WorldWideScience

Sample records for means large multipartite

  1. Large-N -approximated field theory for multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.; Scardicchio, A.

    2015-12-01

    We try to characterize the statistics of multipartite entanglement of the random states of an n -qubit system. Unable to solve the problem exactly we generalize it, replacing complex numbers with real vectors with Nc components (the original problem is recovered for Nc=2 ). Studying the leading diagrams in the large-Nc approximation, we unearth the presence of a phase transition and, in an explicit example, show that the so-called entanglement frustration disappears in the large-Nc limit.

  2. Feynman graphs and the large dimensional limit of multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Sara; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the analysis of multipartite entanglement, based on techniques from classical statistical mechanics, to a system composed of n d-level parties (qudits). We introduce a suitable partition function at a fictitious temperature with the average local purity of the system as Hamiltonian. In particular, we analyze the high-temperature expansion of this partition function, prove the convergence of the series, and study its asymptotic behavior as d → ∞. We make use of a diagrammatic technique, classify the graphs, and study their degeneracy. We are thus able to evaluate their contributions and estimate the moments of the distribution of the local purity.

  3. Multipartite geometric entanglement in finite size XY model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Giampaolo, Salvatore Marco; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the behavior of the multipartite entanglement in the finite size XY model by means of the hierarchical geometric measure of entanglement. By selecting specific components of the hierarchy, we study both global entanglement and genuinely multipartite entanglement.

  4. Evolution of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in yeast mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Matus; Farkas, Zoltan; Fricova, Dominika; Kovac, Jakub; Brejova, Brona; Vinar, Tomas; Pfeiffer, Ilona; Kucsera, Judit; Tomaska, Lubomir; Lang, B. Franz; Nosek, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome diversity in closely related species provides an excellent platform for investigation of chromosome architecture and its evolution by means of comparative genomics. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight Candida species and analyzed their molecular architectures. Our survey revealed a puzzling variability of genome architecture, including circular- and linear-mapping and multipartite linear forms. We propose that the arrangement of large inverted repeats identified in these genomes plays a crucial role in alterations of their molecular architectures. In specific arrangements, the inverted repeats appear to function as resolution elements, allowing genome conversion among different topologies, eventually leading to genome fragmentation into multiple linear DNA molecules. We suggest that molecular transactions generating linear mitochondrial DNA molecules with defined telomeric structures may parallel the evolutionary emergence of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in general and may provide clues for the origin of telomeres and pathways implicated in their maintenance. PMID:21266473

  5. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  6. Multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Mafalda L.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Acin, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We present a general method for characterizing the quantum correlations obtained after local measurements on multipartite systems. Sufficient conditions for a quantum system to be fully nonlocal according to a given partition, as well as being (genuinely) multipartite fully nonlocal, are derived. These conditions allow us to identify all completely connected graph states as multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states. Moreover, we show that this feature can also be observed in mixed states: the tensor product of five copies of the Smolin state, a biseparable and bound entangled state, is multipartite fully nonlocal.

  7. Operational classification and quantification of multipartite entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigolin, Gustavo; Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Oliveira, Marcos C. de

    2006-01-01

    We formalize and extend an operational multipartite entanglement measure introduced by T. R. Oliveira, G. Rigolin, and M. C. de Oliveira, Phys. Rev. A 73, 010305(R) (2006), through the generalization of global entanglement (GE) [D. A. Meyer and N. R. Wallach, J. Math. Phys. 43, 4273 (2002)]. Contrarily to GE the main feature of this measure lies in the fact that we study the mean linear entropy of all possible partitions of a multipartite system. This allows the construction of an operational multipartite entanglement measure which is able to distinguish among different multipartite entangled states that GE failed to discriminate. Furthermore, it is also maximum at the critical point of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field, being thus able to detect a quantum phase transition

  8. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2009-02-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.

  9. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-02-06

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.

  10. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics

  11. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2010-01-01

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  12. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2010-02-01

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  13. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it

    2010-02-15

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  14. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  15. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  16. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  17. Charcterization of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle τ (T) to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle τ (T) from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)

  18. Charcterization of multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Bo

    2006-06-23

    In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M A clones with fidelity F A and another set of M B clones with fidelity F B , the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N→M A +M B cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1→1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized

  20. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-01-01

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  1. Multipartite entanglement and firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengqiao; Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a "firewall" inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. Using the multipartite entanglement measure called negativity, we identify an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entanglement and perhaps eliminate the need for a firewall. Specifically, we constructed a toy model for black hole decay which has different entanglement behavior than that assumed by AMPS. We discuss the additional steps that would be needed to bring lessons from our toy model to our understanding of realistic black holes.

  2. Multipartite nonlocality and random measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosier, Anna; Gruca, Jacek; Parisio, Fernando; Vértesi, Tamás; Laskowski, Wiesław

    2017-07-01

    We present an exhaustive numerical analysis of violations of local realism by families of multipartite quantum states. As an indicator of nonclassicality we employ the probability of violation for randomly sampled observables. Surprisingly, it rapidly increases with the number of parties or settings and even for relatively small values local realism is violated for almost all observables. We have observed this effect to be typical in the sense that it emerged for all investigated states including some with randomly drawn coefficients. We also present the probability of violation as a witness of genuine multipartite entanglement.

  3. Genuine Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    We develop the concept of genuine N-partite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. This nonlocality is the natural multipartite extension of the original EPR paradox. Useful properties emerge that are not guaranteed for genuine multipartite entangled states. In particular, there is a close link with the task of one-sided, device-independent quantum secret sharing. We derive inequalities to demonstrate multipartite EPR steering for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and Gaussian continuous variable states in loophole-free scenarios.

  4. Generic Bell inequalities for multipartite mulit-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, W.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present generic Bell inequalities for multipartite multi-dimensional systems. They utilize the set of measurements, which are coincident with the generalized version of Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger (GHZ) paradox. The inequalities that must be satisfied by any local realistic theories are violated by quantum mechanics for even-dimensional multipartite systems. It is also shown that the maximal violation of the inequality is obtained by the generalized GHZ state, which is true multi-body nonseparable state. As a special case for the multipartite two-dimensional systems, it can be shown that the inequality agrees with Bell-Mermin version of inequality. Large sets of variants are shown to naturally emerge from the generic Bell inequalities. We will discuss the particular variants of Bell inequalities that are violated for all the systems including odd-dimensional multipartite systems. Interestingly the variants can be reduced into the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality as well as Ardehali inequality. (author)

  5. N multipartite GHZ states in quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara Vivoli, Valentina; Wehner, Stephanie

    Nowadays progress in experimental quantum physics has brought to a significant control on systems like nitrogen-vacancy centres, ion traps, and superconducting qubit clusters. These systems can constitute the key cells of future quantum networks, where tasks like quantum communication at large scale and quantum cryptography can be achieved. It is, though, still not clear which approaches can be used to generate such entanglement at large distances using only local operations on or between at most two adjacent nodes. Here, we analyse three protocols that are able to generate genuine multipartite entanglement between an arbitrary large number of parties. In particular, we focus on the generation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Moreover, the performances of the three methods are numerically compared in the scenario of a decoherence model both in terms of fidelity and entanglement generation rate. V.C.V. is founded by a NWO Vidi Grant, and S.W. is founded by STW Netherlands.

  6. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the ...

  7. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state

  8. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Koji [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-26

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state.

  9. One-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification with linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Long, Gui Lu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-01-09

    We present a one-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification scheme for an N-photon system in a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state with linear optical elements. The parties in quantum communication can in principle obtain a maximally entangled state from each N-photon system with a success probability of 100%. That is, it does not consume the less-entangled photon systems largely, which is far different from other multipartite entanglement purification schemes. This feature maybe make this scheme more feasible in practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We proposed a deterministic entanglement purification scheme for GHZ states. ► The scheme uses only linear optical elements and has a success probability of 100%. ► The scheme gives a purified GHZ state in just one-step.

  10. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM (Italy)

    2010-06-04

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  11. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  12. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2010-06-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  13. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  14. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  15. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  16. Multipartite electronic entanglement purification with charge detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Yubo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Long Guilu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-17

    We present a multipartite entanglement purification scheme in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state for electrons based on their spins and their charges. This scheme works for purification with two steps, i.e., bit-flip error correction and phase-flip error correction. By repeating these two steps, the parties in quantum communication can get some high-fidelity multipartite entangled electronic systems.

  17. Tractable Quantification of Entanglement for Multipartite Pure States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian-Quan, Jiang; Yu-Jian, Wang; Yi-Zhuang, Zheng; Gen-Chang, Cai

    2008-01-01

    We present kth-order entanglement measure and global kth-order entanglement measure for multipartite pure states, and extend Bennett's measure of partial entropy for bipartite pure states to a multipartite case. These measures are computable and can effectively classify and quantify the entanglement of multipartite pure states. (general)

  18. Three methods to distill multipartite entanglement over bipartite noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soojoon; Park, Jungjoon

    2008-01-01

    We first assume that there are only bipartite noisy qubit channels in a given multipartite system, and present three methods to distill the general Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. By investigating the methods, we show that multipartite entanglement distillation by bipartite entanglement distillation has higher yield than ones in the previous multipartite entanglement distillations

  19. Multipartite interacting scalar dark matter in the light of updated LUX data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Subhaditya; Ghosh, Purusottam; Poulose, Poulose, E-mail: subhab@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: p.ghosh@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: poulose@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India)

    2017-04-01

    We explore constraints on multipartite dark matter (DM) framework composed of singlet scalar DM interacting with the Standard Model (SM) through Higgs portal coupling. We compute relic density and direct search constraints including the updated LUX bound for two component scenario with non-zero interactions between two DM components in Z{sub 2} × Z{sub 2}{sup '} framework in comparison with the one having O(2) symmetry. We point out availability of a significantly large region of parameter space of such a multipartite model with DM-DM interactions.

  20. Global quantum discord in multipartite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.

  1. The groupies of random multipartite graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Portmann, Marius; Wang, Hongyun

    2012-01-01

    If a vertex $v$ in a graph $G$ has degree larger than the average of the degrees of its neighbors, we call it a groupie in $G$. In the current work, we study the behavior of groupie in random multipartite graphs with the link probability between sets of nodes fixed. Our results extend the previous ones on random (bipartite) graphs.

  2. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  3. Multipartite classical and quantum secrecy monotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.; Massar, S.; Schneider, S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to study multipartite quantum cryptography, we introduce quantities which vanish on product probability distributions, and which can only decrease if the parties carry out local operations or public classical communication. These 'secrecy monotones' therefore measure how much secret correlation is shared by the parties. In the bipartite case we show that the mutual information is a secrecy monotone. In the multipartite case we describe two different generalizations of the mutual information, both of which are secrecy monotones. The existence of two distinct secrecy monotones allows us to show that in multipartite quantum cryptography the parties must make irreversible choices about which multipartite correlations they want to obtain. Secrecy monotones can be extended to the quantum domain and are then defined on density matrices. We illustrate this generalization by considering tripartite quantum cryptography based on the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. We show that before carrying out measurements on the state, the parties must make an irreversible decision about what probability distribution they want to obtain

  4. The Complete Multipartite Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a Versatile Pollutant Degrader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Perez-Pantoja, Danilo; Ledger, Thomas; Mavromatis, Kostantinos; Anderson, Iain J.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hooper, Sean D.; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-02-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha JMP134) is a Gram-negative {beta}-proteobacterium able to degrade a variety of chloroaromatic compounds and chemically-related pollutants. It was originally isolated based on its ability to use 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a sole carbon and energy source [1]. In addition to 2,4-D, this strain can also grow on a variety of aromatic substrates, such as 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate (MCPA), 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-CB) [2], 2,4,6-trichlorophenol [3], and 4-fluorobenzoate [4]. The genes necessary for 2,4-D utilization have been identified. They are located in two clusters on plasmid pPJ4: tfd{sub I} and tfd{sub II} [5,6,7,8]. The sequence and analysis of plasmid pJP4 was reported and a congruent model for bacterial adaptation to chloroaromatic pollutants was proposed [9]. According to this model, catabolic gene clusters assemble in a modular manner into broad-host-range plasmid backbones by means of repeated chromosomal capture events. Cupriavidus and related Burkholderia genomes are typically multipartite, composed of two large replicons (chromosomes) accompanied by classical plasmids. Previous work with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 revealed a differential gene distribution with core functions preferentially encoded by the larger chromosome and secondary functions by the smaller [10]. It has been proposed that the secondary chromosomes in many bacteria originated from ancestral plasmids which, in turn, had been the recipient of genes transferred earlier from ancestral primary chromosomes [11]. The existence of multiple Cupriavidus and Burkholderia genomes provides the opportunity for comparative studies that will lead to a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms for the formation of multipartite genomes and the relation with biodegradation abilities.

  5. Efficient Device-Independent Entanglement Detection for Multipartite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, F.; Cavalcanti, D.; Wittek, P.; Acín, A.

    2017-04-01

    Entanglement is one of the most studied properties of quantum mechanics for its application in quantum information protocols. Nevertheless, detecting the presence of entanglement in large multipartite states continues to be a great challenge both from the theoretical and the experimental point of view. Most of the known methods either have computational costs that scale inefficiently with the number of particles or require more information on the state than what is attainable in everyday experiments. We introduce a new technique for entanglement detection that provides several important advantages in these respects. First, it scales efficiently with the number of particles, thus allowing for application to systems composed by up to few tens of particles. Second, it needs only the knowledge of a subset of all possible measurements on the state, therefore being apt for experimental implementation. Moreover, since it is based on the detection of nonlocality, our method is device independent. We report several examples of its implementation for well-known multipartite states, showing that the introduced technique has a promising range of applications.

  6. Quantum communication cost of preparing multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszynska, Caroline; Duer, Wolfgang; Briegel, Hans J.; Anders, Simon

    2006-01-01

    We study the preparation and distribution of high-fidelity multiparty entangled states via noisy channels and operations. In the particular case of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states, we study different strategies using bipartite or multipartite purification protocols. The most efficient strategy depends on the target fidelity one wishes to achieve and on the quality of transmission channel and local operations. We show the existence of a crossing point beyond which the strategy making use of the purification of the state as a whole is more efficient than a strategy in which pairs are purified before they are connected to the final state. We also study the efficiency of intermediate strategies, including sequences of purification and connection. We show that a multipartite strategy is to be used if one wishes to achieve high fidelity, whereas a bipartite strategy gives a better yield for low target fidelity

  7. Converting multilevel nonclassicality into genuine multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Bartosz; Piani, Marco; Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Streltsov, Alexander; Adesso, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing genuine quantum resources and determining operational rules for their manipulation are crucial steps to appraise possibilities and limitations of quantum technologies. Two such key resources are nonclassicality, manifested as quantum superposition between reference states of a single system, and entanglement, capturing quantum correlations among two or more subsystems. Here we present a general formalism for the conversion of nonclassicality into multipartite entanglement, showing that a faithful reversible transformation between the two resources is always possible within a precise resource-theoretic framework. Specializing to quantum coherence between the levels of a quantum system as an instance of nonclassicality, we introduce explicit protocols for such a mapping. We further show that the conversion relates multilevel coherence and multipartite entanglement not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, restricting the amount of entanglement achievable in the process and in particular yielding an equality between the two resources when quantified by fidelity-based geometric measures.

  8. Concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hoshang

    2005-01-01

    We propose concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states based on an orthogonal complement of a positive operator-valued measure on quantum phase. In particular, we construct W m class, GHZ m , and GHZ m-1 class concurrences for general pure m-partite states. We give explicit expressions for W 3 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure three-partite states and for W 4 , GHZ 4 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure four-partite states

  9. Compact Bell inequalities for multipartite experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu-Chun; Żukowski, Marek; Chen, Jing-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    A method for construction of the multipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) type Bell inequalities, for the case of local binary observables, is presented. The standard CHSH-type Bell inequalities can be obtained as special cases. A unified framework to establish all kinds of CHSH-type Bell inequalities by increasing step by step the number of observers is given. As an application, compact Bell inequalities, for eight observers, involving just four correlation functions are proposed. They...

  10. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  11. Probability-density-function characterization of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a method to characterize and quantify multipartite entanglement for pure states. The method hinges upon the study of the probability density function of bipartite entanglement and is tested on an ensemble of qubits in a variety of situations. This characterization is also compared to several measures of multipartite entanglement

  12. Multipartite entanglement characterization of a quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, G.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2007-07-01

    A probability density characterization of multipartite entanglement is tested on the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. The average and second moment of the probability distribution are numerically shown to be good indicators of the quantum phase transition. We comment on multipartite entanglement generation at a quantum phase transition.

  13. Multipartite entanglement characterization of a quantum phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Facchi, P [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    A probability density characterization of multipartite entanglement is tested on the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. The average and second moment of the probability distribution are numerically shown to be good indicators of the quantum phase transition. We comment on multipartite entanglement generation at a quantum phase transition.

  14. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, E. G. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia); He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Centre for Quantum-Atom Optics (Australian Research Council), Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Wiseman, H. M. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia); Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology (Australian Research Council), Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  15. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  16. Entanglement for multipartite systems of indistinguishable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, Janusz [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mathematics, Sniadeckich 8, PO Box 21, 00-956 Warsaw (Poland); Kus, Marek [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Marmo, Giuseppe, E-mail: jagrab@impan.pl, E-mail: marek.kus@cft.edu.pl, E-mail: marmo@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita ' Federico II' di Napoli and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-04-29

    We analyze the concept of entanglement for a multipartite system with bosonic and fermionic constituents and its generalization to systems with arbitrary parastatistics. We use the representation theory of symmetry groups to formulate a unified approach to this problem in terms of simple tensors with an appropriate symmetry. For an arbitrary parastatistics, we define the S-rank generalizing the notion of the Schmidt rank. The S-rank, defined for all types of tensors, serves for distinguishing entanglement of pure states. In addition, for Bose and Fermi statistics, we construct an analog of the Jamiolkowski isomorphism.

  17. Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Girolami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.

  18. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  19. Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.

    2008-01-01

    In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

  20. Quantification and scaling of multipartite entanglement in continuous variable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-11-26

    We present a theoretical method to determine the multipartite entanglement between different partitions of multimode, fully or partially symmetric Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For such states, we determine the exact expression of the logarithmic negativity and show that it coincides with that of equivalent two-mode Gaussian states. Exploiting this reduction, we demonstrate the scaling of the multipartite entanglement with the number of modes and its reliable experimental estimate by direct measurements of the global and local purities.

  1. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-09-01

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.140402 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  2. Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory. (paper)

  3. Quantum correlations in multipartite quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Heshmati, A.; Karimi, N.; Yahyavi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum entanglement is the most famous type of quantum correlation between elements of a quantum system that has a basic role in quantum communication protocols like quantum cryptography, teleportation and Bell inequality detection. However, it has already been shown that various applications in quantum information theory do not require entanglement. Quantum discord as a new kind of quantum correlations beyond entanglement, is the most popular candidate for general quantum correlations. In this paper, first we find the entanglement witness in a particular multipartite quantum system which consists of a N-partite system in 2 n -dimensional space. Then we give an exact analytical formula for the quantum discord of this system. At the end of the paper, we investigate the additivity relation of the quantum correlation and show that this relation is satisfied for a N-partite system with 2 n -dimensional space.

  4. Multipartite entangled quantum states: Transformation, Entanglement monotones and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei

    Entanglement is one of the fundamental features of quantum information science. Though bipartite entanglement has been analyzed thoroughly in theory and shown to be an important resource in quantum computation and communication protocols, the theory of entanglement shared between more than two parties, which is called multipartite entanglement, is still not complete. Specifically, the classification of multipartite entanglement and the transformation property between different multipartite states by local operators and classical communications (LOCC) are two fundamental questions in the theory of multipartite entanglement. In this thesis, we present results related to the LOCC transformation between multipartite entangled states. Firstly, we investigate the bounds on the LOCC transformation probability between multipartite states, especially the GHZ class states. By analyzing the involvement of 3-tangle and other entanglement measures under weak two-outcome measurement, we derive explicit upper and lower bound on the transformation probability between GHZ class states. After that, we also analyze the transformation between N-party W type states, which is a special class of multipartite entangled states that has an explicit unique expression and a set of analytical entanglement monotones. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for a known upper bound of transformation probability between two N-party W type states to be achieved. We also further investigate a novel entanglement transformation protocol, the random distillation, which transforms multipartite entanglement into bipartite entanglement ii shared by a non-deterministic pair of parties. We find upper bounds for the random distillation protocol for general N-party W type states and find the condition for the upper bounds to be achieved. What is surprising is that the upper bounds correspond to entanglement monotones that can be increased by Separable Operators (SEP), which gives the first set of

  5. Testing the structure of multipartite entanglement with Bell inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Sharam, James; Vértesi, Tamás

    2012-03-16

    We show that the rich structure of multipartite entanglement can be tested following a device-independent approach. Specifically we present Bell inequalities for distinguishing between different types of multipartite entanglement, without placing any assumptions on the measurement devices used in the protocol, in contrast with usual entanglement witnesses. We first address the case of three qubits and present Bell inequalities that can be violated by W states but not by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, and vice versa. Next, we devise 'subcorrelation Bell inequalities' for any number of parties, which can provably not be violated by a broad class of multipartite entangled states (generalizations of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states), but for which violations can be obtained for W states. Our results give insight into the nonlocality of W states. The simplicity and robustness of our tests make them appealing for experiments.

  6. Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-Shui; WANG Ya-Hong; SONG He-Shan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. Ifa non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1 - √1 - C2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation,Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.

  7. Decoherence and Multipartite Entanglement of Non-Inertial Observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, M.

    2012-01-01

    The decoherence effect on multipartite entanglement in non-inertial frames is investigated. The GHZ state is considered to be shared between partners with one partner in the inertial frame whereas the other two are in accelerated frames. One-tangle and π-tangles are used to quantify the entanglement of the multipartite system influenced by phase damping and phase flip channels. It is seen that for the phase damping channel, entanglement sudden death (ESD) occurs for p > 0.5 in the infinite acceleration limit. On the other hand, in the case of the phase flip channel, ESD behavior occurs at p = 0.5. It is also seen that entanglement sudden birth (ESB) occurs in the case of phase flip channel just after ESD, i.e. p > 0.5. Furthermore, it is seen that the effect of the environment on multipartite entanglement is much stronger than that of the acceleration of non-inertial frames. (general)

  8. Multipartite entanglement via the Mayer-Vietoris theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrascu, Andrei T.

    2017-10-01

    The connection between entanglement and topology manifests itself in the form of the ER-EPR duality. This statement however refers to the maximally entangled states only. In this article I study the multipartite entanglement and the way in which it relates to the topological interpretation of the ER-EPR duality. The 2 dimensional genus 1 torus will be generalised to a n-dimensional general torus, where the information about the multipartite entanglement will be encoded in the higher inclusion maps of the Mayer-Vietorist sequence.

  9. Coherent feedback control of multipartite quantum entanglement for optical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Coherent feedback control (CFC) of multipartite optical entangled states produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier is theoretically studied. The features of the quantum correlations of amplitude and phase quadratures among more than two entangled optical modes can be controlled by tuning the transmissivity of the optical beam splitter in the CFC loop. The physical conditions to enhance continuous variable multipartite entanglement of optical fields utilizing the CFC loop are obtained. The numeric calculations based on feasible physical parameters of realistic systems provide direct references for the design of experimental devices.

  10. Depressurization as a means of leak checking large vacuum vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Langhorn, A.; Petersen, P.I.; Ward, C.; Wesley, J.

    1985-01-01

    A common problem associated with large vacuum vessels used in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is that leak checking is hampered by the inaccessibility to most of the vacuum vessel surface. This inaccessibility is caused by the close proximity of magnetic coils, diagnostics and, for those vessels that are baked, the need to completely surround the vessel with a thermal insulation blanket. These obstructions reduce the effectiveness of the standard leak checking method of using a mass spectrometer and spraying a search gas such as helium on the vessel exterior. Even when the presence of helium is detected, its entry point into the vessel cannot always be pinpointed. This paper will describe a method of overcoming this problem. By slightly depressurizing the vessel, an influx of helium through the leak is created. The leak site can then be identified by personnel within the vessel using standard sniffing procedures. There are two conditions which make this method of leak checking practical. First, the vessel need only be depressurized 2 psi, thus allowing personnel inside to perform the sniffing operation. Second, the sniffing probe used (Leybold--Heraus ''Quick Test'') could detect a change in helium concentration as small as 100 ppb, which allows for faster scanning of the vessel inferior. Use of this technique to find an elusive 10 -3 Torrxl/s leak in the Doublet III tokamak vacuum vessel will be presented

  11. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-10-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  12. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  13. Multicopy and stochastic transformation of multipartite pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Hayashi, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing the transformation and classification of multipartite entangled states is a basic problem in quantum information. We study the problem under the two most common environments, local operations and classical communications (LOCC), stochastic LOCC and two more general environments, multicopy LOCC (MCLOCC), and multicopy SLOCC (MCSLOCC). We show that two transformable multipartite states under LOCC or SLOCC are also transformable under MCLOCC and MCSLOCC. What is more, these two environments are equivalent in the sense that two transformable states under MCLOCC are also transformable under MCSLOCC, and vice versa. Based on these environments we classify the multipartite pure states into a few inequivalent sets and orbits, between which we build the partial order to decide their transformation. In particular, we investigate the structure of SLOCC-equivalent states in terms of tensor rank, which is known as the generalized Schmidt rank. Given the tensor rank, we show that Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states can be used to generate all states with a smaller or equivalent tensor rank under SLOCC, and all reduced separable states with a cardinality smaller than or equivalent to the tensor rank under LOCC. Using these concepts, we extended the concept of the ''maximally entangled state'' in the multipartite system.

  14. Deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-Y.; Yu, I-C.; Lin, F.-L.; Hsu, L.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    We propose schemes to perform the deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states. We also find the sufficient and necessary condition of a viable graph state for the proposed schemes. That is, for the associated graph, the reduced adjacency matrix of the Tanner-type subgraph between senders and receivers should be invertible.

  15. Examining the Heterogeneous Genome Content of Multipartite Viruses BMV and CCMV by Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waterbeemd, Michiel; Snijder, Joost; Tsvetkova, Irina B.; Dragnea, Bogdan G.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Since the concept was first introduced by Brian Chait and co-workers in 1991, mass spectrometry of proteins and protein complexes under non-denaturing conditions (native MS) has strongly developed, through parallel advances in instrumentation, sample preparation, and data analysis tools. However, the success rate of native MS analysis, particularly in heterogeneous mega-Dalton (MDa) protein complexes, still strongly depends on careful instrument modification. Here, we further explore these boundaries in native mass spectrometry, analyzing two related endogenous multipartite viruses: the Brome Mosaic Virus (BMV) and the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV). Both CCMV and BMV are approximately 4.6 megadalton (MDa) in mass, of which approximately 1 MDA originates from the genomic content of the virion. Both viruses are produced as mixtures of three particles carrying different segments of the genome, varying by approximately 0.1 MDA in mass (~2%). This mixture of particles poses a challenging analytical problem for high-resolution native MS analysis, given the large mass scales involved. We attempt to unravel the particle heterogeneity using both Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometers extensively modified for analysis of very large assemblies. We show that manipulation of the charging behavior can provide assistance in assigning the correct charge states. Despite their challenging size and heterogeneity, we obtained native mass spectra with resolved series of charge states for both BMV and CCMV, demonstrating that native MS of endogenous multipartite virions is feasible.

  16. Continuous variable multipartite entanglement and optical implementations of quantum communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Yimin; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi

    2007-01-01

    A variety of optical quantum information networks based on the multipartite entanglement of amplitude and phase quadratures of an electromagnetic field have been proposed and experimentally realized in recent years. The multipartite entanglement of optical continuous variables provides flexible and reliable quantum resources for developing unconditional quantum information networks. In this paper, we review the generation schemes of the multipartite entangled states of optical continuous quantum variables and some applications in the quantum communication networks with emphasis on the experimental implementations

  17. Maximal overlap with a fully separable state and translational invariance for multipartite entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, H. T.; Yuan Di; Tian, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The maximal overlap with the fully separable state for the multipartite entangled pure state with translational invariance is studied explicitly by some exact and numerical evaluations, focusing on the one-dimensional qubit system and some representative types of translational invariance. The results show that the translational invariance of the multipartite state could have an intrinsic effect on the determination of the maximal overlap and the nearest fully separable state for multipartite entangled states. Furthermore, a hierarchy of the basic entangled states with translational invariance is found, from which one could readily find the maximal overlap and a related fully separable state for the multipartite state composed of different translational invariance structures.

  18. Optimal use of multipartite entanglement for continuous variable teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, G.; Illuminati, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this work we discuss how continuous variable teleportation takes advantage of the quadrature entanglement in different ways, depending on the preparation of the entangled state. For a given amount of the entanglement resource, we describe the best production scheme for a two-mode Gaussian state, which enables quantum teleportation with optimal fidelity. We extend this study to multiparty entangled Gaussian states and define an operative measure of multipartite entanglement related to the optimal fidelity in a quantum teleportation network experiment. This optimal fidelity is shown to be equivalent to the entanglement of formation for the standard two-user protocol, and to the multipartite localizable entanglement for the multiuser protocol. (author)

  19. Experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, B P; Zwerger, M; Jurcevic, P; Hempel, C; Dür, W; Briegel, H J; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2014-03-14

    We report on the experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities by entangled states of trapped ions. First, we consider resource states for measurement-based quantum computation of between 3 and 7 ions and show that all strongly violate a Bell-type inequality for graph states, where the criterion for violation is a sufficiently high fidelity. Second, we analyze Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of up to 14 ions generated in a previous experiment using stronger Mermin-Klyshko inequalities, and show that in this case the violation of local realism increases exponentially with system size. These experiments represent a violation of multipartite Bell-type inequalities of deterministically prepared entangled states. In addition, the detection loophole is closed.

  20. Statistical Optimality in Multipartite Ranking and Ordinal Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Kazuki; Lee, Yoonkyung

    2015-05-01

    Statistical optimality in multipartite ranking is investigated as an extension of bipartite ranking. We consider the optimality of ranking algorithms through minimization of the theoretical risk which combines pairwise ranking errors of ordinal categories with differential ranking costs. The extension shows that for a certain class of convex loss functions including exponential loss, the optimal ranking function can be represented as a ratio of weighted conditional probability of upper categories to lower categories, where the weights are given by the misranking costs. This result also bridges traditional ranking methods such as proportional odds model in statistics with various ranking algorithms in machine learning. Further, the analysis of multipartite ranking with different costs provides a new perspective on non-smooth list-wise ranking measures such as the discounted cumulative gain and preference learning. We illustrate our findings with simulation study and real data analysis.

  1. One-way EPR steering and genuine multipartite EPR steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Reid, Margaret D.

    2012-11-01

    We propose criteria and experimental strategies to realise the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering nonlocality. One-way steering can be obtained where there is asymmetry of thermal noise on each system. We also present EPR steering inequalities that act as signatures and suggest how to optimise EPR correlations in specific schemes so that the genuine multipartite EPR steering nonlocality (EPR paradox) can also possibly be realised. The results presented here also apply to the spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles.

  2. Dynamical decoherence control of multi-partite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Goren

    2009-01-01

    A unified theory is given of dynamically modified decay and decoherence of field-driven multipartite systems. When this universal framework is applied to two-level systems or qubits experiencing either amplitude or phase noise due to their coupling to a thermal bath, it results in completely analogous formulae for the modified decoherence rates in both cases. The spectral representation of the modified decoherence rates underscores the main insight derived from this approach, namely, that the decoherence rate is the spectral overlap of the noise and modulation spectra. This allows us to come up with general recipes for modulation schemes for the optimal reduction of decoherence under realistic constraints. An extension of the treatment to multilevel and multipartite systems exploits intra-system symmetries to dynamically protect multipartite entangled states. Another corollary of this treatment is that entanglement, which is very susceptible to noise and can die, i.e., vanish at finite times, can be resuscitated by appropriate modulations prescribed by our universal formalism. This dynamical decoherence control is also shown to be advantageous in quantum computation setups, where control fields are applied concurrently with the gate operations to increase the gate fidelity. (phd tutorial)

  3. Experimental Determination of Multipartite Entanglement with Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Aguilar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multipartite entanglement is very poorly understood despite all the theoretical and experimental advances of the last decades. Preparation, manipulation, and identification of this resource is crucial for both practical and fundamental reasons. However, the difficulty in the practical manipulation and the complexity of the data generated by measurements on these systems increase rapidly with the number of parties. Therefore, we would like to experimentally address the problem of how much information about multipartite entanglement we can access with incomplete measurements. In particular, it was shown that some types of pure multipartite entangled states can be witnessed without measuring the correlations [M. Walter et al., Science 340, 1205 (2013] between parties, which is strongly demanding experimentally. We explore this method using an optical setup that permits the preparation and the complete tomographic reconstruction of many inequivalent classes of three- and four-partite entangled states, and compare complete versus incomplete information. We show that the method is useful in practice, even for nonpure states or nonideal measurement conditions.

  4. On the Convergence and Law of Large Numbers for the Non-Euclidean Lp -Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and proves two important theorems that compose the Law of Large Numbers for the non-Euclidean L p -means, known to be true for the Euclidean L 2 -means: Let the L p -mean estimator, which constitutes the specific functional that estimates the L p -mean of N independent and identically distributed random variables; then, (i the expectation value of the L p -mean estimator equals the mean of the distributions of the random variables; and (ii the limit N → ∞ of the L p -mean estimator also equals the mean of the distributions.

  5. Long-distance multipartite quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, T.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses two long-distance free-space experiments based on multi-photon polarization entanglement. The highlighted measurements were performed between the Canary Islands La Palma and Tenerife, featuring a 143 km horizontal free-space quantum channel. Based on the superposition principle, quantum entanglement constitutes the key building block in quantum information sciences. Its nonclassical correlations lay the ground for exciting new protocols like quantum cryptography, quantum computation or quantum teleportation. Our first experiment targeted on the teleportation of entanglement, also known as entanglement swapping, where the entanglement from two polarization entangled photon pairs 0-1 and 2-3 is swapped onto photons 1-2 and 0-3. This feature constitutes the fundamental resource for so-called quantum repeaters. In the future such devices could be used to subdivide large distances into shorter links and finally extend the entanglement over the whole range by entanglement swapping. In the second experiment we realized four-photon entanglement in the form of a GHZ-state, named after the researchers Daniel Greenberger, Michael Horne and Anton Zeilinger. At the base station on La Palma we employed two sources for polarization-entanglement, generating photon pairs of 808 nm wavelength by spontaneous parametric down-conversion of femtosecond pulsed laser light. In both experiments one of the four photons per pulse was transmitted over a 143 km free-space link to the receiver station on Tenerife, whereas the remaining three photons were measured locally on La Palma. Long term atmospheric turbulences in the near-ground quantum channel were compensated by means of a bi-directional closed-loop tracking of the transceiver telescopes. Despite an average link attenuation of around 30 dB over the 143 km free-space channel, we successfully showed entanglement swapping with a statistical significance of more than 6 standard deviations. Moreover we faithfully

  6. Generalized Schmidt decomposability and its relation to projective norms in multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoli, Florian; Alber, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Projective norms are capable of measuring entanglement of multipartite quantum states. However, typically, the explicit computation of these distance-based geometric entanglement monotones is very difficult even for finite dimensional systems. Motivated by the significance of Schmidt decompositions for our quantitative understanding of bipartite quantum entanglement, a generalization of this concept to multipartite scenarios is proposed, in the sense that generalized Schmidt decomposability of a multipartite pure state implies that its projective norm can be calculated in a simple way analogous to the bipartite case. Thus, this concept of generalized Schmidt decomposability of multipartite quantum states is linked in a natural way to projective norms as entanglement monotones. Therefore, it may not only be a convenient tool for calculations, but may also shed new light onto the intricate features of multipartite entanglement in an analogous way as the ‘classical’ Schmidt decomposition does for bipartite quantum systems. (paper)

  7. Entanglement measure for general pure multipartite quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hoshang; Bjoerk, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    We propose an explicit formula for a measure of entanglement of pure multipartite quantum states. We discuss the mathematical structure of the measure and give a brief explanation of its physical motivation. We apply the measure on some pure, tripartite, qubit states and demonstrate that, in general, the entanglement can depend on what actions are performed on the various subsystems, and specifically if the parties in possession of the subsystems cooperate or not. We also give some simple but illustrative examples of the entanglement of four-qubit and m-qubit states

  8. General form of genuine multipartite entanglement quantum channels for teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Zhu Shiyao; Guo, Guangcan

    2006-01-01

    Recently Yeo and Chua [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)] presented an explicit protocol for faithfully teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state via a genuine four-qubit entanglement channel. Here we generalize completely their results to teleporting an arbitrary N-qubit state via genuine N-qubit entanglement channels. And we present the general form of the genuine multipartite entanglement channels, namely, the sufficient and necessary condition the genuine N-qubit entanglement channels must satisfy to teleport an arbitrary N-qubit state

  9. Multisetting Bell-type inequalities for detecting genuine multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Karoly F.; Vertesi, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, Bancal et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 250404 (2011)] put forward the concept of device-independent witnesses of genuine multipartite entanglement. These witnesses are capable of verifying genuine multipartite entanglement produced in a laboratory without resorting to any knowledge of the dimension of the state space or of the specific form of the measurement operators. As a by-product they found a multiparty three-setting Bell inequality which makes it possible to detect genuine n-partite entanglement in a noisy n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for visibilities as low as 2/3 in a device-independent way. In this paper, we generalize this inequality to an arbitrary number of settings, demonstrating a threshold visibility of 2/π∼0.6366 for number of settings going to infinity. We also present a pseudotelepathy Bell inequality achieving the same threshold value. We argue that our device-independent witnesses are optimal in the sense that for n odd the above value cannot be beaten with n-party-correlation Bell inequalities.

  10. Conditions for monogamy of quantum correlations in multipartite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in

    2016-09-07

    Highlights: • Monogamy of quantum correlations. • Monogamous quantum correlation measures remain so on raising of power. • Non-monogamous quantum correlations remain so on lowering of power. • Monogamy of a convex quantum correlation measure for an arbitrary multipartite pure quantum state leads to its monogamy for the mixed states. • A new monogamy inequality for quantum correlations, stronger than the standard one. - Abstract: Monogamy of quantum correlations is a vibrant area of research because of its potential applications in several areas in quantum information ranging from quantum cryptography to co-operative phenomena in many-body physics. In this paper, we investigate conditions under which monogamy is preserved for functions of quantum correlation measures. We prove that a monogamous measure remains monogamous on raising its power, and a non-monogamous measure remains non-monogamous on lowering its power. We also prove that monogamy of a convex quantum correlation measure for arbitrary multipartite pure quantum state leads to its monogamy for mixed states in the same Hilbert space. Monogamy of squared negativity for mixed states and that of entanglement of formation follow as corollaries of our results.

  11. Multipartite quantum correlations among atoms in QED cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batle, J.; Farouk, A.; Tarawneh, O.; Abdalla, S.

    2018-02-01

    We study the nonlocality dynamics for two models of atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED); the first model contains atoms in a single cavity undergoing nearest-neighbor interactions with no initial correlation, and the second contains atoms confined in n different and noninteracting cavities, all of which were initially prepared in a maximally correlated state of n qubits corresponding to the atomic degrees of freedom. The nonlocality evolution of the states in the second model shows that the corresponding maximal violation of a multipartite Bell inequality exhibits revivals at precise times, defining, nonlocality sudden deaths and nonlocality sudden rebirths, in analogy with entanglement. These quantum correlations are provided analytically for the second model to make the study more thorough. Differences in the first model regarding whether the array of atoms inside the cavity is arranged in a periodic or open fashion are crucial to the generation or redistribution of quantum correlations. This contribution paves the way to using the nonlocality multipartite correlation measure for describing the collective complex behavior displayed by slightly interacting cavity QED arrays.

  12. Multipartite entanglement in fermionic systems via a geometric measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, Behzad; Durganandini, P.; Joag, Pramod S.

    2010-01-01

    We study multipartite entanglement in a system consisting of indistinguishable fermions. Specifically, we have proposed a geometric entanglement measure for N spin-(1/2) fermions distributed over 2L modes (single-particle states). The measure is defined on the 2L qubit space isomorphic to the Fock space for 2L single-particle states. This entanglement measure is defined for a given partition of 2L modes containing m≥2 subsets. Thus this measure applies to m≤2L partite fermionic systems where L is any finite number, giving the number of sites. The Hilbert spaces associated with these subsets may have different dimensions. Further, we have defined the local quantum operations with respect to a given partition of modes. This definition is generic and unifies different ways of dividing a fermionic system into subsystems. We have shown, using a representative case, that the geometric measure is invariant under local unitary operators corresponding to a given partition. We explicitly demonstrate the use of the measure to calculate multipartite entanglement in some correlated electron systems.

  13. Method of convex rigid frames and applications in studies of multipartite quNit pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zaizhe

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we suggest a method of convex rigid frames in the studies of multipartite quNit pure states. We illustrate what the convex rigid frames are, and what is their method. As applications, we use this method to solve some basic problems and give some new results (three theorems): the problem of the partial separability of the multipartite quNit pure states and its geometric explanation; the problem of the classification of multipartite quNit pure states, giving a perfect explanation of the local unitary transformations; thirdly, we discuss the invariants of classes and give a possible physical explanation. (letter to the editor)

  14. Study on multipartite quantum states: preparation, simulation, and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszynska, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis different problems are investigated related to the description as well as the manipulation of multipartite quantum states. Because of the superposition principle, the state of a composite quantum system can be entangled, i.e. exhibit quantum correlations between the sites. The entanglement of two-qubit systems is well understood. There is only one kind of entanglement which can be directly related to the value of the Schmidt coefficients. However this is not the case for multipartite entanglement of qubit systems. Unlike in the two-qubit case, a multipartite quantum state can be entangled in many different ways, which complicates the classification and characterization of such states. The storage and manipulation of a quantum state is a challenging task because of the decoherence resulting from the interaction of the state with its environment. One way to overcome this difficulty is to use entanglement purification which will be the subject of the first part of this thesis. Entanglement purification allows to extract a small number of nearly pure states out of a bigger set of mixed states. We review existing bipartite and multipartite entanglement purification protocols and introduce new protocols which are capable of purifying any graph state, enlarging by this the class of states which can be purified. The second part deals with the preparation and distribution of high-fidelity multi-party entangled states via noisy channels and operations. In the particular case of GHZ and cluster states, we study different strategies using bipartite or multipartite purification protocols. The most efficient strategy depends on the target fidelity one wishes to achieve and on the quality of transmission channel and local operations. We show the existence of a crossing point beyond which the strategy making use of the purification of the state as a whole is more efficient than a strategy in which pairs are purified before they are connected to the final state. We

  15. Connecting Quantum Contextuality and Genuine Multipartite Nonlocality with the Quantumness Witness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xu; Su Hong-Yi; Chen Jing-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-type noncontextuality inequality and the Svetlichny inequality are derived from the Alicki-van Ryn quantumness witness. Thus connections between quantumness and quantum contextuality, and between quantumness and genuine multipartite nonlocality are established. (paper)

  16. Geometric measures of multipartite entanglement in finite-size spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, M; Dell' Anno, F; De Siena, S; Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F, E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the behaviour of multipartite entanglement in finite-size quantum spin systems, resorting to a hierarchy of geometric measures of multipartite entanglement recently introduced in the literature. In particular, we investigate the ground-state entanglement in the XY model defined on finite chains of N sites with periodic boundary conditions. We analyse the behaviour of the geometric measures of (N- 1)-partite and (N/2)-partite entanglement and compare them with the Wei-Goldbart geometric measure of global entanglement.

  17. Geometric measures of multipartite entanglement in finite-size spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M; Dell'Anno, F; De Siena, S; Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of multipartite entanglement in finite-size quantum spin systems, resorting to a hierarchy of geometric measures of multipartite entanglement recently introduced in the literature. In particular, we investigate the ground-state entanglement in the XY model defined on finite chains of N sites with periodic boundary conditions. We analyse the behaviour of the geometric measures of (N- 1)-partite and (N/2)-partite entanglement and compare them with the Wei-Goldbart geometric measure of global entanglement.

  18. Electromotive force and large-scale magnetic dynamo in a turbulent flow with a mean shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2003-09-01

    An effect of sheared large-scale motions on a mean electromotive force in a nonrotating turbulent flow of a conducting fluid is studied. It is demonstrated that in a homogeneous divergence-free turbulent flow the alpha effect does not exist, however a mean magnetic field can be generated even in a nonrotating turbulence with an imposed mean velocity shear due to a "shear-current" effect. A mean velocity shear results in an anisotropy of turbulent magnetic diffusion. A contribution to the electromotive force related to the symmetric parts of the gradient tensor of the mean magnetic field (the kappa effect) is found in nonrotating turbulent flows with a mean shear. The kappa effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion reduce the growth rate of the mean magnetic field. It is shown that a mean magnetic field can be generated when the exponent of the energy spectrum of the background turbulence (without the mean velocity shear) is less than 2. The shear-current effect was studied using two different methods: the tau approximation (the Orszag third-order closure procedure) and the stochastic calculus (the path integral representation of the solution of the induction equation, Feynman-Kac formula, and Cameron-Martin-Girsanov theorem). Astrophysical applications of the obtained results are discussed.

  19. Automating the mean-field method for large dynamic gossip networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, Rena; Endrullis, Jörg; Endrullis, Stefan; Fokkink, Wan; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    We investigate an abstraction method, called mean- field method, for the performance evaluation of dynamic net- works with pairwise communication between nodes. It allows us to evaluate systems with very large numbers of nodes, that is, systems of a size where traditional performance evaluation

  20. Formation of multipartite entanglement using random quantum gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most, Yonatan; Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer

    2007-01-01

    The formation of multipartite quantum entanglement by repeated operation of one- and two-qubit gates is examined. The resulting entanglement is evaluated using two measures: the average bipartite entanglement and the Groverian measure. A comparison is made between two geometries of the quantum register: a one-dimensional chain in which two-qubit gates apply only locally between nearest neighbors and a nonlocal geometry in which such gates may apply between any pair of qubits. More specifically, we use a combination of random single-qubit rotations and a fixed two-qubit gate such as the controlled-phase gate. It is found that in the nonlocal geometry the entanglement is generated at a higher rate. In both geometries, the Groverian measure converges to its asymptotic value more slowly than the average bipartite entanglement. These results are expected to have implications on different proposed geometries of future quantum computers with local and nonlocal interactions between the qubits

  1. Protecting nonlocality of multipartite states by feed-forward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Gang; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Nonlocality is a useful resource in quantum communication and quantum information processing. In practical quantum communication, multipartite entangled states must be distributed between different users in different places through a channel. However, the channel is usually inevitably disturbed by the environment in quantum state distribution processing and then the nonlocality of states will be weakened and even lost. In this paper, we use a feed-forward control scheme to protect the nonlocality of the Bell and GHZ states against dissipation. We find that this protection scheme is very effective, specifically, for the Bell state, we can increase the noise threshold from 0.5 to 0.98, and for GHZ state from 0.29 to 0.96. And we also find that entanglement is relatively easier to be protected than nonlocality. For our scheme, protecting entanglement is equivalent to protecting the state in the case of Bell state, while protecting nonlocality is not.

  2. Manipulating mesoscopic multipartite entanglement with atom-light interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasinska, J.; Rodo, C.; Paganelli, S.; Birkl, G.; Sanpera, A.

    2009-01-01

    Entanglement between two macroscopic atomic ensembles induced by measurement on an ancillary light system has proven to be a powerful method for engineering quantum memories and quantum state transfer. Here we investigate the feasibility of such methods for generation, manipulation, and detection of genuine multipartite entanglement (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and clusterlike states) between mesoscopic atomic ensembles without the need of individual addressing of the samples. Our results extend in a nontrivial way the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement between two macroscopic gas samples reported experimentally in [B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, and E. Polzik, Nature (London) 413, 400 (2001)]. We find that under realistic conditions, a second orthogonal light pulse interacting with the atomic samples, can modify and even reverse the entangling action of the first one leaving the samples in a separable state.

  3. Scalable Creation of Long-Lived Multipartite Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, H.; Ruster, T.; Schmiegelow, C. T.; Luda, M. A.; Kaushal, V.; Schulz, J.; von Lindenfels, D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Poschinger, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate the deterministic generation of multipartite entanglement based on scalable methods. Four qubits are encoded in 40Ca+, stored in a microstructured segmented Paul trap. These qubits are sequentially entangled by laser-driven pairwise gate operations. Between these, the qubit register is dynamically reconfigured via ion shuttling operations, where ion crystals are separated and merged, and ions are moved in and out of a fixed laser interaction zone. A sequence consisting of three pairwise entangling gates yields a four-ion Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state |ψ ⟩=(1 /√{2 })(|0000 ⟩+|1111 ⟩) , and full quantum state tomography reveals a state fidelity of 94.4(3)%. We analyze the decoherence of this state and employ dynamic decoupling on the spatially distributed constituents to maintain 69(5)% coherence at a storage time of 1.1 sec.

  4. Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    The second world to be considered concerns Meaning. In contrast to Reality and Play, this world relates to the people, disciplines, and domains that are focused on creating a certain value. For example, if this value is about providing students knowledge about physics, it involves teachers, the learning sciences, and the domains education and physics. This level goes into the aspects and criteria that designers need to take into account from this perspective. The first aspect seems obvious when we talk of “games with a serious purpose.” They have a purpose and this needs to be elaborated on, for example in terms of what “learning objectives” it attempts to achieve. The subsequent aspect is not about what is being pursued but how. To attain a value, designers have to think about a strategy that they employ. In my case this concerned looking at the learning paradigms that have come into existence in the past century and see what they have to tell us about learning. This way, their principles can be translated into a game environment. This translation involves making the strategy concrete. Or, in other words, operationalizing the plan. This is the third aspect. In this level, I will further specifically explain how I derived requirements from each of the learning paradigms, like reflection and exploration, and how they can possibly be related to games. The fourth and final aspect is the context in which the game is going to be used. It matters who uses the game and when, where, and how the game is going to be used. When designers have looked at these aspects, they have developed a “value proposal” and the worth of it may be judged by criteria, like motivation, relevance, and transfer. But before I get to this, I first go into how we human beings are meaning creators and what role assumptions, knowledge, and ambiguity have in this. I will illustrate this with some silly jokes about doctors and Mickey Mouse, and with an illusion.

  5. Evaluation of drought propagation in an ensemble mean of large-scale hydrological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Van Loon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological drought is increasingly studied using large-scale models. It is, however, not sure whether large-scale models reproduce the development of hydrological drought correctly. The pressing question is how well do large-scale models simulate the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought? To answer this question, we evaluated the simulation of drought propagation in an ensemble mean of ten large-scale models, both land-surface models and global hydrological models, that participated in the model intercomparison project of WATCH (WaterMIP. For a selection of case study areas, we studied drought characteristics (number of droughts, duration, severity, drought propagation features (pooling, attenuation, lag, lengthening, and hydrological drought typology (classical rainfall deficit drought, rain-to-snow-season drought, wet-to-dry-season drought, cold snow season drought, warm snow season drought, composite drought.

    Drought characteristics simulated by large-scale models clearly reflected drought propagation; i.e. drought events became fewer and longer when moving through the hydrological cycle. However, more differentiation was expected between fast and slowly responding systems, with slowly responding systems having fewer and longer droughts in runoff than fast responding systems. This was not found using large-scale models. Drought propagation features were poorly reproduced by the large-scale models, because runoff reacted immediately to precipitation, in all case study areas. This fast reaction to precipitation, even in cold climates in winter and in semi-arid climates in summer, also greatly influenced the hydrological drought typology as identified by the large-scale models. In general, the large-scale models had the correct representation of drought types, but the percentages of occurrence had some important mismatches, e.g. an overestimation of classical rainfall deficit droughts, and an

  6. Reduction of multipartite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes and criteria of partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Zai-Zhe

    2004-01-01

    The partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes is strictly defined. We give a reduction way from N-partite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes, and prove a necessary condition that a N-partite qubit density matrix to be partially separable is its reduced density matrix to satisfy PPT condition.

  7. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering swapping between two Gaussian multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihong; Qin, Zhongzhong; Wang, Yu; Su, Xiaolong

    2017-08-01

    Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a useful quantum resource for quantum communication in quantum networks. It has potential applications in secure quantum communication, such as one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing. By distributing optical modes of a multipartite entangled state to space-separated quantum nodes, a local quantum network can be established. Based on the existing multipartite EPR steering in a local quantum network, secure quantum communication protocol can be accomplished. In this manuscript, we present swapping schemes for EPR steering between two space-separated Gaussian multipartite entangled states, which can be used to connect two space-separated quantum networks. Two swapping schemes, including the swapping between a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state and an EPR entangled state and that between two tripartite GHZ entangled states, are analyzed. Various types of EPR steering are presented after the swapping of two space-separated independent multipartite entanglement states without direct interaction, which can be used to implement quantum communication between two quantum networks. The presented schemes provide technical reference for more complicated quantum networks with EPR steering.

  8. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the large helical device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation, the polychromator monitors second harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz). At sufficient high density, the second harmonic X-mode polarisation is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarisation. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarisation was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarisation rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarisation rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator

  9. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the Large Helical Device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation the polychromator monitors 2nd harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz) with a spectral resolution of 1.5 GHz. At sufficient high density the 2nd harmonic X-mode polarization is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarization. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarization was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarization rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarization rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator. (author)

  10. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the Large Helical Device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation the polychromator monitors 2nd harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz) with a spectral resolution of 1.5 GHz. At sufficient high density the 2nd harmonic X-mode polarization is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarization. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarization was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarization rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarization rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator. (author)

  11. Nonlocality and Multipartite Entanglement in Asymptotically Flat Space-Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Shahpoor; Amiri, Firouz

    2016-01-01

    We study the Bell's inequality and multipartite entanglement generation for initially maximally entangled states of free Dirac field in a non inertial frame and asymptotically flat Robertson–Walker space-time. For two qubit case, we show that the Bell's inequality always is violated as measured by the accelerated observers which are in the causally connected regions. On the other hand, for those observers in the causally disconnected regions inequality is not violated for any values of acceleration. The generated three qubit state from two qubit state due to acceleration of one parties has a zero 3-tangle. For a three qubit state, the inequality violated for measurements done by both causally connected and disconnected observers. Initially GHZ state with non zero 3-tangle, in accelerated frame, transformed to a four qubit state with vanishing 4-tangle value. On the other hand, for a W-state with zero 3-tangle, in non inertial frame, transformed to a four qubit state with a non-zero 4-tangle acceleration dependent. In an expanding space-time with asymptotically flat regions, for an initially maximally entangled state, the maximum value of violation of Bell's inequality in the far past decreased in the far future due to cosmological particle creation. For some initially maximally entangled states, the generated four qubit state due to expansion of space-time, has non vanishing 4-tangle. (paper)

  12. Separability problem for multipartite states of rank at most 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Đoković, Dragomir Ž

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important problems in quantum information is the separability problem, which asks whether a given quantum state is separable. We investigate multipartite states of rank at most 4 which are PPT (i.e., all their partial transposes are positive semidefinite). We show that any PPT state of rank 2 or 3 is separable and has length at most 4. For separable states of rank 4, we show that they have length at most 6. It is six only for some qubit–qutrit or multiqubit states. It turns out that any PPT entangled state of rank 4 is necessarily supported on a 3⊗3 or a 2⊗2⊗2 subsystem. We obtain a very simple criterion for the separability problem of the PPT states of rank at most 4: such a state is entangled if and only if its range contains no product vectors. This criterion can be easily applied since a four-dimensional subspace in the 3⊗3 or 2⊗2⊗2 system contains a product vector if and only if its Plücker coordinates satisfy a homogeneous polynomial equation (the Chow form of the corresponding Segre variety). We have computed an explicit determinantal expression for the Chow form in the former case, while such an expression was already known in the latter case. (paper)

  13. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  14. Simple schemes for generation of W-type multipartite entangled states and realization of quantum-information concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng-Yu, Zhang; Shi-Qing, Tang; Li-Jun, Xie; Xiao-Gui, Zhan; Yin-Hua, Chen; Feng, Gao

    2010-01-01

    We propose simple schemes for generating W-type multipartite entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED). Our schemes involve a largely detuned interaction of Λ-type three-level atoms with a single-mode cavity field and a classical laser, and both the symmetric and asymmetric W states can be created in a single step. Our schemes are insensitive to both the cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission. With the above system, we also propose a scheme for realizing quantum-information concentration which is the reverse process of quantum cloning. In this scheme, quantum-information originally coming from a single qubit, but now distributed into many qubits, is concentrated back to a single qubit in only one step. (general)

  15. Quantum renormalization group approach to quantum coherence and multipartite entanglement in an XXZ spin chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193 (China); Xu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: xujb@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-01-30

    We investigate the performances of quantum coherence and multipartite entanglement close to the quantum critical point of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin-1/2 XXZ spin chain by employing the real-space quantum renormalization group approach. It is shown that the quantum criticality of XXZ spin chain can be revealed by the singular behaviors of the first derivatives of renormalized quantum coherence and multipartite entanglement in the thermodynamics limit. Moreover, we find the renormalized quantum coherence and multipartite entanglement obey certain universal exponential-type scaling laws in the vicinity of the quantum critical point of XXZ spin chain. - Highlights: • The QPT of XXZ chain is studied by renormalization group. • The renormalized coherence and multiparticle entanglement is investigated. • Scaling laws of renormalized coherence and multiparticle entanglement are revealed.

  16. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-01-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl–Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states. -- Highlights: ► Pairwise quantum correlations multipartite coherent states. ► Explicit expression of geometric quantum discord. ► Entanglement sudden death and quantum discord robustness. ► Generalized coherent states interpolating between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states

  17. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, M., E-mail: m_daoud@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University Ibnou Zohr, Agadir (Morocco); Ahl Laamara, R., E-mail: ahllaamara@gmail.com [LPHE-Modeling and Simulation, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Centre of Physics and Mathematics, CPM, CNESTEN, Rabat (Morocco)

    2012-07-16

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl–Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states. -- Highlights: ► Pairwise quantum correlations multipartite coherent states. ► Explicit expression of geometric quantum discord. ► Entanglement sudden death and quantum discord robustness. ► Generalized coherent states interpolating between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states.

  18. Collective multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering: more secure optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; He, Qiongyi

    2014-12-01

    Collective multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a type of quantum correlation shared among N parties, where the EPR paradox of one party can only be realized by performing local measurements on all the remaining N-1 parties. We formalize the collective tripartite steering in terms of local hidden state model and give the steering inequalities that act as signatures and suggest how to optimize collective tripartite steering in specific optical schemes. The special entangled states with property of collective multipartite steering may have potential applications in ultra-secure multiuser communication networks where the issue of trust is critical.

  19. Strong monogamy of bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: the Gaussian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-12

    We demonstrate the existence of general constraints on distributed quantum correlations, which impose a trade-off on bipartite and multipartite entanglement at once. For all N-mode Gaussian states under permutation invariance, we establish exactly a monogamy inequality, stronger than the traditional one, that by recursion defines a proper measure of genuine N-partite entanglement. Strong monogamy holds as well for subsystems of arbitrary size, and the emerging multipartite entanglement measure is found to be scale invariant. We unveil its operational connection with the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation networks.

  20. Analysis of dislocation loops by means of large-angle convergent beam electron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, C; Morniroli, J P; Jäger, W

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion-induced dislocation loops in GaP and GaAs were analysed by means of large-angle convergent beam electron diffraction (LACBED) and conventional contrast methods of transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that LACBED is perfectly suited for use in analysing dislocation loops. The method combines analyses of the dislocation-induced splitting of Bragg lines in a LACBED pattern for the determination of the Burgers vector with analyses of the loop contrast behaviour in transmission electron microscopy bright-field images during tilt experiments, from which the habit plane of the dislocation loop is determined. Perfect dislocation loops formed by condensation of interstitial atoms or vacancies were found, depending on the diffusion conditions. The loops possess left brace 110 right brace-habit planes and Burgers vectors parallel to (110). The LACBED method findings are compared with results of contrast analyses based on the so-called 'inside-outside' contrast of dislocation loops. Advantages o...

  1. Elementary methods for statistical systems, mean field, large-n, and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzykson, C.

    1983-01-01

    Renormalizable field theories are singled out by such precise restraints that regularization schemes must be used to break these invariances. Statistical methods can be adapted to these problems where asymptotically free models fail. This lecture surveys approximation schemes developed in the context of statistical mechanics. The confluence point of statistical mechanics and field theory is the use of discretized path integrals, where continuous space time has been replaced by a regular lattice. Dynamic variables, a Boltzman weight factor, and boundary conditions are the ingredients. Mean field approximations --field equations, Random field transform, and gauge invariant systems--are surveyed. Under Large-N limits vector models are found to simplify tremendously. The reasons why matrix models drawn from SU (n) gauge theories do not simplify are discussed. In the epilogue, random curves versus random surfaces are offered as an example where global and local symmetries are not alike

  2. Discriminative Hierarchical K-Means Tree for Large-Scale Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shizhi; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, Yingli

    2015-09-01

    A key challenge in large-scale image classification is how to achieve efficiency in terms of both computation and memory without compromising classification accuracy. The learning-based classifiers achieve the state-of-the-art accuracies, but have been criticized for the computational complexity that grows linearly with the number of classes. The nonparametric nearest neighbor (NN)-based classifiers naturally handle large numbers of categories, but incur prohibitively expensive computation and memory costs. In this brief, we present a novel classification scheme, i.e., discriminative hierarchical K-means tree (D-HKTree), which combines the advantages of both learning-based and NN-based classifiers. The complexity of the D-HKTree only grows sublinearly with the number of categories, which is much better than the recent hierarchical support vector machines-based methods. The memory requirement is the order of magnitude less than the recent Naïve Bayesian NN-based approaches. The proposed D-HKTree classification scheme is evaluated on several challenging benchmark databases and achieves the state-of-the-art accuracies, while with significantly lower computation cost and memory requirement.

  3. Mean time for the development of large workloads and large queue lengths in the GI/G/1 queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Knessl

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the GI/G/1 queue described by either the workload U(t (unfinished work or the number of customers N(t in the system. We compute the mean time until U(t reaches excess of the level K, and also the mean time until N(t reaches N0. For the M/G/1 and GI/M/1 models, we obtain exact contour integral representations for these mean first passage times. We then compute the mean times asymptotically, as K and N0→∞, by evaluating these contour integrals. For the general GI/G/1 model, we obtain asymptotic results by a singular perturbation analysis of the appropriate backward Kolmogorov equation(s. Numerical comparisons show that the asymptotic formulas are very accurate even for moderate values of K and N0.

  4. Multipartite entanglement gambling: The power of asymptotic state transformations assisted by a sublinear amount of quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish V.; Smolin, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Reversible state transformations under entanglement nonincreasing operations give rise to entanglement measures. It is well known that asymptotic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are required to get a simple operational measure of bipartite pure state entanglement. For bipartite mixed states and multipartite pure states it is likely that a more powerful class of operations will be needed. To this end more powerful versions of state transformations (or reducibilities), namely, LOCCq (asymptotic LOCC with a sublinear amount of quantum communication) and CLOCC (asymptotic LOCC with catalysis) have been considered in the literature. In this paper we show that LOCCq state transformations are only as powerful as asymptotic LOCC state transformations for multipartite pure states. The basic tool we use is multipartite entanglement gambling: Any pure multipartite entangled state can be transformed to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair shared by some pair of parties and any irreducible m-party pure state (m≥2) can be used to create any other state (pure or mixed) using LOCC. We consider applications of multipartite entanglement gambling to multipartite distillability and to characterizations of multipartite minimal entanglement generating sets. We briefly consider generalizations of this result to mixed states by defining the class of cat-distillable states, i.e., states from which cat states (vertical bar 0 xm >+vertical bar 1 xm >) may be distilled

  5. Effective diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease by means of large margin-based methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Rosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional brain images such as Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT and Positron Emission Tomography (PET have been widely used to guide the clinicians in the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD diagnosis. However, the subjectivity involved in their evaluation has favoured the development of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD Systems. Methods It is proposed a novel combination of feature extraction techniques to improve the diagnosis of AD. Firstly, Regions of Interest (ROIs are selected by means of a t-test carried out on 3D Normalised Mean Square Error (NMSE features restricted to be located within a predefined brain activation mask. In order to address the small sample-size problem, the dimension of the feature space was further reduced by: Large Margin Nearest Neighbours using a rectangular matrix (LMNN-RECT, Principal Component Analysis (PCA or Partial Least Squares (PLS (the two latter also analysed with a LMNN transformation. Regarding the classifiers, kernel Support Vector Machines (SVMs and LMNN using Euclidean, Mahalanobis and Energy-based metrics were compared. Results Several experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the proposed LMNN-based feature extraction algorithms and its benefits as: i linear transformation of the PLS or PCA reduced data, ii feature reduction technique, and iii classifier (with Euclidean, Mahalanobis or Energy-based methodology. The system was evaluated by means of k-fold cross-validation yielding accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of 92.78%, 91.07% and 95.12% (for SPECT and 90.67%, 88% and 93.33% (for PET, respectively, when a NMSE-PLS-LMNN feature extraction method was used in combination with a SVM classifier, thus outperforming recently reported baseline methods. Conclusions All the proposed methods turned out to be a valid solution for the presented problem. One of the advances is the robustness of the LMNN algorithm that not only provides higher separation rate between

  6. Analysis of dislocation loops by means of large-angle convergent beam electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Ch; Spiecker, E; Morniroli, J P; Jaeger, W

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion-induced dislocation loops in GaP and GaAs were analysed by means of large-angle convergent beam electron diffraction (LACBED) and conventional contrast methods of transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that LACBED is perfectly suited for use in analysing dislocation loops. The method combines analyses of the dislocation-induced splitting of Bragg lines in a LACBED pattern for the determination of the Burgers vector with analyses of the loop contrast behaviour in transmission electron microscopy bright-field images during tilt experiments, from which the habit plane of the dislocation loop is determined. Perfect dislocation loops formed by condensation of interstitial atoms or vacancies were found, depending on the diffusion conditions. The loops possess {110}-habit planes and Burgers vectors parallel to (110). The LACBED method findings are compared with results of contrast analyses based on the so-called 'inside-outside' contrast of dislocation loops. Advantages of the LACBED method consist in the possibility of determining the complete Burgers vector of the dislocation loops and of an unambiguous and fast loop type analysis

  7. Controllability of multi-partite quantum systems and selective excitation of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S G; Pullen, I C H; Solomon, A I

    2005-01-01

    We consider the degrees of controllability of multi-partite quantum systems, as well as necessary and sufficient criteria for each case. The results are applied to the problem of simultaneous control of an ensemble of quantum dots with a single laser pulse. Finally, we apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate selective excitation of individual dots for a simultaneously controllable ensemble of quantum dots

  8. Improved Multipartite Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol Using Preshared Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Deng; Ye Mingyong; Li Xinghua

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the protocol presented by Bagherinezhad and Karimipour [Phys. Rev. A 67 (2003) 044302], which will be shown to be insecure, we present a multipartite quantum secret sharing protocol using reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. This protocol is robust against eavesdropping and could be used for the circumstance of many parties. (general)

  9. Genuinely Multipartite Concurrence of N-qubit X Matrices (Author’s Final Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    Horne- Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We study the case when each qubit interacts with a local amplitude damping channel. It is shown that only one type of GHZ...multipartite entanglement that is simple to calculate. Only for Greenberger-Horne- Zeilinger (GHZ) states that undergo pure dephasing, has there been a

  10. Inter-replicon Gene Flow Contributes to Transcriptional Integration in the Sinorhizobium meliloti Multipartite Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. diCenzo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of newly acquired genes into existing regulatory networks is necessary for successful horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Ten percent of bacterial species contain at least two DNA replicons over 300 kilobases in size, with the secondary replicons derived predominately through HGT. The Sinorhizobium meliloti genome is split between a 3.7 Mb chromosome, a 1.7 Mb chromid consisting largely of genes acquired through ancient HGT, and a 1.4 Mb megaplasmid consisting primarily of recently acquired genes. Here, RNA-sequencing is used to examine the transcriptional consequences of massive, synthetic genome reduction produced through the removal of the megaplasmid and/or the chromid. Removal of the pSymA megaplasmid influenced the transcription of only six genes. In contrast, removal of the chromid influenced expression of ∼8% of chromosomal genes and ∼4% of megaplasmid genes. This was mediated in part by the loss of the ETR DNA region whose presence on pSymB is due to a translocation from the chromosome. No obvious functional bias among the up-regulated genes was detected, although genes with putative homologs on the chromid were enriched. Down-regulated genes were enriched in motility and sensory transduction pathways. Four transcripts were examined further, and in each case the transcriptional change could be traced to loss of specific pSymB regions. In particularly, a chromosomal transporter was induced due to deletion of bdhA likely mediated through 3-hydroxybutyrate accumulation. These data provide new insights into the evolution of the multipartite bacterial genome, and more generally into the integration of horizontally acquired genes into the transcriptome.

  11. Inter-replicon Gene Flow Contributes to Transcriptional Integration in the Sinorhizobium meliloti Multipartite Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Wellappili, Deelaka; Golding, G Brian; Finan, Turlough M

    2018-05-04

    Integration of newly acquired genes into existing regulatory networks is necessary for successful horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Ten percent of bacterial species contain at least two DNA replicons over 300 kilobases in size, with the secondary replicons derived predominately through HGT. The Sinorhizobium meliloti genome is split between a 3.7 Mb chromosome, a 1.7 Mb chromid consisting largely of genes acquired through ancient HGT, and a 1.4 Mb megaplasmid consisting primarily of recently acquired genes. Here, RNA-sequencing is used to examine the transcriptional consequences of massive, synthetic genome reduction produced through the removal of the megaplasmid and/or the chromid. Removal of the pSymA megaplasmid influenced the transcription of only six genes. In contrast, removal of the chromid influenced expression of ∼8% of chromosomal genes and ∼4% of megaplasmid genes. This was mediated in part by the loss of the ETR DNA region whose presence on pSymB is due to a translocation from the chromosome. No obvious functional bias among the up-regulated genes was detected, although genes with putative homologs on the chromid were enriched. Down-regulated genes were enriched in motility and sensory transduction pathways. Four transcripts were examined further, and in each case the transcriptional change could be traced to loss of specific pSymB regions. In particularly, a chromosomal transporter was induced due to deletion of bdhA likely mediated through 3-hydroxybutyrate accumulation. These data provide new insights into the evolution of the multipartite bacterial genome, and more generally into the integration of horizontally acquired genes into the transcriptome. Copyright © 2018 diCenzo, et al.

  12. Evaluation of drought propagation in an ensemble mean of large-scale hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van A.F.; Huijgevoort, van M.H.J.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrological drought is increasingly studied using large-scale models. It is, however, not sure whether large-scale models reproduce the development of hydrological drought correctly. The pressing question is how well do large-scale models simulate the propagation from meteorological to hydrological

  13. Generation of large-scale vorticity in rotating stratified turbulence with inhomogeneous helicity: mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeorin, N.

    2018-06-01

    We discuss a mean-field theory of the generation of large-scale vorticity in a rotating density stratified developed turbulence with inhomogeneous kinetic helicity. We show that the large-scale non-uniform flow is produced due to either a combined action of a density stratified rotating turbulence and uniform kinetic helicity or a combined effect of a rotating incompressible turbulence and inhomogeneous kinetic helicity. These effects result in the formation of a large-scale shear, and in turn its interaction with the small-scale turbulence causes an excitation of the large-scale instability (known as a vorticity dynamo) due to a combined effect of the large-scale shear and Reynolds stress-induced generation of the mean vorticity. The latter is due to the effect of large-scale shear on the Reynolds stress. A fast rotation suppresses this large-scale instability.

  14. Scheme for Teleportation of a Multipartite Quantum State by Using a Single Entangled Pair as Quantum Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Wen; WANG Zhi-Yong; XIA Li-Xin

    2007-01-01

    We present a theoretical scheme for perfect teleportation of an unknown multipartite two-level state by a single EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) pair,and then generalize it to multilevel,i.e.,an N-quNit state can be teleported by a single quNit entangled pair,with additional local unitary operations.The feature of the scheme is that teleporting a multipartite state with a reduced amount of entanglement costs less classical bits.

  15. Fault structure analysis by means of large deformation simulator; Daihenkei simulator ni yoru danso kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y.; Shi, B. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Large deformation of the crust is generated by relatively large displacement of the mediums on both sides along a fault. In the conventional finite element method, faults are dealt with by special elements which are called joint elements, but joint elements, elements microscopic in width, generate numerical instability if large shear displacement is given. Therefore, by introducing the master slave (MO) method used for contact analysis in the metal processing field, developed was a large deformation simulator for analyzing diastrophism including large displacement along the fault. Analysis examples were shown in case the upper basement and lower basement were relatively dislocated with the fault as a boundary. The bottom surface and right end boundary of the lower basement are fixed boundaries. The left end boundary of the lower basement is fixed, and to the left end boundary of the upper basement, the horizontal speed, 3{times}10{sup -7}m/s, was given. In accordance with the horizontal movement of the upper basement, the boundary surface largely deformed. Stress is almost at right angles at the boundary surface. As to the analysis of faults by the MO method, it has been used for a single simple fault, but should be spread to lots of faults in the future. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Koning, Jos

    2013-01-01

    to ship-wave interactions in a seaway. In the paper, sea state estimates are produced by three means: the wave buoy analogy, relying on shipboard response measurements, a wave radar system, and a system providing the instantaneous wave height. The presented results show that for the given data, recorded...

  17. Managing more than the mean: Using quantile regression to identify factors related to large elk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela K.; Cross, Paul C.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animal group size distributions are often right-skewed, whereby most groups are small, but most individuals occur in larger groups that may also disproportionately affect ecology and policy. In this case, examining covariates associated with upper quantiles of the group size distribution could facilitate better understanding and management of large animal groups.

  18. Functional differential equation approach to the large N expansion and mean field perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Cooper, F.

    1985-01-01

    An apparent difference between formulating mean field perturbation theory for lambdaphi 4 field theory via path integrals or via functional differential equations when there are external sources present is shown not to exist when mean field theory is considered as the N = 1 limit of the 0(N)lambdaphi 4 field theory. A simply method is given for determining the 1/N expansion for the Green's functions in the presence of external sources by directly solving the functional differential equations order by order in 1/N. The 1/N expansion for the effective action GAMMA(phi,chi) is obtained by directly integrating the functional differential equations for the fields phi and chi (equivalent1/2lambda/Nphi/sub α/phi/sup α/-μ 2 ) in the presence of two external sources j = -deltaGAMMA/deltaphi, S = -deltaGAMMA/deltachi

  19. Controlled teleportation of a multipartite quantum state via driven QED cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Haijing; Song Heshan

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting a multipartite quantum state via driven QED cavity technologies. The combined state of Bell states is employed as a quantum channel. By adopting QED cavity technologies, our scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurements and can be perfectly realized by communicators' single particle measurements, possible C-not transformation and classical communication. The probability of successful teleportation can reach 1.0. The theoretical scheme is experimentally feasible via current technologies

  20. Continuous multipartite entangled state in Wigner representation and violation of the Zukowski-Brukner inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chunfeng; Chen Jingling; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.; Xue Kang

    2005-01-01

    We construct an explicit Wigner function for the N-mode squeezed state. Based on a previous observation that the Wigner function describes correlations in the joint measurement of the phase-space displaced parity operator, we investigate the nonlocality of the multipartite entangled state by the violation of the Zukowski-Brukner N-qubit Bell inequality. We find that quantum predictions for such a squeezed state violate these inequalities by an amount that grows with the number N

  1. A test of the mean density approximation for Lennard-Jones mixtures with large size ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The mean density approximation for mixture radial distribution functions plays a central role in modern corresponding-states theories. This approximation is reasonably accurate for systems that do not differ widely in size and energy ratios and which are nearly equimolar. As the size ratio increases, however, or if one approaches an infinite dilution of one of the components, the approximation becomes progressively worse, especially for the small molecule pair. In an attempt to better understand and improve this approximation, isothermal molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on a series of Lennard-Jones mixtures. Thermodynamic properties, including the mixture radial distribution functions, have been obtained at seven compositions ranging from 5 to 95 mol%. In all cases the size ratio was fixed at two and three energy ratios were investigated, 22 / 11 =0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. The results of the simulations are compared with the mean density approximation and a modification to integrals evaluated with the mean density approximation is proposed

  2. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  3. Large Scale Hierarchical K-Means Based Image Retrieval With MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    flat vocabulary on MapReduce. In 2013, Moise and Shestakov [32, 40], have been researching large scale indexing and search with MapReduce. They...time will be greatly reduced, however image retrieval performance will almost certainly suffer. Moise and Shestakov ran tests with 100M images on 108...43–72, 2005. [32] Diana Moise , Denis Shestakov, Gylfi Gudmundsson, and Laurent Amsaleg. Indexing and searching 100m images with map-reduce. In

  4. Translationally invariant multipartite Bell inequalities involving only two-body correlators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tura, J; B Sainz, A; Acín, A; Lewenstein, M; Augusiak, R; Vértesi, T

    2014-01-01

    Bell inequalities are natural tools that allow one to certify the presence of nonlocality in quantum systems. The known constructions of multipartite Bell inequalities contain, however, correlation functions involving all observers, making their experimental implementation difficult. The main purpose of this work is to explore the possibility of witnessing nonlocality in multipartite quantum states from the easiest-to-measure quantities, that is, the two-body correlations. In particular, we determine all three- and four-partite Bell inequalities constructed from one- and two-body expectation values that obey translational symmetry, and show that they reveal nonlocality in multipartite states. Also, by providing a particular example of a five-partite Bell inequality, we show that nonlocality can be detected from two-body correlators involving only nearest neighbours. Finally, we demonstrate that any translationally invariant Bell inequality can be maximally violated by a translationally invariant state and the same set of observables at all sites. We provide a numerical algorithm allowing one to seek for maximal violation of a translationally invariant Bell inequality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  5. Quantum states and their marginals. From multipartite entanglement to quantum error-correcting codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Felix Michael

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of the curious phenomenon of quantum entanglement lies the relation between the whole and its parts. In my thesis, I explore different aspects of this theme in the multipartite setting by drawing connections to concepts from statistics, graph theory, and quantum error-correcting codes: first, I address the case when joint quantum states are determined by their few-body parts and by Jaynes' maximum entropy principle. This can be seen as an extension of the notion of entanglement, with less complex states already being determined by their few-body marginals. Second, I address the conditions for certain highly entangled multipartite states to exist. In particular, I present the solution of a long-standing open problem concerning the existence of an absolutely maximally entangled state on seven qubits. This sheds light on the algebraic properties of pure quantum states, and on the conditions that constrain the sharing of entanglement amongst multiple particles. Third, I investigate Ulam's graph reconstruction problems in the quantum setting, and obtain legitimacy conditions of a set of states to be the reductions of a joint graph state. Lastly, I apply and extend the weight enumerator machinery from quantum error correction to investigate the existence of codes and highly entangled states in higher dimensions. This clarifies the physical interpretation of the weight enumerators and of the quantum MacWilliams identity, leading to novel applications in multipartite entanglement.

  6. Improving Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Multipartite Quantum Communication with Optical Amplifiers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Wei; Li, Fei; Huang, Duan; Liao, Qin; Xie, Cai-Lang

    2017-08-01

    The developing tendency of continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is to cope with the practical issue of implementing scalable quantum networks. Up to now, most theoretical and experimental researches on CV-MDI QKD are focused on two-party protocols. However, we suggest a CV-MDI multipartite quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol use the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. More remarkable, QSS is the real application in multipartite CV-MDI QKD, in other words, is the concrete implementation method of multipartite CV-MDI QKD. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, under which the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Even if there is a possibility that the relay may be completely tampered, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Additionally, we illustrate that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the partial inherent imperfections of detectors and increase the transmission distance of the CV-MDI quantum system.

  7. Large Deviations and Quasipotential for Finite State Mean Field Interacting Particle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The conclusion then follows by applying Lemma 4.4.2. 132 119 4.4.1 Iterative solver: The widest neighborhood structure We employ Gauss - Seidel ...nearest neighborhood structure described in Section 4.4.2. We use Gauss - Seidel iterative method for our numerical experiments. The Gauss - Seidel ...x ∈ Bh, M x ∈ Sh\\Bh, where M ∈ (V,∞) is a very large number, so that the iteration (4.5.1) converges quickly. For simplicity, we restrict our

  8. Investigations on efficiency of the emergency cooling by means of large-scale tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The RSK guidelines contain the maximum permissible loads (max. cladding tube temperature 1200 0 C, max. Zr/H 2 O-reaction of 1% Zr). Their observance implies that only a small number of fuel rods fail. The safety research has to produce the evidence that the limiting loads are not exceeded. The analytical investigations on the emergency cooling behaviour could so far only be verified in scaled-down test facilities. After about 100 tests in four different large-scale test facilities the experimental investigations on the blow-down phase for large cracks are finished in the main. With the refill- and flood process the systems behaviour in scaled down test stands, the multidimensional conditions in the reactor pressure vessel can, however, only be simulated on the original scale. More experiments are planned as part of the 2D/3D-project (CCTF , SCTF, UPTF) and as part of the PKL-tests, so that more than 200 tests in seven plants will be available then. As to the small cracks the physical phenomena are known. The current investigations are used to increase the reliability of statement. After their being finished approximately 300 tests in seven plants will be available. (orig./HP) [de

  9. FACTS for grid integration of large offshore wind farms by means of AC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbaum, Rolf; Halvarsson, Per

    2007-07-01

    The dominating kind of wind power is asynchronous, this since it is robust and cost effective. Induction generators, however, do not contribute to regulation of grid voltage, and they are substantial absorbers of reactive power. The reactive power balance of asynchronous generators can be improved to a certain extent by use of the doubly-fed rotor concept. To keep this technology within reasonable cost margins, however, rotor converter ratings must be kept limited to steady-state requirements only. During transient occurrencies in the grid, the performance of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) may well prove inadequate to safeguard primarily voltage stability of the grid. Here, dynamic reactive power compensation plays an important role in supporting DFIG. FACTS applied at the grid connection point can support the voltage during steady-state conditions as well as upon clearing of grid faults. The utilization of SVC and STATCOM for these purposes are discussed in in the paper. Furthermore, energy storage devices are treated, as a coming means for improving active power balance in grids fed by wind power. (auth)

  10. Genuine multipartite entanglement of symmetric Gaussian states: Strong monogamy, unitary localization, scaling behavior, and molecular sharing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the structural aspects of genuine multipartite entanglement in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. Generalizing the results of Adesso and Illuminati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150501 (2007)], we analyze whether the entanglement shared by blocks of modes distributes according to a strong monogamy law. This property, once established, allows us to quantify the genuine N -partite entanglement not encoded into 2,…,K,…,(N-1) -partite quantum correlations. Strong monogamy is numerically verified, and the explicit expression of the measure of residual genuine multipartite entanglement is analytically derived, by a recursive formula, for a subclass of Gaussian states. These are fully symmetric (permutation-invariant) states that are multipartitioned into blocks, each consisting of an arbitrarily assigned number of modes. We compute the genuine multipartite entanglement shared by the blocks of modes and investigate its scaling properties with the number and size of the blocks, the total number of modes, the global mixedness of the state, and the squeezed resources needed for state engineering. To achieve the exact computation of the block entanglement, we introduce and prove a general result of symplectic analysis: Correlations among K blocks in N -mode multisymmetric and multipartite Gaussian states, which are locally invariant under permutation of modes within each block, can be transformed by a local (with respect to the partition) unitary operation into correlations shared by K single modes, one per block, in effective nonsymmetric states where N-K modes are completely uncorrelated. Due to this theorem, the above results, such as the derivation of the explicit expression for the residual multipartite entanglement, its nonnegativity, and its scaling properties, extend to the subclass of non-symmetric Gaussian states that are obtained by the unitary localization of the multipartite entanglement of symmetric states. These findings provide strong

  11. Possible means to manage and store the BKAB RPV and other Swedish large radioactive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    calculations show that it is fully acceptable for managing RPVs as single pieces, including RVIs, from Barsebaeck to the final disposal at the SFR or SFL facilities. Regarding nuclear waste, an inventory must be drawn of all nuclear waste within the site of a facility. All nuclear waste that is handled, processed, stored or disposed of at the facility must be confined safely. SKB and the nuclear industry have intensified their efforts to review various options for handling and disposal of large components in order to bring substantial savings not only in dismantling time, but also in dose uptakes for the decommissioning staff. As Barsebaeck NPP, the Swedish nuclear industry and SKB have agreed to present a proposal to the SKB Management Board in early 2010 with a view to extending tunnels and caverns in the SFR facility and preparing for ability to manage whole RPVs. The Ringhals NPPs are owned by Vattenfall AB, with 3 PWRs and 1 BWR. SGs were replaced in two of the PWRs (three from each unit), in 1989 and 1995. Retired SGs are considered as waste, which normally is stored temporarily on site pending transport for final disposal or off-site treatment. The Ringhals SGs were replaced in two of the PWRs (three from each unit), in 1989 and 1995. Retired SGs are considered as waste, which normally is stored temporarily on site pending transport for final disposal or off-site treatment. Each SG weighs about 310 t and measures 21 m in length by 5.5 m in diameter; it requires a storage volume of 400 m3. With a volume reduction over 90 per cent, less than 40 m3 will be stored at the SFR or SFL Facility for short-lived or long-lived waste, respectively. Three SGs have been treated in Studsvik facilities from 2006 to 2009. Three other SGs have been delivered to Studsvik with a roll-on/roll-off ship M/S Electron with the capability to take all three SGs on board. Those three SGs have been treated since 2010. Other large components have been sent to Studsvik as whole pieces for scrap

  12. Big Jump of Record Warm Global Mean Surface Temperature in 2014-2016 Related to Unusually Large Oceanic Heat Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianjun; Overpeck, Jonathan; Peyser, Cheryl; Stouffer, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    A 0.24°C jump of record warm global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the past three consecutive record-breaking years (2014-2016) was highly unusual and largely a consequence of an El Niño that released unusually large amounts of ocean heat from the subsurface layer of the northwestern tropical Pacific. This heat had built up since the 1990s mainly due to greenhouse-gas (GHG) forcing and possible remote oceanic effects. Model simulations and projections suggest that the fundamental cause, and robust predictor of large record-breaking events of GMST in the 21st century, is GHG forcing rather than internal climate variability alone. Such events will increase in frequency, magnitude, and duration, as well as impact, in the future unless GHG forcing is reduced.

  13. A multipartite mitochondrial genome in the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M R; Blok, V C; Phillips, M S

    2000-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of the plant parasitic nematode Globodera pallida exists as a population of small, circular DNAs that, taken individually, are of insufficient length to encode the typical metazoan mitochondrial gene complement. As far as we are aware, this unusual structural organization is unique among higher metazoans, although interesting comparisons can be made with the multipartite mitochondrial genome organizations of plants and fungi. The variation in frequency between populations displayed by some components of the mtDNA is likely to have major implications for the way in which mtDNA can be used in population and evolutionary genetic studies of G. pallida.

  14. Physical model for the generation of ideal resources in multipartite quantum networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarello, F.; Zarcone, M.; Paternostro, M.; Bose, S.; Browne, D. E.; Palma, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a physical model for generating multipartite entangled states of spin-s particles that have important applications in distributed quantum information processing. Our protocol is based on a process where mobile spins induce the interaction among remote scattering centers. As such, a major advantage lies in the management of stationary and well-separated spins. Among the generable states, there is a class of N-qubit singlets allowing for optimal quantum telecloning in a scalable and controllable way. We also show how to prepare Aharonov, W, and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  15. Maternal intrusiveness, family financial means, and anxiety across childhood in a large multiphase sample of community youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive parenting has been positively associated with child anxiety, although examinations of this relationship to date have been largely confined to middle to upper middle class families and have rarely used longitudinal designs. With several leading interventions for child anxiety emphasizing the reduction of parental intrusiveness, it is critical to determine whether the links between parental intrusiveness and child anxiety broadly apply to families of all financial means, and whether parental intrusiveness prospectively predicts the development of child anxiety. This study employed latent growth curve analysis to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal intrusiveness and financial means on the developmental trajectory of child anxiety from 1st grade to age 15 in 1,121 children (50.7% male) and their parents from the NICHD SECCYD. The overall model was found to provide good fit, revealing that early maternal intrusiveness and financial means did not impact individual trajectories of change in child anxiety, which were stable from 1st to 5th grade, and then decrease from 5th grade to age 15. Cross-sectional analyses also examined whether family financial means moderated contemporaneous relationships between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety in 3rd and 5th grades. The relationship between maternal intrusiveness and child anxiety was moderated by family financial means for 1st graders, with stronger links found among children of lower family financial means, but not for 3rd and 5th graders. Neither maternal intrusiveness nor financial means in 1st grade predicted subsequent changes in anxiety across childhood. Findings help elucidate for whom and when maternal intrusiveness has the greatest link with child anxiety and can inform targeted treatment efforts. PMID:23929005

  16. Stabilizing the long-time behavior of the forced Navier-Stokes and damped Euler systems by large mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranka, Jacek; Mucha, Piotr B.; Titi, Edriss S.; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    The paper studies the issue of stability of solutions to the forced Navier-Stokes and damped Euler systems in periodic boxes. It is shown that for large, but fixed, Grashoff (Reynolds) number the turbulent behavior of all Leray-Hopf weak solutions of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, in periodic box, is suppressed, when viewed in the right frame of reference, by large enough average flow of the initial data; a phenomenon that is similar in spirit to the Landau damping. Specifically, we consider an initial data which have large enough spatial average, then by means of the Galilean transformation, and thanks to the periodic boundary conditions, the large time independent forcing term changes into a highly oscillatory force; which then allows us to employ some averaging principles to establish our result. Moreover, we also show that under the action of fast oscillatory-in-time external forces all two-dimensional regular solutions of the Navier-Stokes and the damped Euler equations converge to a unique time-periodic solution.

  17. Violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with classical subsystems via operationally local transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Mark S.; Son Wonmin; Heaney, Libby

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated by Son et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 110404 (2009), that a separable bipartite continuous-variable quantum system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality via operationally local transformations. Operationally local transformations are parametrized only by local variables; however, in order to allow violation of the CHSH inequality, a maximally entangled ancilla was necessary. The use of the entangled ancilla in this scheme caused the state under test to become dependent on the measurement choice one uses to calculate the CHSH inequality, thus violating one of the assumptions used in deriving a Bell inequality, namely, the free will or statistical independence assumption. The novelty in this scheme however is that the measurement settings can be external free parameters. In this paper, we generalize these operationally local transformations for multipartite Bell inequalities (with dichotomic observables) and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for violation within this scheme. Namely, a violation of a multipartite Bell inequality in this setting is contingent on whether an ancillary system admits any realistic local hidden variable model (i.e., whether the ancilla violates the given Bell inequality). These results indicate that violation of a Bell inequality performed on a system does not necessarily imply that the system is nonlocal. In fact, the system under test may be completely classical. However, nonlocality must have resided somewhere, this may have been in the environment, the physical variables used to manipulate the system or the detectors themselves provided the measurement settings are external free variables.

  18. Multipartite Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of settings and outcomes per site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubenets, Elena R

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a single general representation incorporating in a unique manner all Bell-type inequalities for a multipartite correlation scenario with an arbitrary number of settings and any spectral type of outcomes at each site. Specifying this general representation for correlation functions, we prove that the form of any correlation Bell-type inequality does not depend on spectral types of outcomes, in particular, on their numbers at different sites, and is determined only by extremal values of outcomes at each site. We also specify the general form of bounds in Bell-type inequalities on joint probabilities. Our approach to the derivation of Bell-type inequalities is universal, concise and can be applied to a multipartite correlation experiment with outcomes of any spectral type, discrete or continuous. We, in particular, prove that, for an N-partite quantum state, possibly, infinite dimensional, admitting the N{2 x ... x 2}-setting LHV description, the Mermin-Klyshko inequality holds for any two bounded quantum observables per site, not necessarily dichotomic

  19. Generation of multipartite entangled states for chains of atoms in the framework of cavity-QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonta, Denis

    2010-07-07

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics is a research field that studies electromagnetic fields in confined spaces and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. Experimentally, the simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with modes of a high-finesse resonator. Theoretically, such system bears an excellent framework for quantum information processing in which atoms and light are interpreted as bits of quantum information and their mutual interaction provides a controllable entanglement mechanism. In this thesis, we present several practical schemes for generation of multipartite entangled states for chains of atoms which pass through one or more high-finesse resonators. In the first step, we propose two schemes for generation of one- and two-dimensional cluster states of arbitrary size. These schemes are based on the resonant interaction of a chain of Rydberg atoms with one or more microwave cavities. In the second step, we propose a scheme for generation of multipartite W states. This scheme is based on the off-resonant interaction of a chain of three-level atoms with an optical cavity and a laser beam. We describe in details all the individual steps which are required to realize the proposed schemes and, moreover, we discuss several techniques to reveal the non-classical correlations associated with generated small-sized entangled states. (orig.)

  20. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan [Sharif University of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)

  1. Generation of multipartite entangled states for chains of atoms in the framework of cavity-QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonta, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics is a research field that studies electromagnetic fields in confined spaces and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. Experimentally, the simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with modes of a high-finesse resonator. Theoretically, such system bears an excellent framework for quantum information processing in which atoms and light are interpreted as bits of quantum information and their mutual interaction provides a controllable entanglement mechanism. In this thesis, we present several practical schemes for generation of multipartite entangled states for chains of atoms which pass through one or more high-finesse resonators. In the first step, we propose two schemes for generation of one- and two-dimensional cluster states of arbitrary size. These schemes are based on the resonant interaction of a chain of Rydberg atoms with one or more microwave cavities. In the second step, we propose a scheme for generation of multipartite W states. This scheme is based on the off-resonant interaction of a chain of three-level atoms with an optical cavity and a laser beam. We describe in details all the individual steps which are required to realize the proposed schemes and, moreover, we discuss several techniques to reveal the non-classical correlations associated with generated small-sized entangled states. (orig.)

  2. A Simple but Powerful Heuristic Method for Accelerating k-Means Clustering of Large-Scale Data in Life Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kazuki; Morishita, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    K-means clustering has been widely used to gain insight into biological systems from large-scale life science data. To quantify the similarities among biological data sets, Pearson correlation distance and standardized Euclidean distance are used most frequently; however, optimization methods have been largely unexplored. These two distance measurements are equivalent in the sense that they yield the same k-means clustering result for identical sets of k initial centroids. Thus, an efficient algorithm used for one is applicable to the other. Several optimization methods are available for the Euclidean distance and can be used for processing the standardized Euclidean distance; however, they are not customized for this context. We instead approached the problem by studying the properties of the Pearson correlation distance, and we invented a simple but powerful heuristic method for markedly pruning unnecessary computation while retaining the final solution. Tests using real biological data sets with 50-60K vectors of dimensions 10-2001 (~400 MB in size) demonstrated marked reduction in computation time for k = 10-500 in comparison with other state-of-the-art pruning methods such as Elkan's and Hamerly's algorithms. The BoostKCP software is available at http://mlab.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~ichikawa/boostKCP/.

  3. Large-deviation principles, stochastic effective actions, path entropies, and the structure and meaning of thermodynamic descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling (Ellis 1985 Entropy, Large Deviations, and Statistical Mechanics (New York: Springer); Touchette 2009 Phys. Rep. 478 1-69) of the probabilities for fluctuations of averaged quantities. The central function expressing large-deviations scaling is the entropy, which is the basis both for fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory (Freidlin and Wentzell 1998 Random Perturbations in Dynamical Systems 2nd edn (New York: Springer)) provides a quite general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a remarkable representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi (1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1465-78; 1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1479) and Peliti (1985 J. Physique 46 1469; 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L365, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes (1980 Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31 579-601), this review shows how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a 'stochastic effective action', which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations among all these levels of

  4. Interannual variability of Central European mean temperature in January / February and its relation to the large-scale circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.C.; Storch, H. von

    1993-01-01

    The Central European temperature distribution field, as given by 11 stations (Fanoe, Hamburg, Potsdam, Jena, Frankfurt, Uccle, Hohenpeissenberg, Praha, Wien, Zuerich and Geneve), is analysed with respect to its year-to-year variability. January-February (JF) average temperatures are considered for the interval 1901-80. An Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis reveals that the JF temperature variability is almost entirely controlled by one EOF with uniform sign. The second EOF represents only 7% of the total variance and describes a north-south gradient. The time coefficient of the first EOF is almost stationary whereas the second pattern describes a slight downward trend at the northern stations and a slight upward trend at the southern stations. The relationship of the temperature field to the large-scale circulation, represented by the North Atlantic/European sea-level pressure (SLP) field, is investigated by means of a Canonical Correlation (CCA) Analysis. Two CCA pairs are identified which account for most of the temperature year-to-year variance and which suggest plausible mechanisms. The CCA pairs fail, however, to consistently link the long-term temperature trends to changes in the large-scale circulation. In the output of a 100-year run with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model (ECHAM1/LSG), the same CCA pairs are found but the strength of the link between Central European temperature and North Atlantic SLP is markedly weaker than in the observed data. (orig.)

  5. Entanglement of Grassmannian Coherent States for Multi-Partite n-Level Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Najarbashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the entanglement of multi-partite Grassmannian coherent states (GCSs described by Grassmann numbers for n>2 degree of nilpotency. Choosing an appropriate weight function, we show that it is possible to construct some well-known entangled pure states, consisting of GHZ, W, Bell, cluster type and bi-separable states, which are obtained by integrating over tensor product of GCSs. It is shown that for three level systems, the Grassmann creation and annihilation operators b and b^† together with bz form a closed deformed algebra, i.e., SU_q(2 with q=e^{2πi/3}, which is useful to construct entangled qutrit-states. The same argument holds for three level squeezed states. Moreover combining the Grassmann and bosonic coherent states we construct maximal entangled super coherent states.

  6. Composition and dosage of a multipartite enhancer cluster control developmental expression of Ihh (Indian hedgehog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Anja J; Cova, Giulia; Osterwalder, Marco; Chan, Wing-Lee; Wittler, Lars; Brieske, Norbert; Heinrich, Verena; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Vingron, Martin; Klopocki, Eva; Visel, Axel; Lupiáñez, Darío G; Mundlos, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) often include noncoding sequences and putative enhancers, but how these rearrangements induce disease is poorly understood. Here we investigate CNVs involving the regulatory landscape of IHH (encoding Indian hedgehog), which cause multiple, highly localized phenotypes including craniosynostosis and synpolydactyly. We show through transgenic reporter and genome-editing studies in mice that Ihh is regulated by a constellation of at least nine enhancers with individual tissue specificities in the digit anlagen, growth plates, skull sutures and fingertips. Consecutive deletions, resulting in growth defects of the skull and long bones, showed that these enhancers function in an additive manner. Duplications, in contrast, caused not only dose-dependent upregulation but also misexpression of Ihh, leading to abnormal phalanges, fusion of sutures and syndactyly. Thus, precise spatiotemporal control of developmental gene expression is achieved by complex multipartite enhancer ensembles. Alterations in the composition of such clusters can result in gene misexpression and disease.

  7. Nitrogen Cycling in the Mycorrhizosphere: Multipartite Interactions and Plant Nitrogen Uptake Vary with Fertilization Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestrin, R.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play an important role in rhizosphere nutrient cycling and plant productivity. In this study, the contributions of soil microbes to organic matter mineralization and plant nitrogen uptake were investigated using incubation and microcosm experiments. Microbial inocula included arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and microbial communities sampled across a long-term gradient of nitrogen fertilization. Stable isotopes, nanoSIMS imaging, and phospholipid fatty acid analysis were used to track carbon and nitrogen movement from organic matter into microbes, mycorrhizal fungi, and plants. Results show that multipartite relationships between plants and microbes increased plant growth and access to nitrogen from organic matter, and that nitrogen fertilization history had a lasting effect on microbial contributions to fungal and plant nitrogen uptake. This research links rhizosphere ecology and land management with terrestrial biogeochemistry.

  8. Detect genuine multipartite entanglement in the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dongling; Gu Shijian; Chen Jingling

    2010-01-01

    Recently Seevinck and Uffink argued that genuine multipartite entanglement (GME) had not been established in the experiments designed to confirm GME. In this paper, we use the Bell-type inequalities introduced by Seevinck and Svetlichny [M. Seevinck, G. Svetlichny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 060401] to investigate the GME problem in the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model. We show explicitly that the ground states of this model violate the inequality when the external transverse magnetic field is weak, which indicate that the ground states in this model with weak magnetic field are fully entangled. Since this model can be simulated with nuclear magnetic resonance, our results provide a fresh approach to experimental test of GME.

  9. Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Fuguo [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Conventional University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-11-15

    We present an efficient multipartite entanglement purification protocol (MEPP) for N-photon systems in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with parity-check detectors. It contains two parts. One is the conventional MEPP with which the parties can obtain a high-fidelity N-photon ensemble directly, similar to the MEPP with controlled-not gates. The other is our recycling MEPP in which the entanglement link is used to produce some N-photon entangled systems from entangled N{sup '}-photon subsystems (2{<=}N{sup '}

  10. Violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with classical subsystems via operationally local transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark S.; Heaney, Libby; Son, Wonmin

    2010-09-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated by Son , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.110404 102, 110404 (2009), that a separable bipartite continuous-variable quantum system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality via operationally local transformations. Operationally local transformations are parametrized only by local variables; however, in order to allow violation of the CHSH inequality, a maximally entangled ancilla was necessary. The use of the entangled ancilla in this scheme caused the state under test to become dependent on the measurement choice one uses to calculate the CHSH inequality, thus violating one of the assumptions used in deriving a Bell inequality, namely, the free will or statistical independence assumption. The novelty in this scheme however is that the measurement settings can be external free parameters. In this paper, we generalize these operationally local transformations for multipartite Bell inequalities (with dichotomic observables) and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for violation within this scheme. Namely, a violation of a multipartite Bell inequality in this setting is contingent on whether an ancillary system admits any realistic local hidden variable model (i.e., whether the ancilla violates the given Bell inequality). These results indicate that violation of a Bell inequality performed on a system does not necessarily imply that the system is nonlocal. In fact, the system under test may be completely classical. However, nonlocality must have resided somewhere, this may have been in the environment, the physical variables used to manipulate the system or the detectors themselves provided the measurement settings are external free variables.

  11. Dynamical transitions in large systems of mean field-coupled Landau-Stuart oscillators: Extensive chaos and cluster states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Wai Lim; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study dynamical systems in which a large number N of identical Landau-Stuart oscillators are globally coupled via a mean-field. Previously, it has been observed that this type of system can exhibit a variety of different dynamical behaviors. These behaviors include time periodic cluster states in which each oscillator is in one of a small number of groups for which all oscillators in each group have the same state which is different from group to group, as well as a behavior in which all oscillators have different states and the macroscopic dynamics of the mean field is chaotic. We argue that this second type of behavior is "extensive" in the sense that the chaotic attractor in the full phase space of the system has a fractal dimension that scales linearly with N and that the number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the attractor also scales linearly with N. An important focus of this paper is the transition between cluster states and extensive chaos as the system is subjected to slow adiabatic parameter change. We observe discontinuous transitions between the cluster states (which correspond to low dimensional dynamics) and the extensively chaotic states. Furthermore, examining the cluster state, as the system approaches the discontinuous transition to extensive chaos, we find that the oscillator population distribution between the clusters continually evolves so that the cluster state is always marginally stable. This behavior is used to reveal the mechanism of the discontinuous transition. We also apply the Kaplan-Yorke formula to study the fractal structure of the extensively chaotic attractors.

  12. On the Use of Educational Numbers: Comparative Constructions of Hierarchies by Means of Large-Scale Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pettersson

    2016-01-01

    later the growing importance of transnational agencies and international, regional and national assessments. How to reference this article Pettersson, D., Popkewitz, T. S., & Lindblad, S. (2016. On the Use of Educational Numbers: Comparative Constructions of Hierarchies by Means of Large-Scale Assessments. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 177-202. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2016.003.001.10

  13. Entanglement, EPR steering, and Bell-nonlocality criteria for multipartite higher-spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    We develop criteria to detect three classes of nonlocality that have been shown by Wiseman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] to be nonequivalent: entanglement, EPR steering, and the failure of local hidden-variable theories. We use the approach of Cavalcanti et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210405 (2007)] for continuous variables to develop the nonlocality criteria for arbitrary spin observables defined on a discrete Hilbert space. The criteria thus apply to multisite qudits, i.e., systems of fixed dimension d, and take the form of inequalities. We find that the spin moment inequalities that test local hidden variables (Bell inequalities) can be violated for arbitrary d by optimized highly correlated nonmaximally entangled states provided the number of sites N is high enough. On the other hand, the spin inequalities for entanglement are violated and thus detect entanglement for such states, for arbitrary d and N, and with a violation that increases with N. We show that one of the moment entanglement inequalities can detect the entanglement of an arbitrary generalized multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Because they involve the natural observables for atomic systems, the relevant spin-operator correlations should be readily observable in trapped ultracold atomic gases and ion traps.

  14. Low frequency steady-state brain responses modulate large scale functional networks in a frequency-specific means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Long, Zhiliang; Cui, Qian; Liu, Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Heng; Guo, Xiao-Nan; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Neural oscillations are essential for brain functions. Research has suggested that the frequency of neural oscillations is lower for more integrative and remote communications. In this vein, some resting-state studies have suggested that large scale networks function in the very low frequency range (frequency characteristics of brain networks because both resting-state studies and conventional frequency tagging approaches cannot simultaneously capture multiple large scale networks in controllable cognitive activities. In this preliminary study, we aimed to examine whether large scale networks can be modulated by task-induced low frequency steady-state brain responses (lfSSBRs) in a frequency-specific pattern. In a revised attention network test, the lfSSBRs were evoked in the triple network system and sensory-motor system, indicating that large scale networks can be modulated in a frequency tagging way. Furthermore, the inter- and intranetwork synchronizations as well as coherence were increased at the fundamental frequency and the first harmonic rather than at other frequency bands, indicating a frequency-specific modulation of information communication. However, there was no difference among attention conditions, indicating that lfSSBRs modulate the general attention state much stronger than distinguishing attention conditions. This study provides insights into the advantage and mechanism of lfSSBRs. More importantly, it paves a new way to investigate frequency-specific large scale brain activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Numerical experiments with assimilation of the mean and unresolved meteorological conditions into large-eddy simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Esau, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Micrometeorology, city comfort, land use management and air quality monitoring increasingly become important environmental issues. To serve the needs, meteorology needs to achieve a serious advance in representation and forecast on micro-scales (meters to 100 km) called meteorological terra incognita. There is a suitable numerical tool, namely, the large-eddy simulation modelling (LES) to support the development. However, at present, the LES is of limited utility for applications. The study a...

  16. Definition of interstellar wind parameters by means of Lsub(α) background noise observations at large distances from the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgin, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Multiple scattering of solar photons on interstellar hydrogen and an exitence of galactic background lead to the fact that far from the Sun Lsub(α)-radiation intensity dependence on a distance from the Sun and on the direction of a ray of sight differs from the dependence predicted by the optically fine model. It is possible to evaluate hydrogen density in interstellar wind and galactic background intensity considering no absolute device calibration and having no proper information on a flux in Lsub(α) solar line by means of Lsub(α) background intensity measurings at sufficiently great distances from the Sun

  17. Measuring gas-residence times in large municipal incinerators, by means of a pseudo-random binary signal tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J.; Jones, B.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of measuring gas-residence time in large incinerators was studied by the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) stimulus tracer response technique at the Sheffield municipal solid-waste incinerator (35 MW plant). The steady-state system was disturbed by the superimposition of small fluctuations in the form of a pseudo-random binary sequence of methane pulses, and the response of the incinerator was determined from the CO 2 concentration in flue gases at the boiler exit, measured with a specially developed optical gas analyser with a high-frequency response. For data acquisition, an on-line PC computer was used together with the LAB Windows software system; the output response was then cross-correlated with the perturbation signal to give the impulse response of the incinerator. There was very good agreement between the gas-residence time for the Sheffield MSW incinerator as calculated by computational fluid dynamics (FLUENT Model) and gas-residence time at the plant as measured by the PRBS tracer technique. The results obtained from this research programme clearly demonstrate that the PRBS stimulus tracer response technique can be successfully and economically used to measure gas-residence times in large incinerator plants. It also suggests that the common commercial practice of characterising the incinerator operation by a single-residence-time parameter may lead to a misrepresentation of the complexities involved in describing the operation of the incineration system. (author)

  18. Self-interaction error in density functional theory: a mean-field correction for molecules and large systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo; Chermette, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Corrections to the self-interaction error which is rooted in all standard exchange-correlation functionals in the density functional theory (DFT) have become the object of an increasing interest. After an introduction reminding the origin of the self-interaction error in the DFT formalism, and a brief review of the self-interaction free approximations, we present a simple, yet effective, self-consistent method to correct this error. The model is based on an average density self-interaction correction (ADSIC), where both exchange and Coulomb contributions are screened by a fraction of the electron density. The ansatz on which the method is built makes it particularly appealing, due to its simplicity and its favorable scaling with the size of the system. We have tested the ADSIC approach on one of the classical pathological problem for density functional theory: the direct estimation of the ionization potential from orbital eigenvalues. A large set of different chemical systems, ranging from simple atoms to large fullerenes, has been considered as test cases. Our results show that the ADSIC approach provides good numerical values for all the molecular systems, the agreement with the experimental values increasing, due to its average ansatz, with the size (conjugation) of the systems

  19. Gap junctions mediate large-scale Turing structures in a mean-field cortex driven by subcortical noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Steyn-Ross, D. A.; Wilson, M. T.; Sleigh, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    One of the grand puzzles in neuroscience is establishing the link between cognition and the disparate patterns of spontaneous and task-induced brain activity that can be measured clinically using a wide range of detection modalities such as scalp electrodes and imaging tomography. High-level brain function is not a single-neuron property, yet emerges as a cooperative phenomenon of multiply-interacting populations of neurons. Therefore a fruitful modeling approach is to picture the cerebral cortex as a continuum characterized by parameters that have been averaged over a small volume of cortical tissue. Such mean-field cortical models have been used to investigate gross patterns of brain behavior such as anesthesia, the cycles of natural sleep, memory and erasure in slow-wave sleep, and epilepsy. There is persuasive and accumulating evidence that direct gap-junction connections between inhibitory neurons promote synchronous oscillatory behavior both locally and across distances of some centimeters, but, to date, continuum models have ignored gap-junction connectivity. In this paper we employ simple mean-field arguments to derive an expression for D2 , the diffusive coupling strength arising from gap-junction connections between inhibitory neurons. Using recent neurophysiological measurements reported by Fukuda [J. Neurosci. 26, 3434 (2006)], we estimate an upper limit of D2≈0.6cm2 . We apply a linear stability analysis to a standard mean-field cortical model, augmented with gap-junction diffusion, and find this value for the diffusive coupling strength to be close to the critical value required to destabilize the homogeneous steady state. Computer simulations demonstrate that larger values of D2 cause the noise-driven model cortex to spontaneously crystalize into random mazelike Turing structures: centimeter-scale spatial patterns in which regions of high-firing activity are intermixed with regions of low-firing activity. These structures are consistent with the

  20. Relativistic mean field theory with density dependent coupling constants for nuclear matter and finite nuclei with large charge asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Typel, S; Wolter, H H [Sektion Physik, Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Nuclear matter and ground state properties for (proton and neutron) semi-closed shell nuclei are described in relativistic mean field theory with coupling constants which depend on the vector density. The parametrization of the density dependence for {sigma}-, {omega}- and {rho}-mesons is obtained by fitting to properties of nuclear matter and some finite nuclei. The equation of state for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. Finite nuclei are described in Hartree approximation, including a charge and an improved center-of-mass correction. Pairing is considered in the BCS approximation. Special attention is directed to the predictions for properties at the neutron and proton driplines, e.g. for separation energies, spin-orbit splittings and density distributions. (orig.)

  1. Optimizing patient flow in a large hospital surgical centre by means of discrete-event computer simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Coelli, Fernando C; Pereira, Wagner C A; Almeida, Renan M V R

    2008-12-01

    This study used the discrete-events computer simulation methodology to model a large hospital surgical centre (SC), in order to analyse the impact of increases in the number of post-anaesthetic beds (PABs), of changes in surgical room scheduling strategies and of increases in surgery numbers. The used inputs were: number of surgeries per day, type of surgical room scheduling, anaesthesia and surgery duration, surgical teams' specialty and number of PABs, and the main outputs were: number of surgeries per day, surgical rooms' use rate and blocking rate, surgical teams' use rate, patients' blocking rate, surgery delays (minutes) and the occurrence of postponed surgeries. Two basic strategies were implemented: in the first strategy, the number of PABs was increased under two assumptions: (a) following the scheduling plan actually used by the hospital (the 'rigid' scheduling - surgical rooms were previously assigned and assignments could not be changed) and (b) following a 'flexible' scheduling (surgical rooms, when available, could be freely used by any surgical team). In the second, the same analysis was performed, increasing the number of patients (up to the system 'feasible maximum') but fixing the number of PABs, in order to evaluate the impact of the number of patients over surgery delays. It was observed that the introduction of a flexible scheduling/increase in PABs would lead to a significant improvement in the SC productivity.

  2. Does more education mean less disability in people with dementia? A large cross-sectional study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chi, Wen-Chou; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Liao, Hua-Fang; Escorpizo, Reuben; Chang, Feng-Hang; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-05-04

    WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a feasible tool for assessing functional disability and analysing the risk of institutionalisation among elderly patients with dementia. However, the data for the effect of education on disability status in patients with dementia is lacking. The aim of this large-scale, population-based study was to analyse the effect of education on the disability status of elderly Taiwanese patients with dementia by using WHODAS 2.0. From the Taiwan Data Bank of Persons with Disability, we enrolled 7698 disabled elderly (older than 65 years) patients diagnosed with dementia between July 2012 and January 2014. According to their education status, we categorised these patients with and without formal education (3849 patients each). We controlled for the demographic variables through propensity score matching. The standardised scores of these patients in the six domains of WHODAS 2.0 were evaluated by certified interviewers. Student's t - test was used for comparing the WHODAS 2.0 scores of patients with dementia in the two aforementioned groups. Poisson regression was applied for analysing the association among all the investigated variables. Patients with formal education had low disability status in the domains of getting along and social participation than did patients without formal education. Poisson regression revealed that standardised scores in all domains of WHODAS 2.0-except self-care-were associated with education status. This study revealed lower disability status in the WHODAS 2.0 domains of getting along and social participation for patients with dementia with formal education compared with those without formal education. For patients with disability and dementia without formal education, community intervention of social participation should be implemented to maintain better social interaction ability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  3. Detecting phase boundaries of quantum spin-1/2 XXZ ladder via bipartite and multipartite entanglement transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha Roy, Sudipto; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Rakshit, Debraj; Sen(De), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2017-12-01

    Phase transition in quantum many-body systems inevitably causes changes in certain physical properties which then serve as potential indicators of critical phenomena. Besides the traditional order parameters, characterization of quantum entanglement has proven to be a computationally efficient and successful method for detection of phase boundaries, especially in one-dimensional models. Here we determine the rich phase diagram of the ground states of a quantum spin-1/2 XXZ ladder by analyzing the variation of bipartite and multipartite entanglements. Our study characterizes the different ground state phases and notes the correspondence with known results, while highlighting the finer details that emerge from the behavior of ground state entanglement. Analysis of entanglement in the ground state provides a clearer picture of the complex ground state phase diagram of the system using only a moderate-size model.

  4. The technique of express vital determination of radiocesium specific activity in muscular tissue of large agricultural animals by means of the TIM-140 radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The technique is intended for vital determination of cesium 137 specific activity in muscular tissue of large agricultural animals by means of the TIM-140 radiometer. The specific activity is determined using two measurements. With one measurement the gamma radiation detector is located on a lateral surface of coxofemoral part of the animal, and with the second measurement the absorbing gamma radiation screen is placed between the detector and zone of measurement. The external gamma background and useful signal are registered simultaneously. It allows to carry out measurements with a background till 0.05 mR/h without application of external screens

  5. A booming economy means a bursting trauma system: association between hospital admission for major injury and indicators of economic activity in a large Canadian health region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Das, Debanjana; Mercado, Michelle; Vis, Christine; Kortbeek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G

    2014-05-01

    Injury epidemiology fluctuates with economic activity in many countries. These relationships remain unclear in Canada. The annual risk of admission for major injury (Injury Severity Score ≥12) to a high-volume, level-1 Canadian trauma center was compared with indicators of economic activity over a 16-year period using linear regression. An increased risk of injured patient admissions was associated with rising mean gross domestic product (GDP [millions of chained 2002 dollars]) (.36 person increase per 100,000 population/$1,000 increase in GDP; P = .001) and annual gasoline prices (.47 person increase per 100,000 population/cent increase in gasoline price; P = .001). Recreation-related vehicle injuries were also associated with economic affluence. The risk of trauma patient mortality with increasing mean annual GDP (P = .72) and gasoline prices (P = .32) remained unchanged. Hospital admissions for major injury, but not trauma patient mortality, were associated with economic activity in a large Canadian health care region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustained inflation and incremental mean airway pressure trial during conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a large porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunder Christian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effect of a sustained inflation followed by an incremental mean airway pressure trial during conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on oxygenation and hemodynamics in a large porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Severe lung injury (Ali was induced in 18 healthy pigs (55.3 ± 3.9 kg, mean ± SD by repeated saline lung lavage until PaO2 decreased to less than 60 mmHg. After a stabilisation period of 60 minutes, the animals were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (Pressure controlled ventilation; PCV: FIO2 = 1.0, PEEP = 5 cmH2O, VT = 6 ml/kg, respiratory rate = 30/min, I:E = 1:1; group 2 (High-frequency oscillatory ventilation; HFOV: FIO2 = 1.0, Bias flow = 30 l/min, Amplitude = 60 cmH2O, Frequency = 6 Hz, I:E = 1:1. A sustained inflation (SI; 50 cmH2O for 60s followed by an incremental mean airway pressure (mPaw trial (steps of 3 cmH2O every 15 minutes were performed in both groups until PaO2 no longer increased. This was regarded as full lung inflation. The mPaw was decreased by 3 cmH2O and the animals reached the end of the study protocol. Gas exchange and hemodynamic data were collected at each step. Results The SI led to a significant improvement of the PaO2/FiO2-Index (HFOV: 200 ± 100 vs. PCV: 58 ± 15 and TAli: 57 ± 12; p 2-reduction (HFOV: 42 ± 5 vs. PCV: 62 ± 13 and TAli: 55 ± 9; p Ali: 6.1 ± 1 vs. T75: 3.4 ± 0.4; PCV: TAli: 6.7 ± 2.4 vs. T75: 4 ± 0.5; p Conclusion A sustained inflation followed by an incremental mean airway pressure trial in HFOV improved oxygenation at a lower mPaw than during conventional lung protective ventilation. HFOV but not PCV resulted in normocapnia, suggesting that during HFOV there are alternatives to tidal ventilation to achieve CO2-elimination in an "open lung" approach.

  7. Influence of Mean Rooftop-Level Estimation Method on Sensible Heat Flux Retrieved from a Large-Aperture Scintillometer Over a City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Mariusz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Siedlecki, Mariusz

    2017-08-01

    The sensible heat flux ( H) is determined using large-aperture scintillometer (LAS) measurements over a city centre for eight different computation scenarios. The scenarios are based on different approaches of the mean rooftop-level (zH) estimation for the LAS path. Here, zH is determined separately for wind directions perpendicular (two zones) and parallel (one zone) to the optical beam to reflect the variation in topography and building height on both sides of the LAS path. Two methods of zH estimation are analyzed: (1) average building profiles; (2) weighted-average building height within a 250 m radius from points located every 50 m along the optical beam, or the centre of a certain zone (in the case of a wind direction perpendicular to the path). The sensible heat flux is computed separately using the friction velocity determined with the eddy-covariance method and the iterative procedure. The sensitivity of the sensible heat flux and the extent of the scintillometer source area to different computation scenarios are analyzed. Differences reaching up to 7% between heat fluxes computed with different scenarios were found. The mean rooftop-level estimation method has a smaller influence on the sensible heat flux (-4 to 5%) than the area used for the zH computation (-5 to 7%). For the source-area extent, the discrepancies between respective scenarios reached a similar magnitude. The results demonstrate the value of the approach in which zH is estimated separately for wind directions parallel and perpendicular to the LAS optical beam.

  8. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Dong, Wu-Jun; Li, Ling; Xu, Jia-Ming; Jin, Du-Jia; Xia, Xue-Jun; Liu, Yu-Ling

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS) and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI) value of the emulsions were determined using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, and large-diameter tail assessments were performed using the light-obscuration/single particle optical sensing (LO/SPOS) method. Using 1000 bar homogenization pressure and seven recirculations, the energy input parameters related to the rotor-stator system will not have an effect on the final particle size results. When rotor-stator system energy input parameters are fixed, homogenization pressure and recirculation will affect mean particle size and large diameter droplet. Particle size will decrease with increasing homogenization pressure from 400 bar to 1300 bar when homogenization recirculation is fixed; when the homogenization pressure is fixed at 1000 bar, the particle size of both MDS and percent of fat droplets exceeding 5 μm (PFAT 5 ) will decrease with increasing homogenization recirculations, MDS dropped to 173 nm after five cycles and maintained this level, volume-weighted PFAT 5 will drop to 0.038% after three cycles, so the "plateau" of MDS will come up later than that of PFAT 5 , and the optimal particle size is produced when both of them remained at plateau. Excess homogenization recirculation such as nine times under the 1000 bar may lead to PFAT 5 increase to 0.060% rather than a decrease; therefore, the high-pressure homogenization procedure is the key factor affecting the particle size distribution of emulsions. Varying storage conditions (4-25°C) also influenced particle size, especially the PFAT 5 . Copyright

  9. Coexistence of unlimited bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: Promiscuous quantum correlations arising from discrete to continuous-variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Quantum mechanics imposes 'monogamy' constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully 'promiscuous', i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N-mode (N≥4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantum correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states

  10. Characterization of mean transit time at large springs in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA: A tool for assessing groundwater discharge vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John; Stolp, Bernard J.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental tracers (noble gases, tritium, industrial gases, stable isotopes, and radio-carbon) and hydrogeology were interpreted to determine groundwater transit-time distribution and calculate mean transit time (MTT) with lumped parameter modeling at 19 large springs distributed throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA. The predictive value of the MTT to evaluate the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress (i.e., vulnerability) is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the springs range from 10 to 15,000 years and 90 % of the cumulative discharge-weighted travel-time distribution falls within the range of 2−10,000 years. Historical variability in discharge was assessed as the ratio of 10–90 % flow-exceedance (R 10/90%) and ranged from 2.8 to 1.1 for select springs with available discharge data. The lag-time (i.e., delay in discharge response to drought conditions) was determined by cross-correlation analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 6 years for the same select springs. Springs with shorter MTTs (<80 years) statistically correlate with larger discharge variations and faster responses to drought, indicating MTT can be used for estimating the relative magnitude and timing of groundwater response. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to streams in the UCRB will likely respond on the order of years to climate variation and increasing groundwater withdrawals.

  11. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  12. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise

  13. What scaling means in wind engineering: Complementary role of the reduced scale approach in a BLWT and the full scale testing in a large climatic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    Wind engineering problems are commonly studied by wind tunnel experiments at a reduced scale. This introduces several limitations and calls for a careful planning of the tests and the interpretation of the experimental results. The talk first revisits the similitude laws and discusses how they are actually applied in wind engineering. It will also remind readers why different scaling laws govern in different wind engineering problems. Secondly, the paper focuses on the ways to simplify a detailed structure (bridge, building, platform) when fabricating the downscaled models for the tests. This will be illustrated by several examples from recent engineering projects. Finally, under the most severe weather conditions, manmade structures and equipment should remain operational. What “recreating the climate” means and aims to achieve will be illustrated through common practice in climatic wind tunnel modelling.

  14. Multiscale Model Selection for High-Frequency Financial Data of a Large Tick Stock by Means of the Jensen–Shannon Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianbiagio Curato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling financial time series at different time scales is still an open challenge. The choice of a suitable indicator quantifying the distance between the model and the data is therefore of fundamental importance for selecting models. In this paper, we propose a multiscale model selection method based on the Jensen–Shannon distance in order to select the model that is able to better reproduce the distribution of price changes at different time scales. Specifically, we consider the problem of modeling the ultra high frequency dynamics of an asset with a large tick-to-price ratio. We study the price process at different time scales and compute the Jensen–Shannon distance between the original dataset and different models, showing that the coupling between spread and returns is important to model return distribution at different time scales of observation, ranging from the scale of single transactions to the daily time scale.

  15. Evaluating the ClimEx Single Model Large Ensemble in Comparison with EURO-CORDEX Results of Seasonal Means and Extreme Precipitation Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Trentini, F.; Schmid, F. J.; Braun, M.; Brisette, F.; Frigon, A.; Leduc, M.; Martel, J. L.; Willkofer, F.; Wood, R. R.; Ludwig, R.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological extreme events seem to become more frequent in the present and future, and a seperation of natural climate variability and a clear climate change effect on these extreme events gains more and more interest. Since there is only one realisation of historical events, natural variability in terms of very long timeseries for a robust statistical analysis is not possible with observation data. A new single model large ensemble (SMLE), developed for the ClimEx project (Climate change and hydrological extreme events - risks and perspectives for water management in Bavaria and Québec) is supposed to overcome this lack of data by downscaling 50 members of the CanESM2 (RCP 8.5) with the Canadian CRCM5 regional model (using the EURO-CORDEX grid specifications) for timeseries of 1950-2099 each, resulting in 7500 years of simulated climate. This allows for a better probabilistic analysis of rare and extreme events than any preceding dataset. Besides seasonal sums, several extreme indicators like R95pTOT, RX5day and others are calculated for the ClimEx ensemble and several EURO-CORDEX runs. This enables us to investigate the interaction between natural variability (as it appears in the CanESM2-CRCM5 members) and a climate change signal of those members for past, present and future conditions. Adding the EURO-CORDEX results to this, we can also assess the role of internal model variability (or natural variability) in climate change simulations. A first comparison shows similar magnitudes of variability of climate change signals between the ClimEx large ensemble and the CORDEX runs for some indicators, while for most indicators the spread of the SMLE is smaller than the spread of different CORDEX models.

  16. Estimation of dependence between mean of fractionation of photons and neutrons dose and intensity of post-irradiation reaction of mouse large intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasinska, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the work was verification of mouse large intestine tolerance on fractionated 250 kV X-rays and 2.3 MeV neutrons doses. Two cm of large intestine of mouse CBA/HT strain were irradiated with various fraction doses: from 0.25 to 35 Gy of X-rays and 0.05-12 Gy of neutrons. The measure of injury was handicap of intestine function. Early post-irradiation reaction was measured by loss of body weight (2-3 weeks after irradiation) and mouse mortality (till 2 months after irradiation, LD50/2). The late reaction was measured on the base of maximal body weight in 1 year period after irradiation, deformation of excrements (after 10 months) and death of animals (till 12. month after irradiation, LD50/12). Fractionation of X-ray dose influenced on decrease of intensification of late irradiation effects. After fractionation of neutrons this effect has not been observed. α/β coefficient for X-rays was 19.9 Gy [15.2; 27.0] for body weight nadir, 13.4 Gy [9.3; 19.5] for early mortality (LD50/2), 6.4 Gy [3.6;11.0] for maximal body weight and 6.9 [4.2; 10.8] for late mortality (LD50/12). Analysis of influence of low doses of photons 90.25-4 Gy) and neutrons (0.05-0.8 Gy) showed trend to reduction α/β for photons only (LD50/2=5.4 Gy; LD50/12=4.6 Gy). α/β coefficient for neutrons was defined by LQ model only for maximal body weight and was 19.9 Gy [9.5; 61.0]. In application of graphic method α/β for neutrons was 230 Gy for early and 48 Gy for late effects. Lower values of α/β coefficient for late irradiation effects for photon radiation demonstrate the big influence of fractionation of photons dose on large intestine tolerance (decrease intensity in all biological effects). Author did not observe increase of intestine tolerance in fractionation of neutrons dose. Effect of irradiation damages repair in interfraction pauses, measured by percent of regenerated dose (F r ) was much bigger for photons. For X-rays it was 50% for early and 63% for late effects. In case of

  17. Analysis of injection sprays by means of large high-speed engines under cold and evaporating conditions; Analyse von Einspritzsprays mittelschnelllaufender Grossmotoren unter kalten und verdampfenden Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Christian; Pinkert, Fabian; Harndorf, Horst [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kolbenmaschinen und Verbrennungsmotoren; Frobenius, Moritz [AVL Deutschland GmbH, Haimhausen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of future emission limits for marine diesel engines requires an improved understanding of the fuel injection process and mixture formation as well as the development of robust and powerful tools to calculate the emission generation. This publication presents research results of the project partners AVI Deutschland GmbH and Rostock University obtained in the associated project EMI-MINI II. Objective of the experimental part of the work is the fundamental investigation of the mixture formation at cold and evaporative conditions in a high-pressure and high-temperature chamber by means of optical methods. For the measurements, a modem, heavy fuel capable single circuit common-rail injector of a medium speed diesel engine is applied. Based on the experimental results a calibration and validation of spray break-up and evaporation models is done. The models are applied in a specific simulation approach in order to predict engine emissions. Characteristic feature of the chosen approach is the consideration of specific nozzle internal flow conditions as boundary conditions for the spray break-up models and thus for the ignition, combustion and emission generation. The presented results demonstrate that the applied models are very sufficient to calculate injection and mixture formation processes. By comparing calculated engine emissions to experimental results obtained by WTZ Rosslau gGmbH it is shown that the presented simulation approach is capable to predict the impact of varying engine parameters on NO{sub x}- and soot emissions effectively. (orig.)

  18. Dynamic investigation of nutrient consumption and injection strategy in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) by means of large-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiyong; Zhu, Weiyao; Sun, Gangzheng; Blanckaert, Koen

    2015-08-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) depends on the in situ microbial activity to release trapped oil in reservoirs. In practice, undesired consumption is a universal phenomenon but cannot be observed effectively in small-scale physical simulations due to the scale effect. The present paper investigates the dynamics of oil recovery, biomass and nutrient consumption in a series of flooding experiments in a dedicated large-scale sand-pack column. First, control experiments of nutrient transportation with and without microbial consumption were conducted, which characterized the nutrient loss during transportation. Then, a standard microbial flooding experiment was performed recovering additional oil (4.9 % Original Oil in Place, OOIP), during which microbial activity mostly occurred upstream, where oil saturation declined earlier and steeper than downstream in the column. Subsequently, more oil remained downstream due to nutrient shortage. Finally, further research was conducted to enhance the ultimate recovery by optimizing the injection strategy. An extra 3.5 % OOIP was recovered when the nutrients were injected in the middle of the column, and another additional 11.9 % OOIP were recovered by altering the timing of nutrient injection.

  19. Experimental investigations on bubble turbulent diffusion in a vertical large diameter pipe by means of wire-mesh sensors and correlation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annalisa Manera; Horst-Michael Prasser; Dirk Lucas

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A large number of experiments for water-air vertical flows in a large-diameter pipe has been carried out at the TOPFLOW facility (Forschunszentrum Rossendorf). The experiments cover a wide range of liquid and superficial gas velocity. The test section consists of a vertical pipe of ∼194 mm and 8.5 m long. At a distance of 7.6 m from the air injection, two wire-mesh sensors are installed. The two sensors are mounted at a distance of 63.3 mm from each other. The wire-mesh sensors measure sequences of instantaneous two-dimensional gas-fraction distributions in the cross-section in which they are mounted with a spatial resolution of 3 mm and a frequency of 2500 Hz. The total dimension of the matrix of measuring points for each mesh sensor is 64 x 64. In a central region of the measuring plane, where the void-fraction gradients are small, points of the first wire-mesh sensor are individually cross-correlated in time domain with measuring points belonging to the second wire-mesh sensor. The cross-correlation functions were calculated for pairs of points that are located accurately above each other as well as for points with a lateral distance. The lateral distance was varied from 0 to 48 mm (16 points), which is still within 50% of the pipe radius, i.e. in the region of small void-fraction gradients. The maximum of each of the 17 correlations is selected in order to derive a spatial correlation in the radial direction. The obtained spatial cross-correlations shows a maximum at zero lateral distance and decrease with growing lateral shift. In a region without gradients, the lateral displacement of bubbles is dominated by turbulent diffusion. This gives the opportunity to derive bubble turbulent diffusion coefficients from the spreading of the spatial correlations. At this aim, the spatial correlations have been first corrected to take into account the finite spatial resolution of the sensor and the finite dimension of the bubbles. The

  20. The Meaning of Meaning, Etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This paper attempts to dispel a number of misconceptions about the nature of meaning, namely that: (1) synonyms are words that have the same meanings, (2) antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, (3) homonyms are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings, (4) converses are antonyms rather than synonyms, (5)…

  1. meanings. Largely attributed to Derrida (1984 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Olagoke Olorunleke IFATIMEHIN of the Department of Theatre and Performing Arts. Bayero University ... structuralists assume but instead leads to a chain of other signifiers” (Dobie .... hand, a theory of historical being and the often brutal ...

  2. Cation solvation with quantum chemical effects modeled by a size-consistent multi-partitioning quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi C; Kubillus, Maximilian; Kubař, Tomáš; Stach, Robert; Mizaikoff, Boris; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2017-07-21

    In the condensed phase, quantum chemical properties such as many-body effects and intermolecular charge fluctuations are critical determinants of the solvation structure and dynamics. Thus, a quantum mechanical (QM) molecular description is required for both solute and solvent to incorporate these properties. However, it is challenging to conduct molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for condensed systems of sufficient scale when adapting QM potentials. To overcome this problem, we recently developed the size-consistent multi-partitioning (SCMP) quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method and realized stable and accurate MD simulations, using the QM potential to a benchmark system. In the present study, as the first application of the SCMP method, we have investigated the structures and dynamics of Na + , K + , and Ca 2+ solutions based on nanosecond-scale sampling, a sampling 100-times longer than that of conventional QM-based samplings. Furthermore, we have evaluated two dynamic properties, the diffusion coefficient and difference spectra, with high statistical certainty. Furthermore the calculation of these properties has not previously been possible within the conventional QM/MM framework. Based on our analysis, we have quantitatively evaluated the quantum chemical solvation effects, which show distinct differences between the cations.

  3. Isolation of monocytes from leukapheretic products for large-scale GMP-grade generation of cytomegalovirus-specific T-cell lines by means of an automated elutriation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseghin, Paolo; D'Amico, Giovanna; Dander, Erica; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Dassi, Maria; Biagi, Ettore; Biondi, Andrea

    2008-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) act as antigen-presenting cells in immune response-mediated mechanisms against malignant cells and/or viral or fungal pathogens. CD14+ monocytes have been so far isolated by techniques of plastic adherence or by using immunomagnetic methods. Here the effectiveness of a commercially available cell separation system (Elutra, Gambro BCT) in the separation of monocytes and the large-scale production of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cell lines were investigated. Six mononuclear cell (MNC) collections were processed with the Elutra system. Monocyte-enriched fraction was differentiated into DCs by addition of granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)-4. After 6 days of culture, DCs were matured in the presence of interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-alpha, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and poly(I:C) and pulsed with a pool of 48 MHC Class I and II-binding CMV peptides. Lymphocytes were then stimulated with mature autologous CMV peptide-pulsed DCs. After elutriation, the mean monocyte yield was 0.89 x 10(9) +/- 0.65 x 10(9), with a 51.0 +/- 31.6 percent recovery and a 51.1 +/- 35.4 percent purity. A significant correlation was observed when basal monocyte content was related to the postelutriation recovery (p < 0.0116). More than 60 percent of plated monocytes were differentiated into DCs, which after pulsing with CMV peptides, were able to stimulate a robust enrichment in CMV antigen-specific T cells in all tested samples (mean percentage of pentamer-positive CD8+ cells, 35% compared to the initial 2%). Our findings might be helpful for an appropriate MNC collection, to maximize the efficiency of the elutriation system and subsequently obtain an optimal monocyte-enriched yield for further DC generation and T-cell stimulation.

  4. Impact of Toxicity Grade and Scoring System on the Relationship Between Mean Lung Dose and Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Cohort of Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Susan L.; Jin Hekun; Wei Xiong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compute the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with RP scored using three grading systems and analyzed at four threshold levels of toxicity in a large cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: On the basis of medical records and radiographic images, RP was scored retrospectively in 442 patients with NSCLC who had ≥6 months of follow-up after the end of RT. The severity of RP was scored for each patient using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0 (CTC2.0); the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE3.0); and the grading system of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). For each grading system and for each of four levels of toxicity (Grade ≥1, ≥2, ≥3, ≥4), the Lyman, logistic, and log-logistic normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were fitted to the data as functions of MLD. The parameter estimates from the model fits are listed in table form, and the RP risk estimates are presented graphically for the Lyman and log-logistic NTCP models. Results: The results presented here illustrate the impact of scoring system and level of toxicity on the relationship between MLD and RP risk. Conclusions: These results facilitate quantitative comparisons between our data and studies of RP risk reported by others, and several examples of such comparisons are provided.

  5. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  6. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through various examples including dynamic auction with asymmetric

  7. DNSC08 mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    -2004. It is the first global MSS without a polar gap including all of the Arctic Ocean by including laser altimetry from the ICESat mission. The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is the quantity that bridges the geoid and the mean sea surface constraining large-scale ocean circulation. Here we present a new high...

  8. The dance of meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup

    2005-01-01

    competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship......competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship...

  9. Assessment of actual evapotranspiration over a semiarid heterogeneous land surface by means of coupled low-resolution remote sensing data with an energy balance model: comparison to extra-large aperture scintillometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saadi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In semiarid areas, agricultural production is restricted by water availability; hence, efficient agricultural water management is a major issue. The design of tools providing regional estimates of evapotranspiration (ET, one of the most relevant water balance fluxes, may help the sustainable management of water resources. Remote sensing provides periodic data about actual vegetation temporal dynamics (through the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI and water availability under water stress (through the surface temperature Tsurf, which are crucial factors controlling ET. In this study, spatially distributed estimates of ET (or its energy equivalent, the latent heat flux LE in the Kairouan plain (central Tunisia were computed by applying the Soil Plant Atmosphere and Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration (SPARSE model fed by low-resolution remote sensing data (Terra and Aqua MODIS. The work's goal was to assess the operational use of the SPARSE model and the accuracy of the modeled (i sensible heat flux (H and (ii daily ET over a heterogeneous semiarid landscape with complex land cover (i.e., trees, winter cereals, summer vegetables. SPARSE was run to compute instantaneous estimates of H and LE fluxes at the satellite overpass times. The good correspondence (R2  =  0.60 and 0.63 and RMSE  =  57.89 and 53.85 W m−2 for Terra and Aqua, respectively between instantaneous H estimates and large aperture scintillometer (XLAS H measurements along a path length of 4 km over the study area showed that the SPARSE model presents satisfactory accuracy. Results showed that, despite the fairly large scatter, the instantaneous LE can be suitably estimated at large scales (RMSE  =  47.20 and 43.20 W m−2 for Terra and Aqua, respectively, and R2  =  0.55 for both satellites. Additionally, water stress was investigated by comparing modeled (SPARSE and observed (XLAS water stress values; we found that

  10. Assessment of actual evapotranspiration over a semiarid heterogeneous land surface by means of coupled low-resolution remote sensing data with an energy balance model: comparison to extra-large aperture scintillometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Sameh; Boulet, Gilles; Bahir, Malik; Brut, Aurore; Delogu, Émilie; Fanise, Pascal; Mougenot, Bernard; Simonneaux, Vincent; Lili Chabaane, Zohra

    2018-04-01

    In semiarid areas, agricultural production is restricted by water availability; hence, efficient agricultural water management is a major issue. The design of tools providing regional estimates of evapotranspiration (ET), one of the most relevant water balance fluxes, may help the sustainable management of water resources. Remote sensing provides periodic data about actual vegetation temporal dynamics (through the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and water availability under water stress (through the surface temperature Tsurf), which are crucial factors controlling ET. In this study, spatially distributed estimates of ET (or its energy equivalent, the latent heat flux LE) in the Kairouan plain (central Tunisia) were computed by applying the Soil Plant Atmosphere and Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration (SPARSE) model fed by low-resolution remote sensing data (Terra and Aqua MODIS). The work's goal was to assess the operational use of the SPARSE model and the accuracy of the modeled (i) sensible heat flux (H) and (ii) daily ET over a heterogeneous semiarid landscape with complex land cover (i.e., trees, winter cereals, summer vegetables). SPARSE was run to compute instantaneous estimates of H and LE fluxes at the satellite overpass times. The good correspondence (R2 = 0.60 and 0.63 and RMSE = 57.89 and 53.85 W m-2 for Terra and Aqua, respectively) between instantaneous H estimates and large aperture scintillometer (XLAS) H measurements along a path length of 4 km over the study area showed that the SPARSE model presents satisfactory accuracy. Results showed that, despite the fairly large scatter, the instantaneous LE can be suitably estimated at large scales (RMSE = 47.20 and 43.20 W m-2 for Terra and Aqua, respectively, and R2 = 0.55 for both satellites). Additionally, water stress was investigated by comparing modeled (SPARSE) and observed (XLAS) water stress values; we found that most points were located within a 0.2 confidence interval, thus the

  11. Estimation of dependence between mean of fractionation of photons and neutrons dose and intensity of post-irradiation reaction of mouse large intestine; Ocena zaleznosci pomiedzy sposobem frakcjonowania dawki fotonow i neutronow a nasileniem popromiennego odczynu jelita grubego myszy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasinska, A. [Oncology Center, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the work was verification of mouse large intestine tolerance on fractionated 250 kV X-rays and 2.3 MeV neutrons doses. Two cm of large intestine of mouse CBA/HT strain were irradiated with various fraction doses: from 0.25 to 35 Gy of X-rays and 0.05-12 Gy of neutrons. The measure of injury was handicap of intestine function. Early post-irradiation reaction was measured by loss of body weight (2-3 weeks after irradiation) and mouse mortality (till 2 months after irradiation, LD50/2). The late reaction was measured on the base of maximal body weight in 1 year period after irradiation, deformation of excrements (after 10 months) and death of animals (till 12. month after irradiation, LD50/12). Fractionation of X-ray dose influenced on decrease of intensification of late irradiation effects. After fractionation of neutrons this effect has not been observed. {alpha}/{beta} coefficient for X-rays was 19.9 Gy [15.2; 27.0] for body weight nadir, 13.4 Gy [9.3; 19.5] for early mortality (LD50/2), 6.4 Gy [3.6;11.0] for maximal body weight and 6.9 [4.2; 10.8] for late mortality (LD50/12). Analysis of influence of low doses of photons 90.25-4 Gy) and neutrons (0.05-0.8 Gy) showed trend to reduction {alpha}/{beta} for photons only (LD50/2=5.4 Gy; LD50/12=4.6 Gy). {alpha}/{beta} coefficient for neutrons was defined by LQ model only for maximal body weight and was 19.9 Gy [9.5; 61.0]. In application of graphic method {alpha}/{beta} for neutrons was 230 Gy for early and 48 Gy for late effects. Lower values of {alpha}/{beta} coefficient for late irradiation effects for photon radiation demonstrate the big influence of fractionation of photons dose on large intestine tolerance (decrease intensity in all biological effects). Author did not observe increase of intestine tolerance in fractionation of neutrons dose. Effect of irradiation damages repair in interfraction pauses, measured by percent of regenerated dose (F{sub r}) was much bigger for photons. For X-rays it was 50

  12. The Meaning of "Magma"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, J. M.; Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Magma is a fundamental constituent of the Earth, and its properties, origin, evolution, and significance bear on issues ranging from volcanic hazards to planetary evolution. Unfortunately, published usages indicate that the term "magma" means distinctly different things to different people and this can lead to miscommunication among Earth scientists and between scientists and the public. Erupting lava clearly is magma; the question is whether partially molten rock imaged at depth and too crystal-rich to flow should also be called magma. At crystal fractions > 50%, flow can only occur via crystal deformation and solution-reprecipitation. As the solid fraction increases to 90% or more, the material becomes a welded crystal framework with melt in dispersed pores and/or along grain boundaries. Seismic images commonly describe such volumes of a few % melt as magma, yet the rheological differences between melt-rich and melt-poor materials make it vital not to confuse a large rock volume that contains a small melt fraction with melt-rich material. To ensure this, we suggest that "magma" be reserved for melt-rich materials that undergo bulk fluid flow on timescales consonant with volcanic eruptions. Other terms should be used for more crystal-rich and largely immobile partially molten rock (e.g., "crystal mush," "rigid sponge"). The distinction is imprecise but useful. For the press, the public, and even earth scientists who do not study magmatic systems, "magma" conjures up flowing lava; reports of a large "magma" body that contains a few percent melt can engender the mistaken perception of a vast amount of eruptible magma. For researchers, physical processes like crystal settling are commonly invoked to account for features in plutonic rocks, but many such processes are only possible in melt-rich materials.

  13. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-12-01

    Mean-field games have been studied under the assumption of very large number of players. For such large systems, the basic idea consists to approximate large games by a stylized game model with a continuum of players. The approach has been shown to be useful in some applications. However, the stylized game model with continuum of decision-makers is rarely observed in practice and the approximation proposed in the asymptotic regime is meaningless for networked systems with few entities. In this paper we propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through a dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions.

  14. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-12-01

    Mean-field games have been studied under the assumption of very large number of players. For such large systems, the basic idea consists of approximating large games by a stylized game model with a continuum of players. The approach has been shown to be useful in some applications. However, the stylized game model with continuum of decision-makers is rarely observed in practice and the approximation proposed in the asymptotic regime is meaningless for networks with few entities. In this paper, we propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through various examples including dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions, and spiteful bidders.

  15. Prediction of etching-shape anomaly due to distortion of ion sheath around a large-scale three-dimensional structure by means of on-wafer monitoring technique and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Tomohiro; Ohtake, Hiroto; Araki, Ryosuke; Yanagisawa, Yuuki; Samukawa, Seiji; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ono, Kohei; Miwa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    A system for predicting distortion of a profile during plasma etching was developed. The system consists of a combination of measurement and simulation. An ‘on-wafer sheath-shape sensor’ for measuring the plasma-sheath parameters (sheath potential and thickness) on the stage of the plasma etcher was developed. The sensor has numerous small electrodes for measuring sheath potential and saturation ion-current density, from which sheath thickness can be calculated. The results of the measurement show reasonable dependence on source power, bias power and pressure. Based on self-consistent calculation of potential distribution and ion- and electron-density distributions, simulation of the sheath potential distribution around an arbitrary 3D structure and the trajectory of incident ions from the plasma to the structure was developed. To confirm the validity of the distortion prediction by comparing it with experimentally measured distortion, silicon trench etching under chlorine inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was performed using a sample with a vertical step. It was found that the etched trench was distorted when the distance from the step was several millimetres or less. The distortion angle was about 20° at maximum. Measurement was performed using the on-wafer sheath-shape sensor in the same plasma condition as the etching. The ion incident angle, calculated as a function of distance from the step, successfully reproduced the experimentally measured angle, indicating that the combination of measurement by the on-wafer sheath-shape sensor and simulation can predict distortion of an etched structure. This prediction system will be useful for designing devices with large-scale 3D structures (such as those in MEMS) and determining the optimum etching conditions to obtain the desired profiles. (paper)

  16. [Darwinism and the meaning of "meaning"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrodeza, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the meaning of life is herewith contemplated from a Darwinian perspective. It is argued how factors such as existential depression, the concern about the meaning of "meaning," the problem of evil, death as the end of our personal identity, happiness as an unachievable goal, etc. may well have an adaptive dimension "controlled" neither by ourselves nor obscure third parties (conspiracy theories) but "simply" by our genes (replicators in general) so that little if anything is to be done to find a radical remedy for the human condition.

  17. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through a dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions.

  18. Meaning through Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marilynn

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation is the process by which we find meaning in the things in the world around us: clouds on the horizon, bones, street signs, hairbrushes, uniforms, paintings, letters, and utterances. But where does that meaning come from and on what basis are we justified in saying a particular meaning is the right meaning? Drawing from debates in the…

  19. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... are defended by, e.g., Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich and Huw Price), that promises to solve the problems. According to this position, the problem of meaning can be solved by prohibiting an external perspective on meaning constituting properties. The idea is that if we stick to a perspective on meaning...

  20. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  1. Means on scattered compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banakh T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a separable Hausdor_ topological space X containing a cocountable subset homeomorphic to [0, ω1] admits no separately continuous mean operation and no diagonally continuous n-mean for n ≥ 2.

  2. Meaning in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Paola; Hoyles, Celia; Skovsmose, Ole

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to know mathematics? How does meaning in mathematics education connect to common sense or to the meaning of mathematics itself? How are meanings constructed and communicated and what are the dilemmas related to these processes? There are many answers to these questions, some of which might appear to be contradictory. Thus understanding the complexity of meaning in mathematics education is a matter of huge importance. There are twin directions in which discussions have developed - theoretical and practical - and this book seeks to move the debate forward along both dimensions while seeking to relate them where appropriate. A discussion of meaning can start from a theoretical examination of mathematics and how mathematicians over time have made sense of their work. However, from a more practical perspective, anybody involved in teaching mathematics is faced with the need to orchestrate the myriad of meanings derived from multiple sources that students develop of mathematical knowledge.

  3. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  4. Brand Meaning Cocreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kieran D.; Karpen, Ingo; Westberg, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consolidate and advance the understanding of brand meaning and the evolving process by which it is determined by introducing and explicating the concept of brand meaning cocreation (BMCC). Design/methodology/approach: In-depth review and integration...... of literature from branding, cocreation, service systems, and practice theory. To support deep theorizing, the authors also examine the role of institutional logics in the BMCC process in framing interactions and brand meaning outcomes. Findings: Prior research is limited in that it neither maps the process...... of cocreation within which meanings emerge nor provides theoretical conceptualizations of brand meaning or the process of BMCC. While the literature acknowledges that brand meaning is influenced by multiple interactions, their nature and how they contribute to BMCC have been overlooked. Research limitations...

  5. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing the...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed.......The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing...... history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...

  6. Parallel k-means++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-04

    A parallelization of the k-means++ seed selection algorithm on three distinct hardware platforms: GPU, multicore CPU, and multithreaded architecture. K-means++ was developed by David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitskii in 2007 as an extension of the k-means data clustering technique. These algorithms allow people to cluster multidimensional data, by attempting to minimize the mean distance of data points within a cluster. K-means++ improved upon traditional k-means by using a more intelligent approach to selecting the initial seeds for the clustering process. While k-means++ has become a popular alternative to traditional k-means clustering, little work has been done to parallelize this technique. We have developed original C++ code for parallelizing the algorithm on three unique hardware architectures: GPU using NVidia's CUDA/Thrust framework, multicore CPU using OpenMP, and the Cray XMT multithreaded architecture. By parallelizing the process for these platforms, we are able to perform k-means++ clustering much more quickly than it could be done before.

  7. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  8. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. ... basic philosophical nature of phenomenological meaning and inquiry, and that he not ... In keeping with the title of my book, Researching. Lived Experience ...... a quantitative social science that can make generalizing.

  9. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-01

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  10. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  11. Meaning in Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    meaningful is still lacking (Harpaz & Fu, 2002), as are definitions of key terms. Here, I define meaning as the experience that something fits into a wider context or coheres within a larger whole.     I conceptualize meaning in work life as deriving from four factors, each of which helps us contribute...... to something larger than ourselves (Seligman, 2002) through our work. Thus, a person experiences meaning in work life when she... A. is able to use her signature strengths at work (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), B. makes an important contribution to the workplace (Drucker, 1999), C. participates in a productive...

  12. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  13. Meaning in couples relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues T.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on psycholinguistics and L. Vygotsky’s (2007 theories on sign, meaning and sense categories, as later discussed by A. Leontiev (2004, 2009, we present a case study that focuses on the intricacies of a love relationship for a woman who remained in a painful marriage. Interview material is presented in a Relational-Historical Psychology theoretical framework to provide central categories of meaning and sense. This is understood as a privileged method for apprehending the uniqueness of a human being. To segment the qualitative material, we used the “Analysis of the Nuclei of Meanings for the Apprehension of the Constitution of Sense,” by Aguiar and Ozella (2006, 2013. This approach seeks to discriminate the meanings and senses that constitute the content of a speech sample.

  14. Soils - Mean Permeability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The...

  15. Meaning in Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2013-01-01

    When addressing present-day challenges, design discourse put faith mainly in design understood as a problem-solving activity, pertaining to innovation on functional, systems and technological level. The aesthetically founded fields, e.g. craft-based design, on the other hand, do not seem to play ...... - in particular those which carry _corporeal affordance_, such as clothing, blankets, chairs, tables and houses - perhaps even cities. Things that mean to us, what they mean, mainly _qua_ their physical properties....

  16. Stats means business

    CERN Document Server

    Buglear, John

    2010-01-01

    Stats Means Business is an introductory textbook written for Business, Hospitality and Tourism students who take modules on Statistics or Quantitative research methods. Recognising that most users of this book will have limited if any grounding in the subject, this book minimises technical language, provides clear definition of key terms, and gives emphasis to interpretation rather than technique.Stats Means Business enables readers to:appreciate the importance of statistical analysis in business, hospitality and tourism understand statis

  17. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  18. Dynamical Predictability of Monthly Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J.

    1981-12-01

    We have attempted to determine the theoretical upper limit of dynamical predictability of monthly means for prescribed nonfluctuating external forcings. We have extended the concept of `classical' predictability, which primarily refers to the lack of predictability due mainly to the instabilities of synoptic-scale disturbances, to the predictability of time averages, which are determined by the predictability of low-frequency planetary waves. We have carded out 60-day integrations of a global general circulation model with nine different initial conditions but identical boundary conditions of sea surface temperature, snow, sea ice and soil moisture. Three of these initial conditions are the observed atmospheric conditions on 1 January of 1975, 1976 and 1977. The other six initial conditions are obtained by superimposing over the observed initial conditions a random perturbation comparable to the errors of observation. The root-mean-square (rms) error of random perturbations at all the grid points and all the model levels is 3 m s1 in u and v components of wind. The rms vector wind error between the observed initial conditions is >15 m s1.It is hypothesized that for a given averaging period, if the rms error among the time averages predicted from largely different initial conditions becomes comparable to the rms error among the time averages predicted from randomly perturbed initial conditions, the time averages are dynamically unpredictable. We have carried out the analysis of variance to compare the variability, among the three groups, due to largely different initial conditions, and within each group due to random perturbations.It is found that the variances among the first 30-day means, predicted from largely different initial conditions, are significantly different from the variances due to random perturbations in the initial conditions, whereas the variances among 30-day means for days 31-60 are not distinguishable from the variances due to random initial

  19. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  20. Intersubjective meaning making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob

    of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children presented here, shows that while the constraints of single-touch screens does not support equality of interaction at the verbal and the physical level, there seems to be an intersubjective learning outcome. More precisely, the constraints...... of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in its ability of constraining the interaction. By presenting a short embodied interaction analysis of 22 seconds of collaboration, I illustrate how an embodied interaction perspective on intersubjective meaning making can tell...... a different story about touch-screen supported collaborative learning....

  1. Computing meaning v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry; Pulman, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers by leading researchers in computational semantics. It presents a state-of-the-art overview of recent and current research in computational semantics, including descriptions of new methods for constructing and improving resources for semantic computation, such as WordNet, VerbNet, and semantically annotated corpora. It also presents new statistical methods in semantic computation, such as the application of distributional semantics in the compositional calculation of sentence meanings. Computing the meaning of sentences, texts, and spoken or texted dialogue i

  2. Engagement Means Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  3. Monstrosity by Monstrous Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian memorials to the Cambodian genocide between 1975 and 1979 can in numerous ways be termed monstrous. Not so much in that they deal with atrocities monstrous in scale and character, as in the monstrous visual means they employ and the imprecise, monster-ridden explanations they delive...

  4. The meaning of talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society gives a remarkable role to human potentialities into organizations. For this reason has emerged talent management. But it is necessary to know its meaning to put on practice programs. In this paper, the author analyzes different points of views about this topic.

  5. Meaning construction in remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    F.C. Bartlett and L.S.Vygotsky were two seminal figures in the psychological study of remembering. Both emphasized the role of meaning and imagination in this process. Bartlett did this by showing the systematic and holistic changes that ensue when cultural material is repeatedly reproduced outsi...

  6. PR Means Positive Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foree, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Describes the advantages of public relations to a school music program. Suggests that, to succeed, a music program must have the support of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students alike. Recommends means of attracting support from the four groups. Stresses the importance of effective local publicity. (SG)

  7. Jeans and Means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Jeans and Means - The Story of Indigo. Subramania Ranganathan. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 22-27. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0022-0027 ...

  8. Levels of Literary Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2017-01-01

    I argue that intentionalist theories of meaning and interpretation, like those of Hirsch and Juhl, have been insufficiently attentive to the different levels of authorial intention that are operative in literary works. By countenancing intentions on different levels – ranging from simple semantic...

  9. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.S.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean multiplicity of hadrons in the target-fragmentation region in the process of deep inelastic scattering. It is shown that in the region of large x the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current- and target-fragmentation regions tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity in the Drell-Yan process is also discussed

  10. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  11. The central position currently occupied by remittances in the economic fi eld has largely restricted its scope on the monetary dimension of them, setting aside their hidden complexity and the variety of forms, uses and meanings that they can take. In fact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Lacomba Vázquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The central position currently occupied by remittances in the economic fi eld has largely restricted its scope on the monetary dimension of them, setting aside their hidden complexity and the variety of forms, uses and meanings that they can take. In fact, the social dimension of different types of remittances, as mainly own social remittances, should be considered more as one of the most signifi cant effects of migration in relation to human development. The purpose of this paper is try to contribute to the field of remittances, both in studying the socia dimensions that they contain, and in trying to make a more precise onceptualization on them.

  12. Negotiating meaning through artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of strategy making, specifically to unpacking the complexity of sociomateriality in strategy discourse. Scholars have emphasized the potential of artefacts to enhance sensemaking during strategizing. However there is a lack of insight into how artefacts...... and conversational aspects are linked at the micro‑level of discourse, also how artefacts and sensemaking shape one another. This research addresses this gap by empirically analyzing strategy discourse within a facilitated modelling workshop. Considering strategizing as a socially constructed activity, the author...... analyzes a workshop transcript to assess the extent to which stakeholders’ appropriation of artefacts supports them in engaging in negotiation of meaning with action implications. Moreover, how artefacts and negotiation of meaning shape one another is identified. The data suggest that appropriating...

  13. Means on scattered compacta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banakh, T.; Bonnet, R.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-10 ISSN 2299-3231 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : scattered compact space * mean operation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/taa.2014.2.issue-1/taa-2014-0002/taa-2014-0002.xml

  14. The Meaning of Mandela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Julia Suárez

    2017-01-01

    Book Reviews The Meaning of Mandela: A Broader Canvas. Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, The Decolonial Mandela: Peace, Justice and the Politics of Life (Oxford and New York, Berghahn Books, 2016), 186 pp., hardback, £64.00, US$90.00, ISBN 978-1-78533-118-3; paperback, £19.00, US$27.95, ISBN 978......-1-78533-296-8; e-book, ISBN 978-1-79533-119-0...

  15. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  16. Representing Large Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, T.R.

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquity of large virtual worlds and their growing complexity in computer graphics require efficient representations. This means that we need smart solutions for the underlying storage of these complex environments, but also for their visualization. How the virtual world is best stored and how

  17. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  18. Music, memory and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Fair, Laura

    2012-01-01

    I his paper examines the music and career of Siti binti Saadi, a famous taarab musician who performed in Zanzibar during the 1920s and 1930s. Relying on four distinctive types of evidence: her recorded music, written documentation produced in East Africa, interviews with men and women who heard her perform and records of company executives I compare perspectives regarding the source of power and authority attributed to her voice as well as the meaning of her music. Siti binti Saadi was the fi...

  19. A Parametric k-Means Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2007-01-01

    Summary The k points that optimally represent a distribution (usually in terms of a squared error loss) are called the k principal points. This paper presents a computationally intensive method that automatically determines the principal points of a parametric distribution. Cluster means from the k-means algorithm are nonparametric estimators of principal points. A parametric k-means approach is introduced for estimating principal points by running the k-means algorithm on a very large simulated data set from a distribution whose parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. Theoretical and simulation results are presented comparing the parametric k-means algorithm to the usual k-means algorithm and an example on determining sizes of gas masks is used to illustrate the parametric k-means algorithm. PMID:17917692

  20. Iodine removing means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Masaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To employ exhaust gas from an incinerator to effect regeneration of an adsorbent such as active carbon which has adsorbed a radioactive gas such as iodine contained in the ventilating system exhaust gas of a boiling water reactor power plant. Structure: Radioactive exhaust gas such as iodine, xenon and krypton is led to an active carbon adsorbing means for removal through adsorption. When the adsorbing function of the active carbon adsorption means is reduced, the exhaust gas discharged from the incinerator is cooled down to 300 0 C and then caused to flow into the active carbon layer, and after depriving it of sulfur dioxide gas, oxides of nitrogen, daughter nuclides resulting from attenuation of radioactive gas and so forth, these being adsorbed by the carbon active layer, it is led again to the incinerator, whereby the radioactivity accompanying the regenerated gas is sealed as ash within the incinerator. Further, similarly accompanying fine active carbon particles and the like are utilized as a heat source for the incinerator. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, F

    2013-01-01

    Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory provides a systematic introduction to mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and the dynamo theory, along with the results achieved. Topics covered include turbulence and large-scale structures; general properties of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneity, isotropy, and mirror symmetry of turbulent fields; and turbulent electromotive force in the case of non-vanishing mean flow. The turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion is also considered. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of the gen

  2. Ordinary and extraordinary means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1986-01-25

    The Roman Catholic doctrine of ordinary and extraordinary means in patient care decisions is the subject of this essay in Gillon's series on medical ethics. He briefly traces the Church history of this doctrine, which holds that saving life is not obligatory if doing so would be excessively burdensome or disproportionate in relation to the expected benefits. The burdens and benefits are to be weighed in the context of "circumstances of persons, places, times, and cultures," and factors such as the costs and risks of undergoing a proposed treatment may be considered. Gillon also notes the disagreement among Roman Catholic commentators over whether it is ever permissible to discontinue feeding as a burdensome, extraordinary treatment. He concludes that, despite different weightings of harms and benefits, Roman Catholic and non-Catholic thinkers are in accord over the appropriate moral approach to deciding when treatment is not obligatory.

  3. Focus on Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    recognizing new vocabulary (two-, three and four-character words) in a series of simple meaning recognition tests administered by the authors over three weeks. The test sets consist of vocabulary with target words that were given semantic and conceptual explanation by the authors in the previous week......Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words 房,堂,屋, and 厅on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests...... of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning in the classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2...

  4. Mean inactivation dose (D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Ng, T.C.; Raudkivi, U.; Meaney, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    By predicting treatment outcome to radiotherapy from in vitro radiobiological parameters, not only individual patient treatments can be tailored, but also new promising treatment protocols can be tried in patients in whom unfavorable outcome is predicted. In this respect, choosing the right parameter can be very important. Unlike D 0 and N which provide information of the distal part of the survival curve, mean inactivation dose (D) estimates overall radiosensitivity. However, the parameters reflecting the response at the clinically relevant low-dose region are neglected in the literature. In a literature survey of 98 papers in which survival curves or D 0 /N were used, only in 2 D was used. In 21 papers the D 0 /n values were important in drawing conclusions. By calculating D in 3 of these 21 papers, we show that the conclusion drawn may be altered with the use of D. The importance of ''low-dose-region-parameters'' is reviewed. (orig.)

  5. The mean Evershed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.-R.

    1984-09-01

    The paper gives a theoretical analysis of the overall characteristics of the Evershed flow (one of the main features of sunspots), with particular attention given to its outward flow from the umbra in the photosphere, reaching a maximum somewhere in the penumbra, and decreasing rapidly further out, and its inward flow of a comparable magnitude in chromosphere. Because the inertial force of the flow is small, the relevant dynamic process can be divided into a base state and a perturbation. The base-state solution yields the equilibrium relations between the pressure gradient, the Lorentz force, and gravity, and the flow law. The perturbation describes the force driving the Evershed flow. Since the pressure gradient in the base state is already in equilibrium with the Lorentz force and the gravity, the driving force of the mean Evershed flow is small.

  6. Improvisation and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Simon

    2013-08-07

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  7. Improvisation and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gilbertson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  8. Improvisation and meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating. PMID:23930989

  9. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  10. When Information Conveys Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reading

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible, objective entities and the other in the mental world of intangible, subjective ones. This paper introduces an approach that incorporates both of them within a unified framework by defining them in terms of what they do, rather than what they are. Meaningful information is thus conceptualized here as patterns of matter and energy that have a tangible effect on the entities that detect them, either by changing their function, structure or behavior, while patterns of matter and energy that have no such effects are considered meaningless. The way that meaningful information can act as a causal agent in bio-behavioral systems enables us to move beyond dualistic concepts of ourselves as comprised of a material body that obeys the laws of physics and a non-material essence that is too elusive to study [1].

  11. Continuous time finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Mohr, Joana; Souza, Rafael Rigã o

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  12. Continuous time finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2013-04-23

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  13. Continuous Time Finite State Mean Field Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: dgomes@math.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry, and Dynamical Systems, Departamento de Matematica (Portugal); Mohr, Joana, E-mail: joana.mohr@ufrgs.br; Souza, Rafael Rigao, E-mail: rafars@mat.ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Instituto de Matematica (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N{yields}{infinity} of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games.

  14. Continuous Time Finite State Mean Field Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Mohr, Joana; Souza, Rafael Rigão

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games

  15. Extracting meaning from astronomical telegrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Conwill, L.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using aspects of natural language processing. We demonstrate that it is possible to infer the subject of an ATEL from the vocabulary used and to identify previously unassociated reports.

  16. Mean field games for cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we study mobility effect and power saving in cognitive radio networks using mean field games. We consider two types of users: primary and secondary users. When active, each secondary transmitter-receiver uses carrier sensing and is subject to long-term energy constraint. We formulate the interaction between primary user and large number of secondary users as an hierarchical mean field game. In contrast to the classical large-scale approaches based on stochastic geometry, percolation theory and large random matrices, the proposed mean field framework allows one to describe the evolution of the density distribution and the associated performance metrics using coupled partial differential equations. We provide explicit formulas and algorithmic power management for both primary and secondary users. A complete characterization of the optimal distribution of energy and probability of success is given.

  17. A science of meaning. Can behaviorism bring meaning to psychological science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, R J

    2000-07-01

    An argument is presented for making meaning a central dependent variable in psychological science. Principles of operant psychology are then interpreted as providing a basic foundation for a science of meaning. The emphasis here is on the generality of basic operant concepts, where learning is a process of meaning making that is governed largely by natural contingencies; reinforcement is an organic process in which environment-behavior relations are selected, defined here as a dialectical process of meaning making; and reinforcers are experiential consequences with acquired, ecologically derived meanings. The author concludes with a call for a more interdisciplinary science of psychology, focusing on the individual in society.

  18. Large scale genomic reorganization of topological domains at the HoxD locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Pierre J; Leleu, Marion; Mormann, Benjamin H; Lopez-Delisle, Lucille; Noordermeer, Daan; Beccari, Leonardo; Duboule, Denis

    2017-08-07

    The transcriptional activation of HoxD genes during mammalian limb development involves dynamic interactions with two topologically associating domains (TADs) flanking the HoxD cluster. In particular, the activation of the most posterior HoxD genes in developing digits is controlled by regulatory elements located in the centromeric TAD (C-DOM) through long-range contacts. To assess the structure-function relationships underlying such interactions, we measured compaction levels and TAD discreteness using a combination of chromosome conformation capture (4C-seq) and DNA FISH. We assessed the robustness of the TAD architecture by using a series of genomic deletions and inversions that impact the integrity of this chromatin domain and that remodel long-range contacts. We report multi-partite associations between HoxD genes and up to three enhancers. We find that the loss of native chromatin topology leads to the remodeling of TAD structure following distinct parameters. Our results reveal that the recomposition of TAD architectures after large genomic re-arrangements is dependent on a boundary-selection mechanism in which CTCF mediates the gating of long-range contacts in combination with genomic distance and sequence specificity. Accordingly, the building of a recomposed TAD at this locus depends on distinct functional and constitutive parameters.

  19. Multipartite entanglement detection with nonsymmetric probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellantonio, Luca; Das, Sumanta; Appel, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify th...... the degree of entanglement of a quantum state in the spin system. Finally, we apply our method for entanglement verification to existing experimental data, and use it to prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in a spin-squeezed atomic ensemble.......We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify...

  20. Time independent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1980-02-01

    The physical and theoretical motivations for the time-dependent mean-field theory are presented, and the successes and limitations of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock initial-vaue problem are reviewed. New theoretical developments are described in the treatment of two-body correlations and the formulation of a quantum mean-field theory of large-amplitude collective motion and tunneling decay. Finally, the mean-field theory is used to obtain new insights into the phenomenon of pion condensation in finite nuclei. 18 figures

  1. 50 CFR 25.12 - What do these terms mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... large game animals, including moose, elk, caribou, reindeer, musk ox, deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goat... services. Examples include: Farming, grazing, haying, timber harvesting, and trapping. Regional Chief means...

  2. Neutron fraction and neutrino mean free path predictions in relativistic mean field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutauruk, P.T.P.; Williams, C.K.; Sulaksono, A.; Mart, T.

    2004-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of dense matter and neutrino mean free path (NMFP) in a neutron star have been studied by using relativistic mean field models motivated by effective field theory. It is found that the models predict too large proton fractions, although one of the models (G2) predicts an acceptable EOS. This is caused by the isovector terms. Except G2, the other two models predict anomalous NMFP's. In order to minimize the anomaly, besides an acceptable EOS, a large M* is favorable. A model with large M* retains the regularity in the NMFP even for a small neutron fraction

  3. Means for supporting nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocker, P.; Price, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to means for supporting nuclear fuel pins in a reactor coolant channel and the problems that arise in this connection. For reasons of nuclear reactivity and neutron economy 'parasitic' material in a reactor core must be kept to a minimum, whilst for heat transfer reasons the use of fuel pins of large cross-sectional areas should be avoided. Fuel pins tend to be long thin objects having a can of minimum thickness and typically a pin may have a length/diameter ratio of about 500/1 and for fast reactor fuel pins, the outside diameter may be about 0.2 inch. The long slender pins must also be spaced very close together. A fast reactor fuel assembly may involve 200 to 300 fuel pins, each a few tenths of an inch in diameter, supported end on to coolant flowing up a channel of about 22 square inches in total area. The pins have a heavy metal oxide filling and require support. Details are given of a suitable method of support. Such support also allows withdrawal of pins from a fuel channel without the risk of breach of the can, after irradiation. (U.K.)

  4. Overestimation of Knowledge about Word Meanings: The "Misplaced Meaning" Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Keil, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a "Misplaced Meaning" (MM) effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much…

  5. Means of Hilbert space operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hiai, Fumio

    2003-01-01

    The monograph is devoted to a systematic study of means of Hilbert space operators by a unified method based on the theory of double integral transformations and Peller's characterization of Schur multipliers. General properties on means of operators such as comparison results, norm estimates and convergence criteria are established. After some general theory, special investigations are focused on three one-parameter families of A-L-G (arithmetic-logarithmic-geometric) interpolation means, Heinz-type means and binomial means. In particular, norm continuity in the parameter is examined for such means. Some necessary technical results are collected as appendices.

  6. Culture as meaning-making

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkauskienė, Rūta; Liubinienė, Vilmantė

    2002-01-01

    The present paper analyses the role of social and cultural background knowledge in the cognition of meaning. Language and culture integrated studies have long been in the focus of attention. In order to study the language of a target culture, one should understand how human beings construct meanings, understand processes of meaning-making, account for different meanings, and examine their effects in social life. The language cannot be interpreted in the right way without taking the target cul...

  7. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  8. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  9. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  10. Superheavy nuclei: a relativistic mean field outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasjev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of quasi-particle spectra in the heaviest A∼250 nuclei with spectroscopic data provides an additional constraint for the choice of effective interaction for the description of superheavy nuclei. It strongly suggests that only the parametrizations which predict Z = 120 and N = 172 as shell closures are reliable for superheavy nuclei within the relativistic mean field theory. The influence of the central depression in the density distribution of spherical superheavy nuclei on the shell structure is studied. A large central depression produces large shell gaps at Z = 120 and N = 172. The shell gaps at Z = 126 and N = 184 are favoured by a flat density distribution in the central part of the nucleus. It is shown that approximate particle number projection (PNP) by means of the Lipkin-Nogami (LN) method removes pairing collapse seen at these gaps in the calculations without PNP

  11. Meaning identification and meaning selection for general language monolingual dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The traditional way for lexicographers to deal with polysemy in dictionaries is by applying the terms lumping and splitting. We will not follow this tradition. Instead, we argue that the identification and selection of meaning items (= polysems) should be treated in the same way as the identifica......The traditional way for lexicographers to deal with polysemy in dictionaries is by applying the terms lumping and splitting. We will not follow this tradition. Instead, we argue that the identification and selection of meaning items (= polysems) should be treated in the same way...... to references in the world (in this contribution called things), followed by a formulation of the identified meaning items which can be used for reception situations. Not always – as in the case of lemma selection – will all the identified meaning items be included in the dictionary. The selection of identified...... meaning items will depend on the genuine purpose of the dictionary....

  12. Some Elementary Aspects of Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowaffaq Hajja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We raise several elementary questions pertaining to various aspects of means. These questions refer to both known and newly introduced families of means, and include questions of characterizations of certain families, relations among certain families, comparability among the members of certain families, and concordance of certain sequences of means. They also include questions about internality tests for certain mean-looking functions and about certain triangle centers viewed as means of the vertices. The questions are accessible to people with no background in means, and it is also expected that these people can seriously investigate, and contribute to the solutions of, these problems. The solutions are expected to require no more than simple tools from analysis, algebra, functional equations, and geometry.

  13. Subspace K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Marieke E; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-12-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the existing related clustering methods, including deterministic, stochastic, and unsupervised learning approaches. To evaluate subspace K-means, we performed a comparative simulation study, in which we manipulated the overlap of subspaces, the between-cluster variance, and the error variance. The study shows that the subspace K-means algorithm is sensitive to local minima but that the problem can be reasonably dealt with by using partitions of various cluster procedures as a starting point for the algorithm. Subspace K-means performs very well in recovering the true clustering across all conditions considered and appears to be superior to its competitor methods: K-means, reduced K-means, factorial K-means, mixtures of factor analyzers (MFA), and MCLUST. The best competitor method, MFA, showed a performance similar to that of subspace K-means in easy conditions but deteriorated in more difficult ones. Using data from a study on parental behavior, we show that subspace K-means analysis provides a rich insight into the cluster characteristics, in terms of both the relative positions of the clusters (via the centroids) and the shape of the clusters (via the within-cluster residuals).

  14. The Mean as Balance Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    There are two primary interpretations of the mean: as a leveler of data (Uccellini 1996, pp. 113-114) and as a balance point of a data set. Typically, both interpretations of the mean are ignored in elementary school and middle school curricula. They are replaced with a rote emphasis on calculation using the standard algorithm. When students are…

  15. Mean-field lattice trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgs, C.; Chayes, J.T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a mean-field model of lattice trees based on embeddings into d of abstract trees having a critical Poisson offspring distribution. This model provides a combinatorial interpretation for the self-consistent mean-field model introduced previously by Derbez and Slade [9], and provides an

  16. Investigating Meaning in Experimental Semiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Gareth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental semiotics is a new discipline developed over the last decade to study human communication. Studies within this discipline typically involve people creating novel signs by associating signals with meanings. Here we suggest ways this discipline can be used to shed light on how people create and communicate meaning. First we present observations drawn from studies in which participants not only construct novel signals, but also have considerable freedom over what these signals refer to. These studies offer intriguing insight on non-saussurian signs (where a single unit of meaning is associated with different signals, communicative egocentricity, private and public meaning, and the distinction between meaningful and meaningless units in linguistic structure, that is between morphemes and phonemes (or analogous entities. We then present a novel quantitative approach to determining the extent to which a signal unit is meaningful, and illustrate its use with data from a study in which participants construct signals to refer to predetermined meanings. Aside from these specific contributions, we show more generally how challenging investigating meaning in Experimental Semiotics is, but we argue that this reflects the difficulties we must face when studying meaning, outside the lab as well as in it.

  17. Lectures on mean curvature flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xi-Ping

    2002-01-01

    "Mean curvature flow" is a term that is used to describe the evolution of a hypersurface whose normal velocity is given by the mean curvature. In the simplest case of a convex closed curve on the plane, the properties of the mean curvature flow are described by Gage-Hamilton's theorem. This theorem states that under the mean curvature flow, the curve collapses to a point, and if the flow is diluted so that the enclosed area equals \\pi, the curve tends to the unit circle. In this book, the author gives a comprehensive account of fundamental results on singularities and the asymptotic behavior of mean curvature flows in higher dimensions. Among other topics, he considers in detail Huisken's theorem (a generalization of Gage-Hamilton's theorem to higher dimension), evolution of non-convex curves and hypersurfaces, and the classification of singularities of the mean curvature flow. Because of the importance of the mean curvature flow and its numerous applications in differential geometry and partial differential ...

  18. Spirituality in narratives of meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Wessels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article forms part of a study which was inspired by the ever-growing need for significance expressed both by my life coaching and pastoral therapy clients as well as the need for existential meaning reported both in the lay press and academic literature. The study reflected on a life that matters with a group of co-researchers in a participatory action research relationship. The study has been positioned within pastoral theology and invited the theological discourse into a reflection of existential meaning. Adopting a critical relational constructionist epistemology, the research was positioned within a postmodern paradigm. The implications for meaning and research were explored and described. This article tells the story of how spirituality was positioned in the narratives of meaning by my fellow researchers.

  19. Prediction based on mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    , it is found that the proposed mean subset method has superior prediction performance than prediction based on the best subset method, and in some settings also better than the ridge regression and lasso methods. The conclusions drawn from the Monte Carlo study is corroborated in an example in which prediction......Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...... the coefficient vectors from each subset should be weighted. It is not computationally feasible to calculate the mean subset coefficient vector for larger problems, and thus we suggest an algorithm to find an approximation to the mean subset coefficient vector. In a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study...

  20. Means and Variances without Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, John J.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a method of finding discrete approximations to continuous probability density functions and shows examples of its use, allowing students without calculus access to the calculation of means and variances.

  1. Dante, psychoanalysis, and the (erotic) meaning of meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, E R

    1990-01-01

    The author observes a resemblance between (1) the "polysemous" technique of imputing meaning to reality practiced in medieval biblical studies and in Dante's writing and (2) the technique of interpretation in contemporary psychoanalysis. She explores the roots of this resemblance in the development of intellectual history and provides examples of polysemous meanings in Dante's Divine Comedy, which is in part an autobiographical journey of self-reflection and self-realization (like psychoanalysis). She then suggests some implications of this resemblance for contemporary psychiatry.

  2. How Ordinary Meaning Underpins the Meaning of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormell, Christopher

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of mathematics by looking at its uses in the real world. Offers mathematical modeling as a way to represent mathematical applications in real or potential situations. Presents levels of applicability, modus operandi, relationship to "pure mathematics," and consequences for education for mathematical modeling. (MDH)

  3. The Two Meanings of Economic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Polanyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this text Karl Polanyi explains the two meanings of economic: the formal, which springs from the logical character of the means-ends relationship, and from which springs the scarcity definition of economic, and the substantive meaning, which points to the elemental fact that human beings, like all other living things, cannot exist for any length of time without a physical environment that sustains them. The two meanings, the formal and the substantive, have nothing in common. According to the author how solidly the two meanings were joined can be inferred from the ironic fate of the most controversial of modern mythological figures – economic man. Nel testo Karl Polanyi illustra i due significati di economico: il significato formale, che deriva dalla natura logica della relazione mezzi-fini e da cui discende la definizione di economico basata sulla scarsità, e il significato sostanziale, che rinvia al fatto che gli esseri umani, come tutti gli esseri viventi, non possono mantenersi in vita senza un ambiente materiale che li sostenga. I due significati non hanno nulla in comune. Secondo l’autore la solidità della congiunzione dei due termini si può capire dalla sorte ironica della più controversa fra le figure mitologiche moderne: l’uomo economico.

  4. Communication as Sociocultural Meaning Exchange:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabode Omolara Akewo Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication is expected to result in meaning exchange. However, when definite meanings could not be established in a communication exchange, an odd situation usually results. Such situations are observed to actually go beyond syntactic and logical misnomer in the communication process. This paper thus examines the semantic oddities in Richard Wright’s Black Boy. It made use of the linkage points of such linguistic approaches like pragmatics, semiotics, presupposition and truth-condition semantics to do a semantic analysis of the novel. It found that sociological factors have a great deal of influence on the odd way of interpreting utterances/communication signals in the text. The paper therefore advocates that there is the need to incorporate co-text sociological elements as being of relevance to meaning analysis.

  5. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  6. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik

    to intelligent control and protection functionality and so on. In this work different strategies towards improvements of sound systems by electrical means was investigated considering the interfaces between each component and the performance of the full system. The strategies can be categorized by improvements...... reduction in the best case. This technology is very promising since it compensates for most distortion mechanisms of the transducer such as non-linearities, production variation, wear-n-tear, temperature changes and so on. Furthermore the accelerometer output can be used for protection purposes. The only...... of the bended copper foils to optimize the DC resistance. The DC resistance was reduced by 30 % compared to the starting point for a 10 turn toroidal inductor using this method. The combined work indicate that large sound system improvements are in reach by use of electrical means. Innovative solutions have...

  7. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  9. Psaltic Modes - Meanings and Symbolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domin Adam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Universe of Byzantine music is a profound one, that is why every side should be analysed for getting to the essence of psaltical soul of the singing. Every sign has a certain meaning, every mode has a certain composition and every singing genre is interpreted in a certain way. It is important to search and analyse the historical evolution of every of the mentioned categories for being able to form a holistic image about what Byzantine music meant and means.

  10. Evolution of meaning special handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wöhlbier, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    The Evolution of Meaning is based upon the premise that the Universe consists of information processing events. 'Information' is to be understood here not in the bare mathematical sense, but in the full active life/observation/meaning sense. From this viewpoint, the scientific description of Nature is seen to involve not only the fabric of spacetime, material aggregates and the forces acting between them, but also various equally real and fundamental groups of laws and law-like entities, as well as the concepts of subjectivity and value-oriented essential dimensi

  11. Meaning and the English verb

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Every language has its peculiar problems of meaning for the foreign learner. In the English language, some of the biggest yet most fascinating problems are concentrated in the area of the finite verb phrase: in particular, tense, aspect, mood and modality. Meaning and the English Verb describes these fields in detail for teachers and advanced students of English as a foreign or second language. This new third edition uses up-to-date examples to show differences and similarities between American and British english, reflecting a great deal of recent research in this area. It also takes account

  12. Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler- α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.

  13. Means and ends of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2004-01-01

    assumptions. Means-end analysis also lacks a proper definition of the control concept. It is proposed that control is defined as a binary relation that assign functional roles to subsystems. This control concept leads to distinct but entangled process and control hierarchies. It is argued that the problems...

  14. The meaning of ordered SOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Phillips, I.C.C.; Reniers, M.A.; Ulidowski, I.; Arun-Kumar, S.; Garg, N.

    2006-01-01

    Structured Operational Semantics (SOS) is a popular method for defining semantics by means of deduction rules. An important feature of deduction rules, or simply SOS rules, are negative premises, which are crucial in the definitions of such phenomena as priority mechanisms and time-outs. Orderings

  15. The Geometric Mean Value Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, André Pierro

    2018-01-01

    In a previous article published in the "American Mathematical Monthly," Tucker ("Amer Math Monthly." 1997; 104(3): 231-240) made severe criticism on the Mean Value Theorem and, unfortunately, the majority of calculus textbooks also do not help to improve its reputation. The standard argument for proving it seems to be applying…

  16. Subspace K-means clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-01-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the

  17. Geometric mean for subspace selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions.

  18. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  19. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  20. Statistical Tests for Frequency Distribution of Mean Gravity Anomalies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypothesis that a very large number of lOx 10mean gravity anomalies are normally distributed has been rejected at 5% Significance level based on the X2 and the unit normal deviate tests. However, the 50 equal area mean anomalies derived from the lOx 10data, have been found to be normally distributed at the same ...

  1. Improved road traffic emission inventories by adding mean speed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Poelman, M.; Schrijver, J.

    2008-01-01

    Does consideration of average speed distributions on roads-as compared to single mean speed-lead to different results in emission modelling of large road networks? To address this question, a post-processing method is developed to predict mean speed distributions using available traffic data from a

  2. Biodiversity in Word and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that we need to abandon the word "biodiversity", to rediscover the biology that it obscures and to rethink how to introduce this biology to young people. We cannot go back to the systematics that once made up a large part of a biology A-level course (ages 16-18), so we need to find alternative ways of introducing the…

  3. EFL Learners’ Negotiation of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Saeed Rashid Al Hosni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating EFL learners’ frequency of negotiation of meaning when performing focused and unfocused communication tasks. The sample consists of thirty learners divided into ten groups. Three research instruments were used to collect data; communication tasks, field notes and interviews. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in the frequency of negotiation of meaning between the two task types. This is due to the fact that, learners performed both task types as unfocused tasks and they were able to use some communication strategies to keep communication flowing and to go round the target structure. Amazingly, despite the existence of the trigger of negotiation, the indicator of misunderstanding, an important negotiation phase, was absent in many cases from the conversations in both task types. Subsequently, the research findings suggest providing learners with opportunities that urge them to perform as language users rather than language learners.

  4. What does "mesmo" really mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Pagani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8412.2017v14n2p2008 The aim of this paper is to raise awareness on the meanings of “mesmo” in Brazilian Portuguese (PB, which have not been explored by the literature yet. We noticed that this lexical item can affect the meaning of the sentence in different ways depending on several factors, which will be discussed later on. In addition to the analysis of “mesmo” in PB – based on Ilari (1996 and Guimarães (2010 –, we will also present proposals for “even”, in English – following Horn (1969 and Kartttunen e Peters (1979 –, and for “même”, in French – following Anscombre (1973 and Ducrot (1972, 1981. These analyses may shed light on some issues concerning “mesmo” in PB. We will also examine phenomena related to pressuposition and conventional implicature, by Grice (1975.

  5. Experimental facilities and simulation means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper and its associated series of slides review the experimental facilities and the simulation means used for the development of nuclear reactors in France. These experimental facilities include installations used for the measurement and qualification of nuclear data (mainly cross-sections) like EOLE reactor and Minerve zero power reactor, installations like material testing reactors, installations dedicated to reactor safety experiments like Cabri reactor, and other installations like accelerators (Jannus accelerator, GANIL for instance) that are complementary to neutron irradiations in experimental reactors. The simulation means rely on a series of advanced computer codes: Tripoli-Apollo for neutron transport, Numodis for irradiation impact on materials, Neptune and Cathare for 2-phase fluid dynamics, Europlexus for mechanical structures, and Pleiades (with Alcyone) for nuclear fuels. (A.C.)

  6. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  7. On the Fractional Mean Value

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinabadi, Abdolali Neamaty; Nategh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This work, dealt with the classical mean value theorem and took advantage of it in the fractional calculus. The concept of a fractional critical point is introduced. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of a critical point is studied and an illustrative example rele- vant to the concept of the time dilation effect is given. The present paper also includes, some connections between convexity (and monotonicity) with fractional derivative in the Riemann-Liouville sense.

  8. Mean Field Game for Marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Bauso, Dario; Dia, Ben Mansour; Djehiche, Boualem; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul

    2014-01-01

    The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.

  9. Tomboys: meanings, marginalization, and misunderstandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne M

    2008-06-01

    Girls who act like boys are called "tomboys." This is an exploration using feminist guiding principles, about what "tomboyism" means to children and how adults around them construct it. The purpose is to examine tomboyism from literary, linguistic, historical and cultural perspectives. The exploration includes a review of selected scientific sources, children's and some adult literature, and conversations with adult women who recall their tomboyism from youth and how it now affects them as adults.

  10. On Mean-Variance Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang; Pirvu, Traian A

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the mean variance portfolio management problem. We examine portfolios which contain both primary and derivative securities. The challenge in this context is due to portfolio's nonlinearities. The delta-gamma approximation is employed to overcome it. Thus, the optimization problem is reduced to a well posed quadratic program. The methodology developed in this paper can be also applied to pricing and hedging in incomplete markets.

  11. Mean Field Game for Marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Bauso, Dario

    2014-01-06

    The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.

  12. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  13. Emergence and Evolution of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Díaz Nafría

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The category of meaning is traced forward starting from the origin of the Universe itself as well as its very grounding in pre-geometry. Different from many former approaches in the theories of information and also in biosemiotics, we will show that the forms of meaning emerge simultaneously (alongside with information and energy. Hence, information is always meaningful (in a sense to be explicated rather than its meaning would show up as a later specification of information within social systems only. This perspective taken has two immediate consequences: (1 We follow the GDI as defined by Floridi, though we modify it somehow as to the aspect of truthfulness. (2 We can conceptually solve Capurro’s trilemma. Hence, what we actually do is to follow the strict (i.e. optimistic line of UTI in the sense of Hofkirchner’s. While doing this, we treat energy and information as two different categorial aspects of one and the same underlying primordial structure.

  14. Bronze-mean hexagonal quasicrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Bekku, Shinichi; Ziherl, Primož

    2017-10-01

    The most striking feature of conventional quasicrystals is their non-traditional symmetry characterized by icosahedral, dodecagonal, decagonal or octagonal axes. The symmetry and the aperiodicity of these materials stem from an irrational ratio of two or more length scales controlling their structure, the best-known examples being the Penrose and the Ammann-Beenker tiling as two-dimensional models related to the golden and the silver mean, respectively. Surprisingly, no other metallic-mean tilings have been discovered so far. Here we propose a self-similar bronze-mean hexagonal pattern, which may be viewed as a projection of a higher-dimensional periodic lattice with a Koch-like snowflake projection window. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate that a disordered variant of this quasicrystal can be materialized in soft polymeric colloidal particles with a core-shell architecture. Moreover, by varying the geometry of the pattern we generate a continuous sequence of structures, which provide an alternative interpretation of quasicrystalline approximants observed in several metal-silicon alloys.

  15. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  16. Determining Mean Annual Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Folley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This robust book presents all the information required for numerical modelling of a wave energy converter, together with a comparative review of the different available techniques. The calculation of the mean annual energy production (MAEP) is critical to the assessment of the levelized cost...... of energy for a wave energy converter or wave farm. Fundamentally, the MAEP is equal to the sum of the product of the power capture of a set of sea-states and their average annual occurrence. In general, it is necessary in the calculation of the MAEP to achieve a balance between computational demand...

  17. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco; Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Sá nchez-Morgado, Hé ctor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  19. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco

    2016-11-22

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  20. Combustion means for solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, D.

    1987-09-23

    A combustion device for solid fuel, suitable for coal, coke, charcoal, coal-dust briquettes etc., comprising:- a base stand with an opening therein, an imperforate heat resistant holding board locatable to close said opening; a combustion chamber standing on the base stand with the holding board forming the base of the combustion chamber; a wiper arm pivoted for horizontal wiping movement over the upper surface of the holding board; an inlet means at a lower edge of said chamber above the base stand, and/or in a surrounding wall of said chamber, whereby combustion air may enter as exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber; an exhaust pipe for the exhaust gases; generally tubular gas-flow heat-exchange ducting putting the combustion chamber and exhaust pipe into communication; and means capable of moving the holding board into and out of the opening for removal of ash or other residue. The invention can be used for a heating system in a house or in a greenhouse or for a boiler.

  1. Breastfeeding Education: disagreement of meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia Stella Caicedo Martínez

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to analyze how educational processes have been developed for breastfeeding in a health institution, starting from the meanings mothers, families, and health staff construct thereon. Methods. This was qualitative research of ethnographic approach, which included observations during the group educational activities of the programs, focal groups, and interviews of mothers, their families, and the health staff of a hospital unit in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The analysis was guided by the constant comparison method. Results. The categories emerging from the data were: 1 breast milk is an ideal food. 2 The mothers' experiences influence upon the breastfeeding practice. 3 Family beliefs sometimes operate as cultural barriers. 4 Disagreements are revealed in the educational process. Conclusion. The way educational processes have taken place for breastfeeding reveals a break expressed by the scarce interaction between the meanings professionals have constructed on the topic and those the mothers and their families give to the experience of breastfeeding.

  2. Instantons and Large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Marcos

    2015-09-01

    Preface; Part I. Instantons: 1. Instantons in quantum mechanics; 2. Unstable vacua in quantum field theory; 3. Large order behavior and Borel summability; 4. Non-perturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theories; 5. Instantons and fermions; Part II. Large N: 6. Sigma models at large N; 7. The 1=N expansion in QCD; 8. Matrix models and matrix quantum mechanics at large N; 9. Large N QCD in two dimensions; 10. Instantons at large N; Appendix A. Harmonic analysis on S3; Appendix B. Heat kernel and zeta functions; Appendix C. Effective action for large N sigma models; References; Author index; Subject index.

  3. Interpolation Error Estimates for Mean Value Coordinates over Convex Polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Alexander; Gillette, Andrew; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2013-08-01

    In a similar fashion to estimates shown for Harmonic, Wachspress, and Sibson coordinates in [Gillette et al., AiCM, to appear], we prove interpolation error estimates for the mean value coordinates on convex polygons suitable for standard finite element analysis. Our analysis is based on providing a uniform bound on the gradient of the mean value functions for all convex polygons of diameter one satisfying certain simple geometric restrictions. This work makes rigorous an observed practical advantage of the mean value coordinates: unlike Wachspress coordinates, the gradient of the mean value coordinates does not become large as interior angles of the polygon approach π.

  4. Approximating the minimum cycle mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Chatterjee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs where each edge is labeled with an integer weight and study the fundamental algorithmic question of computing the value of a cycle with minimum mean weight. Our contributions are twofold: (1 First we show that the algorithmic question is reducible in O(n^2 time to the problem of a logarithmic number of min-plus matrix multiplications of n-by-n matrices, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. (2 Second, when the weights are nonnegative, we present the first (1 + ε-approximation algorithm for the problem and the running time of our algorithm is ilde(O(n^ω log^3(nW/ε / ε, where O(n^ω is the time required for the classic n-by-n matrix multiplication and W is the maximum value of the weights.

  5. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  6. What fusion means to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    Fusion can and will play an ever-increasing role in the energy balance once it has been brought on line. Taming of this technology and the maturing processes of engineering and economic feasibility will proceed at a rate which depends very strongly upon international and collective national wills to see it through. Large experimental devices, particularly of the tokamak type, are now being completed; their performance should give a very good idea of the scientific feasibility. The next-stage devices are at the pre-proposal and proposal stages but are not yet approved, even in principle. An improved general economic climate sustained for a few years would certainly help re-establish the momentum of world international efforts in fusion. This paper gives an overview of fusion research on a world scale and details of the particular aspects that Canada has chosen to pursue

  7. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...

  8. True mean rate measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenlaub, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A digital radiation-monitoring system for nuclear power plants uses digital and microprocessor circuitry to enable rapid processing of pulse information from remote radiation monitors. The pulse rates are analyzed to determine whether new pulse-rate information is statisticaly the same as that previously received and to determine the best possible averaging time, which can be changed so that the statistical error remains below a specified level while the system response time remains short. Several data modules each process the pulse-rate information from several remote radiation monitors. Each data module accepts pulse data from each radiation monitor and measures the true average or mean pulse rate of events occurring with a Poisson distribution to determine the radiation level. They then develop digital output signals which indciate the respective radiation levels and which can be transmitted via multiplexer circuits for additional processing and display. The data modules can accept signals from remote control stations or computer stations via the multiplexer circuit to change operating thresholds and alarm levels in their memories. A check module scans the various data modules to determine whether the output signals are valid. It also acts as a redundant data module and will automatically replace an inoperative unit. (DN)

  9. What Psychology Means To Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Roy

    2006-01-01

    The author takes on the task of describing the interface between emotion and cognition by way of a narrative about psychology, and its meaning to his life. Using time as an overall metaphor, or perhaps a foundation stone underpinning a series of seemingly unconnected events, some insight is given into the author's personal life. The author invokes the works of feminist philosopher and author, Susan Faludi, to portray some aspects of his journey through fantasy, and then the reality of a disparate practice on two continents in psychology and neuropsychology. With particular reference to Faludi's portrayal of men as failed heroes without a role in modern society, the author discovers that all of his work with others has been a work with his own troubled soul, and his failed heroism. Calling on his early role models, and life with and without a sense of purpose, he learns from his clients the value of courage and patience, a spiritual as well as intellectual journey that leads him to become many things to many people in order to heal them, and himself. PMID:22013338

  10. Meaning in life and intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2016-03-01

    Three correlational studies and 2 experiments examined the association between meaning in life (MIL) and reliance on intuitive information processing. In Studies 1-3 (total N = 5,079), Faith in Intuition (FI) scale and MIL were correlated positively, controlling for religiosity, positive mood, self-esteem, basic need satisfaction, and need for cognition. Two experiments manipulated processing style. In Study 4 (N = 614), participants were randomly assigned to complete the Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT; Fredrick, 2005) either immediately before (reflective/low intuitive mindset condition) or immediately after (control condition) rating MIL. Condition did not affect MIL. However, low MIL rated before the CRT predicted superior performance and greater time spent on the task. The association between reflection and MIL was curvilinear, such that MIL was strongly negatively related to CRT performance particularly at low levels of MIL. In Study 5 (N = 804), intuitive or reflective mindsets were induced and FI and MIL were measured. Induced processing style study did not affect MIL. However, those high in MIL were more responsive to the intuitive mindset induction. The relationship between FI and MIL was curvilinear (in this and the correlational studies), with intuitive processing being strongly positively related to MIL particularly at higher levels of MIL. Although often considered in the context of conscious reflection, MIL shares a positive relationship with reliance on gut feelings, and high MIL may facilitate reliance on those feelings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Untouched Literal Meaning in Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena J. Rvović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available When we talk about advertising, media are the frame of reference for understanding and theorization of this phenomenon, but taking into account only that we will once again explain the impact of their content to the audience, which is, after all, not questioned. A different approach to the study of these topics is wider frame of reference - a society, and the basic research question is actually how the study of misogyny in commercials directing attention to the social context in which the recipient makes decisions regarding the release of information? If we recognize misogynistic content in advertisements and interpret it only in the discourse of feminist theory, the question is whether the information obtained in such way will produce the terror of surplus of meaning and why are we doing it at all? Would such an approach and the analysis itself reduced to complete insignificance, not realizing at the end of its significance? On the other hand, if we observe the same analysis through the eyes of human relationships, we must use other discourses.

  12. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  13. Radiation: A means of sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, R N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Life Sciences, Radiation Biology Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1975-12-15

    The sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation is a well-established industrial process in a number of technologically advanced countries. It is indeed encouraging to note the rate of growth experienced during the past fifteen years. Starting with the first commercial plant in the early sixties in the USA there are to date more than sixty large facilities of this kind located in USA, Canada, Australia and the countries of Europe including USSR. The geographical distribution of these sterilization plants is rather unbalanced. In this respect Europe is far ahead of the other continents of the world, with about 65% of all sterilization plants, followed by North and South America with 17%, Asia with 8%, Australia and New Zealand with 9% and Africa with only 1%. During the last 10 years the IAEA has actively contributed to the development of radiation sterilization practices and technology in the Member States, with particular emphasis on the developing countries. Such promotional efforts have been made by (a) supporting co-ordinated research to accumulate relevant technical information, (b) organizing scientific meetings and training courses, (c) providing technical expertise in the form of fellowships and expert services, (d) providing technical assistance to conduct market surveys and economic feasibility assessment, (e) scientific publications, including technical manuals and proceedings reports, and (f) assistance in the formulation of an international 'Code of Practice' for standardization of the manufacturing practices for radiation sterilized medical products to meet the specified requirements of the various national Pharmacopoeias and of the international consumer market.

  14. EVERYDAY LANDSCAPE AND MEANING IN URBAN LIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKSHMI PRIYA RAJENDRAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper conceptualizes landscape from a temporal and spatial perspective which emphasizes peoples’ interactions and activities as an inherent part of understanding the landscape itself. Today, peoples’ interaction with the landscape has become more complex, largely owing to the changing notions of place in contemporary urban living. In this context, the paper examines the role and significance of the landscapes of everyday life in urban environment and delineates how it (reconstructs ordinary human and social meanings that are necessary conditions for our existence. The paper is presented in three sections. In the first section, it discusses the concept of everyday life and its relevance in the contemporary urban living. In the following section, it examines the complexities encountered in urban landscapes today .The third section of the paper discusses how meaningful interaction experienced with everyday landscapes offer valuable insights for addressing the challenges posed by the complexities of urban city living. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for attention towards the largely neglected or overlooked domains of ‘ordinary’ everyday landscape by designer professionals, which plays a crucial role in creating meaningful relationship between people and place.

  15. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  16. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  17. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  18. Make your values mean something.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Patrick M

    2002-07-01

    Take a look at this list of corporate values: Communication. Respect. Integrity. Excellence. They sound pretty good, don't they? Maybe they even resemble your own company's values. If so, you should be nervous. These are the corporate values of Enron, as claimed in its 2000 annual report. And they're absolutely meaningless. Indeed, most values statements, says the author, are bland, toothless, or just plain dishonest. And far from being harmless, as some executives assume, they're often highly destructive. Empty values statements create cynical and dispirited employees and undermine managerial credibility. But coming up with strong values--and sticking to them--isn't easy. Organizations that want their values statements to really mean something should follow four imperatives. First, understand the different types of values: core, aspirational, permission-to-play, and accidental. Confusing them with one another can bewilder employees and make management seem out of touch. Second, be aggressively authentic. Too many companies view a values initiative in the same way they view a marketing launch: a onetime event measured by the initial attention it receives, not by its content. Third, own the process. Values initiatives are about imposing a set of fundamental, strategically sound beliefs on a broad group of people. That's why the best values efforts are driven by small teams. Finally, weave core values into everything. It's not enough to hang your values statement on the wall; it must be integrated into every employee-related process--hiring methods, performance management systems, even dismissal policies. Living by stated corporate values is difficult. But the benefits of doing so can be profound; so can the damage from adopting a hollow set of corporate values.

  19. EDITORIAL: Astrophysics by all means - but by what means?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    1997-01-01

    -centred menu and offering a new updated, attractive, student-centred approach to teaching and learning physics. The approach will be one where teaching is supported by innovative teaching materials, enabling students to work in groups, to role-play, to research and problem-solve, to design using mathematical models, to learn about physics beyond their classrooms, to develop key skills and to speak about physics with an enthusiasm and sparkle. Yes, I too can dream, but if you don't aim for the stars, as the saying goes, you will not even reach the top of the mountain. The inclusion of topics like astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics in syllabus structures is to be applauded for offering young people a broader vision of physics. However, they are all developments which attempt to influence the content of a physics syllabus. The debate has been whether or not to include the fourth-power law in an astrophysics unit or whether refractive index has a place in Medical Physics to explain optical fibre technology. What has been missing as far as I can see has been a parallel movement in developing the way Physics has been taught, can be taught and can be studied. The time for funding new initiatives which will develop the methodology of teaching and learning physics is now. It is over 20 years since I used the teacher's pages of the old Nuffleld Advanced books to give me ideas on how to teach the course as a probationer (NQT). I still find myself referring to them on occasion. In the intervening years we have learnt much about how young people learn science and how older people teach science. So here is a message to the physics education community. By all means fund projects to introduce some modern physics into the curriculum but hear this plea for parallel developments in new ways to teach the new, and the old, physics - ways that will cater for broad ability ranges and for the diverse career interests of students and will allow teachers to adjust their focus away from the

  20. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Sobczak; Robert Rink; Rafał Kuczyński; Robert Trębski

    2014-01-01

    Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power syst...

  1. Measurement of environmental gamma radiation by means of a large volume ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Daniel; Caput, Claude.

    1980-02-01

    A device for the measurement of the intensity of environmental gamma radiation has been realized and set up inside a vehicle especially fitted to that purpose. Because of its characteristics of sensitivity and time of response light and very local anomalies due for instance to foreign materials or punctual geological bassets can be detected and maps of dose rates at a regional scale can be drawn up. Such maps drawn before and after the operation of nuclear plants make it possible to assess their impact on environmental radiation levels [fr

  2. Parallel k-Means Clustering for Quantitative Ecoregion Delineation Using Large Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra Kumar; Richard T. Mills; Forrest M Hoffman; William W Hargrove

    2011-01-01

    Identification of geographic ecoregions has long been of interest to environmental scientists and ecologists for identifying regions of similar ecological and environmental conditions. Such classifications are important for predicting suitable species ranges, for stratification of ecological samples, and to help prioritize habitat preservation and remediation efforts....

  3. Mean field interaction in biochemical reaction networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we establish a relationship between chemical dynamics and mean field game dynamics. We show that chemical reaction networks can be studied using noisy mean field limits. We provide deterministic, noisy and switching mean field limits

  4. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline....... For the suggested model, some covariate effects are allowed to be time-varying. To estimate the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the large sample properties of the resulting estimators are established. In addition, to assess the adequacy of the model, we investigate a goodness...

  5. Radiosurgery for Large Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of radiosurgery in patients with large brain metastases treated with radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Eighty patients with large brain metastases (>14 cm 3 ) were treated with radiosurgery between 1998 and 2009. The mean age was 59 ± 11 years, and 49 (61.3%) were men. Neurologic symptoms were identified in 77 patients (96.3%), and 30 (37.5%) exhibited a dependent functional status. The primary disease was under control in 36 patients (45.0%), and 44 (55.0%) had a single lesion. The mean tumor volume was 22.4 ± 8.8 cm 3 , and the mean marginal dose prescribed was 13.8 ± 2.2 Gy. Results: The median survival time from radiosurgery was 7.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.343–10.46), and the 1-year survival rate was 39.2%. Functional improvement within 1–4 months or the maintenance of the initial independent status was observed in 48 (60.0%) and 20 (25.0%) patients after radiosurgery, respectively. Control of the primary disease, a marginal dose of ≥11 Gy, and a tumor volume ≥26 cm 3 were significantly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.479; p = .018; 95% CI, 0.261–0.880; hazard ratio, 0.350; p = .004; 95% CI, 0.171–0.718; hazard ratio, 2.307; p = .006; 95% CI, 1.274–4.180, respectively). Unacceptable radiation-related toxicities (Radiation Toxicity Oncology Group central nervous system toxicity Grade 3, 4, and 5 in 7, 6, and 2 patients, respectively) developed in 15 patients (18.8%). Conclusion: Radiosurgery seems to have a comparable efficacy with surgery for large brain metastases. However, the rate of radiation-related toxicities after radiosurgery should be considered when deciding on a treatment modality.

  6. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  7. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  8. (The feeling of) meaning-as-information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2014-05-01

    The desire for meaning is recognized as a central human motive. Yet, knowing that people want meaning does not explain its function. What adaptive problem does this experience solve? Drawing on the feelings-as-information hypothesis, we propose that the feeling of meaning provides information about the presence of reliable patterns and coherence in the environment, information that is not provided by affect. We review research demonstrating that manipulations of stimulus coherence influence subjective reports of meaning in life but not affect. We demonstrate that manipulations that foster an associative mindset enhance meaning. The meaning-as-information perspective embeds meaning in a network of foundational functions including associative learning, perception, cognition, and neural processing. This approach challenges assumptions about meaning, including its motivational appeal, the roles of expectancies and novelty in this experience, and the notion that meaning is inherently constructed. Implications for constructed meaning and existential meanings are discussed.

  9. Study on large release frequency of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Song Wei; Li Chaojun; Fu Zhiwei; Wang Zhe; Zuo Jiaxu; Tong Jiejuan

    2014-01-01

    There are several definitions of large release frequency of nuclear power plant. This paper reviews the meanings of large release and requirement of large release frequency provided by IAEA, NRC and WENRA, analyses the relationship between the meanings of large release, compares the calculations of several large release frequencies, It is different frequency that the definition of LRF is not same. Last we discuss the difference between large release frequency and large early release frequency and explore the suitable definitions of LRF for nuclear power plants in China. (authors)

  10. Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This chapter examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression. When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.

  11. Applying Mean-Field Approximation to Continuous Time Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolesnichenko, A.V.; Senni, Valerio; Pourranjabar, Alireza; Remke, A.K.I.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The mean-field analysis technique is used to perform analysis of a system with a large number of components to determine the emergent deterministic behaviour and how this behaviour modifies when its parameters are perturbed. The computer science performance modelling and analysis community has found

  12. Constrained deterministic leader-follower mean field control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, L.; Gentile, B.; Parise, F.; Grammatico, S.; Lygeros, J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a mean field game among a large population of noncooperative agents divided into two categories: leaders and followers. Each agent is subject to heterogeneous convex constraints and minimizes a quadratic cost function; the cost of each leader is affected by the leaders' aggregate

  13. Block pattern technology: a means of revamping the clothing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Block pattern technology: a means of revamping the clothing industry in Nigeria. ... The main purpose of this study was to develop bodice block patterns for female youths in three size categories- small, medium and large as well as test the fit of the garments constructed from the blocks. The area of study was Enugu State.

  14. Large N Scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective...

  15. Large bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blockage in the intestine due to scar tissue Colon cancer Diverticular disease (disease of the large bowel) Other reasons for bowel resection are: Familial polyposis (polyps are growths on the lining of the colon or rectum) Injuries that damage the large bowel ...

  16. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  17. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  18. Normalization based K means Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Virmani, Deepali; Taneja, Shweta; Malhotra, Geetika

    2015-01-01

    K-means is an effective clustering technique used to separate similar data into groups based on initial centroids of clusters. In this paper, Normalization based K-means clustering algorithm(N-K means) is proposed. Proposed N-K means clustering algorithm applies normalization prior to clustering on the available data as well as the proposed approach calculates initial centroids based on weights. Experimental results prove the betterment of proposed N-K means clustering algorithm over existing...

  19. Mean Field Analysis of Quantum Annealing Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shunji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A

    2016-06-03

    Quantum annealing correction (QAC) is a method that combines encoding with energy penalties and decoding to suppress and correct errors that degrade the performance of quantum annealers in solving optimization problems. While QAC has been experimentally demonstrated to successfully error correct a range of optimization problems, a clear understanding of its operating mechanism has been lacking. Here we bridge this gap using tools from quantum statistical mechanics. We study analytically tractable models using a mean-field analysis, specifically the p-body ferromagnetic infinite-range transverse-field Ising model as well as the quantum Hopfield model. We demonstrate that for p=2, where the phase transition is of second order, QAC pushes the transition to increasingly larger transverse field strengths. For p≥3, where the phase transition is of first order, QAC softens the closing of the gap for small energy penalty values and prevents its closure for sufficiently large energy penalty values. Thus QAC provides protection from excitations that occur near the quantum critical point. We find similar results for the Hopfield model, thus demonstrating that our conclusions hold in the presence of disorder.

  20. Deterministic Mean-Field Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-05-03

    The proof of convergence of the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) from Le Gland, Monbet, and Tran [Large sample asymptotics for the ensemble Kalman filter, in The Oxford Handbook of Nonlinear Filtering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2011, pp. 598--631] is extended to non-Gaussian state-space models. A density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limit EnKF (DMFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence k between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for dimension d<2k. The fidelity of approximation of the true distribution is also established using an extension of the total variation metric to random measures. This is limited by a Gaussian bias term arising from nonlinearity/non-Gaussianity of the model, which arises in both deterministic and standard EnKF. Numerical results support and extend the theory.

  1. Deterministic Mean-Field Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The proof of convergence of the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) from Le Gland, Monbet, and Tran [Large sample asymptotics for the ensemble Kalman filter, in The Oxford Handbook of Nonlinear Filtering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2011, pp. 598--631] is extended to non-Gaussian state-space models. A density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limit EnKF (DMFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence k between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for dimension d<2k. The fidelity of approximation of the true distribution is also established using an extension of the total variation metric to random measures. This is limited by a Gaussian bias term arising from nonlinearity/non-Gaussianity of the model, which arises in both deterministic and standard EnKF. Numerical results support and extend the theory.

  2. On Social Optima of Non-Cooperative Mean Field Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Lin; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-12-12

    This paper studies the social optima in noncooperative mean-field games for a large population of agents with heterogeneous stochastic dynamic systems. Each agent seeks to maximize an individual utility functional, and utility functionals of different agents are coupled through a mean field term that depends on the mean of the population states/controls. The paper has the following contributions. First, we derive a set of control strategies for the agents that possess *-Nash equilibrium property, and converge to the mean-field Nash equilibrium as the population size goes to infinity. Second, we study the social optimal in the mean field game. We derive the conditions, termed the socially optimal conditions, under which the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game maximizes the social welfare. Third, a primal-dual algorithm is proposed to compute the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game. Since the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game is socially optimal, we can compute the equilibrium by solving the social welfare maximization problem, which can be addressed by a decentralized primal-dual algorithm. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. ERP inside Large Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many large companies in Romania are still functioning without an ERP system. Instead they are using traditional application systems built around the strong boundaries of specific functions: finance, selling, HR, production. An ERP will offer lots of advantages among which the integration of functionalities and support for top management decisions. Although the total cost of ownership is not small and there are some risks when implementing an ERP inside large and very large organizations, having such a system is mandatory. Choosing the right product and vendor and using a correct risk management strategy, will ensure a successful implementation.

  4. Meaning and death-thought accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Green, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Meaning is a central feature in human life, but death can disrupt a sense of meaning. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that meaning in life and meaning in death are distinct types of meaning when mortality is salient and differentially affect death-thought accessibility (DTA). In Experiment 1, imagining a specific scenario in which meaning is preserved beyond death reduced DTA relative to a standard mortality salience prime; moreover, these effects were not due to changes in self-esteem. In Experiment 2, imagining a meaningful life when mortality is salient elicited greater DTA, whereas imagining meaning in death elicited less DTA. Imbuing death with meaning attenuates DTA, whereas meaning in life increases DTA. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  6. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccot, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  7. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  8. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  9. Reducing the time requirement of k-means algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Victor Chukwudi; Adebiyi, Ezekiel Femi; Oyelade, Jelilli Olarenwaju; Doumbia, Seydou

    2012-01-01

    Traditional k-means and most k-means variants are still computationally expensive for large datasets, such as microarray data, which have large datasets with large dimension size d. In k-means clustering, we are given a set of n data points in d-dimensional space R(d) and an integer k. The problem is to determine a set of k points in R(d), called centers, so as to minimize the mean squared distance from each data point to its nearest center. In this work, we develop a novel k-means algorithm, which is simple but more efficient than the traditional k-means and the recent enhanced k-means. Our new algorithm is based on the recently established relationship between principal component analysis and the k-means clustering. We provided the correctness proof for this algorithm. Results obtained from testing the algorithm on three biological data and six non-biological data (three of these data are real, while the other three are simulated) also indicate that our algorithm is empirically faster than other known k-means algorithms. We assessed the quality of our algorithm clusters against the clusters of a known structure using the Hubert-Arabie Adjusted Rand index (ARI(HA)). We found that when k is close to d, the quality is good (ARI(HA)>0.8) and when k is not close to d, the quality of our new k-means algorithm is excellent (ARI(HA)>0.9). In this paper, emphases are on the reduction of the time requirement of the k-means algorithm and its application to microarray data due to the desire to create a tool for clustering and malaria research. However, the new clustering algorithm can be used for other clustering needs as long as an appropriate measure of distance between the centroids and the members is used. This has been demonstrated in this work on six non-biological data.

  10. Seismic restraint means for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, R.H.; Todt, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic restraint means are provided for mounting an elongated, generally cylindrical nuclear radiation detector within a tubular thimble in a nuclear reactor monitor system. The restraint means permits longitudinal movement of the radiation detector into and out of the thimble. Each restraint means comprises a split clamp ring and a plurality of symmetrically spaced support arms pivotally mounted on the clamp ring. Each support arm has spring bias means and thimble contact means eg insulating rollers whereby the contact means engage the thimble with a constant predetermined force which minimizes seismic vibration action on the radiation detector. (author)

  11. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  12. Large Retailers’ Financial Services

    OpenAIRE

    Risso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, large retailers offering financial services have considerably grown in the financial services sector. Retailers are increasing the wideness and complexity of their offer of financial services. Large retail companies provide financial services to their customers following different strategic ways. The provision of financial services in the retailers offer is implemented in several different ways related to the strategies, the structures and the degree of financial know...

  13. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  14. Mean link versus average plaquette tadpoles in lattice NRQCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Norman H.; Trottier, Howard D.

    1999-03-01

    We compare mean-link and average plaquette tadpole renormalization schemes in the context of the quarkonium hyperfine splittings in lattice NRQCD. Simulations are done for the three quarkonium systems c overlinec, b overlinec, and b overlineb. The hyperfine splittings are computed both at leading and at next-to-leading order in the relativistic expansion. Results are obtained at a large number of lattice spacings. A number of features emerge, all of which favor tadpole renormalization using mean links. This includes much better scaling of the hyperfine splittings in the three quarkonium systems. We also find that relativistic corrections to the spin splittings are smaller with mean-link tadpoles, particularly for the c overlinec and b overlinec systems. We also see signs of a breakdown in the NRQCD expansion when the bare quark mass falls below about one in lattice units (with the bare quark masses turning out to be much larger with mean-link tadpoles).

  15. What does it mean to use someone as "a means only": rereading Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R M

    2001-09-01

    Debates about commodification in bioethics frequently appeal to Kant's famous second formulation of the categorical imperative, the formula requiring us to treat the rational (human) being as "an end in itself" and "never as a means only." In the course of her own treatment of commodification, Margaret Jane Radin observes that Kant's application of this formula "does not generate noncontroversial particular consequences." This is so, I argue, because Kant offers three different--and largely incompatible--interpretations of the formula. One focuses on the obligation to preserve rational willing; the second stresses respect for human (physical) dignity and integrity; the third views respect for others as "ends in themselves" as primarily involving a willingness to govern one's conduct by a procedure of impartial co-legislation. Only the third of these interpretations, I conclude, offers a reasonable and coherent approach to moral judgment about the limits of commodification.

  16. The Rosseland Mean Opacity in Dense Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horn, H. M.

    1992-05-01

    In post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution, densities in the interiors of stars become large enough so that hbar omega_p /kT>1, where omega_p is the electron plasma frequency. The plasma is thus a strongly dispersive medium at frequencies near the peak of the Planck function, and only photons with frequencies omega >omega_p can propagate in the plasma. These effects must be taken into account in computing radiative transfer in stellar interiors. Here I first identify several late evolutionary stages in which these effects may be significant. Then I use the formalism Harris 1965 has developed to treat radiative transfer in a dispersive medium in order to derive the resulting modification of the Rosseland mean opacity kappa_R . The resulting expression is the same as that presented (without a full derivation) by Aharony & Opher 1979, who interpreted the frequency-dependent absorption coefficient kappa_ ω as that in vacuo. However, the absorption coefficient in a plasma scales from that in vacuum according to the relation kappa_ ω=n_ω(-1) kappa_ ω((vac)) (Bekefi 1966, p. 52), where n_ω equiv (kc/omega ) = [1-(omega_p (2/) omega (2)right ](1/2)) is the index of refraction of the plasma. With this correction, we find the Rosseland mean opacity to be given by the expression {1\\over \\kappa_R}={{\\int_{\\omega_p}^{\\infty} {n_{\\omega}^3 \\over \\kappa_{\\omega}^{(vac)}}{partial B_{\\omega} \\over partial T} \\bigg|_{\\omega} d\\omega} \\over{\\int_0^{\\infty}{partial B_{\\omega} \\over partial T} \\bigg|_{\\omega} d\\omega}}. This research has been supported in part by NASA grant NAGW-2444 and in part by NSF grant AST 91-15132. \\centerline{References} Aharony, U., and Opher, R. 1979, A&A, 79, 27. Bekefi, G. 1966, Radiation Processes in Plasmas, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York). Harris, E. G. 1965, Phys. Rev., 138, B479.

  17. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  18. Mean associative multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The associative hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic and Drell--Yan processes are studied. In particular the mean multiplicities in different hard processes in QCD are found to be determined by the mean multiplicity in parton jet [ru

  19. Efficient Cardinality/Mean-Variance Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, R. Pedro; Vicente, Luís Nunes

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We propose a novel approach to handle cardinality in portfolio selection, by means of a biobjective cardinality/mean-variance problem, allowing the investor to analyze the efficient tradeoff between return-risk and number of active positions. Recent progress in multiobjective optimization without derivatives allow us to robustly compute (in-sample) the whole cardinality/mean-variance efficient frontier, for a variety of data sets and mean-variance models. Our results s...

  20. An Optimal Double Inequality for Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wei-Mao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For , the generalized logarithmic mean , arithmetic mean and geometric mean of two positive numbers and are defined by , ; , , , ; , , ; , , ; and , respectively. In this paper, we give an answer to the open problem: for , what are the greatest value and the least value , such that the double inequality holds for all ?

  1. Mean value theorem in topological vector spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this note is to give shorter proofs of the mean value theorem, the mean value inequality, and the mean value inclusion for the class of Gateaux differentiable functions having values in a topological vector space. (author). 6 refs

  2. A remark about the mean curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weitao.

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, we give an integral identity about the mean curvature in Sobolev space H 0 1 (Ω) intersection H 2 (Ω). Suppose the mean curvature on Γ=δΩ is positive, we prove some inequalities of the positive mean curvature and propose some open problems. (author). 4 refs

  3. Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavering, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…

  4. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean hadron multiplicity in the target fragmentation range of deep inelastic scattering processes. It is shown that in the high-x region the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current fragmentation region and in the target fragmentation region tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity for the Drell-Yan process is considered

  5. Mean field interaction in biochemical reaction networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we establish a relationship between chemical dynamics and mean field game dynamics. We show that chemical reaction networks can be studied using noisy mean field limits. We provide deterministic, noisy and switching mean field limits and illustrate them with numerical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  7. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators

  8. MEAN PLATELET VOLUME AND RISK OF THROMBOTIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasantha Kumar Thankappan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is a major cause of long term morbidity and mortality. Several factors are known to increase the liability to stroke. Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications, contributing to thrombus formation. Platelet size (mean platelet volume, MPV is a marker and possible determinant of platelet function, large platelets being potentially more reactive. Hence an attempt has-been made to study the association if any between mean platelet volume and thrombotic stroke. The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between Mean Platelet Volume (MPV and thrombotic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is a case control study and data was collected at Government Medical College Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala a tertiary care referral centre. The study was carried out among fifty patients diagnosed with thrombotic stroke and presenting to the hospital within forty eight hours of onset of symptoms. Fifty age group and sex matched controls were also recruited. Mean platelet volume was obtained using a SYSMEX automated analyser. RESULTS This study has shown a statistically significant relation between mean platelet volume and risk of thrombotic stroke but no statistically significant correlation between clinical severity of stroke and mean platelet volume. CONCLUSION This study has shown an elevation of MPV in acute phase of thrombotic stroke. Platelet mass was found to be more or less a constant. This study did not find a statistically significant correlation between clinical severity of stroke and mean platelet volume.

  9. Diffusion tensor smoothing through weighted Karcher means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Owen; Chen, Jun; Paul, Debashis; Peng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantifies the spatial distribution of water Diffusion at each voxel on a regular grid of locations in a biological specimen by Diffusion tensors– 3 × 3 positive definite matrices. Removal of noise from DTI is an important problem due to the high scientific relevance of DTI and relatively low signal to noise ratio it provides. Leading approaches to this problem amount to estimation of weighted Karcher means of Diffusion tensors within spatial neighborhoods, under various metrics imposed on the space of tensors. However, it is unclear how the behavior of these estimators varies with the magnitude of DTI sensor noise (the noise resulting from the thermal e!ects of MRI scanning) as well as the geometric structure of the underlying Diffusion tensor neighborhoods. In this paper, we combine theoretical analysis, empirical analysis of simulated DTI data, and empirical analysis of real DTI scans to compare the noise removal performance of three kernel-based DTI smoothers that are based on Euclidean, log-Euclidean, and affine-invariant metrics. The results suggest, contrary to conventional wisdom, that imposing a simplistic Euclidean metric may in fact provide comparable or superior noise removal, especially in relatively unstructured regions and/or in the presence of moderate to high levels of sensor noise. On the contrary, log-Euclidean and affine-invariant metrics may lead to better noise removal in highly structured anatomical regions, especially when the sensor noise is of low magnitude. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the interplay of sensor noise magnitude and tensor field geometric structure when assessing Diffusion tensor smoothing options. They also point to the necessity for continued development of smoothing methods that perform well across a large range of scenarios. PMID:25419264

  10. Bochner-Riesz means on Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shanzhen

    2013-01-01

    This book mainly deals with the Bochner-Riesz means of multiple Fourier integral and series on Euclidean spaces. It aims to give a systematical introduction to the fundamental theories of the Bochner-Riesz means and important achievements attained in the last 50 years. For the Bochner-Riesz means of multiple Fourier integral, it includes the Fefferman theorem which negates the Disc multiplier conjecture, the famous Carleson-Sjölin theorem, and Carbery-Rubio de Francia-Vega's work on almost everywhere convergence of the Bochner-Riesz means below the critical index. For the Bochner-Riesz means o

  11. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Oddershede, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabin, John R., E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  12. Large field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasek, J.; Chvojka, Z.; Zouhar, M.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations may prove that irradiation procedures, commonly used in radiotherapy and represented by large-capacity irradiation techniques, do not exceed certain limits of integral doses with favourable radiobiological action on the organism. On the other hand integral doses in supralethal whole-body irradiation, used in the therapy of acute leukemia, represent radiobiological values which without extreme and exceptional further interventions and teamwork are not compatible with life, and the radiotherapeutist cannot use such high doses without the backing of a large team. (author)

  13. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  14. Choice of large projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R

    1978-08-01

    Conventional cost/benefit or project analysis has generally not taken into account circumstances in which the project under consideration is large enough that its introduction to the economy would have significant general equilibrium effects. In this paper, rules are examined that would indicate whether such large projects should be accepted or rejected. The rules utilize information yielded by before-project and after-project equilibrium prices and production data. Rules are developed for the undistorted ''first-best'' case, the case in which the fixed costs of the project are covered by distortionary taxation, and for the case of projects producing public goods. 34 references.

  15. Mean colors and effective temperatures of K and M dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    A new compilation of the mean colors of K3 - M6 dwarfs obtained largely from the photometry of Johnson (1965) by sorting the stars he observed according to their new spectral classifications from the eight-color photometry is given in table form. For each color index, a plot was made of color vs. spectral type and a smooth curve was drawn through the data. With the new spectral types, these curves are well determined, the author claims. He recommends the use of the new tabulation of mean colors whenever classifications on the MK system are employed, in view of the substantial systematic differences with Johnson's. (G.J.P.)

  16. The global Minmax k-means algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    The global k -means algorithm is an incremental approach to clustering that dynamically adds one cluster center at a time through a deterministic global search procedure from suitable initial positions, and employs k -means to minimize the sum of the intra-cluster variances. However the global k -means algorithm sometimes results singleton clusters and the initial positions sometimes are bad, after a bad initialization, poor local optimal can be easily obtained by k -means algorithm. In this paper, we modified the global k -means algorithm to eliminate the singleton clusters at first, and then we apply MinMax k -means clustering error method to global k -means algorithm to overcome the effect of bad initialization, proposed the global Minmax k -means algorithm. The proposed clustering method is tested on some popular data sets and compared to the k -means algorithm, the global k -means algorithm and the MinMax k -means algorithm. The experiment results show our proposed algorithm outperforms other algorithms mentioned in the paper.

  17. Distributed k-Means Algorithm and Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm for Sensor Networks Based on Multiagent Consensus Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiahu; Fu, Weiming; Gao, Huijun; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-03-03

    This paper is concerned with developing a distributed k-means algorithm and a distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where each node is equipped with sensors. The underlying topology of the WSN is supposed to be strongly connected. The consensus algorithm in multiagent consensus theory is utilized to exchange the measurement information of the sensors in WSN. To obtain a faster convergence speed as well as a higher possibility of having the global optimum, a distributed k-means++ algorithm is first proposed to find the initial centroids before executing the distributed k-means algorithm and the distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm. The proposed distributed k-means algorithm is capable of partitioning the data observed by the nodes into measure-dependent groups which have small in-group and large out-group distances, while the proposed distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm is capable of partitioning the data observed by the nodes into different measure-dependent groups with degrees of membership values ranging from 0 to 1. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithms can achieve almost the same results as that given by the centralized clustering algorithms.

  18. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  19. Large hydropower generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the Brazilian experience with the design, fabrication, construction, commissioning and operation of large scale and generation capacity unities. The experience had been acquired with the implementation of Itumbiara, Paulo Afonso IV, Tucurui, Itaipu and Xingo power plants, which are among the largest world unities.

  20. Large Data Set Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, I.B.; Broomhall, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Digital emotion research has yet to make history. Until now large data set mining has not been a very active field of research in early modern emotion studies. This is indeed surprising since first, the early modern field has such rich, copyright-free, digitized data sets and second, emotion studies

  1. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  2. LARGE BUILDING HVAC SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the monitoring and collection of data relating to indoor pressures and radon concentrations under several test conditions in a large school building in Bartow, Florida. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) used an integrated computational software, FSEC 3.0...

  3. Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In the spring 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN (the European Particle Physics laboratory) will be switched on for the first time. The huge machine is housed in a circular tunnel, 27 km long, excavated deep under the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1,5 page)

  4. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  5. Context as a modifier of phraseological meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vladimirovna Harlamova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of actualization of phraseological units in the context of the French youth press. Due to the development of the connotative component of the meaning, phraseological units, as expressive means of the language, are often used in the process of communication to influence the addressee. The phraseological units with positive or negative estimation, expressing emotionally-evaluative attitude of the speaker towards the subject, influence the creation of the pragmatic direction of the utterance. Effected by the context, some changes take place within the structure of phraseological meaning. As the result the pragmatic direction of the text is increased. When a cliché is included into the context, the virtual (pragmatic meaning is substituted by the actual (syntagmatic meaning. Here, two variants of interaction of these meanings are possible. In the first case, the paradigmatic meaning and the syntagmatic meaning can coincide (thus, the phraseological unit is presented in its casual meaning. In the latter case, the meaning of the cliché can be transformed under the influence of the context. It often leads to the divergence between paradigmatic and syntagmatic meanings. Thus, connotative-pragmatic characteristics of any phraseological unit can be defined by the context and it leads to : a a cliché, losing its situational-evaluative feature (influenced by the context, the situational feature disappears and the cliché gets a positive or negative evaluation; b the transition of the cliché to the "oppositely charged" field (phraseological units with negative connotation get positive connotation and vice versa; c the intensification of phraseological meaning. The analyzed examples, proving the influence of the context on phraseological meaning, were taken from various French youth journals. (Okapi, le Monde des ados, Geo ado, Phosphore, Etudiant, Science & Vie Junior, Planète Jeunes.

  6. Straightness measurement of large machine guideways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ptaszyñski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the guideway types of large machines and describes problems with their straightness measurement. A short description of straightness measurement methods and the results of investigation in straightness of 10 meter long guideways of a CNC machine by means of the XL-10 Renishaw interferometer are also presented.

  7. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  8. Risk-sensitive mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study a class of risk-sensitive mean-field stochastic differential games. We show that under appropriate regularity conditions, the mean-field value of the stochastic differential game with exponentiated integral cost functional coincides with the value function satisfying a Hamilton -Jacobi- Bellman (HJB) equation with an additional quadratic term. We provide an explicit solution of the mean-field best response when the instantaneous cost functions are log-quadratic and the state dynamics are affine in the control. An equivalent mean-field risk-neutral problem is formulated and the corresponding mean-field equilibria are characterized in terms of backward-forward macroscopic McKean-Vlasov equations, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations, and HJB equations. We provide numerical examples on the mean field behavior to illustrate both linear and McKean-Vlasov dynamics. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  9. Risk-sensitive mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou; Zhu, Quanyan; Başar, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of risk-sensitive mean-field stochastic differential games. We show that under appropriate regularity conditions, the mean-field value of the stochastic differential game with exponentiated integral cost functional coincides with the value function satisfying a Hamilton -Jacobi- Bellman (HJB) equation with an additional quadratic term. We provide an explicit solution of the mean-field best response when the instantaneous cost functions are log-quadratic and the state dynamics are affine in the control. An equivalent mean-field risk-neutral problem is formulated and the corresponding mean-field equilibria are characterized in terms of backward-forward macroscopic McKean-Vlasov equations, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations, and HJB equations. We provide numerical examples on the mean field behavior to illustrate both linear and McKean-Vlasov dynamics. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  10. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  11. Meaning in animal and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    What is meaning? While traditionally the domain of philosophy and linguistics, this question, and others related to it, is critical for cognitive and comparative approaches to communication. This short essay provides a concise and accessible description of how the term meaning can and should be used, how it relates to 'intentional communication', and what would constitute good evidence of meaning in animal communication, in the sense that is relevant for comparisons with human language.

  12. Purpose and Meaning, Ethnic Identity, and

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and meaning are primary facets of eudaimonic well-being, yet are understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in purpose and meaning, links with psychological and academic adjustment, links with ethnic identity, and the mediating role of purpose and meaning in associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences in purpos...

  13. Politics of Meaning in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    By a politics of meaning I refer to the social, economic, cultural and religious conditions for experiencing meaning. I refer as well to the layers of visons, assumptions, presumptions and preconceptions that might construct something as being meaningful. By addressing different politics of meani...... of such factors. Politics of meaning can be analysed with reference to sexism, racism, instrumentalism, the school mathematics tradition, critical mathematics education, and the banality of expertise....

  14. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  15. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Voskanyan, Vardan K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  16. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  17. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  18. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  19. Large tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of tandem accelerators designed to operate at maximum terminal potentials in the range 14 to 30 MV. In addition, a number of older tandem accelerators are now being significantly upgraded to improve their heavy ion performance. Both of these developments have reemphasized the importance of negative heavy ion sources. The new large tandem accelerators are described, and the requirements placed on negative heavy ion source technology by these and other tandem accelerators used for the acceleration of heavy ions are discussed. First, a brief description is given of the large tandem accelerators which have been completed recently, are under construction, or are funded for construction, second, the motivation for construction of these accelerators is discussed, and last, criteria for negative ion sources for use with these accelerators are presented

  20. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  1. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  2. MBOK: ITS DISTRIBUTION, MEANING, AND FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajar Pradika A. Tur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mbok, in Javanese language, has not only a ’mother’ in meaning. As a lexicon in the language, mbok in one side truly means a ‘mother’ and still has the same meaning although it experiences the morphological process to be, at least, embok, simbok, or mboke. The variations exist and are spoken by Javanese native speakers throughout the Javanese dialects such as Suroboyoan, Solo, Yogyakarta, Bagelen, and Banyumasan dialects spread from the East Java, Yogyakarta, and Central Java. However, mbok, as a particle has different meaning, even different various meanings relying on its distribution in a sentence. Then the meanings bear its different various functions as well in the sentence based on the context of the sentence (grammatical-semantics meaning. Through Teknik Balik (Converse Technique the data gained was analyzed to distinguish the position of the particle in the sentence in order to reach its significant different meanings and functions. At least, from the analysis, we have three positions of mbok in the sentences, that are in the initial, middle, and the end of the sentences. These positions affect the meanings and functions that can be seen as follows; ‘, is not it?’ (Tag Question and ‘is/are” (Verbal Question for emphasizing, ‘please’ for requesting a help, ‘may be’ and ‘in case’ for expressing possibility, and ‘causing’ for expressing cause-effect. Keywords: mbok, semantics, Banyumasan dialect

  3. Mean-Reverting Portfolio With Budget Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziping; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the mean-reverting portfolio design problem arising from statistical arbitrage in the financial markets. We first propose a general problem formulation aimed at finding a portfolio of underlying component assets by optimizing a mean-reversion criterion characterizing the mean-reversion strength, taking into consideration the variance of the portfolio and an investment budget constraint. Then several specific problems are considered based on the general formulation, and efficient algorithms are proposed. Numerical results on both synthetic and market data show that our proposed mean-reverting portfolio design methods can generate consistent profits and outperform the traditional design methods and the benchmark methods in the literature.

  4. Finding golden mean in a physics exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Elmo

    2017-07-01

    The golden mean is an algebraic irrational number that has captured the popular imagination and is discussed in many books. Indeed, some scientists believe that it appears in some patterns in nature, including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts. Generally, the golden mean is introduced in geometry and the textbooks give the definition showing a graphical method to determine it. In this short note, we want to find this number by studying projectile motion. This could be a way to introduce the golden mean (also said to be the golden ratio, golden section, Fidia constant, divine proportion or extreme and mean ratio) in a physics course.

  5. Spatially distributed multipartite entanglement enables EPR steering of atomic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Philipp; Prüfer, Maximilian; Strobel, Helmut; Linnemann, Daniel; Frölian, Anika; Gasenzer, Thomas; Gärttner, Martin; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2018-04-01

    A key resource for distributed quantum-enhanced protocols is entanglement between spatially separated modes. However, the robust generation and detection of entanglement between spatially separated regions of an ultracold atomic system remain a challenge. We used spin mixing in a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate to generate an entangled state of indistinguishable particles in a single spatial mode. We show experimentally that this entanglement can be spatially distributed by self-similar expansion of the atomic cloud. We used spatially resolved spin read-out to reveal a particularly strong form of quantum correlations known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering between distinct parts of the expanded cloud. Based on the strength of EPR steering, we constructed a witness, which confirmed genuine 5-partite entanglement.

  6. Discrimination strategies for inequivalent classes of multipartite entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried

    2010-01-01

    How can one discriminate different inequivalent classes of multiparticle entanglement experimentally? We present an approach for the discrimination of an experimentally prepared state from the equivalence class of another state. We consider two possible measures for the discrimination strength of an observable. The first measure is based on the difference of expectation values, the second on the relative entropy of the probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The interpretation of these measures and their usefulness for experiments with limited resources are discussed. In the case of graph states, the stabilizer formalism is employed to compute these quantities and to find sets of observables that result in the most decisive discrimination.

  7. On the Eigenvalue Problem in Multipartite Quantum Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M

    2016-01-01

    We show that the Hamiltonian of a multiqudit system can be diagonalized through a sequence of unitary transformations written in terms of Hubbard operators. As an application this formalism is applied to particular cases of two and three-qubit systems. (paper)

  8. Quantum number theoretic transforms on multipartite finite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A; Zhang, S

    2009-06-01

    A quantum system composed of p-1 subsystems, each of which is described with a p-dimensional Hilbert space (where p is a prime number), is considered. A quantum number theoretic transform on this system, which has properties similar to those of a Fourier transform, is studied. A representation of the Heisenberg-Weyl group in this context is also discussed.

  9. Bacteria with multipartite genome system, its maintenance and cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kullu

    bacterial genome maintenance and also contribute to higher stress tolerance and .... the molecular basis of genome partitioning would be different. ..... has resulted in the loss of infectivity and therefore, the use of this approach in the.

  10. Non-Markovian dynamics of entanglement for multipartite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jiang; Wu Chengjun; Zhu Mingyi; Guo Hong, E-mail: hongguo@pku.edu.c [CREAM Group, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Peking University) and Institute of Quantum Electronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering (CCSE), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-11-14

    Entanglement dynamics for a couple of two-level atoms interacting with independent structured reservoirs is studied using a non-perturbative approach. It is shown that the revival of atom entanglement is not necessarily accompanied by the sudden death of reservoir entanglement, and vice versa. In fact, atom entanglement can revive before, simultaneously or even after the disentanglement of reservoirs. Using a novel method based on the population analysis for the excited atomic state, we present the quantitative criteria for the revival and death phenomena. To give a more physically intuitive insight, the quasimode Hamiltonian method is applied. Our quantitative analysis is helpful for the practical engineering of entanglement.

  11. chromatic number of a complete balanced multipartite graph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-29

    Dec 29, 2006 ... †Applied Mathematics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of ..... classes originally comprising discrete entities (graph vertices) are replaced by collections of ...... Journal of Combinatorial Theory, 6, pp.

  12. Multipartite bound entanglement and three-setting Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Chen Jingling; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    It was shown by Dur [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230402 (2001)] that N (N≥4) qubits described by a certain one-parameter family F of bound entangled states violate the Mermin-Klyshko inequality for N≥8. In this paper we prove that the states from the family F violate Bell inequalities derived by Zukowski and Kaszlikowski [Phys. Rev. A 56, R1682 (1997)], in which each observer measures three noncommuting sets of orthogonal projectors, for N≥7. We also derive a simple one-parameter family of entanglement witnesses that detect entanglement for all the states belonging to F. It is possible that these entanglement witnesses could be generated by some Bell inequalities

  13. Multipartite-to-bipartite entanglement transformations and polynomial identity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Duan Runyao; Shi Yaoyun

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of deciding if some multiparty entangled pure state can be converted, with a nonzero success probability, into a given bipartite pure state shared between two specified parties through local quantum operations and classical communication. We show that this question is equivalent to the well-known computational problem of deciding if a multivariate polynomial is identically zero. Efficient randomized algorithms developed to study the latter can thus be applied to our question. As a result, a given transformation is possible if and only if it is generically attainable by a simple randomized protocol.

  14. Theory of Multipartite Entanglement for X-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Greenberger-Horne- Zeilinger (GHZ) state [9] and we explain below an approximation that reduces their density matrix to an X-state for all times. X-states...Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 130506 (2011). [9] D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, M. Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345...Gasparoni, R. Ursin, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger , Nature (2003). [88] R. Dong, M. Lassen, J. Heersink, C. Marquardt, R. Filip, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen

  15. Quantifying multipartite nonlocality via the size of the resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchod, Florian John; Gisin, Nicolas; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    The generation of (Bell-)nonlocal correlations, i.e., correlations leading to the violation of a Bell-like inequality, requires the usage of a nonlocal resource, such as an entangled state. When given a correlation (a collection of conditional probability distributions) from an experiment or from a theory, it is desirable to determine the extent to which the participating parties would need to collaborate nonlocally for its (re)production. Here, we propose to achieve this via the minimal group size (MGS) of the resource, i.e., the smallest number of parties that need to share a given type of nonlocal resource for the above-mentioned purpose. In addition, we provide a general recipe—based on the lifting of Bell-like inequalities—to construct MGS witnesses for nonsignaling resources starting from any given ones. En route to illustrating the applicability of this recipe, we also show that when restricted to the space of full-correlation functions, nonsignaling resources are as powerful as unconstrained signaling resources. Explicit examples of correlations where their MGS can be determined using this recipe and other numerical techniques are provided.

  16. Asymmetric multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosal, Darwin; Oh, C.H.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the multiparticle generalized GHZ states. It has been shown that for an odd number of qubits and for a specific range of parameters, they do not violate any Bell inequality for correlation functions. We show here both analytically and numerically that, nevertheless, such states violate local realism, once a more detailed analysis of the correlations is made than the one allowed by correlation functions. The results imply that multiparticle Clauser-Horne-type inequalities involving probabilities are stronger tools for analyzing violations of local realism in multiparticle systems than inequalities involving the correlation functions

  17. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  18. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  19. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  20. Toward a universal decoder of linguistic meaning from brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco; Lou, Bin; Pritchett, Brianna; Ritter, Samuel; Gershman, Samuel J; Kanwisher, Nancy; Botvinick, Matthew; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2018-03-06

    Prior work decoding linguistic meaning from imaging data has been largely limited to concrete nouns, using similar stimuli for training and testing, from a relatively small number of semantic categories. Here we present a new approach for building a brain decoding system in which words and sentences are represented as vectors in a semantic space constructed from massive text corpora. By efficiently sampling this space to select training stimuli shown to subjects, we maximize the ability to generalize to new meanings from limited imaging data. To validate this approach, we train the system on imaging data of individual concepts, and show it can decode semantic vector representations from imaging data of sentences about a wide variety of both concrete and abstract topics from two separate datasets. These decoded representations are sufficiently detailed to distinguish even semantically similar sentences, and to capture the similarity structure of meaning relationships between sentences.

  1. Back-reaction beyond the mean field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A method for solving an initial value problem of a closed system consisting of an electromagnetic mean field and its quantum fluctuations coupled to fermions is presented. By tailoring the large N f expansion method to the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path (CTP) formulation of the quantum effective action, causality of the resulting equations of motion is ensured, and a systematic energy conserving and gauge invariant expansion about the electromagnetic mean field in powers of 1/N f is developed. The resulting equations may be used to study the quantum nonequilibrium effects of pair creation in strong electric fields and the scattering and transport processes of a relativistic e + e - plasma. Using the Bjorken ansatz of boost invariance initial conditions in which the initial electric mean field depends on the proper time only, we show numerical results for the case in which the N f expansion is truncated in the lowest order, and compare them with those of a phenomenological transport equation

  2. Torque fluctuations caused by upstream mean flow and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. D.; Hancock, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    A series of studies are in progress investigating the effects of turbine-array-wake interactions for a range of atmospheric boundary layer states by means of the EnFlo meteorological wind tunnel. The small, three-blade model wind turbines drive 4-quadrant motor-generators. Only a single turbine in neutral flow is considered here. The motor-generator current can be measured with adequate sensitivity by means of a current sensor allowing the mean and fluctuating torque to be inferred. Spectra of torque fluctuations and streamwise velocity fluctuations ahead of the rotor, between 0.1 and 2 diameters, show that only the large-scale turbulent motions contribute significantly to the torque fluctuations. Time-lagged cross-correlation between upstream velocity and torque fluctuations are largest over the inner part of the blade. They also show the turbulence to be frozen in behaviour over the 2 diameters upstream of the turbine.

  3. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  4. Number of core samples: Mean concentrations and confidence intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, L.; Cromar, R.D.; Wilmarth, S.R.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides estimates of how well the mean concentration of analytes are known as a function of the number of core samples, composite samples, and replicate analyses. The estimates are based upon core composite data from nine recently sampled single-shell tanks. The results can be used when determining the number of core samples needed to ''characterize'' the waste from similar single-shell tanks. A standard way of expressing uncertainty in the estimate of a mean is with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The authors investigate how the width of a 95% CI on the mean concentration decreases as the number of observations increase. Specifically, the tables and figures show how the relative half-width (RHW) of a 95% CI decreases as the number of core samples increases. The RHW of a CI is a unit-less measure of uncertainty. The general conclusions are as follows: (1) the RHW decreases dramatically as the number of core samples is increased, the decrease is much smaller when the number of composited samples or the number of replicate analyses are increase; (2) if the mean concentration of an analyte needs to be estimated with a small RHW, then a large number of core samples is required. The estimated number of core samples given in the tables and figures were determined by specifying different sizes of the RHW. Four nominal sizes were examined: 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the observed mean concentration. For a majority of analytes the number of core samples required to achieve an accuracy within 10% of the mean concentration is extremely large. In many cases, however, two or three core samples is sufficient to achieve a RHW of approximately 50 to 100%. Because many of the analytes in the data have small concentrations, this level of accuracy may be satisfactory for some applications

  5. Forms of encoded pragmatic meaning: semantic prosody. A lexicographic perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šorli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – The present paper focuses on ways in which the pragmatic (functional meaning that arises from various contextual features, known in corpus linguistics as semantic prosody (Sinclair 1996, 2004; Louw 1993, etc. can become an integral part of lexicographic descriptions. This is especially important for the treatment of phraseology and idiomatics. The workings of semantic prosody are a good example of the ways pragmatic meaning exploits linguistic means to be codified in the text. We thus investigate the meaning that can only be studied in context, as it is completely dependent on collocation, i.e., syntagmatic relations, and therefore cannot be attributed solely to a concrete word form. Corpus analysis has yielded significant results in areas such as the lexicographic treatment of semantic prosody. We believe that in order to improve teaching pragmatics in all its complexity, it is necessary to recognise and assess various aspects of pragmatic meaning both in written and spoken language. Second/foreign language teaching/learning in particular has been strongly dependent on the inclusion of relevant information in dictionaries, in which, traditionally, pragmatic aspects of meaning have been largely neglected. Language technologies have enabled us both to study the subtleties of pragmatic meaning and to design accurate and more user-friendly (pedagogical dictionaries. We will attempt to demonstrate the value of explicit description of functional pragmatic meaning, i.e. semantic prosody, as implemented in the Slovene Lexical Database (2008-2012. A brief overview of the theoretical background is first provided, after which we describe the definition strategies employed to include pragmatics, as well as presenting a case study and arguing that explicating semantic prosody is crucial in developing pragmatic competence in (young/foreign language learners. Keywords: semantic prosody; pragmatics; lexicographic description; dictionary; lexical

  6. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A.; Oddershede, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase...

  7. Good fit versus meaning in fife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijnck, W. de

    2016-01-01

    Meaning in life is too important not to study systematically, but doing so is made difficult by conceptual indeterminacy. An approach to meaning that is promising but, indeed, conceptually vague is Jonathan Haidt's 'cross-level coherence' account. In order to remove the vagueness, I propose a

  8. Mean-field models and exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M; Buervenich, T; Maruhn, J A; Greiner, W [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Rutz, K [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhard, P G [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    We discuss two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field model and the (nonrelativistic) Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model, and their capability to describe exotic nuclei. Test cases are superheavy nuclei and neutron-rich Sn isotopes. New information in this regime helps to fix hitherto loosely determined aspects of the models. (orig.)

  9. Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries | Mafela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not ...

  10. Rejuvenating Allen's Arc with the Geometric Mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, despite ongoing criticism, Allen's arc elasticity formula remains entrenched in the microeconomics principles curriculum. Reviews the evolution and continuing scrutiny of the formula. Argues that the use of the geometric mean offers pedagogical advantages over the traditional arithmetic mean approach. (CFR)

  11. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  12. A Personal Reflection on Educating for Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The major premise of this article is inspired by Viktor Frankl's words: "The truth is that as the struggle for survival has subsided, the question has emerged--survival for what? Ever more people today have the "means" to live, but no "meaning" to live for." Thousands of students who have come through the author's college courses during the last…

  13. Frankl and the Realm of Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ajit K.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the importance that meaning and values have in human life, with special reference to Viktor Frankl's work. Points out some pathological phenomena that result from the frustration of the quest for meaning and describes principles of logotherapy to deal with them. (Author)

  14. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  15. k-Means: Random Sampling Procedure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. k-Means: Random Sampling Procedure. Optimal 1-Mean is. Approximation of Centroid (Inaba et al). S = random sample of size O(1/ ); Centroid of S is a (1+ )-approx centroid of P with constant probability.

  16. Mean-field models and exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.; Buervenich, T.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.; Rutz, K.; Reinhard, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field model and the (nonrelativistic) Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model, and their capability to describe exotic nuclei. Test cases are superheavy nuclei and neutron-rich Sn isotopes. New information in this regime helps to fix hitherto loosely determined aspects of the models. (orig.)

  17. Factorial and reduced K-means reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; Kiers, Henk A. L.; Vichi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Factorial K-means analysis (FKM) and Reduced K-means analysis (RKM) are clustering methods that aim at simultaneously achieving a clustering of the objects and a dimension reduction of the variables. Because a comprehensive comparison between FKM and RKM is lacking in the literature so far, a

  18. k-Means has polynomial smoothed complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arthur, David; Manthey, Bodo; Röglin, Heiko; Spielman, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The k-means method is one of the most widely used clustering algorithms, drawing its popularity from its speed in practice. Recently, however, it was shown to have exponential worst-case running time. In order to close the gap between practical performance and theoretical analysis, the k-means

  19. Mean value analysis for polling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of calculating mean delays in polling systems with either exhaustive or gated service. We develop a mean value analysis (MVA) to compute these delay figures. The merits of MVA are in its intrinsic simplicity and its intuitively appealing derivation. As a

  20. Mean value analysis for polling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of calculating mean delays in polling systems with either exhaustive or gated service. We develop a mean value analysis (MVA) to compute these delay figures. The merits of MVA are in its intrinsic simplicity and its intuitively appealing derivation. As a

  1. A spectral mean for random closed curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Maria Nicolette Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    We propose a spectral mean for closed sets described by sample points on their boundaries subject to mis-alignment and noise. We derive maximum likelihood estimators for the model and noise parameters in the Fourier domain. We estimate the unknown mean boundary curve by back-transformation and

  2. A spectral mean for random closed curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a spectral mean for closed sets described by sample points on their boundaries subject to mis-alignment and noise. We derive maximum likelihood estimators for the model and noise parameters in the Fourier domain. We estimate the unknown mean boundary curve by

  3. Magnetic cushioning and pressure applying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.F.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a novel cushioning and pressure applying means for compressing sheets of film in an X-ray cassette. The cushioning means is provided by two sheets of rubber or plastics material each of which contains an array of magnets, the sheets being held together so that like magnetic poles are in opposition. (author)

  4. The Dual Meaning of the Expresion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Irani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract The ironic expression "az bone dandan" (from the root has been written to mean "wholeheartedly and desirous "in all persian dictionaries including general and specific ones like those of idioms and expressions or the ones devoted to a particular poet ’ s or works terminology. In fact they have just pointed to one aspect of its meaning. Since this meaning was not in accordance whit the semantic structure of some of the lines of poetry, this study analysed a number of cases from old poetry and prose texts. The outcome shows that the aforementioned expression should be regarded as one of the "Opposits" in Persian, because in the collected cases one can see that the expression means exactly something contradictory which has been ignored by lexicographers. In the opposite case the expression means: "obliged or forced to do something. "This expression is an adverbial and a prepositional phrase. Â

  5. Meaning of counterfactual statements in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    David Mermin suggests that my recent proof pertaining to quantum nonlocality is undermined by an essential ambiguity pertaining to the meaning of counterfactual statements in quantum physics. The ambiguity he cites arises from his imposition of a certain criterion for the meaningfulness of such counterfactual statements. That criterion conflates the meaning of a counterfactual statement with the details of a proof of its validity in such a way as to make the meaning of such a statement dependent upon the context in which it occurs. That dependence violates the normal demand in logic that the meaning of a statement be defined by the words in the statement itself, not by the context in which the statement occurs. My proof conforms to that normal requirement. I describe the context-independent meaning within my proof of the counterfactual statements in question. copyright 1998 American Association of Physics Teachers

  6. Large Right Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rowe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 83-year-old male with a distant history of tuberculosis status post treatment and resection approximately fifty years prior presented with two days of worsening shortness of breath. He denied any chest pain, and reported his shortness of breath was worse with exertion and lying flat. Significant findings: Chest x-ray and bedside ultrasound revealed a large right pleural effusion, estimated to be greater than two and a half liters in size. Discussion: The incidence of pleural effusion is estimated to be at least 1.5 million cases annually in the United States.1 Erect posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography remains the mainstay for diagnosis of a pleural effusion; on upright chest radiography small effusions (>400cc will blunt the costophrenic angles, and as the size of an effusion grows it will begin to obscure the hemidiphragm.1 Large effusions will cause mediastinal shift away from the affected side (seen in effusions >1000cc.1 Lateral decubitus chest radiography can detect effusions greater than 50cc.1 Ultrasonography can help differentiate large pulmonary masses from effusions and can be instrumental in guiding thoracentesis.1 The patient above was comfortable at rest and was admitted for a non-emergent thoracentesis. The pulmonology team removed 2500cc of fluid, and unfortunately the patient subsequently developed re-expansion pulmonary edema and pneumothorax ex-vacuo. It is generally recommended that no more than 1500cc be removed to minimize the risk of re-expansion pulmonary edema.2

  7. Estimating the probability that the sample mean is within a desired fraction of the standard deviation of the true mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A; Schillaci, Mario E

    2009-02-01

    The use of small sample sizes in human and primate evolutionary research is commonplace. Estimating how well small samples represent the underlying population, however, is not commonplace. Because the accuracy of determinations of taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolutionary process are dependant upon how well the study sample represents the population of interest, characterizing the uncertainty, or potential error, associated with analyses of small sample sizes is essential. We present a method for estimating the probability that the sample mean is within a desired fraction of the standard deviation of the true mean using small (nresearchers to determine post hoc the probability that their sample is a meaningful approximation of the population parameter. We tested the method using a large craniometric data set commonly used by researchers in the field. Given our results, we suggest that sample estimates of the population mean can be reasonable and meaningful even when based on small, and perhaps even very small, sample sizes.

  8. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  9. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  10. Large coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Final design of the facility is nearing completion, and 20% of the construction has been accomplished. A large vacuum chamber, houses the test assembly which is coupled to appropriate cryogenic, electrical, instrumentation, diagnostc systems. Adequate assembly/disassembly areas, shop space, test control center, offices, and test support laboratories are located in the same building. Assembly and installation operations are accomplished with an overhead crane. The major subsystems are the vacuum system, the test stand assembly, the cryogenic system, the experimental electric power system, the instrumentation and control system, and the data aquisition system

  11. Matrix inequalities for the difference between arithmetic mean and harmonic mean

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Wenshi; Wu, Junliang

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the refinements and reverses of arithmetic-geometric mean and arithmetic-harmonic mean inequalities for scalars and matrices, in this article, we generalize the scalar and matrix inequalities for the difference between arithmetic mean and harmonic mean. In addition, relevant inequalities for the Hilbert-Schmidt norm and determinant are established.

  12. Supportive College Environment for Meaning Searching and Meaning in Life among American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joo Yeon; Steger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether American college students who perceive their college environment as supportive for their meaning searching report higher levels of meaning in life. We also examined whether students' perception of college environmental support for meaning searching moderates the relation between the presence of and search for meaning. Students'…

  13. [Meaning in life and mental health: personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Sabine; Knappe, Rainer; Joraschky, Peter; Pöhlmann, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients as well as correlations between meaning in life and mental health. We qualitatively assessed the content and structure of the personal meaning systems of 41 psychotherapists and 77 psychotherapy patients. In addition, the participants completed questionnaires measuring meaning in life (LRI-r-d), sense of coherence (SOC-9L), self-esteem (RSES), satisfaction with life (SWLS), self-efficacy (SWK), and depression (BDI). The personal meaning systems of psychotherapists were more complex and coherent compared to psychotherapy patients. In the group of psychotherapy patients, a more elaborate structure of the personal meaning system correlated with the subjective sense of meaning. We were able to confirm correlations between meaning in life and mental health for most of the instances. Psychotherapists had more elaborate and coherent meaning systems than psychotherapy patients. Especially for psychotherapy patients elaborate and coherent meaning systems turned out to be important for mental health.

  14. Mean intraocular pressure in hypertensive adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irum, S.; Malik, A.M.; Saeed, M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the mean Intraocular Pressure (IOP) in already diagnosed adult hypertensive patients with different grades of hypertension. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from March 2012 to Aug 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 178 already diagnosed hypertensive patients were selected. A detailed history of ocular or systemic diseases was taken. Intraocular pressure was measured with help of Goldmann applanation tonometer. Three consecutive readings of IOP of each eye were taken at 30 minutes interval and mean calculated. Blood pressure was recorded in seated position from right upper arm, by mercury sphygmomanometer. Blood pressure measurements were determined by taking the mean value of three systolic and diastolic readings. Results: The results of intraocular pressure (IOP) between various grades of hypertension were determined. There was an increase in mean IOP with rise in blood pressure. The subjects with grade I hypertension showed a mean IOP of 13.95 ± 3.74 mmHg, while grade II and grade III hypertensive subjects had mean IOPs as 18.10 ± 3.32 and 20.21 ± 2.52 mmHg respectively. Conclusion: A higher value of mean IOP was found with increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. (author)

  15. Synchronicity and the meaning-making psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Warren

    2011-09-01

    This paper contrasts Jung's account of synchronicity as evidence of an objective principle of meaning in Nature with a view that emphasizes human meaning-making. All synchronicities generate indicative signs but only where this becomes a 'living symbol' of a transcendent intentionality at work in a living universe does synchronicity generate the kind of symbolic meaning that led Jung to posit the existence of a Universal Mind. This is regarded as a form of personal, experiential knowledge belonging to the 'imaginal world of meaning' characteristic of the 'primordial mind', as opposed to the 'rational world of knowledge' in which Jung attempted to present his experiences as if they were empirically and publicly verifiable. Whereas rational knowledge depends on a form of meaning in which causal chains and logical links are paramount, imaginal meaning is generated by forms of congruent correspondence-a feature that synchronicity shares with metaphor and symbol-and the creation of narratives by means of retroactive organization of its constituent elements. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  17. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  18. Identification of significant features by the Global Mean Rank test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammer, Martin; Dybowski, J Nikolaj; Hoffmann, Daniel; Schaab, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of omics-technologies such as transcriptomics and proteomics, numerous methods for the reliable identification of significantly regulated features (genes, proteins, etc.) have been developed. Experimental practice requires these tests to successfully deal with conditions such as small numbers of replicates, missing values, non-normally distributed expression levels, and non-identical distributions of features. With the MeanRank test we aimed at developing a test that performs robustly under these conditions, while favorably scaling with the number of replicates. The test proposed here is a global one-sample location test, which is based on the mean ranks across replicates, and internally estimates and controls the false discovery rate. Furthermore, missing data is accounted for without the need of imputation. In extensive simulations comparing MeanRank to other frequently used methods, we found that it performs well with small and large numbers of replicates, feature dependent variance between replicates, and variable regulation across features on simulation data and a recent two-color microarray spike-in dataset. The tests were then used to identify significant changes in the phosphoproteomes of cancer cells induced by the kinase inhibitors erlotinib and 3-MB-PP1 in two independently published mass spectrometry-based studies. MeanRank outperformed the other global rank-based methods applied in this study. Compared to the popular Significance Analysis of Microarrays and Linear Models for Microarray methods, MeanRank performed similar or better. Furthermore, MeanRank exhibits more consistent behavior regarding the degree of regulation and is robust against the choice of preprocessing methods. MeanRank does not require any imputation of missing values, is easy to understand, and yields results that are easy to interpret. The software implementing the algorithm is freely available for academic and commercial use.

  19. Benefits of transactive memory systems in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Aivars, Sablis

    2016-01-01

    Context. Large-scale software development projects are those consisting of a large number of teams, maybe even spread across multiple locations, and working on large and complex software tasks. That means that neither a team member individually nor an entire team holds all the knowledge about the software being developed and teams have to communicate and coordinate their knowledge. Therefore, teams and team members in large-scale software development projects must acquire and manage expertise...

  20. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics