, resulting in loss of the immunity to measles before the vaccination age. Measures to improve the immunity in young infants not eligible for measles vaccination would be critical to interrupt the measles transmission in China.

  16. Measles, immune suppression and vaccination: direct and indirect nonspecific vaccine benefits.

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    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The measles virus is among the most transmissible viruses known to infect humans. Prior to measles vaccination programs, measles infected over 95% of all children and was responsible for over 4 million deaths each year. Measles vaccination programs have been among the greatest public health achievements reducing, eliminating endemic measles in the whole of the Americas and across much of the globe. Where measles vaccines are introduced, unexpectedly large reductions in all-cause childhood mortality have been observed. These gains appear to derive in part from direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccines that enhance innate and adaptive immune responses. Additionally, by preventing measles infections, vaccination prevents measles-associated short- and long-term immunomodulating effects. Before vaccination, these invisible hallmarks of measles infections increased vulnerability to non-measles infections in nearly all children for weeks, months, or years following acute infections. By depleting measles incidence, vaccination has had important indirect benefits to reduce non-measles mortality. Delineating the relative importance of these two modes of survival benefits following measles vaccine introduction is of critical public health importance. While both support continued unwavering global commitments to measles vaccination programs until measles eradication is complete, direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccination further support continued commitment to measles vaccination programs indefinitely. We discuss what is known about direct and indirect nonspecific measles vaccine benefits, and their implications for continued measles vaccination programs. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Influencing University Nursing Students' Measles Vaccination Rate During a Community Measles Outbreak

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    Ji Soo Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A systematic measles vaccination program targeting nursing students upon their entry to university is needed. In order to increase the measles vaccination rate, application of effective promotion campaigns and education programs is necessary.

  18. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, S. M.; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissa...

  19. Population immunity to measles virus and the effect of HIV-1 infection after a mass measles vaccination campaign in Lusaka, Zambia: a cross-sectional survey.

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    Lowther, Sara A; Curriero, Frank C; Kalish, Brian T; Shields, Timothy M; Monze, Mwaka; Moss, William J

    2009-03-21

    Measles control efforts are hindered by challenges in sustaining high vaccination coverage, waning immunity in HIV-1-infected children, and clustering of susceptible individuals. Our aim was to assess population immunity to measles virus after a mass vaccination campaign in a region with high HIV prevalence. 3 years after a measles supplemental immunisation activity (SIA), we undertook a cross-sectional survey in Lusaka, Zambia. Households were randomly selected from a satellite image. Children aged 9 months to 5 years from selected households were eligible for enrolment. A questionnaire was administered to the children's caregivers to obtain information about measles vaccination history and history of measles. Oral fluid samples were obtained from children and tested for antibodies to measles virus and HIV-1 by EIA. 1015 children from 668 residences provided adequate specimens. 853 (84%) children had a history of measles vaccination according to either caregiver report or immunisation card. 679 children (67%) had antibodies to measles virus, and 64 (6%) children had antibodies to HIV-1. Children with antibodies to HIV-1 were as likely to have no history of measles vaccination as those without antibodies to HIV-1 (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 0.57-2.41). Children without measles antibodies were more likely to have never received measles vaccine than those with antibodies (adjusted OR 2.50, 1.69-3.71). In vaccinated children, 33 (61%) of 54 children with antibodies to HIV-1 also had antibodies to measles virus, compared with 568 (71%) of 796 children without antibodies to HIV-1 (p=0.1). 3 years after an SIA, population immunity to measles was insufficient to interrupt measles virus transmission. The use of oral fluid and satellite images for sampling are potential methods to assess population immunity and the timing of SIAs.

  20. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

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    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam.Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls.Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with corticosteroids and IVIG is common practice, and should be

  1. An evaluation of the 2012 measles mass vaccination campaign in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To estimate the post-campaign level of measles vaccination coverage in Guinea. Method: Interview of parents and observation of measles vaccination cards of children aged 9 to 59 months during the mass measles campaign. A nationwide cluster randomized sample under health District stratification. Results: ...

  2. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-01-01

    vaccinated with MV in the presence of maternal antibody and 32.3 per 1000 person-years without maternal antibody (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0-.52). In trial II (2003-2007), the mortality rate was 4.2 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated in presence of maternal...... mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07-.64) between 4-6 months and 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4......BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...

  3. Is there enough vaccine to eradicate measles? An integrated analysis of measles-containing vaccine supply and demand.

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    Smith, Graegar; Michelson, Joshua; Singh, Rohit; Dabbagh, Alya; Hoekstra, Edward; van den Ent, Maya; Mallya, Apoorva

    2011-07-01

    Responding to regional advancements in combating measles, the World Health Organization in May 2008 called for an assessment of the feasibility of measles eradication, including whether sufficient vaccine supply exists. Interviews with international health officials and vaccine-makers provided data for a detailed model of worldwide demand and supply for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). The study projected global MCV demand through 2025 with and without a global eradication goal. The study found that 5.2 billion MCV doses must be administered during 2010-2025 to maintain current measles programs, and 5.9 billion doses would likely be needed with a 2020 eradication goal; in the most intensive scenario, demand could increase to 7.5 billion doses. These volumes are within existing and planned MCV-manufacturing capacity, although there are risks. In some markets, capacity is concentrated: Supply-chain disruptions could reduce supply or increase prices. Mitigation strategies could include stockpiling, long-term contracts, and further coordination with manufacturers. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Measles trends and vaccine effectiveness in Nairobi, Kenya | Borus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine morbidity and mortality from measles and to estimate measles vaccine effectiveness among children hospitalised with measles in two hospitals in Nairobi. Design: A review of hospital records (index cards). Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi District Hospitals covering the years ...

  5. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if ...

  6. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H

    1993-01-01

    In an urban area of Guinea-Bissau, 384 children were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing morbidity and mortality rates after receiving high-titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine administered from 4 months of age, with a control group receiving inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine at 4...

  7. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  8. Measles seroprevalence, outbreaks, and vaccine coverage in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruyange, Eric; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mambo Muvunyi, Claude; Uwimana, Zena G; Gatera, Maurice; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Katare, Swaibu; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Measles outbreaks are reported after insufficient vaccine coverage, especially in countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict. We compared seroprevalence to measles in blood donors in Rwanda and Sweden and explored distribution of active cases of measles and vaccine coverage in Rwanda. 516 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors were assayed for measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on vaccine coverage and acute cases in Rwanda from 1980 to 2014 were collected, and IgM on serum samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal (NPH) swabs from suspected measles cases during 2010-2011 were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles IgG was significantly higher in Swedish blood donors (92.6%; 95% CI: 89.1-96.1%) compared to Rwandan subjects (71.5%; 95% CI: 67.6-75.4%) and more pronounced Rwanda, with the exception of an outbreak in 1995 following the 1994 genocide. 76/544 serum samples were IgM positive and 21/31 NPH swabs were PCR positive for measles, determined by sequencing to be of genotype B3. Measles seroprevalence was lower in Rwandan blood donors compared to Swedish subjects. Despite this, the number of reported measles cases in Rwanda rapidly decreased during the study period, concomitant with increased vaccine coverage. Taken together, the circulation of measles was limited in Rwanda and vaccine coverage was favourable, but seroprevalence and IgG levels were low especially in younger age groups.

  9. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Regions » Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western Pacific WHO in countries » Overview Statistics ... of children to receive measles vaccine in north-eastern Nigeria 16 January 2017 WHO strengthens South Sudan’s ...

  10. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  11. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of different measles vaccination strategies for children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Reena H; Eckhoff, Philip; Cheng, Alvan; Hoff, Nicole A; Mukadi, Patrick; Shidi, Calixte; Gerber, Sue; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Muyembe-Tafum, Jean-Jacques; Kominski, Gerald F; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-27

    One of the goals of the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan is the reduction in global measles mortality, with high measles vaccination coverage as one of its core components. While measles mortality has been reduced more than 79%, the disease remains a major cause of childhood vaccine preventable disease burden globally. Measles immunization requires a two-dose schedule and only countries with strong, stable immunization programs can rely on routine services to deliver the second dose. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), weak health infrastructure and lack of provision of the second dose of measles vaccine necessitates the use of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to administer the second dose. We modeled three vaccination strategies using an age-structured SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model to simulate natural measles dynamics along with the effect of immunization. We compared the cost-effectiveness of two different strategies for the second dose of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV) to one dose of MCV through routine immunization services over a 15-year time period for a hypothetical birth cohort of 3 million children. Compared to strategy 1 (MCV1 only), strategy 2 (MCV2 by SIA) would prevent a total of 5,808,750 measles cases, 156,836 measles-related deaths and save U.S. $199 million. Compared to strategy 1, strategy 3 (MCV2 by RI) would prevent a total of 13,232,250 measles cases, 166,475 measles-related deaths and save U.S. $408 million. Vaccination recommendations should be tailored to each country, offering a framework where countries can adapt to local epidemiological and economical circumstances in the context of other health priorities. Our results reflect the synergistic effect of two doses of MCV and demonstrate that the most cost-effective approach to measles vaccination in DRC is to incorporate the second dose of MCV in the RI schedule provided that high enough coverage can be achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  13. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  14. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  15. A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in 3 and 4-year-old healthy children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Robin; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Mesaros, Narcisa; Han, Htay Htay; Tomlinson, Richard; Faust, Saul N; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus (dTap-IPV B ) vaccine (Boostrix-IPV, GSK) as a pre-school booster in 3-4 year old children as compared to dTap-IPV R (Repevax, Sanofi Pasteur), when co-administered with mumps-measles-rubella vaccine (MMRV). This phase III, open label, randomised study was conducted in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Children due their pre-school dTap-IPV booster vaccination were randomised 2:1 to receive one of two different dTap-IPV vaccines (dTap-IPV B or dTap-IPV R ) with blood sample for immunogenicity assessment just prior and one month after vaccination. Immune responses to diphtheria, tetanus and polio antigens were compared between the study vaccines (inferential comparison). In the absence of an accepted pertussis correlate of protection, the immunogenicity of dTap-IPV B vaccine against pertussis was compared with historical pertussis efficacy data (inferential comparison). Safety and reactogenicity of both study vaccines were evaluated. 387 children were randomised and 385 vaccinated: 255 in the dTap-IPV B group and 130 in the dTap-IPV R group. Prior to vaccination, ≥76.8% of children had anti-diphtheria and ≥65.5% had anti-tetanus titres above the protection threshold; for pertussis, the pre-vaccination seropositivity rate ranged between 18.1 and 70.6%. Both vaccines were immunogenic with 99.2-100% of children achieving titres above the pre-specified seroprotection/seropositivity thresholds. One serious adverse event not considered as causally related to the study vaccination by the study investigator was reported in the dTap-IPV B group. Non-inferiority of dTap-IPV B to dTap-IPV R was demonstrated. Both vaccines had a clinically acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile when co-administered with MMRV to children 3-4 years old. NCT01245049 (ClinicalTrials.gov). Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  16. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc. ... Why get vaccinated? Measles, mumps, and rubella are viral diseases that can ... Before vaccines, these diseases were very common in ...

  17. Antibody response to routine measles vaccination among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-02-08

    Feb 8, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Despite a global decline in mortality and morbidity from measles in the last decade, outbreaks continue to occur in some parts of the world including Nigeria. Objective: To determine antibody response to routine measles vacci- nation in Nigerian children and evaluate vaccine potency.

  18. Estimation Of Measles Sero-conversion in Children Vaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of seroconversion of 115 children between 9 months to 5 years vaccinated against measles was conducted in Oriowon local government area of Edo State. This has to establish the immune status of the children against measles after immunisation. Haemagglutination inhibition technique was used. Prevaccination ...

  19. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age: a serological study within a randomised trial of different measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2013-11-19

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months. The trial was conducted in an urban area in Guinea-Bissau where we have had a health and demographic surveillance system and studied strategies to prevent measles infection since 1978. In the present study, children were randomised to SW or EZ as the first MV and furthermore randomised to a second dose of the same MV or no vaccine at 18 months of age. We obtained blood samples from 996 children at baseline; post-vaccination blood samples were collected at 18 and 24 months of age to assess measles antibody levels after one or two doses of MV. At age 18 months all had responded to the first dose and only 1% (8/699) of the children had non-protective antibody levels irrespective of vaccine type. SW was associated with significantly higher levels of measles antibodies (geometric mean titre (GMT)=2114 mIU/mL (95%CI 1153-2412)) than EZ (GMT=807 mIU/mL (722-908)) (p=0.001). Antibody concentration was significantly higher in girls than in boys after EZ but not after SW. Antibody levels were higher in the rainy than the dry season. There was no clear indication that a booster dose at 18 months increased the antibody level at 24 months of age. Maternal antibody levels have declined significantly in recent years and 99% had protective levels of measles antibody following primary MV at 9 months of age. It is unlikely that measles prevention and child health will be improved by increasing the age of MV as currently recommended. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...... of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4...

  1. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Coughlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  2. An evaluation of the 2012 measles mass vaccination campaign in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... 1Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene, Guinea, 2WHO country office, Guinea, 3Ministry of Public health ... Abstract. Introduction: To estimate the post-campaign level of measles vaccination coverage in Guinea. ..... CONAKRY.

  3. Evaluation of measles vaccine cold chain in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National (level 1), State (L2), and Local government vaccine cold stores (L3) as well as some vaccination centres (L4) were physically inspected in Lagos State, Nigeria and the potency of the live-attenuated measles vaccine was tested. Both the L1 and L2 storage facilities were formally adequately equipped and ...

  4. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  5. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  6. Measles in Morocco: epidemiological profile and impact of vaccination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Amine; Ziani, Mouncif; Cheikh, Zakia; Barakat, Amina; El Menzhi, Omar; Braikat, Mohammed; Benomar, Ali; Cherrah, Yahya; El Hassani, Amine

    2015-02-01

    Measles continues to persist as one of the leading causes of infant mortality due to preventable diseases through vaccination. This study aims to highlight measles in Morocco, and to present the vaccination strategy implemented to control and eliminate the disease in this country. Throughout this study, and based on data from the Directorate of Epidemiology and Control of Diseases and those of the Directorate of Population, we present an overview on the epidemiological trends of measles from 1997 to 2012, while evoking the plans established by the Ministry of Health (MoH) for the control and elimination of this disease. The number of measles cases has decreased in Morocco between 1997 and 2012 (2574-720 reported cases per year) as a result of four important steps: first, increasing the routine vaccination coverage (73-94%); second, the introduction of the second dose of the combined vaccine against measles and rubella in schools (children aged 6 years) since 2003; third, the first catch-up campaign of vaccination in Morocco in 2008, for which coverage was highly satisfactory (96% and 100% for age groups 5-59 months and 5-14 years, respectively); and fourth, the organization of a mass vaccination campaign in 2013 that targeted children from aged 9 months to 19 years. The vaccination plan and the surveillance system executed in Morocco within the framework of the regional project implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO) to eliminate measles has given remarkable results regarding the reduction of measles cases and mortality due to this disease. According to the data from MoH and WHO, the number of reported and confirmed measles cases decreased drastically during 2014. However, these efforts are still unsatisfactory compared to the prospective of eliminating the disease by 2015.

  7. Adding interventions to mass measles vaccinations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Verguet, Stéphane; Morris, Shaun K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Ram, Usha; Gauvreau, Cindy; Jones, Edward; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the impact on mortality of offering a hypothetical set of technically feasible, high-impact interventions for maternal and child survival during India's 2010-2013 measles supplementary immunization activity. We developed Lives Saved Tool models for 12 Indian states participating in the supplementary immunization, based on state- and sex-specific data on mortality from India's Million Deaths Study and on health services coverage from Indian household surveys. Potential add-on interventions were identified through a literature review and expert consultations. We quantified the number of lives saved for a campaign offering measles vaccine alone versus a campaign offering measles vaccine with six add-on interventions (nutritional screening and complementary feeding for children, vitamin A and zinc supplementation for children, multiple micronutrient and calcium supplementation in pregnancy, and free distribution of insecticide-treated bednets). The measles vaccination campaign saved an estimated 19 016 lives of children younger than 5 years. A hypothetical campaign including measles vaccine with add-on interventions was projected to save around 73 900 lives (range: 70 200-79 300), preventing 73 700 child deaths (range: 70 000-79 000) and 300 maternal deaths (range: 200-400). The most effective interventions in the whole package were insecticide-treated bednets, measles vaccine and preventive zinc supplementation. Girls accounted for 66% of expected lives saved (12 712/19 346) for the measles vaccine campaign, and 62% of lives saved (45 721/74 367) for the hypothetical campaign including add-on interventions. In India, a measles vaccination campaign including feasible, high-impact interventions could substantially increase the number of lives saved and mitigate gender-related inequities in child mortality.

  8. Vaccination against measles: a neverending story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); R.L. de Swart (Rik); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, a highly contagious viral disease, is a major childhood killer in developing countries, accounting for almost 1 million deaths every year globally. Measles virus normally does not cause a persistent infection, no animal reservoir for measles virus exists, no vector is involved

  9. A microneedle patch containing measles vaccine is immunogenic in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Chris; Collins, Marcus L; Goodson, James L; Rota, Paul A; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2015-09-08

    Very high vaccination coverage is required to eliminate measles, but achieving high coverage can be constrained by the logistical challenges associated with subcutaneous injection. To simplify the logistics of vaccine delivery, a patch containing micron-scale polymeric needles was formulated to encapsulate the standard dose of measles vaccine (1000 TCID₅₀) and the immunogenicity of the microneedle patch was compared with subcutaneous injection in rhesus macaques. The microneedle patch was administered without reconstitution with diluent, dissolved in skin within 10 min, and caused only mild, transient skin erythema. Both groups of rhesus macaques generated neutralizing antibody responses to measles that were consistent with protection and the neutralizing antibody titers were equivalent. In addition, the microneedle patches maintained an acceptable level of potency after storage at elevated temperature suggesting improved thermostability compared to standard lyophilized vaccine. In conclusion, a measles microneedle patch vaccine was immunogenic in non-human primates, and this approach offers a promising delivery method that could help increase vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated va...

  11. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated

  12. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  13. Assessing the Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Microneedle Patches in Childhood Measles Vaccination Programs: The Case for Further Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bishwa B; Goodson, James L; Chu, Susan Y; Rota, Paul A; Meltzer, Martin I

    2016-12-01

    Currently available measles vaccines are administered by subcutaneous injections and require reconstitution with a diluent and a cold chain, which is resource intensive and challenging to maintain. To overcome these challenges and potentially increase vaccination coverage, microneedle patches are being developed to deliver the measles vaccine. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of using microneedle patches with traditional vaccine delivery by syringe-and-needle (subcutaneous vaccination) in children's measles vaccination programs. We built a simple spreadsheet model to compute the vaccination costs for using microneedle patch and syringe-and-needle technologies. We assumed that microneedle vaccines will be, compared with current vaccines, more heat stable and require less expensive cool chains when used in the field. We used historical data on the incidence of measles among communities with low measles vaccination rates. The cost of microneedle vaccination was estimated at US$0.95 (range US$0.71-US$1.18) for the first dose, compared with US$1.65 (range US$1.24-US$2.06) for the first dose delivered by subcutaneous vaccination. At 95 % vaccination coverage, microneedle patch vaccination was estimated to cost US$1.66 per measles case averted (range US$1.24-US$2.07) compared with an estimated cost of US$2.64 per case averted (range US$1.98-US$3.30) using subcutaneous vaccination. Use of microneedle patches may reduce costs; however, the cost-effectiveness of patches would depend on the vaccine recipients' acceptability and vaccine effectiveness of the patches relative to the existing conventional vaccine-delivery method. This study emphasizes the need to continue research and development of this vaccine-delivery method that could boost measles elimination efforts through improved access to vaccines and increased vaccination coverage.

  14. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... consciousness, --Permanent brain damage. Note: The first dose of MMRV vaccine has been associated with rash and... Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines AGENCY: Centers for... comment period. SUMMARY: Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the...

  15. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST MEASLES, PAROTIDITIS AND VITAMINOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis. 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cellular and antiviral mechanisms.Key words: vaccination, measles, parotiditis, prevention, mineral and vitamin complex, children.

  16. Assessment of coverage levels of single dose measles vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the consequences of low coverage levels of a single dose of measles vaccine. Results: mean age observed in measles cases was 2 years and 8 months with a range from 3 months to 8 years. Maximum number of cases reported were <1 year of age (n=22,32%). Fifty percent of cases were seen among vaccinated children. Seventy-five percent (n=51) had history of contact with a measles case. Pneumonia was the commonest complication followed by acute gastroenteritis, encephalitis, febrile convulsions, oral ulcers, oral thrush, eye changes of vitamin-A deficiency and pulmonary tuberculosis (T.B.) in descending order of frequency. Fifty four cases were successfully treated for complications of measles and discharged. Nine cases left against medical advice. Five patients died all of them had encephalitis either alone (n=1) or in combination with pneumonia and acute gastroenteritis (n=4). Conclusion: There is a dire need to increase the immunization coverage to reduce the rate of vaccine failure and achieve effective control of measles.(author)

  17. Randomized Trial of 2 Versus 1 Dose of Measles Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Marie; Martins, Cesario L; Byberg, Stine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Two doses of measles vaccine (MV) might reduce the nonmeasles mortality rate more than 1 dose of MV does. The effect of 2 versus 1 dose on morbidity has not been examined. Within a randomized trial of the effect of 2 doses versus 1 dose of MV on mortality in Guinea-Bissau, we investig...

  18. Measles vaccination coverage in high-incidence areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite significant advances in measles control, large epidemics occurred in many African countries in 2009 - 2011, including. South Africa. South Africa's control strategy includes mass vaccination campaigns about every 4 years, the last of which was conducted nationally in April 2010 and coincided with the ...

  19. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...

  20. Seroprevalence of transplacentally acquired measles antibodies in HIV-exposed versus HIV-unexposed infants at six months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Jain

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Most HEI lacked measles antibodies at six months age and were, therefore, more vulnerable to measles than HUnI. Seroconversion in response to a single dose of measles vaccine administered at six months age was low in these infants, signifying the need of additional dose(s of measles/measles-containing vaccine.

  1. Facebook and Twitter vaccine sentiment in response to measles outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Michael S; Fathy, Cherie; Kim, Jessica; Niemeyer, Katherine; Ramirez, David; Ackley, Sarah F; Liu, Fengchen; Lietman, Thomas M; Porco, Travis C

    2017-11-01

    Social media posts regarding measles vaccination were classified as pro-vaccination, expressing vaccine hesitancy, uncertain, or irrelevant. Spearman correlations with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-reported measles cases and differenced smoothed cumulative case counts over this period were reported (using time series bootstrap confidence intervals). A total of 58,078 Facebook posts and 82,993 tweets were identified from 4 January 2009 to 27 August 2016. Pro-vaccination posts were correlated with the US weekly reported cases (Facebook: Spearman correlation 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.09 to 0.34), Twitter: 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.34)). Vaccine-hesitant posts, however, were uncorrelated with measles cases in the United States (Facebook: 0.01 (95% confidence interval: -0.13 to 0.14), Twitter: 0.0011 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.12)). These findings may result from more consistent social media engagement by individuals expressing vaccine hesitancy, contrasted with media- or event-driven episodic interest on the part of individuals favoring current policy.

  2. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Andreas; Eriksson, Mia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2009-08-20

    Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. In connection with a clinical trial of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4.5 months of age girls were less likely to have protective maternal antibody levels, the male-female ratio for protective antibody level being 1.23 (1.00-1.51). Among children sampled at 9 months of age, girls were more likely to have protective levels, the female-male ratio for having protective antibody levels being 1.65 (0.98-2.78) (p=0.054) and the geometric mean titre was significantly higher for girls (p=0.007). Children who lived in houses with known measles cases were more likely to have protective levels at 9 months of age even though they had not reported measles infection. Since we had excluded children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0.97-1.90). Girls lost maternal measles antibodies more rapidly than boys and well before 9 months of age. They may be more likely to contract subclinical measles infection before the current age of measles vaccination.

  3. Topical issues of vaccination and epidemiological surveillance over measles and rubella in Ukraine.

    OpenAIRE

    Daragan, G. M.; Krushinska, T. Yu.; Stepanskiy, D. O.; Demchyshyna, I. V.; Kolesnikova, I. P.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of measles and rubella morbidity, the state of their vaccination in Ukraine was carried out. Despite decades of preventive vaccination, there is a 5-6 years’ cyclicity of measles epidemic process at present time. Measles morbidity increased 46.8 times in 2017 in comparison with 2016. Elevated rates of rubella epidemic morbidity were registered in 2004 and 2011. There was decrease of routine measles and rubella immunization coverage in the period from 2009 to 2016. Critically low ...

  4. Local measles vaccination gaps in Germany and the role of vaccination providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Linda; Wjst, Stephanie; Brockmann, Stefan O; Wolfers, Kerstin; Eichner, Martin

    2017-08-14

    Measles elimination in Europe is an urgent public health goal, yet despite the efforts of its member states, vaccination gaps and outbreaks occur. This study explores local vaccination heterogeneity in kindergartens and municipalities of a German county. Data on children from mandatory school enrolment examinations in 2014/15 in Reutlingen county were used. Children with unknown vaccination status were either removed from the analysis (best case) or assumed to be unvaccinated (worst case). Vaccination data were translated into expected outbreak probabilities. Physicians and kindergartens with statistically outstanding numbers of under-vaccinated children were identified. A total of 170 (7.1%) of 2388 children did not provide a vaccination certificate; 88.3% (worst case) or 95.1% (best case) were vaccinated at least once against measles. Based on the worst case vaccination coverage, measles introduction lies between 39.5% (best case) and 73.0% (worst case). Four paediatricians were identified who accounted for 41 of 109 unvaccinated children and for 47 of 138 incomplete vaccinations; GPs showed significantly higher rates of missing vaccination certificates and unvaccinated or under-vaccinated children than paediatricians. Missing vaccination certificates pose a severe problem regarding the interpretability of vaccination data. Although the coverage for at least one measles vaccination is higher in the studied county than in most South German counties and higher than the European average, many severe and potentially dangerous vaccination gaps occur locally. If other federal German states and EU countries show similar vaccination variability, measles elimination may not succeed in Europe.

  5. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective

  6. Effect of early measles vaccine on pneumococcal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nadja Skadkær; Byberg, Stine; Hervig Jacobsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection....... OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. METHOD: The study was conducted in 2013-2014 in Guinea-Bissau. Pneumococcal vaccine was not part of the vaccination program. Infants aged 18 weeks were block...

  7. An evaluation of the adverse reaction potential of three measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Boaventura Antônio dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the incidence of adverse events following the administration of three commercially available measles-mumps-rubella (MMR combination vaccines. Methods. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed in 1996 that involved a total of 10 142 students 6-12 years of age in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. An MMR vaccine containing the Edmonston-Zagreb, Leningrad-Zagreb, and RA 27/3 strains ("vaccine A" was administered to 2 226 students (21.9% of the total; an MMR vaccine with the Moraten, Jeryl Lynn, and Wistar 27/3 strains ("vaccine B" was administered to 2 216 children (21.8%; and an MMR vaccine containing the Schwartz, Urabe AM-9, and Wistar 27/3 strains ("vaccine C" was given to 2 179 students (21.5%. A control group of 3 521 students (34.7% was not vaccinated. Both the vaccinated subjects and the control subjects were followed daily for 30 days to detect any clinical manifestations. Results. Adverse events were more frequent in the vaccinated children than in the control group (P < 0.01. In terms of causing parotitis, vaccine A had a relative risk (RR of 5.72 (95% confidence interval (CI = 3.11-10.54 when compared with vaccine B, and an RR of 2.33 (95% CI = 1.52-3.58 when compared with vaccine C. Vaccine A was also associated with an increased risk of lymphadenopathy when compared with vaccine B (RR = 3.11; 95% CI = 1.78-5.45 and with vaccine C (RR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.35-3.66. Vaccine C was associated with an increased risk of parotitis when compared with vaccine B (RR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.26-4.80. Three cases of aseptic meningitis were detected among the children in the study group, but only one case of vaccine-related aseptic meningitis was identified, among the children receiving vaccine A. Conclusions. The three MMR vaccines that we studied are associated with different risks of adverse events. We found vaccine A to cause more reactions than the two other vaccines, especially vaccine B. In addition

  8. A Global Perspective of Vaccination of Healthcare Personnel against Measles: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Seward, Jane F.; Orenstein, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Measles transmission has been well documented in healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel who are unvaccinated and who lack other evidence of measles immunity put themselves and their patients at risk for measles. We conducted a systematic literature review of measles vaccination policies and their implementation in healthcare personnel, measles seroprevalence among healthcare personnel, measles transmission and disease burden in healthcare settings, and impact/costs incurred by healthcare facilities for healthcare-associated measles transmission. Five database searches yielded 135 relevant articles; 47 additional articles were found through cross-referencing. The risk of acquiring measles is estimated to be 2 to 19 times higher for susceptible healthcare personnel than for the general population. Fifty-three articles published worldwide during 1989–2013 reported measles transmission from patients to healthcare personnel; many of the healthcare personnel were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status. Eighteen articles published worldwide during 1982–2013 described examples of transmission from healthcare personnel to patients or to other healthcare personnel. Half of European countries have no measles vaccine policies for healthcare personnel. There is no global policy recommendation for the vaccination of healthcare personnel against measles. Even in countries such as the United States or Finland that have national policies, the recommendations are not uniformly implemented in healthcare facilities. Measles serosusceptibility in healthcare personnel varied widely across studies (median 6.5%, range 0%-46%) but was consistently higher among younger healthcare personnel. Deficiencies in documentation of two doses of measles vaccination or other evidence of immunity among healthcare personnel presents challenges in responding to measles exposures in healthcare settings. Evaluating and containing exposures and outbreaks in healthcare settings can be

  9. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  10. Aerosol measles vaccination in macaques: Preclinical studies of immune responses and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T. Kuiken (Thijs); J. Fernandez-de Castro (Jorge); M.J. Papania (Mark); J.V. Bennett (John); J.L. Valdespino (José); P.D. Minor; C.L. Witham (Clyde); S. Yüksel (Selma); H.W. Vos (Helma); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe comparative efficacy and safety of measles vaccination via the aerosol route versus subcutaneous injection has not been fully resolved. We vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with the live-attenuated Edmonston-Zagreb measles virus (MV) vaccine and compared different

  11. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  12. A Two-Center Randomized Trial of an Additional Early Dose of Measles Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Nebie, Eric; Schoeps, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Besides protecting against measles, measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects. We tested the effect of an additional early MV on mortality and measles antibody levels. Methods: Children aged 4-7 months in two rural health and demographic surveillance sites in Burki...

  13. Measles hectic in Pakistan; Upsurge versus the lurking vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Measles has claimed more lives than anticipated, as the outbreaks hit Pakistan severely in 2013 as compared to 2012. Claiming 350 lives through the year 2013, Measles became a headache for the health agencies, authorities and common people. The sudden appearance of the virus in different parts of the country both rural and urban at the same time can be linked to more than one cause. The notable being corruption in health system, poor health infrastructure, destabilized routine immunization, shortage in number of vaccinators, negligence among parents, and floods. As a consequence of these causative factors, the unclear picture of immunization coverage can be presumed as the ultimate etiology of outbreaks in such numbers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to draw out the actual data of immunisation coverage and focus on elimination of hurdles in the road to success in fully coverage with vaccines.

  14. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Commonly Administered Vaccines After Coadministration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Tregnaghi, Miguel; Keshavan, Pavitra; Ypma, Ellen; Han, Linda; Smolenov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Given the broad age range across which the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine MenACWY-CRM is used, coadministration with routine vaccines should be evaluated across age groups for possible immunologic interference and impact on vaccine reactogenicity and safety. We summarize data from a large population of infants, adolescents and international travelers from 10 phase 3 or 4 clinical studies to evaluate coadministration of MenACWY-CRM with commonly administered vaccines. Noninferiority analyses of immune responses were performed across studies and age groups for each vaccine. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed. In infants, MenACWY-CRM coadministered with routine vaccines did not reduce immune responses to diphtheria, tetanus, poliovirus, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal conjugate, measles-mumps-rubella, varicella or pertussis antigens. Noninferiority criteria were not met for some pneumococcal conjugate serotypes at 7 months of age, but no consistent trends were observed. In adolescents, coadministration did not reduce immune responses to tetanus, diphtheria and human papilloma virus vaccine antigens. Noninferiority criteria for pertussis antigens were not uniformly met in infant and adolescent studies, although the clinical relevance is unclear. In adults, coadministration did not reduce immune responses to hepatitis A/B, typhoid fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and rabies antigens. Immune responses to MenACWY-CRM were not impacted by coadministration of commonly administered vaccines. Coadministration did not increase frequencies of postvaccination adverse events in any age group. With no clinically relevant vaccine interactions or impact on vaccine reactogenicity or safety, these results support the coadministration of MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines in all age groups.

  15. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  16. An evaluation of the national measles vaccination campaign in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant determinants of vaccination coverage were: place of birth (X2 = 9,7; 2 df; P = 0,008); ≤6 months stay in Cape Town (odds ratio (OR) 2,22; 95% Cl 1,2 - 4,0%); and home birth (OR 3,21; 95% Cl 1,2 - 8,4%). The value of campaigns in controlling measles, as well as the role of a comprehensive health care service ...

  17. Determinants of apparent rural-urban differentials in measles vaccination uptake in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Renae C; Awofeso, Niyi; Rammohan, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Regional differences in vaccination uptake are common in both developed and developing countries, and are often linked to the availability of healthcare services and socioeconomic factors. In 2007, 0.9 million eligible Indonesian children missed measles vaccination, and 19 456 cases of measles were documented among Indonesian children. The authors investigated rural-urban differentials in measles vaccination coverage among young Indonesian children, and sought to identify key factors influencing the probability of a child receiving the first dose of measles vaccination in Indonesia. Data used in the analyses were sourced from the nationally representative Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2007. The influence of location of residence, household wealth, maternal and paternal education, total children ever born and use of skilled birth attendants on measles vaccination coverage was investigated using bivariate analysis and chi-square tests. The independent effects of these variables were established using binomial logistic regression analysis. Indonesia's 2007 first-dose measles national vaccination coverage was, at 72.8%, lower than the 2008 global first-dose measles vaccination average coverage of 82%. Bivariate analysis revealed that the first-dose measles vaccination coverage in rural areas of Indonesia was 68.5%, compared with 80.1% in urban regions (p rural residence in impairing vaccination coverage was marginal after controlling for the sex of the child, maternal age, maternal and paternal education, wealth, and access to skilled health workers. Apart from sustainable initiatives to increase measles vaccination coverage globally, it is important to close the rural-urban gap in Indonesia's measles vaccination uptake. Addressing critical determinants of inferior measles vaccination coverage in Indonesia's rural regions will facilitate major improvements in Indonesia's child health trends. This article suggests initiatives for addressing three of such

  18. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... children developed measles; 19% of unvaccinated children had measles before 9 months of age. The monthly incidence of measles among the 441 children enrolled in the treatment arm was 0.7% and among the 892 enrolled in the control arm was 3.1%. Early vaccination with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine...... against measles may be low and severe outbreaks of measles can occur in infants before the recommended age of vaccination at 9 months. Outbreaks of measles may be curtailed by measles vaccination using the Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine as early as 4.5 months of age. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT...

  19. Equity and vaccine uptake: a cross-sectional study of measles vaccination in Lasbela District, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soberanis José

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving equity means increased uptake of health services for those who need it most. But the poorest families continue to have the poorest service. In Pakistan, large numbers of children do not access vaccination against measles despite the national government's effort to achieve universal coverage. Methods A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 23 rural and 9 urban communities in the Lasbela district of south Pakistan, explored knowledge, attitudes and discussion around measles vaccination. Several socioeconomic variables allowed examination of the role of inequities in vaccination uptake; 2479 mothers provided information about 4007 children aged 10 to 59 months. A Mantel-Haenszel stratification analysis, with and without adjustment for clustering, clarified determinants of measles vaccination in urban and rural areas. Results A high proportion of mothers had appropriate knowledge of and positive attitudes to vaccination; many discussed vaccination, but only one half of children aged 10-59 months accessed vaccination. In urban areas, having an educated mother, discussing vaccinations, having correct knowledge about vaccinations, living in a community with a government vaccination facility within 5 km, and living in houses with better roofs were associated with vaccination uptake after adjusting for the effect of each of these variables and for clustering; maternal education was an equity factor even among those with good access. In rural areas, the combination of roof quality and access (vaccination post within 5 km along with discussion about vaccines and knowledge about vaccines had an effect on uptake. Conclusion Stagnating rates of vaccination coverage may be related to increasing inequities. A hopeful finding is that discussion about vaccines and knowledge about vaccines had a positive effect that was independent of the negative effect of inequity - in both urban and rural areas. At least as a short term

  20. Measles vaccination in humanitarian emergencies: a review of recent practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred

  1. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledogar, Robert J; Fleming, John; Andersson, Neil

    2009-10-14

    In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. The balance sheet listed: 1) major health conditions associated with measles; 2) the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3) the risk among the vaccinated; 4) the risk difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated; and 5) the likely net gain from vaccination for each condition. Two models revealed very different projections of net gain from measles vaccine. A Lasbela-specific combination of low period prevalence of measles among the unvaccinated, medium vaccination coverage and low vaccine efficacy rate, as revealed by the baseline survey, resulted in less-than-expected gains attributable to vaccination. Modelled on estimates where the vaccine had greater efficacy, the gains from vaccination would be more substantial. Specific local conditions probably explain the low rates among the unvaccinated while the high vaccine failure rate is likely due to weaknesses in the vaccination delivery system. Community perception of these realities may have had some role in household decisions about whether to vaccinate, although the major discouraging factor was inadequate access. The balance sheet may be useful as a communication tool in other circumstances, applied to up-to-date local evidence.

  2. Reverse genetics of measles virus and resulting multivalent recombinant vaccines: applications of recombinant measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, M A; Naim, H Y; Udem, S A

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given on the development of technologies to allow reverse genetics of RNA viruses, i.e., the rescue of viruses from cDNA, with emphasis on nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses (Mononegavirales), as exemplified for measles virus (MV). Primarily, these technologies allowed site-directed mutagenesis, enabling important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of these viruses. Concomitantly, foreign coding sequences were inserted to (a) allow localization of virus replication in vivo through marker gene expression, (b) develop candidate multivalent vaccines against measles and other pathogens, and (c) create candidate oncolytic viruses. The vector use of these viruses was experimentally encouraged by the pronounced genetic stability of the recombinants unexpected for RNA viruses, and by the high load of insertable genetic material, in excess of 6 kb. The known assets, such as the small genome size of the vector in comparison to DNA viruses proposed as vectors, the extensive clinical experience of attenuated MV as vaccine with a proven record of high safety and efficacy, and the low production cost per vaccination dose are thus favorably complemented.

  3. Age at first dose of measles vaccination in Ethiopia | Berhane | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although measles vaccination is recommended to be given at nine months of age in Ethiopia and in most of sub-Saharan Africa, no information is available about the age at which children actually receive their first dose of measles vaccine. This has important implications in terms of preventing infection and ...

  4. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq; Djana, Queba; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S

    2016-08-31

    In addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality by vaccination status in Cox proportional hazards models with age as underlying timescale. Follow-up was censored at a subsequent vaccination contact or after 6months of follow-up. Between September 2008 and April 2011, we registered 23,448 vaccination contacts for children aged 42-365days; 17,313 were for Penta and 3028 for MV (2907 co-administered with YF). During follow-up 112 children died. The female/male mortality rate ratio was 1.73 (1.11-2.70) following Penta and 0.38 (0.12-1.19) after MV (p=0.02 for same effect). Adjusting for maternal education or weight-for-age at the time of vaccination did not change the estimates. Penta appears to have the same negative effects on mortality as those seen for DTP. Assessing post-vaccination mortality for boys and girls is necessary to improve the vaccination programme. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. No effect of an additional early dose of measles vaccine on hospitalization or mortality in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeps, Anja; Nebié, Eric; Fisker, Ane Baerent

    2018-01-01

    Background: Non-specific effects (NSEs) of vaccines have increasingly gained attention in recent years. Recent studies suggest that live vaccines, such as measles vaccine (MV), have beneficial effects on health, while inactivated vaccines, such as the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, m...

  6. Measles Vaccination Supports Millennium Development Goal 4: Increasing Coverage and Increasing Child Survival in Northern Ghana, 1996–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Welaga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMeasles vaccine (MV administered as the last vaccine after the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP may be associated with better child survival unrelated to prevention of measles infection. Other studies have shown that MV administered after DTP was more beneficial and was associated with lower mortality compared with DTP administered after MV or DTP administered simultaneously with MV. We compared the difference in mortality between measles vaccinated after DTP3 and measles-unvaccinated children in Navrongo, Ghana.MethodsThis was a follow-up study involving annual cohort of children aged 9–23 months from 1996 to 2012. We assessed survival in relation to the measles vaccination status within the first 12 months from interview date and until 5 years of age using Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsIn all, 38,333 children were included in the study. The proportion of children vaccinated with MV-after-DTP3 increased from 45% in 1996 to 95% in 2012. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for measles unvaccinated compared with MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated children was 1.38 (1.15–1.66 in the first 12 months after assessment of vaccination status and 1.22 (1.05–1.41 with follow-up to 5 years of age. The national immunization days campaigns with oral polio vaccine or MV might have reduced the effect of being MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated vs MV-unvaccinated. For 12 months of follow-up, the HR before a campaign for MV-unvaccinated children was 1.63 (1.23–2.17 compared to those who received MV-after-DTP3. After the campaign, the HR reduced to 1.23 (0.97–1.54. Stratifying the analysis by sex, measles-unvaccinated boys had a HR of 1.69 (1.33–2.61 compared to measles-unvaccinated girls who had a HR 1.06 (0.79–1.40 during 1-year follow-up. In 1989, only 7% of children in the area had received MV-after-DTP3; the increase in MV-after-DTP3 coverage from 1989 to 2012 may have lowered mortality rate among children aged 9 months to

  7. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall meet the special requirements prescribed in this section. (b) To detect virulent canine distemper virus, each of two canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the Master... from each vaccinate and individually tested for antibody against canine distemper virus. For a valid...

  9. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person. It ... down Tiny white spots inside the mouth Sometimes measles can lead to serious problems. There is no ...

  10. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, S; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A; Balde, I; Enemark, U; Aaby, P; Benn, C S; Griffiths, U K

    2017-01-01

    Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged 9-11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. Within a national sample of village clusters under demographic surveillance, we interviewed mothers of children aged 9-21 months about their experience with seeking measles vaccination. From information about time and money spent, we calculated household costs of seeking measles vaccination. We interviewed mothers of 1308 children of whom 1043 (80%) had sought measles vaccination at least once. Measles vaccination coverage was 70% (910/1308). Coverage decreased with increasing distance to the health centre. On average, mothers who had taken their child for vaccination took their child 1.4 times. Mean costs of achieving 70% coverage were 2.04 USD (SD 3.86) per child taken for vaccination. Half of the mothers spent more than 2 h seeking vaccination and 11% spent money on transportation. We found several indications of missed opportunities for measles vaccination resulting in suboptimal coverage. The household costs comprised 3.3% of the average monthly income and should be taken into account when assessing the costs of delivering vaccinations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.

  12. An increasing, potentially measles-susceptible population over time after vaccination in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hae Ji; Han, Young Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, You-Jin; Kim, A-Reum; Kim, Joo Ae; Jung, Hee-Dong; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Ok; Kim, Sung Soon

    2017-07-24

    In Korea, measles occurs mainly in infants measles infection. Age-specific measles seroprevalence was evaluated by performing enzyme immunoassays and plaque reduction-neutralization tests on 3050 subjects aged 0-50years (birth cohort 1964-2014) and 480 subjects aged 2-30years (birth cohort 1984-2012). The overall seropositivity and measles antibody concentrations were 71.5% and 1366mIU/mL, respectively. Progressive decline in antibody levels and seropositivity were observed over time after vaccination in infants, adolescents, and young adults. The accumulation of potentially susceptible individuals in the population was confirmed by comparing data from 2010 and 2014 seroprevalence surveys. The statistical correlation between measles incidence and measles seronegativity was determined. Waning levels of measles antibodies with increasing time post-vaccination suggests that measles susceptibility is potentially increasing in Korea. This trend may be related to limitations of vaccine-induced immunity in the absence of natural boosting by the wild virus, compared to naturally acquired immunity triggered by measles infection. This study provides an important view into the current measles herd immunity in Korea. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effectiveness, population-level effects, and heath economics of measles and rubella vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, O; Ultsch, B

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against measles and rubella has been included in national immunization programs worldwide for several decades. In this article, we present the evidence related to the effectiveness of measles and rubella vaccination based on published systematic reviews, and we describe the epidemiological and health economic effects of vaccination at a population level. Several observational studies demonstrate the high effectiveness (> 90 %) of both measles and rubella vaccination. The global measles mortality reduction and the dramatic decrease in rubella and measles incidences after introduction of routine immunization contribute to the very high quality of evidence. The countries of the Americas have proved that it is feasible to eliminate measles and rubella by strengthening infant immunization through routine vaccination services and by conducting supplemental immunization activities in other childhood age groups so as to close immunity gaps. An economic evaluation of measles and rubella vaccination specifically for the healthcare system in Germany does not exist. However, we conducted a systematic review and identified 11 health-economic studies from other industrialized countries and one for a hypothetical industrialized country. Results indicate that vaccination against measles and rubella had either a cost-effective or even a cost-saving potential, which could be assumed with some limitations also for the German setting. In conclusion, there is compelling evidence that the available vaccines are very effective and that measles and rubella elimination is feasible if adequate vaccination strategies are implemented. In Germany, catch-up vaccination programs are urgently needed for children, adolescents, and young adults specifically in the western federal states.

  14. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Østergaard, Marie Drivsholm; Bale, Carlito; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2014-01-23

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar negative effects. In 2007-2011, we conducted a randomised placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A at routine vaccination contacts among children aged 6-23 months in urban and rural Guinea-Bissau. In the present study, we included 2331 children randomised to placebo who received live vaccines only (MV or MV+YF) or a combination of live and inactivated vaccines (MV+DTP or MV+YF+pentavalent). Mortality was compared in Cox proportional hazards models stratified for urban/rural enrolment adjusted for age and unevenly distributed baseline factors. While DTP was still used 685 children received MV only and 358 MV+DTP; following the change in programme, 940 received MV+YF only and 348 MV+YF+pentavalent. During 6 months of follow-up, the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for co-administered live and inactivated vaccines compared with live vaccines only was 3.24 (1.20-8.73). For MV+YF+pentavalent compared with MV+YF only, the adjusted MRR was 7.73 (1.79-33.4). In line with previous studies of DTP, the present results indicate that pentavalent vaccine co-administered with MV and YF is associated with increased mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of the cold chain technology in South-East, Nigeria using Immunogenicity study on the measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oli, Angus Nnamdi; Agu, Remigius Uchenna; Ihekwereme, Chibueze Peter; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines are biological products and their efficacy is affected by storage conditions. They are vital in promoting public health. Failures in immunization programmes often times are blamed on disruption in vaccine cold-chain. This study assessed the immunogenicity/potency of the measles vaccines utilized in childhood immunization in South-East, Nigeria and indirectly assessed the effectiveness of the cold-chain technology in the region. This was an experimental study carried out between December 2011 and June 2013. Antibody induction method was used to evaluate the immunogenicity/potency of the measles vaccines sourced from the central cold chain facilities in South-east, Nigeria and indirectly, the effectiveness of the cold chain technology in the zone in maintaining vaccine potency. The neutralizing antibodies in a control group (administered with measles vaccines stored at 37°C for 12 months) and in immunized group were determined after 30 days of immunization using ELISA. The mean storage temperature of the vaccines at the states vaccines central cold chain facilities was -2.4°C and before storage at study site, it was 5.8°C but at the study site it was -4.54°C. Mean ±Standard Error in the Mean (SEM) IgG titers for the measles vaccines sourced from "Open Market", Ebonyi, Enugu, Imo, Anambra and Abia States were 0.793±0.051, 1.621±0.015, 1.621±0.015, 1.715±0.081, 1.793±0.051 and 1.683±0.078 respectively while the mean ±Standard Error in the Mean (SEM) IgM titres were 0.857±0.037, 1.400±0.030, 1.391±0.032, 1.339±0.037, 1.405±0.066 and 1.279±0.025 respectively. One way analysis of variance shows that there is statistical difference in the IgG and IgM antibodies titers produced by the control compared to the vaccines (P value cold-chain technology in the region was judged to be optimal as at the time of vaccine sampling since all the measles vaccines had good immunogenicity profile. However, efforts are still needed to maintain these facilities in

  16. Determining infants' age for measles vaccination based on persistence of protective level of maternal measles antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpi, Tanjida; Sattar, Humayun; Miah, Md Ruhul Amin

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted over a period of one year to find the right time for measles vaccination when maternal antibody titer in infants was decayed rendering them susceptible to wild virus infection. Blood samples were collected from the cord of new born (147), 2-5 months (47) and 5 to 7.5 months (24) of age. The mean measles IgG antibody titer detected in cord blood at birth (0 months) was 348.8 mlU/mL which steeply decreased to 155.6 mlU/mL by the age of 2-3 months. After that the fall in antibody becomes relatively slower and decreased to 101.6 mIU/mL by the age of 3-5 months and 38.8 mlU/mL by the age of 5-6 months and to 19.2 mIU/mL between the age of 6 to 7.5 months. The fall in antibody level with the advance of age was statistically significant (p < 0.001 ). Majority of the subjects (97.6%) exhibited protective level of antibody at birth. But only a little above one-quarter (25.5%) of them persisted the protective level between the age of 2-5 months and none had protective level from 5 months onwards.

  17. Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella combination vaccine and the risk of febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nicola P; Fireman, Bruce; Yih, W Katherine; Lewis, Edwin; Kulldorff, Martin; Ray, Paula; Baxter, Roger; Hambidge, Simon; Nordin, James; Naleway, Allison; Belongia, Edward A; Lieu, Tracy; Baggs, James; Weintraub, Eric

    2010-07-01

    In February 2008, we alerted the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices to preliminary evidence of a twofold increased risk of febrile seizures after the combination measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine when compared with separate measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella vaccines. Now with data on twice as many vaccine recipients, our goal was to reexamine seizure risk after MMRV vaccine. Using 2000-2008 Vaccine Safety Datalink data, we assessed seizures and fever visits among children aged 12 to 23 months after MMRV and separate MMR + varicella vaccines. We compared seizure risk after MMRV vaccine to that after MMR + varicella vaccines by using Poisson regression as well as with supplementary regressions that incorporated chart-review results and self-controlled analyses. MMRV vaccine recipients (83,107) were compared with recipients of MMR + varicella vaccines (376,354). Seizure and fever significantly clustered 7 to 10 days after vaccination with all measles-containing vaccines but not after varicella vaccination alone. Seizure risk during days 7 to 10 was higher after MMRV than after MMR + varicella vaccination (relative risk: 1.98 [95% confidence interval: 1.43-2.73]). Supplementary analyses yielded similar results. The excess risk for febrile seizures 7 to 10 days after MMRV compared with separate MMR + varicella vaccination was 4.3 per 10,000 doses (95% confidence interval: 2.6-5.6). Among 12- to 23-month-olds who received their first dose of measles-containing vaccine, fever and seizure were elevated 7 to 10 days after vaccination. Vaccination with MMRV results in 1 additional febrile seizure for every 2300 doses given instead of separate MMR + varicella vaccines. Providers who recommend MMRV should communicate to parents that it increases the risk of fever and seizure over that already associated with measles-containing vaccines.

  18. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  19. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively. PMID:22568861

  20. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  1. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...

  2. The recombinant globular head domain of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein as a subunit vaccine against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Liubov M; Eng, Nelson F; Satkunarajah, Malathy; Mutwiri, George K; Rini, James M; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N

    2012-04-26

    Despite the availability of live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines, a large number of measles-associated deaths occur among infants in developing countries. The development of a measles subunit vaccine may circumvent the limitations associated with the current live attenuated vaccines and eventually contribute to global measles eradication. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the feasibility of producing the recombinant globular head domain of the MV hemagglutinin (H) protein by stably transfected human cells and to examine the ability of this recombinant protein to elicit MV-specific immune responses. The recombinant protein was purified from the culture supernatant of stably transfected HEK293T cells secreting a tagged version of the protein. Two subcutaneous immunizations with the purified recombinant protein alone resulted in the production of MV-specific serum IgG and neutralizing antibodies in mice. Formulation of the protein with adjuvants (polyphosphazene or alum) further enhanced the humoral immune response and in addition resulted in the induction of cell-mediated immunity as measured by the production of MV H-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 5 (IL-5) by in vitro re-stimulated splenocytes. Furthermore, the inclusion of polyphosphazene into the vaccine formulation induced a mixed Th1/Th2-type immune response. In addition, the purified recombinant protein retained its immunogenicity even after storage at 37°C for 2 weeks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measles in vaccinated children 1.5 to 3 years of age in rural community of district peshawar, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Ullah, O.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    In many developing countries measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite of vaccination thousands of children have been infected by measles virus during last couple of years in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the measles vaccination coverage rate and frequency of measles among vaccinated children of age 1.5-3 years in rural community of district Peshawar. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 children aged 1.5-3 year of rural community of Peshawar. After taking informed consent from parents/guardians a predesigned questionnaire was filled. Evidence of vaccination and measles history was taken by vaccination card, doctor prescription and parent/guardian recall. Data was gathered and analysed by using SPSS-16. Results: Of the 385 children, 361 (93.7%) were vaccinated against measles at 9 month. It was found that 27 (7.48%) vaccinated children had measles history of which 23 (6.74%) were infected after 9 month vaccination. One hundred and ninety-two (49.8%) children were vaccinated both at 9 and 15 months, and 14 (7.29%) dual vaccinated children had a measles history, 9 among them (4.68%) were infected after taking both measles doses. Conclusion: The occurrence of measles among vaccinated children and low coverage rate of second dose of measles vaccine raises many questions about vaccination program and its efficacy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the influence of other predisposing factors like vaccine quality, manufacturer, supply, cold chain, handling, nutritional status of children and technical approach, on measles vaccine efficacy. (author)

  4. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Maria I

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  5. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  6. [Drug clinics. Drug of the month. A new measles-rubella-mumps vaccine (Priorix)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senterre, J

    1999-02-01

    A novel measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (Priorix) has been marketed by SmithKline Beecham. It contains live attenuated virus with measles and mumps strains slightly different from those present in MMR VAX (Pasteur Merieux MSD). The indications and contraindications are similar for both vaccines. Immunogenicity is also equivalent as well as general reactogenicity. By contrast local symptoms were reported significantly less frequently after Priorix.

  7. Humoral immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in former very low birth weight preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Schlindwein Mariano Ferreira; Maria Cristina Abrão Aued Perin; Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto; Raquel Maria Simão-Gurge; Ana Lucia Goulart; Lily Yin Weckx; Amélia Miyashiro Nunes dos Santos

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Immune response to vaccination in infants born prematurely may be lower than in infants born at full-term. Some clinical factors might be associated with humoral immune response. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full-term and to analyze factors associated with measles and varicella antibody levels. Methods: Prospective study including two groups o...

  8. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenea Hailu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. Methods We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI. Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Results Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164% to means of 59% (range: 4-164%, 62% (range: 4-175%, and 67% (range: 5-192%, respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300% to means of 161% (range: 82-322%, 175% (range: 78-344%, and 198% (range: 88-402%, respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC. The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%. Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. Conclusions The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per

  9. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Brown, Shawn T; Djibo, Ali; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R; Kone, Souleymane; Kenea, Hailu; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Jana, Anirban; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Van Panhuis, Willem G; Burke, Donald S; Lee, Bruce Y

    2011-06-02

    Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers) in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164%) to means of 59% (range: 4-164%), 62% (range: 4-175%), and 67% (range: 5-192%), respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300%) to means of 161% (range: 82-322%), 175% (range: 78-344%), and 198% (range: 88-402%), respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC). The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%). Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per vaccinated child.

  10. The Measles Vaccination Narrative in Twitter: A Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzikowski, Jacek; Stefanidis, Anthony; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of the data, as well as presenting a quantitative interdisciplinary approach to analyze such open-source data in the context of health narratives. We collected 669,136 tweets referring to vaccination from February 1 to March 9, 2015. These tweets were analyzed to identify key terms, connections among such terms, retweet patterns, the structure of the narrative, and connections to the geographical space. The data analysis captures the anatomy of the themes and relations that make up the discussion about vaccination in Twitter. The results highlight the higher impact of stories contributed by news organizations compared to direct tweets by health organizations in communicating health-related information. They also capture the structure of the antivaccination narrative and its terms of reference. Analysis also revealed the relationship between community engagement in Twitter and state policies regarding child vaccination. Residents of Vermont and Oregon, the two states with the highest rates of non-medical exemption from school-entry vaccines nationwide, are leading the social media discussion in terms of participation. The interdisciplinary study of health-related debates in social media across the cyber-physical debate nexus leads to a greater understanding of public concerns, views, and responses to health-related issues. Further coalescing such capabilities shows promise towards advancing health communication, thus supporting the design of more effective strategies that take into account the complex

  11. Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M

    2013-01-01

    Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates.

  12. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...... of children having received DTP with or after measles vaccine....

  13. The effect of vitamin A supplementation administered with missing vaccines during national immunization days in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: WHO recommends high-dose Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after 6 months of age. It has not been studied whether the effect of VAS on mortality depends on the type of vaccine. We have hypothesized that VAS administered with measles vaccine (MV) is more beneficial...... than VAS with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. We assessed the effect of VAS administered with different vaccines during national immunization days (NIDs). METHODS: In 2003, VAS was distributed during NIDs in Guinea-Bissau. Children 6 months or older were given VAS, and if they were missing...... vaccines, these were often given as well. We compared survival between children who had received VAS alone, VAS with DTP or DTP + MV, or VAS with MV. We also compared the survival between participants and non-participants. We followed 6- to 17-month old children until 18 months of age and analysed survival...

  14. Impact of Nonmedical Vaccine Exemption Policies on the Health and Economic Burden of Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Kempe, Allison; Dempsey, Amanda; Herlihy, Rachel; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-07-01

    Despite relatively high national vaccination coverage for measles, geographic vaccination variation exists resulting in clusters of susceptibility. A portion of this geographic variation can be explained by differences in state policies related to nonmedical vaccine exemptions. The objective of this analysis was to determine the magnitude, likelihood, and cost of a measles outbreak under different nonmedical vaccine exemption policies. An agent-based transmission model simulated the likelihood and magnitude of a measles outbreak under different nonmedical vaccine exemption policies, previously categorized as easy, medium, or difficult. The model accounted for measles herd immunity, infectiousness of the pathogen, vaccine efficacy, duration of incubation and communicable periods, acquired natural immunity, and the rate of recovery. Public health contact tracing was also modeled. Model outcomes, including the number of secondary cases, hospitalizations, and deaths, were monetized to determine the economic burden of the simulated outbreaks. A state with easy nonmedical vaccine exemption policies is 140% and 190% more likely to experience a measles outbreak compared with states with medium or difficult policies, respectively. The magnitude of these outbreaks can be reduced by half by strengthening exemption policies. These declines are associated with significant cost reductions to public health, the health care system, and the individual. Strengthening nonmedical vaccine exemption policies is 1 mechanism to increase vaccination coverage to reduce the health and economic effect of a measles outbreak. States exploring options for decreasing their vulnerability to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases should consider more stringent requirements for nonmedical vaccine exemptions. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Manning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤ 70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence.as part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged 100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002.SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities.

  16. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005-2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011 in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different.

  17. Parental attitudes towards measles vaccination in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carine; Schröpfer, Daniel; Merten, Sonja

    2016-08-11

    Despite the successes of routine national childhood vaccination programmes, measles remains a public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how patterns of parental attitudes are linked to the decision-making process for or against MMR vaccination. This exploratory study was designed to identify distinct patterns of attitudes towards or against measles vaccination through Latent Class Analysis (LCA) in a sub-sample of mothers living in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Parents of young children below 36 months of age were randomly selected through parents' counsellors' registries. Among other questions, respondents were asked to state their agreement in response to 14 belief statements regarding measles vaccination on a 5-point Likert scale. To identify groups of parents showing distinct patterns of attitudes and beliefs regarding measles vaccination, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The LCA showed three classes of parents with different attitudes and believes towards measles vaccination: The biggest group (class 1) are those having positive attitudes towards immunisation, followed by the second biggest group (class 2) which is characterised by having fearful attitudes and by showing uncertainty about immunisation. The third group (class 3) shows distinct patterns of critical attitudes against immunisation. Within this group over 90 % agree or totally agree that immunisation is an artificial intrusion into the natural immune system and therefore want to vaccinate their children only if necessary. We find that parents in the Canton Aargau who hesitate to vaccinate their children against measles, mumps and rubella show distinct opinions and attitudes. Health professionals should be aware of these perceptions to tailor their messages accordingly and positively influence these parents to vaccinate their children. Special attention needs to be given to those parents who are planning to vaccinate their children but are not following the

  18. Stop measles in Switzerland - The importance of travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Silja; Lang, Phung; Bally, Bettina; Hatz, Christoph; Jaeger, Veronika K

    2017-06-27

    In line with the worldwide strive to combat measles, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Heath (FOPH) launched a National Strategy for measles elimination 2011-2015. In this study, we highlight the importance of travel medicine consultations to complement measles vaccination programmes based on data from the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich. We analysed measles vaccination data from the Zurich Travel Clinic between July 2010 and February 2016 and focused on three groups: (i) all clients who received the measles vaccination, (ii) all clients aged>two years who received the measles vaccination ("catch-up vaccination"), and (iii) all clients aged>two years and born after 1963 ("FOPH recommended catch-up vaccination"). 107,669 consultations were performed from 2010 to 2016. In 12,470 (11.6%) of these, a measles vaccination was administered; 90.9% measles vaccinations were given during a pre-travel consultation, and 99.4% were administered to individuals aged>two years ("catch-up vaccinations"). An "FOPH recommended catch-up vaccination" was received by 13.6% of all Zurich Travel Clinic clients aged >2years and born after 1963. In this study, we highlight the importance of travel medicine consultations to enhance the measles vaccination coverage in the adult Swiss population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and opinions towards measles and the MMR vaccine across two NSW cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Daniel; Edwards, Matthew; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-12-01

    Although the number of national measles cases has greatly decreased since 1980s, there has been resurgence in disease incidence in recent years. While parental knowledge and attitudes toward both disease and vaccinations are known to influence vaccine uptake, the contribution of these factors toward vaccination rates in NSW populations has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and opinions on measles and MMR vaccine in NSW Central and North Coast regions. Parents (n=201) of children <12 years were surveyed with a purpose design survey at public beaches at the Central Coast and community markets at the North Coast. Eight per cent of respondents reported not immunising their child with MMR vaccine. Most respondents recognised that measles is a highly contagious disease. Non-immunisers were found to be older, had a lower perceived severity of measles, were less likely to agree with the efficacy and safety of the vaccine, and were more likely to have encountered someone who had suffered side-effects of the vaccine. There is considerable concern over safety of MMR vaccine among non-immunisers. Implications for public health: Improving confidence in MMR vaccine should be a target of future public health interventions. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K

    1989-01-01

    When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than seroconvert......When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than...... seroconverters (P less than 0.05). The incidence of measles among nonseroconverters was 30% during the period. Between 9 months and 3 years of age, cumulative mortality was 15.1% for nonseroconverters and 4.5% for seroconverters. The difference in mortality was larger when high risk groups (twins, motherless...... children) were excluded from the analysis (P less than 0.01). The difference in mortality was particularly marked among children vaccinated in the age group 9 to 11 months. This as well as other community studies suggest that measles vaccination reduces child mortality from the age of vaccination...

  1. Heterogeneity in coverage for measles and varicella vaccination in toddlers - analysis of factors influencing parental acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Christine; Streng, Andrea; Kraemer, Alexander; Liese, Johannes G

    2017-09-19

    In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany for children aged 11-14 months. Routine measles vaccination had already been introduced in 1973 for the same age group, but coverage is still too low (measles. The present study assessed varicella and measles vaccination coverage and determinants of parental acceptance in two study regions, situated in Northern and Southern Bavaria (Germany). From 2009 to 2011, annual cross-sectional parent surveys were performed on random samples of 600 children aged 18-36 months in the Bavarian regions of both Munich and Würzburg. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with varicella and measles vaccination. In 2009, 2010 and 2011, vaccination coverage was lower in Munich than in Würzburg, for both varicella (Munich 53%, 67%, 69% vs. Würzburg 72%, 81%, 83%) and for measles (Munich 88%, 89%, 91% vs. Würzburg 92%, 93%, 95%). Recommendation by the physician was the main independent factor associated with varicella vaccination in both regions (adjusted odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI): Munich OR 19.7, CI 13.6-28.6; Würzburg OR 34.7, CI 22.6-53.2). Attendance at a childcare unit was positively associated with a higher acceptance of varicella vaccination in Munich (OR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.2). Regarding measles vaccination, attendance at a childcare unit was positively associated in both regions (Munich OR 2.0; CI 1.3-3.0; Würzburg OR 1.8; CI 1.1-3.1), and a higher level of parental school education was negatively associated in Würzburg (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9). Vaccination rates differed between regions, with rates constantly higher in Würzburg. Within each region, vaccination rates were lower for varicella than for measles. Measles vaccination status was mainly dependent upon socio-demographic factors (attendance at a childcare unit, parental school education), whereas for the more recently introduced varicella vaccination recommendation by the physician had the strongest

  2. Does Measles Vaccination Reduce the Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI and Diarrhea in Children: A Multi-Country Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bawankule

    Full Text Available Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan.We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS in the selected countries. We included children age 12-59 months in the analysis. We used multivariable binary logistic regression to examine the effect of measles vaccination on ARI and diarrhea in children. We also estimated Vaccination Effectiveness (VE.More than 60 percent of the children age 12-59 months were given measles vaccine before the survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine were less likely to suffer from ARI than unvaccinated children in India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine had a lower risk of diarrhea than those who did not receive it in all the selected countries except Ethiopia. Measles vaccination was associated with reduction in ARI cases by 15-30 percent in India and Pakistan, and diarrhea cases by 12-22 percent in the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan.The receipt of the measles vaccine was associated with decrease in ARI and diarrhea in children. The immunization program must ensure that each child gets the recommended doses of measles vaccine at the appropriate age. The measles vaccination should be given more attention as a preventive intervention under the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD in all low and middle-income countries.

  3. Does Measles Vaccination Reduce the Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and Diarrhea in Children: A Multi-Country Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawankule, Rahul; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Shetye, Sadanand

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in the selected countries. We included children age 12-59 months in the analysis. We used multivariable binary logistic regression to examine the effect of measles vaccination on ARI and diarrhea in children. We also estimated Vaccination Effectiveness (VE). More than 60 percent of the children age 12-59 months were given measles vaccine before the survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine were less likely to suffer from ARI than unvaccinated children in India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine had a lower risk of diarrhea than those who did not receive it in all the selected countries except Ethiopia. Measles vaccination was associated with reduction in ARI cases by 15-30 percent in India and Pakistan, and diarrhea cases by 12-22 percent in the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. The receipt of the measles vaccine was associated with decrease in ARI and diarrhea in children. The immunization program must ensure that each child gets the recommended doses of measles vaccine at the appropriate age. The measles vaccination should be given more attention as a preventive intervention under the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) in all low and middle-income countries.

  4. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged ...

  5. [Reemergence of measles in vaccinated patients: report of 6 cases and proposals for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut-Busquet, Eugènia; Gené Tous, Emili; Navarro, Gemma; González, Araceli

    2016-06-01

    A 2014 measles outbreak in Catalonia affected 131 persons. We describe a series of 6 cases diagnosed in our emergency department. All the patients were under 31 years of age and complained of flu-like symptoms, including high fever and rash. Five had been properly vaccinated and one was a health care worker. A firm diagnosis of measles need not be made in the emergency department, but a high level of suspicion is important for ruling out complications, isolating the patient, and protecting health care staff at high risk for exposure. We found that 6% of the staff of our emergency department had a low level of immunity to measles. Given our findings, we suggest that preventive treatment is necessary when health care staff have been exposed to measles and their vaccination status is unknown.

  6. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rural...... in the same age group during the two previous years. RESULTS: 8158 children aged 6-59 months were under BHP surveillance during the 2006-campaign and 7999 and 8108 during similar periods in 2004 and 2005. At least 90% of the eligible children received MV in the campaign. There were 161 non-accident deaths...

  7. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi, stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+ every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-. After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05. The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05 and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05. In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05. While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+ and 67% (CH- response (P Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

  8. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high...

  9. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases ...

  10. Immunoglobulin GM and KM genes and measles vaccine-induced humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Larrabee, Beth R; Schaid, Daniel J; Poland, Gregory A

    2017-10-04

    Identifying genetic polymorphisms that explain variations in humoral immunity to live measles virus vaccine is of great interest. Immunoglobulin GM (heavy chain) and KM (light chain) allotypes are genetic markers known to be associated with susceptibility to several infectious diseases. We assessed associations between GM and KM genotypes and measles vaccine humoral immunity (neutralizing antibody titers) in a combined cohort (n=1796) of racially diverse healthy individuals (age 18-41years). We did not discover any significant associations between GM and/or KM genotypes and measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titers. African-American subjects had higher neutralizing antibody titers than Caucasians (1260mIU/mL vs. 740mIU/mL, p=7.10×10 -13 ), and those titers remained statistically significant (p=1.68×10 -09 ) after adjusting for age at enrollment and time since last vaccination. There were no statistically significant sex-specific differences in measles-induced neutralizing antibody titers in our study (p=0.375). Our data indicate a surprising lack of evidence for an association between GM and KM genotypes and measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, despite the importance of these immune response genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.  Created: 6/30/2014 by : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Division of Viral Diseases; Healthcare Preparedness Activity (HPA); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/30/2014.

  12. Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a Strains Mucosally Deliver DNA Vaccines Encoding Measles Virus Hemagglutinin, Inducing Specific Immune Responses and Protection in Cotton Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Barry, Eileen M.; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M.; Polo, John M.; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2003-01-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella...

  13. Measles vaccination of nonhuman primates provides partial protection against infection with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Ludlow, Martin; Verburgh, R Joyce; van Amerongen, Geert; Yüksel, Selma; Nguyen, D Tien; McQuaid, Stephen; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Duprex, W Paul; de Swart, Rik L

    2014-04-01

    Measles virus (MV) is being considered for global eradication, which would likely reduce compliance with MV vaccination. As a result, children will grow up without MV-specific immunity, creating a potential niche for closely related animal morbilliviruses such as canine distemper virus (CDV). Natural CDV infection causing clinical signs has never been reported in humans, but recent outbreaks in captive macaques have shown that CDV can cause disease in primates. We studied the virulence and tropism of recombinant CDV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in naive and measles-vaccinated cynomolgus macaques. In naive animals CDV caused viremia and fever and predominantly infected CD150(+) lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Virus was reisolated from the upper and lower respiratory tracts, but infection of epithelial or neuronal cells was not detectable at the time points examined, and the infections were self-limiting. This demonstrates that CDV readily infects nonhuman primates but suggests that additional mutations are necessary to achieve full virulence in nonnatural hosts. Partial protection against CDV was observed in measles-vaccinated macaques, as demonstrated by accelerated control of virus replication and limited shedding from the upper respiratory tract. While neither CDV infection nor MV vaccination induced detectable cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, MV-specific neutralizing antibody levels of MV-vaccinated macaques were boosted by CDV challenge infection, suggesting that cross-reactive VN epitopes exist. Rapid increases in white blood cell counts in MV-vaccinated macaques following CDV challenge suggested that cross-reactive cellular immune responses were also present. This study demonstrates that zoonotic morbillivirus infections can be controlled by measles vaccination. Throughout history viral zoonoses have had a substantial impact on human health. Given the drive toward global eradication of measles, it is essential to understand the

  14. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton C; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2008-07-24

    To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Randomised clinical trial. 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. 28% of the children tested at 4.5 months of age had protective levels of maternal antibodies against measles at enrolment. After early vaccination against measles 92% had measles antibodies at 9 months of age. A measles outbreak offered a unique situation for testing the efficacy of early measles vaccination. During the outbreak, 96 children developed measles; 19% of unvaccinated children had measles before 9 months of age. The monthly incidence of measles among the 441 children enrolled in the treatment arm was 0.7% and among the 892 enrolled in the control arm was 3.1%. Early vaccination with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat to prevent one case of measles between ages 4.5 months and 9 months during the epidemic was 7.2 (6.8 to 9.2). The treatment group tended to have lower overall mortality (mortality rate ratio 0.18, 0.02 to 1.36) although this was not significant. In low income countries, maternal antibody levels against measles may be low and severe outbreaks of measles can occur in infants before the recommended age of vaccination at 9 months. Outbreaks of measles may be curtailed by measles vaccination using the Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine as early as 4.5 months of age. TRIAL

  15. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar......Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...

  16. Measles vaccination coverage in high-incidence areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including cold-chain maintenance.[5] ... Methods. Households were consecutively sampled in high-incidence areas identified using measles epidemic surveillance data. ... ratio in under-5s was 6.9/1 000 (Department of Health, Provincial.

  17. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...

  18. Evaluation of the mass measles vaccination campaign in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi Qiang; Chen, Wei Shi; He, Qun; Peng, Guo Wen; Wu, Cheng Gang; Xu, Ning; Zhao, Zhan Jie; Shu, Jun; Tan, Qiu; Zheng, Hui Zhen; Lin, Li Feng; Deng, Hui Hong; Lin, Jin Yan; Zhang, Yong Hui

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the mass measles vaccination campaign of 2009 in Guangdong Province, China. Data on the campaign implementation, measles surveillance, and serological surveillance were reviewed and analyzed by statistical methods. Rapid coverage surveys showed that 98.09% of children were vaccinated during the campaign. The coverage of migrant children increased significantly from 67.10% to 97.32% (pvaccinated during the campaign. Flyers, notices of information from doctors, and television programs were the best methods to inform parents of the campaign. Awareness of the campaign by residents increased significantly from 91.86% to 97.10% (pvaccination campaign approach for controlling measles in a developing region like Guangdong Province with a vast migrant population has proved effective. Comprehensive mobilization, communication with the mass media, and support from government departments were critical to the success of the campaign. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaccine-preventable diseases in pediatric patients: a review of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A; Pade, Kathryn H

    2016-12-22

    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Diagnostic laboratory studies are not usually necessary, as a complete history and physical examination usually lead to an accurate diagnosis. Treatment for these vaccine-preventable diseases usually consists of supportive care, but, in some cases, severe complications and death may occur. This issue provides a review of the clinical features, differential diagnoses, potential complications, and treatment options for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  20. [Measles in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Paweł, Stefanoff

    2006-01-01

    In Poland 11 measles cases were registered in 2004 (0.03 per 100,000 population), of which 3 were cases imported from Chechnya. Of 8 local cases, 3 cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 2 in persons vaccinated with one dose and 3 in vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). The most affected age groups were 1-year old children (0.29 per 100,000 population) and 6-year olds (0.25). Out of 11 reported cases 2 were hospitalized. There were no deaths attributed to measles. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic testing of one suspect case per 100,000 population. The performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 44 measles-compatible cases reported in 2004 (12% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 5 cases confirmed in WHO accredited laboratory. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Yves; Habermehl, Pirmin; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile; Fiquet, Anne

    2009-04-14

    When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) compared with the subcutaneous route. An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to 18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374) or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378). Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of >or= 1.25 gpELISA units/ml). Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (vaccines was comparable regardless of administration route. Integration of both administration routes in the current European indications for the two vaccines will now allow physicians in Europe to choose their preferred administration route

  2. RESPONSE OF VOLTA CHILDREN TO JET INOCULATION OF COMBINED LIVE MEASLES, SMALLPOX AND YELLOW FEVER VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEYER, H M; HOSTETLER, D D; BERNHEIN, B C; ROGERS, N G; LAMBIN, P; CHASSARY, A; LABUSQUIERE, R; SMADEL, J E

    1964-01-01

    An earlier study established that Upper Volta children respond to vaccination with the Enders live attenuated measles strain in the same general fashion as do children in the USA. The present report describes a second pilot project carried out in Ouagadougou, Upper Volta. During this investigation various mixtures of live measles, smallpox and 17D yellow fever vaccines were introduced into susceptible infants by jet injection. Combining the attenuated virus vaccines did not alter or accentuate the characteristic clinical reactions elicited by the individual components, nor was there evidence of significant immunological interference. From this experience it is concluded that combined vaccination with these agents may be safely and effectively employed in larger programmes as the need dictates.

  3. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months ...

  4. Safety of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Marloes W; Pileggi, Gecilmara C S; Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Evelien; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A H; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Kuis, Wietse; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: A retrospective observational multicentre cohort study was performed in 314 patients with JIA, born between 1989 and 1996. Disease

  5. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units...

  6. Introduction of standard measles vaccination in an urban African community in 1979 and overall child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. SETTING: Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part in t...

  7. Cost-effectiveness of providing measles vaccination to all children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Thysen, Sanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    the incremental cost-effectiveness of providing measles vaccine (MV) to all children regardless of age and number of children present. METHODS: We estimated MV coverage among children living in villages cluster-randomized to MV for all children and among children cluster-randomized to the current restrictive MV...

  8. Measles vaccination of nonhuman primates provides partial protection against infection with canine distemper virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. de Vries (Rory); M. Ludlow (Martin); R.J. Verbugh (Joyce); G. van Amerongen (Geert); S. Yüksel (Selma); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); S. McQuaid (Stephen); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); W.P. Duprex (Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMeasles virus (MV) is being considered for global eradication, which would likely reduce compliance with MV vaccination. As a result, children will grow up without MV-specific immunity, creating a potential niche for closely related animal morbilliviruses such as canine distemper virus

  9. Early Onset Optic Neuritis Following Measles-Rubella Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Moradian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report two cases of optic neuritis with onset less than 24 hours following measles-rubella (MR vaccination. CASE REPORT: Two teenage patients developed acute optic neuritis 6 to 7 hours after MR booster vaccination. The first patient demonstrated bilateral papillitis and severe visual loss but improved significantly with pulse intravenous steroid therapy with methylprednisolone 500 mg/day. The second patient had unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and demonstrated excellent visual recovery without intervention. CONCLUSION: Acute optic neuritis is a rare complication of MR vaccination and may occur early after immunization.

  1. A population-based study of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish...... the age at the time of vaccination, the time since vaccination, or the date of vaccination and the development of autistic disorder. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism....... Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident in Denmark. MMR-vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children’s autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central...

  2. Measles cases among adolescents in southern Pakistan 2012-2015: The case for revisiting vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sadia; Khan, Erum; Rajput, Muhammad Imran; Rahimoon, Wali Muhammad

    2017-07-03

    Surveillance of adult measles in Pakistan is a challenge as it does not enjoy the status of a reportable disease unlike childhood cases and therefore cases remain undetected and unreported or misdiagnosed. Consequently no data or estimates of young adult cases, seroprevalence, or estimates of susceptible preadolescent or young adult population exist. We have presented both laboratory conformed and clinically suspected cases of measles occurring in adolescents and adults in the southern province of Sindh in Pakistan. Through an examination of 2 independent databases, i.e. a laboratory database of measles IgM positive cases and clinically detected cases on surveillance performed by the Disease Early Warning System, we have analyzed and reported age-specific positivity rates from 2012 to 2015 in Sindh, Pakistan. High rates of laboratory confirmed measles were observed in those aged 9 y and younger. Among adolescents and adults, significantly higher positivity rates were observed among those aged 10-19 y. Clinically detected cases from Sindh showed similar distribution of cases. High burden of cases among children <9 y of age confirm that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) among this age group are inadequate and need to be strengthened. Cases among those 10-19 y further demonstrate the need for consolidating SIAs with an additional strategy to vaccinate those who remain non-immune at college entry and in institutions where outbreaks can be prevented. Such measures are essential to achieving the goal of measles elimination in the country and region.

  3. Successful administration of measles-rubella-mumps vaccine by graded challenge in a case with anaphylaxis after prior vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Tuba; Sancakli, Ozlem; Ozdogru, Ece

    2017-04-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies during childhood along with cow's milk allergy. The measles-mumpsrubella (MMR) vaccine is included in the pediatric immunization schedule and contains egg protein. The currently accepted opinion is that the MMR vaccination should be done in a single dose under medical observation in patients with egg allergy. Although it is reported that the MMR vaccine is safe for that patients, there are some patients who developed anaphylaxis. Generally, the development of anaphylaxis after the previous vaccination is reported as a contraindication. We present a successful administration of MMR vaccine by gradually increased doses for a patient who developed anaphylaxis after the previous vaccination. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. The risk of aseptic meningitis associated with the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain following mass vaccination with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Claudio Marcos; Kmetzsch, Claudete Iris; Mohrdieck, Renate; Sperb, Alethea Fagundes; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2002-10-01

    Few data are available on the risk of aseptic meningitis following vaccination with the Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z) strain of mumps vaccine. In 1997 the mumps vaccine was introduced into the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil through mass vaccination with mumps-measles-rubella (MMR), targeting children aged 1-11 years. Five municipalities used exclusively MMR vaccine containing the L-Z strain of mumps. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis was observed shortly after the mass campaign. To estimate the risk of aseptic meningitis associated with this strain, we analysed vaccination and meningitis case surveillance data from the selected municipalities. A case of vaccine-associated aseptic meningitis was defined as one with a pleocytosis of 10-1,500 leukocytes/ml and occurring within 15-35 days after vaccine receipt. We estimated a risk of 2.9 cases per 10,000 doses of L-Z administered, equivalent to 1 case per 3,390 doses administered. The overall risk of aseptic meningitis following the campaign was increased 12.2-fold (95% CI: 6.0-24.7) compared with the same period in 1995-1996. Following the mass campaign, the incidence of mumps declined 93% during 1998-2000. Vaccination with the L-Z strain of mumps vaccine as part of a mass campaign was associated with a significantly increased risk of aseptic meningitis. Decisions about type of mumps vaccine and mumps vaccination strategies must consider vaccine safety issues in addition to other criteria.

  5. Innovations in communication technologies for measles supplemental immunization activities: lessons from Kenya measles vaccination campaign, November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabazi, William B; Tabu, Collins W; Chemirmir, Caleb; Kisia, James; Ali, Nasra; Corkum, Melissa G; Bartley, Gene L

    2015-01-01

    Background To achieve a measles free world, effective communication must be part of all elimination plans. The choice of communication approaches must be evidence based, locally appropriate, interactive and community owned. In this article, we document the innovative approach of using house visits supported by a web-enabled mobile phone application to create a real-time platform for adaptive management of supplemental measles immunization days in Kenya. Methods One thousand nine hundred and fifty-two Red Cross volunteers were recruited, trained and deployed to conduct house-to-house canvassing in 11 urban districts of Kenya. Three days before the campaigns, volunteers conducted house visits with a uniform approach and package of messages. All house visits were documented using a web-enabled mobile phone application (episurveyor®) that in real-time relayed information collected to all campaign management levels. During the campaigns, volunteers reported daily immunizations to their co-ordinators. Post-campaign house visits were also conducted within 4 days, to verify immunization of eligible children, assess information sources and detect adverse events following immunization. Results Fifty-six per cent of the 164 643 households visited said that they had heard about the planned 2012 measles vaccination campaign 1–3 days before start dates. Twenty-five per cent of households were likely to miss the measles supplemental dose if they had not been reassured by the house visit. Pre- and post-campaign reasons for refusal showed that targeted communication reduced misconceptions, fear of injections and trust in herbal remedies. Daily reporting of immunizations using mobile phones informed changes in service delivery plans for better immunization coverage. House visits were more remembered (70%) as sources of information compared with traditional mass awareness channels like megaphones (41%) and radio (37%). Conclusions In high-density settlements, house-to-house visits

  6. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  7. Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccination: What Everyone Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information, see State Vaccination Requirements . How Can Parents Pay For MMR Vaccine? Most health insurance plans cover ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive ...

  8. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST MEASLES, PAROTIDITIS AND VITAMINOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Kharit; T.V. Chernyaeva; E.P. Nacharova; O.V. Goleva

    2007-01-01

    The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis). 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cel...

  9. Effect of jet injection on infectivity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in a bench model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Collins, Marcus; Saxon, Gene; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zehrung, Darin; Cappello, Chris; Dhere, Rajeev; Royals, Michael; Papania, Mark; Rota, Paul A

    2015-08-26

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) with single-use, auto disable, needle-free syringes offer the opportunity to avoid hazards associated with injection using a needle and syringe. Clinical studies have evaluated DSJIs for vaccine delivery, but most studies have focused on inactivated, subunit, or DNA vaccines. Questions have been raised about possible damage to live attenuated viral vaccines by forces generated during the jet injection process. This study examines the effect of jet injection on the integrity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), measured by viral RNA content and infectivity. Three models of DSJIs were evaluated, each generating a different ejection force. Following jet injection, the RNA content for each of the vaccine components was measured using RT-qPCR immediately after injection and following passage in Vero cells. Jet injection was performed with and without pig skin as a simulation of human skin. There was little to no reduction of RNA content immediately following jet injection with any of the three DSJIs. Samples passaged in Vero cells showed no loss in infectivity of the measles vaccine following jet injection. Mumps vaccine consistently showed increased replication following jet injection. Rubella vaccine showed no loss after jet injection alone but some infectivity loss following injection through pig skin with two of the devices. Overall, these data demonstrated that forces exerted on a live attenuated MMR vaccine did not compromise vaccine infectivity. The bench model and protocol used in this study can be applied to evaluate the impact of jet injection on other live virus vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p...

  11. Trend of measles, mumps, and rubella incidence following the measles-rubella catch up vaccination in the Republic of Korea, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-09-01

    Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population-based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted. The age distribution of mumps cases has shifted to the older age group, whereas rubella became more frequent in younger age group. The incidence of mumps showed an increase in every birth cohorts, except for the decrease in incidence for catch-up vaccination cohort from 131 cases in 2007-2011 to 64 cases per 100 000 in 2012-2015. Continuing in monitoring of mumps and strengthening of the high two-dose MMR vaccination coverage should be taken place in Korea. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Disneyland Measles Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Palladino, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This media information sheet analyzes print and online coverage of the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak. The frameworks that the media used to report on the outbreak presented vaccination as the only viable option from preventing the spread of measles. Reporting also failed to mention that the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak was smaller than U.S. measles outbreaks in 2013 and 2014.

  13. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Diane L; Santra, Sampa; Swett-Tapia, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh; Naim, Hussein; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lifton, Michelle; Goudsmit, Jaap; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-09-07

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston Zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag protein for the purpose of evaluating the immunogenicity of rMV as a vaccine vector in rhesus macaques. rMV-Gag immunization alone elicited robust measles-specific humoral and cellular responses, but failed to elicit transgene (Gag)-specific immune responses, following aerosol or intratracheal/intramuscular delivery. However, when administered as a priming vaccine to a heterologous boost with recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the same transgene, rMV-Gag significantly enhanced Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses following rAd5 immunization. Gag-specific humoral responses were not enhanced, however, which may be due to either the transgene or the vector. Cellular response priming by rMV against the transgene was highly effective even when using a suboptimal dose of rAd5 for the boost. These data demonstrate feasibility of using rMV as a priming component of heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens for pathogens requiring strong cellular responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558.

  15. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  16. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect...

  17. Electricity and risk of public health center had measles vaccine damage in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggita Bunga Anggraini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Puskesmas yang memiliki vaksin campak rusak dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor risiko.Oleh karena itu perlu diidentifikasi beberapa faktor risiko dominan yang mempengaruhinya.Metode: Analisis menggunakan sebagian data Riset Fasilitas Kesehatan (Rifaskes tahun 2011. Rifaskestersebut dilakukan di seluruh Puskesmas di 33 provinsi di Indonesia. Selanjutnya, pada analisis ini hanyamenggunakan data Puskesmas di provinsi yang memiliki cakupan imunisasi campak di atas angka prevalensinasional (81,6%, dan Puskesmas yang memiliki angka prevalensi campak di atas angka prevalensi nasional(1,18%. Analisis data statistik dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisis regresi logistik untuk menentukanbeberapa faktor risiko dominan yang mempengaruhi Puskesmas yang memiliki vaksin campak rusak.Hasil: Sebanyak 7 (Riau, Jakarta, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Sulawesi Tengah, SulawesiSelatan, Gorontalo sebanyak 1259 Puskesmas memenuhi kriteria inklusi. Puskesmas yang berlokasi diperdesaan dibandingkan dengan perkotaan berisiko 3,4 kali lipat yang merupakan Puskesmas yang memilikivaksin campak rusak [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 3,37; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,34-8,26]. Selanjutnya,Puskesmas dengan ketersediaan listrik PLN kurang dari 24 jam dibandingkan dengan tersedia selama 24jam mempunyai risiko 2,1 kali lipat merupakan Puskesmas yang memiliki vaksin campak rusak (ORa =2,10; 95% CI = 1,02-4,33.Kesimpulan: Puskesmas yang mempunyai kerusakan vaksin campak yang rusak lebih banyak terjadi di Puskesmasdi perdesaan dan yang tidak tersedia listrik PLN maupun ketersediaan listrik sehari-hari kurang dari 24 jammerupakan Puskesmas yang memiliki vaksin campak rusak. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:116-20Kata kunci: vaksin campak rusak, Puskesmas AbstractBackground: The Public Health Center (PHC had broken measles vaccine was influenced by a numberof risk factors. Therefore, it was necessary to identify some dominant risk factors that

  18. Vaccination policies of immigrants in the EU/EEA Member States-the measles immunization example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Mihai A; Clemens, Ralf

    2018-06-01

    In 2015-16, the European Union/European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MSs) experienced an unprecedented volume and rate of migration, posing serious challenges to existing national immunization systems and strategies and raising the questions of where, when and who to vaccinate. We assessed existing strategies for vaccinating immigrant populations in the EU/EEA using measles as an example of the most important vaccine-preventable diseases. In this cross-sectional study, conducted from March to May 2016, an electronic questionnaire was sent to the Heads of National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) or equivalent policy-making bodies in each of the 31 EU/EEA Member States. Responses were entered into a structured database and validated by survey responders for final analysis. Validated responses from all 31 EU/EEA NITAGs or equivalents showed that there is no common measles immunization policy for European immigrants. Policies vary widely from no policy at all (9 of 31, 29%) to vaccination of all comers (2 of 31, 6%), or vaccination of selected cohorts based on vaccination history (17 of 31, 55%) or serum antibody analysis (2 of 31, 6%). Further, the operational responsibilities for immigrant vaccination and documentation methods are not unified within the EU/EEA region. With some notable exceptions immunization policies to contain spread of infectious diseases through migration are either non-existent or vary widely between countries in the EU/EEA. With freedom of movement within the EU/EEA there ought to be harmonization and a common EU/EEA vaccination strategy to replace national policies for immigrant populations.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® compared with the subcutaneous route. Methods An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374 or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378. Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Results Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of ≥ 1.25 gpELISA units/ml. Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (≤ 2.5 cm. There was a trend for lower rates of injection-site erythema and swelling in the IM group. The incidence and nature of systemic adverse events were comparable for the two routes

  20. Lack of association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata

    2010-05-01

    The first objective of the study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and autism in children. The second objective was to examine whether the risk of autism differs between use of MMR and the single measles vaccine. Case-control study. The 96 cases with childhood or atypical autism, aged 2 to 15, were included into the study group. Controls consisted of 192 children individually matched to cases by year of birth, sex, and general practitioners. Data on autism diagnosis and vaccination history were from physicians. Data on the other probable autism risk factors were collected from mothers. Logistic conditional regression was used to assess the risk of autism resulting from vaccination. Assessment was made for children vaccinated (1) Before diagnosis of autism, and (2) Before first symptoms of autism onset. Odds ratios were adjusted to mother's age, medication during pregnancy, gestation time, perinatal injury and Apgar score. For children vaccinated before diagnosis, autism risk was lower in children vaccinated with MMR than in the nonvaccinated (OR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06-0.52) as well as to vaccinated with single measles vaccine (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.91). The risk for vaccinated versus nonvaccinated (independent of vaccine type) was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.10-0.76). The risk connected with being vaccinated before onset of first symptoms was significantly lower only for MMR versus single vaccine (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.22-0.99). The study provides evidence against the association of autism with either MMR or a single measles vaccine.

  1. Live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella and the risk of hospital admissions for nontargeted infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Poulsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    ). Nationwide Danish registers provided data on vaccinations and hospital admissions. The recommended vaccination schedule was inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) administered at ages 3, 5, and 12 months and MMR at age 15 months...

  2. Vaccine effectiveness and risk factors associated with measles among children presenting to the hospitals of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aysha, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk factors regarding guardian's practices associated with development of Measles and also find out effectiveness of Measles vaccine among children less than 12 years of age presenting to the hospitals of Karachi. Study Design: Matched case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Multicenter surveillance was conducted in 11 public and private sector hospitals of Karachi from January 2011 to September 2012 in consultation with World Health Organization Measles Surveillance Cell. Methodology: Cases were children aged less than 12 years with Measles presenting to the hospitals. Controls for cases were enrolled from the same hospitals without Measles, matched for age and gender. Studied variables were analyzed by multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. Results: Measles cases were more likely to have mothers with lower education (adjusted matched Odds Ratio or mOR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2 - 7.6), for < 5 years of schooling adjusted mOR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0 - 5.7) for 6 - 10 years of schooling). Children with Measles were also more likely to be not given breast milk in initial 2 years of life (adjusted mOR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.0 - 7.0). Cases were also more likely to have never received vaccination (adjusted mOR: 10.1, 95% CI 4.5 - 22.5) and having no other children vaccinated at home (adjusted mOR: 3, 95% CI 1.5 - 5.3). Vaccine effectiveness for single dose was found to be 87.4 (95% CI: 76.1 - 93.4), while for two doses it was approximately 93% (95% CI: 86.2 - 96.6). Conclusion: For Measles elimination, mother's education on breast feeding and appropriate weaning practices is required. (author)

  3. Vacinas contra varicela e vacina quádrupla viral Varicella vaccines and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre os estudos de eficácia, eventos adversos e esquema vacinal da vacina contra varicela e a nova apresentação combinada com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica utilizando a base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS no período de 1999 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina contra varicela tem uma eficácia entre 70 a 90% contra a infecção e 95 a 98% de proteção contra as formas graves. É uma vacina bem tolerada e pouco reatogênica. Após o seu licenciamento, foram comprovados apenas três casos de transmissão do vírus vacinal de pessoas previamente saudáveis para contatos domiciliares, que desenvolveram doença leve. Apesar das evidências de que a proteção conferida pela vacina pode diminuir com o passar dos anos, ainda não é possível afirmar que seja necessário, no momento, a aplicação de uma segunda dose, tendo em vista a exposição ao vírus selvagem. Após a vacinação universal, as chances de estímulo natural deverão diminuir, e muito provavelmente será necessário a aplicação de doses de reforço. Recentemente foi licenciada a vacina quádrupla viral, um produto combinado com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varicela com elevadas taxas de soroconversão. CONCLUSÃO:A vacina contra varicela é recomendada pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP para as crianças a partir de 1 ano de idade. Esperamos que, em breve, a vacina quádrupla viral esteja disponível no Brasil, pois o uso de vacinas combinadas possibilita uma maior cobertura vacinal.OBJECTIVES: To present an up-to-date review of studies investigating the efficacy, adverse events and vaccination regimens of the varicella vaccine and the new presentation combined with the vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases covering the period 1999 to 2006 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The varicella

  4. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of ...

  5. Evaluation of anti-measles and anti-mumps vaccination coverage in a cohort of youth in South-Centre of Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lo Magno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a cohort of young people from South Centre Sicily, Italy, in order to evaluate anti-measles anti-mumps vaccination coverage. It is shown that, in proportion, an antibody protection against mumps is greater than an antibody protection against measles and also it causes acute episodes in some subjects vaccinated.

  6. Immunological efficacy of Vaccination against Measles in Children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of current vaccination process of cellular, humoral immunity and specific antibody formation in 41 children with Down syndrome at the age of 1 year to 6 years old is observed. To prevent easles used measles vaccine (n=12, divaccine -measles-mumps (n=21 and or Priorix vaccine (n=8. The comparison group consisted of 63 children without Down syndrome. The post-vaccination period in 97,6% of children with Down syndrome cases are asymptomatic, only 2,4% of children mentioned layering of intercurrent diseases. The immunological status in children with Down syndrome is characterized by a significant decrease in the  umber leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and absolute number of CD20+, but functional activity of the cells is preserved. By 30 days after immunization they have increased leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD 95+cells. The number of antibodies significantly increased (6,63±0,33 compared to 5,79±0,32 log2, р < 0,05.

  7. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  8. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  9. FastStats: Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... measles, mumps, rubella: 91.9% (2015) Percent of adolescents aged 13-17 years vaccinated against measles, mumps, ...

  10. Safety and Immunogenicity of Coadministering a Combined Meningococcal Serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine with 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine at 12 Months of Age ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all thr...

  11. Evaluation of scanning 2D barcoded vaccines to improve data accuracy of vaccines administered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Ashley; Kennedy, Erin D; Fierro, Leslie A; Reed, Jenica Huddleston; Greene, Michael; Williams, Warren W; Evanson, Heather V; Cox, Regina; Koeppl, Patrick; Gerlach, Ken

    2016-11-11

    Accurately recording vaccine lot number, expiration date, and product identifiers, in patient records is an important step in improving supply chain management and patient safety in the event of a recall. These data are being encoded on two-dimensional (2D) barcodes on most vaccine vials and syringes. Using electronic vaccine administration records, we evaluated the accuracy of lot number and expiration date entered using 2D barcode scanning compared to traditional manual or drop-down list entry methods. We analyzed 128,573 electronic records of vaccines administered at 32 facilities. We compared the accuracy of records entered using 2D barcode scanning with those entered using traditional methods using chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression. When 2D barcodes were scanned, lot number data accuracy was 1.8 percentage points higher (94.3-96.1%, Pmanufacturer, month vaccine was administered, and vaccine type were associated with variation in accuracy for both lot number and expiration date. Two-dimensional barcode scanning shows promise for improving data accuracy of vaccine lot number and expiration date records. Adapting systems to further integrate with 2D barcoding could help increase adoption of 2D barcode scanning technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A STUDY OF MEASLES VACCINATION COVERAGE BY LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND FACTORS RELATED TO NON-VACCINATION IN BELLARY DISTRICT

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    A Karinagannanavar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality accounting for nearly half the global burden of vaccine preventable deaths. In 2007, there were 197000 measles deaths globally nearly 540 deaths every day or 22 deaths per hour. According to NFHS-3 2005 – 06 total measles vaccination coverage in Karnataka was 72%. Objectives: 1 To find out measles vaccination coverage in Bellary District. 2 To know the reasons for non-vaccination. Material and Methods:   A Cross sectional study was conducted from May 2010 to April 2011 at areas covered by PHC/PHU of Bellary district by using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS method. Total sample size was 1007(53X19. Bellary district has 47 primary health centers (PHC and 6 primary health units (PHU, all of which were studied in which each PHC/PHU is considered as a lot. The data was collected from parents of children aged 12-23 months using a pretested semi structured questionnaire. Results: Out of 53 PHC’s/PHU’s we accepted 41 (77.35% and vaccination coverage in these lots was considered as more than 85% and overall coverage in Bellary district was 69.41% and  53.62% had received Vitamin A supplementation. The reasons for non vaccination were lack of awareness, ignorance, ill health of the child, fear of side effects & lack of health services. Conclusion: Measles vaccination coverage was 69.41% and the reasons for non vaccination were lack of awareness, ignorance, ill health of the child, fear of side effects and lack of health services.

  13. A STUDY OF MEASLES VACCINATION COVERAGE BY LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND FACTORS RELATED TO NON-VACCINATION IN BELLARY DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karinagannanavar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality accounting for nearly half the global burden of vaccine preventable deaths. In 2007, there were 197000 measles deaths globally nearly 540 deaths every day or 22 deaths per hour. According to NFHS-3 2005 – 06 total measles vaccination coverage in Karnataka was 72%. Objectives: 1 To find out measles vaccination coverage in Bellary District. 2 To know the reasons for non-vaccination. Material and Methods:   A Cross sectional study was conducted from May 2010 to April 2011 at areas covered by PHC/PHU of Bellary district by using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS method. Total sample size was 1007(53X19. Bellary district has 47 primary health centers (PHC and 6 primary health units (PHU, all of which were studied in which each PHC/PHU is considered as a lot. The data was collected from parents of children aged 12-23 months using a pretested semi structured questionnaire. Results: Out of 53 PHC’s/PHU’s we accepted 41 (77.35% and vaccination coverage in these lots was considered as more than 85% and overall coverage in Bellary district was 69.41% and  53.62% had received Vitamin A supplementation. The reasons for non vaccination were lack of awareness, ignorance, ill health of the child, fear of side effects & lack of health services. Conclusion: Measles vaccination coverage was 69.41% and the reasons for non vaccination were lack of awareness, ignorance, ill health of the child, fear of side effects and lack of health services.

  14. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Biai, Sidu; Lisse, Ida M; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine S

    2010-04-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys. Urban area in Guinea-Bissau, with a demographic surveillance system and registration of all pediatric hospitalizations. Guinea-Bissau experienced a large outbreak of measles infection in 2003-2004. We used hospital and community data to examine the impact of other vaccines on the risk of hospitalizations for measles infection. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against hospitalization for children aged 6 to 59 months of age was examined. We assessed whether VE depended on vaccination status for other vaccines and whether the pattern differed for boys and girls. Sex-specific vaccine efficacy against hospitalization for children aged 6 to 59 months of age. The VE depended on sex and the sequence of vaccinations. The VE of MV against hospitalization for measles was better for girls than for boys. Among children who had received MV as the most recent vaccine VE against hospitalization was as high as 96% for girls, but only 81% for boys (P = 0.002). Among children who had received DTP simultaneously with MV or DTP after MV, VE declined for girls (91%) and increased for boys (90%). Compared with having received MV as most recent vaccination, DTP simultaneously with MV or DTP after MV improved the efficacy significantly for boys and the effect was significantly different for boys and girls (P = 0.023). The female-male risk ratio of hospitalization varied significantly, depending on the most recent vaccination (P = 0.014); it was 0.28 (0.11-0.68) for MV alone, but 1.21 (0.82-1.77) for DTP but no MV, and 1.13 (0.58-2.18) for DTP simultaneously with MV or after MV. Among MV-unvaccinated children, BCG-vaccinated girls had a lower risk of measles hospitalization than DTP-vaccinated girls (RR=0.0 (0.0-0.99), exact test).

  15. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  16. Ebola Vaccination Using a DNA Vaccine Coated on PLGA-PLL/γPGA Nanoparticles Administered Using a Microneedle Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hung-Wei; Ye, Ling; Guo, Xin Dong; Yang, Chinglai; Compans, Richard W; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    Ebola DNA vaccine is incorporated into PLGA-PLL/γPGA nanoparticles and administered to skin using a microneedle (MN) patch. The nanoparticle delivery system increases vaccine thermostability and immunogenicity compared to free vaccine. Vaccination by MN patch produces stronger immune responses than intramuscular administration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Measles Case Fatality Rate in Bihar, India, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Shukla, Hemant; Abhishek, Kunwar; Perry, Robert T.; Bose, Anindya S.; Shimpi, Rahul; Kumar, Arun; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Sethi, Raman; Selvaraj, Vadivoo; Kamaraj, Pattabi; Routray, Satyabrata; Das, Vidya Nand; Menabde, Nata; Bahl, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR) are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar–one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. Methods We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. Results The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47–1.30). CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22%) and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases. PMID:24824641

  18. Recombinant measles virus vaccine expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G. Vaccinated hamsters were completely protected against NiV challenge, while the mortality of unvaccinated control hamsters was 90%. We trialed our vaccine in a non-human primate model, African green monkeys. Upon intraperitoneal infection with NiV, monkeys showed several clinical signs of disease including severe depression, reduced ability to move and decreased food ingestion and died at 7 days post infection (dpi. Intranasal and oral inoculation induced similar clinical illness in monkeys, evident around 9 dpi, and resulted in a moribund stage around 14 dpi. Two monkeys immunized subcutaneously with rMV-Ed-G showed no clinical illness prior to euthanasia after challenge with NiV. Viral RNA was not detected in any organ samples collected from vaccinated monkeys, and no pathological changes were found upon histopathological examination. From our findings, we propose that rMV-NiV-G is an appropriate NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.

  19. Perceptions of measles, pneumonia, and meningitis vaccines among caregivers in Shanghai, China, and the health belief model: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Abram L; Boulton, Matthew L; Sun, Xiaodong; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Huang, Zhuoying; Harmsen, Irene A; Ren, Jia; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2017-06-12

    In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis. Caregivers of infants and young children between 8 months and 7 years of age from Shanghai (n = 619) completed a written survey on their perceptions of measles, pneumonia, and meningitis. We used logistic regression models to assess predictors of pneumococcal vaccine uptake and vaccine necessity. Only 25.2% of children had received a pneumococcal vaccine, although most caregivers believed that pneumonia (80.8%) and meningitis (92.4%), as well as measles (93.2%), vaccines were serious enough to warrant a vaccine. Perceived safety was strongly associated with both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity, and non-locals had 1.70 times higher odds of pneumonia vaccine necessity than non-locals (95% CI: 1.01, 2.88). Most factors had a similar relationship with vaccine necessity, regardless of disease, indicating a common mechanism for how Chinese caregivers decided which vaccines are necessary. Because more caregivers believed meningitis needed a vaccine than pneumonia, health care workers should emphasize pneumococcal vaccination's ability to protect against meningitis.

  20. Evaluation of an expanded case definition for vaccine-modified measles in a school outbreak in South Korea in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Hu, Jae Kyung; Song, Kyung Min; Cho, Heeyeon; Yoon, Hee Sook; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Han Jung; Kim, Kisoon; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have described the clinical characteristics of vaccine-modified measles to assess the performance of an expanded case definition in a school outbreak that occurred in 2010. The sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. Among 74 cases of vaccine-modified measles, 47 (64%) met the original case definition. Fever and rash were observed in 73% (54/74); fever was the most common (96%, 71/74) presenting symptom, and rash was noted in 77% (57/74) of the cases. The original case definition showed an overall sensitivity of 63.5% and a specificity of 100.0%. The expanded case definition combining fever and rash showed a higher sensitivity (72.9%) but a lower specificity (88.2%) than the original. The presence of fever and one or more of cough, coryza, or conjunctivitis scored the highest sensitivity among the combinations of signs and symptoms (77.0%), but scored the lowest specificity (52.9%). The expanded case definition was sensitive in identifying suspected cases of vaccine-modified measles. We suggest using this expanded definition for outbreak investigation in a closed community, and consider further discussions on expanding the case definition of measles for routine surveillance in South Korea.

  1. Using cost-effectiveness analysis to support research and development portfolio prioritization for product innovations in measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Bauch, Chris T; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hazlet, Tom K; Kadiyala, Srikanth; Veenstra, David L

    2011-07-01

    Several potential measles vaccine innovations are in development to address the shortcomings of the current vaccine. Funders need to prioritize their scarce research and development resources. This article demonstrates the usefulness of cost-effectiveness analysis to support these decisions. This study had 4 major components: (1) identifying potential innovations, (2) developing transmission models to assess mortality and morbidity impacts, (3) estimating the unit cost impacts, and (4) assessing aggregate cost-effectiveness in United Nations Children's Fund countries through 2049. Four promising technologies were evaluated: aerosol delivery, needle-free injection, inhalable dry powder, and early administration DNA vaccine. They are projected to have a small absolute impact in terms of reducing the number of measles cases in most scenarios because of already improving vaccine coverage. Three are projected to reduce unit cost per dose by $0.024 to $0.170 and would improve overall cost-effectiveness. Each will require additional investments to reach the market. Over the next 40 years, the aggregate cost savings could be substantial, ranging from $98.4 million to $689.4 million. Cost-effectiveness analysis can help to inform research and development portfolio prioritization decisions. Three new measles vaccination technologies under development hold promise to be cost-saving from a global perspective over the long-term, even after considering additional investment costs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of a meningococcal B recombinant vaccine when administered with routine vaccines to healthy infants in Taiwan: A phase 3, open-label, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Chang; Huang, Li-Min; Willemsen, Arnold; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Mojares, Zenaida Reynoso; Toneatto, Daniela

    2018-01-16

    Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and morbidity in infants and children worldwide. This phase 3 study (NCT02173704) evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a 4-component serogroup B recombinant meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) co-administered with routine vaccines in Taiwanese infants. In total, 225 healthy infants were randomized (2 : 1 ) to receive 4CMenB and routine vaccines (4CMenB+Routine) or routine vaccines only (Routine group) at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Routine vaccines were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b, 13-valent pneumococcal, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines. Immune responses to 4CMenB components (factor H binding protein [fHbp], Neisserial adhesin A [NadA], porin A [PorA] and Neisseria heparin-binding antigen [NHBA]) were evaluated at 1 month post-primary and post-booster vaccination, using human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA). Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed. A sufficient immune response was demonstrated for fHbp, NadA and PorA, at 1 month post-primary and booster vaccination. In the 4CMenB+Routine group, hSBA titers ≥5 were observed in all infants for fHbp and NadA, in 79% and 59% of infants for PorA and NHBA, respectively, at 1 month post-primary vaccination and in 92-99% of infants for all antigens, at 1 month post-booster vaccination. In the 4CMenB+Routine group, hSBA geometric mean titers for all antigens increased post-primary (8.41-963) and post-booster vaccination (17-2315) compared to baseline (1.01-1.36). Immunogenicity of 4CMenB was not impacted by co-administration with routine pediatric vaccines in infants. Reactogenicity was slightly higher in the 4CMenB+Routine group compared with Routine group, but no safety concerns were identified.

  3. Socio-demographic determinants of timely adherence to BCG, Penta3, measles, and complete vaccination schedule in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeps, A; Ouédraogo, N; Kagoné, M; Sié, A; Müller, O; Becher, H

    2013-12-17

    To identify the determinants of timely vaccination among young children in the North-West of Burkina Faso. This study included 1665 children between 12 and 23 months of age from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, born between September 2006 and December 2008. The effect of socio-demographic variables on timely adherence to the complete vaccination schedule was studied in multivariable ordinal logistic regression with 3 distinct endpoints: (i) complete timely adherence, (ii) failure, and (iii) missing vaccination. Three secondary endpoints were timely vaccination with BCG, Penta3, and measles, which were studied with standard multivariable logistic regression. Mothers' education, socio-economic status, season of birth, and area of residence were significantly associated with failure of timely adherence to the complete vaccination schedule. Year of birth, ethnicity, and the number of siblings was significantly related to timely vaccination with Penta3 but not with BCG or measles vaccination. Children living in rural areas were more likely to fail timely vaccination with BCG than urban children (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.24-2.58 (proximity to health facility), OR=3.02, 95%CI=2.18-4.19 (long distance to health facility)). In contrast, when looking at Penta3 and measles vaccination, children living in rural areas were far less likely to have failed timely vaccinations than urban children. Mother's education positively influenced timely adherence to the vaccination schedule (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.06-1.89). There was no effect of household size or the age of the mother. Additional health facilities and encouragement of women to give birth in these facilities could improve timely vaccination with BCG. Rural children had an advantage over the urban children in timely vaccination, which is probably attributable to outreach vaccination teams amongst other factors. As urban children rely on their mothers' own initiative to get vaccinated, urban mothers should be

  4. An evaluation of respiratory administration of measles vaccine for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

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    Jadhav Suresh S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles was responsible for an estimated 100,000 deaths worldwide in 2008. Despite being a vaccine-preventable disease, measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Although a safe and effective injectable measles vaccine has been available for over 50 years it has not been possible to achieve the uniformly high levels of coverage (required to achieve measles eradication in most parts of the developing world. Aerosolised measles vaccines are now under development with the hope of challenging the delivery factors currently limiting the coverage of the existing vaccine. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments to assess the strengths and weaknesses of this emerging intervention to decrease the burden of childhood pneumonia. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging aerosol vaccines against measles relevant to several criteria of interest. Although there are a number of different aerosol vaccine approaches under development, for the purpose of this exercise, all were considered as one intervention. The criteria of interest were: answerability; cost of development, production and implementation; efficacy and effectiveness; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential impact on disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each

  5. Estimation of measles vaccination coverage using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method--Tamilnadu, India, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, Saravanan; Manickam, P; Ramakrishnan, R; Hutin, Y; Gupte, M D

    2006-04-28

    As part of the global strategic plan to reduce the number of measles deaths in India, the state of Tamilnadu aims at > or =95% measles vaccination coverage. A study was conducted to measure overall coverage levels for the Poondi Primary Health Center (PPHC), a rural health-care facility in Tiruvallur District, and to determine whether any of the PPHC's six health subcenters had coverage levels LQAS) method was used to identify health subcenters in the PPHC area with measles vaccination coverage levels or =95%). All data were pooled in a stratified sample to estimate overall total coverage in the PPHC area. For two (33.3%) of the six health subcenters, more than two children were unvaccinated (i.e., coverage was LQAS techniques proved useful in identifying small health areas with lower vaccination coverage, which helps to target interventions. Monthly review of vaccination coverage by subcenter and village is recommended to identify pockets of unvaccinated children and to maintain uniform high coverage in the PPHC area.

  6. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...... at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group C). Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratio between 4.5 and 36 months of age for group A compared with groups B and C. Secondary outcomes...

  7. Non-specific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles vaccinations? An analysis of surveillance data from Navrongo, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaga, Paul; Nielsen, Jens; Adjuik, Martin; Debpuur, Cornelius; Ross, David A; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that routine vaccinations may have non-specific effects on child mortality; measles vaccine (MV) is associated with lower mortality and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) with relatively higher mortality. We used data from Navrongo, Ghana, to examine the impact of vaccinations on child mortality. Vaccination status was assessed at the initiation of a trial of vitamin A supplementation and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Within the placebo group, we compared the mortality over the first 4 months and the full 2 years of follow-up for different vaccination status groups with different likelihoods of additional vaccinations during follow-up. The frequency of additional vaccinations was assessed among children whose vaccination card was seen at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Among children with a vaccination card, more than 75% received missing DTP or MV during the first 12 months of follow-up, whereas only 25% received these vaccines among children with no vaccination card at enrollment. Children without a card at enrollment had a significant threefold higher mortality over the 2-year follow-up period than those fully vaccinated. The small group of children with DTP3-4 but no MV at enrollment had lower mortality than children without a card and had the same mortality as fully vaccinated children. In contrast, children with 1-2 DTP doses but no MV had a higher mortality during the first 4 months than children without a card [MRR = 1.65 (0.95, 2.87)]; compared with the fully vaccinated children, they had significantly higher mortality after 4 months [MRR = 2.38 (1.07, 5.30)] and after 2 years [MRR = 2.41 (1.41, 4.15)]. Children with 0-2 DTP doses at enrollment had higher mortality after 4 months (MRR = 1.67 (0.82, 3.43) and after 2 years [MRR = 1.85 (1.16, 2.95)] than children who had all three doses of DTP at enrollment. As hypothesised, DTP vaccination was associated with higher child mortality than measles

  8. Analysis of the Auckland 2014 measles outbreak indicates that adolescents and young adults could benefit from catch-up vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gary; Dias, Cassandra; Thornley, Simon; King, Ronald; Morrison, Anne; Matson, Angela; Hoskins, Richard

    2015-09-25

    To analyse the epidemiology, serology and vaccine effectiveness in a recent New Zealand measles outbreak that started in Auckland, from December, 2013 to June, 2014, to guide further preventive measures. Cases had a clinically compatible illness, which was either confirmed by PCR or serology, or were linked to a laboratory confirmed case. A total of 113 cases with 3,113 contacts were traced and managed in the Auckland region. Thirteen overseas acquired cases, produced a total of 98 locally acquired secondary cases, (plus two cases with unknown travel history). The majority of cases occurred in adolescents and young adults; 68/113 cases (60.1%) were aged 10 to 19 years. Among cases, 38.9% (44/113) were unimmunised, and 31.8% (36/113) had unknown immunisation status. A further 15.0% (17/113) of cases had received one or two doses of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Of the contacts who underwent serological testing for immunity (n=735), the lowest levels of serological immunity were observed in people aged 10 to 24 years. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated for the 15-24 year age cohort at 92% (95%CI; 82-97). Results suggest that an adolescent catch-up immunisation programme would prevent further outbreaks of imported measles.

  9. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study.

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    Mady Hornig

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of measles virus (MV RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and gastrointestinal (GI disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances. Failure to replicate the original study design may contribute to continued public concern with respect to the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine.The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether children with GI disturbances and autism are more likely than children with GI disturbances alone to have MV RNA and/or inflammation in bowel tissues and if autism and/or GI episode onset relate temporally to receipt of MMR. The sample was an age-matched group of US children undergoing clinically-indicated ileocolonoscopy. Ileal and cecal tissues from 25 children with autism and GI disturbances and 13 children with GI disturbances alone (controls were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR for presence of MV RNA in three laboratories blinded to diagnosis, including one wherein the original findings suggesting a link between MV and ASD were reported. The temporal order of onset of GI episodes and autism relative to timing of MMR administration was examined. We found no differences between case and control groups in the presence of MV RNA in ileum and cecum. Results were consistent across the three laboratory sites. GI symptom and autism onset were unrelated to MMR timing. Eighty-eight percent of ASD cases had behavioral regression.This study provides strong evidence against association of autism with persistent MV RNA in the GI tract or MMR exposure. Autism with GI disturbances is associated with elevated rates of regression in language or other skills and may represent an endophenotype distinct from other ASD.

  10. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmila Mallik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders

  11. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system. PMID:23115416

  12. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-12-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system.

  13. Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a strains mucosally deliver DNA vaccines encoding measles virus hemagglutinin, inducing specific immune responses and protection in cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M; Polo, John M; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2003-05-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA and Shigella flexneri 2a CVD 1208 vaccines to deliver mucosally to cotton rats eukaryotic expression plasmid pGA3-mH and Sindbis virus-based DNA replicon pMSIN-H encoding MV hemagglutinin (H). The initial i.n. dose-response with bacterial vectors alone identified a well-tolerated dosage (1 x 10(9) to 7 x 10(9) CFU) and a volume (20 micro l) that elicited strong antivector immune responses. Animals immunized i.n. on days 0, 28, and 76 with bacterial vectors carrying DNA plasmids encoding MV H or immunized parenterally with these naked DNA vaccine plasmids developed MV plaque reduction neutralizing antibodies and proliferative responses against MV antigens. In a subsequent experiment of identical design, cotton rats were challenged with wild-type MV 1 month after the third dose of vaccine or placebo. MV titers were significantly reduced in lung tissue of animals immunized with MV DNA vaccines delivered either via bacterial live vectors or parenterally. Since attenuated serovar Typhi and S. flexneri can deliver measles DNA vaccines mucosally in cotton rats, inducing measles immune responses (including neutralizing antibodies) and protection, boosting strategies can now be evaluated in animals primed with MV DNA vaccines.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children No período de março de 1991 a abril de 1992, 250 casos de um total de 293 notificados como sarampo em Niterói, RJ foram estudados. Em 75,9% dos casos o sarampo ocorreu em pessoas de idade escolar (mediana: 11. História de exposição estava presmte em 149 pacientes. O local de transmissão variou de acordo com a idade sendo a escola o mais freqüentemente encoiitrado (45%. Em 127 casos o estado vacinai era conhecido e 76,4% deles tinham sido vacinados antes do primeiro aniversário. Em 68 casos uma ou mais complicações estavam presentes e em 8,9% deles a hospitalização foi necessária. Complicações foram mais freqüentes em menores de um ano de idade (55,6%. História de vacinação prévia não diminuiu o número de complicações dos casos estudados. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram mudanças na epidemiologia do sarampo, com alterações na distribuição etária dos casos da doença, leimido ã ocoiTência de importantes surtos da virose entre adolecentes e adultos jovens.

  15. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzie Mvula

    Full Text Available Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV. We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting.Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression.Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36, 19 days (IQR 8-36 for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46 for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule.Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

  16. THE RESULTS OF STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO THE COMBINED INJECTION VACCINES AGAINST INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS AND DT IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Haritе

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of antibodies to the separate and combined administration of the vaccine plus Grippol® Plus and vaccines against measles, mumps and/or rubella, diphtheria and tetanus (DT in children with chronic medical illnesses, including HIV and organic CNS. Revealed that at low reactogenicity and safety of the vaccine Grippol® Plus, concomitant vaccination does not affect the dynamics of the synthesis (seroprotection, seroconversion, diphtheria, mumps, and rubella antibodies, however, reduces the synthesis of measles antibodies. When combined administration of DT and mumps-measles vaccines + Grippol® Plus suppressed antibody response to a strain of influenza virus A/H3N2. 

  17. Live attenuated measles virus vaccine therapy for locally established malignant glioblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shammari AM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Al-Shammari,1 Farah E Ismaeel,2 Shahlaa M Salih,2 Nahi Y Yaseen11Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Researches, Mustansiriya University, 2Departments of Biotechnology, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, with poor prognosis. A new glioblastoma cell line (ANGM5 was established from a cerebral glioblastoma multiforme in a 72-year-old Iraqi man who underwent surgery for an intracranial tumor. This study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor effect of live attenuated measles virus (MV Schwarz vaccine strain on glioblastoma multiforme tumor cell lines in vitro. Live attenuated MV Schwarz strain was propagated on Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and human glioblastoma-multiform (ANGM5 cell lines. The infected confluent monolayer appeared to be covered with syncytia with granulation and vacuolation, as well as cell rounding, shrinkage, and large empty space with cell debris as a result of cell lysis and death. Cell lines infected with virus have the ability for hemadsorption to human red blood cells after 72 hours of infection, whereas no hemadsorption of uninfected cells is seen. Detection of MV hemagglutinin protein by monoclonal antibodies in infected cells of all cell lines by immunocytochemistry assay gave positive results (brown color in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Cell viability was measured after 72 hours of infection by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results showed a significant cytotoxic effect for MV (P≤0.05 on growth of ANGM5 and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines after 72 hours of infection. Induction of apoptosis by MV was assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potentials in tumor cells after 48, 72, and 120 hours of infection. Apoptotic cells were counted, and the mean percentage of dead cells was significantly higher after 48, 72

  18. A ‘post-honeymoon’ measles epidemic in Burundi: mathematical model-based analysis and implications for vaccination timing

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    Katelyn C. Corey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a mathematical model with realistic demography, we analyze a large outbreak of measles in Muyinga sector in rural Burundi in 1988–1989. We generate simulated epidemic curves and age × time epidemic surfaces, which we qualitatively and quantitatively compare with the data. Our findings suggest that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs should be used in places where routine vaccination cannot keep up with the increasing numbers of susceptible individuals resulting from population growth or from logistical problems such as cold chain maintenance. We use the model to characterize the relationship between SIA frequency and SIA age range necessary to suppress measles outbreaks. If SIAs are less frequent, they must expand their target age range.

  19. Assesment of the Knowledge Attitude and Practices of Mothers Having Children in the Age Group of 9 to 36 Months regarding Measles and its Vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, F.; Mohsin, S.N.; Aasim, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Measles is a contagious viral disease. Despite the availability of safe and cost-effective vaccine which is given free of cost through EPI to all children under 12 months of age, measles outbreak continue to occur in Pakistan raising questions on the awareness of the parents about this disease and its prevention. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers having children in the age group of 9 months to 3 years about measles and its vaccination. Study design, settings and duration: A community based cross sectional study for a period of 12 months from April 2014 to April 2015 carried out at PHRC Research Centre NHRC, Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex, Lahore. Subjects and Methods: House to house survey was conducted in 10 union councils of Lahore city. House to house survey was done. After taking informed written consent from eligible mothers for their voluntary participation in the study, information regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices was collected by the trained data collectors on a semistructured questionnaire. Results: A total of 828 mothers of children aged between 9 to 36 months were enrolled and their data was collected. Due to incomplete information, data of 73 mothers was not analysed leaving 755 mothers. Though 98.7percent mothers knew that vaccination for measles is a preventive measure but the schedule of its vaccination was correctly known by 80.9 percent mothers and 77.5 percent knew that the child can suffer from measles if not vaccinated. The complications like death, pneumonia, diarrhea, unconsciousness, fits and weakness as a result of measles were known by less than 6 percent mothers. Although 95 percent children were vaccinated for measles as per verification of their immunization cards but despite vaccination almost 22.3 percent mothers reported that their children suffered from measles. Most of such cases (68.1 percent) were between 2-5 years. Conclusion: Inspite of 95 percent immunization

  20. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

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    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  1. The average cost of measles cases and adverse events following vaccination in industrialised countries

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    Kou Ulla

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the annual incidence rate of measles has dramatically decreased in industrialised countries since the implementation of universal immunisation programmes, cases continue to occur in countries where endemic measles transmission has been interrupted and in countries where adequate levels of immunisation coverage have not been maintained. The objective of this study is to develop a model to estimate the average cost per measles case and per adverse event following measles immunisation using the Netherlands (NL, the United Kingdom (UK and Canada as examples. Methods Parameter estimates were based on a review of the published literature. A decision tree was built to represent the complications associated with measles cases and adverse events following imminisation. Monte-Carlo Simulation techniques were used to account for uncertainty. Results From the perspective of society, we estimated the average cost per measles case to be US$276, US$307 and US$254 for the NL, the UK and Canada, respectively, and the average cost of adverse events following immunisation per vaccinee to be US$1.43, US$1.93 and US$1.51 for the NL, UK and Canada, respectively. Conclusions These average cost estimates could be combined with incidence estimates and costs of immunisation programmes to provide estimates of the cost of measles to industrialised countries. Such estimates could be used as a basis to estimate the potential economic gains of global measles eradication.

  2. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Diane L.; Santra, Sampa; Swett, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston Zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag protein for the purpose of evaluating the immunogenicity of rMV as a vaccine vector in rhesus macaques. rMV-Gag...

  3. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality......). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. Results: Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination was not associated...... with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI],.82-. 97...

  4. INTRALESIONAL MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA (MMR VACCINE-AN EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TOOL IN THE TREATMENT OF WART

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    Raju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are common cutaneous viral infection. Various therapeutic modalities have been using in treatment of wart, but none of them are standardised. Immunotherapy is new current approach in the treatment of wart. AIMS: To know the efficacy and safety profile of Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR Vaccine in the treatment of wart. METHODS: MMR vaccine was injected into a largest single wart intralesionally and subsequent injections given every 2 weeks apart for about 3 to 5 times. Every month followup of patients was done to know the clearance of wart. RESULTS: Complete remission of warts seen in 70.4% of patients, partial remission seen in 22.2% and no response was seen in 7.4% of patients. No serious adverse side effects were seen in the current study. CONCLUSION: MMR vaccine can be considered as a safe, effective, inexpensive intralesional immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of wart.

  5. Live attenuated measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus like particles covered with gp160ΔV1V2 is strongly immunogenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerbois, Mathilde; Moris, Arnaud; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Ruffie, Claude; Fevrier, Michele; Cayet, Nadege; Brandler, Samantha; Schwartz, Olivier; Tangy, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Although a live attenuated HIV vaccine is not currently considered for safety reasons, a strategy inducing both T cells and neutralizing antibodies to native assembled HIV-1 particles expressed by a replicating virus might mimic the advantageous characteristics of live attenuated vaccine. To this aim, we generated a live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) covered with gp160ΔV1V2 Env protein. The measles-HIV virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and induced the intense budding of HIV particles covered with Env. In mice sensitive to MV infection, this recombinant vaccine stimulated high levels of cellular and humoral immunity to both MV and HIV with neutralizing activity. The measles-HIV virus infected human professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and induced efficient presentation of HIV-1 epitopes and subsequent activation of human HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell clones. This candidate vaccine will be next tested in non-human primates. As a pediatric vaccine, it might protect children and adolescents simultaneously from measles and HIV.

  6. Biodegradable Bioadherent Microcapsules for Orally Administered Sustained Release Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Fasciola hepatica which is a known bioadhesive’’. The encapsulation method is the classical, well described water in oil technique for the preparation of...immunization, Vaccine 12 (1994) 387-340. 6. Waite, J.H., Rice-Ficht, A.C., Presclerotized eggshell protein from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica...Biochemistry 26 (1987) 7819-7825. 7. Waite, J.H., Rice-Ficht, A.C., Eggshell precursor proteins of Fasciola hepatica: II. Microheterogeneity in vitelline

  7. Observational study on immune response to yellow fever and measles vaccines in 9 to 15-month old children. Is it necessary to wait 4 weeks between two live attenuated vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R; Berger, F; Ravelonarivo, J; Dussart, P; Dia, M; Nacher, M; Rogier, S; Moua, D; Sarr, F D; Diop, O M; Sall, A A; Baril, L

    2015-05-11

    The use of 2 live attenuated vaccines (LAV) is recommended to be simultaneous or after an interval of at least four weeks between injections. The primary objective of this study was to compare the humoral response to yellow fever (YF) and measles vaccines among children vaccinated against these two diseases, either simultaneously or separated by an interval of 7-28 days. A prospective, multicenter observational study was conducted among children aged 9-15 months. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of positive yellow fever antibodies after YF vaccine by estimating the titers of neutralizing antibodies from venous blood samples. Children vaccinated against YF 7-28 days after receiving the vaccine against measles (test group) were compared with children vaccinated the same day against these two diseases (referent group). Analysis was performed on 284 children. Of them, fifty-four belonged to the test group. Measles serology was positive in 91.7% of children. Neutralizing antibodies against YF were detected in 90.7% of the test group and 92.9 of the referent group (p=0.6). In addition, quantitative analysis of the immune response did not show a lower response to YF vaccination when it took place 1-28 days after measles vaccination. In 1965, Petralli showed a lower response to the smallpox vaccine when injected 4-20 days after measles vaccination. Since then, recommendations are to observe an interval of four weeks between LAV not injected on the same day. Other published studies failed to show a significant difference in the immune response to a LAV injected 1-28 days after another LAV. These results suggest that the usual recommendations for immunization with two LAV may not be correct. In low income countries, the current policy should be re-evaluated. This re-evaluation should also be applied to travelers to yellow fever endemic countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey.

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    Tang, Xianyan; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward; Zhou, Hongxia; Deng, Qiuyun; Dong, Aihu

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18-54 months in rural Guangxi. Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011-2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1) and second (MCV2) doses of the vaccine. A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%-62.0%) for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%-80.0%) for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%-51.0%). The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27-38) days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118-195) days for MCV2. The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey

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    Xianyan Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV. This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18–54 months in rural Guangxi. Methods: Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011–2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Weighted Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1 and second (MCV2 doses of the vaccine. Results: A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%–62.0% for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%–80.0% for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%–51.0%. The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27–38 days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118–195 days for MCV2. Conclusions: The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China.

  10. Differential miRNA expression in B cells is associated with inter-individual differences in humoral immune response to measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Simon, Whitney L; Goergen, Krista M; Grill, Diane E; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Poland, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important mediators of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through RNA degradation and translational repression, and are emerging biomarkers of immune system activation/response after vaccination. We performed Next Generation Sequencing (mRNA-Seq) of intracellular miRNAs in measles virus-stimulated B and CD4+ T cells from high and low antibody responders to measles vaccine. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used for miRNA assessment and the DIANA tool was used for gene/target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis. We identified a set of B cell-specific miRNAs (e.g., miR-151a-5p, miR-223, miR-29, miR-15a-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-103a, and miR-15a/16 cluster) and biological processes/pathways, including regulation of adherens junction proteins, Fc-receptor signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling pathway, growth factor signaling pathway/pathways, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and virus-related processes, significantly associated with neutralizing antibody titers after measles vaccination. No CD4+ T cell-specific miRNA expression differences between high and low antibody responders were found. Our study demonstrates that miRNA expression directly or indirectly influences humoral immunity to measles vaccination and suggests that B cell-specific miRNAs may serve as useful predictive biomarkers of vaccine humoral immune response.

  11. Measles transmission following the tsunami in a population with a high one-dose vaccination coverage, Tamil Nadu, India 2004–2005

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    Wairgkar Niteen S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 December 2004, a tsunami struck the coast of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, where one-dose measles coverage exceeded 95%. On 29 December, supplemental measles immunization activities targeted children 6 to 60 months of age in affected villages. On 30 December, Cuddalore, a tsunami-affected district in Tamil Nadu reported a cluster of measles cases. We investigated this cluster to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to propose recommendations for control. Methods We received notification of WHO-defined measles cases through stimulated passive surveillance. We collected information regarding date of onset, age, sex, vaccination status and residence. We collected samples for IgM antibodies and genotype studies. We modeled the accumulation of susceptible individuals over the time on the basis of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy and birth rate. Results We identified 101 measles cases and detected IgM antibodies against measles virus in eight of 11 sera. Cases were reported from tsunami-affected (n = 71 and unaffected villages (n = 30 with attack rates of 1.3 and 1.7 per 1000, respectively. 42% of cases in tsunami-affected villages had an onset date within 14 days of the tsunami. The median ages of case-patients in tsunami-affected and un-affected areas were 54 months and 60 months respectively (p = 0.471. 36% of cases from tsunami-affected areas were above 60 months of age. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sequences of virus belonged to genotype D8 that circulated in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion Measles virus circulated in Cuddalore district following the tsunami, although there was no association between the two events. Transmission despite high one-dose vaccination coverage pointed to the limitations of this vaccination strategy. A second opportunity for measles immunization may help reducing measles mortality and morbidity in such areas. Children from 6 month to 14 years of age must be targeted for

  12. The effectiveness of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination in the prevention of pediatric hospitalizations for targeted and untargeted infections: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Saulle, Rosella; Unim, Brigid; Meggiolaro, Angela; Barbato, Angelo; Mannocci, Alice; Spadea, Antonietta

    2017-08-03

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in reducing hospitalizations for infectious disease, targeted and not targeted, as well as from respiratory diseases in children in Rome. The cohort was recomposed through record linkage of 2 archives (vaccination register and hospital discharge records. The analysis included 11,004 children. 20.9% did not receive the MMR vaccination, 49% and 30.1% received one and 2 doses. There were no hospitalizations for rubella, 2 for mumps, and 12 for measles. The vaccine was highly protective against measles and mumps hospitalizations (HR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.03.0.34). Regarding all infectious diseases there were 414 hospitalizations, and the vaccine was protective (HR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.34). Concerning respiratory diseases, there were 809 admissions (7.4%), and the vaccine was highly protective (HR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.48). MMR vaccination is effective for the primary prevention of target and not targeted infectious diseases and may also limit hospitalizations for respiratory diseases.

  13. Head-to-head immunogenicity comparison of Edmonston-Zagreb vs. AIK-C measles vaccine strains in infants aged 8-12 months: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Shahrokh; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Salehi, Masoud; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2018-01-29

    A non-inferiority multi-centre parallel randomized double-blind trial was implemented in Zahedan district, Sistan-va-Baluchestan province, Iran, to compare the performance of the two measles vaccines which are in use in the National Immunization Programme of Iran and are of two different measles virus vaccine strains: Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) strain vs. AIK-C strain. The main outcome measure was appearance of anti-measles antibody in sera. 200 infants, 8-12 months old, whose parents consented for their children to be included in the study, were randomized in permutation blocks of size 4-8 in four Urban Health Clinics. Having given a pre-vaccination blood sample, they received measles-rubella vaccine containing one of the vaccine strains mentioned before. After 60 days, the second blood sample was taken. The sera of the pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were tested for anti-measles antibodies in the National Reference Measles Laboratory. Parents, laboratory technicians and statistician were blind to groupings. Of the 200 children equally randomized in the two arms, 185 who were seronegative before vaccination (88 in the EZ arm and 97 in the AIK-C arm) were entered in the final analysis. The seroconversion rate in the EZ arm was 76.1% (95% CI: 60.2-85.2%), and that in the AIK-C arm was 58.7%; (95% CI: 48.8-68.7%). The absolute rate difference was 17. 4% (4.1-30.9%; P-value: .012), and the relative seroconversion rate of EZ to AIK-C was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.6; P-value: .012). No adverse events were reported during the study period. A considerable difference in the seropositivity of different measles containing vaccines could be demonstrated in the first year of life. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials Registration Number: IRCT2016032827144N1; May 10, 2016 (www.who.int/ictrp/network/irct/en/). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-vaccination evolution of antibodies among infants 0, 3 and 6months of age: A longitudinal analysis of measles, enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuanxi; Shen, Jichuan; Lu, Long; Li, Yajing; Cao, Yimin; Wang, Ming; Pei, Sen; Yang, Zhicong; Guo, Qing; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-07-05

    Due to waning levels of maternal antibodies (measles; enterovirus 71, EV71; and coxsackievirus A16, CoxA16), some infants may lose protection against infection prior to vaccination. Using a longitudinal design, we examine how maternal antibody levels evolve over time in infants prior to vaccination. In 2013-2014, we collected sera at ages 0, 3 and 6months from infants. We assayed for levels of measles IgG antibody (717, 233 and 75 sample sera tested at months 0, 3 and 6, respectively), and neutralizing antibodies for EV71 and CoxA16 (225, 217, and 72). Demographic and health information were collected, and a linear mixed model (LMM) was used to describe antibody levels over time. Pre-vaccination monotonic antibody decreases were observed for measles (1410, 195 and 22mIU/ml, p<0.001), EV71 (1:19.9, 6.3 and 4.5, p<0.001) and CoxA16 (1:16.3, 5.9, and 4.5, p<0.001). At 6months of age, only 2.7% (95%CI, 0.6-8.3), 6.8% (95%CI, 2.7-14.4) and 5.6% (95%CI, 1.9-12.7) of infants were antibody positive for measles, EV71 and CoxA16, respectively. LMM findings indicated that infants with higher antibody titers at birth experienced a greater loss of antibody level. An infection rate of 1.3% (95%CI, 0.1-6.1) was reported for both EV71 and CoxA16. Further modifications of vaccination strategies for measles, earlier vaccination for EV71 infection, and deployment of a CoxA16 vaccine need to be considered to limit infection among the very young. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Diane L.; Santra, Sampa; Swett-Tapia, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh; Naim, Hussein; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Lifton, Michelle; Goudsmit, Jaap; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston

  16. Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Schöller, S.; Schierup, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis of the he......A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis...... of the hemagglutinin gene. The strains exhibited a considerable genomic diversity, which is at odds with the assumption that one genome type prevailed among globally circulating MV strains prior to the advent of live-attenuated vaccines. Our data indicate that the similarity of the various vaccine strains...... is attributed to their having originated from the same primary isolate. Consequently, it is implied that a small number of clinical manifestations of MV worldwide from which strains similar to the vaccine strain were identified were vaccine related rather than being caused by members of a persistently...

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of coadministering a combined meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2011-03-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all three vaccines concomitantly. Immunogenicity endpoints were MCC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers of ≥8, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG antibody concentrations of ≥0.15 μg/ml, PCV serotype-specific IgG concentrations of ≥0.35 μg/ml, measles and mumps IgG concentrations of >120 arbitrary units (AU)/ml, and rubella IgG concentrations of ≥11 AU/ml. For safety assessment, the proportions of children with erythema, swelling, or tenderness at site of injection or fever or other systemic symptoms for 7 days after immunization were compared between regimens. No adverse consequences for either safety or immunogenicity were demonstrated when MCC/Hib vaccine was given concomitantly with PCV and MMR vaccine at 12 months of age or separately at 12 and 13 months of age. Any small differences in immunogenicity were largely in the direction of a higher response when all three vaccines were given concomitantly. For systemic symptoms, there was no evidence of an additive effect; rather, any differences between schedules showed benefit from the concomitant administration of all three vaccines, such as lower overall proportions with postvaccination fevers. The United Kingdom infant immunization schedule now recommends that these three vaccines may be offered at one visit at between 12 and 13 months of age.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine when given with measles-rubella combined vaccine and yellow fever vaccine and when given via different administration routes: a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ed; Saidu, Yauba; Adetifa, Jane U; Adigweme, Ikechukwu; Hydara, Mariama Badjie; Bashorun, Adedapo O; Moneke-Anyanwoke, Ngozi; Umesi, Ama; Roberts, Elishia; Cham, Pa Modou; Okoye, Michael E; Brown, Kevin E; Niedrig, Matthias; Chowdhury, Panchali Roy; Clemens, Ralf; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Mueller, Jenny; Jeffries, David J; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) represents a crucial step in the polio eradication endgame. This trial examined the safety and immunogenicity of IPV given alongside the measles-rubella and yellow fever vaccines at 9 months and when given as a full or fractional dose using needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector. We did a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial at three periurban government clinics in west Gambia. Infants aged 9-10 months who had already received oral poliovirus vaccine were randomly assigned to receive the IPV, measles-rubella, and yellow fever vaccines, singularly or in combination. Separately, IPV was given as a full intramuscular or fractional intradermal dose by needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector at a second visit. The primary outcomes were seroprevalence rates for poliovirus 4-6 weeks post-vaccination and the rate of seroconversion between baseline and post-vaccination serum samples for measles, rubella, and yellow fever; and the post-vaccination antibody titres generated against each component of the vaccines. We did a per-protocol analysis with a non-inferiority margin of 10% for poliovirus seroprevalence and measles, rubella, and yellow fever seroconversion, and (1/3) log2 for log2-transformed antibody titres. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01847872. Between July 10, 2013, and May 8, 2014, we assessed 1662 infants for eligibility, of whom 1504 were enrolled into one of seven groups for vaccine interference and one of four groups for fractional dosing and alternative route of administration. The rubella and yellow fever antibody titres were reduced by co-administration but the seroconversion rates achieved non-inferiority in both cases (rubella, -4·5% [95% CI -9·5 to -0·1]; yellow fever, 1·2% [-2·9 to 5·5]). Measles and poliovirus responses were unaffected (measles, 6·8% [95% CI -1·4 to 14·9]; poliovirus serotype 1, 1·6% [-6·7 to 4·7

  19. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Andersen, Andreas; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Lisse, Ida M; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton C

    2010-11-30

    To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of age (current policy). Randomised controlled trial. The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. 6648 children aged 4.5 months of age who had received three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group C). Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratio between 4.5 and 36 months of age for group A compared with groups B and C. Secondary outcomes tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effect was stronger in the 4.5 to 9 months age group, in girls, and in the dry season, but the study was not powered to test whether effects differed significantly between subgroups. In the intention to treat analysis of mortality between 4.5 and 36 months of age the mortality rate ratio of children who received two doses of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those who received a single dose of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine or Schwarz vaccine at 9 months of age was 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1.05). In the analyses of secondary outcomes, the intention to treat mortality rate ratio was 0.67 (0.38 to 1.19) between 4.5 and 9 months and 0.83 (0.83 to 1.16) between 9 and 36 months of age. The effect on mortality between 4.5 and 36 months of age was significant for

  20. MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age Second dose: 4 through 6 years of age A third dose of MMRV might be recommended in certain mumps outbreak situations. There are no known risks to getting ... 12 years of age might get 2 separate shots: MMR (measles, mumps ...

  1. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be

  2. [The active offering of measles, rubella and mumps vaccine in new mothers: the experience of health facilities in one of the Local Health Unit of Rome, Lazio, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Viviana; Pettinicchio, Valentina; Lancia, Andreina; Vazzoler, Cristiana; De Luca, Francesca; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Rubella is a contagious disease that can be very serious, especially in unvaccinated pregnant women. The best way to be protected is getting vaccinated: MMR vaccine is very effective at protecting people against measles, mumps, and rubella, and preventing the complications caused by these diseases. According to PASSI 2012-2015 (the Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system) in the territory of ex ASL Roma C only 56% of women between 18 and 49 years were immunized against rubella, thanks to vaccination (34%) or past infection detected by rubeotest (22%); 2% was susceptible and 42% of respondents did not know their immune status against rubella. The Italian National Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Congenital Rubella (PNEMoRc) 2010-15 had the aim to reduce the prevalence of rubella susceptibility in young women (<5%), to reduce the prevalence of congenital rubella and to increase MMR vaccination coverage. This plan suggested to promote actions to spread correct information about MMR vaccine in the general population and healthcare workers and to offer this vaccine to susceptible women during every appropriate contact with the Family planning clinics. In order to ensure and monitor these recommendations, a recovery procedure for MMR vaccine was activated in 2015 for women who contacted the health facilities for their first child vaccination. A form was developed in order to collect information about women's immune status against rubella and measles. According to this tool all women who stated they had never been vaccinated for rubella or MMR and/or did not remember vaccination and/or had never had a rubeotest were considered susceptible to rubella. Women susceptible to rubella were invited to undergo vaccination. Data collected during one year activity were recorded and analyzed with Epinfo 7.0 software. We collected 1801 correctly filled forms; 88.6% (1595) of women were evaluated immune to rubella and 11.4% susceptible. The prevalence of

  3. Reduced childhood mortality after standard measles vaccination at 4-8 months compared with 9-11 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, M; Sodemann, Morten

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age.......To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age....

  4. Biological Feasibility of Measles Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in reducing global measles mortality has renewed interest in measles eradication. Three biological criteria are deemed important for disease eradication: (1) humans are the sole pathogen reservoir; (2) accurate diagnostic tests exist; and (3) an effective, practical intervention is available at reasonable cost. Interruption of transmission in large geographical areas for prolonged periods further supports the feasibility of eradication. Measles is thought by many experts to meet these criteria: no nonhuman reservoir is known to exist, accurate diagnostic tests are available, and attenuated measles vaccines are effective and immunogenic. Measles has been eliminated in large geographical areas, including the Americas. Measles eradication is biologically feasible. The challenges for measles eradication will be logistical, political, and financial. PMID:21666201

  5. MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-term seizures, coma, or lowered consciousness ‚ ‚Brain damage Other things that could happen after this vaccine: ‚ ‚People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. ...

  6. MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deafness ‚ ‚ Long-term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness ‚ ‚ Brain damage Other things that could happen after this vaccine: ‚ ‚ People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. ...

  7. Intervene before leaving: clustered lot quality assurance sampling to monitor vaccination coverage at health district level before the end of a yellow fever and measles vaccination campaign in Sierra Leone in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzoli Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2009, Sierra Leone conducted a preventive yellow fever (YF vaccination campaign targeting individuals aged nine months and older in six health districts. The campaign was integrated with a measles follow-up campaign throughout the country targeting children aged 9–59 months. For both campaigns, the operational objective was to reach 95% of the target population. During the campaign, we used clustered lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS to identify areas of low coverage to recommend timely mop-up actions. Methods We divided the country in 20 non-overlapping lots. Twelve lots were targeted by both vaccinations, while eight only by measles. In each lot, five clusters of ten eligible individuals were selected for each vaccine. The upper threshold (UT was set at 90% and the lower threshold (LT at 75%. A lot was rejected for low vaccination coverage if more than 7 unvaccinated individuals (not presenting vaccination card were found. After the campaign, we plotted the C-LQAS results against the post-campaign coverage estimations to assess if early interventions were successful enough to increase coverage in the lots that were at the level of rejection before the end of the campaign. Results During the last two days of campaign, based on card-confirmed vaccination status, five lots out of 20 (25.0% failed for having low measles vaccination coverage and three lots out of 12 (25.0% for low YF coverage. In one district, estimated post-campaign vaccination coverage for both vaccines was still not significantly above the minimum acceptable level (LT = 75% even after vaccination mop-up activities. Conclusion C-LQAS during the vaccination campaign was informative to identify areas requiring mop-up activities to reach the coverage target prior to leaving the region. The only district where mop-up activities seemed to be unsuccessful might have had logistical difficulties that should be further investigated and resolved.

  8. Intervene before leaving: clustered lot quality assurance sampling to monitor vaccination coverage at health district level before the end of a yellow fever and measles vaccination campaign in Sierra Leone in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Conteh, Ishata; Kamara, Wogba; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Ronveaux, Olivier; Perea, William A; Lewis, Rosamund F

    2012-06-07

    In November 2009, Sierra Leone conducted a preventive yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign targeting individuals aged nine months and older in six health districts. The campaign was integrated with a measles follow-up campaign throughout the country targeting children aged 9-59 months. For both campaigns, the operational objective was to reach 95% of the target population. During the campaign, we used clustered lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS) to identify areas of low coverage to recommend timely mop-up actions. We divided the country in 20 non-overlapping lots. Twelve lots were targeted by both vaccinations, while eight only by measles. In each lot, five clusters of ten eligible individuals were selected for each vaccine. The upper threshold (UT) was set at 90% and the lower threshold (LT) at 75%. A lot was rejected for low vaccination coverage if more than 7 unvaccinated individuals (not presenting vaccination card) were found. After the campaign, we plotted the C-LQAS results against the post-campaign coverage estimations to assess if early interventions were successful enough to increase coverage in the lots that were at the level of rejection before the end of the campaign. During the last two days of campaign, based on card-confirmed vaccination status, five lots out of 20 (25.0%) failed for having low measles vaccination coverage and three lots out of 12 (25.0%) for low YF coverage. In one district, estimated post-campaign vaccination coverage for both vaccines was still not significantly above the minimum acceptable level (LT = 75%) even after vaccination mop-up activities. C-LQAS during the vaccination campaign was informative to identify areas requiring mop-up activities to reach the coverage target prior to leaving the region. The only district where mop-up activities seemed to be unsuccessful might have had logistical difficulties that should be further investigated and resolved.

  9. Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of DTPa-IPV/Hib Vaccine Co-administered With Hepatitis B Vaccine for Primary and Booster Vaccination of Taiwanese Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lan Shao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib, Infanrix™-IPV + Hib was assessed when co-administered with hepatitis B (HBV vaccine. Seventy healthy infants received DTPa-IPV/Hib at 1.5, 3.5, 6 and 15–18 months, and HBV at birth, 1.5, 6 and 15–18 months of age. Serological responses were assessed. Diphtheria, tetanus, Hib and pertussis seroprotection/seropositivity rates were 100% after primary vaccination. Post-primary immune responses to poliovirus could not be evaluated for technical reasons. However, after the booster dose, seroprotection/seropositivity rates, including poliovirus, were 100%. Over 95% were seroprotected against HBV. Post-booster geometric mean antibody concentrations/titers (GMC/GMTs rose from 14-fold to 45-fold, indicating effective priming against all antigens, including polioviruses. DTPa-IPV/Hib was well tolerated alone or co-administered with HBV. No serious adverse events were considered related to vaccination. Primary and booster vaccination with combined DTPa-IPV/Hib and HBV was immunogenic and well tolerated. Combination vaccines enable vaccine providers to conveniently provide routine pediatric immunizations, with minimal discomfort.

  10. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI],.82-. 97......Background: Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality......, we conducted a substudy to investigate the effect of early MV receipt on morbidity. Methods: Children were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2: 1 to receive 2 doses of MVat 18 weeks and age 9 months (intervention group) or 1 dose of MV at age 9 months, in accordance with current practice (control group...

  11. Subunit Rotavirus Vaccine Administered Parenterally to Rabbits Induces Active Protective Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlet, Max; Crawford, Sue E.; Barone, Christopher; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea; Ramig, Robert F.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    1998-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are being evaluated as a candidate rotavirus vaccine. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different formulations of VLPs administered parenterally to rabbits were tested. Two doses of VLPs (2/6-, G3 2/6/7-, or P[2], G3 2/4/6/7-VLPs) or SA11 simian rotavirus in Freund’s adjuvants, QS-21 (saponin adjuvant), or aluminum phosphate (AlP) were administered. Serological and mucosal immune responses were evaluated in all vaccinated and control rabbits before and after oral challenge with 103 50% infective doses of live P[14], G3 ALA lapine rotavirus. All VLP- and SA11-vaccinated rabbits developed high levels of rotavirus-specific serum and intestinal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies but not intestinal IgA antibodies. SA11 and 2/4/6/7-VLPs afforded similar but much higher mean levels of protection than 2/6/7- or 2/6-VLPs in QS-21. The presence of neutralizing antibodies to VP4 correlated (P < 0.001, r = 0.55; Pearson’s correlation coefficient) with enhanced protection rates, suggesting that these antibodies are important for protection. Although the inclusion of VP4 resulted in higher mean protection levels, high levels of protection (87 to 100%) from infection were observed in individual rabbits immunized with 2/6/7- or 2/6-VLPs in Freund’s adjuvants. Therefore, neither VP7 nor VP4 was absolutely required to achieve protection from infection in the rabbit model when Freund’s adjuvant was used. Our results show that VLPs are immunogenic when administered parenterally to rabbits and that Freund’s adjuvant is a better adjuvant than QS-21. The use of the rabbit model may help further our understanding of the critical rotavirus proteins needed to induce active protection. VLPs are a promising candidate for a parenterally administered subunit rotavirus vaccine. PMID:9765471

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE MEASLES IN KIROVOGRAD REGION in 2004 – 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Operchuk, N.I.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction.The incidence of measles in Ukraine remains an actual problem. Measle is related to vaccine - controled infections. However, low levels of imunization of the child population by planned measles vaccine, insufficient provision of immunobiological drugs (vaccines) in recent years, anti-vaccine companies contribute to the increase of the measles morbidity in Ukraine.Prominent scientist L.V. Gromashevsky spoke about measles, which is a "disease of unique distribution". In the implem...

  13. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Njie-Jobe, Jainaba; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Encephalopathy after whole-cell pertussis or measles vaccination: lack of evidence for a causal association in a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paula; Hayward, Jean; Michelson, David; Lewis, Edwin; Schwalbe, Joan; Black, Steve; Shinefield, Henry; Marcy, Michael; Huff, Ken; Ward, Joel; Mullooly, John; Chen, Robert; Davis, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Whole-cell pertussis (wP) and measles vaccines are effective in preventing disease but have also been suspected of increasing the risk of encephalopathy or encephalitis. Although many countries now use acellular pertussis vaccines, wP vaccine is still widely used in the developing world. It is therefore important to evaluate whether wP vaccine increases the risk of neurologic disorders. A retrospective case-control study was performed at 4 health maintenance organizations. Records from January 1, 1981, through December 31, 1995, were examined to identify children aged 0 to 6 years old hospitalized with encephalopathy or related conditions. The cause of the encephalopathy was categorized as known, unknown or suspected but unconfirmed. Up to 3 controls were matched to each case. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relative risk of encephalopathy after vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in the 90 days before disease onset as defined by chart review compared with an equivalent period among controls indexed by matching on case onset date. Four-hundred fifty-two cases were identified. Cases were no more likely than controls to have received either vaccine during the 90 days before disease onset. When encephalopathies of known etiology were excluded, the odds ratio for case children having received DTP within 7 days before onset of disease was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45-3.31, P = 0.693) compared with control children. For MMR in the 90 days before onset of encephalopathy, the odds ratio was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 0.51-2.98, P = 0.647). In this study of more than 2 million children, DTP and MMR vaccines were not associated with an increased risk of encephalopathy after vaccination.

  15. Effects of supplemental measles immunization on cases of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Background: Measles is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable infection which continues to be a significant cause of .... other exanthematous childhood illnesses not in con- .... Sixty-third World Health Assembly Agenda pro-.

  16. Successful public health response to four cases of imported measles in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Nestor; Guerra, Ilka; Abrego, Leyda; Cisneros, Julio; Castillo, Juan; Nieto-Guevara, Javier; Gálvez, Carlos; Moltó, Yadira; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2012-08-21

    In Panama, the last endemic cases of measles occurred in 1995. In this paper, we report four cases of imported measles in three girls and one boy after they returned from a trip to Poland and Israel between 28 April and 11 May 2011. The etiologic diagnosis of the four cases was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies against measles virus and positive polymerase chain reaction using measles-specific primers. All cases had genotype D4 with close genetic similarity to virus reported from Poland. Public health interventions included isolation of the cases in their homes and an extensive search for and vaccination of contacts of the four cases, regardless of their vaccination status. A nationwide vaccination campaign was also implemented after the first case was identified. A total of 70,950 measles vaccine doses were administered in Panama in the two months following the identification of these cases. In addition, 94,179 persons were confirmed to have their immunization schedule up-to-date and did not receive the vaccine. No secondary cases were detected in Panama in the following six months.

  17. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  18. Immunogenicity and tolerability of recombinant serogroup B meningococcal vaccine administered with or without routine infant vaccinations according to different immunization schedules: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossger, Nicoletta; Snape, Matthew D; Yu, Ly-Mee; Finn, Adam; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Sokal, Etienne; Becker, Birgitta; Kieninger, Dorothee; Prymula, Roman; Dull, Peter; Ypma, Ellen; Toneatto, Daniela; Kimura, Alan; Pollard, Andrew J

    2012-02-08

    In the absence of an effective vaccine, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) remains a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood in developed countries. To determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a multicomponent MenB vaccine (4CMenB) and routine infant vaccines when given either concomitantly or separately. Phase 2b, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled study of 1885 infants enrolled at age 2 months from August 2008 to July 2010 in Europe. Participants were randomized 2:2:1:1 to receive (1) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines (7-valent pneumococcal and combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines); (2) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months and routine vaccines at 3, 5, and 7 months; (3) 4CMenB with routine vaccines at 2, 3, and 4 months; or (4) routine vaccines alone at 2, 3, and 4 months. Percentage of participants with human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titer of 1:5 or greater against 3 MenB strains specific for vaccine antigens (NZ98/254, 44/76-SL, and 5/99). After three 4CMenB vaccinations, 99% or more of infants developed hSBA titers of 1:5 or greater against strains 44/76-SL and 5/99. For NZ98/254, this proportion was 79% (95% CI, 75.2%-82.4%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines, 86.1% (95% CI, 82.9%-89.0%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months without routine vaccines, and 81.7% (95% CI, 76.6%-86.2%) for vaccination at 2, 3, and 4 months with routine vaccines. Responses to routine vaccines given with 4CMenB were noninferior to routine vaccines alone for all antigens, except for the responses to pertactin and serotype 6B pneumococcal polysaccharide. Fever was seen following 26% (158/602) to 41% (247/607) of 4CMenB doses when administered alone, compared with 23% (69/304) to 36% (109/306) after routine vaccines given alone and 51% (306/605) to 61% (380/624) after 4CMenB and routine

  19. Measles outbreak in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Terri B; Dayan, Gustavo H; Langidrik, Justina R; Nandy, Robin; Edwards, Russell; Briand, Kennar; Konelios, Mailynn; Marin, Mona; Nguyen, Huong Q; Khalifah, Anthony P; O'leary, Michael J; Williams, Nobia J; Bellini, William J; Bi, Daoling; Brown, Cedric J; Seward, Jane F; Papania, Mark J

    2006-04-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection. Measles transmission can be prevented through high population immunity (>or=95%) achieved by measles vaccination. In the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), no measles cases were reported during 1989-2002; however, a large measles outbreak occurred in 2003. Reported 1-dose measles vaccine coverage among children aged 12-23 months varied widely (52-94%) between 1990 and 2000. RMI is a Pacific island nation (1999 population: 50,840). A measles case was defined as fever, rash, and cough, or coryza, or conjunctivitis, in an RMI resident between July 13 and November 7, 2003. A vaccination campaign was used for outbreak control. Of the 826 reported measles cases, 766 (92%) occurred in the capital (Majuro). There were 186 (23%) cases in infants aged or=15 years. The attack rate was highest among infants (Majuro atoll: 213 cases/1,000 infants). Among cases aged 1-14 years, 281 (59%) reported no measles vaccination before July 2003. There were 100 hospitalizations and 3 deaths. The measles H1 genotype was identified. The vaccination campaign resulted in 93% coverage among persons aged 6 months to 40 years. Interpretation Populations without endemic measles transmission can accumulate substantial susceptibility and be at risk for large outbreaks when measles virus is imported. 'Islands' of measles susceptibility may develop in infants, adults, and any groups with low vaccine coverage. To prevent outbreaks, high population immunity must be sustained by maintaining and documenting high vaccine coverage.

  20. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hayashi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV, a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen. Similarly, no adjuvant effect was seen when Advax was combined with endotoxin-free ovalbumin, a neutral Th0-type antigen. An adjuvant effect was also not seen in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α knockout mice, and the adjuvant effect required the presences of dendritic cells (DCs and phagocytic macrophages. Therefore, unlike other adjuvants, Advax potentiates the intrinsic or in-built adjuvant property of co-administered antigens. Hence, Advax is a unique class of adjuvant which can potentiate the intrinsic adjuvant feature of the vaccine antigens through a yet to be determined mechanism.

  1. Combination of Vaccine-Strain Measles and Mumps Viruses Enhances Oncolytic Activity against Human Solid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ho Anh; Zhang, LiFeng; Cuong, Bui Khac; Van Tong, Hoang; Cuong, Le Duy; Hang, Ngo Thu; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Yamamoto, Naoki; Toan, Nguyen Linh

    2018-02-07

    Oncolytic measles and mumps viruses (MeV, MuV) have a potential for anti-cancer treatment. We examined the anti-tumor activity of MeV, MuV, and MeV-MuV combination (MM) against human solid malignancies (HSM). MeV, MuV, and MM targeted and significantly killed various cancer cell lines of HSM but not normal cells. MM demonstrated a greater anti-tumor effect and prolonged survival in a human prostate cancer xenograft tumor model compared to MeV and MuV. MeV, MuV, and MM significantly induced the expression of immunogenic cell death markers and enhanced spleen-infiltrating immune cells. In conclusion, MM combination significantly improves the treatment of human solid malignancies.

  2. Case Based Measles Surveillance in Pune: Evidence to Guide Current and Future Measles Control and Elimination Efforts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V. M.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Banpel, R. V.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Methods Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM) or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. Results Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1). Conclusion Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination. PMID:25290339

  3. Authority of Pharmacists to Administer Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Alignment of State Laws With Age-Level Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A; Schmit, Cason D

    One strategy to increase the uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescents is through the use of pharmacists. Our objectives were to (1) use a publicly available database to describe the statutory and regulatory authority of pharmacists to administer the HPV vaccine in the United States and (2) discuss how the current status of laws may influence achievement of the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% HPV vaccination rate for teenagers aged 13-15. Using information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Public Health Law Program database, we identified state laws in effect as of January 1, 2016, giving pharmacists authority to administer vaccines. We used a standardized analysis algorithm to determine whether states' laws (1) authorized pharmacists to administer HPV vaccine, (2) required third-party authorization for pharmacist administration, and (3) restricted HPV vaccine administration by pharmacists to certain patient age groups. Of 50 states and the District of Columbia, 40 had laws expressly granting pharmacists authority to administer HPV vaccine to patients, but only 22 had laws that authorized pharmacists to vaccinate preadolescents aged 11 or 12 (ie, the CDC-recommended age group). Pharmacists were granted prescriptive authority by 5 states, and they were given authority pursuant to general (non-patient-specific) third-party authorization (eg, a licensed health care provider) by 32 states or patient-specific third-party authorization by 3 states. Most states permitted pharmacists to administer HPV vaccines only to boys and girls older than 11 or 12, which may hinder achievement of the Healthy People 2020 goal for HPV vaccination. Efforts should be made to strengthen the role of pharmacists in addressing this public health issue.

  4. Epidemiology of two large measles virus outbreaks in Catalonia: what a difference the month of administration of the first dose of vaccine makes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Anton, Andres; Barrabeig, Irene; Lafuente, Sara; Parron, Ignasi; Arias, César; Camps, Neus; Costa, Josep; Martínez, Ana; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Minguell, Sofia; Ferrús, Glòria; Cabezas, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela; Spain

    2013-03-01

    Measles cases in the European Region have been increasing in the last decade; this illustrates the challenge of what we are now encountering in the form of pediatric preventable diseases. In Catalonia, autochthonous measles was declared eliminated in the year 2000 as the result of high measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) coverage for first and second dose (15 mo and 4 y) since the mid-1990s. From then on, sporadic imported cases and small outbreaks appeared, until in 2006-2007 a large measles outbreak affecting mostly unvaccinated toddlers hit the Barcelona Health Region. Consequently, in January 2008, first dose administration of MMR was lowered from 15 to 12 mo of age. A new honeymoon period went by until the end of 2010, when several importations of cases triggered new sustained transmission of different wild measles virus genotypes, but this time striking young adults. The aim of this study is to show the effect of a change in MMR vaccination schedule policy, and the difference in age incidence and hospitalization rates of affected individuals between both outbreaks.   Epidemiologic data were obtained by case interviews and review of medical records. Samples for virological confirmation and genotyping of cases were collected as established in the Measles Elimination plan guidelines. Incidence rate (IR), rate ratio (RR) and their 95% CI and hospitalization rate (HR) by age group were determined. Statistic z was used for comparing proportions. Total number of confirmed cases was 305 in the 2010 outbreak and 381 in the 2006-2007 outbreak; mean age 20 y (SD 14.8 y; 3 mo to 51 y) vs. 15 mo (SD 13.1 y; 1 mo to 50 y). Highest proportion of cases was set in ≥ 25 y (47%) vs. 24.2% in 2006 (p < 0.001). Differences in IR for ≤ 15 mo (49/100,000 vs. 278.2/100,000; RR: 3,9; 95%CI 2,9-5.4) and in overall HR 29.8% vs. 15.7% were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The change of the month of age for the administration of the first MMR dose proved successful to

  5. Social capital, trust in health information, and acceptance of Measles-Rubella vaccination campaign in Tamil Nadu: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, B; Gopichandran, V; Kosalram, K

    2018-06-18

    Parents' decision about vaccination of children is influenced by social relationships and sources of information. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of social capital and trust in health information on the status of Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccination campaign in Tamil Nadu. This was a case-control study carried out in Kancheepuram district in Tamil Nadu where the MR vaccination campaign offered by Government of Tamil Nadu had poor acceptance. Cases were parents of children who had refused the MR vaccine and controls were parents having children in the same age group who had accepted the vaccine. Data on social capital and trust in health information were collected by using social capital scale developed by the researchers and trust in the source of information was measured by using simple questions on the level of trust in the information source. Nonadministration of MR vaccine was high among young parents and parents of younger children. Vaccine acceptance was higher when it was offered at school (P social media and WhatsApp information. Greater levels of health-related physical social capital led to greater vaccine hesitancy. Multivariate analysis revealed that greater the age of the child, better parental attitudes toward vaccination, poorer health-related physical social capital, and greater trust in health information provided by school teachers led to overall greater acceptance of the MR vaccine. Strong homogeneous bonding social capital had a negative influence on MR vaccine acceptance. Schools and school teachers played a vital role in influencing parental decision to vaccinate.

  6. Negative Correlation between Circulating CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Regulatory T Cells and Subsequent Antibody Responses to Infant Measles Vaccine but Not Diphtheria–Tetanus–Pertussis Vaccine Implies a Regulatory Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorjoh Ndure

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play a key homeostatic role by suppressing immune responses. They have been targeted in mouse and human cancer studies to improve vaccine immunogenicity and tumor clearance. A number of commercially available drugs and experimental vaccine adjuvants have been shown to target Tregs. Infants have high numbers of Tregs and often have poor responses to vaccination, yet the role Tregs play in controlling vaccine immunogenicity has not been explored in this age group. Herein, we explore the role of CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Tregs in controlling immunity in infant males and females to vaccination with diphtheria–tetanus–whole cell pertussis (DTP and/or measles vaccine (MV. We find correlative evidence that circulating Tregs at the time of vaccination suppress antibody responses to MV but not DTP; and Tregs 4 weeks after DTP vaccination may suppress vaccine-specific cellular immunity. This opens the exciting possibility that Tregs may provide a future target for improved vaccine responses in early life, including reducing the number of doses of vaccine required. Such an approach would need to be safe and the benefits outweigh the risks, thus further research in this area is required.

  7. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have never had measles should be vaccinated. International Travel and Measles Traveling abroad for spring or ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  8. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    -confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study...

  9. Estudo de soroconversão com formulações da vacina Biken CAM-70 contra sarampo Comparison of seroconversion rates with CAM-70 measles vaccine at different dosages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio B Camacho

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a resposta sorológica induzida por formulações com diferentes concentrações de vírus da vacina contra sarampo da cepa Biken CAM-70. MÉTODOS: Crianças sadias de 9 a 18 meses de um centro de saúde do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, cujos responsáveis concordaram em participar, foram randomizadas em três grupos vacinados com concentrações de 5.000, 1.000 ou 200 CCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose. Os participantes e o pessoal da pesquisa ignoravam o tipo de vacina administrado. A avaliação sorológica foi realizada pelo teste de redução em plaque de lise. Duas análises intermediárias dos dados foram programadas. RESULTADOS: Das 223 crianças recrutadas, 84% completaram todos os procedimentos; 79% tinham idade menor que 10 meses; e 93% não tinham anticorpos contra sarampo no soro pré-vacinal. As proporções de soroconversão (quadruplicação das concentrações pré-vacinais foram 82%, 55% e 37% (pOBJECTIVES: To compare seroconversion rates induced by Biken CAM-70 measles vaccines at different viral concentrations. METHODS: Healthy children aged 9 to 18 months from a primary health care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and whose guardians agreed with their participation, were randomly assigned to receive one of the following vaccine formulations: 5,000, 1,000 or 200 CCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose. The research team, participants, and data analysts were blinded to the type of vaccine administered. Pre- and post-vaccination antibody levels were assessed through Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Two interim data analyses were planned to assess unequivocal evidence of the superiority of one of the vaccine types. RESULTS: From 223 recruited children, 84% completed the whole course. Of them, 79% were less than 10 months of age, and 93% did not show detectable measles antibodies in pre-vaccination serum. Seroconversion (four-fold increase in antibody levels in groups vaccinated with 5,000, 1,000 or 200 CCID

  10. Biological characterization of clones derived from the edmonston strain of measles virus in comparison with schwarz and CAM-70 vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Junqueira Borges

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Four virus clones were derived from the Edmonston strain of measles virus by repeated plaque purification. These clones were compared with the vaccine strains Schwarz and CAM-70 in terms of biological activities including plaque formation, hemagglutination, hemolysis and replication in Vero cells and chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF. Two clones of intermediate plaque yielded mixed plaque populations on subcultivation whereas the other two, showing small and large plaque sizes, showed stable plaque phenotypes. The vaccine strains showed consistent homogeneous plaque populations. All the Edmonston clones showed agglutination of monkey erythrocytes in isotonic solution while both vaccine strains hemagglutinated only in the presence of high salt concentrations. Variation in the hemolytic activity was observed among the four clones but no hemolytic activity was detected for the vaccine virus strains. Vaccine strains replicated efficiently both in Vero cells and CEF. All four clones showed efficient replication in Vero cells but different replication profiles in CEF. Two of them replicated efficiently, one was of intermediate efficiency and the other showed no replication in CEF. Two of the clones showed characteristics similar to vaccine strains. One in terms of size and homogeneity of plaques, the other for a low hemolytic activity and both for the efficiency of propagation in CEF.

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of typhoid fever and yellow fever vaccines when administered concomitantly with quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate vaccine in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberer, Martin; Burchard, Gerd; Jelinek, Tomas; Reisinger, Emil; Beran, Jiri; Hlavata, Lucie Cerna; Forleo-Neto, Eduardo; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Arora, Ashwani K

    2015-01-01

    Compact and short pre-travel immunization schedules, which include several vaccinations in a single visit, are desirable for many travelers. However, concomitant vaccination could potentially compromise immunogenicity and/or safety of the individual vaccines and, therefore, possible vaccine interferences should be carefully assessed. This article discusses the immunogenicity and safety of travel vaccines for typhoid fever (TF) and yellow fever (YF), when administered with or without a quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate ACWY-CRM vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). Healthy adults (18-≤60 years) were randomized to one of three vaccine regimens: TF + YF + MenACWY-CRM (group I; n = 100), TF + YF (group II; n = 101), or MenACWY-CRM (group III; n = 100). Immunogenicity at baseline and 4 weeks post-vaccination (day 29) was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or a neutralization test. Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected throughout the study period. Non-inferiority of post-vaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and geometric mean titers (GMTs) was established for TF and YF vaccines, respectively, when given concomitantly with MenACWY-CRM vaccine versus when given alone. The percentages of subjects with seroprotective neutralizing titers against YF on day 29 were similar in groups I and II. The antibody responses to meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y were within the same range when MenACWY-CRM was given separately or together with TF and YF vaccines. The percentage of subjects reporting AEs was the same for TF and YF vaccines with or without MenACWY-CRM vaccine. There were no reports of SAEs or AEs leading to study withdrawals. These data provide evidence that MenACWY-CRM can be administered with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine and live attenuated YF vaccine without compromising antibody responses stimulated by the

  12. Effects of supplemental measles immunization on cases of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable infection which continues to be a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries particularly those with poor routine immunisation coverage. Supplemental immunisation activities (SIAs) were thus introduced to improve vaccine ...

  13. Safety of administering the canine melanoma DNA vaccine (Oncept) to cats with malignant melanoma - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbu, Luminita; Kitchell, Barbara E; Bergman, Philip J

    2017-02-01

    Objectives A xenogeneic human tyrosinase DNA vaccine was developed for treatment of dogs with oral malignant melanoma (Oncept; Merial). No studies have evaluated the safety or efficacy of this vaccine in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of the canine melanoma vaccine in cats diagnosed with melanoma. Methods Medical records were reviewed from cats diagnosed with malignant melanoma and treated with the canine melanoma DNA vaccine (Oncept). Data regarding signalment, melanoma location, treatments received, vaccine adverse effects and cause of death were collected. Results A total of 114 melanoma vaccines were administered to 24 cats. Seven cats (11.4%) had clinical adverse effects from a total of 13 vaccines classified as grade 1 or 2 based on the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group's common terminology criteria for adverse events v1.1. These included pain on vaccine administration, brief muscle fasciculation, transient inappetence, depression, nausea and mild increase in pigmentation at the injection site. Nineteen cats were deceased at study close. The most common cause of death was melanoma (14 cats). Hematological and biochemical changes were observed in six cats, five of which had concurrent disease or treatments that likely caused or greatly contributed to the laboratory abnormalities found. Therefore, these adverse events were considered unlikely to be caused by the melanoma vaccine. One cat had transient grade 1 hypoalbuminemia, which was possibly caused by the vaccination but not thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions and relevance The canine melanoma DNA vaccine can be safely administered to cats, with minimal risk of adverse effects.

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro®) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX®) by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Stéphane; Habermehl Pirmin; Gillet Yves; Eymin Cécile; Fiquet Anne

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro®) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX®) compared with the subcutaneous route. Methods An open-label random...

  15. MEASLES IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical observation and treatment of 36 children between the ages of 5 months up to 3 years old with measles. In 34 persons. (94.4% diagnosed with typical moderate forms, from 2 people (5.6% — atypical (mitigirovannaya a mild form of the disease. All children are vaccinated against measles. Typical measles char-acterized by moderate forms of cyclical flow with the change of the classical period and the presence of characteristic clinical syndromes. Pathognomonic symptom found: spots Belsky — Filatov — Koplik (67.7%, stages a rash (100%, stages of pigmentation (100%. Causal therapy was VIFERON®. Revealed the rapid disappearance of intoxication and normalization of body temperature, the early decline in the severity and duration of catarrhal syndrome, reducing the severity and frequency of complications, no stratification of SARS.

  16. Similar challenges but different responses: Media coverage of measles vaccination in the UK and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Peters, Hans Peter; Allgaier, Joachim; Lo, Yin-Yueh

    2014-05-01

    For several decades scholars have studied media reporting on scientific issues that involve controversy. Most studies so far have focused on the western world. This article tries to broaden the perspective by considering China and comparing it to a western country. A content analysis of newspaper coverage of vaccination issues in the UK and China shows, first, that the government-supported 'mainstream position' dominates the Chinese coverage while the British media frequently refer to criticism and controversy. Second, scientific expertise in the British coverage is represented by experts from the health and science sector but by experts from health agencies in the Chinese coverage. These results are discussed with respect to implications for risk communication and scientists' involvement in public communication.

  17. Protective efficacy of a live attenuated anti-coccidial vaccine administered to 1-day-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, C F; Andrews, S J; Ward, R G; Francis, M J

    2003-06-01

    The efficacy of a live attenuated anti-coccidial vaccine, Paracox-5, administered to 1-day-old chicks was investigated by assessing protection against changes in weight gain following virulent challenge. Vaccinated birds were challenged independently 28 days later with each of the component species (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis or Eimeria tenella), and protection was demonstrated against associated reduction in weight gain and lesion formation. In addition, an improvement in bird performance, in terms of feed conversion ratio, was also observed following vaccination. Furthermore, under conditions designed to more closely mimic those in the field and using hatchery spray administration, protection against a mixed virulent challenge introduced by 'seeder birds' was demonstrated evenly across a flock of broiler birds within 21 days after vaccination. These data demonstrate that Paracox-5 vaccine will protect broiler chickens against the adverse effects on performance induced by Eimeria spp.

  18. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  19. The combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and the total number of vaccines are not associated with development of autism spectrum disorder: the first case-control study in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Uchiyama, Tokio; Kurosawa, Michiko; Aleksic, Branko; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and general vaccinations, including measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, in Japanese subjects, a population with high genetic homogeneity. A case-control study was performed. Cases (n=189) were diagnosed with ASD, while controls (n=224) were volunteers from general schools, matched by sex and birth year to cases. Vaccination history and prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors from the Maternal and Child Health handbook, which was part of each subject's file, were examined. To determine the relationship between potential risk factors and ASD, crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated, and the differences in mean values of the quantitative variables between cases and controls were analyzed using an unpaired t-test. Moreover, MMR vaccination and the effect of the number of vaccine injections were investigated using a conditional multiple regression model. For MMR vaccination, the OR was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.65-1.68), and no significant differences were found for the other vaccines. For all of the prenatal, perinatal and neonatal factors, there were no significant differences between cases and controls. Furthermore, regarding the presence of ASD, MMR vaccination and the number of vaccine injections had ORs of 1.10 (95% CI, 0.64-1.90) and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.95-1.26), respectively, in the conditional multiple regression model; no significant differences were found. In this study, there were not any convincing evidences that MMR vaccination and increasing the number of vaccine injections were associated with an increased risk of ASD in a genetically homogeneous population. Therefore, these findings indicate that there is no basis for avoiding vaccination out of concern for ASD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of early measles vaccination at 4.5 months of age on growth at 9 and 24 months of age in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Byberg, S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing an early, additional measles vaccine (MV) at 4.5 months of age has been shown to reduce child mortality in low-income countries. We studied the effects on growth at 9 and 24 months of age. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Guinea-Bissau from 2003-2007 i...

  1. Protection conferred by a live avian metapneumovirus vaccine when co-administered with live La Sota Newcastle disease vaccine in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ganapathy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects on specific pathogen-free (SPF chicks when avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV La Sota strain vaccines are co-administered. Day-old SPF chicks were divided into five groups. The first group was inoculated with sterile water (SW and the rest of the groups were inoculated with live NDV vaccine VG/GA by the oculo-oral route. At 21 days-old, the unvaccinated chicks were again inoculated with SW. The four VG/GA-vaccinated groups were further inoculated with (i SW, (ii live aMPV vaccine, (iii live NDV La Sota, or (iv combined live NDV La Sota and live aMPV, respectively. Chicks were monitored for post-vaccination reactions and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for vaccines detection. Blood samples were collected to detect aMPV ELISA and NDV haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies. Twenty-one days following the second vaccination, six chicks from each group were challenged with virulent NDV or aMPV respectively. Chicks were monitored for clinical signs and mortality and oropharyngeal swabs collected for aMPV detection. Results showed that, when challenged with a virulent aMPV, both chicks previously vaccinated with VG/GA and subsequently given aMPV vaccine singly or in combination with La Sota were equally protected against clinical signs. Chicks that were vaccinated against NDV either once with VG/GA or followed by La Sota (singly or in combination with aMPV were fully protected when challenged with velogenic NDV. We concluded that simultaneous administration of live aMPV and NDV La Sota vaccines have no adverse effects on protection conferred by either live vaccine.

  2. Global eradication of measles: Are we poised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra D Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus.

  3. Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Alya; Patel, Minal K; Dumolard, Laure; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Mulders, Mick N; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Kretsinger, Katrina; Papania, Mark J; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2017-10-27

    The fourth United Nations Millennium Development Goal, adopted in 2000, set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015. One indicator of progress toward this target was measles vaccination coverage (1). In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (2).* In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan, † with the objective of eliminating measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015 and in five regions by 2020. Countries in all six WHO regions have adopted goals for measles elimination by or before 2020. Measles elimination is defined as the absence of endemic measles virus transmission in a region or other defined geographic area for ≥12 months, in the presence of a high quality surveillance system that meets targets of key performance indicators. This report updates a previous report (3) and describes progress toward global measles control milestones and regional measles elimination goals during 2000-2016. During this period, annual reported measles incidence decreased 87%, from 145 to 19 cases per million persons, and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 84%, from 550,100 to 89,780; measles vaccination prevented an estimated 20.4 million deaths. However, the 2015 milestones have not yet been met; only one WHO region has been verified as having eliminated measles. Improved implementation of elimination strategies by countries and their partners is needed, with focus on increasing vaccination coverage through substantial and sustained additional investments in health systems, strengthening surveillance systems, using surveillance data to drive programmatic actions, securing political commitment, and raising

  4. Prolonged hospital stay in measles patients | Ashir | Sahel Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles is still a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The burden of measles using length of hospital stay as a result of complications in hospitalised children with measles is reported. Methods: We carried out a two year retrospective ...

  5. Evaluation of synthetic infection-enhancing lipopeptides as adjuvants for a live-attenuated canine distemper virus vaccine administered intra-nasally to ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D Tien; Ludlow, Martin; van Amerongen, Geert; de Vries, Rory D; Yüksel, Selma; Verburgh, R Joyce; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Duprex, W Paul; de Swart, Rik L

    2012-07-20

    Inactivated paramyxovirus vaccines have been associated with hypersensitivity responses upon challenge infection. For measles and canine distemper virus (CDV) safe and effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available, but for human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus development of such vaccines has proven difficult. We recently identified three synthetic bacterial lipopeptides that enhance paramyxovirus infections in vitro, and hypothesized these could be used as adjuvants to promote immune responses induced by live-attenuated paramyxovirus vaccines. Here, we tested this hypothesis using a CDV vaccination and challenge model in ferrets. Three groups of six animals were intra-nasally vaccinated with recombinant (r) CDV(5804P)L(CCEGFPC) in the presence or absence of the infection-enhancing lipopeptides Pam3CSK4 or PHCSK4. The recombinant CDV vaccine virus had previously been described to be over-attenuated in ferrets. A group of six animals was mock-vaccinated as control. Six weeks after vaccination all animals were challenged with a lethal dose of rCDV strain Snyder-Hill expressing the red fluorescent protein dTomato. Unexpectedly, intra-nasal vaccination of ferrets with rCDV(5804P)L(CCEGFPC) in the absence of lipopeptides resulted in good immune responses and protection against lethal challenge infection. However, in animals vaccinated with lipopeptide-adjuvanted virus significantly higher vaccine virus loads were detected in nasopharyngeal lavages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, these animals developed significantly higher CDV neutralizing antibody titers compared to animals vaccinated with non-adjuvanted vaccine. This study demonstrates that the synthetic cationic lipopeptides Pam3CSK4 and PHCSK4 not only enhance paramyxovirus infection in vitro, but also in vivo. Given the observed enhancement of immunogenicity their potential as adjuvants for other live-attenuated paramyxovirus vaccines should be considered

  6. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin epitopes immunogenic in natural infection and vaccination are targeted by broad or genotype-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Alía, Miguel Angel; Casasnovas, José M; Celma, María Luisa; Carabaña, Juan; Liton, Paloma B; Fernandez-Muñoz, Rafael

    2017-05-15

    Measles virus (MV) remains a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children. Protection against MV is associated with neutralizing antibodies that preferentially recognize the viral hemagglutinin (MV-H), and to a lesser extent, the fusion protein (MV-F). Although MV is serologically monotypic, 24 genotypes have been identified. Here we report three neutralization epitopes conserved in the more prevalent circulating MV genotypes, two located in the MV-H receptor binding site (RBS) (antigenic site III) and a third in MV-H/MV-F interphase (antigenic site Ia) which are essential for MV multiplication. In contrast, two MV-H neutralization epitopes, showed a genotype-specific neutralization escape due to a single amino acid change, that we mapped in the "noose" antigenic site, or an enhanced neutralization epitope (antigenic site IIa). The monoclonal antibody (mAb) neutralization potency correlated with its binding affinity and was mainly driven by kinetic dissociation rate (k off ). We developed an immunoassay for mAb binding to MV-H in its native hetero-oligomeric structure with MV-F on the surface of a MV productive steady-state persistently infected (p.i.) human cell lines, and a competitive-binding assay with serum from individuals with past infection by different MV genotypes. Binding assays revealed that a broad neutralization epitope, in RBS antigenic site, a genotype specific neutralization epitopes, in noose and IIa sites, were immunogenic in natural infection and vaccination and may elicit long-lasting humoral immunity that might contribute to explain MV immunogenic stability. These results support the design of improved measles vaccines, broad-spectrum prophylactic or therapeutic antibodies and MV-used in oncolytic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vacci...

  8. High Concentrations of Measles Neutralizing Antibodies and High-Avidity Measles IgG Accurately Identify Measles Reinfection Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Jennifer S.; Hickman, Carole J.; Mercader, Sara; Redd, Susan; McNall, Rebecca J.; Williams, Nobia; McGrew, Marcia; Walls, M. Laura; Rota, Paul A.; Bellini, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 9% of the measles cases reported from 2012 to 2014 occurred in vaccinated individuals. Laboratory confirmation of measles in vaccinated individuals is challenging since IgM assays can give inconclusive results. Although a positive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay result from an appropriately timed specimen can provide confirmation, negative results may not rule out a highly suspicious case. Detection of high-avidity measles IgG in serum samples provides laboratory evidence of a past immunologic response to measles from natural infection or immunization. High concentrations of measles neutralizing antibody have been observed by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays among confirmed measles cases with high-avidity IgG, referred to here as reinfection cases (RICs). In this study, we evaluated the utility of measuring levels of measles neutralizing antibody to distinguish RICs from noncases by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Single and paired serum samples with high-avidity measles IgG from suspected measles cases submitted to the CDC for routine surveillance were used for the analysis. The RICs were confirmed by a 4-fold rise in PRN titer or by RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay, while the noncases were negative by both assays. Discrimination accuracy was high with serum samples collected ≥3 days after rash onset (area under the curve, 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.854 to 0.993). Measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml identified RICs with 90% sensitivity (95% CI, 74 to 98%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 82 to 100%). Therefore, when serological or RT-qPCR results are unavailable or inconclusive, suspected measles cases with high-avidity measles IgG can be confirmed as RICs by measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml. PMID:27335386

  9. Sarcocystis neurona-specific immunoglobulin G in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of horses administered S neurona vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witonsky, Sharon; Morrow, Jennifer K; Leger, Clare; Dascanio, John; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia; Palmer, Wally; Kline, Kristen; Cook, Anne

    2004-01-01

    A vaccine against Sarcocystis neurona, which induces equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), has received conditional licensure in the United States. A major concern is whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) response elicited by the vaccine will compromise the use of Western blotting (WB) as a diagnostic tool in vaccinated horses with neurologic disease. Our goals were to determine if vaccination (1) causes seroconversion: (2) causes at least a transient increase in S neurona-specific IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); and (3) induces an IgG response that can be differentiated from that induced by natural exposure. Horses included in the study (n = 29) were older than 6 months with no evidence of neurologic disease. The presence or absence of anti-S neurona antibodies in the serum of each horse was determined by WB analysis. Seropositive horses had CSF collected and submitted for cytology, CSF index, and WB analysis. The vaccine was administered to all the horses and boostered 3-4 weeks later. On day 14 after the 2nd administration, serum and CSF were collected and analyzed. Eighty-nine percent (8 of 9) of the initial seronegative horses seroconverted after vaccination, of which 57% (4 of 7) had anti-S neurona IgG in their CSE Eighty percent (16 of 20) of the seropositive horses had an increase in serum S neurona IgG after vaccination. Of the 6 of 20 horses that were initially seropositive/CSF negative, 2 were borderline positive for anti-S neurona IgG in the CSF, 2 tested positive, and 2 were excluded because the CSF sample had been contaminated by blood. There were no WB banding patterns that distinguished samples from horses that seroconverted due to vaccination versus natural exposure. Caution must be used in interpreting WB analysis from neurologic horses that have been recently vaccinated for EPM.

  10. Lack of nonspecific protection against all-cause nonrotavirus gastroenteritis by vaccination with orally administered rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lindsay; Watt, James; Moulton, Lawrence; Weatherholtz, Robert; Reid, Raymond; Santosham, Mathuram; O'Brien, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is recognized as a global, common threat to child survival, especially in developing countries. Rotavirus, in particular, has been implicated as a leading cause of severe AGE; however, there are numerous other pathogens that also cause AGE. Several studies have demonstrated that oral vaccination against rotavirus has generated the unanticipated benefit of protecting against AGE caused by nonrotavirus pathogens. Safety and efficacy of the pentavalent bovine-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine were studied in multiple populations, including children of the Navajo and White Mountain Apache tribes in the southwestern United States. Stool specimens were collected from children with AGE and tested for rotavirus using an enzyme immunoassay. Analyses were conducted to detect the presence or absence of a vaccine effect on incidence, severity, and duration of AGE in which rotavirus was not detected. The majority of AGE (N = 558: 472 nonrotavirus vs 86 rotavirus) occurred between August 2002 and March 2004 among children ranging from ages 4 to 23 months. The incidence of nonrotavirus AGE was similar by vaccine groups with an incidence rate ratio of 1.07 (incidence rate ratio = vaccinated/unvaccinated, 95% confidence interval 0.89-1.29). The hazards of first, second, third, or any AGE in which rotavirus was not detected differed little by vaccination status (P > 0.05). Duration of symptoms and severity of nonrotavirus AGE were similar by vaccine group. There was no vaccine effect on frequency or severity of nonrotavirus AGE.

  11. An Outbreak of Measles in a University in Korea, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Park, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Whi; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Ok; Oh, Myoung Don; Lee, Jong Koo

    2017-11-01

    Measles has been declared eliminated from the Korea since 2006. In April 2014, a measles outbreak occurred at a University in Seoul. A total of 85 measles cases were identified. In order to estimate vaccine effectiveness of measles vaccine, we reviewed the vaccination records of the university students. The vaccine effectiveness of two doses of measles containing vaccine was 60.0% (95% CI, 38.2-74.1; P < 0.05). Transmission was interrupted after the introduction of outbreak-response immunization. The outbreak shows that pockets of under-immunity among college students may have facilitated the disease transmission despite the high 2-dose vaccination coverage in the community. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  12. Protein energy malnutrition during vaccination has limited influence on vaccine efficacy but abolishes immunity if administered during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Truc; Agger, Else Marie; Cassidy, Joseph P; Christensen, Jan P; Andersen, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), but it is not clear how PEM influences vaccine-promoted immunity to TB. We demonstrate that PEM during low-level steady-state TB infection in a mouse model results in rapid relapse of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as increased pathology, in both Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated and unvaccinated animals. PEM did not change the overall numbers of CD4 T cells in BCG-vaccinated animals but resulted in an almost complete loss of antigen-specific cytokine production. Furthermore, there was a change in cytokine expression characterized by a gradual loss of multifunctional antigen-specific CD4 T cells and an increased proportion of effector cells expressing gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha (IFN-γ(+) TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) cells). PEM during M. tuberculosis infection completely blocked the protection afforded by the H56-CAF01 subunit vaccine, and this was associated with a very substantial loss of the interleukin-2-positive memory CD4 T cells promoted by this vaccine. Similarly, PEM during the vaccination phase markedly reduced the H56-CAF01 vaccine response, influencing all cytokine-producing CD4 T cell subsets, with the exception of CD4 T cells positive for TNF-α only. Importantly, this impairment was reversible and resupplementation of protein during infection rescued both the vaccine-promoted T cell response and the protective effect of the vaccine against M. tuberculosis infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Not all that rashes is measles:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S. A.; Mustafa, O. A.

    1998-01-01

    Measles is a major cause of infant mortality in third world countries, leading to approximately one million deaths each year. The WHO aims to globally eradicate measles virus at the beginning of the next century, which will need a major effort in particular in countries like Sudan. To achieve goal epidemiological studies I am needed to estimate the magnitude of the problem for which accurate diagnostic test are needed. We therefore conducted a study in El hag Yousif area (population 500 000) in Khartoum North where measles is prevalent despite vaccination effort by EPI. We studied the accuracy of the WHO criteria for clinical diagnosis in comparison with laboratory diagnosis during a one-year period. A total of 145 under five suspected measles cases were identified by active, case finding and examined. 111 cases fully complied with the WHO criteria for diagnosis of clinical measles. Out of 103 clinical measles cases, tested using prototype rapid measles test IgM Elisa and Pcr, 77(75%) were measles positive. A battery of virus test was run on 21 sera out of the 26(25%) measles negatives: Herpes virus-6, Epstein-Bar and Dengue viruses were detected in five, one and one case, respectively. It was concluded that one out of every four cases diagnosed by the clinical as measles rash is probably caused by other viruses. (Author)

  14. Measles: summary of worldwide impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, F

    1983-01-01

    Nearly every measles infection results in well-recognized clinical disease. In nonimmunized populations almost every child will get measles early in life. The universality of the disease in nonimmunized communities, particularly those in the developing world, has led to a more or less passive acceptance of measles as an unavoidable risk of early life. The clinical spectrum of measles ranges from a mild, self-limiting illness to a fatal disease. Conditions encountered mainly in the developing world, e.g., unfavorable nutrition, high risk of concurrent infection, and inadequate case management -- particularly at home -- favor the development of complications and adverse outcome. Conversely, good clinical management of an otherwise healthy child, a situation seen mostly in the developed world, greatly influences the course of the disease. Hence many in the medical profession believe that measles is a mild disease except among populations living under particularly unfavorable conditions. Measles vaccine is effective in preventing disease in the individual and in controlling it in the community if it is given at the critical age when maternal antibodies wane and the risk of natural infection increases sharply and if a high immunization rate is maintained in the target population. The experience with immunization, particularly in sub-saharan Africa, is rewarding: mothers who had previously accepted measles as an unavoidable risk clamour for immunization of their children once its effectiveness has been demonstrated. No reason exists for measles to claim its present toll of morbidity and mortality. With extension of the Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization, the impact of measles should progressively decline.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of routine varicella vaccination using the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine in France: an economic analysis based on a dynamic transmission model for varicella and herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Kavi J; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Sauboin, Christophe; Tehard, Bertrand; Alain, Sophie; Denis, François

    2015-04-01

    Each year in France, varicella and zoster affect large numbers of children and adults, resulting in medical visits, hospitalizations for varicella- and zoster-related complications, and societal costs. Disease prevention by varicella vaccination is feasible, wherein a plausible option involves replacing the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine with the combined MMR and varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This study aimed to: (1) assess the cost-effectiveness of adding routine varicella vaccination through MMRV, using different vaccination strategies in France; and (2) address key uncertainties, such as the economic consequences of breakthrough varicella cases, the waning of vaccine-conferred protection, vaccination coverage, and indirect costs. Based on the outputs of a dynamic transmission model that used data on epidemiology and costs from France, a cost-effectiveness model was built. A conservative approach was taken regarding the impact of varicella vaccination on zoster incidence by assuming the validity of the hypothesis of an age-specific boosting of immunity against varicella. The model determined that routine MMRV vaccination is expected to be a cost-effective option, considering a cost-effectiveness threshold of €20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year saved; routine vaccination was cost-saving from the societal perspective. Results were driven by a large decrease in varicella incidence despite a temporary initial increase in the number of zoster cases due to the assumption of exogenous boosting. In the scenario analyses, despite moderate changes in assumptions about incidence and costs, varicella vaccination remained a cost-effective option for France. Routine vaccination with MMRV was associated with high gains in quality-adjusted life-years, substantial reduction in the occurrences of varicella- and zoster-related complications, and few deaths due to varicella. Routine MMRV vaccination is also expected to provide reductions in costs related to

  16. High-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with vaccinations after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Bale, Carlito; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul

    2013-01-01

    WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated.......WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated....

  17. Measles epidemics and seroepidemiology of population in Wujin, Changzhou city, Jiangsu province, China 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lingyan; Zhou, Yihong; Pan, Yingzi; Zhu, Hongming

    2017-05-19

    The measles epidemic was rather severe in Wujin 2015, and a seroprevalence survey of measles antibody was conducted during June to September 2015 in Wjin district of Changzhou city. Blood samples were collected from community health population and convenient samples of residual blood from hospitals. Measles-specific IgG levels were measured by ELISA assay. A total of 122 measles cases were reported 2015 in Wujin district with an incidence of 8.31 per 100000 populations. A large proportion of measles cases were adults ≥20years (62.30%) and infants aged measles were 82.71% and 551.19mIU/ml, respectively. Although the seroprevalence among children aged 9months to 4years was consistently over 90%, it began to decrease since 24months, and till the age of ≥10years, the seroprevalences were all measles and GMT levels between genders. The seroprevalence and GMT in people with measles vaccination were higher than those without measles vaccination or people whose measles vaccination are unknown (Pmeasles cases have become a serious problem in Wujin district, which may mainly relate to the increasing size of the floating population with low measles vaccine coverage. The seroprevalence of measles decreased dramatically with increasing age since teenagers, which may mainly caused by waning vaccine-induced immunity. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen measles vaccine in these people especially floating population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R.; Kamble, Madhukar B.; Chowdhury, Deepika T.; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Methods: Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Results: Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Interpretation & conclusions: Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State. PMID:27121521

  19. Measles vaccination: influence of age on its efficacy Vacinação contra o sarampo: influência da idade em sua eficácia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Heloísa Lopes

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare the serologic efficacy and the clinical protection afforded by three different measles vaccination schemes in adequately nourished children in São Paulo city, Brazil. Two hundred forty two children were divided into three groups. Group A, comprising 117 children who had received the vaccine before 12 months of age and a second dose at 12 months of age or more. Group B, comprising 46 children who had received only one dose, before 12 months of age. Group C, comprising 79 children who had received only one dose, at 12 months of age or more. The geometric mean titer of antibodies in Group A was 790.1; in Group B, 251.1; and in Group C, 550.3. There was no statistically significant difference between Groups A and C. The exposure to the measles virus was probably similar in all groups, and the children in Groups A and C had similar chances of acquiring the disease after vaccination whereas in Group B the chances were higher when compared to the other two groups. The results obtained in this study favor the use, in developing countries, of a vaccination program against measles that includes an early first dose at eight months of age and revaccination after 12 months of age.Os autores comparam a eficácia sorológica e a proteção clinica obtidas com três esquemas diferentes de vacinação contra o sarampo, em crianças eutróficas, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Duzentas e quarenta e duas crianças foram divididas em três grupos. Grupo A, compreendendo 117 crianças primovacinadas antes dos 12 meses de idade e revacinadas com 12 ou mais meses de idade. Grupo B, compreendendo 46 crianças vacinadas com dose única, antes dos 12 meses de idade. Grupo C, compreendendo 79 crianças vacinadas com dose única, aos 12 ou mais meses de idade. A média geométrica do título de anticorpos no grupo A foi 790,1; no grupo B, 251,1; e no grupo C, 550,3. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos A e C. A exposi

  20. Vaccine strategies: Optimising outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Karin; Bonanni, Paolo; King, Susan; Santos, Jose Ignacio; El-Hodhod, Mostafa; Zimet, Gregory D; Preiss, Scott

    2016-12-20

    Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Reliable immunisation service funding is another important factor and low income countries often need external supplementary sources of finance. Many regions also obtain support in generating an evidence base for vaccination via initiatives created by organisations including World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Agence de Médecine Préventive and the Sabin Vaccine Institute. Strong monitoring and surveillance mechanisms are also required. An example is the efficient and low-cost approaches for measuring the impact of the hepatitis B control initiative and evaluating achievement of goals that have been established in the WHO Western Pacific region. A review of implementation strategies reveals differing degrees of success. For example, in the Americas, PAHO advanced a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine strategy, targeting different population groups in mass, catch-up and follow-up vaccination campaigns. This has had much success but coverage data from some parts of the region suggest that children are still not receiving all appropriate vaccines, highlighting problems with local service infrastructures. Stark differences in coverage levels are also observed among high income countries, as is the case with HPV vaccine implementation in the USA versus the UK and Australia, reflecting differences in delivery settings. Experience and research have shown which vaccine strategies work well and the

  1. Protein energy malnutrition during vaccination has limited influence on vaccine efficacy but abolishes immunity if administered during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Truc; Agger, Else Marie; Cassidy, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), but it is not clear how PEM influences vaccine-promoted immunity to TB. We demonstrate that PEM during low-level steady-state TB infection in a mouse model results in rapid relapse...

  2. Measles burden in urban settings: characteristics of measles cases in Addis Ababa city administration, Ethiopia, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Braka, Fiona; Gallagher, Kathleen; Tegegne, Aysheshim Ademe; Argay, Aron Kassahun; Mekonnen, Mekonnen Admassu; Aragaw, Merawi; Abegaz, Debritu Mengesha; Worku, Etsehiwot Zeamlak; Baynesagn, Mekonen Getahun

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, measles was a major cause of morbidity and mortality before the wide spread use of measles vaccine. The purpose of this study was to describe measles burden in an urban setting, Addis Ababa- since the implementation of measles case-based surveillance in Ethiopia. We analyzed measles surveillance data for 2004 -2014. Incidence of measles was described by sub city, by year and by age groups. Age specific incidence rate were calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of confirmed measles cases. Of 4220 suspected measles cases 39% were confirmed cases. Males and females were equally affected. The mean affected age was 7.59 years. Measles cases peaked in 2010 and 2013-2014. Incidence of measles is higher among children less than five years old. Outer sub cities were more affected by measles in all years. Sub cities bordering with Oromia Regional State were more affected by measles. Older age groups were more affected than younger age groups (age ≤ five years old). Efforts to close immunity gaps against measles and further strengthen surveillance in urban settings, particularly among children below five years old, should be prioritized.

  3. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Intervention to Increase Parents' Knowledge About the Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination and Their Psychological Empowerment: Mixed-Method Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Marta; Galimberti, Elisa; Fiordelli, Maddalena; Schulz, Peter Johannes

    2018-03-07

    There is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of vaccination-related interventions. A major limitation of most intervention studies is that they do not apply randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the method that, over the last 2 decades, has increasingly been considered as the only method to provide proof of the effectiveness of an intervention and, consequently, as the most important instrument in deciding whether to adopt an intervention or not. This study, however, holds that methods other than RCTs also can produce meaningful results. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 mobile phone-based interventions aimed at increasing parents' knowledge of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination (through elements of gamification) and their psychological empowerment (through the use of narratives), respectively. The 2 interventions were part of an RCT. We conducted 2 studies with the RCT participants: a Web-based survey aimed at assessing their rating of the tool regarding a number of qualities such as usability and usefulness (N=140), and qualitative telephonic interviews to explore participants' experiences with the app (N=60). The results of the survey showed that participants receiving the knowledge intervention (alone or together with the empowerment intervention) liked the app significantly better compared with the group that only received the empowerment intervention (F 2,137 =15.335; Pbenefits of the vaccination at the same time. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number 30768813; http://www.isrctn.com/ ISRCTN30768813 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6xOQSJ3w8). ©Marta Fadda, Elisa Galimberti, Maddalena Fiordelli, Peter Johannes Schulz. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 07.03.2018.

  4. Measles Outbreak among Unvaccinated Children in Bajura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sitaula

    2010-12-01

    CFR of this outbreak is higher than the national CFR. Vaccine efficacy of 50% points towards the need for investigation of vaccine logistics and cold chain system. Moreover, this laboratory test confirmed an outbreak showing that the measles virus could be imported from an endemic region and rapidly spread through a susceptible population who were previously not immunized.

  5. The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Xiong, JianJing; Lu, Yihan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China. Methods The present study was conducted in the Jing’an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai. Based on historical surveillance data of measles, we calculated the incidence of measles among local residents and migrants separately. Next, we classified all of the cases of the measles among local residents between 1984 and 2015 into 8 age groups and 5 birth cohorts. Finally, we calculated the measles incidence in each time period by the different age groups and birth cohorts, to understand the measles epidemic trend over past 30 years in the Jing'an District. Results A total of 103 cases of measles were reported from the Jing’an District, Shanghai, from 1984 to 2015. For infants less than 1 year of age and adults over 30 years of age, the incidence of measles continued to rise over the past 30 years. For a specific birth cohort, the incidence of measles after measles vaccination declined initially, and was then followed by a rebound. Conclusions The incidence of measles in older adults and infants increased in some developed regions, which slows the process of measles elimination. This suggested that the population immunity against measles after measles vaccination would gradually reduce with time. We recommend supplemental immunization against measles in adults in order to reduce the immunity decline, especially for migrants. PMID:28640919

  6. The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.The present study was conducted in the Jing'an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai. Based on historical surveillance data of measles, we calculated the incidence of measles among local residents and migrants separately. Next, we classified all of the cases of the measles among local residents between 1984 and 2015 into 8 age groups and 5 birth cohorts. Finally, we calculated the measles incidence in each time period by the different age groups and birth cohorts, to understand the measles epidemic trend over past 30 years in the Jing'an District.A total of 103 cases of measles were reported from the Jing'an District, Shanghai, from 1984 to 2015. For infants less than 1 year of age and adults over 30 years of age, the incidence of measles continued to rise over the past 30 years. For a specific birth cohort, the incidence of measles after measles vaccination declined initially, and was then followed by a rebound.The incidence of measles in older adults and infants increased in some developed regions, which slows the process of measles elimination. This suggested that the population immunity against measles after measles vaccination would gradually reduce with time. We recommend supplemental immunization against measles in adults in order to reduce the immunity decline, especially for migrants.

  7. Combination of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor resminostat with oncolytic measles vaccine virus as a new option for epi-virotherapeutic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ruf

    Full Text Available Epigenetic therapies such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi not only have the capability to decrease tumor cell proliferation and to induce tumor cell death but also to silence antiviral response genes. Here, we investigated whether the combination of an oncolytic measles vaccine virus (MeV with the novel oral HDACi resminostat (Res, being in clinical testing in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, results in an enhanced efficacy of this epi-virotherapeutic approach compared to any of the two corresponding monotherapies. When testing a panel of human hepatoma cell lines, we found (i a significantly improved rate of primary infections when using oncolytic MeV under concurrent treatment with resminostat, (ii a boosted cytotoxic effect of the epi-virotherapeutic combination (Res + MeV with enhanced induction of apoptosis, and, quite importantly, (iii an absence of any resminostat-induced impairment of MeV replication and spread. Beyond that, we could also show that (iv resminostat, after hepatoma cell stimulation with exogenous human interferon (IFN-β, is able to prevent the induction of IFN-stimulated genes, such as IFIT-1. This finding outlines the possible impact of resminostat on cellular innate immunity, being instrumental in overcoming resistances to MeV-mediated viral oncolysis. Thus, our results support the onset of epi-virotherapeutic clinical trials in patients exhibiting advanced stages of HCC.

  8. Implication of health care personnel in measles transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Solano, Ruben; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela; Surveillance Network of Catalonia, Spain, the Measles Elimination Program

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) play an important role in transmission of highly contagious diseases such as measles. Current immunization guidelines in Catalonia include Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) immunization for HCP born after 1967 without evidence of immunity. Despite high vaccination coverage (90%) a high burden of measles cases related to outbreaks have occurred. The aim of this study was to assess the implication of HCP in measles transmission related to healthcare setting. A review of surveillance case data from 2001 to 2013 gathered through the Measles Elimination Program in Catalonia was performed. Twenty six outbreaks involving 797 cases were reported, 52 (6.5%) were HCP aged 21–41 years, 72,5% (38) patient were care personnel (doctors and nurses) and 22,5% (14) other health care related personnel. Forty six 87%) were unvaccinated, 4(10%) had only one dose and 2 had two doses of MMR. In community outbreaks 30 clusters with HCP involved were observed, yet none were identified as index cases. Non-vaccinated HCPs against measles were all under 45 years of age. Vaccination is the only reliable protection against nosocomial spread of measles from HCPs. Assessing vaccination status of HCPs and implementing a 2 dose vaccination in those lacking evidence of immunity is needed in order to set to zero the risk of acquiring and spreading measles in healthcare (HC) settings. PMID:25483548

  9. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haese

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral

  10. Cross-sectional study on factors hampering implementation of measles pre- and postexposure measures in Dutch hospitals during the 2013-2014 measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievez, L C R; Wong, A; Ruijs, W L M; Meerstadt-Rombach, F S; Timen, A

    2017-07-01

    This study examined adherence to national recommendations on measles pre- and postexposure measures, including immunization of health care workers (HCWs) in Dutch hospitals, during a national outbreak of measles in The Netherlands. This study also investigated which hospital characteristics and organizational issues hamper implementation. This was a cross-sectional survey among all general and academic hospitals in The Netherlands. An online structured questionnaire (48 questions) was administered. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of 88 hospitals, 70 (79.5%) were included. Of 68 hospitals, 48 (70.6%) assessed susceptibility to measles in HCWs. Of 70 hospitals, 61 (87.1%) offered vaccination to susceptible HCWs. Of 63 hospitals, 42 (66.7%) had postexposure policies consistent with national recommendations. Of 62 hospitals, 30 (48.4%) implemented all these measures, which is the minimum set of measures considered necessary to adequately prevent measles in HCWs. Logistic regression suggests that hospitals with several locations, hospitals with more employees, and hospitals where infectious disease experts designed infection prevention policies while occupational health experts implemented the policy less often implemented this minimum set of measures (P measles outbreak, most hospitals took measures to prevent measles in HCWs, but less than half implemented the minimum set of measures required. Implementation strategies in hospitals need to be improved, especially in large-sized hospitals and hospitals with several locations, and with respect to the assignment of responsibilities for infection prevention policies. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of patients with measles admitted to allied hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, A.; Sabir, S.A.; Awan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Measles, a virus borne droplet infection, is one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite presence of a safe and cost-effective vaccine. Objective of our study was to identify the characteristics of measles patients admitted to Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst patients admitted with measles in paediatric units of Rawalpindi Medical College Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. A standard proforma was used to collect data from the respondents. Results: A total of 55 patients (mean age-29.36 months) with measles were included in the study. 65.5% children were vaccinated while 34.5% were not vaccinated. Among those vaccinated 14 were male. Out of the vaccinated children 52.6% were residents of middle class areas, 31.6% lower middle class area, 10.5% upper middle class areas and 5.3% rural areas. In 55.0% of patients who were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles at nine month of age the estimated calendar months of vaccination was March to April while in 30% the overall climatic period of vaccination was of summer (May to September). Twenty one study subjects were exposed to a case of measles in the family and thirty five out of all developed at least one known complication of the disease. Pneumonia was the most common complication reported in patients (63.6%) followed by diarrhoea (27.3%). Conclusion: Majority of the patients suffering from measles were not vaccinated and the most common reason for failure to immunize children was lack of awareness. Educated and well off fathers were more likely to get their children immunized. The vaccinated children who developed measles majority were vaccinated during months of March, April and May. (author)

  12. Transmission of measles among healthcare Workers in Hospital W, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haimei; Ma, Chao; Lu, Mengting; Fu, Jianping; Rodewald, Lance E; Su, Qiru; Wang, Huaqin; Hao, Lixin

    2018-01-12

    As China approaches the elimination of measles, outbreaks of measles continue to occur. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are known to be at high risk of infection and transmission of measles virus. A measles outbreak occurred in a hospital in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. We report an investigation of this outbreak and its implications for measles elimination and outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective search for measles cases using hospital records. Information on cases was collected by interview, and was used to determine epidemiological linkages. We surveyed HCWs to determine their demographic characteristics, disease history and vaccination status, and knowledge about measles. We identified 19 cases, ages 18 to 45 years, in Hospital W between December 2015 and January 2016; 14 were laboratory-confirmed, and 5 were epidemiologically linked. The primary case was a 25-year-old neurology department nurse who developed a rash on 22 December 2015 that was reported on 11 January 2016. She continued working and living with her workmates in a dormitory during her measles transmission period. Among the 19 infected HCWs, 2 had received a dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) before the outbreak, and 16 had unknown vaccination status. Outbreak response immunization activities were started on 8 January in a non-selective manner by offering vaccine regardless of vaccination history; 605(68%) of 890 HCWs were vaccinated. The HCW survey had a 73% response rate (646/890); 41% of HCWs reported that they had received MCV before outbreak, and 56% exhibited good knowledge of measles symptoms, transmission, complications, and vaccination. Low MCV coverage, low measles knowledge among HCWs, delayed reporting of measles cases, and absence of proper case management were associated with this outbreak. Training and vaccinating HCWs against measles are essential activities to prevent measles virus transmission among HCWs.

  13. Intralesional tuberculin (PPD) versus measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in treatment of multiple warts: a comparative clinical and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Maha Adel; Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Fouad, Dina Adel; El-Fatah, Abeer Aly Abd

    2015-01-01

    Intralesional purified protein derivative (PPD) or mumps, measles, rubella (MMR) were not previously compared regarding their efficacy or mechanism of action in treatment of warts. We aimed to compare their efficacy in treatment of multiple warts and investigate their effect on serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12. Thirty patients with multiple warts were included (10 treated with PPD, 10 with MMR, and 10 with normal saline (control)). Injection was done every 3 weeks until clearance or maximum of three treatments. Clinical response of target and distant warts was evaluated. Serum ILs-4 and -12 were assessed before and after treatment. A significantly higher rate of complete response was found in target and distant warts with PPD (60% each) and MMR (80%, 40%, respectively) compared with controls (0%), with no significant difference between both treatments. After treatment, the control group showed the lowest serum IL-12 and IL-4 levels compared with the MMR- and PPD-treated groups with statistically significant difference in between. MMR resulted in a significantly higher serum IL-12 than PPD. With PPD, IL-4 was increased with statistically significant change compared with pretreat-ment level. Intralesional PPD and MMR show comparable efficacy and safety in treatment of multiple warts. Serum ILs-4 and-12 increase following antigen injection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Laboratory confirmation of measles in elimination settings: experience from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Terri B; Nandy, Robin; Hickman, Carole J; Langidrik, Justina R; Strebel, Peter M; Papania, Mark J; Seward, Jane F; Bellini, William J

    2009-02-01

    To highlight the complications involved in interpreting laboratory tests of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) for confirmation of infection during a measles outbreak in a highly vaccinated population after conducting a mass immunization campaign as a control measure. This case study was undertaken in the Republic of the Marshall Islands during a measles outbreak in 2003, when response immunization was conducted. A measles case was defined as fever and rash and one or more of cough, coryza or conjunctivitis. Between 13 July and 7 November 2003, serum samples were obtained from suspected measles cases for serologic testing and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for viral isolation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specimens were collected from 201 suspected measles cases (19% of total): of the ones that satisfied the clinical case definition, 45% were IgM positive (IgM+) and, of these, 24% had received measles vaccination within the previous 45 days (up to 45 days after vaccination an IgM+ result could be due to either vaccination or wild-type measles infection). The proportion of IgM+ results varied with clinical presentation, the timing of specimen collection and vaccination status. Positive results on RT-PCR occurred in specimens from eight IgM-negative and four IgM+ individuals who had recently been vaccinated. During measles outbreaks, limiting IgM testing to individuals who meet the clinical case definition and have not been recently vaccinated allows for measles to be confirmed while conserving resources.

  15. Photos of Measles and People with Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Resources Related Links Measles and Rubella Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Photos of Measles and ... Library (PHIL) Related Links Measles and Rubella Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  16. Intradermally Administered Yellow Fever Vaccine at Reduced Dose Induces a Protective Immune Response: A Randomized Controlled Non-Inferiority Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Roukens (Guy); A.C.Th.M. Vossen (Ann); P.J. Bredenbeek (Peter); J.T. van Dissel (Jaap); L.G. Visser (Leo)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Implementation of yellow fever vaccination is currently hampered by limited supply of vaccine. An alternative route of administration with reduced amounts of vaccine but without loss of vaccine efficacy would boost vaccination programmes.Methods and Findings:A randomized,

  17. Measles Cases during Ebola Outbreak, West Africa, 2013-2106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavita, Francesca; Biava, Mirella; Castilletti, Concetta; Quartu, Serena; Vairo, Francesco; Caglioti, Claudia; Agrati, Chiara; Lalle, Eleonora; Bordi, Licia; Lanini, Simone; Guanti, Michela Delli; Miccio, Rossella; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R; Di Caro, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa caused breakdowns in public health systems, which might have caused outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. We tested 80 patients admitted to an Ebola treatment center in Freetown, Sierra Leone, for measles. These patients were negative for Ebola virus. Measles virus IgM was detected in 13 (16%) of the patients.

  18. Review of childhood measles admissions at the National Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global disease burden from measles as a vaccine preventable disease remains high despite decades of interventions by various organs and agencies. To determine the prevalence and outcome of childhood cases of measles admitted into the children's emergency ward of the National hospital and highlight the ...

  19. The reduction of measles transmission during school vacations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, Don; Hahné, Susan Jm; Woudenberg, Tom; Wallinga, Jacco

    2018-01-01

    Historically, measles incidence has shown clear seasonal patterns driven by the school calendar, but since the start of mass vaccination in developed countries there are only occasional outbreaks, which may have changed the effect of school vacations on transmission. In 2013-2014 a large measles

  20. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political

  1. Measles in Pakistan: Time to make steps towards eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Inayat Ur; Bukhsh, Allah; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    World Health Organization (WHO) measles surveillance data report a reduction in cases of measles globally from 67,524 cases in 2015 to 16,846 in 2016, and a reduction in deaths from 546,800 to 114,900 during period of 2000-14. Pakistan is among the five nations where almost a million children did not receive their first dose of measles vaccination, and outbreaks of the disease resulted in 4386 cases in 2011, 14,687 cases in 2012 with 310 deaths. In 2013, about 25,401 cases of measles were reported and 321 affected children died. The measles vaccination coverage is very low in Pakistan for both 1st dose and booster dose. To prevent outbreaks of measles in Pakistan a national vaccination program should be launched side by side with a polio eradication program in each district and township and a campaign should be launched to educate parents on measles vaccination for childrens to reduce the measles case fatality rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) containing the Edmonston-Zagreb measles strain, the Hoshino mumps strain, and the RA 27/3 rubella strain: Results of a randomized, comparative, active controlled phase III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ashwani; Mitra, Monjori; Joshi, Himanshu Arvind; Nayak, Uma Siddhartha; Siddaiah, Prashanth; Babu, T Ramesh; Mahapatro, Samarendra; Sanmukhani, Jayesh; Gupta, Gaurav; Mittal, Ravindra; Glueck, Reinhard

    2017-07-03

    This phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the single-dose and multi-dose formulations of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Cadila Healthcare Limited, India (Cadila MMR vaccine), containing the Hoshino mumps strain, compared to that of an existing MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Serum Institute of India Limited, India (Serum MMR vaccine). These two vaccines have similar measles and rubella strains, but different mumps strains (Hoshino in Cadila MMR vaccine, and L-Zagreb in Serum MMR vaccine). Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects of either sex, aged 15-18 months, were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either the Cadila or Serum MMR vaccine. Immunogenicity assessments (IgG antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella viruses) were done at baseline and 42 d after vaccination. Solicited (local and systemic) and unsolicited adverse events were recorded for up to 42 d following vaccination. The Cadila MMR vaccine was found to be non-inferior to the Serum MMR vaccine in terms of end-of-study proportion of subjects seropositive for anti-measles antibodies (100.0% in both groups), anti-mumps antibodies (94.5% vs. 94.0%), and anti-rubella antibodies (95.5% vs. 91.0%). Both vaccines were well tolerated by all study participants; the most common adverse event reported in both groups was fever, followed by rash. The results of this phase III clinical trial show that the novel Cadila MMR vaccine is non-inferior to the Serum MMR vaccine.

  3. Safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) administered with routine infant vaccinations: results of an open-label, randomized, phase 3b controlled study in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Silas, Peter E; Lamas, Marta Raquel Valdés; Aragón, Carlos Fernándo Grazioso; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Acuña, Teobaldo Herrera; Castrejón, Tirza De León; Izu, Allen; Odrljin, Tatjana; Smolenov, Igor; Hohenboken, Matthew; Dull, Peter M

    2014-02-12

    The highest risk for invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is in infants aged CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, concomitantly administered with routine vaccinations to healthy infants. Two-month-old infants were randomized 3:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines or routine vaccines alone at ages 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Adverse events (AEs) that were medically attended and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected from all subjects from enrollment through 18 months of age. In a subset, detailed safety data (local and systemic solicited reactions and all AEs) were collected for 7 days post vaccination. The primary objective was a non-inferiority comparison of the percentages of subjects with ≥1 severe systemic reaction during Days 1-7 after any vaccination of MenACWY-CRM plus routine vaccinations versus routine vaccinations alone (criterion: upper limit of 95% confidence interval [CI] of group difference CRM plus routine vaccines and 13% after routine vaccines alone (group difference 3.0% (95% CI -0.8, 6.4%). Although the non-inferiority criterion was not met, post hoc analysis controlling for significant center and group-by-center differences revealed that MenACWY-CRM plus routine vaccinations was non-inferior to routine vaccinations alone (group difference -0.1% [95% CI -4.9%, 4.7%]). Rates of solicited AEs, medically attended AEs, and SAEs were similar across groups. In a large multinational safety study, a 4-dose series of MenACWY-CRM concomitantly administered with routine vaccines was clinically acceptable with a similar safety profile to routine vaccines given alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, northern Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results: There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years. Thirty-two were male (64%. Twenty (40% were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64% cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72% received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96% knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion: This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles.

  5. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  6. Suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero a cepas vacinais do vírus do sarampo Susceptibility of Vero cell line to vaccine strains of the measles virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Sayoko Takata

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero ao vírus do sarampo é bem conhecida e sua utilização no controle da potência da vacina contra o sarampo é amplamente difundida. Com o objetivo de comparar a suscetibilidade de células Vero empregadas em titulações, amostras provenientes de dois laboratórios controladores (Vero IB e Vero INCQS, foram testadas frente a três cepas vacinais: Moraten, Schwarz e Biken CAM-70. Foram titulados 72 lotes de vacinas contra o sarampo, sendo 25 produzidos com a cepa Moraten, 24 com a cepa Schwarz e 23 com a cepa Biken CAM-70. A análise estatística dos resultados obtidos nas titulações, feita através dos testes Limites para uma Média e "t" de Student, mostrou que para as cepas Moraten e Biken CAM-70, as diferenças de títulos não foram estatisticamente significantes, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a cepa Schwarz, para a qual as células Vero IB se mostraram mais sensíveis.Vero cells used by distinct measles vaccine control laboratories had their susceptibility to Moraten, Schwarz and Biken CAM-70 vaccine strains assayed. Of a total of 72 lots of measles vaccine whose potency was titrated by microtechnique in two Vero cell samples (Vero IB and Vero INCQS, 25 had been produced with Moraten strain, 24 with Schwarz and 23 with Biken CAM-70. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that both Vero cells assayed presented comparable susceptibility to Moraten and Biken CAM-70 strains. As to the Schwarz strain, Vero IB cells were more susceptible than the other cell sample tested, thus confirming the existence of different sensitivities of Vero cells to some measles vaccine strains, or even to viruses derived from the same strain but with different passage histories. An altered cell susceptibility to virus replication may significantly alter the results in potency testing. Such alteration may be caused not only by the adoption of distinct protocols for the maintenance of cell cultures by

  7. Mathematical Model for the Control of measles 1*PETER, OJ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... 5Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria ... ABSTRACT: We proposed a mathematical model of measles disease dynamics with vaccination by ...... Equation with application.

  8. Fewer out-of-sequence vaccinations and reduction of child mortality in Northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welaga, Paul; Oduro, Abraham; Debpuur, Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies suggest that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine administered simultaneously with measles vaccine (MV) or DTP administered after MV are associated with higher child mortality than having MV-after-DTP3 as most recent vaccination. We tested this in Northern Ghana where...... the prevalence of such out-of-sequence vaccinations has declined. Methods: Using annual cohort data of children aged 12-23. months from 1996 to 2012 and Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed survival in relation to the most recent vaccination status within the next 12. months and until five years of age....... We assessed whether mortality in children aged 12-59. months was higher when the most recent vaccine was non-live (DTP) rather than live (MV or OPV). Results: Out-of-sequence vaccinations with DTP-containing vaccines and MV declined from 86% in 1989 to 24% in 1996 and 0.7% in 2012. Between 1996...

  9. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several...... an outbreak. The majority of the cases were unvaccinated (n = 27) or recipients of one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (n = 7). In addition, two fully vaccinated adult cases were reported in 2014. We demonstrate the transmission of measles virus in a population in which the two-dose MMR...... vaccination coverage rate was 80% and how even vaccinated individuals may be at risk of contracting measles once transmission has been established....

  10. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Infanrix™ when co-administered with meningococcal MenACWY-TT conjugate vaccine in toddlers primed with MenHibrix™ and Pediarix™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Michael; Latiolais, Thomas; Sarpong, Kwabena; Simon, Michael; Twiggs, Jerry; Lei, Paul; Rinderknecht, Stephen; Blatter, Mark; Bianco, Veronique; Baine, Yaela; Friedland, Leonard R; Baccarini, Carmen; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-11

    Co-administration of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) with the fourth dose of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) at age 15-18 months was investigated in 3-dose Haemophilus influenzae type b-meningococcal serogroups C/Y conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT)-primed toddlers. Infants were randomized (5:1) and primed at 2, 4 and 6 months of age with HibMenCY-TT and DTaP-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus (DTaP-HBV-IPV) vaccine, or Hib-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV (Control). HibMenCY-TT+ DTaP-HBV-IPV vaccinees were re-randomized (2:2:1) to receive MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months (MenACWY-TT group); MenACWY-TT co-administered with DTaP at 15-18 months (Coad group); or HibMenCY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months (HibMenCY-TT group). Controls received DTaP at 15-18 months. Only children in the HibMenCY-TT group received a fourth dose of Hib conjugate vaccine due to Hib conjugate vaccine shortage at the time of the study. DTaP immunogenicity and reactogenicity were assessed one month post-vaccination. Pre-defined statistical non-inferiority criteria between Coad and Control groups were met for diphtheria, tetanus and filamentous haemagglutinin but not pertussis toxoid and pertactin. Following vaccination ≥99% of children had anti-diphtheria/anti-tetanus concentrations ≥1.0 IU/ml. Pertussis GMCs were lower in all investigational groups versus Control. In post hoc analyses, pertussis antibody concentrations were above those in infants following 3-dose DTaP primary vaccination in whom efficacy against pertussis was demonstrated (Schmitt, von König, et al., 1996; Schmitt, Schuind, et al., 1996). The reactogenicity profile of the Coad group was similar to DTaP administered alone. Routine booster DTaP was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile when co-administered with MenACWY-TT vaccine in HibMenCY-TT-primed toddlers. These data support the

  11. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil Exantema após vacinação do sarampo: análise laboratorial de casos notificados em São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico diferencial de doenças exantemáticas causadas por vírus é geralmente difícil, e equívocos não são raros, especialmente depois da introdução da vacina contra o sarampo e a rubéola. Um estudo laboratorial foi conduzido com o objetivo de estabelecer o diagnóstico etiológico de casos de exantema em crianças que receberam a vacina contra o sarampo. MÉTODOS: Soros de casos de exantema em crianças que

  12. How Safe Is Measles Immunization Of Sick Children? | Ogbonna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study to ascertain how safe is maeales immunization of sick children was carried out in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Family Health Centre. Out of 125 children who were vaccinated against measles 17(16%) were sick at the time of vaccination. Two (12%) of the sick children had post vaccination reaction.

  13. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-07

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.

  15. The epidemiological and serological characteristics of measles in Dongguan, China, 2005–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke; Chen, Shaoli; Tang, Cuifei; Wen, Jinjun; Li, Jingquan; Ni, Jindong; Zheng, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the epidemiological and serological characteristics of measles in Dongguan, China. From 2005 to 2014, a total of 8,224 measles cases were reported in Dongguan, 33.5% of which were aged 14 y. From 2005 to 2014, the proportion of the measles cases increased year by year from 24.3% to 47.9%. Of the cases aged ≥8 months (n = 6,768 cases), only 11.6% had been immunized with at least one dose of measles vaccine. Of the 2,213 cases who had never been immunized with measles vaccine, immigrants accounted for 82.4%. 52.4% of the measles cases were diagnosed with pneumonia, and 12 cases died from respiratory failure. Seroprevalence rate in women and their newborns was 86.0% and 82.5%, respectively. Measurement of serum measles antibody levels for infants aged less than 8 months indicated that seroprevalence rate dramatically declined from 97.3% at birth to 9.3% and 13.2% at 6- and 7- month old. The existence of a sufficient pool of unvaccinated people (especially immigrants) and decreased level of passively transferred measles antibodies in infants from vaccinated mothers contributed to the sustained transmission observed in Dongguan. In addition to high routine vaccination coverage, new strategies and innovations for measles vaccination are needed to eliminate measles. PMID:27003239

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW van; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results with respect to immunogenicity as well as reactogenicity of a monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccine (MonoMen) used as booster vaccination in children previously vaccinated with a hexavalent MenB vaccine. The participants in this study were immunised in 1995-1996 with

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of one dose of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, when administered to adolescents concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguedas, A; Soley, C; Loaiza, C; Rincon, G; Guevara, S; Perez, A; Porras, W; Alvarado, O; Aguilar, L; Abdelnour, A; Grunwald, U; Bedell, L; Anemona, A; Dull, P M

    2010-04-19

    This Phase III study evaluates an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Novartis Vaccines), when administered concomitantly or sequentially with two other recommended adolescent vaccines; combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In this single-centre study, 1620 subjects 11-18 years of age, were randomized to three groups (1:1:1) to receive MenACWY-CRM concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV. Meningococcal serogroup-specific serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA), and antibodies to Tdap antigens and HPV virus-like particles were determined before and 1 month after study vaccinations. Proportions of subjects with hSBA titres > or =1:8 for all four meningococcal serogroups (A, C, W-135, Y) were non-inferior for both concomitant and sequential administration. Immune responses to Tdap and HPV antigens were comparable when these vaccines were given alone or concomitantly with MenACWY-CRM. All vaccines were well tolerated; concomitant or sequential administration did not increase reactogenicity. MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic in subjects 11-18 years of age, with comparable immune responses to the four serogroups when given alone or concomitantly with Tdap or HPV antigens. This is the first demonstration that these currently recommended adolescent vaccines could be administered concomitantly without causing increased reactogenicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GM-CSF increases mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza DNA vaccine administered into the epidermis of non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Loudon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent H5N1 avian and H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks reaffirm that the threat of a world-wide influenza pandemic is both real and ever-present. Vaccination is still considered the best strategy for protection against influenza virus infection but a significant challenge is to identify new vaccine approaches that offer accelerated production, broader protection against drifted and shifted strains, and the capacity to elicit anti-viral immune responses in the respiratory tract at the site of viral entry. As a safe alternative to live attenuated vaccines, the mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza (A/New Caledonia/20/99 HA DNA vaccine administered by particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED or gene gun was analyzed in rhesus macaques.Macaques were immunized at weeks 0, 8, and 16 using a disposable single-shot particle-mediated delivery device designed for clinical use that delivers plasmid DNA directly into cells of the epidermis. Significant levels of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI antibodies and cytokine-secreting HA-specific T cells were observed in the periphery of macaques following 1-3 doses of the PMED HA DNA vaccine. In addition, HA DNA vaccination induced detectable levels of HA-specific mucosal antibodies and T cells in the lung and gut-associated lymphoid tissues of vaccinated macaques. Importantly, co-delivery of a DNA encoding the rhesus macaque GM-CSF gene was found to significantly enhance both the systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of the HA DNA vaccine.These results provide strong support for the development of a particle-mediated epidermal DNA vaccine for protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza and demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of skin-delivered GM-CSF to serve as an effective mucosal adjuvant for vaccine induction of immune responses in the gut and respiratory tract.

  19. Nosocomial measles cluster in Denmark following an imported case, December 2008-January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, C; Bottiger, Be; Plesner, A

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule.......A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule....

  20. Modified measles versus rubella versus atypical measles: One and same thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In outbreak settings, more than one virus may be infecting the given population. In twin or triple outbreak of measles, German measles (rubella, and varicella in highly immunized hilly areas, maximal number of the case patients in all the hilly villages belonged to the older age group. It suggested an obvious shift to the higher age group, warranting second dose opportunity in such case scenario. The clinical presentations of viral diseases are too similar to differentiate. The aim is to clearly categorize the case patients of modified measles, rubella, and atypical measles in outbreak settings. Results: Four outbreaks are listed. In the first one, sixty case patients were identified from 1026 people in 5 villages. Of these, 41 were diagnosed by clinically, 8 were laboratory confirmed as measles and 11 were epidemiologically linked German measles case patients. Seventy percent of the cases were vaccinated for measles. In second case, we identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. In third one, we identified 116 cases in eight villages (112/116 clinically and 04/116 laboratory confirmed. Majority of cases were immunized against measles, but only minor cases for rubella. In fourth case, we identified 505 case patients from mixed outbreaks of varicella, measles and rubella (30/505 clinically, 467/505 epidemiologically linked and 8/505 laboratory confirmed case patients from a study population of 3280. In all the four outbreaks, prima facie, the clinical presentations of both rubella and modified measles were difficult to differentiate. Discussion: On the basis of outbreak investigation and analytical inference, it has been observed that the symtomatology of modified measles and laboratory confirmed rubella case patients/epidemiologically linked cases are so similar placed that many a time, it becomes much difficult to line list the cases in one section of modified

  1. Response of normal children to influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus vaccine administered by jet injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K; Orr, I; Andersen, M; Arthur, J H; Blakeman, G J

    1977-12-01

    Ninety-seven children six to 10 years old received monovalent influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus vaccine by jet injector. Comparison with groups receiving vaccine intramuscularly revealed that local reactions (tenderness and erythema) were more frequent and more severe in the group vaccinated by jet injector. Antibody response, however, was similar for all groups.

  2. Long-term protective immunity from an influenza virus-like particle vaccine administered with a microneedle patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Song, Jae-Min; Hwang, Hye Suk; Compans, Richard W; Prausnitz, Mark R; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2013-09-01

    Skin vaccination with influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) using microneedles has been shown to induce protection similar to or better than that induced by intramuscular immunization. In this study, we examined the long-term protective efficacy of influenza (H1N1 A/PR/8/34) VLPs after skin vaccination using microneedle patches coated with the vaccine. Microneedle vaccination of mice in the skin induced 100% protection against lethal challenge infection with influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 14 months after a single vaccine dose. Influenza virus-specific total IgG response and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers were maintained at high levels for over 1 year after microneedle vaccination. Microneedle vaccination also induced substantial levels of lung IgG and IgA antibody responses, and antibody-secreting plasma cells from spleen and bone marrow, as well as conferring effective control of lung viral loads, resulting in complete protection 14 months after vaccination. These strong and long-lasting immune responses were enabled in part by stabilization of the vaccine by formulation with trehalose during microneedle patch fabrication. Administration of the stabilized vaccine using microneedles was especially effective at enabling strong recall responses measured 4 days after lethal virus challenge, including increased HAI and antibody-secreting cells in the spleen and reduced viral titer and inflammatory response in the lung. The results in this study indicate that skin vaccination with VLP vaccine using a microneedle patch provides long-term protection against influenza in mice.

  3. Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: a mathematical model to inform optimal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2015-03-03

    The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden. We develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of measles transmission. We explore the frequency of SIAs in order to achieve measles control in selected countries and two Indian states with high measles burden. Specifically, we compute the maximum allowable time period between two consecutive SIAs to achieve measles control. Our analysis indicates that a single SIA will not control measles transmission in any of the countries with high measles burden. However, regular SIAs at high coverage levels are a viable strategy to prevent measles outbreaks. The periodicity of SIAs differs between countries and even within a single country, and is determined by population demographics and existing routine immunization coverage. Our analysis can guide country policymakers deciding on the optimal scheduling of SIA campaigns and the best combination of routine and SIA vaccination to control measles. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV and combined hepatitis A and B vaccine when co-administered or administered one month apart to 9-10 year-old girls according to 0-6 month schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Vladimir; Sauvageau, Chantal; Boulianne, Nicole; De Serres, Gaston; Couillard, Michel; Krajden, Mel; Ouakki, Manale; Murphy, Donald; Trevisan, Andrea; Dionne, Marc

    2014-01-01

    No immunogenicity data has been reported after a single dose of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV-Gardasil®) and no data are available on co-administration of this vaccine with the HAV/HBV vaccine (Twinrix-Junior®). Two pre-licensure studies reported similar anti-HPV but lower anti-HBs titers when co-administering HPV and HBV vaccines. To assess the immunogenicity of the qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccine when co-administered (Group-Co-adm) or given one month apart (Group-Sep) and to measure the persistence of HPV antibodies three years post-second dose of qHPV vaccine in both study groups. 416 9-10 year-old girls were enrolled. Vaccination schedule was 0-6 months. Anti-HAV and anti-HBs were measured in all subjects 6 months post-first dose and 1 month post-second dose. Anti-HPV were measured 6 months post-first dose in Group-Co-adm and in all subjects 1 and 36 months post-second dose. Six months post-first dose: 100% of subjects had detectable anti-HAV and 56% and 73% had detectable anti-HBs in Group-Co-Adm and Group-Sep, respectively. In Group-Co-adm 94, 100, 99 and 96% had detectable antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18, respectively. One month post-second dose of qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccine, in both study groups 99.5-100% of subjects had an anti-HAV titer ≥ 20IU/L, 97.5-97.6% an anti-HBs level ≥ 10IU/L, and 100% had an anti-HPV titer ≥ 3LU. Thirty-six months post-second dose of qHPV all but four subjects (99%) had antibodies to HPV18 and 100% had antibodies to HPV6, 11 and 16. The great majority (97-100%) had an anti-HPV titer ≥ 3 LU. Post-second dose administration of qHPV and HAV/HBV, no meaningful difference was observed in the immune response in the two study groups to any component of vaccines. The results indicate that qHPV and HAV/HBV can be given during the same vaccination session. Two doses of of qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccines induce a strong immune response. Three years post-second dose of qHPV, the great majority of subjects had antibodies to HPV types

  5. PRE VACCINATION MEASLES OUTBREAKS IN ENGLAND AND WALES: NONLINEAR ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS SUGGESTS A LEADING ROLE FOR PRESTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Hernández Martinez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMeasles data from pre-vaccination era in England and Wales were submitted to nonlinear association analysis. The method's rationale lies on the supposal that strong association between two time series when one of them is shifted in time respect to the other might be taken as an evidence for spatial-temporal causality. A threshold value for the nonlinear determination coefficient ( was set as criterion of strong association ( > 0.55.The common pattern for most of the cities was that outbreaks in a given place might be anticipated by some cities whereas followed by others. Only Preston preceded other cities and never followed any other. This result might be plausible since this port is an important node of human exchange with other cities. The associations respect to Preston were markedly nonlinear and the spread from there was slower, perhaps due to climatic causes. We conclude that nonlinear association approach is a promising way of exploring spatial-temporal epidemics data. RESUMEN:Se estudiaron, mediante un método de análisis de asociación no lineal, datos de incidencia de sarampión en Inglaterra y Gales correspondientes a la era pre-vacunación. La idea del método se centra en suponer que una asociación fuerte entre dos series temporales cuando una esta desplazada en el eje del tiempo respecto a la otra puede ser tomada como evidencia de causalidad. Se predeterminó un valor umbral para el coeficiente de determinación no lineal ( como criterio de asociación fuerte ( > 0.55.Para la mayor parte de las ciudades los brotes epidémicos se anticipaban a los de otras ciudades, pero eran posteriores a unas terceras. Solamente Preston precedía a otras ciudades y nunca siguió a otra. Este resultado pudiera ser relevante por cuanto este puerto es un nodo importante de intercambio humano con otras ciudades. Las asociaciones respecto a Preston eran marcadamente no lineales y la propagación desde Preston era más lenta, quizás debido

  6. A phase I randomized clinical trial of candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine MVA.HIVA administered to Gambian infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed O Afolabi

    Full Text Available A vaccine to decrease transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 during breast-feeding would complement efforts to eliminate infant HIV-1 infection by antiretroviral therapy. Relative to adults, infants have distinct immune development, potentially high-risk of transmission when exposed to HIV-1 and rapid progression to AIDS when infected. To date, there have been only three published HIV-1 vaccine trials in infants.We conducted a randomized phase I clinical trial PedVacc 001 assessing the feasibility, safety and immunogenicity of a single dose of candidate vaccine MVA.HIVA administered intramuscularly to 20-week-old infants born to HIV-1-negative mothers in The Gambia.Infants were followed to 9 months of age with assessment of safety, immunogenicity and interference with Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI vaccines. The trial is the first stage of developing more complex prime-boost vaccination strategies against breast milk transmission of HIV-1.From March to October 2010, 48 infants (24 vaccine and 24 no-treatment were enrolled with 100% retention. The MVA.HIVA vaccine was safe with no difference in adverse events between vaccinees and untreated infants. Two vaccine recipients (9% and no controls had positive ex vivo interferon-γ ELISPOT assay responses. Antibody levels elicited to the EPI vaccines, which included diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and oral poliovirus, reached protective levels for the vast majority and were similar between the two arms.A single low-dose of MVA.HIVA administered to 20-week-old infants in The Gambia was found to be safe and without interference with the induction of protective antibody levels by EPI vaccines, but did not alone induce sufficient HIV-1-specific responses. These data support the use of MVA carrying other transgenes as a boosting vector within more complex prime-boost vaccine strategies against transmission of HIV-1 and

  7. Emergency measles control activities--Darfur, Sudan, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    The Darfur region of Sudan, composed of three states with a population of approximately six million, has experienced civil conflict during the previous year, resulting in the internal displacement of approximately one million residents and an exodus of an estimated 170,000 persons to neighboring Chad. The conflict has left a vulnerable population with limited access to food, health care, and other basic necessities. In addition, measles vaccination coverage has been adversely affected; in 2003, coverage was reported to be 46%, 57%, and 77% in North, West, and South Darfur, respectively. This report describes measles-control activities in Darfur region conducted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) in Sudan in collaboration with the United Nations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) during March-August 2004. Ongoing measles transmission in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and neighboring communities in Darfur led to a regionwide measles vaccination campaign targeting all children aged 9 months-15 years, resulting in a reduction in reported measles cases. Once security is improved, ongoing efforts to increase measles vaccine coverage will be required to eliminate persistent susceptibility to measles in the Darfur population.

  8. Epstein–Barr Virus, but Not Cytomegalovirus, Latency Accelerates the Decay of Childhood Measles and Rubella Vaccine Responses—A 10-Year Follow-up of a Swedish Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintare Lasaviciute

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEpstein–Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are ubiquitous and persistent herpesviruses commonly acquired during childhood. Both viruses have a significant impact on the immune system, especially through mediating the establishment of cellular immunity, which keeps these viruses under control for life. Far less is known about how these viruses influence B-cell responses.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of latent EBV and CMV infection on rubella- and measles-specific antibody responses as well as on the B-cell compartment in a prospective birth cohort followed during the first 10 years of life.MethodsIgG titers against rubella and measles vaccines were measured in plasma obtained from the same donors at 2, 5, and 10 years of age. Peripheral B-cell subsets were evaluated ex vivo at 2 and 5 years of age. Factors related to optimal B-cell responses including IL-21 and CXCL13 levels in plasma were measured at all-time points.ResultsEBV carriage in the absence of CMV associated with an accelerated decline of rubella and measles-specific IgG levels (p = 0.003 and p = 0.019, respectively, linear mixed model analysis, while CMV carriage in the absence of EBV associated with delayed IgG decay over time for rubella (p = 0.034. At 5 years of age, EBV but not CMV latency associated with a lower percentage of plasmablasts, but higher IL-21 levels in the circulation.ConclusionOur findings suggest that EBV carriage in the absence of CMV influences the B-cell compartment and the dynamics of antibody responses over time during steady state in the otherwise healthy host.

  9. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  10. Lack of Measles Transmission to Susceptible Contacts from a Health Care Worker with Probable Secondary Vaccine Failure - Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson; Klein, Ron; Popescu, Saskia; Rose, Karen; Kretschmer, Melissa; Carrigan, Alice; Trembath, Felicia; Koski, Lia; Zabel, Karen; Ostdiek, Scott; Rowell-Kinnard, Paula; Munoz, Esther; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Sylvester, Tammy

    2015-08-07

    On January 23, 2015, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) was notified of a suspected measles case in a nurse, a woman aged 48 years. On January 11, the nurse had contact with a patient with laboratory-confirmed measles associated with the Disneyland theme park-related outbreak in California. On January 21, she developed a fever (103°F [39.4°C]), on January 23 she experienced cough and coryza, and on January 24, she developed a rash. The patient was instructed to isolate herself at home. On January 26, serum, a nasopharyngeal swab, and a urine specimen were collected. The following day, measles infection was diagnosed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing of the nasopharyngeal swab and urine specimen and by detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of her symptoms and laboratory results, the patient was considered to be infectious.

  11. A randomised trial to evaluate the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with routine childhood vaccines in Singapore and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Fong Seng; Koh, Mia Tuang; Tan, Kah Kee; Chan, Poh Chong; Chong, Chia Yin; Shung Yehudi, Yeo Wee; Teoh, Yee Leong; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Hezareh, Marjan; Swinnen, Kristien; Borys, Dorota

    2014-10-02

    The immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with routine childhood vaccines were evaluated among infants from Singapore and Malaysia, where PHiD-CV has been licensed. In the primary vaccination phase, 298 infants from Singapore and 168 infants from Malaysia were randomised to receive the Phase III Clinical (Clin) or the Commercial (Com) lot of PHiD-CV at 2, 3, and 5 months of age. In the booster vaccination phase, 238 toddlers from Singapore received one dose of the PHiD-CV Commercial lot at 18-21 months of age. Immune responses to pneumococcal polysaccharides were measured using 22F-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and functional opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assay and to protein D, using ELISA. Immune responses induced by primary vaccination with the PHiD-CV Commercial lot were non-inferior to the Phase III Clinical lot in terms of adjusted antibody geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratios for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype and protein D. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, ≥93.6% and ≥88.5% of infants from Malaysia and Singapore had post-primary vaccination antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL and OPA titres ≥8, in the Clin and Com groups, respectively. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, ≥60.8% and ≥98.2% of toddlers from Singapore had pre- and post-booster antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL, in the Clin and Com groups, respectively. All children, except one, had measurable anti-protein D antibodies and the primary and booster doses of the co-administered vaccines were immunogenic. The incidence of each grade 3 solicited symptom was ≤11.1% in both study phases. No serious adverse events considered causally related to vaccination were reported throughout the study. PHiD-CV given as three-dose primary vaccination to infants in Singapore and Malaysia and booster vaccination to toddlers in

  12. A Randomized, Controlled Study of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, a Fully Liquid Hexavalent Vaccine, Administered in a 3-, 5- and 11- to 12-month Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Jordanov, Emilia; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    To assess the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, ready-to-use hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine when administered in a 2 + 1 schedule at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, observer-blind, multicenter study. Infants were randomized to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 275) or a licensed control hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T: N = 275), both given in coadministration with Prevenar 13. Serum was analyzed for immune responses to all vaccine antigens. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was tested at completion of the primary series using predefined seroprotection (SP) rate and vaccine response (VR) rates. Safety was assessed using parental reports. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was demonstrated postdose 3 for each antigen, and the SP (for D, T, poliovirus 1, 2 and 3, hepatitis B and polyribosylribitol phosphate) and VR rates (for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin) were high in each group. SP rates for D, T, polio 1, 2, 3 and VR rates for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were similar in each group. For hepatitis B, SP rate was slightly higher for DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (99.6%) than DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (96.4%), and for PRP, SP rate was higher for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (93.5%) than DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (85.2%). For Prevenar 13, the SP rate was high for each serotype and similar for both groups. All vaccines were well tolerated. These study findings confirm the safety and immunogenicity and thus the suitability of this fully liquid hexavalent vaccine for administration in a 2 + 1 schedule.

  13. Immunogenicity and Safety of Yellow Fever Vaccine (Stamaril) When Administered Concomitantly With a Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate in Healthy Toddlers at 12-13 Months of Age in Colombia and Peru: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pio; Lanata, Claudio F; Zambrano, Betzana; Cortés, Margarita; Andrade, Teresa; Amemiya, Isabel; Terrones, Cynthia; Gil, Ana I; Verastegui, Hector; Marquez, Viviana; Crevat, Denis; Jezorwski, John; Noriega, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Dengue and yellow fever (YF) viruses are closely related members of the Flaviviridae family. Given the inherent similarities between the YF vaccine and dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) candidate, it is possible that the latter could interfere with the response to the licensed YF vaccine when coadministered. In this randomized, observer-blind, controlled, phase III trial, conducted in Colombia and Peru, 787 toddlers were administered YF vaccine concomitantly with CYD-TDV (group 1) or placebo (group 2), followed by CYD-TDV after 6 and 12 months. YF and dengue neutralizing antibody titers were determined using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test. Noninferiority was demonstrated if the lower limit of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval of the difference in seroconversion rates [(YF + CYD-TDV) - YF alone] was greater than -10%. The safety of both vaccines was also assessed. Concomitant administration of YF with either CYD-TDV or placebo yielded YF seroconversion rates of 100.0% and 99.7%, respectively. The difference in YF seroconversion rates between the 2 groups was 0.33% (95% confidence interval:0.98; 1.87), demonstrating that the immune response against YF administered concomitantly with CYD-TDV was noninferior to YF administered with placebo. After 2 injections of CYD-TDV, the percentage of participants with dengue titres ≥10 (1/dil) for the 4 dengue serotypes were 91.2%-100% for group 1 and 97.2%-100% in group 2. There were no safety concerns during the study period. Concomitant administration of YF vaccine with CYD-TDV has no relevant impact on the immunogenicity or safety profile of the YF vaccine.

  14. Immunogenicity of UV-inactivated measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorska, R.; Mazur, N.; Korbecki, M.

    1978-01-01

    By means of the antigen extinction limit test it was shown that a triple dose vaccination of guinea pigs with UV-inactivated measles virus gave better results, than a single dose vaccination which was proved by the very low immunogenicity index. For both vaccination schemes (single and triple) the immune response was only sligthly influenced by a change of dose from 10 5 to 10 6 HadU 50 /ml or by the addition of aluminum adjuvant. In the antigen extinction limit test the antibody levels were determined by two methods (HIT and NT) the results of which were statistically equivalent. The UV-inactivated measles virus was also found to induce hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (orig.) [de

  15. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320. PMID:16210491

  16. Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus provides adjuvant activity to a co-administered poorly immunogenic SFV vaccine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle eBabb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many currently available inactivated vaccines require 'adjuvants' to maximise the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent type-I interferon (IFN-I responses and the IFN-I associated partial lymphocyte activation. Commonly, IFN-I responses induced by adjuvants, combined in vaccine preparations, have been shown to effectively enhance the immunogenicity of the antigens of interest. Therefore, we investigated the potential adjuvant activity of γ-FLU and the possible effect on antibody responses against co-administrated antigens, using gamma-irradiated Semliki Forest Virus (γ-SFV as the experimental vaccine in mice. Our data show that co-vaccination with γ-FLU and γ-SFV resulted in enhanced SFV-specific antibody responses in terms of increased titres by 6 fold and greater neutralisation efficacy, when compared to vaccination with γ-SFV alone. This study provides promising evidence related to the possible use of γ-FLU as an adjuvant to poorly immunogenic vaccines without compromising the vaccine efficacy of γ-FLU.

  17. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  18. Immunogenicity of an intranasally administered modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-10-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of < or = 80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  19. Measles Outbreak in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients in Shanghai, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan-Ling; Zhai, Xiao-Wen; Zhu, Yan-Feng; Wang, Xiang-Shi; Xia, Ai-Mei; Li, Yue-Fang; Zeng, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. Methods: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-confirmed based on the presence of measles IgM and/or identification of measles RNA. The clinical data were statistically analyzed by t-test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Results: From March 9 to July 25 in 2015, a total of 23 children with malignancies and post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (post-HSCT) were notified to develop measles in Shanghai. Of these 23 patients with the median age of 5.5 years (range: 11 months–14 years), 20 (87.0%) had received 1–3 doses of measles vaccine previously; all patients had fever with the median fever duration of 8 days; 21 (91.3%) had cough; 18 (78.3%) had rash; 13 (56.5%) had Koplik's spot; 13 (56.5%) had complications including pneumonia and acute liver failure; and five (21.7%) vaccinated patients died from severe pneumonia or acute liver failure. Except the first patient, all patients had hospital visits within 7–21 days before measles onset and 20 patients were likely to be exposed to each other. Conclusions: The outcome of measles outbreak in previously vaccinated oncology and post-HSCT pediatric patients during chemotherapy and immunosuppressant medication was severe. Complete loss of protective immunity induced by measles vaccine during chemotherapy was the potential reason. Improved infection control practice was critical for the prevention of measles in malignancy patients and transplant recipients. PMID:28524832

  20. Measles control and elimination in Somalia: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Naouri, Boubker; Mirza, Imran Raza; Hirsi, Abdurazak; Mohammed, Abdurahman; Omer, Mohammed; Dualle, Abdi Hassan; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Despite enormous challenges, Somalia has been successfully implementing accelerated measles control activities since 2005. Through innovative strategies and with the support of local and international partners, the country has shown potentials of implementing measles mortality reduction activities in complex emergencies. Measles incidence has been reduced by >80% after the measles catch-up campaigns of 2005-2007, and national reported measles routine immunization coverage with first dose measles containing vaccine has reached 59% for the first time in 2009. However, the near collapse of the health care system and the ongoing insecurity continue to hamper the implementation of recommended measles control and elimination strategies in some parts of the country, making these achievements fragile. Somalia exemplifies the challenges in meeting measles elimination goals in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean region. As the region is entering its 2010 measles elimination goals, it appears necessary to establish realistic and flexible interim goals for measles control in Somalia that will take into consideration the specificities of the country. Maintaining flexibility in conducting field operations, securing financial resources, multiplying opportunities for measles vaccination, and improving disease monitoring systems will remain vital to sustain and improve current achievements. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... child's back. Distribution is similar to that of measles, but the lesions are less intensely red. This ...

  2. Measles, One of the Re-emerging Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Türe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to stand out the measles which is a highly contagious re-emerging viral illness and may cause severe complications in susceptible population. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on patients who were diagnosed with measles in the department of Infectious Diseases, Erciyes University Hospital, between January 2013 and February 2014. The diagnosis of measles was confirmed by measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody positivity in serum samples. Results: Nine patients were included the study. Three patients had a co-morbid condition including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pregnancy and diabetes mellitus. Four of the patients had hepatitis and one of them had pneumonia as a complication. Conclusion: Susceptible population, especially immunocompromised people are still at risk about measles. Adherence to universal vaccination programs is determinative in terms of breaking out of an outbreak. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 19-22

  3. Risk factors for measles death: Kyegegwa District, western Uganda, February-September, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafigiri, Richardson; Nsubuga, Fred; Ario, Alex Riolexus

    2017-07-03

    On 18 August 2015, Kyegegwa District reported eight deaths during a measles outbreak to the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH). We investigated this death cluster to verify the cause, identify risk factors, and inform public health interventions. We defined a probable measles case as onset of fever and generalised rash in a Kyegegwa District resident from 1 February - 15 September 2015, plus ≥1 of the following: coryza, conjunctivitis, and cough. A confirmed measles case was a probable case with measles-specific IgM positivity. A measles death was a death of a probable or confirmed case-person. We conducted an active case-finding to identify measles patients who survived or died. In a case-control study, we compared risk factors between 16 measles patients who died (cases) and 48 who survived (controls), matched by age (±4 years) and village of residence. We identified 94 probable measles cases, 10 (11%) were confirmed by positive measles-specific IgM. Of the 64 probable measles patients aged measles was found in 94% (15/16) among the case-persons (i.e., measles patients who died) and 54% (26/48) among the controls (i.e., measles patients who survived) (OR M-H  = 12; 95% CI = 1.6-104), while 56% (9/16) of case-persons and 67% (17/48) of controls (OR M-H  = 2.3; 95% CI =0.74-7.4) did not receive vitamin A supplementation during illness. 63% (10/16) among the case-persons and 6.3% (3/48) of the controls (OR M-H  = 33; 95% CI = 6.8-159) were not treated for measles illness at a health facility (a proxy for more appropriate treatment), while 38% (6/16) of the case-persons and 25% (12/48) of the controls (OR M-H  = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.67-9.1) were malnourished. Lack of vaccination and no treatment in a health facility increased the risk for measles deaths. The one-dose measles vaccination currently in the national vaccination schedule had a protective effect against measles death. We recommended enhancing measles vaccination and adherence to measles treatment

  4. Some factors associated with non-acceptance of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from a child health survey in Chikwawa District was used to investigate characteristics of non-acceptance of measles immunization. 9.3% of the children with vaccination cards had not been vaccinated. Distance to a static health centre and failure to attend a growth monitoring clinic were predictors of lack of ...

  5. Some factors associated with non-acceptance of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from a child health survey in Chikwawa District was used to investigate characteristics of non-acceptance of measles immu- nization. 9.3% of the children with vaccination cards had not been vaccinated. Distance to a static health centre and failure to attend a growth monitoring clinic were predictors of lack of immuniza-.

  6. The Ondersteport Canine distemper virus strain and measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of dogs aged three months each were used in an experiment to assess efficacy of imported Canine distemper vaccine (Ondersteport strain) and measles vaccine in protecting Nigerian dogs against local isolates of Canine distemper virus. Each group consisted of four randomly selected puppies. One group ...

  7. Low-dose cyclophosphamide administered as daily or single dose enhances the antitumor effects of a therapeutic HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shiwen; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Akpeng, Belinda; Wu, Annie; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Although therapeutic HPV vaccines are able to elicit systemic HPV-specific immunity, clinical responses have not always correlated with levels of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells in human clinical trials. This observed discrepancy may be attributable to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in which the CD8+ T cells are recruited. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are cells that can dampen cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell function. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a systemic chemotherapeutic agent, which can eradicate immune cells, including inhibitory Tregs. The optimal dose and schedule of CTX administration in combination with immunotherapy to eliminate the Treg population without adversely affecting vaccine-induced T-cell responses is unknown. Therefore, we investigated various dosing and administration schedules of CTX in combination with a therapeutic HPV vaccine in a preclinical tumor model. HPV tumor-bearing mice received either a single preconditioning dose or a daily dose of CTX in combination with the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Both single and daily dosing of CTX in combination with vaccine had a synergistic anti-tumor effect as compared to monotherapy alone. The potent antitumor responses were attributed to the reduction in Treg frequency and increased infiltration of HPV16 E7-specific CD8+ T cells, which led to higher ratios of CD8+/Treg and CD8+/CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was an observed trend toward decreased vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell frequency with daily dosing of CTX. We recommend a single, preconditioning dose of CTX prior to vaccination due to its efficacy, ease of administration, and reduced cumulative adverse effect on vaccine-induced T cells. PMID:23011589

  8. Measles outbreak in adults: A changing epidemiological pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Bajaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thirty-one cases of fever with rash were reported among students of a college in Pune, India, from March to May 2014. The clinical profile was similar to that of measles and 7 of them tested positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM. An outbreak of measles was declared, and epidemiological investigation was carried out to assess the situation and suggest preventive measures. Methods: An epidemiological case sheet filled for each case to identify the source and likely contacts. Medical and administrative authorities were sensitized about the increase in incidence and clustering of cases. A surveillance system was set up for detection of new cases and follow-up of contacts. Throat swabs and blood samples from 12 cases were tested by ELISA method for commonly occurring viral exanthematous fevers to confirm the diagnosis and 7 were positive for measles-specific IgM antibody. Preventive measures were advised to control the outbreak. Results: A total of 31 cases of fever with rashes were reported among students of a college in Pune, India, during the months of March–May 2014. Most of the students were in the age group of 18–24 years. Samples from 12 cases were sent for testing and 7 tested positive for measles-specific IgM antibodies. Seven cases were epidemiologically linked to a lab-confirmed case. All cases had fever, maculopapular rash, and sore throat and gave a history of vaccination for measles in childhood. Conclusion: An epidemiological investigation was carried out for outbreak of measles in a young adult population of college students from Pune. It is reported that, with increase in overall coverage of vaccination, there is a rise in incidence of measles in vaccinated individuals. The age profile also shifts to higher age groups. Investigation of such outbreaks provides an opportunity to identify high-risk groups, changes in measles epidemiology and weaknesses in the routine immunization programs.

  9. Effect of Tdap when administered before, with or after the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (coadministered with the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine) in adults: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashani, M; Alfelali, M; Barasheed, O; Alqahtani, A S; Heron, L; Wong, M; Rashid, H; Booy, R

    2016-11-21

    Sequential or co-administration of vaccines has potential to alter the immune response to any of the antigens. Existing literature suggests that prior immunisation of tetanus/diphtheria-containing vaccines can either enhance or suppress immune response to conjugate pneumococcal or meningococcal vaccines. We examined this interaction among adult Australian travellers before attending the Hajj pilgrimage 2014. We also investigated tolerability of these vaccines separately and concomitantly. We randomly assigned each participant to one of three vaccination schedules. Group A received adult tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) 3-4weeks before receiving CRM197-conjugated 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) and CRM197-conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MCV4). Group B received all three vaccines on one day. Group C received PCV13 and MCV4 3-4weeks before Tdap. Blood samples collected at baseline, each vaccination visit and 3-4weeks after vaccination were tested using the pneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) and by ELISA for diphtheria and tetanus antibodies. Funding for meningococcal serology was not available. Participants completed symptom diaries after each vaccination. A total of 111 participants aged 18-64 (median 40) years were recruited. No statistically significant difference was detected across the three groups in achieving OPA titre ⩾1:8 post vaccination. However, compared to other groups, Group A had a statistically significant lower number of subjects achieving ⩾4-fold rise in serotype 3, and also significantly lower geometric mean titres (GMTs) to six (of 13) pneumococcal serotypes (3, 5, 18C, 4, 19A and 9V). Group C (given prior PCV13 and MVC4) had statistically significant higher pre-Tdap geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-diphtheria IgG; however, there was no difference across the three groups following Tdap. Anti-tetanus IgG GMCs were similar across the groups before and after Tdap. No serious adverse

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of a four-component meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent meningococcal group ACWY conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly in healthy laboratory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Jamie; Bai, Xilian; Findlow, Helen; Newton, Emma; Kaczmarski, Ed; Miller, Elizabeth; Borrow, Ray

    2015-06-26

    Safety precautions for laboratory staff working with meningococci should primarily rely on laboratory procedures preventing exposure to aerosols containing viable meningococci. Despite this, vaccination is a key component of protection in the occupational setting. In the UK in 2009, there were no licensed vaccines for meningococcal capsular group B or conjugate vaccines for capsular groups A, C, W and Y. We therefore undertook a Phase II trial in laboratory workers to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a four component group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent group A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY-CRM). Enrolment was open to staff aged 18-65 years at the Public Health Laboratory, Manchester who may have had a potential occupational exposure risk to meningococci. 4CMenB was administered at 0, 2 and 6 months in the non-dominant arm and ACWY-CRM concomitantly at 0 months in the dominant arm. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were taken and analysed by the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay against A, C, W and Y strains and a panel of seven diverse group B strains. Diary cards were used to record any local and systemic reactions following each vaccination. In total, 38 staff were enrolled and received initial vaccinations with 31 completing the trial per protocol. Both vaccines were proven safe, with local reactogenicity being more commonly reported following 4CMenB than ACWY-CRM. High proportions of subjects had putative protective SBA titres pre-vaccination, with 61-84 and 61-87% protected against A, C, W and Y strains and diverse MenB strains, respectively. Post-vaccination, SBA titres increased with 95-100 and 90-100% of subjects with protective SBA titres against A, C, W and Y strains and diverse MenB strains, respectively. These data suggest that 4CMenB and ACWY-CRM are safe when administered concomitantly and have the potential to enhance protection for laboratory workers. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00962624. Crown

  11. Clinical outcome in measles patients hospitalized with complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.U.; Saeed, T.

    2008-01-01

    Measles is a highly communicable viral illness and is common cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Keeping in view the high prevalence of measles in the developing world, we carried out this study to look into the complicated measles cases and clinical outcome in patients admitted in children ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital. Detailed history and physical examination of all the hospitalized patients with complication of measles were recorded in a proforma. Immunization and nutritional status of each admitted patient was assessed and the clinical outcome of measles was compared with demographic profile. one hundred thirty six hospitalized patients with complications of measles were studied. There was 60.3% male and 57.3% of patients were vaccinated against measles. Malnourished patients were 71.35% and had longer hospital stay (>5 days). Pneumonia (39.7%) and diarrhoea (38.2%) were the commonest complications. Seven children died and encephalitis (57.1%) was the commonest cause of death. The most common complications of measles are pneumonia and diarrhoea with dehydration requiring admission. Malnutrition results in more complications and longer hospital stay. Mortality is significantly associated with encephalitis. (author)

  12. Impact of measles supplementary immunization activities on reaching children missed by routine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Allison; Jit, Mark; Helleringer, Stéphane; Verguet, Stéphane

    2018-01-02

    Measles supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are vaccination campaigns that supplement routine vaccination programs with a recommended second dose opportunity to children of different ages regardless of their previous history of measles vaccination. They are conducted every 2-4 years and over a few weeks in many low- and middle-income countries. While SIAs have high vaccination coverage, it is unclear whether they reach the children who miss their routine measles vaccine dose. Determining who is reached by SIAs is vital to understanding their effectiveness, as well as measure progress towards measles control. We examined SIAs in low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2014 using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Conditional on a child's routine measles vaccination status, we examined whether children participated in the most recent measles SIA. The average proportion of zero-dose children (no previous routine measles vaccination defined as no vaccination date before the SIA) reached by SIAs across 14 countries was 66%, ranging from 28% in São Tomé and Príncipe to 91% in Nigeria. However, when also including all children with routine measles vaccination data, this proportion decreased to 12% and to 58% when imputing data for children with vaccination reported by the mother and vaccination marks on the vaccination card across countries. Overall, the proportions of zero-dose children reached by SIAs declined with increasing household wealth. Some countries appeared to reach a higher proportion of zero-dose children using SIAs than others, with proportions reached varying according to the definition of measles vaccination (e.g., vaccination dates on the vaccination card, vaccination marks on the vaccination card, and/or self-reported data). This suggests that some countries could improve their targeting of SIAs to children who miss other measles vaccine opportunities. Across all countries, SIAs played an important role in reaching

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered to older infants and children naïve to pneumococcal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jacek; Brzostek, Jerzy; Szymański, Henryk; Tetiurka, Bogusław; Toporowska-Kowalska, Ewa; Wasowska-Królikowska, Krystyna; Sarkozy, Denise A; Giardina, Peter C; Gruber, William C; Emini, Emilio A; Scott, Daniel A

    2015-03-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children vaccine (PCV13) has been developed and approved in many countries worldwide. Assess the safety and immunogenicity of PCV13 in healthy older infants and children naïve to previous pneumococcal vaccination. This was a phase 3, open-label, multicenter study conducted in Polish children (N=354) who were vaccinated according to 3 age-appropriate catch-up schedules: Group 1 (aged 7 to vaccine doses only; and Group 3 (aged 24 to vaccine, was determined for each vaccine serotype. In addition, antipolysaccharide immunoglobulin (Ig) G geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were calculated. Safety assessments included systemic and local reactions, and adverse events. The proportion of immunological responders was ≥88% across groups for all serotypes. Antipolysaccharide IgG GMCs were generally similar across groups. Each schedule elicited immune response levels against all 13 serotypes comparable to or greater than levels previously reported in infants after a 3-dose series. The 3 catch-up schedules had similar tolerability and safety profiles; a trend was present towards greater local tenderness with increasing age and subsequent dose administration. Immunological responses and safety results support the use of PCV13 for catch-up schedules in older infants and children naïve to pneumococcal vaccination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Prevalence of measles antibodies among health care workers in Catalonia (Spain) in the elimination era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of measles transmission was achieved in Catalonia (Spain) in 2000. Six years later, a measles outbreak occurred between August 2006 and June 2007 with 381 cases, 11 of whom were health care workers (HCW). The objective was to estimate susceptibility to measles in HCW and related demographic and occupational characteristics. Methods A measles seroprevalence study was carried out in 639 HCW from six public tertiary hospitals and five primary healthcare areas. Antibodies were tested using the Vircell Measles ELISA IgG Kit. Data were analyzed according to age, sex, type of HCW, type of centre and vaccination history. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% CI were calculated to determine the variables associated with antibody prevalence. OR were adjusted using logistic regression. Positive predictive values (PPV) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of having two documented doses of a measles containing vaccine (MCV) for the presence of measles antibodies and of reporting a history of measles infection were calculated. Results The prevalence of measles antibodies in HCW was 98% (95% CI 96.6-98.9), and was lower in HCW born in 1981 or later, after the introduction of systematic paediatric vaccination (94.4%; 95% CI 86.4-98.5) and higher in HCW born between 1965 and 1980 (99.0%; 95% CI 97.0-99.8). Significant differences were found for HCW born in 1965–1980 with respect to those born in 1981 and after (adjusted OR of 5.67; 95% CI: 1.24-25.91). A total of 187 HCW reported being vaccinated: the proportion of vaccinated HCW decreased with age. Of HCW who reported being vaccinated, vaccination was confirmed by the vaccination card in 49%. Vaccination with 2 doses was documented in only 50 HCW, of whom 48 had measles antibodies. 311 HCW reported a history of measles. The PPV of having received two documented doses of MCV was 96% (95% CI 86.3-99.5) and the PPV of reporting a history of measles was 98.7% (95% CI 96.7-99.6). Conclusions Screening to detect

  15. Decline in measles mortality: nutrition, age at infection, or exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Bukh, Jette; Lisse, Ida Maria; da Silva, Maria Clotilde

    1988-01-01

    The mortality from measles was studied in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau one year before and five years after the introduction of a vaccination programme. The years after the introduction of immunisation saw a decline in mortality among unvaccinated children with measles. This decline occurred despite a lower age at infection and an increasing prevalence of malnourished children. State of nutrition (weight for age) did not affect the outcome of measles infection. The incidence of isolated cases, however, increased in the period after the introduction of measles vaccination. As mortality was lower among these cases, diminished clustering explained some of the reduction in mortality. Comparison between the urban district and a rural area inhabited by the same ethnic group showed a lower age at infection, less clustering of cases, and lower case fatality ratios in the urban area. Endemic transmission of measles in urban districts leads to less clustering of cases, which may help explain the usually lower case fatality ratios in these areas. As measles vaccination increases herd immunity and diminishes clustering of cases, it may reduce mortality even among unvaccinated children who contract the disease. PMID:3133023

  16. Occurrence of measles in a country with elimination status: Amplifying measles infection in hospitalized children due to imported virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, HyeEun; Park, YoungJoon; Kim, JooWhee; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kang, HaeJi; Kim, Kisoon; Chun, Byung Chul; Park, Ok; Hong, Jeong Ik

    2018-01-01

    The Republic of Korea declared measles elimination in 2006. However, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics of the sources of infection and the pattern of measles transmission in 2013 in South Korea. We utilized surveillance data, epidemiological data, immunization registry data, and genetic information. We describe the epidemiological characteristics of all measles case patients (sex, age distribution, vaccination status, sources of infection) as well as details of the outbreak (the pattern of transmission, duration, mean age of patients, and generation time). In 2013, a total of 107 measles cases were notified. Most patients were infants (43.0%) and unvaccinated individuals (60.7%). We identified 4 imported and 103 import-related cases. A total of 105 cases were related to four outbreaks that occurred in Gyeongnam, northern Gyeonggi, southern Gyeonggi, and Seoul. The predominant circulating genotype was B3 type, which was identified in the Gyeongnam, northern Gyeonggi, and southern Gyeonggi outbreaks. The B3 type had not been in circulation in South Korea in the previous 3 years; virologic evidence suggests that these outbreaks were import-related. Most measles cases in South Korea have been associated with imported measles virus. Although Korea has maintained a high level of herd immunity, clustering of susceptible people can cause such measles outbreaks.

  17. Combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine versus separately administered DTP-HBV and HIB vaccines for primary prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Edna S; Goldberg, Elad; Hellmann, Sarah; Leibovici, Leonard

    2012-04-18

    Advantages to combining childhood vaccines include reducing the number of visits, injections and patient discomfort, increasing compliance and optimising prevention. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that routine infant immunisation programmes include a vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B (HIB) in the combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. The effectiveness and safety of the combined vaccine should be carefully and systematically assessed to ensure its acceptability by the community. To compare the effectiveness of combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccines versus combined DTP-HBV and separate HIB vaccinations. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (January 1966 to week 1, November 2011), EMBASE (January 1990 to November 2011) and www.clinicaltrials.gov (up to April 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing vaccination with any combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine, with or without three types of inactivated polio virus (IPV) or concomitant oral polio vaccine (OPV) in any dose, preparation or time schedule, compared with separate vaccines or placebo, administered to infants up to two years old. Two review authors independently inspected references identified by the searches and evaluated them against the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included trials. Data for the primary outcome (prevention of disease) were lacking. We performed a meta-analysis to pool the results of 20 studies with 5874 participants in an immunogenicity analysis and 5232 participants in the reactogenicity analysis. There were no data on clinical outcomes for the primary outcome (prevention of disease) and all studies used immunogenicity and reactogenicity (adverse events). The number of vaccine

  18. [Ophthalmological symptoms of measles and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végh, Mihály; Hári-Kovács, András; Roth, Hans-Walter; Facskó, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Measles, caused by the Morbilli virus, is a highly (about 95 %) contagious disease affecting primarily children, but without proper immunisation, adults can also be infected. The leading symptoms of the disease are high fever that presents after an incubation period of 9-10 days and the red rash that begins several days after the fever starts. Beyond specific generalized symptoms, measles may have ocular symptoms. The most commonly occurring conjunctivitis, the so-called "red eye symptom", is not characteristic only for measles infection, however, by taking the generalized symptoms it can suggest the diagnosis at the beginning of the disease. Conjunctivitis of varying severity is noticed in the half of the cases without using ophthalmological instrumentation. Using ophthalmological instrumentation, the mild forms of conjunctivitis can be diagnosed, by meticulous ophthalmological examination, further eye diseases can be discovered. The viral conjunctivitis can progress to keratitis and bacterial superinfection can occur. If the infection presents in childhood it can affect the posterior segment. The fight against measles is very effective in Hungary since the vaccination has been introduced, and the lack of vaccination is also the primary cause of the risk to the disease. In the diagnosis, symptomatic treatment of the disease and the curbing of possible mass infections, the practicing physician (general practitioner) has a key role. The correct care of the infected patient in Hungary is provided by a methodological letter, professional information and legal guides. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(39): 1523-1527.

  19. Antibody neutralization of retargeted measles viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Patrycja J.; Pappoe, Roland; Nakamura, Takafumi; Tobin, Gregory J.; Nara, Peter L.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) vaccine lineage is a promising oncolytic but prior exposure to the measles vaccine or wild-type MV strains limits treatment utility due to the presence of anti-measles antibodies. MV entry can be redirected by displaying a polypeptide ligand on the Hemagglutinin (H) C-terminus. We hypothesized that retargeted MV would escape neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the H receptor-binding surface and be less susceptible to neutralization by human antisera. Using chimeric H proteins, with and without mutations that ablate MV receptor binding, we show that retargeted MVs escape mAbs that target the H receptor-binding surface by virtue of mutations that ablate infection via SLAM and CD46. However, C-terminally displayed domains do not mediate virus entry in the presence of human antibodies that bind to the underlying H domain. In conclusion, utility of retargeted oncolytic measles viruses does not extend to evasion of human serum neutralization. PMID:24725950

  20. What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know About Measles and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    From January 1 to April 3, 2015, 159 people from 18 states and the District of Columbia were reported as having measles. Most cases are part of an outbreak linked to a California amusement park. Because measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, most U.S. clinicians are unfamiliar with the condition. We reviewed information on the current outbreak, measles manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and infection-control recommendations. To identify information on measles and pregnancy, we reviewed reports with 20 or more measles cases during pregnancy that included data on effects on pregnant women or pregnancy outcomes. These reports were identified through MEDLINE from inception through February 2015 using the following strategy: (((pregnan*) AND measles) AND English[Language]) NOT review[Publication Type]. Reference lists also were reviewed to identify additional articles. Pregnant women infected with measles are more likely to be hospitalized, develop pneumonia, and die than nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm birth, and low birth weight, are associated with maternal measles; however, the risk of congenital defects does not appear to be increased. No antiviral therapy is available; treatment is supportive. Early identification of possible cases is needed so that appropriate infection control can be instituted promptly. The recent measles outbreak highlights the role that obstetric health care providers play in vaccine-preventable illnesses; obstetrician–gynecologists should ensure that patients are up to date on all vaccines, including measles-containing vaccines, and should recommend and ideally offer a measles-containing vaccine to women without evidence of measles immunity before or after pregnancy. PMID:25899422

  1. The efficacy of a multivalent calicivirus, herpesvirus and parvovirus vaccine and a rabies vaccine is not affected when administered in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, the data show that combining these two separate vaccines in one administration has limited impact on their ability to generate serological responses, and that these responses are still of a magnitude previously demonstrated to be protective.

  2. Immunogenicity, Safety, and Tolerability of Bivalent rLP2086 Meningococcal Group B Vaccine Administered Concomitantly With Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Acellular Pertussis and Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccines to Healthy Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Wysocki, Jacek; Beeslaar, Johannes; Eiden, Joseph; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Jones, Thomas R; Harris, Shannon L; O'Neill, Robert E; York, Laura J; Perez, John L

    2016-06-01

    Concomitant administration of bivalent rLP2086 (Trumenba [Pfizer, Inc] and diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP/IPV) was immunologically noninferior to DTaP/IPV and saline and was safe and well tolerated. Bivalent rLP2086 elicited robust and broad bactericidal antibody responses to diverse Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strains expressing antigens heterologous to vaccine antigens after 2 and 3 vaccinations. Bivalent rLP2086, a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) vaccine (Trumenba [Pfizer, Inc]) recently approved in the United States to prevent invasive MnB disease in individuals aged 10-25 years, contains recombinant subfamily A and B factor H binding proteins (fHBPs). This study evaluated the coadministration of Repevax (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine [DTaP/IPV]) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD, Ltd) and bivalent rLP2086. Healthy adolescents aged ≥11 to B proteins different from the vaccine antigens. Participants were randomly assigned to receive bivalent rLP2086 + DTaP/IPV (n = 373) or saline + DTaP/IPV (n = 376). Immune responses to DTaP/IPV in participants who received bivalent rLP2086 + DTaP/IPV were noninferior to those in participants who received saline + DTaP/IPV.The proportions of bivalent rLP2086 + DTaP/IPV recipients with prespecified seroprotective hSBA titers to the 4 MnB test strains were 55.5%-97.3% after vaccination 2 and 81.5%-100% after vaccination 3. The administration of bivalent rLP2086 was well tolerated and resulted in few serious adverse events. Immune responses to DTaP/IPV administered with bivalent rLP2086 to adolescents were noninferior to DTaP/IPV administered alone. Bivalent rLP2086 was well tolerated and elicited substantial and broad bactericidal responses to diverse MnB strains in a high proportion of recipients after 2 vaccinations, and these responses were further enhanced after 3 vaccinations.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01323270

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3-4-5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17-19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children.

  4. Protection of mice against the highly pathogenic VVIHD-J by DNA and fowlpox recombinant vaccines, administered by electroporation and intranasal routes, correlates with serum neutralizing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissa, Massimiliano; Quaglino, Elena; Zanotto, Carlo; Illiano, Elena; Rolih, Valeria; Pacchioni, Sole; Cavallo, Federica; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Radaelli, Antonia

    2016-10-01

    The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required. With this aim, new vectors based on avian poxviruses that cannot replicate in mammals should improve the safety of conventional vaccines, and protect from zoonotic orthopoxvirus diseases, such as cowpox and monkeypox. In this study, DNA and fowlpox (FP) recombinants that expressed the VV L1R, A27L, A33R, and B5R genes were generated (4DNAmix, 4FPmix, respectively) and tested in mice using novel administration routes. Mice were primed with 4DNAmix by electroporation, and boosted with 4FPmix applied intranasally. The lethal VV IHD-J strain was then administered by intranasal challenge. All of the mice receiving 4DNAmix followed by 4FPmix, and 20% of the mice immunized only with 4FPmix, were protected. The induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses directly correlated with this protection. In particular, higher anti-A27 antibodies and IFNγ-producing T lymphocytes were measured in the blood and spleen of the protected mice, as compared to controls. VV IHD-J neutralizing antibodies in sera from the protected mice suggest that the prime/boost vaccination regimen with 4DNAmix plus 4FPmix may be an effective and safe mode to induce protection against smallpox and poxvirus zoonotic infections. The electroporation/intranasal administration routes contributed to effective immune responses and mouse survival. Copyright

  5. Economic analysis of measles elimination program in the Republic of Korea, 2001: a cost benefit analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Geun-Ryang; Choe, Young June; Go, Un Yeong; Kim, Yong-Ik; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2013-05-31

    In this study, we modeled the cost benefit analysis for three different measles vaccination strategies based upon three different measles-containing vaccines in Korea, 2001. We employed an economic analysis model using vaccination coverage data and population-based measles surveillance data, along with available estimates of the costs for the different strategies. In addition, we have included analysis on benefit of reduction of complication by mumps and rubella. We evaluated four different strategies: strategy 1, keep-up program with a second dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine at 4-6 years without catch-up campaign; strategy 2, additional catch-up campaign with measles (M) vaccine; strategy 3, catch-up campaign with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine; and strategy 4, catch-up campaign with MMR vaccine. The cost of vaccination included cost for vaccines, vaccination practices and other administrative expenses. The direct benefit of estimated using data from National Health Insurance Company, a government-operated system that reimburses all medical costs spent on designated illness in Korea. With the routine one-dose MMR vaccination program, we estimated a baseline of 178,560 measles cases over the 20 years; when the catch-up campaign with M, MR or MMR vaccines was conducted, we estimated the measles cases would decrease to 5936 cases. Among all strategies, the two-dose MMR keep-up program with MR catch-up campaign showed the highest benefit-cost ratio of 1.27 with a net benefit of 51.6 billion KRW. Across different vaccination strategies, our finding suggest that MR catch-up campaign in conjunction with two-dose MMR keep-up program was the most appropriate option in terms of economic costs and public health effects associated with measles elimination strategy in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of low dose virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine administered intradermally compared to intramuscular full dose administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künzi, Valérie; Klap, Jaco M.; Seiberling, Michael K.; Herzog, Christian; Hartmann, Katharina; Kürsteiner, Oliver; Kompier, Ronald; Grimaldi, Roberto; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the established benefit of intramuscular (i.m.) influenza vaccination, new adjuvants and delivery methods for comparable or improved immunogenicity are being explored. Intradermal (i.d.) antigen administration is hypothesized to initiate an efficient immune response at reduced

  7. Protecting chickens against coccidiosis in floor pens by administering Eimeria oocysts using gel beads or spray vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-09-01

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter.

  8. Training student pharmacists to administer emergency pediatric influenza vaccine: A comparison of traditional vs. just-in-time training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terriff, Colleen M; McKeirnan, Kimberly

    2017-07-01

    This study compared traditional training (TT) and just-in-time training (JITT) of P3 student pharmacists regarding interest, confidence, and comfort pre- and post-training (primary objective); and assessment and administration competency (secondary objective) during a simulated influenza vaccination clinic. Student pharmacists were randomized 1:1 to receive either TT or JITT, completed pre- and post-training surveys assessing interest, confidence and comfort; and evaluated on performance during a simulated emergency infant vaccination. An infant manikin simulated a child <1 year of age, and an actor role-played the mother. All students received a briefing about the simulated mass vaccination prior to their performance assessment. Survey differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA. The competency assessment was analyzed by a Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for individual steps and Student t-test for mean scores. Pre-training interest was high and maintained post-training. Pre-training confidence and comfort levels were low and improved in both groups. Mean competency scores were comparable between the TT and JITT groups. Comparing groups, TT students more commonly missed proper injection site selection and care; while JITT missed distracting the infant and administration documentation. JITT for student pharmacists to learn skills required to immunize infants elicits similar outcomes (interest, confidence, comfort, and administration competency) as TT for emergency pediatric influenza vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The pathogenesis of measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Mesman, Annelies W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2012-01-01

    Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Measles virus (MV) is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease. Over the last decade, identification of new cellular receptors and studies in animal models have challenged the

  10. Trend in mortality from a recent measles outbreak in Cameroon: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: measles is a highly contagious viral infection with high mortality in poorly vaccinated regions. We sought to establish the trend in mortality and the factors that favoured the recent measles outbreak that occurred in Benakuma, in the North west region of Cameroon from the 21/06/2015 to 26/09/2015. Methods: we ...

  11. Epidemiology of measles in Blantyre, Malawi: analyses of passive surveillance data from 1996 to 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Dunga, A.; Broadhead, R. L.; Brabin, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    Measles surveillance data in Blantyre, Malawi were reviewed for 1996-8 to describe the epidemiology of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy (VE) by the screening method. A total of 674 measles cases were reported to the Blantyre District Health Office during this period. Age distribution

  12. Clinical profile and outcomes of measles in south-western Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Barely two years to the end-point of the count-down to 2015, measles still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigerian children, despite being vaccine-preventable. Aims/objectives: We evaluated the spectrum of clinical morbidities and determinant of poor outcomes associated with measles in ...

  13. A ten-year study of measles admissions in a Nigerian Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The last report on measles from our center was about 15 years ago. A review of the current status is necessary in order to strengthen interventional strategies. Objectives: To ...

  14. Lessons from worldwide measles out-breaks in 2011-2012 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles is a leading cause of under-five mortality among vaccine preventable diseases in today's developing world. In fact, Tanzania has been experiencing measles out-breaks almost every year. Since last year, the world has experienced several out-breaks in several areas including many developed countries with high ...

  15. Global importation and population risk factors for measles in New Zealand: a case study for highly immunized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, D T S; Marshall, J C; French, N P; Carpenter, T E; Roberts, M G; Kiedrzynski, T

    2017-07-01

    As endemic measles is eliminated through immunization, countries must determine the risk factors for the importation of measles into highly immunized populations to target control measures. Despite eliminating endemic measles, New Zealand suffers from outbreaks after introductions from abroad, enabling us to use it as a model for measles introduction risk. We used a generalized linear model to analyze risk factors for 1137 measles cases from 2007 to June 2014, provide estimates of national immunity levels, and model measles importation risk. People of European ethnicity made up the majority of measles cases. Age is a positive risk factor, particularly 0-2-year-olds and 5-17-year-old Europeans, along with increased wealth. Pacific islanders were also at greater risk, but due to 0-2-year-old cases. Despite recent high measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine immunization coverage, overall population immunity against measles remains ~90% and is lower in people born between 1982 and 2005. Greatest measles importation risk is during December, and countries predicted to be sources have historical connections and highest travel rates (Australia and UK), followed by Asian countries with high travel rates and higher measles incidences. Our results suggest measles importation due to travel is seeding measles outbreaks, and immunization levels are insufficient to continue to prevent outbreaks because of heterogeneous immunity in the population, leaving particular age groups at risk.

  16. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly

  17. Assessing age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Ryo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2017-06-05

    Routine vaccination against measles in Japan started in 1978. Whereas measles elimination was verified in 2015, multiple chains of measles transmission were observed in 2016. We aimed to reconstruct the age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan so that future vaccination strategies can be elucidated. An epidemiological model was used to quantify the age-dependent immune fraction using datasets of vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological survey. The second dose was interpreted in two different scenarios, i.e., booster and random shots. The effective reproduction number, the average number of secondary cases generated by a single infected individual, and the age at infection were explored using the age-dependent transmission model and the next generation matrix. While the herd immunity threshold of measles likely ranges from 90% to 95%, assuming that the basic reproductive number ranges from 10 to 20, the estimated immune fraction in Japan was below those thresholds in 2016, despite the fact that the estimates were above 80% for all ages. If the second dose completely acted as the booster shot, a proportion immune above 90% was achieved only among those aged 5years or below in 2016. Alternatively, if the second dose was randomly distributed regardless of primary vaccination status, a proportion immune over 90% was achieved among those aged below 25years. The effective reproduction number was estimated to range from 1.50 to 3.01 and from 1.50 to 3.00, respectively, for scenarios 1 and 2 in 2016; if the current vaccination schedule were continued, the reproduction number is projected to range from 1.50 to 3.01 and 1.39 to 2.78, respectively, in 2025. Japan continues to be prone to imported cases of measles. Supplementary vaccination among adults aged 20-49years would be effective if the chains of transmission continue to be observed in that age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing measles transmission in India: a dynamic modeling study using verbal autopsy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Jones, Edward O; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Suraweera, Wilson; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Decreasing trends in measles mortality have been reported in recent years. However, such estimates of measles mortality have depended heavily on assumed regional measles case fatality risks (CFRs) and made little use of mortality data from low- and middle-income countries in general and India, the country with the highest measles burden globally, in particular. We constructed a dynamic model of measles transmission in India with parameters that were empirically inferred using spectral analysis from a time series of measles mortality extracted from the Million Death Study, an ongoing longitudinal study recording deaths across 2.4 million Indian households and attributing causes of death using verbal autopsy. The model was then used to estimate the measles CFR, the number of measles deaths, and the impact of vaccination in 2000-2015 among under-five children in India and in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (UP), two states with large populations and the highest numbers of measles deaths in India. We obtained the following estimated CFRs among under-five children for the year 2005: 0.63% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-1.00%) for India as a whole, 0.62% (0.38-1.00%) for Bihar, and 1.19% (0.80-1.75%) for UP. During 2000-2015, we estimated that 607,000 (95% CI: 383,000-958,000) under-five deaths attributed to measles occurred in India as a whole. If no routine vaccination or supplemental immunization activities had occurred from 2000 to 2015, an additional 1.6 (1.0-2.6) million deaths for under-five children would have occurred across India. We developed a data- and model-driven estimation of the historical measles dynamics, CFR, and vaccination impact in India, extracting the periodicity of epidemics using spectral and coherence analysis, which allowed us to infer key parameters driving measles transmission dynamics and mortality.

  19. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phase 1/2a study of the malaria vaccine candidate apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 administered in adjuvant system AS01B or AS02A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele D Spring

    Full Text Available This Phase 1/2a study evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an experimental malaria vaccine comprised of the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum protein apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 representing the 3D7 allele formulated with either the AS01B or AS02A Adjuvant Systems.After a preliminary safety evaluation of low dose AMA-1/AS01B (10 microg/0.5 mL in 5 adults, 30 malaria-naïve adults were randomly allocated to receive full dose (50 microg/0.5 mL of AMA-1/AS01B (n = 15 or AMA-1/AS02A (n = 15, followed by a malaria challenge. All vaccinations were administered intramuscularly on a 0-, 1-, 2-month schedule. All volunteers experienced transient injection site erythema, swelling and pain. Two weeks post-third vaccination, anti-AMA-1 Geometric Mean Antibody Concentrations (GMCs with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs were high: low dose AMA-1/AS01B 196 microg/mL (103-371 microg/mL, full dose AMA-1/AS01B 279 microg/mL (210-369 microg/mL and full dose AMA-1/AS02A 216 microg/mL (169-276 microg/mL with no significant difference among the 3 groups. The three vaccine formulations elicited equivalent functional antibody responses, as measured by growth inhibition assay (GIA, against homologous but not against heterologous (FVO parasites as well as demonstrable interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma responses. To assess efficacy, volunteers were challenged with P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes, and all became parasitemic, with no significant difference in the prepatent period by either light microscopy or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. However, a small but significant reduction of parasitemia in the AMA-1/AS02A group was seen with a statistical model employing qPCR measurements.All three vaccine formulations were found to be safe and highly immunogenic. These immune responses did not translate into significant vaccine efficacy in malaria-naïve adults employing a primary sporozoite challenge model, but encouragingly, estimation of parasite

  1. Measles transmission from an anthroposophic community to the general population, Germany 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In Germany, measles vaccination coverage with two doses is not yet sufficient to prevent regional outbreaks. Among the 16 German federal states, vaccination coverage was lowest in Bavaria with 85% in 2008. From March to mid-April 2008, four neighbouring Bavarian counties reported 55 measles-cases mostly linked to an ongoing measles outbreak in an anthroposophic school in Austria. We investigated this outbreak to guide future public health action. Methods We applied the German national case-definition for measles and collected data using the national surveillance system and a questionnaire. Measles cases with disease onset a maximum of 18 days apart and spatial contact (e.g. same household, same school) were summed up in clusters. Two different interventions, which were implemented in schools and kindergartens in Bavaria, were compared by their impact on the size and duration of measles clusters. Susceptible persons were excluded from schools or kindergartens either with the first (intervention A) or second (intervention B) measles case occurring in the respective institution. Results Among the 217 Bavarian measles cases identified from March-July 2008, 28 (13%) cases were attendees of the anthroposophic school in Austria. In total, vaccination status was known in 161 (74%) cases and 156 (97%) of them were not vaccinated. The main factor for non-vaccination was "fear of vaccine-related adverse events" (33%). Twenty-nine (18%) of 161 cases suffered complications. Exclusively genotype D5 was detected. Overall, 184 cases could be epidemiologically grouped into 59 clusters. Of those, 41 clusters could be linked to households and 13 to schools or kindergartens. The effect of intervention A and B was analysed in 10 school or kindergarten clusters. Depending on the respective intervention A or B, the median number of cases per cluster was 3 versus 13 (p = 0.05), and the median duration of a cluster was 3 versus 26 days (p = 0.13). Conclusions Introduction of

  2. Antibody titers in animal bite victims after post exposure vaccination with intradermally administered purified vero cell rabies vaccine using modified thai red cross regimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, S.; Tahir, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the seroconversion following rabies vaccination by intradermal route in cases of animal bite attending Anti rabies center, Lahore for post exposure prophylaxis. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration: Antirabies center, Birdwood road Lahore, Microbiology laboratory, office of Bacteriologist, Government of Punjab, Lahore. Patients and Methods: Victims of all ages and both sexes having exposure with suspected rabid animal within 24 - 72 hours were included, fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria, over 3 months period from February to April 20. Patients of Category II and III wounds were included. Purified vero cell vaccine (PVR V) with antigenic content> 2.5 ml was used for intradermal vaccination according to modified Thai Red Cross regimen (2-2-2-0-2). Each victim received 0.1 ml intradermal dose on each deltoid on day 0, 3, 7 and 28th day of bite. Blood samples from victims were taken on day 0, 14 and 35. Antibody titers were estimated by ELISA kit. Results: Fifty cases were studied including 20 children. Male female ratio was 4:1. Optimum serocon version (> 0.5 IU/ml) was achieved in all cases by day 14. Antibody levels increased further (> 4 IV/ml) in 92% cases on day 35. Geometric mean titers were 3.2 IU/ml and 6.2 IU/ml on day 14 and 35 respectively. Conclusion: Intradermal route for cell culture rabies vaccine for postexposure prophylaxis in animal bite victims was efficacious and safe. The smaller dosage of vaccine was economically affordable by patients in referral centers. (author)

  3. Childhood vaccination in informal urban settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Who gets vaccinated?

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    Ettarh Remare R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends in global vaccination coverage have shown increases with most countries reaching 90% DTP3 coverage in 2008, although pockets of undervaccination continue to persist in parts of sub-Saharan Africa particularly in the urban slums. The objectives of this study were to determine the vaccination status of children aged between 12-23 months living in two slums of Nairobi and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Methods The study was carried out as part of a longitudinal Maternal and Child Health study undertaken in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. These slums host the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS run by the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC. All women from the NUHDSS area who gave birth since September 2006 were enrolled in the project and administered a questionnaire which asked about the vaccination history of their children. For the purpose of this study, we used data from 1848 children aged 12-23 months who were expected to have received all the WHO-recommended vaccinations. The vaccination details were collected during the first visit about four months after birth with follow-up visits repeated thereafter at four month intervals. Full vaccination was defined as receiving all the basic childhood vaccinations by the end of 24 months of life, whereas up-to-date (UTD vaccination referred to receipt of BCG, OPV 1-3, DTP 1-3, and measles vaccinations within the first 12 months of life. All vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards which were sighted during the household visit as well as by recall from mothers. Multivariate models were used to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Results Measles coverage was substantially lower than that for the other vaccines when determined using only vaccination cards or in addition to maternal recall. Up-to-date (UTD coverage with all vaccinations

  4. Measles Antibodies in Mother-Infant Dyads in Tianjin, China.

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    Boulton, Matthew L; Wang, Xiexiu; Wagner, Abram L; Zhang, Ying; Carlson, Bradley F; Gillespie, Brenda W; Ding, Yaxing

    2017-11-27

    Many measles cases in Tianjin, China, occur in infants whose mothers were born after widespread vaccination programs. We assessed age-specific decreases in maternal measles antibodies in infants and examined maternal and infant characteristics in relation to infant antibody titers. Infant and mother dyads were enrolled from a sample of immunization clinics in all Tianjin districts. Participants' antibody titers were measured from dried blood spots. A multivariable log-linear model regressed infant antibody titers onto infant and mother characteristics. Among 551 infants aged ≤8 months, protective levels of measles antibodies were observed in infants whose mothers had measles titers ≥800 IU/mL (mean antibody titer, 542.5 IU/mL) or 400 to measles and an accordingly low efficiency of transplacental transmission to a fetus. Current vaccination programs, which target children aged 8 months through adolescence may be ineffective in controlling transmission of measles to infants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cell-associated flagella enhance the protection conferred by mucosally-administered attenuated Salmonella Paratyphi A vaccines.

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    Orit Gat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, the agent of paratyphoid A fever, poses an emerging public health dilemma in endemic areas of Asia and among travelers, as there is no licensed vaccine. Integral to our efforts to develop a S. Paratyphi A vaccine, we addressed the role of flagella as a potential protective antigen by comparing cell-associated flagella with exported flagellin subunits expressed by attenuated strains.S. Paratyphi A strain ATCC 9150 was first deleted for the chromosomal guaBA locus, creating CVD 1901. Further chromosomal deletions in fliD (CVD 1901D or flgK (CVD 1901K were then engineered, resulting in the export of unpolymerized FliC, without impairing its overall expression. The virulence of the resulting isogenic strains was examined using a novel mouse LD(50 model to accommodate the human-host restricted S. Paratyphi A. The immunogenicity of the attenuated strains was then tested using a mouse intranasal model, followed by intraperitoneal challenge with wildtype ATCC 9150.Mucosal (intranasal immunization of mice with strain CVD 1901 expressing cell-associated flagella conferred superior protection (vaccine efficacy [VE], 90% against a lethal intraperitoneal challenge, compared with the flagellin monomer-exporting mutants CVD 1901K (30% VE or CVD 1901D (47% VE. The superior protection induced by CVD 1901 with its cell-attached flagella was associated with an increased IgG2a:IgG1 ratio of FliC-specific antibodies with enhanced opsonophagocytic capacity.Our results clearly suggest that enhanced anti-FliC antibody-mediated clearance of S. Paratyphi A by phagocytic cells, induced by vaccines expressing cell-associated rather than exported FliC, might be contributing to the vaccine-induced protection from S. Paratyphi A challenge in vivo. We speculate that an excess of IgG1 anti-FliC antibodies induced by the exported FliC may compete with the IgG2a subtype and block binding to specific phagocyte Fc

  6. Measles (lecture, continuing

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    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article discusses differential diagnosis during different measles periods. Routine and confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, including cytological, serological and molecular genetic methods is outlined. Criteria of suspected, probable and proved diagnosis of measles cases are provided. Principles of diagnosis formulation according to WHO criteria are described. Complications of measles ac¬cording to cause (viral and bacterial, by different systems and particularities in high risk patients are considered. Complications of measles from central nervous system are described in details. Therapeutic management of measles is described in details, including indications for hospital admission, etiotropic therapy, strict indications for steroids and immunoglobulins prescription, vitamin A in dosages, therapy of complications, indications for antibiotics usage and other pathogenetic therapy. Specific therapy of measles complications from central nervous system is outlined. Active and passive immunization, anti-epidemic activities, patient follow-up after episode of measles and disease prognosis are described. The literature reference list consists of 121 items, including Cyrillic, Latin articles and electronic resources.

  7. [EIA-IgG antibody measles prevention level estimated from measles neutralizing, particle agglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Naohide; Saika, Shizuko; Ichinohe, Sadato

    2009-09-01

    Measles hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer, widely used in clinical practice to simply and easily determine the measles immunity level has, in recent years, been increasingly replaced by measles IgG-antibody titer determined by enzyme-immunoassay (EIA). HI antibody titer appears to reflect this protective level, because HI measures the antibody against H protein required for the measles virus to adhere to host cells. EIA-IgG antibody titer does not correlate with the protective level, similar to particle agglutination (PA) titer, because EIA measures different antibodies, including those unrelated to measles protection. After determining HI, PA, neutralizing test (NT) results, and EIA-IgG antibody titer for individual specimens, we compared EIA-IgG antibody titer obtained using an EIA-Kit (Denka Seiken) to HI, PA, and NT titer with the following results: (1) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of > or = 12.0 may be protected against measles: (2) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of 4.0 to 8.0 appear to be protected insufficiently requiring a booster dose against measles: (3) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of 8.0 to 12.0 may benefit from booster vaccination.

  8. Measles and respiratory failure: Case report and review of the last European outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Lagunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Measles is an preventable acute viral illness, with the potential for severe and fatal complications. According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in the last surveillance report, a total of 10 271 cases of measles were reported from January to December 2013. And 127 of those were reported in Spain with a 2.7/1 million habitants rate. In 2010, the World Health Organization European Region made a new commitment to eradicate measles by 2015 in the zone, however, measles cases and outbreaks are still occurring in many countries. We present the last 2 cases with severe measles-associated respiratory failure and a review of the literature of the last European outbreaks. Two young adults were admitted in the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure with a confirmed measles infection. Both treated with high flow nasal cannula during 3 to 5 days; one had a pneumococcal pneumonia coinfection. An incomplete vaccination schedule was documented in one of them while the other did not remember his. Within 10 days of admission, both were discharged from intensive care unit and the hospital with no complications. Measles can present with a variety of symptoms in adults and is responsible for a high morbidity especially during outbreaks. Pneumonia is a severe complication of measles infection, commonly reported. Surveillance and vaccination programs should be strengthened in order to achieve measles elimination.

  9. Case report: Ribavirin and vitamin A in a severe case of measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichon, Amandine; Aubry, Camille; Benarous, Lucas; Drouet, Hortense; Zandotti, Christine; Parola, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Despite a vaccine being widely available, measles continues to occur frequently, with sometimes lethal consequences. The mortality rate reaches 35% and measles represents 44% of the 1.4 million deaths which are due to preventable diseases. Severe forms of measles are reported, mainly in young, unvaccinated adults, and in specific populations. The risk factors for severe measles include no or incomplete vaccination and vitamin A deficiency. Apart from secondary measles-related infections, severe measles is mainly represented by neurological, respiratory, and digestive symptoms. Strengthening the hypothesis that there is a link between vitamin A deficiency and severe measles in this paper we report the case of a 25-year-old unvaccinated man hospitalized for severe and complicated measles. The evolution was good after administration of intramuscular vitamin A as well as intravenous ribavirin. Measles remains a fatal and serious disease. The early use of ribavirin and vitamin A shows significant improvements regarding morbimortality and should be systematic in severe cases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular adjuvant interleukin-33 enhances the antifertility effect of Lagurus lagurus zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine administered by the mucosal route

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    Y.X. Tu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that cytokines can act as molecular adjuvant to enhance the immune response induced by DNA vaccines, but it is unknown whether interleukin 33 (IL-33 can enhance the immunocontraceptive effect induced by DNA vaccines. In the present study, we explored the effects of murine IL-33 on infertility induced by Lagurus lagurus zona pellucida 3 (Lzp3 contraceptive DNA vaccine administered by the mucosal route. Plasmid pcD-Lzp3 and plasmid pcD-mIL-33 were encapsulated with chitosan to generate the nanoparticle chi-(pcD-Lzp3+pcD-mIL-33 as the DNA vaccine. Sixty female ICR mice, divided into 5 groups (n=12/group, were intranasally immunized on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. After intranasal immunization, the anti-LZP3-specific IgG in serum and IgA in vaginal secretions and feces were determined by ELISA. The results showed that chi-(pcD-Lzp3+pcD-mIL-33 co-immunization induced the highest levels of serum IgG, secreted mucosal IgA, and T cell proliferation. Importantly, mice co-immunized with chi-(pcD-Lzp3+pcD-mIL-33 had the lowest birth rate and mean litter size, which correlated with high levels of antibodies. Ovaries from infertile female mice co-immunized with chi-(pcD-Lzp3+pcD-mIL-33 showed abnormal development of ovarian follicles, indicated by atretic follicles and loss of oocytes. Our results demonstrated that intranasal delivery of the molecular adjuvant mIL-33 with chi-pcD-Lzp3 significantly increased infertility by enhancing both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, chi-(pcD-Lzp3+pcD-mIL-33 co-immunization could be a strategy for controlling the population of wild animal pests.

  11. [Surveillance Plan on Recent Outbreak of Measles and Rubella in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Torner, Nuria; Vidal, Ma José

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are two immuno-preventive illnesses. In Catalonia, since 1988 all children are given two doses of measles and rubella vaccine with high levels of vaccination coverage. The measles elimination programme has been carried out since 1990 in Catalonia. This programme includes achieving and keeping high immunization levels among population with high vaccination coverage, intense epidemiological surveillance and an immediate response to the appearance of a case or outbreak. In 2014, the measles incidence rate was 1.9 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants. There were 4 recent outbreaks in 2006, 2011, 2013 and 2014 that affected 381, 289, 31 and 124 people respectively. All outbreaks were triggered by an imported case. In 2011 and 2014 measles outbreaks, 6% and 5.5% of affected people were health care workers. All outbreaks presented a great variety of measles genotypes. Concerning rubella elimination programme, since 2002, 68 cases of postnatal rubella and 5 cases of congenital rubella were confirmed. Regarding measles and rubella surveillance and control, in addition to strengthen vaccination coverage, it is essential immediate notification, within the first 24 hours since suspicion and laboratory confirmation. In addition there is a need to enforce vaccination among health care workers as well as in other susceptible and unvaccinated people. It is recommended to vaccinate all people who were born after 1966 and who have not been vaccinated with two doses of trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Furthermore, we have to emphasize that the progress concerning genotypes study allows identifying various imported cases from other European countries with active outbreaks, aspect that makes easier the surveillance of these illnesses.

  12. Measles to the Rescue: A Review of Oncolytic Measles Virus

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    Sarah Aref

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM in oncolysis. Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and “blinding” the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. Sodium iodine symporter (NIS can also be expressed by MV, which enables in vivo tracking of MV infection. Radiovirotherapy using MV-NIS, chemo-virotherapy to convert prodrugs to their toxic metabolites, and immune-virotherapy including incorporating antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors can also increase the oncolytic potential. Anti-viral host immune responses are a recognized barrier to the success of MV, and approaches such as transporting MV to the tumour sites by carrier cells, are showing promise. MV Clinical trials are producing encouraging preliminary results in ovarian cancer, myeloma and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the outcome of currently open trials in glioblastoma multiforme, mesothelioma and squamous cell carcinoma are eagerly anticipated.

  13. Immunogenicity of Yellow Fever Vaccine Coadministered With MenAfriVac in Healthy Infants in Ghana and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Panchali; Meier, Christian; Laraway, Hewad; Tang, Yuxiao; Hodgson, Abraham; Sow, Samba O; Enwere, Godwin C; Plikaytis, Brian D; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Niedrig, Matthias

    2015-11-15

    Yellow fever (YF) is still a major public health problem in endemic regions of Africa and South America. In Africa, one of the main control strategies is routine vaccination within the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). A new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) is about to be introduced in the EPI of countries in the African meningitis belt, and this study reports on the immunogenicity of the YF-17D vaccines in infants when administered concomitantly with measles vaccine and PsA-TT. Two clinical studies were conducted in Ghana and in Mali among infants who received PsA-TT concomitantly with measles and YF vaccines at 9 months of age. YF neutralizing antibody titers were measured using a microneutralization assay. In both studies, the PsA-TT did not adversely affect the immune response to the concomitantly administered YF vaccine at the age of 9 months. The magnitude of the immune response was different between the 2 studies, with higher seroconversion and seroprotection rates found in Mali vs Ghana. Immunogenicity to YF vaccine is unaffected when coadministered with PsA-TT at 9 months of age. Further studies are warranted to better understand the determinants of the immune response to YF vaccine in infancy. ISRCTN82484612 (PsA-TT-004); PACTR201110000328305 (PsA-TT-007). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Epidemiology of Measles Cases in South Darfur State, Sudan, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Taha Hussein; Kambo, Rehab Ibrahim; Ahmed, Abdelkareem Abdallah; Musa, Hassan Hussein

    2017-12-01

    Case-based surveillance measles data was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 511 measles cases were studied from 2011 to 2015 in Southern Darfur State, Sudan and 58.1% of cases were confirmed from Nyala city. About 43.4% of cases were males, 56.6% of cases were female, and 47.7% were children under five years old. Similarity, within February to June, the cases increased by 8.0% in children vaccinated through measles campaign, and 5.3% in children that used child vaccination card and 78.7% in unvaccinated one. The epidemiologically linked (EPI-Linked) measles cases declined from 2011 to 2015; consequently, Measles still remain to be a significant challenge in south Darfur state, Sudan. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. A phase II, randomized study on an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine administered to infants in Northern Ghana.

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    Abraham Hodgson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were primed with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC or DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. At 12 months of age, children in each group received a challenge dose of serogroup A+C polysaccharides. Antibody responses were assessed pre, and one month-post dose 3 of the priming schedule and pre and 1 month after administration of the challenge dose. One month post-dose 3, 87.8% and 88.2% of subjects in the study group had bactericidal meningococcal serogroup A (SBA-MenA and meningococcal serogroup C (SBA-MenC antibody titres > or = 1:8 respectively. Seroprotection/seropositivity rates to the 5 antigens administered in the routine EPI schedule were non-inferior in children in the study group compared to those in the control group. The percentages of subjects in the study group with persisting SBA-MenA titres > or = 1:8 or SBA-MenC titres > or = 1:8 at the age of 12 months prior to challenge were significantly higher than in control group (47.7% vs 25.7% and 56.4% vs 5.1% respectively. The administration of 10 microg of serogroup A polysaccharide increased the SBA-MenA GMT by 14.0-fold in the DTPW-HBV/HibMenAC-group compared to a 3.8 fold increase in the control-group. Corresponding fold-increases in SBA-MenC titres following challenge with 10 microg of group C polysaccharide were 18.8 and 1.9 respectively. Reactogenicity following primary vaccination or the administration of the challenge dose was similar in both groups, except for swelling (Grade 3 after primary vaccination which was more

  16. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather Melissa; Ilunga, Benoît Kebela; Mulumba, Audry; Shidi, Calixte; Coulibaly, Tiekoura; Obama, Ricardo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Simbu, Elisabeth Pukuta; Smit, Sheilagh Brigitte; Masresha, Balcha; Perry, Robert Tyrrell; Alleman, Mary Margaret; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance data to understand the causes of the measles resurgence and to develop recommendations for elimination efforts in DRC. Results During 2004-2012, performance indicator targets for case-based surveillance and routine measles vaccination were not met. Estimated coverage with the routine first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 57% to 73%. Phased supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted starting in 2002, in some cases with sub-optimal coverage (≤95%). In 2010, SIAs in five of 11 provinces were not implemented as planned, resulting in a prolonged interval between SIAs, and a missed birth cohort in one province. During July 1, 2010-December 30, 2012, high measles attack rates (>100 cases per 100,000 population) occurred in provinces that had estimated MCV1 coverage lower than the national estimate and did not implement planned 2010 SIAs. The majority of confirmed case-patients were aged measles virus strains that were previously identified in the region. Conclusion The resurgence was likely caused by an accumulation of unvaccinated, measles-susceptible children due to low MCV1 coverage and suboptimal SIA implementation. To achieve the regional goal of measles elimination by 2020, efforts are needed in DRC to improve case-based surveillance and increase two-dose measles vaccination coverage through routine services and SIAs. PMID:26401224

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine administered to children 10 or 11 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gary S; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Sheng, Xiaohua; Decker, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Boosting immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis through the use of Tdap vaccines is routinely recommended at 11 to 12 years of age; some states, however, require Tdap for entry into middle school, which may begin at 10 years of age. This study was conducted to determine whether Tdap5 (Adacel), which is licensed for use in children beginning at 11 years of age, is as safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds as it is in 11-year-olds. Children who had received 5 previous doses of any diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine were enrolled in a phase IV clinical trial; 646 10-year-olds and 645 11-year-olds completed the study, which involved a single intramuscular dose of Tdap5 along with pre- and postvaccination serologies. Postvaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody to pertussis antigens (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbria types 2 and 3) of 10-year-olds were noninferior to those of 11-year-olds, as were booster response rates for all pertussis antibodies, except for those to fimbrial antigens (94% and 97%, respectively). Seroprotection rates among 10-year-olds for tetanus and diphtheria were noninferior to those in 11-year-olds. Rates of injection site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and unsolicited adverse events, adverse reactions, and serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. These data support the conclusion that Tdap5 is safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01311557.). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. A randomized study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a heptavalent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, haemophilus influenzae b, and meningococcal serogroup C combination vaccine administered to infants at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thollot, Franck; Scheifele, David; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Leyssen, Maarten; Ulianov, Liliana; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2014-12-01

    The immunogenicity and safety of the investigational diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) heptavalent combination vaccine were compared with those of licensed control vaccines. In this open, phase II, randomized study (NCT01090453), 480 infants from Germany, France and Canada received the heptavalent vaccine (Hepta group) or hexavalent and monovalent MenC control vaccines (HexaMenC group) co-administered with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4 and 12 months of age. Immunogenicity was measured 1 month after the second primary dose, and before and 1 month after the booster dose. Safety and reactogenicity were also evaluated. Non-inferiority of immune responses to MenC and Hib induced by 2-dose primary vaccination with the heptavalent vaccine versus control vaccines was demonstrated. In exploratory analyses, postprimary and postbooster functional antibody geometric mean titers against MenC tended to be lower (1119.5 vs. 3200.5; 2653.8 vs. 6028.4) and antibody geometric mean concentrations against Hib higher (1.594 vs. 0.671 μg/mL; 17.678 vs. 13.737 μg/mL) in the Hepta versus the HexaMenC group. The heptavalent and control vaccines were immunogenic to all other antigens, although immune responses to poliovirus were lower than expected in both groups. No differences in safety and reactogenicity profiles were detected between groups. The heptavalent vaccine induced non-inferior MenC and Hib responses compared with control vaccines. Both vaccination regimens, when administered at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, had comparable safety profiles and were immunogenic to all antigens, with lower-than-expected responses to poliomyelitis.

  19. Anafilaxia associada à vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola Anafilaxia asociada a la vacuna contra sarampión, varicela y rubéola Anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Maria Novadzki

    2010-04-01

    sensibilización por algún componente residual de la vacuna y posible reacción cruzada con el dextrano.A case-control study was carried out aiming to describe the cases and causes of anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. A total of 22 reported cases in children who showed mucocutaneous manifestations, during the Campanha Nacional de Vacinação (Brazilian Vaccination Campaign, conducted in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, in 2004, were studied. In addition, 66 children, who were next to these cases and did not show a symptomatology after the vaccine was applied, were selected. Serum measurements of antibodies for vaccine antigens and total IgE, specific IgE antibody measurements for several allergens, and skin tests were performed. Vaccine response was adequate, specific IgE measurement and skin tests showed that potential allergens in vaccines and atopy were not associated with anaphylactic reactions. Skin tests with the vaccine and dextran were positive in the cases exclusively, suggesting sensitization to certain residual components of the vaccine and possible cross-reaction with dextran.

  20. Effect of live attenuated vaccines on the course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, E A

    1977-01-01

    The clinical severity of EAE is enhanced by pre-treatment with distemper, measles and BCG vaccine, measles vaccine gives a more severe onset of disease. Rubella vaccine and TAB leads to mild disease which recurs on re-treatment with the appropriate vaccine. These findings and their possible significance in MS are briefly discussed.

  1. Updated data on effective and safe immunizations with live-attenuated vaccines for children after living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Hoshino, Ken; Takahashi, Takao; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2015-01-29

    Although immunizations using live-attenuated vaccines are not recommended for children post-liver transplant due to their theoretical risks, they will inevitably encounter vaccine-preventable viral diseases upon returning to real-life situations. The window of opportunity for vaccination is usually limited prior to transplantation because these children often have unstable disease courses. Also, vaccine immunity does not always persist after transplantation. Beginning in 2002, subcutaneous immunizations with four individual live-attenuated vaccines (measles, rubella, varicella, and mumps) to pediatric patients following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) were performed for those who fulfilled the clinical criteria, including humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Written informed consent was collected. We included the study on 70 immunizations for 18 cases that we reported in 2008 (Shinjoh et al., 2008). A total of 196 immunizations were administered to 48 pediatric post-LDLT recipients. Of these, 144 were first immunizations and 52 were repeated immunizations following LDLT. The seroconversion rates at the first dose for measles (AIK-C), rubella (TO-336), varicella (Oka), and mumps (Hoshino) were 100% (36/36), 100% (35/35), 70% (23/33), and 75% (24/32), respectively. Antibody levels did not fall over time in patients immunized with rubella vaccine. Three mild cases of breakthrough varicella were observed. Two cases with transient parotid gland swelling were observed after mumps immunization. Two admissions because of fever at 2-3 weeks after the measles vaccine were reported but the patients had no symptoms of measles. Immunizations using selected live-attenuated vaccines were safe and effective for post-LDLT children who were not severely immunosuppressed. However, with the exception of rubella, repeated immunization may be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gee, S

    2010-01-01

    Measles cases are increasing in Ireland, with 320 cases notified since August 2009. Nearly two-thirds of these cases (n=206) were unvaccinated. In the early stages of the outbreak a substantial number of cases were linked to the Traveller community with some cases also reported among the Roma community, other citizens from eastern Europe and children whose parents objected to vaccination. By February 2010, there had been considerable spread to the general population.

  3. Seroepidemiology and phylogenetic characterisation of measles virus in Ireland, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Riordan, Bernadette; Carr, Michael J; Connell, Jeff; Dunford, Linda; Hall, William W; Hassan, Jaythoon

    2014-08-01

    Ireland is classified as an area of high measles incidence. A World Health Organisation-European Region strategic plan exists for measles elimination by 2015. To retrospectively investigate measles outbreaks using all patient samples (sera and oral fluid) received for measles laboratory diagnosis and characterise the genetic diversity of circulating measles genotypes in Ireland. 704 cases of acute measles infection as determined by the presence of measles specific IgM in sera and oral fluids were confirmed at the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Measles positive samples (n=116) were examined by genotyping, sequence analysis and phylogenetic characterisation. Three measles outbreaks occurred over the study period: 2004, 2009/2010 and 2011. Measles IgM positivity ranged from 22-29% in outbreak years to 5-10% in the intervening years. Age profile analysis revealed that whereas individuals >10 years accounted for only 8% of cases in the 2004 outbreak, this increased to 33% and 29% in the 2009/2010 and 2011 outbreaks, respectively. The transmission and also importation events. Clade D viruses were exclusively found circulating in Ireland, with autochthonous transmission of diverse genotype D4 strains associated with large outbreaks across Europe. More recently, genotype D8 was identified and these were associated with importation events. This study provides a comprehensive genetic analysis of circulating measles genotypes in Ireland and discriminated between indigenous and imported viral strains. Notably, an increase in laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the greater than 10 years of age group was seen over the study period. This information is valuable to inform vaccination strategies with a focus on those populations who remain susceptible to measles infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitigating measles outbreaks in West Africa post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Shaun A; Moss, William J; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 devastated the populations, economies and healthcare systems of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. With this devastation comes the impending threat of outbreaks of other infectious diseases like measles. Strategies for mitigating these risks must include both prevention, through vaccination, and case detection and management, focused on surveillance, diagnosis and appropriate clinical care and case management. With the high transmissibility of measles virus, small-scale reactive vaccinations will be essential to extinguish focal outbreaks, while national vaccination campaigns are needed to guarantee vaccination coverage targets are reached in the long term. Rapid and multifaceted strategies should carefully navigate challenges present in the wake of Ebola, while also taking advantage of current Ebola-related activities and international attention. Above all, resources and focus currently aimed at these countries must be utilized to build up the deficit in infrastructure and healthcare systems that contributed to the extent of the Ebola outbreak.

  5. Measles outbreak reveals measles susceptibility among adults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The World Health Organization, African Region, set the goal of achieving measles elimination by 2020. Namibia was one of seven African countries to implement an accelerated measles control strategy beginning in 1996. Following implementation of this strategy, measles incidence decreased; however, ...

  6. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nations, including South Africa, and resulted in the virtual elimination of measles in ... Department of Immunization, Vaccines, and Biologicals, World Health Organization,. Geneva, Switzerland ..... Lancet 1996; 348: 415. 18. Helfand RF, Moss WJ, Harpaz R, Scott S, Cutts F. Evaluating the impact of the HIV pandemic.

  7. Follow-up measles campaign in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Dominican Republic conducted a national follow-up measles vaccination campaign 6 weeks after sustaining heavy damage from Hurricane Georges, on November 6-12, targeting 830,517 children aged 9 months to 5 years in 29 provinces and the capital city. This campaign was the first mass vaccination effort in the country, following the beginning of the decentralized delivery of health services. Priority was given to vaccinating against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus, especially in refugee camps. More than 500,000 vaccines were given to different age groups, with almost 100,000 of those immunized under 5 years old. Children aged 9 months to 5 years were targeted for immunization regardless of their vaccination status. At the same time, children aged 2 months through 2 years were immunized against poliomyelitis. Vaccination activities were continued until the entire target population was reached and no important side effects have thus far been reported. The government of Mexico donated 300,000 doses of measles vaccine, while other vaccines for the campaign were acquired through the PAHO Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement. The decentralized implementation of this campaign allowed the population to actively participate and the resulting high vaccination coverage rates.

  8. A population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 μl of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with 125 I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed. (author)

  9. Association between seroprevalence of measles and various social determinants in the year following a measles outbreak in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emek, M; Islek, D; Atasoylu, G; Ozbek, O A; Ceylan, A; Acikgoz, A; Tay, Z; Demiral, Y; Oktem, M A; Unal, B

    2017-06-01

    Despite an ongoing measles elimination programme, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013 in Turkey. Population-based seroprevalence studies are needed to determine seronegativity and explore the reasons for this outbreak. This study aimed to explore the seroprevalence of measles and its association with various social determinants in a provincial population in Turkey in the year following a measles outbreak. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted in Manisa Province in 2014 in a sample of 1740 people aged >2 years. The dependent variable was the seroprevalence of measles. Independent variables were sex, age, migration, household size, household density, income, education level, existence of chronic disease and occupational class. Blood samples were collected from participants at family health centres. The presence of specific measles antibodies in serum samples was determined using an anti-measles virus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Overall, data from 1250 people were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles in the whole study population was 82.2% (95% confidence interval 80.0-84.2). Seroprevalence was 55.4% among subjects aged 2-9 years, 48.7% among subjects aged 10-19 years, 74.1% among subjects aged 20-29 years and 93.6% among subjects aged 30-39 years (P 40 years was >95%. The lowest seroprevalence was found in primary school children (40.2%), followed by those below the age for primary education (69.8%) and secondary school graduates (75.1%). The prevalence of measles seronegativity was not associated with any of the social determinants when adjusted for age. The seroprevalence of measles was lower than expected in the study population and was particularly low in subjects aged measles elimination targets, suggesting that it may be necessary to re-evaluate the need for an extra dose of measles vaccine. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier

  10. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What’s this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... Español: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Measles cases per ...

  11. Fc receptor-targeting of immunogen as a strategy for enhanced antigen loading, vaccination, and protection using intranasally administered antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H; Iglesias, Bibiana V; Gosselin, Edmund J

    2014-09-08

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using a Francisella tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR-targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fc Receptor-Targeting of Immunogen as a Strategy for Enhanced Antigen Loading, Vaccination, and Protection Using Intranasally-Administered Antigen-Pulsed Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H.; Iglesias, Bibiana V.; Gosselin, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using an F. tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25068496

  13. Evidence of pestivirus RNA in human virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, R; Tomiyama, T

    1994-01-01

    We examined live virus vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella for the presence of pestivirus RNA or of pestiviruses by reverse transcription PCR. Pestivirus RNA was detected in two measles-mumps-rubella combined vaccines and in two monovalent vaccines against mumps and rubella. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR products indicated that a modified live vaccine strain used for immunization of cattle against bovine viral diarrhea is not responsible for the contamination of the vaccines. Images PMID:8077414

  14. Identification of measles virus genotype B3 associated with outbreaks in Islamabad, Pakistan, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Hameed, Abdul; Suleman Rana, Muhammad; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Umair, Massab; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Hussain, Maqbool; Sharif, Salmaan; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan

    2017-11-09

    Measles virus infection remains a significant cause of childhood mortality and morbidity despite continued global efforts and the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Molecular analysis of indigenous measles viruses could provide critical information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can aid the implementation of appropriate control programs in Pakistan. Blood samples and throat swabs were collected from subjects suspected with measles in Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013 to 2015. Serum samples were tested for the presence of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while throat swabs were used for the isolation (Vero/SLAM cell line) and subsequent characterization and phylogenetic analysis of measles strains. Of 373 blood samples, 66% tested positive for measles IgM. Male subjects were more often infected (58%) than female (42%) with the highest frequency of positive cases (63%) in the 0-5-years age group. Among the positive cases, only 13% had received one or two doses of the measles vaccine, while 87% were unvaccinated. Of 80 throat swabs, 29 (36%) showed a measles virus-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) and were characterized as genotype B3 through partial sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Pakistani B3 strains to be closely related to strains from neighboring countries (Iran and Afghanistan) as well as with B3 viruses from the USA, Germany, and the UK. The study results showed that despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the burden of measles infections is very high in Pakistan due to poor routine immunization coverage even in major cities, including the capital city of Islamabad. It is imperative that national health authorities take urgent strategic steps to improve routine immunization and implement adequate molecular identification methods to tackle future measles outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  15. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Booster Injection of DTap-IPV//Hib (Pentaxim) Administered Concomitantly With Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Healthy Toddlers 15-18 Months of Age in Mexico: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Flor Irene Rodriguez; Morales, José Juan Renteria; De Los Santos, Abiel Homero Mascareñas; Rivas, Enrique; Vigne, Claire; Noriega, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) is licensed in a number of dengue endemic countries for individuals ≥9 years of age. Before the integration of any vaccine into childhood vaccination schedules, a lack of immune interference and acceptable safety when coadministered with other recommended vaccines should be demonstrated. This randomized, multi-center phase III trial was conducted in Mexico. Healthy toddlers (n = 732) received a booster dose of a licensed pentavalent combination vaccine [diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV//Hib)] either concomitantly or sequentially, with the second dose of CYD-TDV administered as a 3-dose schedule. Antibody titers against diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and pertussis antigens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies against poliovirus and dengue serotypes were measured using a plaque reduction neutralization test. Noninferiority was demonstrated for each of the DTaP-IPV//Hib antigens if the lower limit of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval of the difference in seroconversion rates between the 2 groups (CYD-TDV and placebo) was ≥10%. Safety of both vaccines was assessed. Noninferiority in immune response was demonstrated for all DTaP-IPV//Hib antigens. After 3 doses of CYD-TDV, no difference was observed in the immune response for CYD-TDV between groups. There were no safety concerns during the study. Coadministration of the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine with CYD-TDV has no observed impact on the immunogenicity or safety profile of the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine. No difference was observed on the CYD-TDV profile when administered concomitantly or sequentially with the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine.

  16. Avaliação das condições de estocagem de vacinas vivas, atenuadas contra o sarampo, em postos de vacinação credenciados e em centros de saúde do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil An assessment of the storage conditions of live, attenuated vaccines against measles, in authorized vaccination centers and in health services in S. Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio França Mendes

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar as condições de estocagem de vacinas vivas, atenuadas contra o sarampo, da rede de vacinação do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foram visitados 71 Postos de Vacinação Credenciados particulares (PVC, assim como 117 Centros de Saúde oficiais (CS, sobre os quais interessava saber a respeito da qualidade da estocagem a frio. Os parâmetros adotados foram: a temperatura das geladeiras de uso (+2 a +8°C e de estoque (+ 8°C; b validade do produto; c título das vacinas conservadas nestas geladeiras, avaliado pela inoculação de diluições das amostras de vacinas em células Vero; d proteção à luz. Dos CS pesquisados, 85,33% apresentaram geladeiras com temperatura de acordo com a recomendada e 100% das vacinas neles estocadas com título e validade satisfatórios. Nos PVC foram encontrados, com maior freqüência, lotes de vacina fora do prazo de validade (14,49%, com títulos abaixo do mínimo requerido (3,53% e geladeiras de uso e de estoque com temperaturas inadequadas (33,80%. Necessário se faz que as condições de estocagem das vacinas contra o sarampo (temperatura e proteção à luz, prevalentes no momento, sejam melhoradas e que as bulas passem a acompanhar o produto a eles entregue, para que os responsáveis pela vacinação obedeçam as recomendações do laboratório produtor com relação às condições de estocagem, validade e administração do imunobiológico, uma vez que a pesquisa revelou que estas não são observadas com o rigor necessário.In the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, health centers sponsored by the State, as well as private health services, located in throughout large districts, are in charge of the vaccination against the various diseases affecting children, including measles. In the present study three of the above mentioned districts, covering 385 State Health Centers (SHC and 200 Private Health Services (PHS were surveyed. From these totals 117 SHC and 71 PHS were chosen for the evaluation of: a

  17. Community vaccine perceptions and its role on vaccination uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Underutilization of vaccines still remains a challenge in many regions across the world. Ileje district is one of the districts in Tanzania with consistently low pentavalent vaccine uptake (69%) and with drop out of 15%. We determined the vaccination completion with regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus ...

  18. Epidemiology Of Measles And Its Complications In Non- Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal N

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 1985-86 amongst non-hospitalized children of jaipur city in33 investigative units having 3791 families with 6183 children in the 0-9 years age group. Measles vaccine coverage was only 21.7% Measles developed in 189 cases. Maximum incidence occurred in the 1-2 years olds and during the first half of the years (January to June. Complication developed in 50 (26.5% children. The most frequent was diarrohea (14.3% followed by respiratory infection (6.9%. No case fatality was reported.

  19. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  20. Measles and rubella elimination in the WHO Region for Europe: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, P; Jankovic, D; Muscat, M; Ben-Mamou, M; Reef, S; Papania, M; Singh, S; Kaloumenos, T; Butler, R; Datta, S

    2017-08-01

    Globally measles remains one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. The World Health Organization (WHO) European Region has seen a decline in measles and rubella cases in recent years. The recent outbreaks have primarily affected adolescents and young adults with no vaccination or an incomplete vaccination history. Eliminating measles and rubella is one of the top immunization priorities of the European Region as outlined in the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020. Following the 2010 decision by the Member States in the Region to initiate the process of verifying elimination, the European Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination (RVC) was established in 2011. The RVC meets every year to evaluate the status of measles and rubella elimination in the Region based on documentation submitted by each country's National Verification Committees. The verification process was however modified in late 2014 to assess the elimination status at the individual country level instead of at regional level. The WHO European Region has made substantial progress towards measles and rubella elimination over the past 5 years. The RVC's conclusion in 2016 that 70% and 66% of the 53 Member States in the Region had interrupted the endemic transmission of measles and rubella, respectively, by 2015 is a testament to this progress. Nevertheless, where measles and rubella remain endemic, challenges in vaccination service delivery and disease surveillance will need to be addressed through focused technical assistance from WHO and development partners. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Poor quality data challenges conclusion and decision making: timely analysis of measles confirmed and suspected cases line list in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endriyas, Misganu; Solomon, Tarekegn; Belayhun, Bekele; Mekonnen, Emebet

    2018-02-12

    Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. Timely analysis of measles surveillance data is crucial for epidemic control and can show disease control program status. Therefore, this study aimed to show vaccination status and delay in seeking health care using surveillance data. A retrospective study was carried out in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. We reviewed 2132 records from measles surveillance line list data from July 2013 to January 2014. Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS 20 for Windows. From a total of 2132 confirmed and suspected measles cases, 1319 (61.9%), had at least one dose of measles containing vaccine; the rest 398 (18.7%) and 415 (19.5%) were unvaccinated and had unknown status respectively. About two fifth, 846 (39.7%), cases visited health facilities within 48 h of onset of clinical signs/symptoms with a median of 2.0 days, IQR (1.0, 3.0). Majority of the measles cases were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles containing vaccine and vaccination data or vaccine potency at lower level was unclear. Delay in seeking healthcare was noted as only about two fifth of cases visited health facilities within 48 h of clinical manifestation. Vaccination and surveillance data quality and factors associated with delay in seeking health care should be investigated.

  2. Descriptive analysis of measles cases seen in a tertiary health facility in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria – implication of disease eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yahaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measles is a vaccine preventable viral disease that affects mostly children under-five years of age. It is highly contagious infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. Objective To describe the morbidity and mortality pattern of measles cases in person, place and time. Methods A health facility based study and cross sectional descriptive study design was used. All cases of measles that presented at the facility from January to June 2016 were profiled and their medical records reviewed. Representative blood samples were taken and analyzed using the Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method for the diagnosis of measles. Data was entered into MS Excel version 2016 and later analysed using Epi-info version 7. Results A total of 149 patients were seen over a period of 6 months. They represent 88 males and 61 females with a male to female ratio of 2:1. The median age of the cases was 30 months (range of 108 months to 9 month. The trend analysis shows a steady increased in number of cases from January with the month of March having the highest number of 46 cases, then there was steady decline for the subsequent months. Only 14 children, which accounted for 9.4% were reported to have being vaccinated against measles, while majority, 135 that represented 90.6% were not. Seven deaths were recorded; all were males and among cases that never received vaccine against measles, giving Case fatality rate (CFR of 5.0%. Measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM was detected in all the blood samples that were sent for investigations. Conclusion Nearly all the cases did not receive measles vaccine and among the deaths recorded, none had been vaccinated against measles. Concerted efforts are required by all stakeholders to ensure every child is completely immunized in line with the global measles elimination strategy.

  3. MHealth to Improve Measles Immunization in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil Rossing; Ravn, Henrik; Batista, Celso Soares Pereira

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed a low measles vaccination (MV) rate in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) that has not increased in accordance with the increasing coverage of other vaccinations. Measles is the deadliest of all childhood rash/fever illnesses and spreads easily...... receiving the MV, will be enrolled when they arrive with their children at the health center to receive the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination, usually within one month of the child's birth. Enrolment will continue until a study population of 990 children has been reached. The participants...... will be randomly assigned to a control arm or one of two intervention arms. Each of the three groups will have 330 participants, distributed equally between health centers. Participants in the first intervention arm will receive a scheduled short message service (SMS) text message reminding them of the MV...

  4. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  5. MEASLES VIRUS IMMUNITY LEVEL STUDY IN PARTICULAR POPULATION GROUPS OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF GLOBAL MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM. REPORT 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Popova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A goal for measles elimination globally by 2010–2020 was recognized as one of the priorities in the WHO program “Health for All in the 21st Century” (1998. However measles outbreaks occurred in 2010–2016 in countries with high level of measles vaccine coverage including USA and some European countries.Large measles outbreaks were also registered on the African continent and particular in the Republic of Guinea as a result of the decline of measles vaccine coverage due to the Ebola virus epidemic in the Republic of Guinea in 2014–2015. WHO recommends carrying out the routine measles vaccination as well as the supplemental immunization activities after the stop of the Ebola virus transmission. Effectiveness of the activities is definitely connected with the detection of the epidemically significant for the supplemental immunization age groups. The aim of the study was to evaluate the measles immunity level in different age groups of population in the Republic of Guinea. Materials and methods. Twenty five blood serum samples of healthy adult Guineans aged 28–66 and 121 blood serum samples of adolescences and adults admitted to hospital in the town of Kindia (Republic of Guinea for indoor treatment were tested by ELISA. The specific measles virus antibodies were detected using the following commercial ELISA test-systems produced by Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG Company (Germany: IgM-antibodies — by “Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgM”, IgG-antibodi es — by “Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG”, IgG-avidity measles virus antibodies — by “Avidity: Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG”. A part of sera was studied by “Vector-Best IgM-measles” and “Vector-Best IgG-measles” ELISA test-systems (Russia. Results and discussion. The comparative quantitative study of the measles immunity level (i.e. IgG-antibodies titers of the healthy adult Guineans in 2015 and 2016 revealed the lack of IgGantibodies in serum

  6. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  7. Measles: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as mumps and rubella. • Prevents your child from getting an uncomfortable rash and high fever from measles. • Keeps your child from missing school or childcare (and keeps you from missing work to care for your sick child). Is the MMR shot safe? Yes. The MMR shot is very safe, and it ...

  8. Validation of the French national health insurance information system as a tool in vaccine safety assessment: application to febrile convulsions after pediatric measles/mumps/rubella immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Quantin, Catherine; Farrington, Paddy; Benzenine, Eric; Hocine, N Mounia; Velten, Michel; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Escolano, Sylvie

    2013-12-02

    In the French national health insurance information system (SNIIR-AM), routine records of health claimed reimbursements are linked to hospital admissions for the whole French population. The main focus of this work is the usability of this system for vaccine safety assessment programme. Self-controlled case series analyses were performed using an exhaustive SNIIR-AM extraction of French children aged less than 3 years, to investigate the relationship between MMR immunization and children hospitalizations for febrile convulsions, a well-documented rare adverse event, over 2009-2010. The results suggest a significant increase of febrile convulsions during the 6-11 days period following any MMR immunization (IRR=1.49, 95% CI=1.22, 1.83; p=0.0001) and no increase 15-35 days post any MMR immunization (IRR=1.03, 95% CI=0.89, 1.18; p=0.72). These results are in accordance with other results obtained from large epidemiologic studies, which suggest the usability of the SNIIR-AM as a relevant database to study the occurrence of adverse events associated with immunization. For future use, results associated with risk of convulsion during the day of vaccination should nevertheless be considered with particular caution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phase II Study of HER-2/neu Intracellular Domain Peptide-Based Vaccine Administered to Stage IV HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Disis, Mary L

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this grant is to determine the overall survival benefit in Stage IV HER2 positive breast cancer patients vaccinated with a HER2 ICD peptide-based vaccine while receiving maintenance trastuzumab...

  10. Phase II Study of HER-2/neu Intracellular Domain Peptide-Based Vaccine Administered to Stage IV HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Disis, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this grant is to determine the overall survival benefit in Stage IV HER2 positive breast cancer patients vaccinated with a HER2 ICD peptide-based vaccine while receiving maintenance trastuzumab...

  11. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrener, Lenesha; Slibinskas, Rimantas; Chua, Kaw Bing; Nigatu, Wondatir; Brown, Kevin E; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Samuel, Dhanraj; Brown, David

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a newly developed point-of-care test (POCT) for the detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies in serum and oral fluid specimens and to assess if measles virus nucleic acid could be recovered from used POCT strips. The POCT was used to test 170 serum specimens collected through measles surveillance or vaccination programmes in Ethiopia, Malaysia and the Russian Federation: 69 were positive for measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, 74 were positive for rubella IgM antibodies and 7 were positive for both. Also tested were 282 oral fluid specimens from the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) surveillance programme of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Microimmune measles IgM capture enzyme immunoassay was the gold standard for comparison. A panel of 24 oral fluids was used to investigate if measles virus haemagglutinin (H) and nucleocapsid (N) genes could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction directly from used POCT strips. With serum POCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90.8% (69/76) and 93.6% (88/94), respectively; with oral fluids, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (63/70) and 96.2% (200/208), respectively. Both H and N genes were reliably detected in POCT strips and the N genes could be sequenced for genotyping. Measles virus genes could be recovered from POCT strips after storage for 5 weeks at 20-25 °C. The POCT has the sensitivity and specificity required of a field-based test for measles diagnosis. However, its role in global measles control programmes requires further evaluation.

  13. Improving molecular tools for global surveillance of measles virus⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Byrd-Leotis, Lauren A.; Lopareva, Elena N.; Woo, Gibson K.S.; Liu, Chunyu; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; Lim, Wilina W.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Mulders, Mick N.; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses plays an important role in the description of viral transmission pathways and the verification of measles elimination. The 450 nucleotides that encode the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleoprotein (N-450) are routinely sequenced for genotype analysis. Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop improved primers and controls for RT-PCR reactions used for genotyping of measles samples and to develop a method to provide a convenient, safe, and inexpensive means to distribute measles RNA for RT-PCR assays and practice panels. Study design A newly designed, genetically defined synthetic RNA and RNA isolated from cells infected with currently circulating genotypes were used to compare the sensitivity of primer pairs in RT-PCR and nested PCR. FTA® cards loaded with lysates of measles infected cells were tested for their ability to preserve viral RNA and destroy virus infectivity. Results A new primer pair, MeV216/MeV214, was able to amplify N-450 from viruses representing 10 currently circulating genotypes and a genotype A vaccine strain and demonstrated 100-fold increased sensitivity compared to the previously used primer set. A nested PCR assay further increased the sensitivity of detection from patient samples. A synthetic positive control RNA was developed that produced PCR products that are distinguishable by size from PCR products amplified from clinical samples. FTA® cards completely inactivated measles virus and stabilized RNA for at least six months. Conclusions These improved molecular tools will advance molecular characterization of circulating measles viruses globally and provide enhanced quality control measures. PMID:23806666

  14. Improving molecular tools for global surveillance of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Byrd-Leotis, Lauren A; Lopareva, Elena N; Woo, Gibson K S; Liu, Chunyu; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; Lim, Wilina W; Ramamurty, Nalini; Mulders, Mick N; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    The genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses plays an important role in the description of viral transmission pathways and the verification of measles elimination. The 450 nucleotides that encode the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleoprotein (N-450) are routinely sequenced for genotype analysis. The objectives of this study were to develop improved primers and controls for RT-PCR reactions used for genotyping of measles samples and to develop a method to provide a convenient, safe, and inexpensive means to distribute measles RNA for RT-PCR assays and practice panels. A newly designed, genetically defined synthetic RNA and RNA isolated from cells infected with currently circulating genotypes were used to compare the sensitivity of primer pairs in RT-PCR and nested PCR. FTA® cards loaded with lysates of measles infected cells were tested for their ability to preserve viral RNA and destroy virus infectivity. A new primer pair, MeV216/MeV214, was able to amplify N-450 from viruses representing 10 currently circulating genotypes and a genotype A vaccine strain and demonstrated 100-fold increased sensitivity compared to the previously used primer set. A nested PCR assay further increased the sensitivity of detection from patient samples. A synthetic positive control RNA was developed that produced PCR products that are distinguishable by size from PCR products amplified from clinical samples. FTA® cards completely inactivated measles virus and stabilized RNA for at least six months. These improved molecular tools will advance molecular characterization of circulating measles viruses globally and provide enhanced quality control measures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Measles in Germany: An Epidemiological Analysis and First Measures for Containment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea; Wicker, Sabine

    2017-11-01

    Measles are one of the most contagious diseases of mankind. Measles incidence has declined worldwide since the introduction of vaccinations. Due to low numbers of measles cases in countries with high vaccination rates the population is not aware of possible complications of measles any more. Measles elimination is an important goal set by all regions of the World Health Organization. However, it remains a challenge for Germany and other European countries. Because of a high proportion of susceptibles in specific population and age groups outbreaks take place in Germany every year after importation of the virus. More than 50 % of measles cases are 20 years and older. However, the highest incidences have been seen in two-year-olds since several years. In addition to epidemiological findings such as case numbers and risk groups, genotyping permits e. g. an assessment of the endemic circulation of viruses. Suspicion of a measles case should result in immediate and consistent measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakya Akhalesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. Materials and methods The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Results and conclusion Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38 in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspe