WorldWideScience

Sample records for means building time

  1. Build your own time machine

    CERN Document Server

    Clegg, Brian

    2012-01-01

    There is no physical law to prevent time travel nothing in physics to say it is impossible. So who is to say it can't be done? In Build Your Own Time Machine, acclaimed science writer Brian Clegg takes inspiration from his childhood heroes, Doctor Who and H. G. Wells, to explain the nature of time. How do we understand it and why measure it the way we do? How did the theories of one man change the way time was perceived by the world? Why wouldn't H. G. Wells's time machine have worked? And what would we need to do to make a real one? Build Your Own Time Machine explores the amazing possib

  2. Time independent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1980-02-01

    The physical and theoretical motivations for the time-dependent mean-field theory are presented, and the successes and limitations of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock initial-vaue problem are reviewed. New theoretical developments are described in the treatment of two-body correlations and the formulation of a quantum mean-field theory of large-amplitude collective motion and tunneling decay. Finally, the mean-field theory is used to obtain new insights into the phenomenon of pion condensation in finite nuclei. 18 figures

  3. Tracking Changes in Buildings over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander

    2016-01-01

    Architectural and Engineering Communities are interested in the detection of differences between different representations of the same building. These can be the differences between the design and the as-built-state of a building, or the detection of changes that occur over time and that are docu...

  4. The signal and comprehension approach: decoding and meaning building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Aquil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Egyptian colloquial Arabic connected speech as a listening problem. The paper proposes a modified approach for teaching listening: The Signal and Comprehension Approach. It is an approach that enhances listening as a skill to attain comprehension in any listening task. The approach focuses on signals laden with linguistic phonological changes that make deciphering connected speech very difficult. By adopting the proposed approach, learners can develop not only their listening skills but also their listening strategies and meaning building. It trains the language learner to crack the code in order to construct meaning. The approach includes pedagogical listening tasks that are based on topdown or world knowledge as well as bottom-up or data driven processes. The discussed tasks use songs as a venue of connected speech. These tasks come from an online course offered through the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech that uses songs to teach Arabic language, culture and history.

  5. Means of escape provisions and evacuation simulation of public building in Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Taib, Nooriati; Ying, Choo Siew

    2017-10-01

    The Uniform Building By-law 1984 of Malaysia is the legal document governing fire safety requirements in buildings. Its prescriptive nature has made the requirements out dated from the viewpoint of current performance based approach in most developed countries. The means of escape provisions is a critical requirement to safeguard occupants' safety in fire especially in public buildings. As stipulated in the UBBL 1984, the means of escape provisions includes sufficient escape routes, travel distance, protection of escape routes, etc. designated as means to allow occupants to escape within a safe period of time. This research aims at investigating the effectiveness of those provisions in public buildings during evacuation process involving massive crowd during emergencies. This research includes a scenario-based study on evacuation processes using two software i.e. PyroSim, a crowd modelling software to conduct smoke study and Pathfinder to stimulate evacuation model of building in Malaysia and Singapore as comparative study. The results show that the buildings used as case study were designed according to Malaysian UBBL 1984 and Singapore Firecode, 2013 respectively provide relative safe means of escape. The simulations of fire and smoke and coupled with simulation of evacuation have demonstrated that although there are adequate exits designated according to fire requirements, the impact of the geometry of atriums on the behavior of fire and smoke have significant effect on escape time especially for unfamiliar user of the premises.

  6. Mean Transit Time and Mean Residence Time for Linear Diffusion–Convection–Reaction Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Waniewski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic times for transport processes in biological systems may be evaluated as mean transit times (MTTs (for transit states or mean residence times (MRT (for steady states. It is shown in a general framework of a (linear reaction–diffusion–convection equation that these two times are related. Analytical formulas are also derived to calculate moments of exit time distribution using solutions for a stationary state of the system.

  7. An obstacle to building a time machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.M.; Farhi, E.; Guth, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    Gott has shown that a spacetime with two infinite parallel cosmic strings passing each other with sufficient velocity contains closed timelike curves. We discuss an attempt to build such a time machine. Using the energy-momentum conservation laws in the equivalent (2+1)-dimensional theory, we explicitly construct the spacetime representing the decay of one gravitating particle into two. We find that there is never enough mass in an open universe to build the time machine from the products of decays of stationary particles. More generally, the Gott time machine cannot exist in any open (2+1)-dimensional universe for which the total momentum is timelike

  8. Discrete time and continuous time dynamic mean-variance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Ariane

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to static mean-variance analysis, very few papers have dealt with dynamic mean-variance analysis. Here, the mean-variance efficient self-financing portfolio strategy is derived for n risky assets in discrete and continuous time. In the discrete setting, the resulting portfolio is mean-variance efficient in a dynamic sense. It is shown that the optimal strategy for n risky assets may be dominated if the expected terminal wealth is constrained to exactly attain a certain goal instead o...

  9. Time dependent mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    We consider time dependent mean-field games (MFG) with a local power-like dependence on the measure and Hamiltonians satisfying both sub and superquadratic growth conditions. We establish existence of smooth solutions under a certain set of conditions depending both on the growth of the Hamiltonian as well as on the dimension. In the subquadratic case this is done by combining a Gagliardo-Nirenberg type of argument with a new class of polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of LrLp- norms of DpH. These techniques do not apply to the superquadratic case. In this setting we recur to a delicate argument that combines the non-linear adjoint method with polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of L1L1-norms of DpH. Concerning the subquadratic case, we substantially improve and extend the results previously obtained. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, the superquadratic case has not been addressed in the literature yet. In fact, it is likely that our estimates may also add to the current understanding of Hamilton-Jacobi equations with superquadratic Hamiltonians.

  10. Continuous time finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Mohr, Joana; Souza, Rafael Rigã o

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  11. Continuous time finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2013-04-23

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  12. Continuous Time Finite State Mean Field Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: dgomes@math.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry, and Dynamical Systems, Departamento de Matematica (Portugal); Mohr, Joana, E-mail: joana.mohr@ufrgs.br; Souza, Rafael Rigao, E-mail: rafars@mat.ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Instituto de Matematica (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N{yields}{infinity} of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games.

  13. Continuous Time Finite State Mean Field Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Mohr, Joana; Souza, Rafael Rigão

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games

  14. Tunneling time, what is its meaning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C R; Orlando, G; Vampa, G; Brabec, T

    2015-01-01

    The tunnel time ionization dynamics for bound systems in laser fields are investigated. Numerical analysis for a step function switch-on of the field allows for the tunnel time to be defined as the time it takes the ground state to develop the under-barrier wavefunction components necessary to achieve the static field ionization rate. A relation between the tunnel time and the Keldysh time is established. The definition of the tunnel time is extended to time varying fields and experimental possibilities for measuring the tunnel time are discussed

  15. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual

  16. [The mean timing of periodontic care rendering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, O A; Abaev, Z M; Domashev, D I; Boriskina, O A

    2012-01-01

    The time-studies demonstrated that the periodontologist spend 30.3 +/- 2.6 minutes on the primary ambulatory visit of patient and 16.4 +/- 0.9 minutes on the revisit of patient (non-registering time spending on preventive and curative activities). Time spending on curative preventive activities in each group of patients with periodontal diseases depended on both the severity of inflammatory destructive processes in periodontium and therapy stage.

  17. N400 ERPs for actions: Building meaning in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eAmoruso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Converging neuroscientific evidence suggests the existence of close links between language and sensorimotor cognition. Accordingly, during the comprehension of meaningful actions, our brain would recruit semantic-related operations similar to those associated with the processing of language information. Consistent with this view, electrophysiological findings show that the N400 component, traditionally linked to the semantic processing of linguistic material, can also be elicited by action-related material. This review outlines recent data from N400 studies that examine the understanding of action events. We focus on three specific domains, including everyday action comprehension, co-speech gesture integration, and the semantics involved in motor planning and execution. Based on the reviewed findings, we suggest that both negativities (the N400 and the action-N400 reflect a common neurocognitive mechanism involved in the construction of meaning through the expectancies created by previous experiences and current contextual information. To shed light on how this process is instantiated in the brain, a testable contextual fronto-temporo-parietal model is proposed.

  18. Time to reassess capacity-building partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Lauten

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 the Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict has worked with local civil society organisations, child protection networks and grassroots organisations to build capacity to monitor and respond to abuses of children’s rights. Through our capacity-building partnerships, we work to shift the power structure that defines the roles of national and international NGO's in humanitarian programming.

  19. Neutron mean annihilation time and inverse of the mean annihilation rate in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masatoshi

    1999-01-01

    There is a dogma in nuclear reactor theory that in a critical reactor the mean annihilation time of neutron is equal to the mean generation time. The author insists that this is a dogma from the basic reexamination of the mean annihilation time of neutron. There are two kinds of neutrons, one participating in chain reactions and the other not participating in chain reactions. The mean annihilation time of neutron is the mean time of the time to annihilation of all neutrons generated in the reactor. The 'prompt neutron life' as a dynamic characteristic parameter proper to nuclear reactor can not be understood as the mean time of neutron to annihilation. The author explains the logic quantitatively with two kinds of nuclear reactors, a bare reactor and an infinite reactor, for which two different mean neutron annihilation times can be defined. Thus, (1) the inverse of the annihilation rate can not simply be considered as the mean annihilation time, (2) the mean annihilation time of a critical reactor is not necessarily equal to the mean generation time, and (3) the prompt neutron life used as a dynamic characteristic parameter of a nuclear reactor can not be understood as the mean time of neutron to annihilation. (M.M.)

  20. Annual mean effective dose of Slovak population due to natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radiation is the main source of exposure to humans. The basic raw materials, generally used in the construction industry, contain natural radionuclides which reflects their natural origin and the geological conditions at the site of production. In the last time, most building materials are manufactured from secondary raw materials with higher concentration of natural radionuclides. The estimation of the 226 Ra content as well as the 232 Th and 40 K concentration in building materials and products is essential for the evaluation of the external x-ray contribution to the exposure. The building materials with high value of 226 Ra coupled with pronounced porosity of the final products make them potential indoor Rn sources. It means that external exposure and part of inhalation dose from radon and its progeny inside of building is caused to the radiation from the primordial radionuclides pres ent in building materials and products and can increase the indoor natural radiation exposure. For keeping the population exposure as low as reasonably achievable is in the Slovak legislation the radioactive content of primordial radionuclides in building materials and products regulated and the maximum of specific activity is 370 Bq.kg-1 of radium equivalent activity and 120 Bq.kg-1 of 226 Ra. The Health ministry and Slovak metrological institute nominated the department of Radiation Hygiene of Slovak medical university to investigate regularly the content of natural radionuclides and also the radon emanation in samples of raw and secondary building materials and products used in Slovak building industry. In the framework of the screening of building materials and products there were analyzed over 3 000 samples. The natural radionuclides are assessed through their progeny photo peaks. The specific activity of nuclides is determined as weighted average of their photo peaks. The obtained results are corrected to the background distribution and to the self absorption in the

  1. Continuous time modeling of panel data by means of SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Oud, J.H.L.; Satorra, A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief history of continuous time modeling and its implementation in panel analysis by means of structural equation modeling (SEM), the problems of discrete time modeling are discussed in detail. This is done by means of the popular cross-lagged panel design. Next, the exact discrete model

  2. Buy, don't build -- What does that mean for a software developer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, T.; Rahi, M.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-01-01

    The buzz phrase of the 1990's for the petroleum software industry has become ''buy, don't build.'' For an end user in an oil company, this generally means acquiring application software rather than developing it internally. The concept of buy, don't build can also apply for a software developer. Purchasing software toolkit components can expedite the development of an application as well as reduce future support requirements

  3. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  4. Simple relations between mean passage times and Kramers' stationary rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David; Jurado, Beatriz; Schmitt, Christelle

    2004-01-01

    The classical problem of the escape time of a metastable potential well in a thermal environment is generally studied by various quantities like Kramers' stationary escape rate, mean first passage time, nonlinear relaxation time, or mean last passage time. In addition, numerical simulations lead to the definition of other quantities as the long-time limit escape rate and the transient time. In this paper, we propose some simple analytical relations between all these quantities. In particular, we point out the hypothesis used to evaluate these various times in order to clarify their comparison and applicability, and show how average times include the transient time and the long-time limit of the escape rate

  5. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K

    2009-07-01

    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  6. Mean Waiting Time and Patients' Satisfaction in GOPD, Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean Waiting Time and Patients' Satisfaction in GOPD, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. ... Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2013) > ... dis-satisfaction as noted from this study should be addressed by the staff and management of the hospital.

  7. Discrete and continuous time dynamic mean-variance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Ariane

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to static mean-variance analysis, very few papers have dealt with dynamic mean-variance analysis. Here, the mean-variance efficient self-financing portfolio strategy is derived for n risky assets in discrete and continuous time. In the discrete setting, the resulting portfolio is mean-variance efficient in a dynamic sense. It is shown that the optimal strategy for n risky assets may be dominated if the expected terminal wealth is constrained to exactly attain a certain goal instead o...

  8. Building for success in troubled times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandey, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the dramatic decline of world financial markets and a looming global recession, Cameco CEO Jerry Grandey remains optimistic about the future for the uranium industry. Certainly prudent financial management is required in times of turmoil, but Grandey says it's equally important that those of us involved in the nuclear industry don't get swallowed up by the current culture of gloom, pessimism and fear. The long-term fundamentals of the industry remain strong. Worldwide demand for nuclear power continues to grow and we know that new uranium production will be needed to meet increasing demand. Utility customers are large, stable businesses that people depend on for electricity - in good times and bad - and we have yet to see any significant chill effect on plans for new reactors. Nuclear is still a growing industry, although Grandey expects the pace of growth may be more deliberate in the short term

  9. Echo questions as a means of building coherence in conversational discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelchenko Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the cognitive-communicative characteristics of echo questions in English conversational discourse. Drawing on van Dijk's sociocognitive (mental model theory and cognitive discourse analysis, the paper suggests viewing echo questions as a means of building/updating a mental context model of a communicative situation. As discourse comprehension presupposes building its coherent mental model, echo questions resolving misunderstanding are regarded as an instrument for increasing coherence in conversational discourse. Based on the mental model theory, the study offers a typology of misunderstandings corrected by echo questions.

  10. Factors Affecting Time, Cost and Quality Management in Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is an assessment of time, cost and quality management in the Nigerian construction industry, and it aims to explore time cost and quality management in the construction industry. The objective of the study is to identify factors affecting time; cost and quality management in building construction projects. This study ...

  11. A mean-variance frontier in discrete and continuous time

    OpenAIRE

    Bekker, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a mean-variance frontier based on dynamic frictionless investment strategies in continuous time. The result applies to a finite number of risky assets whose price process is given by multivariate geometric Brownian motion with deterministically varying coefficients. The derivation is based on the solution for the frontier in discrete time. Using the same multiperiod framework as Li and Ng (2000), I provide an alternative derivation and an alternative formulation of the solu...

  12. A mean-variance frontier in discrete and continuous time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a mean-variance frontier based on dynamic frictionless investment strategies in continuous time. The result applies to a finite number of risky assets whose price process is given by multivariate geometric Brownian motion with deterministically varying coefficients. The derivation

  13. Pixel-by-pixel mean transit time without deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbeleir, Andre A; Piepsz, Amy; Ham, Hamphrey R

    2008-04-01

    Mean transit time (MTT) within a kidney is given by the integral of the renal activity on a well-corrected renogram between time zero and time t divided by the integral of the plasma activity between zero and t, providing that t is close to infinity. However, as the data acquisition of a renogram is finite, the MTT calculated using this approach might result in the underestimation of the true MTT. To evaluate the degree of this underestimation we conducted a simulation study. One thousand renograms were created by convoluting various plasma curves obtained from patients with different renal clearance levels with simulated retentions curves having different shapes and mean transit times. For a 20 min renogram, the calculated MTT started to underestimate the MTT when the MTT was higher than 6 min. The longer the MTT, the greater was the underestimation. Up to a MTT value of 6 min, the error on the MTT estimation is negligible. As normal cortical transit is less than 2 min, this approach is used for patients to calculate pixel-to-pixel cortical mean transit time and to create a MTT parametric image without deconvolution.

  14. Occupant Time Period of Thermal Adaption to Change of Outdoor Air Temperature in Naturally Ventilated Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Wargocki, Pawel; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present work proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption of occupants in naturally ventilated building, based on the relationship between their neutral temperatures and running mean outdoor air temperature. Based on the data of the field investigation, the subjects’ time...

  15. Shapes and dynamics from the time-dependent mean field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, P.D.; Goddard, P.M.; Rios, A.

    2015-01-01

    Explaining observed properties in terms of underlying shape degrees of freedom is a well-established prism with which to understand atomic nuclei. Self-consistent mean-field models provide one tool to understand nuclear shapes, and their link to other nuclear properties and observables. We present examples of how the time-dependent extension of the mean-field approach can be used in particular to shed light on nuclear shape properties, particularly looking at the giant resonances built on deformed nuclear ground states, and at dynamics in highly-deformed fission isomers. Example calculations are shown of 28 Si in the first case, and 240 Pu in the latter case

  16. 3D Building Models Segmentation Based on K-Means++ Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mao, B.

    2016-10-01

    3D mesh model segmentation is drawing increasing attentions from digital geometry processing field in recent years. The original 3D mesh model need to be divided into separate meaningful parts or surface patches based on certain standards to support reconstruction, compressing, texture mapping, model retrieval and etc. Therefore, segmentation is a key problem for 3D mesh model segmentation. In this paper, we propose a method to segment Collada (a type of mesh model) 3D building models into meaningful parts using cluster analysis. Common clustering methods segment 3D mesh models by K-means, whose performance heavily depends on randomized initial seed points (i.e., centroid) and different randomized centroid can get quite different results. Therefore, we improved the existing method and used K-means++ clustering algorithm to solve this problem. Our experiments show that K-means++ improves both the speed and the accuracy of K-means, and achieve good and meaningful results.

  17. 3D BUILDING MODELS SEGMENTATION BASED ON K-MEANS++ CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D mesh model segmentation is drawing increasing attentions from digital geometry processing field in recent years. The original 3D mesh model need to be divided into separate meaningful parts or surface patches based on certain standards to support reconstruction, compressing, texture mapping, model retrieval and etc. Therefore, segmentation is a key problem for 3D mesh model segmentation. In this paper, we propose a method to segment Collada (a type of mesh model 3D building models into meaningful parts using cluster analysis. Common clustering methods segment 3D mesh models by K-means, whose performance heavily depends on randomized initial seed points (i.e., centroid and different randomized centroid can get quite different results. Therefore, we improved the existing method and used K-means++ clustering algorithm to solve this problem. Our experiments show that K-means++ improves both the speed and the accuracy of K-means, and achieve good and meaningful results.

  18. Reducing the time requirement of k-means algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Victor Chukwudi; Adebiyi, Ezekiel Femi; Oyelade, Jelilli Olarenwaju; Doumbia, Seydou

    2012-01-01

    Traditional k-means and most k-means variants are still computationally expensive for large datasets, such as microarray data, which have large datasets with large dimension size d. In k-means clustering, we are given a set of n data points in d-dimensional space R(d) and an integer k. The problem is to determine a set of k points in R(d), called centers, so as to minimize the mean squared distance from each data point to its nearest center. In this work, we develop a novel k-means algorithm, which is simple but more efficient than the traditional k-means and the recent enhanced k-means. Our new algorithm is based on the recently established relationship between principal component analysis and the k-means clustering. We provided the correctness proof for this algorithm. Results obtained from testing the algorithm on three biological data and six non-biological data (three of these data are real, while the other three are simulated) also indicate that our algorithm is empirically faster than other known k-means algorithms. We assessed the quality of our algorithm clusters against the clusters of a known structure using the Hubert-Arabie Adjusted Rand index (ARI(HA)). We found that when k is close to d, the quality is good (ARI(HA)>0.8) and when k is not close to d, the quality of our new k-means algorithm is excellent (ARI(HA)>0.9). In this paper, emphases are on the reduction of the time requirement of the k-means algorithm and its application to microarray data due to the desire to create a tool for clustering and malaria research. However, the new clustering algorithm can be used for other clustering needs as long as an appropriate measure of distance between the centroids and the members is used. This has been demonstrated in this work on six non-biological data.

  19. Determination of beta attenuation coefficients by means of timing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Beta attenuation coefficients of absorber materials were found in this study. ► For this process, a new method (timing method) was suggested. ► The obtained beta attenuation coefficients were compatible with the results from the traditional one. ► The timing method can be used to determine beta attenuation coefficient. - Abstract: Using a counting system with plastic scintillation detector, beta linear and mass attenuation coefficients were determined for bakelite, Al, Fe and plexiglass absorbers by means of timing method. To show the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results through this method, the coefficients were also found via conventional energy method. Obtained beta attenuation coefficients from both methods were compared with each other and the literature values. Beta attenuation coefficients obtained through timing method were found to be compatible with the values obtained from conventional energy method and the literature.

  20. Measures to reduce construction time of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchedantsev, Leonid; Adamtsevich, Aleksey; Stupakova, Olga; Drozdov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The organizational and technological solutions for high-rise buildings construction efficiency increase are considered, primarily - decrease of typical floor construction time and improvement of bearing structures concrete quality. The essence of offered technology is: a concrete mixing station and a polygon mainly for load-bearing wall panels with starter bars casting are located on the building site; for reinforced concrete components manufacturing and butt joints grouting the warmed-up concrete mixtures are used. The results of researches and elaborations carried out by the SPSUACE in area of a preliminary warming-up of concrete mixtures are presented. The possibility and feasibility of their usage in high-rise buildings and of excess height buildings construction including cast-in-place and precast execution are shown. The essence of heat-vibro treating of concrete mixture is revealed as a kind of prior electroresistive curing, and the achieved results are: accelerated concrete strength gain, power inputs decrease, concrete quality improvement. It is shown that the location of a concrete mixing station on the building site enables to broaden possibilities of the "thermos" method use and to avoid concrete mixtures warming up in medium-mass structures erection (columns, girders) during the high-rise buildings construction. It is experimentally proved that the splice between precast elements encased with warmed-up concrete mixture is equal with conjugated elements in strength.

  1. Intervention times for fire fighters in tall buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Warneboldt Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -rise building in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The goal was to gain more information regarding the travel time for fire fighters ascending stairs. Furthermore, signs of fatigue such as pulse during the intervention and fluid loss during the whole process were recorded. The test was conducted twice...

  2. Mechanisms for interaction: Syntax as procedures for online interactive meaning building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempson, Ruth; Chatzikyriakidis, Stergios; Cann, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    We argue that to reflect participant interactivity in conversational dialogue, the Christiansen & Chater (C&C) perspective needs a formal grammar framework capturing word-by-word incrementality, as in Dynamic Syntax, in which syntax is the incremental building of semantic representations reflecting real-time parsing dynamics. We demonstrate that, with such formulation, syntactic, semantic, and morpho-syntactic dependencies are all analysable as grounded in their potential for interaction.

  3. Reaction paths based on mean first-passage times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sanghyun; Sener, Melih K.; Lu Deyu; Schulten, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Finding representative reaction pathways is important for understanding the mechanism of molecular processes. We propose a new approach for constructing reaction paths based on mean first-passage times. This approach incorporates information about all possible reaction events as well as the effect of temperature. As an application of this method, we study representative pathways of excitation migration in a photosynthetic light-harvesting complex, photosystem I. The paths thus computed provide a complete, yet distilled, representation of the kinetic flow of excitation toward the reaction center, thereby succinctly characterizing the function of the system

  4. The impact of mean time to repair modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoi, M.; Apostol, M.; Florescu, G.; Farcasiu, M.

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of the nuclear power plant safety is one of the safety principles; its application intends to lead to the improvement of safety in all the states that have nuclear power plants. The sensitivity analyses are an integral part of the probabilistic safety evaluation of the Cernavoda nuclear plant safety (CPSE - Cernavoda Probabilistic Safety Evaluation Study). An impact study of the changes in model and assumptions on final result gives a better perspective on study conclusions. The paper presents the impact on plant systems unavailability of the changes in components mean time to repair. (author)

  5. Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games with Logarithmic Nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of classical solutions for time-dependent mean-field games with a logarithmic nonlinearity and subquadratic Hamiltonians. Because the logarithm is unbounded from below, this nonlinearity poses substantial mathematical challenges that have not been addressed in the literature. Our result is proven by recurring to a delicate argument which combines Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with estimates for the nonlinearity in suitable Lebesgue spaces. Lipschitz estimates follow from an application of the nonlinear adjoint method. These are then combined with a priori bounds for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation and a concavity argument for the nonlinearity.

  6. Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games with Logarithmic Nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2015-10-06

    In this paper, we prove the existence of classical solutions for time-dependent mean-field games with a logarithmic nonlinearity and subquadratic Hamiltonians. Because the logarithm is unbounded from below, this nonlinearity poses substantial mathematical challenges that have not been addressed in the literature. Our result is proven by recurring to a delicate argument which combines Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with estimates for the nonlinearity in suitable Lebesgue spaces. Lipschitz estimates follow from an application of the nonlinear adjoint method. These are then combined with a priori bounds for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation and a concavity argument for the nonlinearity.

  7. Risk management for buildings -- Has the time come?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, D.L.; Hunter, R.L.

    1997-08-01

    There are both incentives and challenges for applying formal risk management processes to buildings and other structures, including bridges, highways, dams, stadiums, shopping centers, and private dwellings. Based on an assessment of several issues, the authors conclude that for certain types of buildings and structures the time has come for the use of a formal risk-management approach, including probabilistic risk assessment methods, to help identify dominant risks to public health, safety, and security and to help manage these risks in a cost-effective manner.

  8. Medical and scientific writing: Time to go lean and mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lean Six Sigma methodology for process improvements and driving efficiency is old, but lean writing was adopted late by the pharmaceutical world in terms of size of the documents. The documents were lean earlier, and then became voluminous, and now we are about to complete a full circle in this regard, i.e., coming back to the lean documents again using e-formats and hyperlinking. Furthermore, writing has become more and more precise over time. The need for this lean and mean medical and scientific writing arose from voluminous research globally, both industry and academia which are abuzz with skyrocketing regulatory and scientific submission volumes. The quantum of literature is so much that reviewers or information seekers firmly believe that going through even selected and relevant literature has become highly challenging. Considering this, there has been much insistence on downsizing the medical writing documents, which could be tempting enough to be leveraged for scientific publications as well. Here, we present the need for lean and mean medical writing, discuss this concept in relation to the pharmaceutical industry, and how to apply this to key documents. Furthermore, presented is the proposed algorithm for lean and mean clinical study reports and manuscripts. These thoughts are aligned to the recently established concept of data transparency, and can be easily achieved by web links between the protocols and clinical trial results disclosed publicly, and the corresponding manuscripts.

  9. Time Impact of Scheduling Simulation for High Rise Building

    OpenAIRE

    Asmadi Ismail; Mohamad Ibrahim Mohamad; Muhamad Azani Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Although the long-introduced Industrialised Building System (IBS) has promised to solve and improve the current construction method and scenario in our country, but the IBS method has not gained enough popularity. One of the reasons is due to lack of research works done to quantifying the benefit of IBS especially in construction time saving. In lieu with such scenario, this study conducted to quantify evidence of time saving in IBS application. The methodology adopted for this study is by mo...

  10. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning is increasingly applied even in moderate and cold climates, like in Central and Northern Europe. Particularly in these cases, night-time ventilation is often......, without considering any building-specific parameters. A method for quantifying the climatic cooling potential (CCP) was developed based on degree-hours of the difference between building and external air temperature. Applying this method to climatic data of 259 stations shows very high night cooling...... potential over the whole of Northern Europe and still significant potential in Central, Eastern and even some regions of Southern Europe. However, due to the inherent stochastic properties of weather patterns, series of warmer nights can occur at some locations, where passive cooling by night...

  11. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    building maintenance structure and the real hydronic heating system faults. Coupled simulation and optimization programs (EnergyPlus and GenOpt) were utilized for improving the building performances. These tools were used for improving the design and the control strategies in the HVAC systems. Buildings with a hydronic heating system were analyzed for the purpose of improving the design. Since there are issues in using the optimization tool, GenOpt, a few procedures for different practical problems have been suggested. The optimization results show that the choice of the optimization functions influences significantly the design parameters for the hydronic heating system. Since building construction and equipment characteristics are changing over time, there is a need to find new control strategies which can meet the actual building demand. This problem has been also elaborated on by using EnergyPlus and GenOpt. The control strategies in two different HVAC systems were analyzed, including the hydronic heating system and the ventilation system with the recovery wheel. The developed approach for the strategy optimization includes: involving the optimization variables and the objective function and developing information flow for handling the optimization process. The real data obtained from BEMS and the additional measurements have been utilized to explain faults in the hydronic heating system. To couple real data and the simple heat balance model, the procedure for the model calibration by use of an optimization algorithm has been developed. Using this model, three operating faults in the hydronic heating system have been elaborated. Using the simulation tools EnergyPlus and TRNSYS, several fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) rules have been generated. The FDD rules were established in three steps: testing different faults, calculating the performance indices (PI), and classifying the observed PIs. These rules have been established for the air cooling system and the

  12. Complexity, Sustainability, Justice, and Meaning: Chronological Versus Dynamical Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Velasco

    2009-11-01

    ="font-size: small; font-family: Times New Roman;"> 

    Times New Roman;">When nonlinear dynamics came to be complemented with semiotic modulation through the implement of symbol-mediated language (a complementation subsequently termed semantic closure as first instantiated through the communicating (as opposed  to merely dynamically interacting molecular complexes of the cell, what can be termed semiotic hysteresis was born. The paper attempts to show that indefinitely evolving complexity, sustainability, justice, and meaning are indissolubly bound with chronological time in the sense of semiotic hysteresis (as afforded initially by non-cognitive semantic closure and subsequently, at least one hopes, by cognitive semantic closure: This semiotic hysteresis yields the indefinite evolutionary time of the living condition—including culture.

    Times New Roman;"> 

  13. Mean exit time and survival probability within the CTRW formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, M.; Masoliver, J.

    2007-05-01

    An intense research on financial market microstructure is presently in progress. Continuous time random walks (CTRWs) are general models capable to capture the small-scale properties that high frequency data series show. The use of CTRW models in the analysis of financial problems is quite recent and their potentials have not been fully developed. Here we present two (closely related) applications of great interest in risk control. In the first place, we will review the problem of modelling the behaviour of the mean exit time (MET) of a process out of a given region of fixed size. The surveyed stochastic processes are the cumulative returns of asset prices. The link between the value of the MET and the timescale of the market fluctuations of a certain degree is crystal clear. In this sense, MET value may help, for instance, in deciding the optimal time horizon for the investment. The MET is, however, one among the statistics of a distribution of bigger interest: the survival probability (SP), the likelihood that after some lapse of time a process remains inside the given region without having crossed its boundaries. The final part of the manuscript is devoted to the study of this quantity. Note that the use of SPs may outperform the standard “Value at Risk" (VaR) method for two reasons: we can consider other market dynamics than the limited Wiener process and, even in this case, a risk level derived from the SP will ensure (within the desired quintile) that the quoted value of the portfolio will not leave the safety zone. We present some preliminary theoretical and applied results concerning this topic.

  14. Stability monitoring of a historical building by means of cosmic ray tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donzella, A.

    2014-01-01

    A stability monitoring system based on cosmic ray tracking for applications in the field of civil engineering is presented. The system is applied to the stability monitoring of historical buildings, where conservation constraints are more severe and the time evolution of the deformation phenomena under study may be of the order of months or years. As a significant case study, the stability monitoring of the wooden vaulted roof of the 'Palazzo della Loggia' in the town of Brescia, Italy, has been considered. The feasibility as well as the performances and limitations of the muon stability monitoring system have been studied by Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. The meaning of transit times in NDT of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2007-10-01

    Transit times of longitudinal pulses that travel near reinforcing steel bars are usually smaller than in plain concrete. Chung first, and then Bungey, demonstrated the importance of including bar diameters in the correction factors when pulses propagating parallel and near to the bars can not be avoided. Besides the influence of geometric dispersion and mode conversion on pulse propagation, there is an effect due to a specific pattern of radial variation of longitudinal wave velocities from the surface of the embedded steel bar. Wall effects produce a region (a sheath) of concrete surrounding the steel bar, with smaller longitudinal pulse velocities in comparison with the velocity farther away from the bar. Then the acoustics energy travels trapped in a kind of composite leaky waveguide with a velocity less than the compression (P) wave velocity in steel and in concrete but greater than the extensional wave velocity in steel. A mathematical model of the propagation of a longitudinal wave-packet is constructed, taking into account both attenuation and dispersion effects. An asymptotic analysis of pulse propagation and the introduction of a threshold of detection in the receiving transducer, allows the derivation of an approximate analytical formula for transit times. Then the meaning of transit times in NDT of concrete is discussed. The above mentioned formula is used to study the effects of the reinforcing bar radius, the propagation parameters in plain concrete and in the sheath surrounding the steel bar, the path length between the transmitting and the receiving transducers, and the energy and the spectral composition of the pulse injected by the emitter in the tested body. Chung s empirical correlation between the measured pulse velocity and bar radius is reviewed and a new correlation is proposed

  16. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Mean Residence Times (MRTs) of the raw water of drinking water supplies is the measurement of the water-isotopes (oxygen-18, hydrogen-2 and tritium (3H)). The traceability and the quality oft he lumped model calculation is based on the quality and the density of input (meteorological) stations in the region with monthly measurements. In addition, noble gas measurements in the groundwater (helium-3, krypton-85) and of industrial tracer gases (chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and sulphurhexaflorid (SF6)) are important tools to estimate the MRTs of the raw water in the aquifers. To exclude the presence of small amounts of very recent waters, which are in cases of accidents some times heavily polluted, the raw water is tested for natural radionuclides (beryllium-7 or sulphur-35) with very short half-life or artificial fluorescence tracers. In addition, the estimate of the MRTs of groundwater is an essential part of the vulnerability assessment of drinking water supplies due to climate change impacts (frequency of droughts and floods in the recharge area) and offers a valuable tool to specify a sustainable water abstraction. The applicability of this approach was tested in several springs and groundwater monitoring wells used for raw water abstraction for drinking water supply in Austria.

  17. Mobile means for the monitoring of atmospheric contamination in a reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.; Lestang, M.

    2009-01-01

    After having evoked the context and challenges of contamination monitoring when exploiting nuclear reactors, the authors discuss the representativeness of the atmospheric contamination measurement as it depends on the different physicochemical forms of radionuclides present in the circuits. They indicate the different gaseous or aerosol radioactive elements which are monitored within EDF installations. They discuss the incorporation of monitoring means at the installation design level, briefly present the use of beacons inside and outside the reactor building. They describe how monitoring is organized on the basis of alert threshold adjustments: an investigation threshold and an evacuation threshold. They discuss the beacon (or sensor) selection and indicate recommendations for their implementation for optimization purposes. They indicate where these beacons are installed and evoke the experimentation of networked mobile beacons with data remote transmission

  18. Techniques for building timing-predictable embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This book describes state-of-the-art techniques for designing real-time computer systems. The author shows how to estimate precisely the effect of cache architecture on the execution time of a program, how to dispatch workload on multicore processors to optimize resources, while meeting deadline constraints, and how to use closed-form mathematical approaches to characterize highly variable workloads and their interaction in a networked environment. Readers will learn how to deal with unpredictable timing behaviors of computer systems on different levels of system granularity and abstraction. Introduces promising techniques for dealing with challenges associated with deploying real-time systems on multicore platforms; Provides a complete picture of building timing-predictable computer systems, at the program level, component level and system level; Leverages different levels of abstraction to deal with the complexity of the analysis.

  19. Passive Cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, Heinrich; Heiselberg, Per

    coefficients below about 4 W/m2K. Heat transfer during night-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation was investigated in a full scale test room at Aalborg University. In the experiments the temperature efficiency of the ventilation was determined. Based on the previous re-sults a method...... are still hesitant to apply passive cooling techniques. As night-time ventilation is highly dependent on climatic conditions, a method for quantifying the climatic cooling potential was developed and the impact of climate warming was investigated. Although a clear decrease was found, significant potential...... will remain, especially if night-time ventilation is applied in combination with other cooling methods. Building energy simulations showed that the performance of night-time ventilation is also affected by the heat transfer at internal room surfaces, as the cooling effect is very limited for heat transfer...

  20. Paradigms and building tools for real-time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, U.; Flasinski, M.; Hagge, L.; Ohrenberg, K.

    1994-01-01

    An expert system is a software which can simulate the problem solving behavior of a human expert. The rule-based paradigm is chosen to describe the different aspects involved in expert system development. Differences between expert systems and common procedural or object-oriented programs are investigated. Expert system shells are introduced as a building tool for expert systems, together with some guidelines on the evaluation of such shells. A discussion of special needs for real-time expert system development concludes the paper

  1. Sick building syndrome (SBS) and exposure to water-damaged buildings: time series study, clinical trial and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Ritchie C; House, Dennis E

    2006-01-01

    Occupants of water-damaged buildings (WDBs) with evidence of microbial amplification often describe a syndrome involving multiple organ systems, commonly referred to as "sick building syndrome" (SBS), following chronic exposure to the indoor air. Studies have demonstrated that the indoor air of WDBs often contains a complex mixture of fungi, mycotoxins, bacteria, endotoxins, antigens, lipopolysaccharides, and biologically produced volatile compounds. A case-series study with medical assessments at five time points was conducted to characterize the syndrome after a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among a group of study participants investigated the efficacy of cholestyramine (CSM) therapy. The general hypothesis of the time series study was that chronic exposure to the indoor air of WDBs is associated with SBS. Consecutive clinical patients were screened for diagnosis of SBS using criteria of exposure potential, symptoms involving at least five organ systems, and the absence of confounding factors. Twenty-eight cases signed voluntary consent forms for participation in the time-series study and provided samples of microbial contaminants from water-damaged areas in the buildings they occupied. Twenty-six participants with a group-mean duration of illness of 11 months completed examinations at all five study time points. Thirteen of those participants also agreed to complete a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Data from Time Point 1 indicated a group-mean of 23 out of 37 symptoms evaluated; and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS), an indicator of neurological function, was abnormally low in all participants. Measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), leptin, alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and pulmonary function were abnormal in 22, 13, 25, 14, 1, and 7 participants, respectively. Following 2 weeks of CSM therapy to enhance toxin elimination

  2. Optimizing the Time Performance of Subcontractors in Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy K.W Ng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main contractors of Hong Kong building projects tend to subcontract most of their work. However, many of the subcontractors complain that they are not being fully utilized due main contractors’ poor site coordination of temporary works and interfacing works and plant supports etc. A list of critical site coordination problems caused by main contractors that had adversely influence to the time performance of subcontractors was prepared. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data to generate multiple regression equations that explain how the critical site coordination problems affected the time performance of different types of subcontractor. The survey results were validated by neural network analysis. Backward elimination method was adopted to identify the ‘most critical’ site coordination problems that enable main contractors to formulate measures to enhance their site management system.

  3. Applying Mean-Field Approximation to Continuous Time Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolesnichenko, A.V.; Senni, Valerio; Pourranjabar, Alireza; Remke, A.K.I.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The mean-field analysis technique is used to perform analysis of a system with a large number of components to determine the emergent deterministic behaviour and how this behaviour modifies when its parameters are perturbed. The computer science performance modelling and analysis community has found

  4. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  5. A Biological Perspective on the Meaning of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    We have become impatient waiting for a web page to load, but the first member of our species evolved about 150,000 years ago - a geological instant as brief and as transitory as a text message. The shortest generation time of a bacterium is a sprint at under ten minutes, whereas a 200-year old whale, turtle or tree is not unknown. Life is a phenomenon that integrates processes ranging from the near instantaneous reactions of photosynthesis to the more stately pace of evolution. Here I will elucidate these processes with radically different time scales that go to creating and maintaining the diversity of life on earth, the clocks that nature uses to time them, and how modern biology is being used to alter the natural time scales.

  6. ST Elevation in AVR: When Time May Not Mean Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    REPORT TYPE 1013112017 Presentation 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ST Elevation in AVR: When Thne May Not Mean !Vfu&cle 6. AUTHOR{S) Capt \\Villiam T...ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST -Elevation Myocardial Infarction A Report of the Arnerican College of C ardiology Foundation/ Ameri can...C7Q n ([) G) ro )::>t w :J r+ c.. < -· ro ti) ti) ro ti) OJ m ti) -ro n Take home points •Don’t ignore ST elevation in aVR •Look closely

  7. Real-Time Nonlocal Means-Based Despeckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Lars Hofsoy; Snare, Sten Roar; Steen, Erik Normann; Solberg, Anne H Schistad

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a multiscale nonlocal means-based despeckling method for medical ultrasound. The multiscale approach leads to large computational savings and improves despeckling results over single-scale iterative approaches. We present two variants of the method. The first, denoted multiscale nonlocal means (MNLM), yields uniform robust filtering of speckle both in structured and homogeneous regions. The second, denoted unnormalized MNLM (UMNLM), is more conservative in regions of structure assuring minimal disruption of salient image details. Due to the popularity of anisotropic diffusion-based methods in the despeckling literature, we review the connection between anisotropic diffusion and iterative variants of NLM. These iterative variants in turn relate to our multiscale variant. As part of our evaluation, we conduct a simulation study making use of ground truth phantoms generated from clinical B-mode ultrasound images. We evaluate our method against a set of popular methods from the despeckling literature on both fine and coarse speckle noise. In terms of computational efficiency, our method outperforms the other considered methods. Quantitatively on simulations and on a tissue-mimicking phantom, our method is found to be competitive with the state-of-the-art. On clinical B-mode images, our method is found to effectively smooth speckle while preserving low-contrast and highly localized salient image detail.

  8. Mean residence times for tritium in some terrestrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Soman, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    Uptake of tritiated water from a single or multiple exposure, its fixation and elimination from 3 terrestrial plants, Raphanus sativus L., Amaranthus viridis L. and Phyllanthus fraternus Webster under experimental field conditions are described. Tissue free water tritium (TFWT) attains peak concentration within 4 hr after a single exposure in R. sativus and then decreases with a single component from both leaves and root, with a biological half-time of 36.4 +- 4.2 and 48.5 +- 7.2 hr respectively. TFWT in leaves of A. viridis reaches its peak value within 0.5 hr of exposure and its decay exhibits 2 component fall, one having a very short half-life of 2.4 +- 0.7 hr and the other a long half-time of 86.1 +- 2.0 hr. The two component decay of tritium in TFWT is well represented in P. fraternus. The long-lived components are nearly 8 times of the short-lived ones, both in leaves and stems respectively. Generally, the long -lived component accounts for 15% of the peak TFWT. Tissue bound tritium (TBT) reaches to 4% of TFWT in Phyllanthus sp. TBT elimination time is many times longer than the experimental periods employed in the present study. (author)

  9. The Geometrical Meaning of Time – Some Cosmological Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahalom, Asher

    2015-01-01

    It is stated in many text books that the any metric appearing in general relativity should be locally Lorentzian i.e. of the type g μv = diag(1, -1, -1, -1) this is usually presented as an independent axiom of the theory, which cannot be deduced from other assumptions. The meaning of this assertion is that a specific coordinate (the temporal coordinate) is given a unique significance with respect to the other spatial coordinates. It was shown that the above assertion is a consequence of requirement that the metric of empty space should be linearly stable and need not be assumed. Some cosmological implications of the above result will be suggested

  10. Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    The second world to be considered concerns Meaning. In contrast to Reality and Play, this world relates to the people, disciplines, and domains that are focused on creating a certain value. For example, if this value is about providing students knowledge about physics, it involves teachers, the learning sciences, and the domains education and physics. This level goes into the aspects and criteria that designers need to take into account from this perspective. The first aspect seems obvious when we talk of “games with a serious purpose.” They have a purpose and this needs to be elaborated on, for example in terms of what “learning objectives” it attempts to achieve. The subsequent aspect is not about what is being pursued but how. To attain a value, designers have to think about a strategy that they employ. In my case this concerned looking at the learning paradigms that have come into existence in the past century and see what they have to tell us about learning. This way, their principles can be translated into a game environment. This translation involves making the strategy concrete. Or, in other words, operationalizing the plan. This is the third aspect. In this level, I will further specifically explain how I derived requirements from each of the learning paradigms, like reflection and exploration, and how they can possibly be related to games. The fourth and final aspect is the context in which the game is going to be used. It matters who uses the game and when, where, and how the game is going to be used. When designers have looked at these aspects, they have developed a “value proposal” and the worth of it may be judged by criteria, like motivation, relevance, and transfer. But before I get to this, I first go into how we human beings are meaning creators and what role assumptions, knowledge, and ambiguity have in this. I will illustrate this with some silly jokes about doctors and Mickey Mouse, and with an illusion.

  11. An Elementary Derivation of Mean Wait Time in Polling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, Field

    2012-01-01

    Polling systems are a well-established subject in queueing theory. However, their formal treatments generally rely heavily on relatively sophisticated theoretical tools, such as moment generating functions and Laplace transforms, and solutions often require the solution of large systems of equations. We show that, if you are willing to only have the average waiting of a system time rather than higher moments, it can found through an elementary derivation based only on algebra and some well-kn...

  12. Growth, chamber building rate and reproduction time of Palaeonummulites venosus under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Wöger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2017-04-01

    Investigations on Palaeonummulites venosus using the natural laboratory approach for determining chamber building rate, test diameter increase rate, reproduction time and longevity is based on the decomposition of monthly obtained frequency distributions based on chamber number and test diameter into normal-distributed components. The shift of the component parameters 'mean' and 'standard deviation' during the investigation period of 15 months was used to calculate Michaelis-Menten functions applied to estimate the averaged chamber building rate and diameter increase rate under natural conditions. The individual dates of birth were estimated using the inverse averaged chamber building rate and the inverse diameter increase rate fitted by the individual chamber number or the individual test diameter at the sampling date. Distributions of frequencies and densities (i.e. frequency divided by sediment weight) based on chamber building rate and diameter increase rate resulted both in a continuous reproduction through the year with two peaks, the stronger in May /June determined as the beginning of the summer generation (generation1) and the weaker in November determined as the beginning of the winter generation (generation 2). This reproduction scheme explains the existence of small and large specimens in the same sample. Longevity, calculated as the maximum difference in days between the individual's birth date and the sampling date seems to be round about one year, obtained by both estimations based on the chamber building rate and the diameter increase rate.

  13. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  14. Commentary: one strategy for building public trust in changing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphinee, W Dale; Tamblyn, Robyn; Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L

    2010-06-01

    Major health care reforms are being debated in the United States. While these debates address issues of access and cost, the systems-based problems of patient safety, continuous quality improvement, and an integrated approach to continuing professional development (CPD) remain traditional opportunities for the profession to directly improve health care and maintain professional accountability. Such challenges can be addressed independently of proposed reforms and offer an opportunity for the profession to build greater public trust. Given recent evidence questioning many assumptions behind individually focused CPD, and as physicians' work shifts into group and team contexts, it is an opportune time to address better CPD strategies within emerging group and team settings.The first strategic change requires a focus on managing the development of the individual physician's educational growth into a systems-oriented approach based on better information and feedback within groups of practitioners and health care teams. Second, the renewal of the linked visions of professional collegiality and accountability with professional regulation needs to be seen as a collective responsibility across key organizations within the profession's normal accountability framework. Thus, the professional colleges, certifying boards, and regulatory authorities need to collaborate with the CDP community in refocusing their collective activities to promote the profession's traditional role of improving the quality of care and maintaining the public's trust in these times of intense policy debate.

  15. Building a new predictor for multiple linear regression technique-based corrective maintenance turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio M; Barr, Cameron; Puñales-Pozo, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    This research's main goals were to build a predictor for a turnaround time (TAT) indicator for estimating its values and use a numerical clustering technique for finding possible causes of undesirable TAT values. The following stages were used: domain understanding, data characterisation and sample reduction and insight characterisation. Building the TAT indicator multiple linear regression predictor and clustering techniques were used for improving corrective maintenance task efficiency in a clinical engineering department (CED). The indicator being studied was turnaround time (TAT). Multiple linear regression was used for building a predictive TAT value model. The variables contributing to such model were clinical engineering department response time (CE(rt), 0.415 positive coefficient), stock service response time (Stock(rt), 0.734 positive coefficient), priority level (0.21 positive coefficient) and service time (0.06 positive coefficient). The regression process showed heavy reliance on Stock(rt), CE(rt) and priority, in that order. Clustering techniques revealed the main causes of high TAT values. This examination has provided a means for analysing current technical service quality and effectiveness. In doing so, it has demonstrated a process for identifying areas and methods of improvement and a model against which to analyse these methods' effectiveness.

  16. Historical Building Stability Monitoring by Means of a Cosmic Ray Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenoni, Aldo [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of the University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic ray radiation is mostly composed, at sea level, by high energy muons, which are highly penetrating particles capable of crossing kilometers of rock. The ubiquitous and steady presence at the Earth's surface and the high penetration capability have motivated the use of cosmic ray radiation also in fields beyond particle physics, from geology, archaeology, speleology to industrial applications and homeland security. In particular, in recent years, the novel technique of muon tomography has been proposed, with the aim of performing non invasive inspection of large non accessible volumes, material atomic number Z and density discrimination, and three dimension image reconstruction of the inspected volume. In the present paper, after a short recall of the physical principles and mathematical formalism on which muon tomography is based, a number of examples of application of the novel technique in industry and homeland security issues is given. Moreover, a new application of cosmic rays detection techniques in the field of civil engineering is proposed. The aim is the monitoring of the stability of large structures, in particular the static monitoring of historical buildings, where conservation constraints are more severe and the time evolution of the deformation phenomena under study may be of the order of months or years. The new technique may be seen, in some way, as the reverse problem of muon tomography. As a significant case study, the monitoring of the wooden vaulted roof of the Palazzo della Loggia in the town of Brescia, in Italy, has been considered. The feasibility as well as the performances and limitations of a monitoring system based on cosmic ray tracking have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation and discussed in comparison with more traditional monitoring systems. (authors)

  17. Historical building monitoring by means of a cosmic ray tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenoni, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic ray radiation is mostly composed, at sea level, by high energy muons, which are highly penetrating particles capable of crossing kilometers of rock. The ubiquitous and steady presence at the Earth's surface and the high penetration capability have motivated the use of cosmic ray radiation also in fields beyond particle physics, from geology, archaeology, speleology to industrial applications and homeland security. In particular, in recent years, the novel technique of muon tomography has been proposed, with the aim of performing non invasive inspection of large non accessible volumes, material atomic number Z and density discrimination, and three dimension image reconstruction of the inspected volume. In the present paper, after a short recall of the physical principles and mathematical formalism on which muon tomography is based, a number of examples of application of the novel technique in industry and homeland security issues is given. Moreover, a new application of cosmic rays detection techniques in the field of civil engineering is proposed. The aim is the monitoring of the stability of large structures, in particular the static monitoring of historical buildings, where conservation constraints are more severe and the time evolution of the deformation phenomena under study may be of the order of months or years. The new technique may be seen, in some way, as the reverse problem of muon tomography. As a significant case study, the monitoring of the wooden vaulted roof of the Palazzo della Loggia in the town of Brescia, in Italy, has been considered. The feasibility as well as the performances and limitations of a monitoring system based on cosmic ray tracking have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation and discussed in comparison with more traditional monitoring systems. (authors)

  18. Historical building monitoring by means of a cosmic ray tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenoni, Aldo [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of the University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia, (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic ray radiation is mostly composed, at sea level, by high energy muons, which are highly penetrating particles capable of crossing kilometers of rock. The ubiquitous and steady presence at the Earth's surface and the high penetration capability have motivated the use of cosmic ray radiation also in fields beyond particle physics, from geology, archaeology, speleology to industrial applications and homeland security. In particular, in recent years, the novel technique of muon tomography has been proposed, with the aim of performing non invasive inspection of large non accessible volumes, material atomic number Z and density discrimination, and three dimension image reconstruction of the inspected volume. In the present paper, after a short recall of the physical principles and mathematical formalism on which muon tomography is based, a number of examples of application of the novel technique in industry and homeland security issues is given. Moreover, a new application of cosmic rays detection techniques in the field of civil engineering is proposed. The aim is the monitoring of the stability of large structures, in particular the static monitoring of historical buildings, where conservation constraints are more severe and the time evolution of the deformation phenomena under study may be of the order of months or years. The new technique may be seen, in some way, as the reverse problem of muon tomography. As a significant case study, the monitoring of the wooden vaulted roof of the Palazzo della Loggia in the town of Brescia, in Italy, has been considered. The feasibility as well as the performances and limitations of a monitoring system based on cosmic ray tracking have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation and discussed in comparison with more traditional monitoring systems. (authors)

  19. Historical Building Stability Monitoring by Means of a Cosmic Ray Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenoni, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic ray radiation is mostly composed, at sea level, by high energy muons, which are highly penetrating particles capable of crossing kilometers of rock. The ubiquitous and steady presence at the Earth's surface and the high penetration capability have motivated the use of cosmic ray radiation also in fields beyond particle physics, from geology, archaeology, speleology to industrial applications and homeland security. In particular, in recent years, the novel technique of muon tomography has been proposed, with the aim of performing non invasive inspection of large non accessible volumes, material atomic number Z and density discrimination, and three dimension image reconstruction of the inspected volume. In the present paper, after a short recall of the physical principles and mathematical formalism on which muon tomography is based, a number of examples of application of the novel technique in industry and homeland security issues is given. Moreover, a new application of cosmic rays detection techniques in the field of civil engineering is proposed. The aim is the monitoring of the stability of large structures, in particular the static monitoring of historical buildings, where conservation constraints are more severe and the time evolution of the deformation phenomena under study may be of the order of months or years. The new technique may be seen, in some way, as the reverse problem of muon tomography. As a significant case study, the monitoring of the wooden vaulted roof of the Palazzo della Loggia in the town of Brescia, in Italy, has been considered. The feasibility as well as the performances and limitations of a monitoring system based on cosmic ray tracking have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation and discussed in comparison with more traditional monitoring systems. (authors)

  20. General Managers' and building managers' different evaluation of building value and quality - as built and over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2007-01-01

    building. Furthermore, the respondents were asked to prioritize the quality factors. In the analysis the quality factors were grouped into cultural value and use value and into quality as built and over time. The paper presents the general results of the survey with focus on the differences between......This paper is one of the results of a research project on real estate strategies and building values based on a case study of the corporate buildings of DR (Danish Broadcasting Corporation). The paper presents some of the results from a questionnaire survey among select groups of managers in DR...... concerning their evaluation of 5 buildings. The overall purpose of the survey was to evaluate the different buildings’ values and quality, both as built and over time. A second purpose was to develop and test a methodology to describe the values and quality of buildings at a general but still differentiated...

  1. Gamification as a Means to User Involvement in Decision-making Processes for Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Skøtt, Stine

    2017-01-01

    of life. Design thinking was used as method to develop a tool that focuses on how to make sustainable strategy development accessible to non-specialists during those critical stages of building design processes when goals and prioritisations are set. The tool is based on an open and editable platform...... and it will be available to the public in the early Summer of 2017. The paper presents how design thinking is used as an engaging research and development methodology, as well as, an introduction to the dialogue and prioritisation tool’s content and format.......User ownership, actors’ and stakeholders’ lack of knowledge is often identified as critical success parameters and barriers when evaluating how well sustainable buildings perform. Recognising that it is impossible to drive sustainable development without the people who pay for sustainable buildings...

  2. How to build a time machine: the real science of time travel

    CERN Document Server

    Clegg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A pop science look at time travel technology, from Einstein to Ronald Mallett to present day experiments. Forget fiction: time travel is real.In How to Build a Time Machine, Brian Clegg provides an understanding of what time is and how it can be manipulated. He explores the fascinating world of physics and the remarkable possibilities of real time travel that emerge from quantum entanglement, superluminal speeds, neutron star cylinders and wormholes in space. With the fascinating paradoxes of time travel echoing in our minds will we realize that travel into the future might never be possible? Or will we realize there is no limit on what can be achieved, and take on this ultimate challenge? Only time will tell.

  3. Green, Clean, & Mean: Pushing the Energy Envelope in Tech Industry Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Rengie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diamond, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Haves, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordman, Bruce [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Gerald [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    When it comes to innovation in energy and building performance, one can expect leading-edge activity from the technology sector. As front-line innovators in design, materials science, and information management, developing and operating high-performance buildings is a natural extension of their core business. The energy choices made by technology companies have broad importance given their influence on society at large as well as the extent of their own energy footprint. Microsoft, for example, has approximately 250 facilities around the world (30 million square feet of floor area), with significant aggregate energy use of approximately 4 million kilowatt-hours per day (Figure 1).

  4. What a New Energy Efficiency Measure for Commercial Buildings Means to You

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-12-19

    This article describes a new path for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016. The new approach will lead to increased flexibility for designers, multiple uses for the same building energy models, increased recognition of energy saving design strategies, and lower energy modeling costs.

  5. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    is essential for effective night cooling, and thus a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building. In order to assess the impact of different parameters, such as slab thickness, material properties and the surface heat transfer, the dynamic heat storage capacity of building elements...... was quantified based on an analytical solution of one-dimensional heat conduction in a slab with convective boundary condition. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was also estimated. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage...... a building energy simulation program (HELIOS), and the effect of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Besides climatic...

  6. Hydrophobization by Means of Nanotechnology on Greek Sandstones Used as Building Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Karagiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern sustainable architecture indicates the use of local natural stones for building. Greek sandstones from Epirus (Demati, Greece, EN 12440 used as building facades meet aesthetic and have high mechanical properties, but the inevitable interaction between stone materials and natural or anthropogenic weathering factors controls the type, and extent of stone damages. In the present paper, samples of sandstone were treated with a conventional hydrophobic product and four solutions of the same product, enriched with nanosilica of different concentrations. The properties of the treated samples, such as porosity and pore size distribution, microstructure, static contact angle of a water droplet, and durability to deterioration cycles (freeze-thaw were recorded and conclusions were drawn. The research indicates the increased hydrophobic properties in nanosilica solutions but also the optimum content in nanoparticles that provides hydrophobicity without altering the properties of the stone.

  7. TRABASA – TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE RECORDED BY MEANS OF BUILDING ARCHAEOLOGY IN SAUDI ARABIA: WORKSHOP IN JEDDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Herbig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA. In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.

  8. Armenia: Nation-Building, Imperial Practices and Ethnic Nationalism as Means of Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Васильевич Космачев

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of hybrid political space of post-Soviet Armenia, combining institutions of the nation state and the imperial practices. In the article, the author analyzes the experience of building a modern state in Armenia on the basis of security concerns and as an actor in international politics. In this context the hybrid political space, allow to face foreign and domestic challenges. However, such a hybrid system leads to the erosion of state and the expansion of traditional (pre-modern practices.

  9. Determining radiated sound power of building structures by means of laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, N. B.; Labelle, L.; Rychtáriková, M.; Glorieux, C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a methodology that makes use of laser Doppler vibrometry to assess the acoustic insulation performance of a building element. The sound power radiated by the surface of the element is numerically determined from the vibrational pattern, offering an alternative for classical microphone measurements. Compared to the latter the proposed analysis is not sensitive to room acoustical effects. This allows the proposed methodology to be used at low frequencies, where the standardized microphone based approach suffers from a high uncertainty due to a low acoustic modal density. Standardized measurements as well as laser Doppler vibrometry measurements and computations have been performed on two test panels, a light-weight wall and a gypsum block wall and are compared and discussed in this paper. The proposed methodology offers an adequate solution for the assessment of the acoustic insulation of building elements at low frequencies. This is crucial in the framework of recent proposals of acoustic standards for measurement approaches and single number sound insulation performance ratings to take into account frequencies down to 50 Hz.

  10. Building Gifted Education: One State at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The "Marland" Report was the impetus and structure to provide a more systematic approach to building state and regional gifted programs. One of the strategies used to proliferate the spread of programming for gifted students throughout the states was the National/State Leadership Training Institute on the Gifted and Talented…

  11. Methods and means for building a system of visual images forming in gis of critical important objects protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Vasiukhin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for the visualization of dynamic scenes in security systems for are increasing in recent years. This requires develop a methods and tools for visualization of dynamic scenes for monitoring and managing the system of security like “human-operator”. The paper presents a model map data from which is a base for building real time map data, and methods of real time visualization of moving characters in air.

  12. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  13. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  14. Can BRICS Build Ivory Towers of Excellence? Giving New Meaning to World-Class Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Solomon Arulraj; Motala, Shireen

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to map the landscape of higher education transformation in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) nations while exploring the status of BRICS nations in some of the global university rankings and analysing their potential to give new meaning to notions such as excellent and world-class universities. The study…

  15. Mathematical logic as a mean of solving the problems of power supply for buildings and constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Igor; Nozdrina, Ekaterina; Boltaevsky, Andrey

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes the questions of application of mathematical logic in engineering design associated with machinery and construction. The aim of the work is to study the logical working-out of Russian electrical engineer V.I. Shestakov. These elaborations are considered in connection with the problem of analysis and synthesis of relay contact circuits of the degenerate (A) class which the scientist solved. The article proposes to use Shestakov’s elaborations for optimization of buildings and constructions of modern high-tech. In the second part of the article the events are actualized in association with the development of problems of application of mathematical logic in the analysis and synthesis of electric circuits, relay and bridging. The arguments in favor of the priority of the authorship of the elaborations of Russian electrical engineer V. I. Shestakov, K. Shannon - one of the founders of computer science, and Japanese engineer A. Nakashima are discussed. The issue of contradiction between V. I. Shestakov and representatives of the school of M. A. Gavrilov is touched on.

  16. Using Mobile Devices and Gaming as a Means of Building Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Betsy Redd

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are gaining momentum and popularity in the daily lives of today’s youth. These devices embrace and encourage ubiquitous learning through their ease of portability and access to various activities that can allow for learning to occur. Learning theories and cognitive techniques are explored as a means of providing a mobile educational experience that is individualized, motivational, and beneficial for transfer to later word learning and reading comprehension.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF LIDAR DATA OVER BUILDING ROOFS USING K-MEANS AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato César dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: The classification is an important step in the extraction of geometric primitives from LiDAR data. Normally, it is applied for the identification of points sampled on geometric primitives of interest. In the literature there are several studies that have explored the use of eigenvalues to classify LiDAR points into different classes or structures, such as corner, edge, and plane. However, in some works the classes are defined considering an ideal geometry, which can be affected by the inadequate sampling and/or by the presence of noise when using real data. To overcome this limitation, in this paper is proposed the use of metrics based on eigenvalues and the k-means method to carry out the classification. So, the concept of principal component analysis is used to obtain the eigenvalues and the derived metrics, while the k-means is applied to cluster the roof points in two classes: edge and non-edge. To evaluate the proposed method four test areas with different levels of complexity were selected. From the qualitative and quantitative analyses, it could be concluded that the proposed classification procedure gave satisfactory results, resulting in completeness and correctness above 92% for the non-edge class, and between 61% to 98% for the edge class.

  18. Fashion Design as a Means to Recognize and Build Communities-in-Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilys Williams

    Full Text Available This article explores how fashion design—an activity that fundamentally weaves together the practices, skills, and materials associated with clothing the body—can begin to weave together people in places. I reflect on collaborative encounters emerging from participatory design practice to consider how fashion-related activity might recognize and inspire deeper relational connections between people, and between people and their environment. I explore the role of the designer as host: one capable of creating conditions that lead to interactive movement among people and dialogue that expresses and explores intent. The designer as host activities of the action research project described here—I Stood Up in Chrisp Street—demonstrate fashion design’s capacity to inform not only localized sustainability practices, but also Fashion and Design for Sustainability research, education, and business practice. Keywords: Designer as host, Inside-out, Outside-in, Meaning-making, Matter-making, Cultures of resilience

  19. The early moments of Social Help and its buildings for childhood. The press as a means of propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina González Maza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study of Social Help, one of the most important aid organizations and greater activity in the recent past in Spain.Emerged to meet the needs of a population without means for the devastating effects of war. Of all the buildings for the poor, large numbers were intended for children's world.To better understand the operation of this organization, besides the consultation of somemonographs, managing the local press has been a great help, since it is a reflection of the society in wich it arises.

  20. Building flexible real-time systems using the Flex language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Kevin B.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of a real-time programming language called Flex, which is a derivative of C++, are presented. It is shown how different types of timing requirements might be expressed and enforced in Flex, how they might be fulfilled in a flexible way using different program models, and how the programming environment can help in making binding and scheduling decisions. The timing constraint primitives in Flex are easy to use yet powerful enough to define both independent and relative timing constraints. Program models like imprecise computation and performance polymorphism can carry out flexible real-time programs. In addition, programmers can use a performance measurement tool that produces statistically correct timing models to predict the expected execution time of a program and to help make binding decisions. A real-time programming environment is also presented.

  1. Couple Leisure Time: Building Bonds Early in Marriage Through Leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Joy Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Participation in couple leisure is related to marital satisfaction as well as lower divorce rates; however, Americans seem to have less time available to participate in couple leisure and may have a harder time attaining role balance. There is currently limited research about how role balance may affect leisure as well as how couples manage to balance their leisure time with their other responsibilities, ensuring they have time to spend together in high interaction leisure. We also know very ...

  2. Time to propagate green building construction concept for saving precious resources sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.

    2005-01-01

    At present, we are constructing houses and buildings without giving any consideration to consumption of resources at the time of construction and consumption of resources for the use of such houses or buildings. ; Although green is our color but we are doing little about green building. Time has now come to propagate Green Building Construction Concepts in order to save our precious resources. The paper deals with dire need of awareness about conservation of water, conservation of energy, use of local materials, use of natural materials, etc. (author)

  3. Building new meanings in technical English from the perspective of the lexical constellation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino Rea Rizzo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to name and communicate to others new concepts in specific domains of human activity leads to the formation of new terms. However, many of the technical words in English are not new from the point of view of form. They rather derive from the common stock of general language: new lexical units are built from already existing forms and/or meanings. The original form is used for naming a new concept by adding a distinctive specialized lexical feature while keeping some semantic features of the original concept. In this paper, we aim at explaining and visualizing the nature of some of the processes that allow for the construction of new senses in technical words through a branching and expanding process, as explained in the lexical constellation model. The analysis is performed on three words widely used in telecommunication English: “bus”, “hub” and “chip”. The understanding of the process may be of great help for learners of ESP in general and technical English in particular.

  4. Means and extremes: building variability into community-level climate change experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross M; Beardall, John; Beringer, Jason; Grace, Mike; Sardina, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Experimental studies assessing climatic effects on ecological communities have typically applied static warming treatments. Although these studies have been informative, they have usually failed to incorporate either current or predicted future, patterns of variability. Future climates are likely to include extreme events which have greater impacts on ecological systems than changes in means alone. Here, we review the studies which have used experiments to assess impacts of temperature on marine, freshwater and terrestrial communities, and classify them into a set of 'generations' based on how they incorporate variability. The majority of studies have failed to incorporate extreme events. In terrestrial ecosystems in particular, experimental treatments have reduced temperature variability, when most climate models predict increased variability. Marine studies have tended to not concentrate on changes in variability, likely in part because the thermal mass of oceans will moderate variation. In freshwaters, climate change experiments have a much shorter history than in the other ecosystems, and have tended to take a relatively simple approach. We propose a new 'generation' of climate change experiments using down-scaled climate models which incorporate predicted changes in climatic variability, and describe a process for generating data which can be applied as experimental climate change treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Tunneling time distribution by means of Nelson's quantum mechanics and wave-particle duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Koh'ichiro; Ohba, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    We calculate a tunneling time distribution by means of Nelson's quantum mechanics and investigate its statistical properties. The relationship between the average and deviation of tunneling time suggests the existence of 'wave-particle duality' in the tunneling phenomena

  6. Building Real-Time Collaborative Applications with a Federated Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ojanguren-Menendez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time collaboration is being offered by multiple libraries and APIs (Google Drive Real-time API, Microsoft Real-Time Communications API, TogetherJS, ShareJS, rapidly becoming a mainstream option for webservices developers. However, they are offered as centralised services running in a single server, regardless if they are free/open source or proprietary software. After re-engineering Apache Wave (former Google Wave, we can now provide the first decentralised and federated free/open source alternative. The new API allows to develop new real-time collaborative web applications in both JavaScript and Java environments.

  7. Mean Characteristics of Conical Vortices Above Roof Eaves of Low–Rise Cubic Buildings Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gamboa–Marrufo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating low pressures near the edges of flat roofs are often caused when the wind impinges on one corner of the building so that conical vortices form above the diagonal roof edges. In turbulent flow, these vortices vary in position and strength and the underlying surface pressures fluctuate accordingly. A preliminary approach to the study of the mechanism linking instantaneous roof edge pressures with the wind vortical structures involves the evaluation of mean characteristics and positions of the latter. However the flow examination has so far been severely limited by the restriction of available anemometers to single–point sampling. In this experimental study, a 200mm cube has been used to model a building with a flat square roof set at an angle of 45° to the oncoming flow direction, and a Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to capture instantaneous two–dimensional velocity vector images of entire flow cross–sections, both normal to the vortex axis and in planes parallel to that axis. The se vector maps were used to estimate the mean characteristics of the vortices and appropriate observation–plane directions to measure wind velocities in the study of the instantaneous problem.

  8. Defining and measuring the mean residence time of lateral surface transient storage zones in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Jackson; R. Haggerty; S.V. Apte; A. Coleman; K.J. Drost

    2012-01-01

    Surface transient storage (STS) has functional significance in stream ecosystems because it increases solute interaction with sediments. After volume, mean residence time is the most important metric of STS, but it is unclear how this can be measured accurately or related to other timescales and field-measureable parameters. We studied mean residence time of lateral...

  9. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  10. A framework for building real-time expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is an example of complex systems that require both traditional and artificial intelligence (AI) real-time methodologies. It was mandated that Ada should be used for all new software development projects. The station also requires distributed processing. Catastrophic failures on the station can cause the transmission system to malfunction for a long period of time, during which ground-based expert systems cannot provide any assistance to the crisis situation on the station. This is even more critical for other NASA projects that would have longer transmission delays (e.g., the lunar base, Mars missions, etc.). To address these issues, a distributed agent architecture (DAA) is proposed that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and AI. The proposed testbed for DAA is an autonomous power expert (APEX) which is a real-time monitoring and diagnosis expert system for the electrical power distribution system of the space station.

  11. Climatic potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Due to an overall trend towards less heating and more cooling demands in buildings in many European countries over the last few decades, passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising technique, particularly for commercial buildings in the moderate or cold climates of Central......, without considering any building-specific parameters. An approach for calculating degree-hours based on a variable building temperature - within a standardized range of thermal comfort - is presented and applied to climatic data of 259 stations all over Europe. The results show a high potential for night...

  12. Mean-field approximations of fixation time distributions of evolutionary game dynamics on graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li-Min; Zhou, Jie; Tang, Ming; Guan, Shu-Guang; Zou, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The mean fixation time is often not accurate for describing the timescales of fixation probabilities of evolutionary games taking place on complex networks. We simulate the game dynamics on top of complex network topologies and approximate the fixation time distributions using a mean-field approach. We assume that there are two absorbing states. Numerically, we show that the mean fixation time is sufficient in characterizing the evolutionary timescales when network structures are close to the well-mixing condition. In contrast, the mean fixation time shows large inaccuracies when networks become sparse. The approximation accuracy is determined by the network structure, and hence by the suitability of the mean-field approach. The numerical results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  13. Process model for building quality software on internet time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The competitive nature of the software construction market and the inherently exhilarating nature of software itself have hinged the success of any software development project on four major pillars: time to market, product quality, innovation and documentation. Unfortunately, however, existing software development models ...

  14. The Meaning of Time. An Introduction into Philosophical, Biological and Physical Aspects of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-15

    mentioned already Plato (428-347BC) as the originator of the essential quasistatic view of time and history. He was preceded by Parmenides (540BC and Zeno...after. * Being and Entities: Being is the most universal concept. It was 31 discovered by Parmenides (- 500 B.C.), who saw that of all the diversity of

  15. Method and means for heating buildings in a district heating system with waste heat from a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margen, P.H.E.

    1975-01-01

    The waste heat from a thermal power plant is transported through a municipal heating network to a plurality of buildings to be heated. The quantity of heat thus supplied to the buildings is higher than that required for the heating of the buildings. The excess heat is released from the buildings to the atmosphere in the form of hot air

  16. Mean Square Exponential Stability of Stochastic Switched System with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlika Rajchakit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with mean square exponential stability of switched stochastic system with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, but not necessary to be differentiable. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton’s formula, a switching rule for the mean square exponential stability of switched stochastic system with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the mean square exponential stability of the switched stochastic system are first established in terms of LMIs. Numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  17. An original tool for checking energy performance and certification of buildings by means of Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Palladino, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ANN used as a tool for evaluating energy performance of buildings. • Training, validation, and testing of Neural Network with real energy certificates data. • Global energy performance index was chosen as a target of ANN. • A good correlation and a minimum error was found with certificates data. • A new energy index was defined in order to check the energy certificates. - Abstract: The Energy Performance Buildings Directive (EPBD) was issued to provide a common strategy for all European countries and to implement several actions for improving energy efficiency of buildings, responsible for 40% of energy consumption. Energy Performance Certificates are provided as a tool to evaluate the energy performance of buildings; however, costly and time-consuming controls are necessary to verify the accuracy of the set and declared data. Useful tools could be the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), whereby it is possible to estimate the energy consumptions from specific parameters, to evaluate the accuracy of data in the energy certificates, and to identify the certificates needing accurate control. In this study, an Artificial Neural Network was developed based on approximately 6500 energy certificates (2700 are self-declaration) received by the Umbria Region (central Italy), in order to evaluate the global energy consumption of buildings from several and specific parameters reported in certificates. Data was checked in compliance with energy standards and only the correct certificates were used to train the Neural Network. The implemented Neural Network was tested with database data and a good correlation was found; in particular the energy performance calculated with the Neural Network presents an error greater than 15 kW h/m 2 year with respect to the real value of global energy performance index in only 3.6% of cases. Finally, a Neural Energy Performance Index (N.E.P.I.) was defined, in order to verify the accuracy of the energy certificates; the

  18. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection under the CEV Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hui-qiang

    2014-01-01

    We consider a continuous-time mean-variance portfolio selection model when stock price follows the constant elasticity of variance (CEV) process. The aim of this paper is to derive an optimal portfolio strategy and the efficient frontier. The mean-variance portfolio selection problem is formulated as a linearly constrained convex program problem. By employing the Lagrange multiplier method and stochastic optimal control theory, we obtain the optimal portfolio strategy and mean-variance effici...

  19. Building a Bridge to Deep Time: Sedimentary Systems Across Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, B.; Castelltort, S.; Covault, J. A.; Walsh, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly important to understand the complex and interdependent processes associated with sediment production, transport, and deposition at timescales relevant to civilization (annual to millennial). However, predicting the response of sedimentary systems to global environmental change across a range of timescales remains a significant challenge. For example, a significant increase in global average temperature at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary (55.8 Ma) is interpreted to have occurred over millennial timescales; however, the specific response of sedimentary systems (e.g., timing and magnitude of sediment flux variability in river systems) to that forcing is debated. Thus, using such environmental perturbations recorded in sedimentary archives as analogs for ongoing/future global change requires improved approaches to bridging across time. Additionally, the ability to bridge timescales is critical for addressing other questions about sedimentary system behavior, including signal propagation and signal versus ';noise' in the record. The geologic record provides information that can be used to develop a comprehensive understanding of process-response behavior at multiple timescales. The geomorphic ';snapshot' of present-day erosional and depositional landscapes can be examined to reconstruct the history of processes that created the observable configurations. Direct measurement and monitoring of active processes are used to constrain conceptual and numerical models and develop sedimentary system theory. But real-time observations of active Earth-surface processes are limited to the very recent, and how such processes integrate over longer timescales to transform into strata remains unknown. At longer timescales (>106 yr), the stratigraphic record is the only vestige of ancient sedimentary systems. Stratigraphic successions contain a complex record of sediment deposition and preservation, as well as the detrital material that originated in long since denuded

  20. Community Building at the Time of Nargis: The ASEAN Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Santiago Amador III

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclone Nargis was one of the most powerful disasters to hit Myanmar and Southeast Asia. Myanmar was criticized internationally for its allegedly slow effort in allowing international aid to enter into the country. This paper examines the criticism levelled against the ASEAN for its slow response in providing aid to the beleaguered in Myanmar and relates that criticism to ASEAN’s disaster management policy. It focuses on ASEAN’s engagement with Myanmar in order to allow humanitarian aid to flow into the country. The paper suggests that in time ASEAN will have to move from its doctrine of non-intervention in the affairs of a sovereign state to one of non-indifference if it wishes to remain relevant. Ultimately, ASEAN will have to re-evaluate its own goals in order to be a more successful apparatus for interstate and regional affairs, especially with respect to humanitarian crises brought about by natural disasters.

  1. Preliminary research on time degradation of mechanical characteristics of concretes used in nuclear power plant buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciornei, R.

    1991-01-01

    To provide severe safety rules governing the operation of nuclear power plants, reinforced and concrete elements and structures should preserve the quality and time-constant parameters throughout the life-time of the buildings. Some important design parameters are concrete strength and elasticity modulus. Preliminary research on concrete specimens made in laboratory whose strength and static and dynamic elasticity modulus have been determined after an ageing test, has aimed at nuclear power design and building. (author)

  2. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  3. Characterisation of cerebral blood flow via determining the vascular mean transit time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Thelen, M.

    1987-01-01

    By using a recently developed algorithm it is possible to quantify the dynamic information of a DSA sequence of the brain. The theory of algorithm allows to calculate vascular mean transit from time density curves. The algorithm minimizes the problems of densitometry with regard to 'quantitative DSA'. There is a strong correlation between vascular mean transit times and cerebral blood flow values, and therefore the results for mean transit times also correspond to the results obtained for cerebral blood flow. By computerized postprocessing of DSA-images it is possible to generate functional images of the brain with a spatial resolution that had not been attainable so far. The images represent the distribution pattern of reverse vascular mean transit times. The results from 36 patients with proven stenoses of the cervical vessels are reported. (orig.) [de

  4. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  5. Damage Level Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Building Based on Earthquake Time History Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanita Reni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong motion earthquake could cause the building damage in case of the building not considered in the earthquake design of the building. The study aims to predict the damage-level of building due to earthquake using Artificial Neural Networks method. The building model is a reinforced concrete building with ten floors and height between floors is 3.6 m. The model building received a load of the earthquake based on nine earthquake time history records. Each time history scaled to 0,5g, 0,75g, and 1,0g. The Artificial Neural Networks are designed in 4 architectural models using the MATLAB program. Model 1 used the displacement, velocity, and acceleration as input and Model 2 used the displacement only as the input. Model 3 used the velocity as input, and Model 4 used the acceleration just as input. The output of the Neural Networks is the damage level of the building with the category of Safe (1, Immediate Occupancy (2, Life Safety (3 or in a condition of Collapse Prevention (4. According to the results, Neural Network models have the prediction rate of the damage level between 85%-95%. Therefore, one of the solutions for analyzing the structural responses and the damage level promptly and efficiently when the earthquake occurred is by using Artificial Neural Network

  6. Linguistic Means of Depersonalization and Dematerialization in the Descriptions of Subjective Perception of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Nesterik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses linguistic means of depersonalization and dematerialization in the descriptions of subjective perception of time by characters, detects functions, fulfilled by them in such contexts. Subjective perception of time is considered as a text category and is studied in terms of text linguistics

  7. Time series analytics using sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for identifying building energy consumption patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Ngo, Ngoc-Tri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study develops a novel time-series sliding window forecast system. • The system integrates metaheuristics, machine learning and time-series models. • Site experiment of smart grid infrastructure is installed to retrieve real-time data. • The proposed system accurately predicts energy consumption in residential buildings. • The forecasting system can help users minimize their electricity usage. - Abstract: Smart grids are a promising solution to the rapidly growing power demand because they can considerably increase building energy efficiency. This study developed a novel time-series sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for predicting real-time building energy consumption data collected by a smart grid. The proposed system integrates a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and metaheuristic firefly algorithm-based least squares support vector regression (MetaFA-LSSVR) model. Specifically, the proposed system fits the SARIMA model to linear data components in the first stage, and the MetaFA-LSSVR model captures nonlinear data components in the second stage. Real-time data retrieved from an experimental smart grid installed in a building were used to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed system. A k-week sliding window approach is proposed for employing historical data as input for the novel time-series forecasting system. The prediction system yielded high and reliable accuracy rates in 1-day-ahead predictions of building energy consumption, with a total error rate of 1.181% and mean absolute error of 0.026 kW h. Notably, the system demonstrates an improved accuracy rate in the range of 36.8–113.2% relative to those of the linear forecasting model (i.e., SARIMA) and nonlinear forecasting models (i.e., LSSVR and MetaFA-LSSVR). Therefore, end users can further apply the forecasted information to enhance efficiency of energy usage in their buildings, especially

  8. Climatic potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artmann, N.; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, P.

    2007-01-01

    Due to an overall trend towards less heating and more cooling demands in buildings in many European countries over the last few decades, passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising technique, particularly for commercial buildings in the moderate or cold climates of Central, Eastern and Northern Europe. The basic concept involves cooling the building structure overnight in order to provide a heat sink that is available during the occupancy period. In this study, the potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation was evaluated by analysing climatic data, without considering any building-specific parameters. An approach for calculating degree-hours based on a variable building temperature - within a standardized range of thermal comfort - is presented and applied to climatic data of 259 stations all over Europe. The results show a high potential for night-time ventilative cooling over the whole of Northern Europe and still significant potential in Central, Eastern and even some regions of Southern Europe. However, due to the inherent stochastic properties of weather patterns, a series of warmer nights can occur at some locations, where passive cooling by night-time ventilation alone might not be sufficient to guarantee thermal comfort

  9. When the mean is not enough: Calculating fixation time distributions in birth-death processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Peter; Traulsen, Arne; Galla, Tobias

    2015-10-01

    Studies of fixation dynamics in Markov processes predominantly focus on the mean time to absorption. This may be inadequate if the distribution is broad and skewed. We compute the distribution of fixation times in one-step birth-death processes with two absorbing states. These are expressed in terms of the spectrum of the process, and we provide different representations as forward-only processes in eigenspace. These allow efficient sampling of fixation time distributions. As an application we study evolutionary game dynamics, where invading mutants can reach fixation or go extinct. We also highlight the median fixation time as a possible analog of mixing times in systems with small mutation rates and no absorbing states, whereas the mean fixation time has no such interpretation.

  10. Parameter study on performance of building cooling by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions including annual variations on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Climatic conditions and air flow rate during night......Especially for commercial buildings in moderate climates, night-time ventilation seems to be a simple and energy-efficient approach to improve thermal comfort in summer. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort in buildings with night-time ventilation, architects...... and engineers are still hesitant to apply this technique. In order to reduce the uncertainties, the most important parameters affecting night ventilation performance need to be identified. A typical office room was therefore modelled using a building energy simulation programme (HELIOS), and the effect...

  11. Population growth enhances the mean fixation time of neutral mutations and the persistence of neutral variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, D

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental result of population genetics states that a new mutation, at an unlinked neutral locus in a randomly mating diploid population, has a mean time of fixation of ∼4N(e) generations, where N(e) is the effective population size. This result is based on an assumption of fixed population size, which does not universally hold in natural populations. Here, we analyze such neutral fixations in populations of changing size within the framework of the diffusion approximation. General expressions are derived for the mean and variance of the fixation time in changing populations. Some explicit results are given for two cases: (i) the effective population size undergoes a sudden change, representing a sudden population expansion or a sudden bottleneck; (ii) the effective population changes linearly for a limited period of time and then remains constant. Additionally, a lower bound for the mean time of fixation is obtained for an effective population size that increases with time, and this is applied to exponentially growing populations. The results obtained in this work show, among other things, that for populations that increase in size, the mean time of fixation can be enhanced, sometimes substantially so, over 4N(e,0) generations, where N(e,0) is the effective population size at the time the mutation arises. Such an enhancement is associated with (i) an increased probability of neutral polymorphism in a population and (ii) an enhanced persistence of high-frequency neutral variation, which is the variation most likely to be observed.

  12. Analysis of the potential of building ramps in hydrotechnical structures as a means of facilitating fish migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tymiński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Measures aimed at preserving “ecological corridors” in rivers are a difficult and complex issue that requires specialized knowledge from many science disciplines. Fishways are one of the most important solutions that ensure the ecological continuity of rivers for fish, particularly due to their near-natural design. A characteristic feature of their construction is the use of natural building materials (stones, tree stumps, gravel, and vegetation in such a way that their appearance resembles asmall watercourse. The design of hydraulic fishways is based only on the criterion of maximum speed (vmax and the parameter of unitary energy of water E; it does not provide complete information about these devices’ efficiency. In order to produce optimal flow conditions for ichthyofauna in the fishway, there is a need for research into the spatial distribution of the hydraulic parameters, such as disorders of the flow velocity field or distributions of turbulence (Tu. The aim and scope of this work was to examine the potential of building fish ramps as a means of creating a watercourse through hydrotechnical structures, in order to facilitate fish migration. For this purpose, research was conducted on a physical model in the water laboratory of Prof. Julian Wołoszyn at the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. A physical model of a fish ramp was built. Depths and flow speeds at the established water flow rate were measured. Depths of water in the fishway were evaluated in strategic places for fish – i.e. at the entrance and exit of the fishway and between cylindric stones (flow obstacles on the ramp. The speed was measured at mesh nodes which are spaced at intervals of 15 cm along the length of the riverbed and of 10 cm across the cross section. Maps of the spatial distribution of the flow velocity were drafted based on the results obtained, from which maximum and minimum speeds, stream/current distribution and a rest zone for

  13. El Naschie's Cantorian space-time and general relativity by means of Barbilian's group. A Cantorian fractal axiomatic model of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, I.; Agop, M.; Jarcau, M.

    2004-01-01

    One builds the vacuum metrics of the stationary electromagnetic field through the complex potential model. There are thus emphasized both a variational principle, independent on the Ricci tensor, and some internal symmetries of the vacuum solutions. One shows that similar results may be obtained using the Barbiliant's group. By analytical continuation of a Barbilian transformation the link between the fixed points of the modular groups of the vacuum and the golden mean PHI=(1/(1+PHI))=(√5-1)/2 of ε (∞) space-time is established. Finally, a Cantorian fractal axiomatic model of the space-time is presented. The model is explained using a set of coupled equations which may describe the self organizing processes at the solid-liquid, plasma-plasma, and superconductor-superconductor interfaces

  14. Does the dose-solubility ratio affect the mean dissolution time of drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lánský, P; Weiss, M

    1999-09-01

    To present a new model for describing drug dissolution. On the basis of the new model to characterize the dissolution profile by the distribution function of the random dissolution time of a drug molecule, which generalizes the classical first order model. Instead of assuming a constant fractional dissolution rate, as in the classical model, it is considered that the fractional dissolution rate is a decreasing function of the dissolved amount controlled by the dose-solubility ratio. The differential equation derived from this assumption is solved and the distribution measures (half-dissolution time, mean dissolution time, relative dispersion of the dissolution time, dissolution time density, and fractional dissolution rate) are calculated. Finally, instead of monotonically decreasing the fractional dissolution rate, a generalization resulting in zero dissolution rate at time origin is introduced. The behavior of the model is divided into two regions defined by q, the ratio of the dose to the solubility level: q 1 (saturation of the solution, saturation time). The singular case q = 1 is also treated and in this situation the mean as well as the relative dispersion of the dissolution time increase to infinity. The model was successfully fitted to data (1). This empirical model is descriptive without detailed physical reasoning behind its derivation. According to the model, the mean dissolution time is affected by the dose-solubility ratio. Although this prediction appears to be in accordance with preliminary application, further validation based on more suitable experimental data is required.

  15. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection under the CEV Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-qiang Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a continuous-time mean-variance portfolio selection model when stock price follows the constant elasticity of variance (CEV process. The aim of this paper is to derive an optimal portfolio strategy and the efficient frontier. The mean-variance portfolio selection problem is formulated as a linearly constrained convex program problem. By employing the Lagrange multiplier method and stochastic optimal control theory, we obtain the optimal portfolio strategy and mean-variance efficient frontier analytically. The results show that the mean-variance efficient frontier is still a parabola in the mean-variance plane, and the optimal strategies depend not only on the total wealth but also on the stock price. Moreover, some numerical examples are given to analyze the sensitivity of the efficient frontier with respect to the elasticity parameter and to illustrate the results presented in this paper. The numerical results show that the price of risk decreases as the elasticity coefficient increases.

  16. On the initial conditions of time-dependent mean-field equations of evolution. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troudet, T.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay

    1986-01-01

    We analyze the problem so far untouched of determining the initial mean-field wavefunction in the context of zero-temperature mean-field descriptions of time-dependent expectation values and quantum fluctuations of nuclear observables. The nucleus, at zero temperature, is taken to be in a low-lying excited many-body eigenstate and is approximated by the corresponding RPA wavefunction as a continuous superposition of coherent states (i.e. Slater determinants). A generating function Gsub(A)(lambda) for time-dependent expectation values and quantum fluctuations is constructed within the formalism of functional integration. By applying the saddle-point method to the functional action of Gsub(A)(lambda) and then taking its lambda-derivatives, we recover the well-known TDHF theory and propose a simple determination of the initial Slater determinant for an appropriate mean-field description of time-dependent expectation values. The analog mean-field description of quadratic-quantum fluctuations proceeds similarly and in addition includes the contribution of the uncorrelated TDHF-RPA phonons coupled to collective excitations of the initial (static) mean-field configuration. When the collective TDHF-RPA excitations are solely taken into account, we obtain an improved version of the Balian-Veneroni dispersion formula by showing how to determine the initial mean-field wavefunction. By first taking the lambda-derivatives of Gsub(A)(lambda) before applying the saddle-point method, the initial mean-field wavefunction is found to be non-linearly coupled to the mean-field dynamics themselves. In return, and in contrast to the first quantization scheme, these both depend non-trivially upon the observable A being measured so that approximations must be proposed to simplify the resulting mean-field equations. (orig.)

  17. Mean-variance Optimal Reinsurance-investment Strategy in Continuous Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daheng Peng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Lagrange method is used to solve the continuous-time mean-variance reinsurance-investment problem. Proportional reinsurance, multiple risky assets and risk-free asset are considered synthetically in the optimal strategy for insurers. By solving the backward stochastic differential equation for the Lagrange multiplier, we get the mean-variance optimal reinsurance-investment strategy and its effective frontier in explicit forms.

  18. Mean-variance Optimal Reinsurance-investment Strategy in Continuous Time

    OpenAIRE

    Daheng Peng; Fang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Lagrange method is used to solve the continuous-time mean-variance reinsurance-investment problem. Proportional reinsurance, multiple risky assets and risk-free asset are considered synthetically in the optimal strategy for insurers. By solving the backward stochastic differential equation for the Lagrange multiplier, we get the mean-variance optimal reinsurance-investment strategy and its effective frontier in explicit forms.

  19. Existential Meaning Among First-Time Full-Term and Preterm Mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Mogensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that childbirth is a time when a woman might experience existential disruptions and gain new perspectives on life. The 2-fold aim of this study was to investigate whether attitudes related to existential meaning among first-time mothers intensify and whether they differ between...... mothers who gave birth at full term and those who gave birth preterm. All first-time mothers who gave birth in Denmark in 2010 before the 32nd week of pregnancy and twice that number of full-term mothers (randomly sampled) were invited to participate in a national cross-sectional survey. Five core items...... concerning meaning in life, vulnerability of life, responsibility, thoughts about life and death, and "something bigger than oneself" were analyzed to compare mothers' attitudes on existential meaning. The overall response rate was 57% (517/913). Contrary to the hypothesis, attitudes related to existential...

  20. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-01-01

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  1. Big IoT data mining for real-time energy disaggregation in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the smart grid context, the identification and prediction of building energy flexibility is a challenging open question, thus paving the way for new optimized behaviors from the demand side. At the same time, the latest smart meters developments allow us to monitor in real-time the power

  2. Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games in the Subquadratic Case

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Sá nchez-Morgado, Hé ector

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider time-dependent mean-field games with subquadratic Hamiltonians and power-like local dependence on the measure. We establish existence of classical solutions under a certain set of conditions depending on both the growth of the Hamiltonian and the dimension. This is done by combining regularity estimates for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation based on the Gagliardo-Nirenberg interpolation inequality with polynomial estimates for the Fokker-Planck equation. This technique improves substantially the previous results on the regularity of time-dependent mean-field games.

  3. Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games in the Subquadratic Case

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-10-14

    In this paper we consider time-dependent mean-field games with subquadratic Hamiltonians and power-like local dependence on the measure. We establish existence of classical solutions under a certain set of conditions depending on both the growth of the Hamiltonian and the dimension. This is done by combining regularity estimates for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation based on the Gagliardo-Nirenberg interpolation inequality with polynomial estimates for the Fokker-Planck equation. This technique improves substantially the previous results on the regularity of time-dependent mean-field games.

  4. Meteorological Reference Years of Daily Mean Temperature during the Slighting Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchante Jimenez, M.; Ramirez Santigosa, L.; Navarro Fernandez, A.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the characterization of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been analyzed. An algorithm for the hourly series generation from extreme daily values has been applied to evaluate the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time. A generic algorithm has been enhanced as a function of the sunrise time. This algorithm allows taking into account the fractions related to the sunrise and sunset hours. This methodology has been applied in data from 45 Spanish stations, uniformly distributed in the Iberian Peninsula. Data for a period of 14 years has been used in most of locations, and once the interest variable has been calculated, the meteorological reference year of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been evaluated in each stations. The next step is the evaluation of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time in any point into the zone of evaluation, not only in the measured stations. From the result data in each measured station, an geographic information system has been used in order to calculate the interpolation, obtaining maps with a data each 5 km. for each of the 365 days of the year. Then, this results can be superposed with the solar radiation evaluation obtaining the input data for the sizing of the photovoltaic grid connected system in any point of the Spanish geography. (Author) 64 refs

  5. Time-Consistent Strategies for a Multiperiod Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It remained prevalent in the past years to obtain the precommitment strategies for Markowitz's mean-variance portfolio optimization problems, but not much is known about their time-consistent strategies. This paper takes a step to investigate the time-consistent Nash equilibrium strategies for a multiperiod mean-variance portfolio selection problem. Under the assumption that the risk aversion is, respectively, a constant and a function of current wealth level, we obtain the explicit expressions for the time-consistent Nash equilibrium strategy and the equilibrium value function. Many interesting properties of the time-consistent results are identified through numerical sensitivity analysis and by comparing them with the classical pre-commitment solutions.

  6. Mean-Variance portfolio optimization when each asset has individual uncertain exit-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Keykhaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard Markowitz Mean-Variance optimization model is a single-period portfolio selection approach where the exit-time (or the time-horizon is deterministic. ‎In this paper we study the Mean-Variance portfolio selection problem ‎with ‎uncertain ‎exit-time ‎when ‎each ‎has ‎individual uncertain ‎xit-time‎, ‎which generalizes the Markowitz's model‎. ‎‎‎‎‎‎We provide some conditions under which the optimal portfolio of the generalized problem is independent of the exit-times distributions. Also, ‎‎it is shown that under some general circumstances, the sets of optimal portfolios‎ ‎in the generalized model and the standard model are the same‎.

  7. Testing for Change in Mean of Independent Multivariate Observations with Time Varying Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boutahar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonparametric CUSUM test for change in the mean of multivariate time series with time varying covariance. We prove that under the null, the test statistic has a Kolmogorov limiting distribution. The asymptotic consistency of the test against a large class of alternatives which contains abrupt, smooth and continuous changes is established. We also perform a simulation study to analyze the size distortion and the power of the proposed test.

  8. Growth, chamber building rate and reproduction time of Palaeonummulites venosus (Foraminifera) under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Wöger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifer Palaeonummulites venosus to determine the chamber building rate (CBR), test diameter increase rate (DIR), reproduction time and longevity using the `natural laboratory' approach. This is based on the decomposition of monthly obtained frequency distributions of chamber number and test diameter into normally distributed components. Test measurements were taken using MicroCT. The shift of the mean and standard deviation of component parameters during the 15-month investigation period was used to calculate Michaelis-Menten functions applied to estimate the averaged CBR and DIR under natural conditions. The individual dates of birth were estimated using the inverse averaged CBR and the inverse DIR fitted by the individual chamber number or the individual test diameter at the sampling date. Distributions of frequencies and densities (i.e., frequency divided by sediment weight) based on both CBR and DIR revealed continuous reproduction throughout the year with two peaks, a stronger one in June determined as the onset of the summer generation (generation 1) and a weaker one in November determined as the onset of the winter generation (generation 2). This reproduction scheme explains the presence of small and large specimens in the same sample. Longevity, calculated as the maximum difference in days between the individual's birth date and the sampling date, is approximately 1.5 yr, an estimation obtained by using both CBR and DIR.

  9. Estimating space-time mean concentrations of nutrients in surface waters of variable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Brus, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A monitoring scheme has been designed to test whether the space-time mean concentration total Nitrogen (N-total) in the surface water in the Northern Frisian Woodlands (NFW, The Netherlands) complies with standards of the European Water Framework directive. Since in statistical testing for

  10. Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Voskanyan, Vardan K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas

  11. Using the mean approach in pooling cross-section and time series data for regression modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuamah, N.N.N.N.

    1989-12-01

    The mean approach is one of the methods for pooling cross section and time series data for mathematical-statistical modelling. Though a simple approach, its results are sometimes paradoxical in nature. However, researchers still continue using it for its simplicity. Here, the paper investigates the nature and source of such unwanted phenomena. (author). 7 refs

  12. System for continuous real time air monitoring by means of gamma spectrometry with germanium dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalto, M.; Giacomelli, R.; Nocente, M.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Spezzano, P.

    1990-12-01

    Design of automatic system for real time air monitoring of radioactive particulates are relate. Recommendations are made for design and operation of sampling conduits to minimize losses. By means of experimental equipment loss of particles in long sampling conduits, minimum detectable activity and efficiency of gamma radiation detectable are evaluated. (author)

  13. CONTINUITY OF THE MEANINGS AND FORMS OF PATRIOTISM IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL TIME STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valerjevna Kashirina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work objective is to identify the focus of the meanings’ continuity and forms of patriotism in patriotic choice as the frame meaning of main life strategy that each civilized subject has- an individual, a social community of any size. The choice truthfulness is defined by presence of the meaning time continuity and approach of its structure to «the right rate». Methodology. The problem analysis is carried out on the basis of transdisciplinary dialectical and trialectical method of distinction and meaning-making with respect to intellectual technology of civilized and noospheric patriotism continuity. Results. The article regards to the continuity of meanings and forms of patriotism in the context of social time study and searches for the solution to the problem of patriotism in three lines: 1 as the problem of civilized patriotism of Great and Small Motherland, 2 as the problem of noospheric patriotism, 3 as the problem of the continuity of the meanings between them. It highlights the solution flexibility of patriotism problem that is related to the fact that social time study considers patriotism as the culture phenomenon that has the dialectical «nature of existence», and at the same time, it has three way model of civilized reality «existence» meanings – entirety of present, continuity of past and reasonability of future. The article says that the dynamic balance of meanings of civilized and noospheric patriotism in the identity culture of a civilized subject making the culture of his/her behavior and activity provides formation and stability of moral and spiritual immunity that appears by virtue of them in the semantic field of patriotism. Practical implications. The practical implication of the research is in its usability to work out courses on philosophy, culture philosophy, etc. Social time study theory can be realized in teaching practice of the new course unit «The basics of social time study» as a humanity

  14. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right

  15. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhiyong, E-mail: yuzhiyong@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong University, School of Mathematics (China)

    2013-12-15

    This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right.

  16. Markov Chain Model with Catastrophe to Determine Mean Time to Default of Credit Risky Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraja, Selvamuthu; Pasricha, Puneet; Tardelli, Paola

    2017-11-01

    This article deals with the problem of probabilistic prediction of the time distance to default for a firm. To model the credit risk, the dynamics of an asset is described as a function of a homogeneous discrete time Markov chain subject to a catastrophe, the default. The behaviour of the Markov chain is investigated and the mean time to the default is expressed in a closed form. The methodology to estimate the parameters is given. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model on real data and their analysis is discussed.

  17. Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2015-11-20

    We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas. The congestion effects make the Hamilton–Jacobi equation singular. The uniqueness of solutions for this problem is well understood; however, the existence of classical solutions was only known in very special cases, stationary problems with quadratic Hamiltonians and some time-dependent explicit examples. Here, we demonstrate the short-time existence of C∞ solutions for sub-quadratic Hamiltonians.

  18. Mean transit time image - a new method of analyzing brain perfusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Z.; Ritzl, F.

    1983-05-01

    Point-by-point calculation of the mean transit time based on gamma fit was used to analyze brain perfusion studies in a vertex view. The algorithm and preliminary results in normal brain and in different stages of cerebral perfusion abnormality (ischemia, stroke, migraine, tumor, abscess) are demonstrated. In contrast to the traditional methods using fixed, a priori defined regions of interest this type of mapping of the relative regions cerebral perfusion shows more clearly the irregular outlines of the disturbance. Right to left activity ratios in the arterial part of the time-activity curves showed significant correlation with the mean transit time ratios (Q/sub 1/=1.185-0.192 Qsub(a), n=38, r=0.716, P<0.001).

  19. Application of artificial neural network to predict the optimal start time for heating system in building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, In-Ho; Yeo, Myoung-Souk; Kim, Kwang-Woo

    2003-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) approach is a generic technique for mapping non-linear relationships between inputs and outputs without knowing the details of these relationships. This paper presents an application of the ANN in a building control system. The objective of this study is to develop an optimized ANN model to determine the optimal start time for a heating system in a building. For this, programs for predicting the room air temperature and the learning of the ANN model based on back propagation learning were developed, and learning data for various building conditions were collected through program simulation for predicting the room air temperature using systems of experimental design. Then, the optimized ANN model was presented through learning of the ANN, and its performance to determine the optimal start time was evaluated

  20. Application of Time Domain PARET to the measured responses of a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lager, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the Time Domain PARET (TDP) algorithm to data obtained from the measured responses of a three story reinforced concrete building approximately 465 feet long by 220 feet wide by 40 feet high, with 12 to 18 inch thick walls, is described. The measurements were taken by Agbabian Associates, El Segundo, California. The structure was excited by a device developed at Agbabian that uses a mass sliding down a rod to cut metal disks attached to the rod. The result is a series of impulse forces driving the building at the attachment point of the rod. The responses measured were the accelerations at two locations on the structure. A constraint imposed was that the equipment in the building must remain operating during the time the measurements were made

  1. Variability of Cost and Time Delivery of Educational Buildings in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cost and time overrun in construction projects has become a reoccurring problem in construction industries around the world especially in developing countries. This situation is unhealthy for public educational buildings which are executed with limited government funds, and are in most cases time sensitive, as they need to cater for the influx of students into the institutions. This study therefore assessed the variability of cost and time delivery of educational buildings in Nigeria, using a study of selected educational buildings within the country. A pro forma was used to gather cost and time data on selected building projects, while structured questionnaire was used to harness information on the possible measures for reducing the variability from the construction participants that were involved in the delivery of these projects. Paired sample t-test, percentage, relative importance index, and Kruskal-Walis test were adopted for data analyses. The study reveals that there is a significant difference between the initial and final cost of delivering educational buildings, as an average of 4.87% deviation, with a sig. p-value of 0.000 was experienced on all assessed projects. For time delivery, there is also a significant difference between the initial estimated time and final time of construction as a whopping 130% averaged deviation with a sig. p-value of 0.000 was discovered. To remedy these problems, the study revealed that prompt payment for executed works, predicting market price fluctuation and inculcating it into the initial estimate, and owner’s involvement at the planning and design phase are some of the possible measures to be adopted.

  2. Mass dispersions in a time-dependent mean-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Bonche, P.; Flocard, H.; Veneroni, M.

    1984-05-01

    Characteristic functions for single-particle (s.p.) observables are evaluated by means of a time-dependent variational principle, which involves a state and an observable as conjugate variables. This provides a mean-field expression for fluctuations of s.p. observables, such as mass dispersions. The result differs from TDHF, it requires only the use of existing codes, and it presents attractive theoretical features. First numerical tests are encouraging. In particular, a calculation for 16 O + 16 O provides a significant increase of the predicted mass dispersion

  3. Chimeralike states in networks of bistable time-delayed feedback oscillators coupled via the mean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, V I; Kulminskiy, D D; Prokhorov, M D

    2017-08-01

    We study the collective dynamics of oscillators in a network of identical bistable time-delayed feedback systems globally coupled via the mean field. The influence of delay and inertial properties of the mean field on the collective behavior of globally coupled oscillators is investigated. A variety of oscillation regimes in the network results from the presence of bistable states with substantially different frequencies in coupled oscillators. In the physical experiment and numerical simulation we demonstrate the existence of chimeralike states, in which some of the oscillators in the network exhibit synchronous oscillations, while all other oscillators remain asynchronous.

  4. Mean-Variance Hedging on Uncertain Time Horizon in a Market with a Jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharroubi, Idris; Lim, Thomas; Ngoupeyou, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study the problem of mean-variance hedging with a random horizon T∧τ, where T is a deterministic constant and τ is a jump time of the underlying asset price process. We first formulate this problem as a stochastic control problem and relate it to a system of BSDEs with a jump. We then provide a verification theorem which gives the optimal strategy for the mean-variance hedging using the solution of the previous system of BSDEs. Finally, we prove that this system of BSDEs admits a solution via a decomposition approach coming from filtration enlargement theory

  5. Mean-Variance Hedging on Uncertain Time Horizon in a Market with a Jump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharroubi, Idris, E-mail: kharroubi@ceremade.dauphine.fr [Université Paris Dauphine, CEREMADE, CNRS UMR 7534 (France); Lim, Thomas, E-mail: lim@ensiie.fr [Université d’Evry and ENSIIE, Laboratoire d’Analyse et Probabilités (France); Ngoupeyou, Armand, E-mail: armand.ngoupeyou@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Université Paris 7, Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires (France)

    2013-12-15

    In this work, we study the problem of mean-variance hedging with a random horizon T∧τ, where T is a deterministic constant and τ is a jump time of the underlying asset price process. We first formulate this problem as a stochastic control problem and relate it to a system of BSDEs with a jump. We then provide a verification theorem which gives the optimal strategy for the mean-variance hedging using the solution of the previous system of BSDEs. Finally, we prove that this system of BSDEs admits a solution via a decomposition approach coming from filtration enlargement theory.

  6. Forecasting the Global Mean Sea Level, a Continuous-Time State-Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrini, Lorenzo

    In this paper we propose a continuous-time, Gaussian, linear, state-space system to model the relation between global mean sea level (GMSL) and the global mean temperature (GMT), with the aim of making long-term projections for the GMSL. We provide a justification for the model specification based......) and the temperature reconstruction from Hansen et al. (2010). We compare the forecasting performance of the proposed specification to the procedures developed in Rahmstorf (2007b) and Vermeer and Rahmstorf (2009). Finally, we compute projections for the sea-level rise conditional on the 21st century SRES temperature...

  7. Time Consistent Strategies for Mean-Variance Asset-Liability Management Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-qiang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal time consistent investment strategies in multiperiod asset-liability management problems under mean-variance criterion. By applying time consistent model of Chen et al. (2013 and employing dynamic programming technique, we derive two-time consistent policies for asset-liability management problems in a market with and without a riskless asset, respectively. We show that the presence of liability does affect the optimal strategy. More specifically, liability leads a parallel shift of optimal time-consistent investment policy. Moreover, for an arbitrarily risk averse investor (under the variance criterion with liability, the time-diversification effects could be ignored in a market with a riskless asset; however, it should be considered in a market without any riskless asset.

  8. Comparing internal and external run-time coupling of CFD and building energy simulation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djunaedy, E.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between internal and external run-time coupling of CFD and building energy simulation software. Internal coupling can be seen as the "traditional" way of developing software, i.e. the capabilities of existing software are expanded by merging codes. With external

  9. Causes of time overrun of education trust fund building projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study surveyed Education Trust Fund building projects in some tertiary institutions in north central Nigeria with the aim of ascertaining the causes of time overrun of these projects. The survey was carried out with the help of a structured questionnaire administered to clients, consultants and contractors' alike.

  10. A Random Parameter Model for Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Asset-Liability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-qiang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a continuous-time mean-variance asset-liability management problem in a market with random market parameters; that is, interest rate, appreciation rates, and volatility rates are considered to be stochastic processes. By using the theories of stochastic linear-quadratic (LQ optimal control and backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs, we tackle this problem and derive optimal investment strategies as well as the mean-variance efficient frontier analytically in terms of the solution of BSDEs. We find that the efficient frontier is still a parabola in a market with random parameters. Comparing with the existing results, we also find that the liability does not affect the feasibility of the mean-variance portfolio selection problem. However, in an incomplete market with random parameters, the liability can not be fully hedged.

  11. Experimental study of a model and parameters calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Chen Jiayi; Zhang Maoshuan; Gao Zhanrong; Yao Rentai; Jia Peirong; Qiao Qingdang

    1999-01-01

    The author tries to develop a new model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site based on field experiments. This model considers not only the difference between shore ward and off-shore but also the comprehensive effect of following factors: mixed layer and thermal internal boundary layer, mixing release and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast and so on. The various parameters needed in the model are obtained from the field atmospheric experiments done on the NPP site during 1995∼1996. There dimension joint frequency is got from wind and temperature measurements at 4 heights of a tower of 100 m; diffusion parameters shore ward and off-shore from turbulent measurement and wind tunnel simulation test; the parameters relative to sea and land breeze and thermal internal boundary layer are obtained from tests with low altitude radiosonde and lost balloon at 3 sites during two periods of Summer and Winter. Finally a comparison of the results given by this model and commonly used model provided by relative guides is done. The comparison shows that about 1 times under estimation is found for the maximum of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor in common model because the effect from thermal internal boundary layer and other factors are neglected

  12. Availability and mean life time prediction of multistage degraded system with partial repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Hoang; Suprasad, A.; Misra, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    In some environments, components might not always fail fully, but can degrade, and there can be multiple stages of degradation. In such cases, the efficiency of the system may decrease. After a certain stage of degradation the efficiency of the system may decrease to an unacceptable limit and can be considered as a total failure. However, the system can fail randomly from any stage. and can be repaired. Further, the repair action cannot bring the system to the good stage, but can make it operational and the failure rate of the system will, therefore, remain the same as before the failure. In this study, we present a model for predicting the reliability, availability, mean life time, and mean time to first failure of multistage degraded systems with partial repairs. In the analysis, state dependent transition rates for the degradation process, as well as repair processes, are considered. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the results

  13. Assessing the mean strength and variations of the time-to-time fluctuations of resting-state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Zang, Yu-Feng; Ding, Jianping; Wang, Ze

    2017-04-01

    The time-to-time fluctuations (TTFs) of resting-state brain activity as captured by resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) have been repeatedly shown to be informative of functional brain structures and disease-related alterations. TTFs can be characterized by the mean and the range of successive difference. The former can be measured with the mean squared successive difference (MSSD), which is mathematically similar to standard deviation; the latter can be calculated by the variability of the successive difference (VSD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the resting state-MSSD and VSD of rsfMRI regarding their test-retest stability, sensitivity to brain state change, as well as their biological meanings. We hypothesized that MSSD and VSD are reliable in resting brain; both measures are sensitive to brain state changes such as eyes-open compared to eyes-closed condition; both are predictive of age. These hypotheses were tested with three rsfMRI datasets and proven true, suggesting both MSSD and VSD as reliable and useful tools for resting-state studies.

  14. A short note on the mean exit time of the Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Lucio; Farina, Maria Antonietta

    We investigate the functional Ω↦ℰ(Ω) where Ω runs through the set of compact domains of fixed volume v in any Riemannian manifold (M,g) and where ℰ(Ω) is the mean exit time from Ω of the Brownian motion. We give an alternative analytical proof of a well-known fact on its critical points proved by McDonald: the critical points of ℰ(Ω) are harmonic domains.

  15. Double giant resonances in time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.; Podobnik, B.

    1996-01-01

    Collective vibrations in spherical nuclei are described in the framework of time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory (RMFT). Isoscalar quadrupole and isovector dipole oscillations that correspond to giant resonances are studied, and possible excitations of higher modes are investigated. We find evidence for modes which can be interpreted as double resonances. In a quantized RMFT they correspond to two-phonon states. (orig.)

  16. A comparison of various forecasting techniques applied to mean hourly wind speed time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfetsos, A. [7 Pirsou Street, Athens (Greece)

    2000-09-01

    This paper presents a comparison of various forecasting approaches, using time series analysis, on mean hourly wind speed data. In addition to the traditional linear (ARMA) models and the commonly used feed forward and recurrent neural networks, other approaches are also examined including the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) and Neural Logic Networks. The developed models are evaluated for their ability to produce accurate and fast forecasts. (Author)

  17. New information technologies as a means of quality improvement of part-time students’ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нестеренко В. В.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ways and means aimed at facilitating the quality of part-time students’ training at an institution of higher education are considered in the article. The principles the conditions facilitating quality increase of adult part-time students’ training are based on as well as criteria of their effectiveness assessment are described. The definition of the notion «distance learning» has been given. Tuition by correspondence as a special form of continuous education allowing the use of elements of distance educational technologies is examined. The role of informational technologies in correspondence form of education providing essential improvement of students’ training quality is described.

  18. Time dependent mean field approximation to the many-body S-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Koonin, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations are a good description of some inclusive properties of deep inelastic heavy-ion collisions. The first steps toward a mean-field theory that approximates specific elements of the many-body S matrix are presented. A many-body system with pairwise interactions excited by an external, time-dependent one-body field is considered. The methods are used to solve the forced Lipkin model. The moduli of elastic and excitation amplitudes are plotted. 3 figures

  19. Mean first passage time for random walk on dual structure of dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2014-12-01

    The random walk approach has recently been widely employed to study the relations between the underlying structure and dynamic of complex systems. The mean first-passage time (MFPT) for random walks is a key index to evaluate the transport efficiency in a given system. In this paper we study analytically the MFPT in a dual structure of dendrimer network, Husimi cactus, which has different application background and different structure (contains loops) from dendrimer. By making use of the iterative construction, we explicitly determine both the partial mean first-passage time (PMFT, the average of MFPTs to a given target) and the global mean first-passage time (GMFT, the average of MFPTs over all couples of nodes) on Husimi cactus. The obtained closed-form results show that PMFPT and EMFPT follow different scaling with the network order, suggesting that the target location has essential influence on the transport efficiency. Finally, the impact that loop structure could bring is analyzed and discussed.

  20. Honeywell experts on building automation 'Do it right, just the first time'. Honeywell-Fachleute zum Thema Gebaeudeautomation: 'Do it right, just the first time'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haltiner, E.W.

    1992-11-01

    Non-experts often have problems with the terms building automation and building management system as they often do not know their exact meaning. Building automation means services and products as a whole and a building management system is a particular part of automation. The article shows that building automation can also be sensibly used for smaller buildings. Centrepiece is the central control station with which all building services can be monitored and controlled. (BWI).

  1. Distribution Locational Real-Time Pricing Based Smart Building Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jun; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    This paper proposes an real-virtual parallel computing scheme for smart building operations aiming at augmenting overall social welfare. The University of Denver's campus power grid and Ritchie fitness center is used for demonstrating the proposed approach. An artificial virtual system is built in parallel to the real physical system to evaluate the overall social cost of the building operation based on the social science based working productivity model, numerical experiment based building energy consumption model and the power system based real-time pricing mechanism. Through interactive feedback exchanged between the real and virtual system, enlarged social welfare, including monetary cost reduction and energy saving, as well as working productivity improvements, can be achieved.

  2. Field Experience with and Potential for Multi-time Scale Grid Transactions from Responsive Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-08-01

    The need for and concepts behind demand response are evolving. As the electric system changes with more intermittent renewable electric supply systems, there is a need to allow buildings to provide more flexible demand. This paper presents results from field studies and pilots, as well as engineering estimates of the potential capabilities of fast load responsiveness in commercial buildings. We present a sector wide analysis of flexible loads in commercial buildings, which was conducted to improve resource planning and determine which loads to evaluate in future demonstrations. These systems provide important capabilities for future transactional systems. The field analysis is based on results from California, plus projects in the northwest and east coast. End-uses considered include heating, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting. The timescales of control include day-ahead, as well as day-of, 10-minute ahead and even faster response. This technology can provide DR signals on different times scales to interact with responsive building loads. We describe the latency of the control systems in the building and the round trip communications with the wholesale grid operators.

  3. Pushover, Response Spectrum and Time History Analyses of Safe Rooms in a Poor Performance Masonry Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloom, M.

    2008-01-01

    The idea of safe room has been developed for decreasing the earthquake casualties in masonry buildings. The information obtained from the previous ground motions occurring in seismic zones expresses the lack of enough safety of these buildings against earthquakes. For this reason, an attempt has been made to create some safe areas inside the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for making these safe areas is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some parts of the existing structure. These frames do not carry any service loads before an earthquake. However, if a devastating earthquake happens and the load bearing walls of the building are destroyed, some parts of the floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames and the occupants who have sheltered there will survive. This paper presents the performance of these frames located in a destroying three storey masonry building with favorable conclusions. In fact, the experimental pushover diagram of the safe room located at the ground-floor level of this building is compared with the analytical results and it is concluded that pushover analysis is a good method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. For time history analysis the 1940 El Centro, the 2003 Bam, and the 1990 Manjil earthquake records with the maximum peak accelerations of 0.35g were utilized. Also the design spectrum of Iranian Standard No. 2800-05 for the ground kind 2 is used for response spectrum analysis. The results of time history, response spectrum and pushover analyses show that the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames are adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly

  4. A time-series study of sick building syndrome: chronic, biotoxin-associated illness from exposure to water-damaged buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Ritchie C; House, Dennis E

    2005-01-01

    The human health risk for chronic illnesses involving multiple body systems following inhalation exposure to the indoor environments of water-damaged buildings (WDBs) has remained poorly characterized and the subject of intense controversy. The current study assessed the hypothesis that exposure to the indoor environments of WDBs with visible microbial colonization was associated with illness. The study used a cross-sectional design with assessments at five time points, and the interventions of cholestyramine (CSM) therapy, exposure avoidance following therapy, and reexposure to the buildings after illness resolution. The methodological approach included oral administration of questionnaires, medical examinations, laboratory analyses, pulmonary function testing, and measurements of visual function. Of the 21 study volunteers, 19 completed assessment at each of the five time points. Data at Time Point 1 indicated multiple symptoms involving at least four organ systems in all study participants, a restrictive respiratory condition in four participants, and abnormally low visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) in 18 participants. Serum leptin levels were abnormally high and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) levels were abnormally low. Assessments at Time Point 2, following 2 weeks of CSM therapy, indicated a highly significant improvement in health status. Improvement was maintained at Time Point 3, which followed exposure avoidance without therapy. Reexposure to the WDBs resulted in illness reacquisition in all participants within 1 to 7 days. Following another round of CSM therapy, assessments at Time Point 5 indicated a highly significant improvement in health status. The group-mean number of symptoms decreased from 14.9+/-0.8 S.E.M. at Time Point 1 to 1.2+/-0.3 S.E.M., and the VCS deficit of approximately 50% at Time Point 1 was fully resolved. Leptin and MSH levels showed statistically significant improvement. The results indicated that CSM was an effective

  5. Regular and chaotic dynamics in time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.; Lalazissis, G.A.; Poeschl, W.

    1997-01-01

    Isoscalar and isovector monopole oscillations that correspond to giant resonances in spherical nuclei are described in the framework of time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory. Time-dependent and self-consistent calculations that reproduce experimental data on monopole resonances in 208 Pb show that the motion of the collective coordinate is regular for isoscalar oscillations, and that it becomes chaotic when initial conditions correspond to the isovector mode. Regular collective dynamics coexists with chaotic oscillations on the microscopic level. Time histories, Fourier spectra, state-space plots, Poincare sections, autocorrelation functions, and Lyapunov exponents are used to characterize the nonlinear system and to identify chaotic oscillations. Analogous considerations apply to higher multipolarities. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madler, P.

    1982-01-01

    A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated

  7. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection: A Stochastic LQ Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.Y.; Li, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a continuous-time mean-variance portfolio selection model that is formulated as a bicriteria optimization problem. The objective is to maximize the expected terminal return and minimize the variance of the terminal wealth. By putting weights on the two criteria one obtains a single objective stochastic control problem which is however not in the standard form due to the variance term involved. It is shown that this nonstandard problem can be 'embedded' into a class of auxiliary stochastic linear-quadratic (LQ) problems. The stochastic LQ control model proves to be an appropriate and effective framework to study the mean-variance problem in light of the recent development on general stochastic LQ problems with indefinite control weighting matrices. This gives rise to the efficient frontier in a closed form for the original portfolio selection problem

  8. Multi-Directional Seismic Assessment of Historical Masonry Buildings by Means of Macro-Element Modelling: Application to a Building Damaged during the L’Aquila Earthquake (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cannizzaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the recent earthquakes in Italy caused a shocking impact in terms of loss of human life and damage in buildings. In particular, when it comes to ancient constructions, their cultural and historical value overlaps with the economic and social one. Among the historical structures, churches have been the object of several studies which identified the main characteristics of the seismic response and the most probable collapse mechanisms. More rarely, academic studies have been devoted to ancient palaces, since they often exhibit irregular and complicated arrangement of the resisting elements, which makes their response very difficult to predict. In this paper, a palace located in L’Aquila, severely damaged by the seismic event of 2009 is the object of an accurate study. A historical reconstruction of the past strengthening interventions as well as a detailed geometric relief is performed to implement detailed numerical models of the structure. Both global and local models are considered and static nonlinear analyses are performed considering the influence of the input direction on the seismic vulnerability of the building. The damage pattern predicted by the numerical models is compared with that observed after the earthquake. The seismic vulnerability assessments are performed in terms of ultimate peak ground acceleration (PGA using capacity curves and the Italian code spectrum. The results are compared in terms of ultimate ductility demand evaluated performing nonlinear dynamic analyses considering the actual registered seismic input of L’Aquila earthquake.

  9. Mapping absorption processes onto a Markov chain, conserving the mean first passage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a multidimensional system is projected onto a discrete state master equation using the transition rates W(k → k′; t, t + dt) between a set of states {k} represented by the regions {ζ k } in phase or discrete state space. Depending on the dynamics Γ i (t) of the original process and the choice of ζ k , the discretized process can be Markovian or non-Markovian. For absorption processes, it is shown that irrespective of these properties of the projection, a master equation with time-independent transition rates W-bar (k→k ' ) can be obtained, which conserves the total occupation time of the partitions of the phase or discrete state space of the original process. An expression for the transition probabilities p-bar (k ' |k) is derived based on either time-discrete measurements {t i } with variable time stepping Δ (i+1)i = t i+1 − t i or the theoretical knowledge at continuous times t. This allows computational methods of absorbing Markov chains to be used to obtain the mean first passage time (MFPT) of the system. To illustrate this approach, the procedure is applied to obtain the MFPT for the overdamped Brownian motion of particles subject to a system with dichotomous noise and the escape from an entropic barrier. The high accuracy of the simulation results confirms with the theory. (paper)

  10. Investigation on the Factors Influencing Construction Time and Cost Overrun for High-Rise Building Projects In Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haslinda, A.; Xian, T. Wei; Norfarahayu, K.; Muhamad Hanafi, R.; Fikri, H. Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Time and cost overruns have become one prominent issue for most construction projects around the world. Project costing and timeframe extension had been causing a lot of wastage and loss of opportunity for many parties involved. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the factors influencing time and cost overruns for high-rise construction projects in Penang, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires survey was distributed to the project managers who had been or currently involved in the high-rise building projects in Penang to get their input and perceptions for each factor identified as well as its frequency of occurrence. In order to rank all the factors gathered, the mean index of the most distinguishing factors and its frequency of occurrence were multiplied to get the severity index. The results revealed that for time overrun, the most predominant causes were due to design changes, inadequate planning and scheduling and poor labor productivity. Meanwhile, the predominant causes of cost overrun were poor pre-construction budget and material cost planning, inaccurate quantity take-off and materials cost increased by inflation. The significance of establishing the issues related to time and cost overruns for the high-rise building construction project is to provide a greater insight and understanding on the causes of delays, particularly among the main project players: contractors, client, and consultants.

  11. Effects of soil-structure in high-rise buildings by means of dimensionless analysis and a simplified model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, S.S.; Pruiksma, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper simplified expressions for assessing fundamental frequency and modal damping of high-rise buildings taking into account the soil-structure interaction (SSI) are proposed. To this end, several steps have been followed. First, a 3DoF model is formulated making use of dimensionless

  12. Mean transit times as a parameter for optimizing the quantitative brain scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosberg, H.; Szabo, Z.; Nase, D.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion imaging with non-diffusible Tc-9mm-labelled substances is a simple screening procedure for identifying perfusion deficits, which can easily be applied in all nuclear medicine departments. Gross hypoperfusion can readily be recognized on analog images. To visualize and assess minor changes in limited brain areas, the perfusion phase in each pixel was fitted to a gamma function and the mean transit times were stored as parametric matrix. To examine the diagnostic sensitivity of transit time images versus that of the usual semiquantitative procedures, data of 84 patients with unilateral cerebral blood flow disorders were analyzed. From the pertinent studies parameters of hemispheral flow were computed using 10 different methodes. Data for the normal and the diseased hemisphere and their ratios were subjected to analysis of variance to assess their diagnostic weight. Patient groups with different angiologically verfied stenoses or occlusion were most easily dinstinguished by the time interval carotid artery - hemispheral peak. The values derived from the parametric images of mean transit times showed more or less the same weight, but the special advantage offered by parametric images, i.e. the precise visualization of the hypoperfused area, was not considered in the analysis of variance. Factorial analysis indicated that the parameters examined can be described by 2 factors to the extent of 72%. The first of these factors combines the weights (58%) of those variables which, in one may or the other, reflect the time of perfusion, while the second includes variables which make use of the count rates for differentiation (14%). The analysis of gamma camera data for diagnosing cerebral blood flow disorders is thus improved. (Author)

  13. Modified mean generation time parameter in the neutron point kinetics equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Rodrigo C.; Gonçalves, Alessandro C.; Rosa, Felipe S.S., E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: frosa@if.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes an approximation for the modified point kinetics equations proposed by NUNES et. al, 2015, through the adjustment of a kinetic parameter. This approximation consists of analyzing the terms of the modified point kinetics equations in order to identify the least important ones for the solution, resulting in a modification of the mean generation time parameter that incorporates all influences of the additional terms of the modified kinetics. This approximation is applied on the inverse kinetics, to compare the results with the inverse kinetics from the modified kinetics in order to validate the proposed model. (author)

  14. Modified mean generation time parameter in the neutron point kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Rodrigo C.; Gonçalves, Alessandro C.; Rosa, Felipe S.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an approximation for the modified point kinetics equations proposed by NUNES et. al, 2015, through the adjustment of a kinetic parameter. This approximation consists of analyzing the terms of the modified point kinetics equations in order to identify the least important ones for the solution, resulting in a modification of the mean generation time parameter that incorporates all influences of the additional terms of the modified kinetics. This approximation is applied on the inverse kinetics, to compare the results with the inverse kinetics from the modified kinetics in order to validate the proposed model. (author)

  15. Study of Real Time Location System For Worker in Containment Building at Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y.; Kim, G. S. [Samchang Enterprise Company, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. S. [Ulsan Univ., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Workers are required special management to minimize radiation exposure in nuclear power plant. Especially, there are many limitation in their activities at containment building in nuclear power plant. Test personnel shall administer the workers by tracing the location of them inside containment building in nuclear power plant. They may be exposed to the unnecessary radiation due to a complex and high radiation area in the building. Test personnel needs to manage efficiently for worker's safety and work hours at containment building. Therefore, it is critical for the test personnel to notice the risk to the workers by identifying the location when the workers are facing the dangerous situation on the high area. In this paper, we introduce requirements and design method to develop the one and two dimensional RTLS(Real Time Locating System) by using CSS(Chirp Spread Spectrum) which enables precise location measurement and robust data communication even indoor environment with serious electromagnetic interference caused by complicated structure such as the inside of containment building in the nuclear power plant. In the algorithm to compute the distance, it is suggested to use SDS-TWR(Symmetrical Double-Sided Two-Way Ranging) to solve the issue of indirect routes, and develop the power circuit with 10mW of designing gain for output power to meet the KCC standard in order to increase the raging distance, in addition, communication between Anchor and distance measuring computer shall be designed to increase energy using time of Tags(nodes) by using CAN(Controller Area Network) communication.

  16. Network-Based Real-time Integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) System with Building Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, F.; Boby, R. I.; Rashid, M. M.; Alam, M. M.; Shaikh, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Fire alarm systems have become increasingly an important lifesaving technology in many aspects, such as applications to detect, monitor and control any fire hazard. A large sum of money is being spent annually to install and maintain the fire alarm systems in buildings to protect property and lives from the unexpected spread of fire. Several methods are already developed and it is improving on a daily basis to reduce the cost as well as increase quality. An integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) systems with building automation was studied, to reduce cost and improve their reliability by preventing false alarm. This work proposes an improved framework for FDA system to ensure a robust intelligent network of FDA control panels in real-time. A shortest path algorithmic was chosen for series of buildings connected by fiber optic network. The framework shares information and communicates with each fire alarm panels connected in peer to peer configuration and declare the network state using network address declaration from any building connected in network. The fiber-optic connection was proposed to reduce signal noises, thus increasing large area coverage, real-time communication and long-term safety. Based on this proposed method an experimental setup was designed and a prototype system was developed to validate the performance in practice. Also, the distributed network system was proposed to connect with an optional remote monitoring terminal panel to validate proposed network performance and ensure fire survivability where the information is sequentially transmitted. The proposed FDA system is different from traditional fire alarm and detection system in terms of topology as it manages group of buildings in an optimal and efficient manner.Introduction

  17. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krarti, Moncef, E-mail: moncef.krarti@colorado.ed [CEAE Department, CB 428, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hajiah, Ali [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: {yields} A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. {yields} The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. {yields} It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. {yields} Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  18. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krarti, Moncef; Hajiah, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: → A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. → The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. → It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. → Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  19. Evaluation of mean time between forced outage for reactor protection system using RBD and failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Park, J. H.; Hwang, I. K.; Cha, K. H.; Choi, J. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) under recent construction is about fifty to sixty years. However, the duration that equipments of control systems operate without failures is at most five to ten years. Design for diversity and adequate maintenance strategy are required for NPP protection system in order to use the control equipment which has shorter life time than the design life of NPP. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) technique, which has been applied to Probabilistics Safety Analysis (PSA), has been introduced to quantitatively evaluate the reliability of NPP I and C systems. The FTA, however, cannot properly consider the effect of maintenance. In this work, we have reviewed quantitative reliability evaluation techniques using the reliability block diagram and failure rates and applied it to the evaluation of mean time between forced outage for reactor protection system

  20. Structural nested mean models for assessing time-varying effect moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Daniel; Ten Have, Thomas; Murphy, Susan A

    2010-03-01

    This article considers the problem of assessing causal effect moderation in longitudinal settings in which treatment (or exposure) is time varying and so are the covariates said to moderate its effect. Intermediate causal effects that describe time-varying causal effects of treatment conditional on past covariate history are introduced and considered as part of Robins' structural nested mean model. Two estimators of the intermediate causal effects, and their standard errors, are presented and discussed: The first is a proposed two-stage regression estimator. The second is Robins' G-estimator. The results of a small simulation study that begins to shed light on the small versus large sample performance of the estimators, and on the bias-variance trade-off between the two estimators are presented. The methodology is illustrated using longitudinal data from a depression study.

  1. Time series modelling of global mean temperature for managerial decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romilly, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Climate change has important implications for business and economic activity. Effective management of climate change impacts will depend on the availability of accurate and cost-effective forecasts. This paper uses univariate time series techniques to model the properties of a global mean temperature dataset in order to develop a parsimonious forecasting model for managerial decision-making over the short-term horizon. Although the model is estimated on global temperature data, the methodology could also be applied to temperature data at more localised levels. The statistical techniques include seasonal and non-seasonal unit root testing with and without structural breaks, as well as ARIMA and GARCH modelling. A forecasting evaluation shows that the chosen model performs well against rival models. The estimation results confirm the findings of a number of previous studies, namely that global mean temperatures increased significantly throughout the 20th century. The use of GARCH modelling also shows the presence of volatility clustering in the temperature data, and a positive association between volatility and global mean temperature.

  2. Energy Payback Time Calculation for a Building Integrated Semitransparent Thermal (BISPVT) System with Air Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchan Mudgil; Deepali Kamthania

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the energy payback time (EPBT) of building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BISPVT) system for Srinagar, India. Three different photovoltaic (PV) modules namely mono crystalline silicon (m-Si), poly crystalline silicon (p-Si), and amorphous silicon (a-Si) have been considered for calculation of EPBT. It is found that, the EPBT is lowest in m-Si. Hence, integration of m-Si PV modules on the roof of a room is economical.

  3. On the impact of topography and building mask on time varying gravity due to local hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, S.; Jacob, T.; Chéry, J.; Champollion, C.

    2013-01-01

    We use 3 yr of surface absolute gravity measurements at three sites on the Larzac plateau (France) to quantify the changes induced by topography and the building on gravity time-series, with respect to an idealized infinite slab approximation. Indeed, local topography and buildings housing ground-based gravity measurement have an effect on the distribution of water storage changes, therefore affecting the associated gravity signal. We first calculate the effects of surrounding topography and building dimensions on the gravity attraction for a uniform layer of water. We show that a gravimetric interpretation of water storage change using an infinite slab, the so-called Bouguer approximation, is generally not suitable. We propose to split the time varying gravity signal in two parts (1) a surface component including topographic and building effects (2) a deep component associated to underground water transfer. A reservoir modelling scheme is herein presented to remove the local site effects and to invert for the effective hydrological properties of the unsaturated zone. We show that effective time constants associated to water transfer vary greatly from site to site. We propose that our modelling scheme can be used to correct for the local site effects on gravity at any site presenting a departure from a flat topography. Depending on sites, the corrected signal can exceed measured values by 5-15 μGal, corresponding to 120-380 mm of water using the Bouguer slab formula. Our approach only requires the knowledge of daily precipitation corrected for evapotranspiration. Therefore, it can be a useful tool to correct any kind of gravimetric time-series data.

  4. Analysis of the effect of passive strategies on a nearly zero Danish residential building by means of dynamic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avantaggiato, Marta; Simone, Angela; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Increase of outdoors temperature, due to climate changes, results in warmer summers even in cold climate regions. Moreover the use of wider glazing surfaces leads to high amount of incoming solar radiation. As a consequence, the moving toward low energy buildings with the improved air tightness i......’t that one required by the users (22-24°C by previous studies). This desired thermal indoor environment can be however obtained by exploiting windows opening during nigh....

  5. Building components for an outpost on the Lunar soil by means of a novel 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Giovanni; Dini, Enrico; De Kestelier, Xavier; Colla, Valentina; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    3D-printing technologies are receiving an always increasing attention in architecture, due to their potential use for direct construction of buildings and other complex structures, also of considerable dimensions, with virtually any shape. Some of these technologies rely on an agglomeration process of inert materials, e.g. sand, through a special binding liquid and this capability is of interest for the space community for its potential application to space exploration. In fact, it opens the possibility for exploiting in-situ resources for the construction of buildings in harsh spatial environments. The paper presents the results of a study aimed at assessing the concept of 3D printing technology for building habitats on the Moon using lunar soil, also called regolith. A particular patented 3D-printing technology - D-shape - has been applied, which is, among the existing rapid prototyping systems, the closest to achieving full scale construction of buildings and the physical and chemical characteristics of lunar regolith and terrestrial regolith simulants have been assessed with respect to the working principles of such technology. A novel lunar regolith simulant has also been developed, which almost exactly reproduces the characteristics of the JSC-1A simulant produced in the US. Moreover, tests in air and in vacuum have been performed to demonstrate the occurrence of the reticulation reaction with the regolith simulant. The vacuum tests also showed that evaporation or freezing of the binding liquid can be prevented through a proper injection method. The general requirements of a Moon outpost have been specified, and a preliminary design of the habitat has been developed. Based on such design, a section of the outpost wall has been selected and manufactured at full scale using the D-shape printer and regolith simulant. Test pieces have also been manufactured and their mechanical properties have been assessed.

  6. Positive affect, meaning in life, and future time perspective: an application of socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Trent, Jason; Davis, William E; King, Laura A

    2012-03-01

    Four studies tested the prediction that positive affect (PA) would relate more strongly to meaning in life (MIL) as a function of perceived time limitations. In Study 1 (N = 360), adults completed measures of PA and MIL. As predicted, PA related more strongly to MIL for older, compared to younger, participants. In Studies 2 and 3, adults (N = 514) indicated their current position in their life span, and rated their MIL. PA, whether naturally occurring (Study 2) or induced (Study 3), was a stronger predictor of MIL for individuals who perceived themselves as having a limited amount of time left to live. Finally, in Study 4 (N = 98) students completed a measure of PA, MIL, and future time perspective (FTP). Results showed that PA was more strongly linked to MIL for those who believed they had fewer opportunities left to pursue their goals. Overall, these findings suggest that the experience of PA becomes increasingly associated with the experience of MIL as the perception of future time becomes limited. The contribution of age related processes to judgments of well-being are discussed.

  7. REDUCTION OF THE RISK IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT BY USING DESIGN-BUILD AS A MEANS FOR SUITABLE CONSTRUCTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Blaťák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Suitable and sustainable buildings have increased demands for design and for the transfer of design requirements to realization. That causes an increase of risk connected with the differences between planned and real parameters of the buildings. This article will outline the main theme comparison between DBB and DB projects concerning contractor’s risk management level. This comparative analysis explains, using the RIPRAN method, the hidden risks in each type of delivery method. The comparison identifies numerous contractual topics and risks included in both and gives deeper insight into risk management, both for the contracting party and also for public procurement. Applying risk analysis strategies and tools to the process will help decision-makers evaluate and select the suitable delivery method consistently and defensibly. This paper gives generic risk factors related to both project types. The results indicate risk factors with influence on the price, probability of occurrence and unfavourable impact on the project and help allocate risk level more properly in accordance with its high, middle or low probable impact. Public investment is a significant part of the public budget, the application of design-build can help with the reduction of corruption, and the public sector can benefit from the usage of DB projects to help eliminate the mistakes made by contracting authorities.

  8. Passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, N.; Manz, H. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heiselberg, P. [Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Due to an overall trend towards an increasing cooling energy demand in buildings in many European countries over the last few decades, passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising concept. However, because of uncertainties in thermal comfort predictions, architects and engineers are still hesitant to apply passive cooling techniques. As night-time ventilation is highly dependent on climatic conditions, a method for quantifying the climatic cooling potential was developed and the impact of climate warming was investigated. Although a clear temperature decrease was found, significant potential will remain, especially if night-time ventilation is applied in combination with other cooling methods. Building energy simulations showed that the performance of night-time ventilation is also affected by the heat transfer at internal room surfaces, as the cooling effect is very limited due to heat transfer coefficients below about 4 W/m{sup 2}K. Heat transfer during night-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation was investigated in a full scale test room at Aalborg University. In the experiments the temperature efficiency of the ventilation was determined. Based on the previous results a method for estimating the potential for cooling by night-time ventilation at an early stage of design was developed. (author)

  9. Seismic response time history analyses for KALIMER building with a horizontal and vertical seismic isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Yoo, B.; Koo, K. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    The seismic response time history analyses for the lumped mass models of KALIMER reactor building with a horizontal and vertical seismic isolation are performed for Artificial Time History and Kobe earthquake. The vertical amplification by the horizontal isolation is reduced by a vertical isolation for both earthquakes. The 3% viscous damping and the vertical isolation frequency of 1.5Hz gives a reduced vertical response compared to the fixed base condition at reactor support, and the 9% viscous damping to Kobe earthquake is required to get an equivalent vertical response with a fixed base condition.

  10. Seismic response time history analyses for KALIMER building with a horizontal and vertical seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Yoo, B.; Koo, K. H.

    2001-01-01

    The seismic response time history analyses for the lumped mass models of KALIMER reactor building with a horizontal and vertical seismic isolation are performed for Artificial Time History and Kobe earthquake. The vertical amplification by the horizontal isolation is reduced by a vertical isolation for both earthquakes. The 3% viscous damping and the vertical isolation frequency of 1.5Hz gives a reduced vertical response compared to the fixed base condition at reactor support, and the 9% viscous damping to Kobe earthquake is required to get an equivalent vertical response with a fixed base condition

  11. An application of Mean Escape Time and metapopulation on forestry catastrophe insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangcheng; Zhang, Chunmin; Liu, Jifa; Li, Zhen; Yang, Xuan

    2018-04-01

    A forestry catastrophe insurance model due to forestry pest infestations and disease epidemics is developed by employing metapopulation dynamics and statistics properties of Mean Escape Time (MET). The probability of outbreak of forestry catastrophe loss and the catastrophe loss payment time with MET are respectively investigated. Forestry loss data in China is used for model simulation. Experimental results are concluded as: (1) The model with analytical results is shown to be a better fit; (2) Within the condition of big area of patches and structure of patches, high system factor, low extinction rate, high multiplicative noises, and additive noises with a high cross-correlated strength range, an outbreak of forestry catastrophe loss or catastrophe loss payment due to forestry pest infestations and disease epidemics could occur; (3) An optimal catastrophe loss payment time MET due to forestry pest infestations and disease epidemics can be identified by taking proper value of multiplicative noises and limits the additive noises on a low range of value, and cross-correlated strength at a high range of value.

  12. Mean germination time and germination rate of oat seeds subjected to stationary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in

  13. Hierarchical Adaptive Means (HAM) clustering for hardware-efficient, unsupervised and real-time spike sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Sivylla E; Wu, Di; Eftekhar, Amir; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2014-09-30

    This work presents a novel unsupervised algorithm for real-time adaptive clustering of neural spike data (spike sorting). The proposed Hierarchical Adaptive Means (HAM) clustering method combines centroid-based clustering with hierarchical cluster connectivity to classify incoming spikes using groups of clusters. It is described how the proposed method can adaptively track the incoming spike data without requiring any past history, iteration or training and autonomously determines the number of spike classes. Its performance (classification accuracy) has been tested using multiple datasets (both simulated and recorded) achieving a near-identical accuracy compared to k-means (using 10-iterations and provided with the number of spike classes). Also, its robustness in applying to different feature extraction methods has been demonstrated by achieving classification accuracies above 80% across multiple datasets. Last but crucially, its low complexity, that has been quantified through both memory and computation requirements makes this method hugely attractive for future hardware implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Must analysis of meaning follow analysis of form? A time course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Laurie B; Milin, Petar; Cho, Kit W; Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín; O'Connor, Patrick A

    2015-01-01

    Many models of word recognition assume that processing proceeds sequentially from analysis of form to analysis of meaning. In the context of morphological processing, this implies that morphemes are processed as units of form prior to any influence of their meanings. Some interpret the apparent absence of differences in recognition latencies to targets (SNEAK) in form and semantically similar (sneaky-SNEAK) and in form similar and semantically dissimilar (sneaker-SNEAK) prime contexts at a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 48 ms as consistent with this claim. To determine the time course over which degree of semantic similarity between morphologically structured primes and their targets influences recognition in the forward masked priming variant of the lexical decision paradigm, we compared facilitation for the same targets after semantically similar and dissimilar primes across a range of SOAs (34-100 ms). The effect of shared semantics on recognition latency increased linearly with SOA when long SOAs were intermixed (Experiments 1A and 1B) and latencies were significantly faster after semantically similar than dissimilar primes at homogeneous SOAs of 48 ms (Experiment 2) and 34 ms (Experiment 3). Results limit the scope of form-then-semantics models of recognition and demonstrate that semantics influences even the very early stages of recognition. Finally, once general performance across trials has been accounted for, we fail to provide evidence for individual differences in morphological processing that can be linked to measures of reading proficiency.

  15. Five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements in confined swirling flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Nonswirling and swirling nonreacting flows in an axisymmetric test section with an expansion ratio D/d = 2, which may be equipped with contraction nozzles of area ratios 2 and 4, are investigated. The effects of a number of geometric parameters on the flow-field are investigated, among them side-wall expansion angles of 90 and 45 deg, swirl vane angles of 0, 38, 45, 60, and 70 deg, and contraction nozzle locations L/D = 1 and 2 (if present). Data are acquired by means of a five-hole pitot probe enabling three time-mean velocity components in the axial, radial, and azimuthal directions to be measured. The velocities are extensively plotted and artistic impressions of recirculation zones are set forth. The presence of a swirler is found to shorten the corner recirculation zone and to generate a central recirculation zone followed by a precessing vortex core. A gradual inlet expansion has the effect of encouraging the flow to remain close to the sidewall and shortening the extent of the corner recirculation zone in all cases investigated.

  16. Must analysis of meaning follow analysis of form? A time course analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie eFeldman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many models of word recognition assume that processing proceeds sequentially from analysis of form to analysis of meaning. In the context of morphological processing, this implies that morphemes are processed as units of form prior to any influence of their meanings. Some interpret the apparent absence of differences in recognition latencies to targets (SNEAK in form and semantically similar (sneaky-SNEAK and in form similar and semantically dissimilar (sneaker-SNEAK prime contexts at an SOA of 48 ms as consistent with this claim. To determine the time course over which degree of semantic similarity between morphologically structured primes and their targets influences recognition in the forward masked priming variant of the lexical decision paradigm, we compared facilitation for the same targets after semantically similar and dissimilar primes across a range of SOAs. The effect of shared semantics on recognition latency increased linearly with SOA when long SOAs were intermixed (Exp. 1 and latencies were significantly faster after semantically similar than dissimilar primes at homogeneous SOAs of 48 ms (Exp. 2 and 34 ms (Exp. 3. Results limit the scope of form-then-semantics models of recognition and demonstrate that semantics influences even the very early stages of recognition. Finally, once general behavior across trials has been accounted for, we fail to provide evidence for individual differences in morphological processing that can be linked to measures of reading proficiency.

  17. Gun Launch System: efficient and low-cost means of research and real-time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarev, Alexander; Ventskovsky, Oleg; Korostelev, Oleg; Yakovenko, Peter; Kanevsky, Valery; Tselinko, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    The Gun Launch System with a reusable sub-orbital launch vehicle as a central element is proposed by a consortium of several Ukrainian high-tech companies as an effective, fast-response and low-cost means of research and real-time monitoring. The system is described in details, with the emphasis on its most important advantages. Multiple applications of the system are presented, including ones for the purposes of microgravity research; chemical, bacteriological and radiation monitoring and research of atmosphere and ionosphere; operational monitoring of natural and man-made disasters, as well as for some other areas of great practical interest. The current level of the system development is given, and the way ahead towards full system's implementation is prescribed.

  18. Time-dependent mean-field games in the superquadratic case

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-06

    We investigate time-dependent mean-field games with superquadratic Hamiltonians and a power dependence on the measure. Such problems pose substantial mathematical challenges as key techniques used in the subquadratic case, which was studied in a previous publication of the authors, do not extend to the superquadratic setting. The main objective of the present paper is to address these difficulties. Because of the superquadratic structure of the Hamiltonian, Lipschitz estimates for the solutions of the Hamilton−Jacobi equation are obtained here through a novel set of techniques. These explore the parabolic nature of the problem through the nonlinear adjoint method. Well-posedness is proven by combining Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton−Jacobi equation with polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker−Planck equation. Existence of classical solutions is then established under conditions depending only on the growth of the Hamiltonian and the dimension. Our results also add to current understanding of superquadratic Hamilton−Jacobi equations.

  19. Mean first-passage time of an asymmetric bistable system driven by colour-correlated noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-Yan; Xu Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of every parameter (including p, q,r, λ,τ) on the mean first-passage time (MFPT) is investigated in an asymmetric bistable system driven by colour-correlated noise. The expression of MFPT has been obtained by applying the steepest-descent approximation. Numerical results show that (1) the intensity of multiplicative noise p and the intensity of additive noise q play different roles in the MFPT of the system, (2) suppression appears on the curve of the MFPT with small λ (e.g. λ< 0.5) but there is a peak on the curve of the MFPT when λ is big (e.g.λ> 0.5), and (3) with different values of r (e.g. r = 0.1, 0.5, 1.5), the effort of τ on the MFPT is diverse.

  20. Time-dependent mean-field games in the superquadratic case

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard; Sá nchez-Morgado, Hé ctor

    2016-01-01

    We investigate time-dependent mean-field games with superquadratic Hamiltonians and a power dependence on the measure. Such problems pose substantial mathematical challenges as key techniques used in the subquadratic case, which was studied in a previous publication of the authors, do not extend to the superquadratic setting. The main objective of the present paper is to address these difficulties. Because of the superquadratic structure of the Hamiltonian, Lipschitz estimates for the solutions of the Hamilton−Jacobi equation are obtained here through a novel set of techniques. These explore the parabolic nature of the problem through the nonlinear adjoint method. Well-posedness is proven by combining Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton−Jacobi equation with polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker−Planck equation. Existence of classical solutions is then established under conditions depending only on the growth of the Hamiltonian and the dimension. Our results also add to current understanding of superquadratic Hamilton−Jacobi equations.

  1. STUDYING OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE TIMES OF UNR BY MEANS OF ELECTRONIC PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Artemova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of the students’ competences which consist of the three main groups (general, instrumental, interpersonal provides education of high quality. The instrumental one means “computer skills and information management abilities”. That is the reason why pedagogical staff and students have to master information technologies on the appropriate level. Structural and methodological peculiarities of e-presentations usage on “Early Childhood Education Development in the Times of UNR” topic at lectures, seminars and students’ individual work are considered in the article. The represented methodology of e-presentations usage supplies interactive educational activities of students and teachers. It is considered as a complex of different tasks. It promotes cognitive activities, encourages interest for mastering the content, directs students to use active methods of teaching.

  2. A network of spiking neurons that can represent interval timing: mean field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavornik, Jeffrey P; Shouval, Harel Z

    2011-04-01

    Despite the vital importance of our ability to accurately process and encode temporal information, the underlying neural mechanisms are largely unknown. We have previously described a theoretical framework that explains how temporal representations, similar to those reported in the visual cortex, can form in locally recurrent cortical networks as a function of reward modulated synaptic plasticity. This framework allows networks of both linear and spiking neurons to learn the temporal interval between a stimulus and paired reward signal presented during training. Here we use a mean field approach to analyze the dynamics of non-linear stochastic spiking neurons in a network trained to encode specific time intervals. This analysis explains how recurrent excitatory feedback allows a network structure to encode temporal representations.

  3. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  4. The time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory and the random phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.; Ma, Zhong-yu; Van Giai, Nguyen; Vretenar, D.; Wandelt, A.; Cao, Li-gang

    2001-01-01

    The Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) is derived from the Time-Dependent Relativistic Mean-Field (TD RMF) theory in the limit of small amplitude oscillations. In the no-sea approximation of the RMF theory, the RRPA configuration space includes not only the usual particle-hole ph-states, but also αh-configurations, i.e. pairs formed from occupied states in the Fermi sea and empty negative-energy states in the Dirac sea. The contribution of the negative-energy states to the RRPA matrices is examined in a schematic model, and the large effect of Dirac-sea states on isoscalar strength distributions is illustrated for the giant monopole resonance in 116 Sn. It is shown that, because the matrix elements of the time-like component of the vector-meson fields which couple the αh-configurations with the ph-configurations are strongly reduced with respect to the corresponding matrix elements of the isoscalar scalar meson field, the inclusion of states with unperturbed energies more than 1.2 GeV below the Fermi energy has a pronounced effect on giant resonances with excitation energies in the MeV region. The influence of nuclear magnetism, i.e. the effect of the spatial components of the vector fields is examined, and the difference between the nonrelativistic and relativistic RPA predictions for the nuclear matter compression modulus is explained

  5. Microseismic imaging using Geometric-mean Reverse-Time Migration in Hydraulic Fracturing Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Ng, R.; Nakata, N.

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas exploration techniques such as hydraulic fracturing are associated with microseismic events related to the generation and development of fractures. For example, hydraulic fracturing, which is popular in Southern Oklahoma, produces earthquakes that are greater than magnitude 2.0. Finding the accurate locations, and mechanisms, of these events provides important information of local stress conditions, fracture distribution, hazard assessment, and economical impact. The accurate source location is also important to separate fracking-induced and wastewater disposal induced seismicity. Here, we implement a wavefield-based imaging method called Geometric-mean Reverse-Time Migration (GmRTM), which takes the advantage of accurate microseismic location based on wavefield back projection. We apply GmRTM to microseismic data collected during hydraulic fracturing for imaging microseismic source locations, and potentially, fractures. Assuming an accurate velocity model, GmRTM can improve the spatial resolution of source locations compared to HypoDD or P/S travel-time based methods. We will discuss the results from GmRTM and HypoDD using this field dataset and synthetic data.

  6. Study of building materials impregnation processes by quasi-real-time neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Rant, J.; Apih, V.; Glumac, B.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NR) is a useful non-destructive method for determination of hydrogen content in various building and technical materials. Monitoring of transport processes of moisture and hydrogenous liquids in porous building materials is enabled by fast, quasi-real-time NR methods based on novel imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-NDs). Hydrogen content in the samples is determined by quantitative analysis of measured profiles of neutron attenuation in the samples. Detailed description of quantitative NR method is presented by the authors in another accompanying contribution at this conference. Deterioration of building materials is originated by different processes that all require presence of water therefore it is essential to limit or prevent the transport of water through the porous material. In this presentation, results of a study of clay brick impregnation by silicone based hydrophobic agents will be presented. Quantitative results obtained by NR imaging successfully explained the processes that occur during the impregnation of porous materials. Efficiency of hydrophobic treatment was quantitatively evaluated

  7. Mean first-passage times in confined media: from Markovian to non-Markovian processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bénichou, O; Voituriez, R; Guérin, T

    2015-01-01

    We review recent theoretical works that enable the accurate evaluation of the mean first passage time (MFPT) of a random walker to a target in confinement for Markovian (memory-less) and non-Markovian walkers. For the Markovian problem, we present a general theory which allows one to accurately evaluate the MFPT and its extensions to related first-passage observables such as splitting probabilities and occupation times. We show that this analytical approach provides a universal scaling dependence of the MFPT on both the volume of the confining domain and the source–target distance in the case of general scale-invariant processes. This analysis is applicable to a broad range of stochastic processes characterized by length scale-invariant properties, and reveals the key role that can be played by the starting position of the random walker. We then present an extension to non-Markovian walks by taking the specific example of a tagged monomer of a polymer chain looking for a target in confinement. We show that the MFPT can be calculated accurately by computing the distribution of the positions of all the monomers in the chain at the instant of reaction. Such a theory can be used to derive asymptotic relations that generalize the scaling dependence with the volume and the initial distance to the target derived for Markovian walks. Finally, we present an application of this theory to the problem of the first contact time between the two ends of a polymer chain, and review the various theoretical approaches of this non- Markovian problem. (topical review)

  8. How can streamflow and climate-landscape data be used to estimate baseflow mean response time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runrun; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhicai; Soulsby, Chris; Gao, Man

    2018-02-01

    Mean response time (MRT) is a metric describing the propagation of catchment hydraulic behavior that reflects both hydro-climatic conditions and catchment characteristics. To provide a comprehensive understanding of catchment response over a longer-time scale for hydraulic processes, the MRT function for baseflow generation was derived using an instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) model that describes the subsurface response to effective rainfall inputs. IUH parameters were estimated based on the "match test" between the autocorrelation function (ACFs) derived from the filtered base flow time series and from the IUH parameters, under the GLUE framework. Regionalization of MRT was conducted using estimates and hydroclimate-landscape indices in 22 sub-basins of the Jinghe River Basin (JRB) in the Loess Plateau of northwest China. Results indicate there is strong equifinality in determination of the best parameter sets but the median values of the MRT estimates are relatively stable in the acceptable range of the parameters. MRTs vary markedly over the studied sub-basins, ranging from tens of days to more than a year. Climate, topography and geomorphology were identified as three first-order controls on recharge-baseflow response processes. Human activities involving the cultivation of permanent crops may elongate the baseflow MRT and hence increase the dynamic storage. Cross validation suggests the model can be used to estimate MRTs in ungauged catchments in similar regions of throughout the Loess Plateau. The proposed method provides a systematic approach for MRT estimation and regionalization in terms of hydroclimate and catchment characteristics, which is helpful in the sustainable water resources utilization and ecological protection in the Loess Plateau.

  9. Building Assets Reducing Risks: Academic Success for All Students through Positive Relationships and Use of Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Maryann; Sharma, Anu; Jerabek, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Building Assets Reducing Risks (BARR) is a social emotional model that achieves academic outcomes through combining use of real-time student data with proven relationship-building strategies and intensive teacher collaboration to prevent course failure. BARR is a recipient of US Department of Education "Investing in Innovation (i3)"…

  10. Mean First Passage Time of Preferential Random Walks on Complex Networks with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtuan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates, both theoretically and numerically, preferential random walks (PRW on weighted complex networks. By using two different analytical methods, two exact expressions are derived for the mean first passage time (MFPT between two nodes. On one hand, the MFPT is got explicitly in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix associated with the transition matrix of PRW. On the other hand, the center-product-degree (CPD is introduced as one measure of node strength and it plays a main role in determining the scaling of the MFPT for the PRW. Comparative studies are also performed on PRW and simple random walks (SRW. Numerical simulations of random walks on paradigmatic network models confirm analytical predictions and deepen discussions in different aspects. The work may provide a comprehensive approach for exploring random walks on complex networks, especially biased random walks, which may also help to better understand and tackle some practical problems such as search and routing on networks.

  11. Robust motion artefact resistant circuit for calculation of Mean Arterial Pressure from pulse transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tinish; Gupta, Ankesh; Singh, Salam ThoiThoi; Roy, Sitikantha; Prasad, Anamika

    2017-07-01

    Cuff-less and non-invasive methods of Blood Pressure (BP) monitoring have faced a lot of challenges like stability, noise, motion artefact and requirement for calibration. These factors are the major reasons why such devices do not get approval from the medical community easily. One such method is calculating Blood Pressure indirectly from pulse transit time (PTT) obtained from electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG). In this paper we have proposed two novel analog signal conditioning circuits for ECG and PPG that increase stability, remove motion artefacts, remove the sinusoidal wavering of the ECG baseline due to respiration and provide consistent digital pulses corresponding to blood pulses/heart-beat. We have combined these two systems to obtain the PTT and then correlated it with the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP). The aim was to perform major part of the processing in analog domain to decrease processing load over microcontroller so as to reduce cost and make it simple and robust. We have found from our experiments that the proposed circuits can calculate the Heart Rate (HR) with a maximum error of ~3.0% and MAP with a maximum error of ~2.4% at rest and ~4.6% in motion.

  12. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial contribution in their characterization.

  13. Basic study on mass transportation systems in buildings by means of multiple-cage elevators; Junkangata erebeta ni yoru biru nai tairyo yuso sisutemu no kiso kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, A.; Tobita, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-20

    From the viewpoints of realization of mass transportation, improvement of space factor in buildings, transportation systems in buildings are surveyed to compare the characteristics. Then, a loop-type independently-driven multiple-cage elevator (circulating elevator) system is proposed to estimate its transportation capacity, and necessary data for realizing transportation capacity higher than twice that of the conventional elevator are presented. As regards operational control, a high efficient control method is proposed which can restrain needless stops particular to the multiple-cage system and improve the waiting time and round trip time, and the result of the investigation by simulation is reported. Basic operation method of the loop-type elevator is determined, and the transportation capacity is estimated by simulation. The application in which the loop-type elevator can exhibit the best performance is its use in 15 floor-class buildings or for local bank zones in large-scale buildings in a system combined with the shuttle system. 9 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Mean pulmonary 99mTc-pertechnetate passage time. Its correlation with hemodynamic parameters in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, V.E.; Sergienko, V.B.; Ostroumov, E.N.; Mareev, V.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic value of mean pulmonary 99m Tc-pertechnetate passage time was studied in 27 patients with different types of hypertension disturbances. It was shown that the parameters of mean indicator passage time can be used for noninvasive determination of diastolic pressure in pulmonary artery

  15. Development and Validation in Air Traffic Control by Means of Real-Time Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Herr

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The airspace in Central Europe is already one of the busiest airspaces in the world and the forecasts predict further traffic increases. The current air transport system is reaching its capacity limits, not only at airports but also in parts of the en-route area. This is mainly due to the workload constraints of air traffic controllers. In the past, many technical system functionalities were developed with the aim of reducing controller workload and thus enabling the safe handling of the predicted traffic growth. But these new functionalities alone will not provide adequate relief to air traffic controllers. Their working procedures and the airspace structure will have to be adapted accordingly. In order to obtain real operational benefits, these technical innovations must be integrated into an overall concept which – in addition to the above-mentioned factors – also takes account of ergonomic aspects and human-machine interfaces. When developing such an overall concept, additional evaluation and validation measures are indispensable to ensure that the desired operational benefits are achieved. This is why DFS has for many years used fast- and real-time simulations to assess and optimise any changes to be made to the air traffic control system. The working methods of DFS in this context are in keeping with the European Operational Concept Validation Methodology of 2007, in short E-OCVM. This paper outlines the development and validation activities of DFS using the MSP D/L project as an example. The project deals with the introduction of the new role of air traffic controllers as multi-sector planners (MSP and new system functionalities, such as air/ground data link (D/L. The project included the development of an operational concept for using the new functionalities as well as for defining working procedures and the airspace structure. This concept was subsequently evaluated by means of a fast-time simulation and two real-time simulations

  16. Time Analysis of Building Dynamic Response Under Seismic Action. Part 2: Example of Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufimtcev, E. M.

    2017-11-01

    The second part of the article illustrates the use of the time analysis method (TAM) by the example of the calculation of a 3-storey building, the design dynamic model (DDM) of which is adopted in the form of a flat vertical cantilever rod with 3 horizontal degrees of freedom associated with floor and coverage levels. The parameters of natural oscillations (frequencies and modes) and the results of the calculation of the elastic forced oscillations of the building’s DDM - oscillograms of the reaction parameters on the time interval t ∈ [0; 131,25] sec. The obtained results are analyzed on the basis of the computed values of the discrepancy of the DDS motion equation and the comparison of the results calculated on the basis of the numerical approach (FEM) and the normative method set out in SP 14.13330.2014 “Construction in Seismic Regions”. The data of the analysis testify to the accuracy of the construction of the computational model as well as the high accuracy of the results obtained. In conclusion, it is revealed that the use of the TAM will improve the strength of buildings and structures subject to seismic influences when designing them.

  17. [Predicting Incidence of Hepatitis E in Chinausing Fuzzy Time Series Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiao-song

    2016-05-01

    To explore the application of fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering in forecasting monthly incidence of Hepatitis E in mainland China. Apredictive model (fuzzy time series method based on fuzzy c-means clustering) was developed using Hepatitis E incidence data in mainland China between January 2004 and July 2014. The incidence datafrom August 2014 to November 2014 were used to test the fitness of the predictive model. The forecasting results were compared with those resulted from traditional fuzzy time series models. The fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering had 0.001 1 mean squared error (MSE) of fitting and 6.977 5 x 10⁻⁴ MSE of forecasting, compared with 0.0017 and 0.0014 from the traditional forecasting model. The results indicate that the fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering has a better performance in forecasting incidence of Hepatitis E.

  18. Potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in present and future climates in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, Heinrich; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Given the general shift in recent decades towards a lower heating and higher cooling demand for buildings in many European countries, passive cooling by night-time ventilation has come to be seen as a promising option, particularly in the moderate or cold climates of Central, Eastern and Northern...... Europe. The basic concept involves cooling the building structure overnight in order to provide a heat sink that is available during the occupancy period. In this study, the potential for the passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation is evaluated by analysing climatic data, irrespective...... of any building-specific parameters. An approach for calculating degree-hours based on a variable building temperature - within a standardized range of thermal comfort - is presented and applied to climatic data from 259 stations throughout Europe. The results show a very high potential for night...

  19. Universal time-dependence of the mean-square displacement in extremely rugged energy landscapes with equal minima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Jacobsen, Jacob M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a calculation of the time dependence of the mean-square displacement for symmetric random energy barrier hopping models at low temperatures, where the frequency dependence of the normalized diffusion constant D-tilde becomes universal, i.e., independent of the energy barrier...... probability distribution [J. C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. B 49, 11 709 (1994)]. The universal time dependence of the mean-square displacement is calculated from the effective medium approximation (EMA) universality equation, D-tilde lnD-tilde=s-tilde, where s-tilde is the dimensionless imaginary frequency, as well...... as for the approximation to the EMA universality equation D-tilde~=s-tilde/ln(1+s-tilde). At long times the universal mean-square displacement is linear in time, corresponding to ordinary diffusion, whereas the mean-square displacement at short times t in dimensionless units varies as 2/ln(t-1)....

  20. COSTEAU - preheating and cooling by means of underground collectors with water circulation - case study (Perret building at Satigny, Geneva) and generalisation; COSTEAU. Prechauffage et rafraichissement par collecteurs souterrains a eau. Etude de cas (batiment Perret a Satigny, Geneve) et generalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmuller, P.; Lachal, B.

    2003-07-01

    Since a couple of years, underground collectors with air circulation have been becoming increasingly popular as a simple means for preheating (at winter time) and cooling (at summer time) of outdoor air ahead of a ventilation system for well insulated buildings. This report considers underground collectors with water circulation used for similar purposes. They are connected to the ventilation system via an air/water heat exchanger. Starting from a case study - one-year detailed in-situ measurements and data analysis from an air-heated office building near Geneva, Switzerland - computerised simulations have been performed as a sensitivity analysis tool as well as to establish recommendations and sizing rules for planners, including cost considerations. In the case study it turned out that the water-circulated underground collector, which is installed right under the basement of this well insulated building, is in thermal contact with the basement. Its main function is to damp the daily temperature oscillation of the inlet ventilation air, bringing the expected thermal comfort improvement in the summer time. However, this underground collector is unable to collect seasonally stored heat from the ground. Hence, in the winter time the main preheating contribution arises from the series-connected heat-recovery unit from the exit air. Numerical simulations show that optimal sizing of underground collectors is essential, and that both the underground collector and the well insulated building as a physical system with thermal inertia have to be simultaneously considered in the optimization process. Optimization also has to include parasitic energy (electricity) needed by fans and pumps. As outdoor air inlet can never be flooded in the case of underground collectors with water circulation the sanitary risk encountered with air-circulated underground collectors does not exist for them. Initial investment cost for water-circulated underground collectors is higher than for a

  1. Building Deformation Assessment by Means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Analysis on a Landslide-Affected Area: The Volterra (Italy Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bianchini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, space-borne InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques have shown their capabilities to provide precise measurements of Earth surface displacements for monitoring natural processes. Landslides threaten human lives and structures, especially in urbanized areas, where the density of elements at risk sensitive to ground movements is high. The methodology described in this paper aims at detecting terrain motions and building deformations at the local scale, by means of satellite radar data combined with in situ validation campaigns. The proposed approach consists of deriving maximum settlement directions of the investigated buildings from displacement data revealed by radar measurements and then in the cross-comparison of these values with background geological data, constructive features and on-field evidence. This validation permits better understanding whether or not the detected movements correspond to visible and effective damages to buildings. The method has been applied to the southwestern sector of Volterra (Tuscany region, Italy, which is a landslide-affected and partially urbanized area, through the use of COSMO-SkyMed satellite images as input data. Moreover, we discuss issues and possible misinterpretations when dealing with PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry data referring to single manufactures and the consequent difficulty of attributing the motion rate to ground displacements, rather than to structural failures.

  2. Run-time coupling advanced control software with building simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yahiaoui, A.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Soethout, L.L.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Lain, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of advanced control technologies and intelligence in buildings and infrastructure could make the current high performance system much more efficient and reliable. The integration of advanced control strategies into the building will certainly produce significant results for better building

  3. Mean transit times in headwater catchments: insights from the Otway Ranges, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Howcroft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the timescales of water flow through catchments and the sources of stream water at different flow conditions is critical for understanding catchment behaviour and managing water resources. Here, tritium (3H activities, major ion geochemistry and streamflow data were used in conjunction with lumped parameter models (LPMs to investigate mean transit times (MTTs and the stores of water in six headwater catchments in the Otway Ranges of southeastern Australia. 3H activities of stream water ranged from 0.20 to 2.14 TU, which are significantly lower than the annual average 3H activity of modern local rainfall, which is between 2.4 and 3.2 TU. The 3H activities of the stream water are lowest during low summer flows and increase with increasing streamflow. The concentrations of most major ions vary little with streamflow, which together with the low 3H activities imply that there is no significant direct input of recent rainfall at the streamflows sampled in this study. Instead, shallow younger water stores in the soils and regolith are most likely mobilised during the wetter months. MTTs vary from approximately 7 to 230 years. Despite uncertainties of several years in the MTTs that arise from having to assume an appropriate LPM, macroscopic mixing, and uncertainties in the 3H activities of rainfall, the conclusion that they range from years to decades is robust. Additionally, the relative differences in MTTs at different streamflows in the same catchment are estimated with more certainty. The MTTs in these and similar headwater catchments in southeastern Australia are longer than in many catchments globally. These differences may reflect the relatively low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates in southeastern Australia compared with headwater catchments elsewhere. The long MTTs imply that there is a long-lived store of water in these catchments that can sustain the streams over drought periods lasting several years. However, the

  4. Mean transit times in headwater catchments: insights from the Otway Ranges, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcroft, William; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the timescales of water flow through catchments and the sources of stream water at different flow conditions is critical for understanding catchment behaviour and managing water resources. Here, tritium (3H) activities, major ion geochemistry and streamflow data were used in conjunction with lumped parameter models (LPMs) to investigate mean transit times (MTTs) and the stores of water in six headwater catchments in the Otway Ranges of southeastern Australia. 3H activities of stream water ranged from 0.20 to 2.14 TU, which are significantly lower than the annual average 3H activity of modern local rainfall, which is between 2.4 and 3.2 TU. The 3H activities of the stream water are lowest during low summer flows and increase with increasing streamflow. The concentrations of most major ions vary little with streamflow, which together with the low 3H activities imply that there is no significant direct input of recent rainfall at the streamflows sampled in this study. Instead, shallow younger water stores in the soils and regolith are most likely mobilised during the wetter months. MTTs vary from approximately 7 to 230 years. Despite uncertainties of several years in the MTTs that arise from having to assume an appropriate LPM, macroscopic mixing, and uncertainties in the 3H activities of rainfall, the conclusion that they range from years to decades is robust. Additionally, the relative differences in MTTs at different streamflows in the same catchment are estimated with more certainty. The MTTs in these and similar headwater catchments in southeastern Australia are longer than in many catchments globally. These differences may reflect the relatively low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates in southeastern Australia compared with headwater catchments elsewhere. The long MTTs imply that there is a long-lived store of water in these catchments that can sustain the streams over drought periods lasting several years. However, the catchments are likely

  5. Homogenized approach for the non linear dynamic analysis of entire masonry buildings by means of rigid plate elements and damaging interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the analysis of entire 3D masonry structures adopting a Rigid Body and Spring-Mass (HRBSM) model. A series of non linear static and dynamic analyses are conducted with respect to two structures with technical relevance. The elementary cell is discretized by means of three-noded plane stress elements and non-linear interfaces. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are performed replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage (RBSM) by means of which both in and out of plane mechanisms are allowed. In order to validate the proposed model for the analyses of full scale structures subjected to seismic actions, two different examples are critically discussed, namely a church façade and an in-scale masonry building, both subjected to dynamic excitation. The results obtained are compared with experimental or numerical results available in literature.

  6. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of embedded reactor buildings based on the substructure approach in time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Nakai, S.; Watanabe, T.

    1985-01-01

    A practical method for elasto-plastic seismic response analysis is described under considerations of nonlinear material law of a structure and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The method is essentially based on the substructure approach of time domain analysis. Verification of the present method is carried out for typical BWR-MARK II type reactor building which is embedded in a soil, and the results are compared with those of the frequency response analysis which gives good accuracy for linear system. As a result, the present method exhibits sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, elasto-plastic analyses considering the soil-structure interaction are made as an application of the present method, and nonlinear behaviors of the structure and embedment effects are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Chinese wood frame buildings and the changing dimensions of their structural components in different time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujaba Binte Kabir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Features of the Chinese wood frame buildings are same in character from dynasty to dynasty. The study concentrates on 9 Chinese wood frame buildings from Tang to Yuan dynasty and tries to relate these buildings with the text described in a building manual book published in Song dynasty Yingzao fashi. The features of some buildings match with the text described in the book some do not. But on the other hand Liang Sicheng, scholar of Chinese architecture in his book claimed that Chinese wood frame architecture has a unique system of characteristics (Liang, 1984. The system of wood frame Chinese architecture did not change but the proportion of the features has changed in different dynasty. The aim of the paper is to compare the features of the buildings those have been studied according to Yingzao fashi with Liang's observation on the change of building style in different periods.

  8. Mean-variance portfolio optimization by using time series approaches based on logarithmic utility function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeryana, E.; Fadhlina, N.; Sukono; Rusyaman, E.; Supian, S.

    2017-01-01

    Investments in stocks investors are also faced with the issue of risk, due to daily price of stock also fluctuate. For minimize the level of risk, investors usually forming an investment portfolio. Establishment of a portfolio consisting of several stocks are intended to get the optimal composition of the investment portfolio. This paper discussed about optimizing investment portfolio of Mean-Variance to stocks by using mean and volatility is not constant based on logarithmic utility function. Non constant mean analysed using models Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA), while non constant volatility models are analysed using the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH). Optimization process is performed by using the Lagrangian multiplier technique. As a numerical illustration, the method is used to analyse some Islamic stocks in Indonesia. The expected result is to get the proportion of investment in each Islamic stock analysed.

  9. Mean time for the development of large workloads and large queue lengths in the GI/G/1 queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Knessl

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the GI/G/1 queue described by either the workload U(t (unfinished work or the number of customers N(t in the system. We compute the mean time until U(t reaches excess of the level K, and also the mean time until N(t reaches N0. For the M/G/1 and GI/M/1 models, we obtain exact contour integral representations for these mean first passage times. We then compute the mean times asymptotically, as K and N0→∞, by evaluating these contour integrals. For the general GI/G/1 model, we obtain asymptotic results by a singular perturbation analysis of the appropriate backward Kolmogorov equation(s. Numerical comparisons show that the asymptotic formulas are very accurate even for moderate values of K and N0.

  10. Contribution to the building of an execution engine for UML models for the simulation of competitor and timed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyahia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) places models at the heart of the software engineering process. MDE helps managing the complexity of software systems and improving the quality of the development process. The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) initiative from the Object Management Group (OMG) defines a framework for building design flows in the context of MDE. MDA relies heavily on formalisms which are normalized by the OMG, such as UML for modeling, QVT for model transformations and so on. This work deals with the execution semantics of the UML language applied to embedded real-time applications. In this context, the OMG has a norm which defines an execution model for a subset of UML called fUML (foundational UML subset). This execution model gives a precise semantics to UML models, which can be used for analyzing models, generating code, or verifying transformations. The goal of this PhD thesis is to define and build an execution engine for UML models of embedded real-time systems, which takes into account the explicit hypothesis made by the designer about the execution semantics at a high level of abstraction, in order to be able to execute models as early as possible in the design flow of a system. To achieve this goal, we have extended the fUML execution model along three important axes with regard to embedded real-time systems: - Concurrence: fUML does not provide any mechanism for handling concurrent activities in its execution engine. We address this issue by introducing an explicit scheduler which allows us to control the execution of concurrent tasks. - Time: fUML does not provide any mean to handle time. By adding a clock to the model of execution, we can take into account the elapsed time as well as temporal constraints on the execution of activities. - Profiles: fUML does not take profiles into account, which makes it difficult to personalize the execution engine with new semantic variants. The execution engine we propose allows the use of UML models with

  11. Generator coordinate representation of the time independent mean field theory of collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.G.; Lemm, J.; Weiguny, A.; Wierling, A.

    1991-01-01

    We show how matrix elements of the T-matrix can be easily estimated on a basis of Slater determinants, with a mean field approximation. Linear superpositions of these Slater determinants then generate plane waves, or distorted (Coulomb) waves. This provides physical matrix elements of T

  12. Entering medical practice for the very first time : emotional talk, meaning and identity development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Dornan, Tim; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Medical Education 2012: 46: 10741087 CONTEXT During early clinical exposure, medical students have many emotive experiences. Through participation in social practice, they learn to give personal meaning to their emotional states. This meaningful social act of participation may lead to a sense of

  13. Entering medical practice for the very first time: emotional talk, meaning and identity development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Bolhuis, S.; Dornan, T.; Laan, R.F.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Medical Education 2012: 46: 1074-1087 CONTEXT During early clinical exposure, medical students have many emotive experiences. Through participation in social practice, they learn to give personal meaning to their emotional states. This meaningful social act of participation may lead to a sense of

  14. The Time Has Come to Create Meaning-Making Centers on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert J.; Jang, Jennifer J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Robert J. Nash and Jennifer J. J. Jang argue that students have a great need to find a "meaning to live for," à la Victor Frankl, and make a case for creating a space for students and educators to contextualize learning experiences dealing with the universal, existential questions of life.

  15. Entering medical practice for the very first time: emotional talk, meaning and identity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Dornan, Tim; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2012-11-01

    During early clinical exposure, medical students have many emotive experiences. Through participation in social practice, they learn to give personal meaning to their emotional states. This meaningful social act of participation may lead to a sense of belonging and identity construction. The aim of this study was to broaden and deepen our understanding of the interplay between those experiences and students' identity development. Our research questions asked how medical students give meaning to early clinical experiences and how that affects their professional identity development. Our method was phenomenology. Within that framework we used a narrative interviewing technique. Interviews with 17 medical students on Year 1 attachments to nurses in hospitals and nursing homes were analysed by listening to audio-recordings and reading transcripts. Nine transcripts, which best exemplified the students' range of experiences, were purposively sampled for deeper analysis. Two researchers carried out a systematic analysis using qualitative research software. Finally, cases representing four paradigms were chosen to exemplify the study findings. Students experienced their relationships with the people they met during early clinical experiences in very different ways, particularly in terms of feeling and displaying emotions, adjusting, role finding and participation. The interplay among emotions, meaning and identity was complex and four different 'paradigms' of lived experience were apparent: feeling insecure; complying; developing, and participating. We found large differences in the way students related to other people and gave meaning to their first experiences as doctors-to-be. They differed in their ability to engage in ward practices, the way they experienced their roles as medical students and future doctors, and how they experienced and expressed their emotions. Medical educators should help students to be sensitive to their emotions, offer space to explore different

  16. The Meaning of Literature and Literature as Meaning—A Productive Challenge of Modern Times from the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Classen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The marriage of literature and science might not be possible strictly speaking, but a marriage of humanities with philosophy, psychology, religion, ethics, ecology, and social studies, for instance, might well work, as a close analysis of some medieval narratives will illustrate. This paper intends to demonstrate once again what the humanities could truly mean, insofar as the discussion will not only lay bare textual elements or philological concerns, but it will also indicate how much relevant literature helps us to address crucial questions of religious, ethical, social, moral, and philosophical kinds, building powerful bridges between the past and the present. In order to test this premise even in extreme situations, here a number of medieval texts will be introduced and analyzed as to their timeless message and hence their extremely important function of creating meaning for readers/listeners both from the Middle Ages and today.

  17. Exploring Time-Lapse Photography as a Means for Qualitative Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persohn, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Collecting information via time-lapse photography is nothing new. Scientists and artists have been using this kind of data since the late 1800s. However, my research and experiments with time-lapse have shown that great potential may lie in its application to educational and social scientific research methods. This article is part history, part…

  18. Mapping agroecological zones and time lag in vegetation growth by means of Fourier analysis of time series of NDVI images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Verhoef, W.; Van Swol, R.

    1993-01-01

    Examples are presented of applications of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to analyze time series of images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values. The results obtained for a case study on Zambia indicated that differences in vegetation development among map units of an existing agroclimatic map were not significant, while reliable differences were observed among the map units obtained using the Fourier analysis.

  19. Time and Architecture in Premodern Italy: A Review of Marvin Trachtenberg’s 'Building-In-Time'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mays Merrill

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this significant book, Marvin Trachtenberg constructs a new theory for understanding the structural and operational temporalities of building which gave rise to the monumental constructions of medieval and Renaissance Italy.

  20. Improvements in brain activation detection using time-resolved diffuse optical means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renee; Poulet, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    An experimental method based on time-resolved absorbance difference is described. The absorbance difference is calculated over each temporal step of the optical signal with the time-resolved Beer-Lambert law. Finite element simulations show that each step corresponds to a different scanned zone and that cerebral contribution increases with the arrival time of photons. Experiments are conducted at 690 and 830 nm with a time-resolved system consisting of picosecond laser diodes, micro-channel plate photo-multiplier tube and photon counting modules. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus is measured over the motor cortex. Time-resolved absorbance difference maps show that variations in the optical signals are not localized in superficial regions of the head, which testify for their cerebral origin. Furthermore improvements in the detection of cerebral activation is achieved through the increase of variations in absorbance by a factor of almost 5 for time-resolved measurements as compared to non-time-resolved measurements.

  1. A System Based on the Internet of Things for Real-Time Particle Monitoring in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Marques

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health can be strongly influenced by the indoor environment as people spend 90% of their time indoors. Although indoor air quality (IAQ is not typically monitored, IAQ parameters could be in many instances very different from those defined as healthy values. Particulate matter (PM, a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air, is considered the pollutant that affects more people. The most health-damaging particles are the ≤PM10 (diameter of 10 microns or less, which can penetrate and lodge deep inside the lungs, contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as of lung cancer. This paper presents an Internet of Things (IoT system for real-time PM monitoring named iDust. This system is based on a WEMOS D1 mini microcontroller and a PMS5003 PM sensor that incorporates scattering principle to measure the value of particles suspended in the air (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0. Through a Web dashboard for data visualization and remote notifications, the building manager can plan interventions for enhanced IAQ and ambient assisted living (AAL. Compared to other solutions the iDust is based on open-source technologies, providing a total Wi-Fi system, with several advantages such as its modularity, scalability, low cost, and easy installation. The results obtained are very promising, representing a meaningful tool on the contribution to IAQ and occupational health.

  2. Specification and time required for the application of a lime-based render inside historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Peixoto de Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervention in ancient buildings with historical and architectural value requires traditional techniques, such as the use of lime mortars for internal and external wall renderings. In order to ensure the desired performance, these rendering mortars must be rigorously specified and quality controls have to be performed during application. The choice of mortar composition should take account of factors such as compatibility with the substrate, mechanical requirements and water behaviour. The construction schedule, which used to be considered a second order variable, nowadays plays a decisive role in the selection of the rendering technique, given its effects upon costs. How should lime-based mortars be specified? How much time is required for the application and curing of a lime-based render? This paper reflects upon the feasibility of using traditional lime mortars in three-layer renders inside churches and monasteries under adverse hygrothermal conditions and when time is critical. A case study is presented in which internal lime mortar renderings were applied in a church in Northern Portugal, where the very high relative humidity meant that several months were necessary before the drying process was complete.

  3. A System Based on the Internet of Things for Real-Time Particle Monitoring in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gonçalo; Roque Ferreira, Cristina; Pitarma, Rui

    2018-04-21

    Occupational health can be strongly influenced by the indoor environment as people spend 90% of their time indoors. Although indoor air quality (IAQ) is not typically monitored, IAQ parameters could be in many instances very different from those defined as healthy values. Particulate matter (PM), a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air, is considered the pollutant that affects more people. The most health-damaging particles are the ≤PM 10 (diameter of 10 microns or less), which can penetrate and lodge deep inside the lungs, contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as of lung cancer. This paper presents an Internet of Things (IoT) system for real-time PM monitoring named iDust. This system is based on a WEMOS D1 mini microcontroller and a PMS5003 PM sensor that incorporates scattering principle to measure the value of particles suspended in the air (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1.0 ). Through a Web dashboard for data visualization and remote notifications, the building manager can plan interventions for enhanced IAQ and ambient assisted living (AAL). Compared to other solutions the iDust is based on open-source technologies, providing a total Wi-Fi system, with several advantages such as its modularity, scalability, low cost, and easy installation. The results obtained are very promising, representing a meaningful tool on the contribution to IAQ and occupational health.

  4. Assessing market uncertainty by means of a time-varying intermittency parameter for asset price fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypdal, Martin; Sirnes, Espen; Løvsletten, Ola; Rypdal, Kristoffer

    2013-08-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation techniques for multifractal processes are applied to high-frequency data in order to quantify intermittency in the fluctuations of asset prices. From time records as short as one month these methods permit extraction of a meaningful intermittency parameter λ characterising the degree of volatility clustering. We can therefore study the time evolution of volatility clustering and test the statistical significance of this variability. By analysing data from the Oslo Stock Exchange, and comparing the results with the investment grade spread, we find that the estimates of λ are lower at times of high market uncertainty.

  5. A Real-Time Recording Model of Key Indicators for Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Sustainable Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David; Hou, Yanhong; Li, Qiming

    2014-01-01

    Buildings' sustainability is one of the crucial parts for achieving urban sustainability. Applied to buildings, life-cycle assessment encompasses the analysis and assessment of the environmental effects of building materials, components and assemblies throughout the entire life of the building construction, use and demolition. Estimate of carbon emissions is essential and crucial for an accurate and reasonable life-cycle assessment. Addressing the need for more research into integrating analysis of real-time and automatic recording of key indicators for a more accurate calculation and comparison, this paper aims to design a real-time recording model of these crucial indicators concerning the calculation and estimation of energy use and carbon emissions of buildings based on a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based system. The architecture of the RFID-based carbon emission recording/tracking system, which contains four functional layers including data record layer, data collection/update layer, data aggregation layer and data sharing/backup layer, is presented. Each of these layers is formed by RFID or network devices and sub-systems that operate at a specific level. In the end, a proof-of-concept system is developed to illustrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of the design. This study would provide the technical solution for real-time recording system of building carbon emissions and thus is of great significance and importance to improve urban sustainability. PMID:24831109

  6. Computing the Skewness of the Phylogenetic Mean Pairwise Distance in Linear Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Sandel, Brody Steven

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic Mean Pairwise Distance (MPD) is one of the most popular measures for computing the phylogenetic distance between a given group of species. More specifically, for a phylogenetic tree and for a set of species R represented by a subset of the leaf nodes of , the MPD of R is equal...... to the average cost of all possible simple paths in that connect pairs of nodes in R. Among other phylogenetic measures, the MPD is used as a tool for deciding if the species of a given group R are closely related. To do this, it is important to compute not only the value of the MPD for this group but also...

  7. A Time Series of Mean Global Sea Surface Temperature from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Karen L.; Corlett, Gary; Remedios, John; Llewellyn-Jones, David

    2010-12-01

    A climate data set requires a long time series of consistently processed data with suitably long periods of overlap of different instruments which allows characterization of any inter-instrument biases. The data obtained from ESA's three Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs) together comprise an 18 year record of SST with overlap periods of at least 6 months. The data from all three ATSRs has been consistently processed. These factors together with the stability of the instruments and the precision of the derived SST makes this data set eminently suitable for the construction of a time series of SST that complies with many of the GCOS requirements for a climate data set. A time series of global and regional average SST anomalies has been constructed from the ATSR version 2 data set. An analysis of the overlap periods of successive instruments was used to remove intra-series biases and align the series to a common reference. An ATSR climatology has been developed and has been used to calculate the SST anomalies. The ATSR-1 time series and the AATSR time series have been aligned to ATSR-2. The largest adjustment is ~0.2 K between ATSR-2 and AATSR which is suspected to be due to a shift of the 12 μm filter function for AATSR. An uncertainty of 0.06 K is assigned to the relative anomaly record that is derived from the dual three-channel night-time data. A relative uncertainty of 0.07 K is assigned to the dual night-time two-channel record, except in the ATSR-1 period (1994-1996) where it is larger.

  8. Building X-ray pulsar timing model without the use of radio parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-feng; Sun, Xiong; Fang, Hai-yan; Shen, Li-rong; Cong, Shao-peng; Liu, Yan-ming; Li, Xiao-ping; Bao, Wei-min

    2018-02-01

    This paper develops a timing solution for the X-ray pulsar timing model without the use of the initial radio model parameters. First, we address the problem of phase ambiguities for the pre-fit residuals in the construction of pulsar timing model. To improve the estimation accuracy of the pulse time of arrival (TOA), we have deduced the general form of test statistics in Fourier transform, and discussed their estimation performances. Meanwhile, a fast maximum likelihood (FML) technique is presented to estimate the pulse TOA, which outperforms cross correlation (CC) estimator and exhibits a performance comparable with maximum likelihood (ML) estimator in spite of a much less reduced computational complexity. Depending on the strategy of the difference minimum of pre-fit residuals, we present an effective forced phase-connected technique to achieve initial model parameters. Then, we use the observations with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and X-ray pulsar navigation-I (XPNAV-1) satellites for experimental studies, and discuss main differences for the root mean square (RMS) residuals calculated with the X-ray and radio ephemerides. Finally, a chi-square value (CSV) of pulse profiles is presented as a complementary indicator to the RMS residuals for evaluating the model parameters. The results show that the proposed timing solution is valid and effective, and the obtained model parameters can be a reasonable alternative to the radio ephemeris.

  9. Space and time optimization of nuclear reactors by means of the Pontryagin principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical method is being presented for solving space dependent optimization problems concerning a functional for one dimensional geometries in the few group diffusion approximation. General dimensional analysis was applied to derive relations for the maximum of a functional and the limiting values of the constraints. Two procedures were given for calculating the anisotropic diffusion coefficients in order to improve the results of the diffusion approximation. In this work two procedures were presented for collapsing the microscopic multigroup cross sections, one general and another specific to the space dependent optimization problems solved by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Neutron spectrum optimization is performed to ensure the burnup of Pu 239 isotope produced in a thermal nuclear reactor. A procedure is also given for the minimization of finite functional set by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle. A method for determining the characteristics of fission Pseudo products is formulated in one group and multigroup cases. This method is applied in the optimization of the burnup in nuclear reactors with fuel electric cells. A procedure to mjnimze the number of the fuel burnup equations is described. The optimization problems presented and solved in this work point to the efficiency of the maximum principle. Each problem on method presented in the various chapters is accompanied by considerations concerning dual problems and possibilities of further research development. (author)

  10. More does not always mean better – the problem of working time in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ignaciuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of an eight-hour working day and forty eight-hour working week was the result of many years of struggle of the workers of Europe and America, demanding respect for their rights, including the right to leisure and family life. Currently, in many European countries, average working time is shorter than that established by the International Labour Conference in the Convention of 1919. The longest – 40 hour working time – valid in Greece, Malta and in most countries of the former socialist bloc (with the exception of Slovakia and the Czech Republic. In the so-called fifteen countries (EU-15 average weekly working hours (excluding overtime in 2007 was 37.9 hours. According to official statistics in all countries of the European Union, the actual working time is longer than that specified in collective agreements. Employees work the longest in Austria, Greece, Great Britain, the Czech Republic and Poland, while the shortest is in Luxembourg.It was observed that there is an inverse relationship between working time and work efficiency. In countries, where workers have the most days off from work and/or shortest time, labor productivity is the largest (eg, Luxembourg, Sweden, Ireland, France and Germany. The effects of fatigue for workers not only have an impact on staff competencies, but also imprint their mark on the sphere of social life and the whole economy. Therefore, the concern should be treated any ideas for extending working hours.

  11. Non-linear modelling of monthly mean vorticity time changes: an application to the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Finizio

    Full Text Available Starting from a number of observables in the form of time-series of meteorological elements in various areas of the northern hemisphere, a model capable of fitting past records and predicting monthly vorticity time changes in the western Mediterranean is implemented. A new powerful statistical methodology is introduced (MARS in order to capture the non-linear dynamics of time-series representing the available 40-year history of the hemispheric circulation. The developed model is tested on a suitable independent data set. An ensemble forecast exercise is also carried out to check model stability in reference to the uncertainty of input quantities.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · General circulation ocean-atmosphere interactions · Synoptic-scale meteorology

  12. Relationship Building One Step at a Time: Case Studies of Successful Faculty-Librarian Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José O.; Mandernach, Meris A.

    2017-01-01

    Building strong relationships between academic librarians and teaching faculty is paramount for promoting services and resources. While librarians face challenges ranging from new technologies to heightened expectations and fiscal difficulties, the key work remains in solid relationship building. Drawing on the experience of a group of subject…

  13. Integration of control and building performance simulation software by run-time coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yahiaoui, A.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Soethout, L.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the background, approach and initial results of a project, which aims to achieve better integrated building and systems control modeling in building performance simulation by runtime coupling of distributed computer programs. This paper focuses on one of the essential steps

  14. A study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushio, Norio

    1987-01-01

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator. (author)

  15. Mean sojourn times for phase-type discriminatory processor sharing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haviv, M.; van der Wal, J.

    2008-01-01

    In a discriminatory processor sharing (DPS) queueing model, each job (or customer) belongs to one out of finitely many classes. The arrival processes are Poisson. Classes differ with respect to arrival rates and service time distributions. Moreover, classes have different priority levels. All jobs

  16. The effects of disjunct sampling and averaging time on maximum mean wind speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Mann, J.

    2006-01-01

    Conventionally, the 50-year wind is calculated on basis of the annual maxima of consecutive 10-min averages. Very often, however, the averages are saved with a temporal spacing of several hours. We call it disjunct sampling. It may also happen that the wind speeds are averaged over a longer time...

  17. A time to pause and ponder - will to meaning in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer; Spencer, Christopher

    Worries about the effect of trade and globalisation on the workforce are “a staple of politics in the US and Europe” (Financial Times 2016). There would appear to be a general global movement towards isolation and protectionism (see Brexit, Trump, Putin). Europa was the battle field for conflicts...

  18. Mean residence time of kaolinite and smectite-bound organic matter in mozambiquan soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W.; Buurman, P.

    2004-01-01

    To gain understanding about the process of global warming, it is essential to study the global C cycle. In the global C cycle, soil organic matter (SOM) is a major source and sink of atmospheric C. Turnover times of C in these soil organic compounds vary from hours to thousands of years. Clay

  19. Improving Instructional Leadership Behaviors of School Principals by Means of Implementing Time Management Training Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increases school accountability and requires educators to improve student academic outcomes using evidence-based practice. One factor that contributes to desirable school outcomes is principals' instructional leadership behaviors. Principals who allocate more time to instructional leadership behaviors are more…

  20. Registration concepts for the just-in-time artefact correction by means of virtual computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperl, St.; Franz, M. [Fraunhofer Development Center for X-ray Technology EZRT, a cooperative dept. of the Fraunhofer Institutes IZFP Saarbrucken and IIS Erlangen, Furth (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This article deals with the enhancement of accuracy in CT by just-in-time correction of artefacts (beam hardening, scattered radiation) caused by the interaction of X-rays with matter. The so called EAR method needs for simulation a registration of the object. Therefore the article presents two different registration concepts. (authors)

  1. Registration concepts for the just-in-time artefact correction by means of virtual computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperl, St.; Franz, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the enhancement of accuracy in CT by just-in-time correction of artefacts (beam hardening, scattered radiation) caused by the interaction of X-rays with matter. The so called EAR method needs for simulation a registration of the object. Therefore the article presents two different registration concepts. (authors)

  2. Particle correlation based measurement of the mean time between the deuteron and proton emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghisalberti, C.; Lebrun, C.; Sezac, L.; Ardouin, D.; Erazmus, B.; Eudes, P.; Ghuilbault, F.; Lautridou, P.; Rahmani, J.A.; Reposeur, T.; Chbihi, A.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Morjean, M.; Peghaire, A.; Lednicky, R.; Pluta, J.; Quebert, J.; Siemssen, R.

    1997-01-01

    Proton-deuteron correlations at small relative momenta have been measured with the reaction 208 Pb + 93 Nb at 29 MeV per nucleon at GANIL using the ORION neutron calorimeter. By selecting the proton-deuteron pairs according to the angle between their relative velocity and the pair center of mass velocity of the emitting source one can determine the average value of the time delay between the emission of these particles. The results reported in this paper for the first time at GANIL energies agree with the values published before in the literature i.e. 600 and 1500 fm/c for deuteron and proton emission times, respectively, as obtained in the reactions Ar + Ag at E/A = 17 MeV. At higher energies measurements with a B.U.U. calorimeter recording the collisions 14 N + 27 Al at E/A = 75 MeV show that in this case the proton emission begins at 15 fm/c and decreases slowly in time, while the deuterons are emitted at 50 fm/c and present a steep falling. This result agrees with a negative average value of d - t p >. Thus, the method presented in this report for determining the order of emission is of great interest for checking the theoretical description of the particle emission all the way in the collision dynamical process

  3. Dental X-ray diagnostic facility with means to choose the time of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Grassme, U

    1978-02-16

    Equipment for dental X-ray diagnostics with automatic exposure control. In the patient's mouth there is arranged a film carrier containing in a pocket a dental X-ray film. A detector-transmitter assembly touches the pocket. It reacts to the density of the film and wireless transmits a signal to an antenna. This antenna is connected to a receiver shutting off the high voltage of the X-ray tube by means of a circuit if a desired dose value is reached. The detector-transmitter unit is an integrated component. It has got a luminescent layer with a light-sensitive detector or a detector directly sensitive to X-rays.

  4. GPU accelerated real-time confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) based on the analog mean-delay (AMD) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungyeon; Park, Byungjun; Lee, Seungrag; Won, Youngjae

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated GPU accelerated real-time confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) based on the analog mean-delay (AMD) method. Our algorithm was verified for various fluorescence lifetimes and photon numbers. The GPU processing time was faster than the physical scanning time for images up to 800 × 800, and more than 149 times faster than a single core CPU. The frame rate of our system was demonstrated to be 13 fps for a 200 × 200 pixel image when observing maize vascular tissue. This system can be utilized for observing dynamic biological reactions, medical diagnosis, and real-time industrial inspection. PMID:28018724

  5. Analysis of Cost of Rework on Time and Cost Performance of Building Construction Projects in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chidiebere Eze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rework is a menace that leads to undesired and unnecessary loss of efforts, it degrades project cost and schedule performance of construction projects, both at design and construction phases. This study therefore, analyzed the impact of cost of rework on time and cost performance of building construction projects in Nigerian, using selected commercial building project within the country’s capital. A pro forma was adopted for gathering data on rework cost, project cost and time of selected building projects, while structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the likely measures for reducing rework incidences from construction professionals that were involved in the delivery of the identified projects. Regression analysis, relative importance index and Kruskal-Walis test were employed for data analysis. The study revealed a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project cost of delivering commercial buildings, as an average of 3.53% impact on the initial project cost, 46.60% contribution to cost overrun, and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. For the project delivery time, a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project duration, as an average of 7.35% impact on the initial delivery time, extra 19 days and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. Team building and education, management commitment, employee involvement, were some of the best possible measures to minimized rework problems.

  6. Time-varying effect moderation using the structural nested mean model: estimation using inverse-weighted regression with residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Yuen, Robert A.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the problem of examining time-varying causal effect moderation using observational, longitudinal data in which treatment, candidate moderators, and possible confounders are time varying. The structural nested mean model (SNMM) is used to specify the moderated time-varying causal effects of interest in a conditional mean model for a continuous response given time-varying treatments and moderators. We present an easy-to-use estimator of the SNMM that combines an existing regression-with-residuals (RR) approach with an inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting (IPTW) strategy. The RR approach has been shown to identify the moderated time-varying causal effects if the time-varying moderators are also the sole time-varying confounders. The proposed IPTW+RR approach provides estimators of the moderated time-varying causal effects in the SNMM in the presence of an additional, auxiliary set of known and measured time-varying confounders. We use a small simulation experiment to compare IPTW+RR versus the traditional regression approach and to compare small and large sample properties of asymptotic versus bootstrap estimators of the standard errors for the IPTW+RR approach. This article clarifies the distinction between time-varying moderators and time-varying confounders. We illustrate the methodology in a case study to assess if time-varying substance use moderates treatment effects on future substance use. PMID:23873437

  7. Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Bin Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.

  8. Distributed Multi-Sensor Real-Time Building Environmental Parameters Monitoring System with Remote Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinarts Ivars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the advanced monitoring system of multiple environmental parameters is presented. The purpose of the system is a long-term estimation of energy efficiency and sustainability for the research test stands which are made of different building materials. Construction of test stands, and placement of main sensors are presented in the first chapter. The structure of data acquisition system includes a real-time interface with sensors and a data logger that allows to acquire and log data from all sensors with fixed rate. The data logging system provides a remote access to the processing of the acquired data and carries out periodical saving at a remote FTP server using an Internet connection. The system architecture and the usage of sensors are explained in the second chapter. In the third chapter implementation of the system, different interfaces of sensors and energy measuring devices are discussed and several examples of data logger program are presented. Each data logger is reading data from analog and digital channels. Measurements can be displayed directly on a screen using WEB access or using data from FTP server. Measurements and acquired data graphical results are presented in the fourth chapter in the selected diagrams. The benefits of the developed system are presented in the conclusion.

  9. Empiric model for mean generation time adjustment factor for classic point kinetics equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, David A.B.V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C., E-mail: david.goes@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations are the easiest way to observe the neutron production time behavior in a nuclear reactor. These equations are derived from the neutron transport equation using an approximation called Fick's law leading to a set of first order differential equations. The main objective of this study is to review classic point kinetics equation in order to approximate its results to the case when it is considered the time variation of the neutron currents. The computational modeling used for the calculations is based on the finite difference method. The results obtained with this model are compared with the reference model and then it is determined an empirical adjustment factor that modifies the point reactor kinetics equation to the real scenario. (author)

  10. Empiric model for mean generation time adjustment factor for classic point kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, David A.B.V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C.

    2017-01-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations are the easiest way to observe the neutron production time behavior in a nuclear reactor. These equations are derived from the neutron transport equation using an approximation called Fick's law leading to a set of first order differential equations. The main objective of this study is to review classic point kinetics equation in order to approximate its results to the case when it is considered the time variation of the neutron currents. The computational modeling used for the calculations is based on the finite difference method. The results obtained with this model are compared with the reference model and then it is determined an empirical adjustment factor that modifies the point reactor kinetics equation to the real scenario. (author)

  11. Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T., E-mail: Thomas.Richter6@tu-dresden.de; Eckert, K., E-mail: Kerstin.Eckert@tu-dresden.de; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.

  12. Maximizing the Mean Exit Time of a Brownian Motion from an Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lefebvre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X(t be a controlled one-dimensional standard Brownian motion starting from x∈(−d,d. The problem of optimally controlling X(t until |X(t|=d for the first time is solved explicitly in a particular case. The maximal value that the instantaneous reward given for survival in (−d,d can take is determined.

  13. Active cancellation - A means to zero dead-time pulse EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, John M; Barnes, Ryan P; Keller, Timothy J; Kaufmann, Thomas; Han, Songi

    2015-12-01

    The necessary resonator employed in pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) rings after the excitation pulse and creates a finite detector dead-time that ultimately prevents the detection of signal from fast relaxing spin systems, hindering the application of pulse EPR to room temperature measurements of interesting chemical or biological systems. We employ a recently available high bandwidth arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to produce a cancellation pulse that precisely destructively interferes with the resonant cavity ring-down. We find that we can faithfully detect EPR signal at all times immediately after, as well as during, the excitation pulse. This is a proof of concept study showcasing the capability of AWG pulses to precisely cancel out the resonator ring-down, and allow for the detection of EPR signal during the pulse itself, as well as the dead-time of the resonator. However, the applicability of this approach to conventional EPR experiments is not immediate, as it hinges on either (1) the availability of low-noise microwave sources and amplifiers to produce the necessary power for pulse EPR experiment or (2) the availability of very high conversion factor micro coil resonators that allow for pulse EPR experiments at modest microwave power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Image enhancement in photoemission electron microscopy by means of imaging time-of-flight analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelsner, A.; Krasyuk, A.; Fecher, G.H.; Schneider, C.M.; Schoenhense, G.

    2004-01-01

    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) is widely used in combination with synchrotron sources as a powerful tool to observe chemical and magnetic properties of metal and semiconductor surfaces. Presently, the resolution limit of these instruments using soft-X-ray excitation is limited to about 50 nm, because of the chromatic aberration of the electron optics used. Various sophisticated approaches have thus been reported for enhancing the spatial resolution in photoemission electron microscopy. This work demonstrates the use of a simple imaging energy filter based on electron time-of-flight (ToF) selection. The spatial resolution could be improved dramatically, even though the instrument was optimized using a rather large contrast aperture of 50 μm. A special (x, y, t)-resolving delayline detector was used as the imaging unit of this ToF-PEEM. It is operated in phase with the time structure of the synchrotron source, cutting time intervals from the raw image-forming data set in order to reduce the electron energy width contributing to the final images

  15. Synthesis of asymmetric movement trajectories in timed rhythmic behaviour by means of frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadeland, Carl Haakon

    2017-01-01

    Results from different empirical investigations on gestural aspects of timed rhythmic movements indicate that the production of asymmetric movement trajectories is a feature that seems to be a common characteristic of various performances of repetitive rhythmic patterns. The behavioural or neural origin of these asymmetrical trajectories is, however, not identified. In the present study we outline a theoretical model that is capable of producing syntheses of asymmetric movement trajectories documented in empirical investigations by Balasubramaniam et al. (2004). Characteristic qualities of the extension/flexion profiles in the observed asymmetric trajectories are reproduced, and we conduct an experiment similar to Balasubramaniam et al. (2004) to show that the empirically documented movement trajectories and our modelled approximations share the same spectral components. The model is based on an application of frequency modulated movements, and a theoretical interpretation offered by the model is to view paced rhythmic movements as a result of an unpaced movement being "stretched" and "compressed", caused by the presence of a metronome. We discuss our model construction within the framework of event-based and emergent timing, and argue that a change between these timing modes might be reflected by the strength of the modulation in our model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined.

  17. Time and spatial concentration profile inside a membrane by means of a memory formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michele; Cametti, Cesare; Ruggero, Vittorio

    2008-03-01

    In this note, the profile concentration of diffusing particles inside a membrane has been calculated on the basis of the Fick diffusion equation modified by introducing a memory formalism. In highly heterogeneous systems, such as biological membranes, the intrinsic structural complexity of the medium restricts the applicability of continuum diffusion models and suggests that diffusion parameters could depend at a certain time or position on what happens at preceding times (diffusion with memory). Here, we deal with two particular cases, the diffusion of glucose across an erythrocyte membrane, when the concentration at both sides of the membrane are assigned, and the permeation transport of small molecular weight solute through an artificial hydrogel polymeric membrane. However, the present procedure can be easily extended to more general conditions. The knowledge of the concentration profile within a membranous structure, which is usually not easily experimentally accessible, completes the description of the rather complex phenomenon of the transport across a highly structured confined medium and can also lead to an improvement in controlled drug-delivery systems.

  18. Real-time inspection of metal laminates by means of CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Victor M.; Guinea, Domingo; Montufar-Chaveznava, Rodrigo; Vicente, Jose

    2001-04-01

    Analog CNN array computer arises as an alternative to traditional digital processors in many industrial inspection like visual quality control of metal laminants, capable of make in a single chip Tera equivalent operations per second. A 4096 analog CNN processor array is able to perform complex space-time image analysis, being much faster than a camera- computer system in continuous inspection applications. Both chips have been implemented in CMOS technology and they are managed by a 32-bit high-performance low-cost micro- controller that closes the pan, tilt, lighting, focus and zoom loops required in the implementation of the active vision strategies. Several convolution masks for the Cellular Processors has been selected to detect particular changes in the texture, size, direction or orientation of the image entities, reprogramming `on the fly' the pixel resolution of shape when necessary. Laboratory results present these Cellular Processors and multiple resolution imager circuits as a promising architecture for visual inspection of industrial processes in real time.

  19. A Real-Time Recording Model of Key Indicators for Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Sustainable Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Buildings’ sustainability is one of the crucial parts for achieving urban sustainability. Applied to buildings, life-cycle assessment encompasses the analysis and assessment of the environmental effects of building materials, components and assemblies throughout the entire life of the building construction, use and demolition. Estimate of carbon emissions is essential and crucial for an accurate and reasonable life-cycle assessment. Addressing the need for more research into integrating analysis of real-time and automatic recording of key indicators for a more accurate calculation and comparison, this paper aims to design a real-time recording model of these crucial indicators concerning the calculation and estimation of energy use and carbon emissions of buildings based on a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID-based system. The architecture of the RFID-based carbon emission recording/tracking system, which contains four functional layers including data record layer, data collection/update layer, data aggregation layer and data sharing/backup layer, is presented. Each of these layers is formed by RFID or network devices and sub-systems that operate at a specific level. In the end, a proof-of-concept system is developed to illustrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of the design. This study would provide the technical solution for real-time recording system of building carbon emissions and thus is of great significance and importance to improve urban sustainability.

  20. Dating of streamwater using tritium in a post nuclear bomb pulse world: continuous variation of mean transit time with streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Morgenstern

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tritium measurements of streamwater draining the Toenepi catchment, a small dairy farming area in Waikato, New Zealand, have shown that the mean transit time of the water varies with the flow rate of the stream. Mean transit times through the catchment are 2–5 years during high baseflow conditions in winter, increasing to 30–40 years as baseflow decreases in summer, and then dramatically older water during drought conditions with mean transit time of more than 100 years. Older water is gained in the lower reaches of the stream, compared to younger water in the headwater catchment. The groundwater store supplying baseflow was estimated from the mean transit time and average baseflow to be 15.4 × 106 m3 of water, about 1 m water equivalent over the catchment and 2.3 times total annual streamflow. Nitrate is relatively high at higher flow rates in winter, but is low at times of low flow with old water. This reflects both lower nitrate loading in the catchment several decades ago as compared to current intensive dairy farming, and denitrification processes occurring in the older groundwater. Silica, leached from the aquifer material and accumulating in the water in proportion to contact time, is high at times of low streamflow with old water. There was a good correlation between silica concentration and streamwater age, which potentially allows silica concentrations to be used as a proxy for age when calibrated by tritium measurements. This study shows that tritium dating of stream water is possible with single tritium measurements now that bomb-test tritium has effectively disappeared from hydrological systems in New Zealand, without the need for time-series data.

  1. Simulation of acoustic streaming by means of the finite-difference time-domain method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of acoustic streaming generated by a standing wave in a narrow twodimensional cavity are presented. In this case, acoustic streaming arises from the viscous boundary layers set up at the surfaces of the walls. It is known that streaming vortices inside the boundary layer have...... directions of rotation that are opposite to those of the outer streaming vortices (Rayleigh streaming). The general objective of the work described in this paper has been to study the extent to which it is possible to simulate both the outer streaming vortices and the inner boundary layer vortices using...... the finite-difference time-domain method. To simplify the problem, thermal effects are not considered. The motivation of the described investigation has been the possibility of using the numerical method to study acoustic streaming, particularly under non-steady conditions. Results are discussed for channels...

  2. Measurement of residual strain in composites by means of time-of- flight neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Richardson, J.; Saigal, A.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction time-of-flight measurements using the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory have been employed to study strain in various metal- and ceramic-matrix composites. For example, measurements carried out to 900 C on a composite composed of a titanium alloy matrix and silicon carbide fibers have been used to validate theoretical assumptions in the prediction of fabrication-induced residual stress. Sapphire reinforced nickel aluminide composites have also been studied. Studies of a high-temperature ceramic superconducting composite consisting of yttrium barium copper oxide and silver with various volume fractions of silver have also been carried out. The results of these studies have provided information on the effect of Ag content on interface bonding. In addition, ceramic-matrix composites with randomly dispersed ceramic whiskers with varying fiber content have been investigated

  3. Sedimentation in Particulate Aqueous Suspensions as studied by means of Dielectric Time Domain Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Bjoernar Hauknes

    1997-12-31

    Many problems in offshore oil production and multiphase transport are related to surface and colloid chemistry. This thesis applies dielectric spectroscopy as an experimental technique to study the behaviour of particle suspensions in polar media. The thesis opens with an introduction to suspensions and time domain dielectric spectroscopy. It then investigates the dielectric properties of silica and alumina dispersed in polar solvents. It is found that theoretical models can be used to calculate the volume fraction disperse phase in the suspension and that the particle sedimentation depends on the wetting of the particles, charge on the particle surface and viscosity of the solvent, and that this dependency can be measured by time domain dielectric spectroscopy. When the surface properties of silica and alumina particles were modified by coating them with a non-ionic polymer and a non-ionic surfactant, then different degrees of packing in the sedimented phase at the bottom of the sedimentation vessel occurred. Chemometrical methods on the synthesis of monodisperse silica particles were used to investigate what factors influence the particle size. It turned out that it is insufficient to consider only main variables when discussing the results of the synthesis. By introducing interaction terms, the author could explain the variation in the size of particles synthesized. The difference in the sedimentation rate of monodisperse silica particles upon variation of volume fraction particles, pH, salinity, amount of silanol groups at the particle surface and temperature was studied. The cross interactions play an important role and a model explaining the variation in sedimentation is introduced. Finally, magnetic particles dispersed in water and in an external magnetic field were used to study the impact on the sedimentation due to the induced flocculation. 209 refs., 90 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Mean-cluster approach indicates cell sorting time scales are determined by collective dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrici, Carine P.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.

    2017-03-01

    Cell migration is essential to cell segregation, playing a central role in tissue formation, wound healing, and tumor evolution. Considering random mixtures of two cell types, it is still not clear which cell characteristics define clustering time scales. The mass of diffusing clusters merging with one another is expected to grow as td /d +2 when the diffusion constant scales with the inverse of the cluster mass. Cell segregation experiments deviate from that behavior. Explanations for that could arise from specific microscopic mechanisms or from collective effects, typical of active matter. Here we consider a power law connecting diffusion constant and cluster mass to propose an analytic approach to model cell segregation where we explicitly take into account finite-size corrections. The results are compared with active matter model simulations and experiments available in the literature. To investigate the role played by different mechanisms we considered different hypotheses describing cell-cell interaction: differential adhesion hypothesis and different velocities hypothesis. We find that the simulations yield normal diffusion for long time intervals. Analytic and simulation results show that (i) cluster evolution clearly tends to a scaling regime, disrupted only at finite-size limits; (ii) cluster diffusion is greatly enhanced by cell collective behavior, such that for high enough tendency to follow the neighbors, cluster diffusion may become independent of cluster size; (iii) the scaling exponent for cluster growth depends only on the mass-diffusion relation, not on the detailed local segregation mechanism. These results apply for active matter systems in general and, in particular, the mechanisms found underlying the increase in cell sorting speed certainly have deep implications in biological evolution as a selection mechanism.

  5. Government management and implementation of national real-time energy monitoring system for China large-scale public building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na Wei; Wu Yong; Song Yan; Dong Zhongcheng

    2009-01-01

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings (GOBLPB) is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. It is significant for China government to achieve the target: reducing building energy consumption by 11 million ton standard coal before 2010. In the framework of a national demonstration project concerning the energy management system, Shenzhen Municipality has been selected for the implementation of the system. A data acquisition system and a methodology concerning the energy consumption of the GOBLPB have been developed. This paper summarizes the various features of the system incorporated into identifying the building consumes and energy saving potential. This paper also defines the methods to achieve the real-time monitoring and diagnosis: the meters installed at each building, the data transmitted through internet to a center server, the analysis and unification at the center server and the publication through web. Furthermore, this paper introduces the plans to implement the system and to extend countrywide. Finally, this paper presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy efficiency supervisory system on GOBLPB in its construction, reconstruction or operation stages.

  6. Multi-Period Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Uncertain Time Horizon When Returns Are Serially Correlated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a multi-period mean-variance portfolio selection problem with an uncertain time horizon and serial correlations. Firstly, we embed the nonseparable multi-period optimization problem into a separable quadratic optimization problem with uncertain exit time by employing the embedding technique of Li and Ng (2000. Then we convert the later into an optimization problem with deterministic exit time. Finally, using the dynamic programming approach, we explicitly derive the optimal strategy and the efficient frontier for the dynamic mean-variance optimization problem. A numerical example with AR(1 return process is also presented, which shows that both the uncertainty of exit time and the serial correlations of returns have significant impacts on the optimal strategy and the efficient frontier.

  7. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; Baldovino-Pantaleón, Oscar; Domínguez Cruz, Rene F.; Zamarreño, Carlos R.; Matías, Ignacio R.; May-Arrioja, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol) blends using a multimode interference (MMI) fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI) of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends. PMID:25256111

  8. Real time determination of the laser ablated mass by means of electric field-perturbation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, P.; Álvarez, J.; Sarmiento, R.; Bredice, F.; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M.; Palleschi, V.

    2018-04-01

    A Nd:YAG ns-pulsed laser was used to ablate Al, Cd and Zn targets, which were placed between the plates of a planar charged capacitor. The plasma generates a transient redistribution of the electrical charges on the plates that can be measured as a voltage drop across a resistor connected to the ground plate. This signal is proportional to the capacitor applied voltage, the distance between the plates and the total number of ions produced in the ablation process which in turn is related to the laser energy and the ablated mass. After a series of pulses, the targets were weighed on a thermogravimetric balance to measure the ablated mass. Our results show that the electrical signal measured on the resistor is univocally related to the ablated mass from the target. Therefore, after a proper calibration depending on the material and the experimental geometry, the electrical signal can be used for real time quantitative measurement of the ablated mass in pulsed laser generated plasma experiments. The experiments were repeated on an aluminum target, with and without the presence of the external electric field in order to determine the possible influence of the applied electric field on the ablated mass.

  9. An attempt to model the timing of magma formation by means of radioactive disequilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortini, M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to quantitatively determine the timing of magma formation, the Th series radioactive disequilibria for the Etna and Stromboli volcanoes have been re-examined in the light of new isotopic evidence that shows that magma formation is a chemically open-system process. This aim was but partially reached. It is shown that single-stage models of magma formation are not consistent with the experimental data. Short-life disequilibria require that magma formation undergoes: (1) a Th and Ra enrichment stage (a few years long); (2) a closed-system stage (a few tens to some hundreds years long); (3) a second Th and Ra enrichment stage (a few years long), different from the former in terms of Ra/Th ratio. The whole process can be described by a group of equations, derived from open-system non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which were integrated with numerical methods. However, too many unknowns are involved to allow a one-to-one solution based on the available data. (orig.)

  10. Alternative strategies: A means for saving money and time on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is undertaking studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for disposal of high level nuclear waste. Yucca Mountain is located in an arid environment. Many processes that could contribute to mobilization of radionuclides are either absent or minimized in a dry site. Therefore, Yucca Mountain should have the potential of being a veryfavorable site for disposal of waste. The determination of suitability has no precedence, and the characterization of an and site is complex, requiring intensive studies to determine suitability. The studies undertaken by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are very costly. By a process called performance allocation, the YMP determined strategies to satisfy regulations or meet performance while minimizing costs and schedules. Those involved recognized that allocations should be reviewed as additional information became available. The allocation has not been reviewed nor revised since the initial allocation in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The purpose of this paper is to outline alternative allocations that the author feels should be considered based on the additional information that is available at this time

  11. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo J. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol blends using a multimode interference (MMI fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends.

  12. First-time observation of Mastro Giorgio masterpieces by means of non-destructive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padeletti, G.; Ingo, G. M.; Bouquillon, A.; Pages-Camagna, S.; Aucouturier, M.; Roehrs, S.; Fermo, P.

    2006-06-01

    For the first time some excellent pieces belonging to the majolica production of the great master Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio (Central Italy) have been characterized from a chemical and structural point of view with the aim to identify the composition of both pigments and lustres. A series of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Raman analyses have been performed on some plates coming from Museo del Palazzo dei Consoli (Gubbio) and several French museums (Louvre, Musée National de la Céramique, Musée National de la Renaissance) lustred by Giorgio Andreoli and decorated by famous majolica painters such as Francesco Xanto Avelli. The three techniques are complementary and useful in the investigation of art objects since they are non-destructive. Furthermore, the low detection limits allow the identification of all elements and compounds present, and RBS allows concentration profiling, too. It is worth noticing that the examined objects are characterized by the presence of both gold and ruby-red lustres, a peculiarity of Mastro Giorgio’s technique. The measurements by PIXE and RBS have been carried out on the AGLAE accelerator at C2RMF, Louvre Palace.

  13. Transient Properties of a Bistable System with Delay Time Driven by Non-Gaussian and Gaussian Noises: Mean First-Passage Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxi; Xu Wei; Guo Yongfeng; Li Gaojie

    2008-01-01

    The mean first-passage time of a bistable system with time-delayed feedback driven by multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and additive Gaussian white noise is investigated. Firstly, the non-Markov process is reduced to the Markov process through a path-integral approach; Secondly, the approximate Fokker-Planck equation is obtained by applying the unified coloured noise approximation, the small time delay approximation and the Novikov Theorem. The functional analysis and simplification are employed to obtain the approximate expressions of MFPT. The effects of non-Gaussian parameter (measures deviation from Gaussian character) r, the delay time τ, the noise correlation time τ 0 , the intensities D and α of noise on the MFPT are discussed. It is found that the escape time could be reduced by increasing the delay time τ, the noise correlation time τ 0 , or by reducing the intensities D and α. As far as we know, this is the first time to consider the effect of delay time on the mean first-passage time in the stochastic dynamical system

  14. Order-disorder transitions in time-discrete mean field systems with memory: a novel approach via nonlinear autoregressive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T D; Mongkolsakulvong, S

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study strongly nonlinear autoregressive (SNAR) models have been introduced as a generalization of the widely-used time-discrete autoregressive models that are known to apply both to Markov and non-Markovian systems. In contrast to conventional autoregressive models, SNAR models depend on process mean values. So far, only linear dependences have been studied. We consider the case in which process mean values can have a nonlinear impact on the processes under consideration. It is shown that such models describe Markov and non-Markovian many-body systems with mean field forces that exhibit a nonlinear impact on single subsystems. We exemplify that such nonlinear dependences can describe order-disorder phase transitions of time-discrete Markovian and non-Markovian many-body systems. The relevant order parameter equations are derived and issues of stability and stationarity are studied. (paper)

  15. It takes time: Building relationships and understanding through an intergenerational ballet programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Shelley E; Gaetz, Michael; Blakeborough, Darren

    2018-01-01

    Individuals living in long-term residential care homes are often viewed through a negative lens. These residents have increasingly complex care needs, and their functional, communication and cognitive challenges can support conceptualizations of difference and disability perpetuating negative stereotypes of age and dementia. However, engaging in meaningful activities and relationships with older adults, including those with dementia, has been shown to promote positive attitudes. Specifically, intergenerational programming that provides opportunities for meaningful engagement between children and older adults has been shown to support positive emotional experiences through socializing and building relationships. This qualitative study explored the development of relationships between school-aged children and older adults with dementia living in a long-term residential care home. Residents in long-term care homes and children typically have limited opportunities to interact with each other; in this study, participating in an intergenerational dance programme provided an opportunity for meaningful relationships to develop. This paper focuses on the development of the children's attitudes and understandings of their much older dance partners. Seven girls between the ages of seven and nine participated in ballet classes with residents in a long-term care home for one hour each week over a six-month period. All of the residents had a diagnosis of moderate to advanced dementia. Further, all of the residents also had other chronic health issues such as cardiac, respiratory and/or neurological diseases. The children were interviewed at the baseline, three- and six-month intervals. Prior to beginning the dance programme, the children anticipated their dance partners to be unwell and unable. However, by the end of six months, the children described the residents much more positively highlighting their abilities and strengths. Over time, through participating in a structured

  16. Effect on the mean first passage time in symmetrical bistable systems by cross-correlation between noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Cao, L.; Wu, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analytic investigation of the mean first passage time in two opposite directions (from the left well to the right well and from right to left) by studying symmetrical bistable systems driven by correlated Gaussian white noises, and prove that the mean first passage time in two opposite directions is not symmetrical any more when noises are correlated. As examples, the mean first passage time in the quartic bistable model and the sawtooth bistable model are calculated, respectively. From the analytic results of the mean first passage time, we testify further the relation T(from x - to x + ,λ)≠T(from x + to x - ,λ) in the same area of the parameter plan. Moreover, it is found that the dependences of T + (i.e., T(from x - to x + ,λ)) and T - (i.e., T(from x + to x - ,λ)) upon the multiplicative noise intensity Q and the additive noise intensity D exhibit entirely different properties. For same areas of the parameter plan: in the quartic bistable system, when the T + vs. Q curve exhibits a maximum, while the T - vs. Q curve is monotonous; when the T + vs. D curve is monotonous, while the T - vs. D curve experiences a phase transition from decreasing monotonously to possessing one minimum. Increasing Q, when the T + vs. D curve experiences a phase transition from decreasing monotonously to possessing one maximum, while the T - vs. D curve only increases monotonously. Similar behaviours also exist in the sawtooth bistable model

  17. On robust multi-period pre-commitment and time-consistent mean-variance portfolio optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cong (Fei); C.W. Oosterlee (Kees)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe consider robust pre-commitment and time-consistent mean-variance optimal asset allocation strategies, that are required to perform well also in a worst-case scenario regarding the development of the asset price. We show that worst-case scenarios for both strategies can be found by

  18. Analysis of mean time to data loss of fault-tolerant disk arrays RAID-6 based on specialized Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, P. A.; D'K Novikova Freyre Shavier, G.

    2018-03-01

    This scientific paper is devoted to the analysis of the mean time to data loss of redundant disk arrays RAID-6 with alternation of data considering different failure rates of disks both in normal state of the disk array and in degraded and rebuild states, and also nonzero time of the disk replacement. The reliability model developed by the authors on the basis of the Markov chain and obtained calculation formula for estimation of the mean time to data loss (MTTDL) of the RAID-6 disk arrays are also presented. At last, the technique of estimation of the initial reliability parameters and examples of calculation of the MTTDL of the RAID-6 disk arrays for the different numbers of disks are also given.

  19. Comparison of extended mean-reversion and time series models for electricity spot price simulation considering negative prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keles, Dogan; Genoese, Massimo; Möst, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates different financial price and time series models, such as mean reversion, autoregressive moving average (ARMA), integrated ARMA (ARIMA) and general autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) process, usually applied for electricity price simulations. However, as these models are developed to describe the stochastic behaviour of electricity prices, they are extended by a separate data treatment for the deterministic components (trend, daily, weekly and annual cycles) of electricity spot prices. Furthermore price jumps are considered and implemented within a regime-switching model. Since 2008 market design allows for negative prices at the European Energy Exchange, which also occurred for several hours in the last years. Up to now, only a few financial and time series approaches exist, which are able to capture negative prices. This paper presents a new approach incorporating negative prices. The evaluation of the different approaches presented points out that the mean reversion and the ARMA models deliver the lowest mean root square error between simulated and historical electricity spot prices gained from the European Energy Exchange. These models posses also lower mean average errors than GARCH models. Hence, they are more suitable to simulate well-fitting price paths. Furthermore it is shown that the daily structure of historical price curves is better captured applying ARMA or ARIMA processes instead of mean-reversion or GARCH models. Another important outcome of the paper is that the regime-switching approach and the consideration of negative prices via the new proposed approach lead to a significant improvement of the electricity price simulation. - Highlights: ► Considering negative prices improves the results of time-series and financial models for electricity prices. ► Regime-switching approach captures the jumps and base prices quite well. ► Removing and separate modelling of deterministic annual, weekly and daily

  20. The control, at the design stage, of risks related to buildings management over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Martani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an apparatus of tools and methods is presented to evaluate, at the design stage, the risks over a set of objectives through buildings lifetime. To this purpose a tool is first presented to relate technological requirements of each technical elements to the pertinent maintenance interventions. Then a process is also proposed to estimate the risks on user requirements runningMonte Carlo simulations. The risk management process proposed in the present work aims to support designers and promoters in making predictions on the outcomes of long, not standardized, multivariable dependent processes – as the building process is – in order to indicate the attitude of a designed building to meet a framework of important objectives through its lifetime.

  1. Evaluation of Real-Time Hand Motion Tracking Using a Range Camera and the Mean-Shift Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, H.; Lichti, D.

    2011-09-01

    Several sensors have been tested for improving the interaction between humans and machines including traditional web cameras, special gloves, haptic devices, cameras providing stereo pairs of images and range cameras. Meanwhile, several methods are described in the literature for tracking hand motion: the Kalman filter, the mean-shift algorithm and the condensation algorithm. In this research, the combination of a range camera and the simple version of the mean-shift algorithm has been evaluated for its capability for hand motion tracking. The evaluation was assessed in terms of position accuracy of the tracking trajectory in x, y and z directions in the camera space and the time difference between image acquisition and image display. Three parameters have been analyzed regarding their influence on the tracking process: the speed of the hand movement, the distance between the camera and the hand and finally the integration time of the camera. Prior to the evaluation, the required warm-up time of the camera has been measured. This study has demonstrated the suitability of the range camera used in combination with the mean-shift algorithm for real-time hand motion tracking but for very high speed hand movement in the traverse plane with respect to the camera, the tracking accuracy is low and requires improvement.

  2. Estimation of heat rejection based on the air conditioner use time and its mitigation from buildings in Taipei City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chun-Ming; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Urban Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The main work in the research focuses on the analysis and mitigation of the anthropogenic heat discharged from buildings, which is one of the main reasons leading to the heat island effect. The residential and commercial buildings, divided into 10 categories, with HVAC systems were analyzed by the building energy program, EnergyPlus. With the help of GIS, the heat rejection of all the residential and commercial buildings in DaAn Ward of Taipei City were evaluated, in which the spatial data and diurnal variation of the heat rejection were described by 3-h time periods. Furthermore, the effect of mitigation strategies was discussed. The first strategy was to change the wall/roof material of building envelope. The second and third strategies, from the viewpoint of energy saving, were to change the temperature setting of air conditioners and to turn off the lighting and equipment when not in use. The fourth strategy was to use a better efficiency of the cooling systems. Finally, the evaluation of installing the water-cooled cooling system, which discharges heat in the form of sensible and latent heat, was also included. (author)

  3. Campus Officials Seek Building Efficiencies, One Square Foot at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Space is a serious, expensive business on college campuses. Following a decade-long building boom, a crippling recession, a spike in energy prices (with further increases probable), and in some regions fierce competition for a shrinking pool of students, the stakes of managing campus space have never been higher. Students, it is often assumed,…

  4. Integrated building and system simulation using run-time coupled distributed models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wijsman, A.J.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    In modeling and simulation of real building and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system configurations, it is frequently found that certain parts can be represented in one simulation software, while models for other parts of the configuration are only available in other software.

  5. Measuring Completeness of Building Footprints in OpenStreetMap over Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Kunze

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to financial or administrative constraints, access to official spatial base data is currently limited to a small subset of all potential users in the field of spatial planning and research. This increases the usefulness of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, in particular OpenStreetMap (OSM, as supplementary datasets or, in some cases, alternative sources of primary data. In contrast to the OSM street network, which has already been thoroughly investigated and found to be practically complete in many areas, the degree of completeness of OSM data on buildings is still unclear. In this paper we describe methods to analyze building completeness and apply these to various test areas in Germany. Official data from national mapping and cadastral agencies is used as a basis for comparison. The results show that unit-based completeness measurements (e.g., total number or area of buildings are highly sensitive to disparities in modeling between official data and VGI. Therefore, we recommend object-based methods to study the completeness of OSM building footprint data. An analysis from November 2011 in Germany indicated a completeness of 25% in the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and 15% in Saxony. Although further analyses from 2012 confirm that data completeness in Saxony has risen to 23%, the rate of new data input was slowing in the year 2012.

  6. Listening and Reading Comprehension at Story Time: How to Build Habits of the Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Ruth; Hall, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding a story is an active process, whether children have listened to it being read aloud or, when they are older and read it for themselves. When children grasp a story, they (1) attend to what is important; (2) anticipate what is to come; and (3) build meaningful patterns from the many details. These active interactions with a story can…

  7. 4D imaging and quantification of pore structure modifications inside natural building stones by means of high resolution X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanckele, J; De Kock, T; Boone, M A; Cnudde, V; Brabant, L; Boone, M N; Fronteau, G; Van Hoorebeke, L; Jacobs, P

    2012-02-01

    Weathering processes have been studied in detail for many natural building stones. The most commonly used analytical techniques in these studies are thin-section petrography, SEM, XRD and XRF. Most of these techniques are valuable for chemical and mineralogical analysis of the weathering patterns. However, to obtain crucial quantitative information on structural evolutions like porosity changes and growth of weathering crusts in function of time, non-destructive techniques become necessary. In this study, a Belgian historical calcareous sandstone, the Lede stone, was exposed to gaseous SO(2) under wet surface conditions according to the European Standard NBN EN 13919 (2003). Before, during and after the strong acid test, high resolution X-ray tomography has been performed to visualize gypsum crust formation to yield a better insight into the effects of gaseous SO(2) on the pore modification in 3D. The tomographic scans were taken at the Centre for X-ray Tomography at Ghent University (UGCT). With the aid of image analysis, partial porosity changes were calculated in different stadia of the process. Increasing porosity has been observed visually and quantitatively below the new superficial formed layer of gypsum crystals. In some cases micro-cracks and dissolution zones were detected on the grain boundaries of quartz. By using Morpho+, an in-house developed image analysis program, radial porosity, partial porosity, ratio of open and closed porosity and equivalent diameter of individual pore structures have been calculated. The results obtained in this study are promising for a better understanding of gypsum weathering mechanisms, porosity changes and patterns on natural building stones in four dimensions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of mean time to failure of a near surface radioactive waste repository for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Lais A. de; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at estimating the mean time to failure (MTTF) of each barrier of a near surface radioactive waste repository. It is assumed that surface water infiltrates through the barriers, reaching the matrix where radionuclides are contained, releasing them to the environment. Radioactive wastes considered in this work are low and medium level wastes (produced during operation of a PWR nuclear power station) fixed on cement. The repository consists of 6 saturated porous media barriers (top cover, upper layer, packages, basis, repository walls and geosphere). It has been verified that the mean time to failure (MTTF) of each barrier increases for radionuclides having higher retardation factor (Fr) and also that the MTTF for concrete is larger for Nickel , while for the geosphere, Plutonium gives the largest MTTF. (author)

  9. Estimate of the global-scale joule heating rates in the thermosphere due to time mean currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roble, R.G.; Matsushita, S.

    1975-01-01

    An estimate of the global-scale joule heating rates in the thermosphere is made based on derived global equivalent overhead electric current systems in the dynamo region during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. The equivalent total electric field distribution is calculated from Ohm's law. The global-scale joule heating rates are calculated for various monthly average periods in 1965. The calculated joule heating rates maximize at high latitudes in the early evening and postmidnight sectors. During geomagnetically quiet times the daytime joule heating rates are considerably lower than heating by solar EUV radiation. However, during geomagnetically disturbed periods the estimated joule heating rates increase by an order of magnitude and can locally exceed the solar EUV heating rates. The results show that joule heating is an important and at times the dominant energy source at high latitudes. However, the global mean joule heating rates calculated near solar minimum are generally small compared to the global mean solar EUV heating rates. (auth)

  10. Research on classified real-time flood forecasting framework based on K-means cluster and rough set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Peng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a new classified real-time flood forecasting framework. In this framework, historical floods are classified by a K-means cluster according to the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation, the time variance of precipitation intensity and other hydrological factors. Based on the classified results, a rough set is used to extract the identification rules for real-time flood forecasting. Then, the parameters of different categories within the conceptual hydrological model are calibrated using a genetic algorithm. In real-time forecasting, the corresponding category of parameters is selected for flood forecasting according to the obtained flood information. This research tests the new classified framework on Guanyinge Reservoir and compares the framework with the traditional flood forecasting method. It finds that the performance of the new classified framework is significantly better in terms of accuracy. Furthermore, the framework can be considered in a catchment with fewer historical floods.

  11. Tsunami vulnerability and damage for buildings analyzed by means of two methods (PTVA-3 and SCHEMA) in the area of Augusta and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The coast of the eastern Sicily is exposed to tsunamis that can be generated by local earthquakes (e.g. the 1169, 1693, 1908 events) and by earthquakes located in distant seismic zones (see the 365 AD tsunamigenic quake in Western Hellenic Arc). Tsunamis can also be generated by landslides possibly triggered by earthquakes. The Hyblean-Malta steep escarpment running offshore at a small angle with the coast is an ideal place for submarine mass failure occurrences with tsunamigenic effects. The entire eastern coast of Sicily from Messina in the north to Siracusa in the south is under the threat of tsunamis. In the frame of the FP7 European project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), the segment of coast from Augusta to Siracusa was selected to undertake specific and detailed studies of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and damage to test existing methods and develop innovative approaches. The scope of the present work regards vulnerability and damage analyses. We chose to adopt two methods, known in the literature and briefly denoted as PTVA-3 and SCHEMA, that are based on two very different approaches, the former more qualitative and the latter more quantitative. The method PTVA-3 determines the vulnerability and damageability of a building by weighting and ranking a number of attributes covering the structural features of the edifice and the relevant characteristics of the surrounding environment such as the position with respect to the coast, the existence of defensive elements (e.g. walls, breakwaters, vegetation) and also the proximity to potential sources of floating objects that can feed damaging debris flows. On the other hand, the SCHEMA method uses a classification of building and a damage matrix that were derived from experimental fragility and damage curves first established after the Sumatra 2004 tsunami and later refined and adapted to the building stock of the Mediterranean region. The

  12. Time dependence of 50 Hz magnetic fields in apartment buildings with indoor transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Hareuveny, Ronen; Kandel, Shaiela; Ruppin, Raphael

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-four hour measurements of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs) in apartment buildings containing transformer stations have been performed. The apartments were classified into four types, according to their location relative to the transformer room. Temporal correlation coefficients between the MF in various apartments, as well as between MF and transformer load curves, were calculated. It was found that, in addition to their high average MF, the apartments located right above the transformer room also exhibit unique temporal correlation properties.

  13. Validating computational predictions of night-time ventilation in Stanford's Y2E2 building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Lamberti, Giacomo; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Natural ventilation can significantly reduce building energy consumption, but robust design is a challenging task. We previously presented predictions of natural ventilation performance in Stanford's Y2E2 building using two models with different levels of fidelity, embedded in an uncertainty quantification framework to identify the dominant uncertain parameters and predict quantified confidence intervals. The results showed a slightly high cooling rate for the volume-averaged temperature, and the initial thermal mass temperature and window discharge coefficients were found to have an important influence on the results. To further investigate the potential role of these parameters on the observed discrepancies, the current study is performing additional measurements in the Y2E2 building. Wall temperatures are recorded throughout the nightflush using thermocouples; flow rates through windows are measured using hotwires; and spatial variability in the air temperature is explored. The measured wall temperatures are found the be within the range of our model assumptions, and the measured velocities agree reasonably well with our CFD predications. Considerable local variations in the indoor air temperature have been recorded, largely explaining the discrepancies in our earlier validation study. Future work will therefore focus on a local validation of the CFD results with the measurements. Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE).

  14. Feedback effect of human physical and psychological adaption on time period of thermal adaption in naturally ventilated building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...... of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature...

  15. Ice crystallization in porous building materials: assessing damage using real-time 3D monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Maxim; De Kock, Tim; De Schutter, Geert; Cnudde, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    Frost action is one of the main causes of deterioration of porous building materials in regions at middle to high latitudes. Damage will occur when the internal stresses due to ice formation become larger than the strength of the material. Hence, the sensitivity of the material to frost damage is partly defined by the structure of the solid body. On the other hand, the size, shape and interconnection of pores manages the water distribution in the building material and, therefore, the characteristics of the pore space control potential to form ice crystals (Ruedrich et al., 2011). In order to assess the damage to building materials by ice crystallization, lot of effort was put into identifying the mechanisms behind the stress build up. First of all, volumetric expansion of 9% (Hirschwald, 1908) during the transition of water to ice should be mentioned. Under natural circumstances, however, water saturation degrees within natural rocks or concrete cannot reach a damaging value. Therefore, linear growth pressure (Scherer, 1999), as well as several mechanisms triggered by water redistribution during freezing (Powers and Helmuth, 1953; Everett, 1961) are more likely responsible for damage due to freezing. Nevertheless, these theories are based on indirect observations and models and, thus, direct evidence that reveals the exact damage mechanism under certain conditions is still lacking. To obtain this proof, in-situ information needs to be acquired while a freezing process is performed. X-ray computed tomography has proven to be of great value in material research. Recent advances at the Ghent University Centre for Tomography (UGCT) have already allowed to dynamically 3D image crack growth in natural rock during freeze-thaw cycles (De Kock et al., 2015). A great potential to evaluate the different stress build-up mechanisms can be found in this imaging technique consequently. It is required to cover a range of materials with different petrophysical properties to achieve

  16. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  17. Dynamic Properties of the Solow Model with Increasing or Decreasing Population and Time-to-Build Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Guerrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a time-to-build technology in a Solow model with nonconstant population. Our analysis shows that the population dynamics may be a source of stability switches and Hopf bifurcations. The analytical results are obtained using the recent technique introduced by Beretta and Kuang (2002 in the studying of delayed differential equations with delay-dependent coefficients in characteristic equation. Numerical simulations are performed in order to illustrate the main dynamic features of the model.

  18. Single-Molecule Methods for Nucleotide Excision Repair: Building a System to Watch Repair in Real Time

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Muwen; Beckwitt, Emily C.; Springall, Luke; Kad, Neil M.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule approaches to solving biophysical problems are powerful tools that allow static and dynamic real-time observations of specific molecular interactions of interest in the absence of ensemble-averaging effects. Here, we provide detailed protocols for building an experimental system that employs atomic force microscopy and a single-molecule DNA tightrope assay based on oblique angle illumination fluorescence microscopy. Together with approaches for engineering site-specific lesion...

  19. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of ...

  20. Calculating the mean time to capture for tethered ligands and its effect on the chemical equilibrium of bound ligand pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Decker, Caitlin G; Maynard, Heather D; Levine, Alex J

    2016-09-01

    We present here the calculation of the mean time to capture of a tethered ligand to the receptor. This calculation is then used to determine the shift in the partitioning between (1) free, (2) singly bound, and (3) doubly bound ligands in chemical equilibrium as a function of the length of the tether. These calculations are used in the research article Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Dimer with Superagonist in vitro Activity Improves Granulation Tissue Formation During Wound Healing (Decker et al., in press [1]) to explain quantitatively how changes in polymeric linker length in the ligand dimers modifies the efficacy of these molecules relative to that of free ligands.

  1. Time- and energy resolved photoemission electron microscopy-imaging of photoelectron time-of-flight analysis by means of pulsed excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelsner, Andreas; Rohmer, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Bayer, Daniela; Schoenhense, Gerd; Aeschlimann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present work enlightens the developments in time- and energy resolved photoemission electron microscopy over the past few years. We describe basic principles of the technique and demonstrate different applications. An energy- and time-filtering photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) for real-time spectroscopic imaging can be realized either by a retarding field or hemispherical energy analyzer or by using time-of-flight optics with a delay line detector. The latter method has the advantage of no data loss at all as all randomly incoming particles are measured not only by position but also by time. This is of particular interest for pump-probe experiments in the femtosecond and attosecond time scale where space charge processes drastically limit the maximum number of photoemitted electrons per laser pulse. This work focuses particularly on time-of-flight analysis using a novel delay line detector. Time and energy resolved PEEM instruments with delay line detectors enable 4D imaging (x, y, Δt, E Kin ) on a true counting basis. This allows a broad range of applications from real-time observation of dynamic phenomena at surfaces to fs time-of-flight spectro-microscopy and even aberration correction. By now, these time-of-flight analysis instruments achieve intrinsic time resolutions of 108 ps absolute and 13.5 ps relative. Very high permanent measurement speeds of more than 4 million events per second in random detection regimes have been realized using a standard USB2.0 interface. By means of this performance, the time-resolved PEEM technique enables to display evolutions of spatially resolved (<25 nm) and temporal sliced images life on any modern computer. The method allows dynamics investigations of variable electrical, magnetic, and optical near fields at surfaces and great prospects in dynamical adaptive photoelectron optics. For dynamical processes in the ps time scale such as magnetic domain wall movements, the time resolution of the delay line detectors

  2. Non-Invasive monitoring of diaphragmatic timing by means of surface contact sensors: An experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdiz Batxi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive monitoring of respiratory muscle function is an area of increasing research interest, resulting in the appearance of new monitoring devices, one of these being piezoelectric contact sensors. The present study was designed to test whether the use of piezoelectric contact (non-invasive sensors could be useful in respiratory monitoring, in particular in measuring the timing of diaphragmatic contraction. Methods Experiments were performed in an animal model: three pentobarbital anesthetized mongrel dogs. The motion of the thoracic cage was acquired by means of a piezoelectric contact sensor placed on the costal wall. This signal is compared with direct measurements of the diaphragmatic muscle length, made by sonomicrometry. Furthermore, to assess the diaphragmatic function other respiratory signals were acquired: respiratory airflow and transdiaphragmatic pressure. Diaphragm contraction time was estimated with these four signals. Using diaphragm length signal as reference, contraction times estimated with the other three signals were compared with the contraction time estimated with diaphragm length signal. Results The contraction time estimated with the TM signal tends to give a reading 0.06 seconds lower than the measure made with the DL signal (-0.21 and 0.00 for FL and DP signals, respectively, with a standard deviation of 0.05 seconds (0.08 and 0.06 for FL and DP signals, respectively. Correlation coefficients indicated a close link between time contraction estimated with TM signal and contraction time estimated with DL signal (a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.98, a reliability coefficient of 0.95, a slope of 1.01 and a Spearman's rank-order coefficient of 0.98. In general, correlation coefficients and mean and standard deviation of the difference were better in the inspiratory load respiratory test than in spontaneous ventilation tests. Conclusion The technique presented in this work provides a non

  3. The influence of micro-topography and external bioerosion on coral-reef-building organisms: recruitment, community composition and carbonate production over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallela, Jennie

    2018-03-01

    The continued health and function of tropical coral reefs is highly dependent on the ability of reef-building organisms to build large, complex, three-dimensional structures that continue to accrete and evolve over time. The recent deterioration of reef health globally, including loss of coral cover, has resulted in significant declines in architectural complexity at a large, reef-scape scale. Interestingly, the fine-scale role of micro-structure in initiating and facilitating future reef development and calcium carbonate production has largely been overlooked. In this study, experimental substrates with and without micro-ridges were deployed in the lagoon at One Tree Island for 34 months. This study assessed how the presence or absence of micro-ridges promoted recruitment by key reef-building sclerobionts (corals and encrusters) and their subsequent development at micro (mm) and macro (cm) scales. Experimental plates were examined after 11 and 34 months to assess whether long-term successional and calcification processes on different micro-topographies led to convergent or divergent communities over time. Sclerobionts were most prevalent in micro-grooves when they were available. Interestingly, in shallow lagoon reef sites characterised by shoals of small parrotfish and low urchin abundance, flat substrates were also successfully recruited to. Mean rates of carbonate production were 374 ± 154 (SD) g CaCO3 m-2 yr-1 within the lagoon. Substrates with micro-ridges were characterised by significantly greater rates of carbonate production than smooth substrates. The orientation of the substrate and period of immersion also significantly impacted rates of carbonate production, with CaCO3 on cryptic tiles increasing by 28% between 11 and 34 months. In contrast, rates on exposed tiles declined by 35% over the same time. In conclusion, even at sites characterised by small-sized parrotfish and low urchin density, micro-topography is an important settlement niche clearly

  4. Comparative study of the requantization of the time-dependent mean field for the dynamics of nuclear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Fang; Nakatsukasa, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    To describe quantal collective phenomena, it is useful to requantize the time-dependent mean-field dynamics. We study the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory for the two-level pairing Hamiltonian, and compare results of different quantization methods. The one constructing microscopic wave functions, using the TDHFB trajectories fulfilling the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller quantization condition, turns out to be the most accurate. The method is based on the stationary-phase approximation to the path integral. We also examine the performance of the collective model which assumes that the pairing gap parameter is the collective coordinate. The applicability of the collective model is limited for the nuclear pairing with a small number of single-particle levels, because the pairing gap parameter represents only a half of the pairing collective space.

  5. Statistical properties of the anomalous scaling exponent estimator based on time-averaged mean-square displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Grzegorz; Teuerle, Marek; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Grebenkov, Denis

    2017-08-01

    The most common way of estimating the anomalous scaling exponent from single-particle trajectories consists of a linear fit of the dependence of the time-averaged mean-square displacement on the lag time at the log-log scale. We investigate the statistical properties of this estimator in the case of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We determine the mean value, the variance, and the distribution of the estimator. Our theoretical results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of long trajectories, the estimator is shown to be asymptotically unbiased, consistent, and with vanishing variance. These properties ensure an accurate estimation of the scaling exponent even from a single (long enough) trajectory. As a consequence, we prove that the usual way to estimate the diffusion exponent of FBM is correct from the statistical point of view. Moreover, the knowledge of the estimator distribution is the first step toward new statistical tests of FBM and toward a more reliable interpretation of the experimental histograms of scaling exponents in microbiology.

  6. Frequency-Locked Detector Threshold Setting Criteria Based on Mean-Time-To-Lose-Lock (MTLL) for GPS Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tian; Yuan, Heliang; Zhao, Na; Qin, Honglei; Sun, Kewen; Ji, Yuanfa

    2017-12-04

    Frequency-locked detector (FLD) has been widely utilized in tracking loops of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to indicate their locking status. The relation between FLD and lock status has been seldom discussed. The traditional PLL experience is not suitable for FLL. In this paper, the threshold setting criteria for frequency-locked detector in the GPS receiver has been proposed by analyzing statistical characteristic of FLD output. The approximate probability distribution of frequency-locked detector is theoretically derived by using a statistical approach, which reveals the relationship between probabilities of frequency-locked detector and the carrier-to-noise ratio ( C / N ₀) of the received GPS signal. The relationship among mean-time-to-lose-lock (MTLL), detection threshold and lock probability related to C / N ₀ can be further discovered by utilizing this probability. Therefore, a theoretical basis for threshold setting criteria in frequency locked loops for GPS receivers is provided based on mean-time-to-lose-lock analysis.

  7. LEP : four building blocks of matter ... times three Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The four building blocks of everyday matter form a family composed of the up-quark, the down-quark, the electron and the electron-neutrino. Similar particles, heavier but otherwise identical, are known to exist - grouped together in two further families. By measuring the number of neutrino types that exist, LEP has shown that there are no more fam-ilies of particles. Nature has chosen the number three. This is an intriguing result, and the reason why there are neither more nor fewer than three particle families is one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. One important consequence is that we exist. Had there been any fewer than three families of matter particles, the phenomenon known as CP violation - which led to matter dominating anti-matter in the early Universe - would not have occurred. All the matter and antimatter created in the Big Bang would have annihilated.

  8. Increasing part-time working hours in the Netherlands. Identifying policy recommendations through Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Fokkinga, B.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 73% of women and 19% of men working part-time,the Netherlands is known as the champion of part-time work. In order to increase especially the working hours of women with small part-time jobs (less than 20 hours per week) the Dutch government installed a thinktank of employers, employees

  9. Object-Based Classification of Grasslands from High Resolution Satellite Image Time Series Using Gaussian Mean Map Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailys Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the classification of grasslands using high resolution satellite image time series. Grasslands considered in this work are semi-natural elements in fragmented landscapes, i.e., they are heterogeneous and small elements. The first contribution of this study is to account for grassland heterogeneity while working at the object level by modeling its pixels distributions by a Gaussian distribution. To measure the similarity between two grasslands, a new kernel is proposed as a second contribution: the α -Gaussian mean kernel. It allows one to weight the influence of the covariance matrix when comparing two Gaussian distributions. This kernel is introduced in support vector machines for the supervised classification of grasslands from southwest France. A dense intra-annual multispectral time series of the Formosat-2 satellite is used for the classification of grasslands’ management practices, while an inter-annual NDVI time series of Formosat-2 is used for old and young grasslands’ discrimination. Results are compared to other existing pixel- and object-based approaches in terms of classification accuracy and processing time. The proposed method is shown to be a good compromise between processing speed and classification accuracy. It can adapt to the classification constraints, and it encompasses several similarity measures known in the literature. It is appropriate for the classification of small and heterogeneous objects such as grasslands.

  10. How does subsurface retain and release stored water? An explicit estimation of young water fraction and mean transit time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Ali; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    The stable isotopes of water have served science well as hydrological tracers which have demonstrated that there is often a large component of "old" water in stream runoff. It has been more problematic to define the full transit time distribution of that stream water. Non-linear mixing of previous precipitation signals that is stored for extended periods and slowly travel through the subsurface before reaching the stream results in a large range of possible transit times. It difficult to find tracers can represent this, especially if all that one has is data on the precipitation input and the stream runoff. In this paper, we explicitly characterize this "old water" displacement using a novel quasi-steady physically-based flow and transport model in the well-studied S-Transect hillslope in Sweden where the concentration of hydrological tracers in the subsurface and stream has been measured. We explore how subsurface conductivity profile impacts the characteristics of old water displacement, and then test these scenarios against the observed dynamics of conservative hydrological tracers in both the stream and subsurface. This work explores the efficiency of convolution-based approaches in the estimation of stream "young water" fraction and time-variant mean transit times. We also suggest how celerity and velocity differ with landscape structure

  11. Time to reach tacrolimus maximum blood concentration,mean residence time, and acute renal allograft rejection: an open-label, prospective, pharmacokinetic study in adult recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Dirk R J; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2004-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether disposition-related pharmacokinetic parameters such as T(max) and mean residence time (MRT) could be used as predictors of clinical efficacy of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients, and to what extent these parameters would be influenced by clinical variables. We previously demonstrated, in a prospective pharmacokinetic study in de novo renal allograft recipients, that patients who experienced early acute rejection did not differ from patients free from rejection in terms of tacrolimus pharmacokinetic exposure parameters (dose interval AUC, preadministration trough blood concentration, C(max), dose). However, recipients with acute rejection reached mean (SD) tacrolimus T(max) significantly faster than those who were free from rejection (0.96 [0.56] hour vs 1.77 [1.06] hours; P clearance nor T(1/2) could explain this unusual finding, we used data from the previous study to calculate MRT from the concentration-time curves. As part of the previous study, 100 patients (59 male, 41 female; mean [SD] age, 51.4 [13.8] years;age range, 20-75 years) were enrolled in the study The calculated MRT was significantly shorter in recipients with acute allograft rejection (11.32 [031] hours vs 11.52 [028] hours; P = 0.02), just like T(max) was an independent risk factor for acute rejection in a multivariate logistic regression model (odds ratio, 0.092 [95% CI, 0.014-0.629]; P = 0.01). Analyzing the impact of demographic, transplantation-related, and biochemical variables on MRT, we found that increasing serum albumin and hematocrit concentrations were associated with a prolonged MRT (P calculated MRT were associated with a higher incidence of early acute graft rejection. These findings suggest that a shorter transit time of tacrolimus in certain tissue compartments, rather than failure to obtain a maximum absolute tacrolimus blood concentration, might lead to inadequate immunosuppression early after transplantation.

  12. A flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival times for censored time-to-event data in randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Miki; Cronin, Angel M; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Hajime

    2018-04-22

    In randomized clinical trials where time-to-event is the primary outcome, almost routinely, the logrank test is prespecified as the primary test and the hazard ratio is used to quantify treatment effect. If the ratio of 2 hazard functions is not constant, the logrank test is not optimal and the interpretation of hazard ratio is not obvious. When such a nonproportional hazards case is expected at the design stage, the conventional practice is to prespecify another member of weighted logrank tests, eg, Peto-Prentice-Wilcoxon test. Alternatively, one may specify a robust test as the primary test, which can capture various patterns of difference between 2 event time distributions. However, most of those tests do not have companion procedures to quantify the treatment difference, and investigators have fallen back on reporting treatment effect estimates not associated with the primary test. Such incoherence in the "test/estimation" procedure may potentially mislead clinicians/patients who have to balance risk-benefit for treatment decision. To address this, we propose a flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival time, where the truncation time τ is selected data dependently. The proposed procedure is composed of a prespecified test and an estimation of corresponding robust and interpretable quantitative treatment effect. The utility of the new procedure is demonstrated by numerical studies based on 2 randomized cancer clinical trials; the test is dramatically more powerful than the logrank, Wilcoxon tests, and the restricted mean survival time-based test with a fixed τ, for the patterns of difference seen in these cancer clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Modelling mean transit time of stream base flow during tropical cyclone rainstorm in a steep relief forested catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yi; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.

    2017-04-01

    Mean transit time (MTT) is one of the of fundamental catchment descriptors to advance understanding on hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes and improve water resources management. However, there were few documented the base flow partitioning (BFP) and mean transit time within a mountainous catchment in typhoon alley. We used a unique data set of 18O isotope and conductivity composition of rainfall (136 mm to 778 mm) and streamflow water samples collected for 14 tropical cyclone events (during 2011 to 2015) in a steep relief forested catchment (Pinglin, in northern Taiwan). A lumped hydrological model, HBV, considering dispersion model transit time distribution was used to estimate total flow, base flow, and MTT of stream base flow. Linear regression between MTT and hydrometric (precipitation intensity and antecedent precipitation index) variables were used to explore controls on MTT variation. Results revealed that both the simulation performance of total flow and base flow were satisfactory, and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of total flow and base flow was 0.848 and 0.732, respectively. The event magnitude increased with the decrease of estimated MTTs. Meanwhile, the estimated MTTs varied 4-21 days with the increase of BFP between 63-92%. The negative correlation between event magnitude and MTT and BFP showed the forcing controls the MTT and BFP. Besides, a negative relationship between MTT and the antecedent precipitation index was also found. In other words, wetter antecedent moisture content more rapidly active the fast flow paths. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of high precipitation intensity and steep relief forested environments.

  14. Characterization of the Gacka River basin karst aquifer (Croatia): Hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium-based mean residence times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozyurt, Nur N. [Department of Geological Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Lutz, Hans O. [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, Rijeka University, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Hunjak, Tamara; Mance, Diana [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, Rijeka University, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana, E-mail: roller@medri.uniri.hr [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, Rijeka University, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2014-07-01

    The Gacka River basin aquifer is a highly-developed karst system, located in the Croatian Dinarides. It is mostly composed of permeable Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks, and clastic sedimentary rocks of Paleogene age. Gacka River provides high quality water for the town of Otočac and several villages; together with the neighboring Lika River, the water is used for the Hydroelectric Power Plant at Senj on the coast. About 10 perennial and over 20 seasonal springs are located at 450 to 460 m a.s.l. (above sea level). Three major springs (Pećina, Majerovo and Tonkovića) provide 57% of the mean annual river flow. Similarities between the average groundwater temperatures as well as between the average specific electrical conductivity values (9.0 °C-328 μS/cm, 9.6 °C-350 μS/cm and 8.9 °C-312 μS/cm) of the springs imply that they are fed from aquifers with similar mean residence times (MRTs). The mean δ{sup 18}O contents of Majerovo, Tonkovića, and Pećina are around − 10.1‰, − 9.2‰ and − 8.9‰, respectively, revealing differences in the mean recharge area elevations. Compared to the temporal amplitude of the{sup 18}O signal of precipitation, the {sup 18}O signal variations of the springs are substantially attenuated because the recharges occurring at different times are well mixed within the aquifers. This indicates MRTs of more than just a few years. The average tritium contents of Pećina, Majerovo and Tonkovića are 5.48 TU, 6.13 TU and 6.17 TU, respectively. Serially connected exponential-plug type unsteady lumped-parameter models run on an annual time scale resulted in rather satisfactory matches between the observed and calculated tritium contents for all studied springs. The models revealed similar MRTs (and corresponding reservoir volumes) for Pećina, Tonkovića and Majerovo of 12 years (470 Mm{sup 3}), 12 years (1190 Mm{sup 3}), and 12.2 years (1210 Mm{sup 3}), respectively. Plug flow conditions dominate in about 90% of the total

  15. Towards Efficient Energy Management of Smart Buildings Exploiting Heuristic Optimization with Real Time and Critical Peak Pricing Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheraz Aslam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid plays a vital role in decreasing electricity cost through Demand Side Management (DSM. Smart homes, a part of the smart grid, contribute greatly to minimizing electricity consumption cost via scheduling home appliances. However, user waiting time increases due to the scheduling of home appliances. This scheduling problem is the motivation to find an optimal solution that could minimize the electricity cost and Peak to Average Ratio (PAR with minimum user waiting time. There are many studies on Home Energy Management (HEM for cost minimization and peak load reduction. However, none of the systems gave sufficient attention to tackle multiple parameters (i.e., electricity cost and peak load reduction at the same time as user waiting time was minimum for residential consumers with multiple homes. Hence, in this work, we propose an efficient HEM scheme using the well-known meta-heuristic Genetic Algorithm (GA, the recently developed Cuckoo Search Optimization Algorithm (CSOA and the Crow Search Algorithm (CSA, which can be used for electricity cost and peak load alleviation with minimum user waiting time. The integration of a smart Electricity Storage System (ESS is also taken into account for more efficient operation of the Home Energy Management System (HEMS. Furthermore, we took the real-time electricity consumption pattern for every residence, i.e., every home has its own living pattern. The proposed scheme is implemented in a smart building; comprised of thirty smart homes (apartments, Real-Time Pricing (RTP and Critical Peak Pricing (CPP signals are examined in terms of electricity cost estimation for both a single smart home and a smart building. In addition, feasible regions are presented for single and multiple smart homes, which show the relationship among the electricity cost, electricity consumption and user waiting time. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme for single and multiple smart

  16. Stabilizing the long-time behavior of the forced Navier-Stokes and damped Euler systems by large mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranka, Jacek; Mucha, Piotr B.; Titi, Edriss S.; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    The paper studies the issue of stability of solutions to the forced Navier-Stokes and damped Euler systems in periodic boxes. It is shown that for large, but fixed, Grashoff (Reynolds) number the turbulent behavior of all Leray-Hopf weak solutions of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, in periodic box, is suppressed, when viewed in the right frame of reference, by large enough average flow of the initial data; a phenomenon that is similar in spirit to the Landau damping. Specifically, we consider an initial data which have large enough spatial average, then by means of the Galilean transformation, and thanks to the periodic boundary conditions, the large time independent forcing term changes into a highly oscillatory force; which then allows us to employ some averaging principles to establish our result. Moreover, we also show that under the action of fast oscillatory-in-time external forces all two-dimensional regular solutions of the Navier-Stokes and the damped Euler equations converge to a unique time-periodic solution.

  17. Aggregation effects on tritium-based mean transit times and young water fractions in spatially heterogeneous catchments and groundwater systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Stewart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirchner (2016a demonstrated that aggregation errors due to spatial heterogeneity, represented by two homogeneous subcatchments, could cause severe underestimation of the mean transit times (MTTs of water travelling through catchments when simple lumped parameter models were applied to interpret seasonal tracer cycle data. Here we examine the effects of such errors on the MTTs and young water fractions estimated using tritium concentrations in two-part hydrological systems. We find that MTTs derived from tritium concentrations in streamflow are just as susceptible to aggregation bias as those from seasonal tracer cycles. Likewise, groundwater wells or springs fed by two or more water sources with different MTTs will also have aggregation bias. However, the transit times over which the biases are manifested are different because the two methods are applicable over different time ranges, up to 5 years for seasonal tracer cycles and up to 200 years for tritium concentrations. Our virtual experiments with two water components show that the aggregation errors are larger when the MTT differences between the components are larger and the amounts of the components are each close to 50 % of the mixture. We also find that young water fractions derived from tritium (based on a young water threshold of 18 years are almost immune to aggregation errors as were those derived from seasonal tracer cycles with a threshold of about 2 months.

  18. Aggregation effects on tritium-based mean transit times and young water fractions in spatially heterogeneous catchments and groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael K.; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gusyev, Maksym A.; Małoszewski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    Kirchner (2016a) demonstrated that aggregation errors due to spatial heterogeneity, represented by two homogeneous subcatchments, could cause severe underestimation of the mean transit times (MTTs) of water travelling through catchments when simple lumped parameter models were applied to interpret seasonal tracer cycle data. Here we examine the effects of such errors on the MTTs and young water fractions estimated using tritium concentrations in two-part hydrological systems. We find that MTTs derived from tritium concentrations in streamflow are just as susceptible to aggregation bias as those from seasonal tracer cycles. Likewise, groundwater wells or springs fed by two or more water sources with different MTTs will also have aggregation bias. However, the transit times over which the biases are manifested are different because the two methods are applicable over different time ranges, up to 5 years for seasonal tracer cycles and up to 200 years for tritium concentrations. Our virtual experiments with two water components show that the aggregation errors are larger when the MTT differences between the components are larger and the amounts of the components are each close to 50 % of the mixture. We also find that young water fractions derived from tritium (based on a young water threshold of 18 years) are almost immune to aggregation errors as were those derived from seasonal tracer cycles with a threshold of about 2 months.

  19. Simulation of Time-Varying Spatially Uniform Pressure and Near-Surface Wind Flows on Building Components and Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraphy Y. Shen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new full-scale (FS testing apparatus for conducting performance evaluations of FS building envelope systems. The simulator can generate spatially uniform, time-varying pressure conditions associated with Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale Category 5 winds while compensating for large air leakage through the specimen and also operate a high-speed wind tunnel, both with dynamic control. This paper presents system details, operating characteristics, and an early case study on the performance of large sectional door systems under wind pressure loading. Failure mechanisms are discussed, and finite element modeling is validated for two specimens. It demonstrates successful dynamic load control for large component and cladding systems, as well as simulation of flows near the building surface. These capabilities serve to complement other FS wind tunnel facilities by offering tools to generate ultimate load conditions on portions of the building. Further, the paper successfully demonstrates the utility of combining physical testing and computational analysis as a matter of routine, which underscores the potential of evolving FS testing to encompass cyber–physical approaches.

  20. Big Data Challenges of High-Dimensional Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection and a Remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei Choi; Pun, Chi Seng; Wong, Hoi Ying

    2017-08-01

    Investors interested in the global financial market must analyze financial securities internationally. Making an optimal global investment decision involves processing a huge amount of data for a high-dimensional portfolio. This article investigates the big data challenges of two mean-variance optimal portfolios: continuous-time precommitment and constant-rebalancing strategies. We show that both optimized portfolios implemented with the traditional sample estimates converge to the worst performing portfolio when the portfolio size becomes large. The crux of the problem is the estimation error accumulated from the huge dimension of stock data. We then propose a linear programming optimal (LPO) portfolio framework, which applies a constrained ℓ 1 minimization to the theoretical optimal control to mitigate the risk associated with the dimensionality issue. The resulting portfolio becomes a sparse portfolio that selects stocks with a data-driven procedure and hence offers a stable mean-variance portfolio in practice. When the number of observations becomes large, the LPO portfolio converges to the oracle optimal portfolio, which is free of estimation error, even though the number of stocks grows faster than the number of observations. Our numerical and empirical studies demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. The mean first passage time in an energy-diffusion controlled regime with power-law distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yanjun; Du, Jiulin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the mean first passage time (MFPT) theory, we derive an expression of the MFPT in an energy-diffusion controlled regime with a power-law distribution. We discuss the finite barrier effect (i.e. the thermal energy k B T is not small with respect to the potential barrier E b ) and compare it with Kramers’ infinite barrier result both in a power-law distribution and in a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. It is shown that the MFPT with a power-law distribution extends Kramers’ low-damping result to a relatively low barrier. We pay attention to the energy-diffusion controlled regime, which is of great interest in the context of Josephson junctions, and study how the power-law parameter κ affects the current distribution function in experiments with Josephson junctions. (paper)

  2. Convex Programming and Bootstrap Sensitivity for Optimized Electricity Bill in Healthcare Buildings under a Time-Of-Use Pricing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gordillo-Orquera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient energy management is strongly dependent on determining the adequate power contracts among the ones offered by different electricity suppliers. This topic takes special relevance in healthcare buildings, where noticeable amounts of energy are required to generate an adequate health environment for patients and staff. In this paper, a convex optimization method is scrutinized to give a straightforward analysis of the optimal power levels to be contracted while minimizing the electricity bill cost in a time-of-use pricing scheme. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the constraints in the optimization problems, which are analyzed in terms of both their empirical distribution and their bootstrap-estimated statistical distributions to create a simple-to-use tool for this purpose, the so-called mosaic-distribution. The evaluation of the proposed method was carried out with five-year consumption data on two different kinds of healthcare buildings, a large one given by Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, and a primary care center, Centro de Especialidades el Arroyo, both located at Fuenlabrada (Madrid, Spain. The analysis of the resulting optimization shows that the annual savings achieved vary moderately, ranging from −0.22 % to +27.39%, depending on the analyzed year profile and the healthcare building type. The analysis introducing mosaic-distribution to represent the sensitivity score also provides operative information to evaluate the convenience of implementing energy saving measures. All this information is useful for managers to determine the appropriate power levels for next year contract renewal and to consider whether to implement demand response mechanisms in healthcare buildings.

  3. Clinical assessment of mean washout time and lung functional image by ventilatory steady state measurement with /sup 133/Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K; Hasegawa, T; Watanabe, H; Hasegawa, S; Oshima, M [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1981-04-01

    Ventilatory steady state measurement with /sup 133/Xe, using Ventil-Con (Radx) and a large area scintillation camera (Searle, LFOV) combined with a mini-computer system (Shimadzu, Scintipac 230) was employed to evaluate regional pulmonary function of 94 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), fibrosis, carcinoma and other lung diseases. In the patients with COLD, mean washout times (anti t) were markedly prolonged in whole lung fields (anti m 130 +- 33 sec.) and ventilation indices (V*/V) (*: radical) and perfusion indices (Q*/V) (*: radical) were reduced in regional zones, especially in bilateral lower lung zones. For the patients with lung fibrosis, anti t values were short and the distribution of ventilation indices were uniform, and in contrast perfusion indices were reduced in the lower lung fields. In the area most affected by carcinoma, lung volumes (V) were reduced in parallel with the regional ventilation (V*) (*: radical) and perfusion (Q*) (*: radical). As the tumor approached the hilum, the relative ventilation and perfusion of cancerous side decreased remarkably in patients with obstructive findings on bronchoscopy. The mean washout times (anti t) for /sup 133/Xe, calculated by a modified height over area method without background subtraction, were significantly longer than indicated by the data yielded by the least squares curve fitting of initial washout curve after background subtraction. Although the accuracy of these data was limited, it appeared that the prolonged anti t is a good parameter of regional ventilatory disturbance because significant correlations were found between the whole lung anti t in patients with lung diseases and their FEV 1.0% r = -0.66, RV/TLC r = 0.64, % TLC r = 0.43, PaCO/sub 2/ r = 0.41, PaO/sub 2/ r = -0.35.

  4. Predicting the mean cycle time as a function of throughput and product mix for cluster tool workstations using EPT-based aggregate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, C.P.L.; Etman, L.F.P.; Herk, van J.; Rooda, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the mean cycle time as a function of throughput and product mix is helpful in making the production planning for cluster tools. To predict the mean cycle time, detailed simulation models may be used. However, detailed models require much development time, and it may not be possible to

  5. Ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter for linear time-dependent PDEs with noisy boundary conditions: Application to heat transfer in building walls

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco

    2017-11-26

    In this work, we present the ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter (EnMKF), a sequential algorithm analogous to our previously proposed approach [1,2], for estimating the state and parameters of linear parabolic partial differential equations in initial-boundary value problems when the boundary data are noisy. We apply EnMKF to infer the thermal properties of building walls and to estimate the corresponding heat flux from real and synthetic data. Compared with a modified Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that is not marginalized, EnMKF reduces the bias error, avoids the collapse of the ensemble without needing to add inflation, and converges to the mean field posterior using $50\\\\%$ or less of the ensemble size required by EnKF. According to our results, the marginalization technique in EnMKF is key to performance improvement with smaller ensembles at any fixed time.

  6. Breast cancer with low FDG uptake: Characterization by means of dual-time point FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytoon, Ashraf Anas; Murakami, Koji; El-Kholy, Mohamed Ramdan; El-Shorbagy, Emad; Ebied, Osama

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malignant breast lesions usually are differentiated by FDG-PET with a semiquantitative FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5. However, the frequency of breast cancer with an SUV of less than or equal to 2.5 is noteworthy, and often present diagnostic challenges. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of dual-time point FDG-PET/CT with FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) calculation in the characterization of such breast tumors. Methods: Forty-nine female patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were found to have primary breast cancer with minimally increased FDG uptake and met the criteria for inclusion in this study by having borderline levels of increased FDG uptake (SUVmax less than or equal to 2.5) in the initial FDG-PET/CT images. Consequently, they underwent further delayed phase FDG-PET/CT scan for better evaluation of the disease. Results: Of the 49 cancer lesions; the majority were found to have rising or unvarying dual-time changes in SUVmax (75.5%). The median value of SUVmax increases by 25% between the early and delayed scan. The means ± S.D. of the SUVmax1, the SUVmax2, and the ΔSUVmax% were 1.2 ± 0.6%, 1.3 ± 0.9%, and 5.1 ± 22.4%, respectively. The receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis proved that the highest accuracy for characterization of malignant breast lesions was obtained when a ΔSUVmax% cut-off value 0.0% was used as criteria for malignant FDG uptake-change over time with sensitivity 75.5%, and false-positive rate 20.4%. Conclusion: These results suggested that dual-time FDG-PET/CT imaging with standardized uptake value (SUV) estimation can improve the accuracy of the test in the evaluation of breast cancer with low FDG uptake.

  7. Reliability of perfusion MR imaging in symptomatic carotid occlusive disease. Cerebral blood volume, mean transit time and time-to-peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Lee, E.J.; Lee, S.J.; Choi, N.C.; Lim, B.H.; Shin, T.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Perfusion MR imaging offers an easy quantitative evaluation of relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV), relative mean transit time (rMTT) and time-to-peak (TTP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of these parameters in assessing the hemodynamic disturbance of carotid occlusive disease in comparison with normative data. Material and Methods: Dynamic contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion MR imaging was performed in 19 patients with symptomatic unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and 20 control subjects. The three parameters were calculated from the concentration-time curve fitted by gamma-variate function. Lesion-to-contralateral ratios of each parameter were compared between patients and control subjects. Results: Mean±SD of rrCBV, rMTT and TTP ratios of patients were 1.089±0.118, 1.054±0.031 and 1.062±0.039, respectively, and those of control subjects were 1.002±0.045, 1.000±0.006, 1.001±0.006, respectively. The rMTT and TTP ratios of all patients were greater than 2SDs of control data, whereas in only 6 patients (32%), rrCBV ratios were greater than 2SDs of control data. The three parameter ratios of the patients were significantly high compared with those of control subjects, respectively (p<0.01 for rrCBV ratios, p<0.0001 for rMTT ratios, and p<0.0001 for TTP ratios). Conclusion: Our results indicate that rMTT and TTP of patients, in contrast to rrCBV, are distributed in narrow ranges minimally overlapped with control data. The rMTT and TTP could be more reliable parameters than rrCBV in assessing the hemodynamic disturbance in carotid occlusive disease

  8. Utilizing Response to Intervention (RtI) as a Means of Studying Capacity Building and Motivation of Staff by School Leadership Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    This research study explored the concept of capacity building and motivation of staff by school leadership teams in the successful development and implementation of educational initiatives, specifically Response to Intervention (RtI). A great deal of scholarship has addressed leadership and its effect on motivation, but few studies have…

  9. On Building a Scalable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant System for Embedded Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdelzaher, T

    2001-01-01

    .... This raises the challenge of constructing dependable and predictable real-time services for application developers on top of the inexpensive hardware and software components which has minimal support...

  10. Influence of Pressure Build-Up Time of Compression Chamber on Improving the Operation Frequency of a Single-Piston Hydraulic Free-Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bo Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-piston hydraulic free-piston engine with a two-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine as its driver is introduced. It takes the free-piston assembly a certain time to move after the pressure in the compression chamber starts to increase. The time difference between the pressure increasing and the piston starting to move is defined as the pressure build-up time. The characteristics of the pressure build-up time and its influence on the performance of the free-piston engine are introduced and analyzed. Based on the basic law of dynamics of the free-piston assembly, the parameters which influence the pressure build-up time are analyzed. And then improvement and optimization are proposed to shorten the pressure build-up time.

  11. Landuse effects on runoff generating processes in tussock grassland indicated by mean transit time estimation using tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M. K.; Fahey, B. D.

    2010-02-01

    The east Otago uplands of New Zealand's South Island have long been studied because of the environmental consequences of converting native tussock grasslands to other land covers, notably forestry and pasture for stock grazing. Early studies showed that afforestation substantially reduced annual water yield, stream peak flows, and 7-day low flows, mainly as a consequence of increased interception. Tritium measurements have indicated that surprisingly old water is present in catchments GH1 and GH2, and the small headwater wetland and catchment (GH5). The old water contributes strongly to baseflow (and therefore also to quickflow). The data have been simulated assuming the presence of two types of water in the baseflow, young water from shallow aquifers connecting hillside regolith with the stream, and old water from deep bedrock aquifers, respectively. The mean transit time of the young water is of the order of months, while that of the old water is 25-26 years as revealed by the presence of tritium originating from the bomb-peak in NZ rainfall in late 1960s and early 1970s. Such a long transit time indicates slow release from groundwater reservoirs within the bedrock, which constitute by far the larger of the water stores. Comparison of the results from catchments GH1 (tussock) and GH2 (pine forest) suggests that about equal quantities of water (85 mm annually) are contributed from the deep aquifers in the two catchments, although runoff from the shallow aquifers has been strongly reduced by afforestation in GH2.

  12. Runoff generating processes in adjacent tussock grassland and pine plantation catchments as indicated by mean transit time estimation using tritium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Stewart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The east Otago uplands of New Zealand's South Island have long been studied because of the environmental consequences of converting native tussock grasslands to other land covers, notably forestry and pasture for stock grazing. Early studies showed that afforestation substantially reduced annual water yield, stream peak flows, and 7-day low flows, mainly as a consequence of increased interception. Tritium measurements have indicated that surprisingly old water is present in catchments GH1 and GH2, and the small headwater wetland and catchment (GH5, and contributes strongly to baseflow. The data have been simulated assuming the presence of two types of water in the baseflow, young water from shallow aquifers connecting hillside regolith with the stream, and old water from deep bedrock aquifers, respectively. The mean transit time of the young water is approximately one month, while that of the old water is 25–26 years as revealed by the presence of tritium originating from the bomb-peak in NZ rainfall in late 1960s and early 1970s. Such a long transit time indicates slow release from groundwater reservoirs within the bedrock, which constitute by far the larger of the water stores. Comparison of the results from catchments GH1 (tussock and GH2 (pine forest suggests that about equal quantities of water (85 mm/a are contributed from the deep aquifers in the two catchments, although runoff from the shallow aquifers has been strongly reduced by afforestation in GH2. This study has revealed the presence of a long transit time component of water in runoff in a catchment with crystalline metamorphic bedrock.

  13. Runoff generating processes in adjacent tussock grassland and pine plantation catchments as indicated by mean transit time estimation using tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M. K.; Fahey, B. D.

    2010-06-01

    The east Otago uplands of New Zealand's South Island have long been studied because of the environmental consequences of converting native tussock grasslands to other land covers, notably forestry and pasture for stock grazing. Early studies showed that afforestation substantially reduced annual water yield, stream peak flows, and 7-day low flows, mainly as a consequence of increased interception. Tritium measurements have indicated that surprisingly old water is present in catchments GH1 and GH2, and the small headwater wetland and catchment (GH5), and contributes strongly to baseflow. The data have been simulated assuming the presence of two types of water in the baseflow, young water from shallow aquifers connecting hillside regolith with the stream, and old water from deep bedrock aquifers, respectively. The mean transit time of the young water is approximately one month, while that of the old water is 25-26 years as revealed by the presence of tritium originating from the bomb-peak in NZ rainfall in late 1960s and early 1970s. Such a long transit time indicates slow release from groundwater reservoirs within the bedrock, which constitute by far the larger of the water stores. Comparison of the results from catchments GH1 (tussock) and GH2 (pine forest) suggests that about equal quantities of water (85 mm/a) are contributed from the deep aquifers in the two catchments, although runoff from the shallow aquifers has been strongly reduced by afforestation in GH2. This study has revealed the presence of a long transit time component of water in runoff in a catchment with crystalline metamorphic bedrock.

  14. A Time and Place for Everything: Developmental Differences in the Building Blocks of Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joshua K.; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A.; Ghetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated whether episodic memory development can be explained by improvements in relational binding processes, involved in forming novel associations between events and the context in which they occurred. Memory for item-space, item-time, and item-item relations was assessed in an ethnically diverse sample of 151 children aged…

  15. To Build Proportions in Time, or Tie Knots in Space? A Reassessment of the Renaissance Turn in Architectural Proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Trachtenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Alberti, and most critically since Wittkower’s 'Architectural Principles', architectural theory has tended to construe ‘proportions’ in plenary, static terms. The dimension of time and change that relentlessly affects all human endeavor is not accommodated by the celebrated Albertian ideal of immutable design perfection, so perfect in all respects that once attained ‘nothing can be added, taken away, or altered, but for the worse’. This article, drawing on the author’s recent book, 'Building-in-Time from Giotto to Alberti and Modern Oblivion' (Yale, 2010, outlines the antithetical, dynamic proportional methodology of the pre-Albertian architectural regime. Its point of departure was the author’s concept of durational aesthetics, according to which perfected architectural form is produced by a process of incessant revision. What distinguished this process from related ancient or neo-antique doctrines was above all its dynamic modality and participation in the fluid orientation and processes of ‘building-in-time’.

  16. Strategies for energy saving in buildings by means of automatic control; Estrategias de ahorro de energia en inmuebles mediante el control automatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Trujillo, Oscar [Johnson Controls de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper some of the measures and strategies for energy saving that can be applied in different types of buildings, mainly in hotels and office buildings, are presented. The proposed actions are accomplished with the aid of the automatic control equipment and the operation and/or maintenance personnel that supervises and establishes the control parameters of each one of the strategies than are focused to the appropriate utilization of the electric energy. [Espanol] En este documento se presentan algunas de las medidas y estrategias de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en diferentes tipos de inmuebles, principalmente en hoteles y en edificios de oficinas. Las acciones propuestas son realizadas con la ayuda del equipo de control automatico y del personal de operacion y/o mantenimiento quien supervisa y establece los parametros de control de cada una de las estrategias que son destinadas a la buena utilizacion de la energia electrica.

  17. Strategies for energy saving in buildings by means of automatic control; Estrategias de ahorro de energia en inmuebles mediante el control automatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Trujillo, Oscar [Johnson Controls de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper some of the measures and strategies for energy saving that can be applied in different types of buildings, mainly in hotels and office buildings, are presented. The proposed actions are accomplished with the aid of the automatic control equipment and the operation and/or maintenance personnel that supervises and establishes the control parameters of each one of the strategies than are focused to the appropriate utilization of the electric energy. [Espanol] En este documento se presentan algunas de las medidas y estrategias de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en diferentes tipos de inmuebles, principalmente en hoteles y en edificios de oficinas. Las acciones propuestas son realizadas con la ayuda del equipo de control automatico y del personal de operacion y/o mantenimiento quien supervisa y establece los parametros de control de cada una de las estrategias que son destinadas a la buena utilizacion de la energia electrica.

  18. Net-zero Building Cluster Simulations and On-line Energy Forecasting for Adaptive and Real-Time Control and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiwang

    Buildings consume about 41.1% of primary energy and 74% of the electricity in the U.S. Moreover, it is estimated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory that more than 1/4 of the 713 GW of U.S. electricity demand in 2010 could be dispatchable if only buildings could respond to that dispatch through advanced building energy control and operation strategies and smart grid infrastructure. In this study, it is envisioned that neighboring buildings will have the tendency to form a cluster, an open cyber-physical system to exploit the economic opportunities provided by a smart grid, distributed power generation, and storage devices. Through optimized demand management, these building clusters will then reduce overall primary energy consumption and peak time electricity consumption, and be more resilient to power disruptions. Therefore, this project seeks to develop a Net-zero building cluster simulation testbed and high fidelity energy forecasting models for adaptive and real-time control and decision making strategy development that can be used in a Net-zero building cluster. The following research activities are summarized in this thesis: 1) Development of a building cluster emulator for building cluster control and operation strategy assessment. 2) Development of a novel building energy forecasting methodology using active system identification and data fusion techniques. In this methodology, a systematic approach for building energy system characteristic evaluation, system excitation and model adaptation is included. The developed methodology is compared with other literature-reported building energy forecasting methods; 3) Development of the high fidelity on-line building cluster energy forecasting models, which includes energy forecasting models for buildings, PV panels, batteries and ice tank thermal storage systems 4) Small scale real building validation study to verify the performance of the developed building energy forecasting methodology. The outcomes of

  19. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM 2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM 2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI 2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI 2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R 2 = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R 2 = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R 2 = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R 2 = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties. This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the northeastern United States and compared performance of those instruments. The data show that while the use of real-time

  20. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. Volume 1: Report on the preparation of a planning tool by means of consensus-building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the Cumulative Effect of Wind Turbines project which sought to develop guidance on planning and assessing the combined effects of wind energy developments in an area. Details are given of the consensus-building approach, the call for contributions, stakeholder workshops and consultation, the project research, the development and refinement of the guidance, and the completion of the final draft.

  1. Building a satellite climate diagnostics data base for real-time climate monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropelewski, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of a data base, the Satellite Climate Diagnostic Data Base (SCDDB), for real time operational climate monitoring utilizing current satellite data. Special attention is given to the satellite-derived quantities useful for monitoring global climate changes, the requirements of SCDDB, and the use of conventional meteorological data and model assimilated data in developing the SCDDB. Examples of prototype SCDDB products are presented. 10 refs

  2. Preliminary assessment, by means of Radon exhalation rate measurements, of the bio-sustainability of microwave treatment to eliminate biodeteriogens infesting stone walls of monumental historical buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, S.; Caliendo, E.; Guida, M.; Bisceglia, B.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of the work described in this paper has been to establish the protocol for a new non-disruptive technique of intervention, based on microwave treatment, for cleaning operations on monumental historical buildings, to eliminate biodeteriogens infesting stones. Non-destructive methods in the cleaning operations, should not only preserve the physical integrity, the chemical-mineralogical and structural identity of materials, but, when the exhalation of pollutant agents (like for example Radon gas) from building materials is considered, also, make the indoor air quality (IAQ) levels healthy. Therefore, one of the main steps of the protocol proposed in this paper is concerned with the assessment of the Radon exhalation rate in order to verify that microwave treatments do not increase the Radon naturally exhalated by building materials. In this paper, the preliminary results of the Radon measurements performed on two different type of tuff samples (grey tuff and yellow tuff), typical of the Italian traditional construction heritage, with the E-PERM passive technique at the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (Amb.Ra.), University of Salerno, Italy, ISO 9001:2008 certified, are summarized.

  3. Decreasing Histology Turnaround Time Through Stepwise Innovation and Capacity Building in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspard Muvugabigwi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Minimal turnaround time for pathology results is crucial for highest-quality patient care in all settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries, where rural populations may have limited access to health care. Methods: We retrospectively determined the turnaround times (TATs for anatomic pathology specimens, comparing three different modes of operation that occurred throughout the development and implementation of our pathology laboratory at the Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence in Rwanda. Before opening this laboratory, TAT was measured in months because of inconsistent laboratory operations and a paucity of in-country pathologists. Results: We analyzed 2,514 individual patient samples across the three modes of study. Diagnostic mode 1 (samples sent out of the country for analysis had the highest median TAT, with an overall time of 30 days (interquartile range [IQR], 22 to 43 days. For diagnostic mode 2 (static image telepathology, the median TAT was 14 days (IQR, 7 to 27 days, and for diagnostic mode 3 (onsite expert diagnosis, it was 5 days (IQR, 2 to 9 days. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that telepathology is a significant improvement over external expert review and can greatly assist sites in improving their TATs until pathologists are on site.

  4. Estimation of non-linear continuous time models for the heat exchange dynamics of building integrated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on a method for linear or non-linear continuous time modelling of physical systems using discrete time data. This approach facilitates a more appropriate modelling of more realistic non-linear systems. Particularly concerning advanced building components, convective and radiati...... that a description of the non-linear heat transfer is essential. The resulting model is a non-linear first order stochastic differential equation for the heat transfer of the PV component....... heat interchanges are non-linear effects and represent significant contributions in a variety of components such as photovoltaic integrated facades or roofs and those using these effects as passive cooling strategies, etc. Since models are approximations of the physical system and data is encumbered...

  5. The association between neurological deficit in acute ischemic stroke and mean transit time. Comparison of four different perfusion MRI algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellinger, Peter D.; Latour, Lawrence L.; Chalela, Julio A.; Warach, Steven; Wu, Chen-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the perfusion MRI (pMRI) algorithm which yields a volume of hypoperfused tissue that best correlates with the acute clinical deficit as quantified by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and therefore reflects critically hypoperfused tissue. A group of 20 patients with a first acute stroke and stroke MRI within 24 h of symptom onset were retrospectively analyzed. Perfusion maps were derived using four different algorithms to estimate relative mean transit time (rMTT): (1) cerebral blood flow (CBF) arterial input function (AIF)/singular voxel decomposition (SVD); (2) area peak; (3) time to peak (TTP); and (4) first moment method. Lesion volumes based on five different MTT thresholds relative to contralateral brain were compared with each other and correlated with NIHSS score. The first moment method had the highest correlation with NIHSS (r=0.79, P<0.001) followed by the AIF/SVD method, both of which did not differ significantly from each other with regard to lesion volumes. TTP and area peak derived both volumes, which correlated poorly or only moderately with NIHSS scores. Data from our pilot study suggest that the first moment and the AIF/SVD method have advantages over the other algorithms in identifying the pMRI lesion volume that best reflects clinical severity. At present there seems to be no need for extensive postprocessing and arbitrarily defined delay thresholds in pMRI as the simple qualitative approach with a first moment algorithm is equally accurate. Larger sample sizes which allow comparison between imaging and clinical outcomes are needed to refine the choice of best perfusion parameter in pMRI. (orig.)

  6. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Using stable isotopes to estimate and compare mean residence times in contrasting geologic catchments (Attert River, NW Luxembourg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Fenicia, F.; Frentress, J.; Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, stable isotopes have been increasingly used to characterize important aspects of catchment hydrological functioning, such as water storage dynamics, flow pathways and water sources. These characteristics are often synthesized by the Mean Residence Time (MRT), which is a simple catchment descriptor that employ the relation of distinct stable isotopic signatures in the rainfall input and streamflow output of a catchment that are significantly dampened through sub-surface propagation. In this preliminary study, MRT was estimated in the Attert River catchment (NW Luxembourg), where previous studies have shown that lithology exerts a major control on runoff generation. The Attert catchment lies at the transition zone of contrasting bedrock lithology: the Northern part is characterized by Devonian schist of the Ardennes massif, while sedimentary deposits of sandstone and marls dominate in the south of the catchment. As a consequence of differing lithologic characteristics, hydrological processes change across scales. The schistose catchments exhibit a delayed shallow groundwater component, sandstone catchments have slow-responding year-round groundwater component, whereas flashy runoff regimes prevails in the marly catchments. Under these circumstances, the MRTs are expected to vary significantly according to lithology, and provide additional understanding in internal catchment processes and their scale dependencies. In order to test this, bi-weekly monitoring of rainfall and discharge stable water isotope composition (oxygen-18 and deuterium) has been carried out since 2007 in 10 nested sub-catchments ranging in size from 0.4 to 247 km2 in the Attert catchment. MRT was estimated using different lumped convolution integral models and sine wave functions with varying transit times distributions (TTDs). TTDs were evaluated through calibration. Further research efforts will deal with the application of conceptual models to simulate and compare TTD, using

  8. Building Modern Vibration Diagnostics Systems Based on the Frequency-Time Transformations of A Measured Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasoveev Vasikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic methods of analysis of vibration transducers signals were reviewed. Continuous wavelet transform, being a time-frequency transform, was found to be an advanced mathematical tool for analysis of vibration signals. Experimental studies revealed obvious changes in the continuous wavelet transform spectrum depending on the existing defects. A method for detection and identification of technological violations based on the analysis of CWT spectrum components and normalized correlation coefficient was suggested. In accordance with the suggested method software for vibration diagnostics was developed.

  9. Time Analysis of Building Dynamic Response Under Seismic Action. Part 1: Theoretical Propositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufimtcev, E. M.

    2017-11-01

    The first part of the article presents the main provisions of the analytical approach - the time analysis method (TAM) developed for the calculation of the elastic dynamic response of rod structures as discrete dissipative systems (DDS) and based on the investigation of the characteristic matrix quadratic equation. The assumptions adopted in the construction of the mathematical model of structural oscillations as well as the features of seismic forces’ calculating and recording based on the data of earthquake accelerograms are given. A system to resolve equations is given to determine the nodal (kinematic and force) response parameters as well as the stress-strain state (SSS) parameters of the system’s rods.

  10. Stability of 4-dimensional space-time from the IIB matrix model via the improved mean field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Tatsumi; Kawai, Hikaru; Shibusa, Yuuichiro

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the origin of our four-dimensional space-time by considering dynamical aspects of the IIB matrix model using the improved mean field approximation. Previous works have focused on the specific choices of configurations as ansatz which preserve SO(d) rotational symmetry. In this report, an extended ansatz is proposed and examined up to a third-order approximation which includes both the SO(4) ansatz and the SO(7) ansatz in their respective limits. From the solutions of the self-consistency condition represented by the extrema of the free energy of the system, it is found that some of the solutions found in the SO(4) or SO(7) ansatz disappear in the extended ansatz. This implies that the extension of ansatz can be used to distinguish stable solutions from unstable solutions. It is also found that there is a non-trivial accumulation of extrema including the SO(4)-preserving solution, which may lead to the formation of a plateau. (author)

  11. [Modelling the effect of local climatic variability on dengue transmission in Medellin (Colombia) by means of time series analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa-Uribe, Guillermo L; Suárez-Acosta, Carolina; Chauca, José; Ventosilla, Palmira; Almanza, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Dengue fever is a major impact on public health vector-borne disease, and its transmission is influenced by entomological, sociocultural and economic factors. Additionally, climate variability plays an important role in the transmission dynamics. A large scientific consensus has indicated that the strong association between climatic variables and disease could be used to develop models to explain the incidence of the disease. To develop a model that provides a better understanding of dengue transmission dynamics in Medellin and predicts increases in the incidence of the disease. The incidence of dengue fever was used as dependent variable, and weekly climatic factors (maximum, mean and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation) as independent variables. Expert Modeler was used to develop a model to better explain the behavior of the disease. Climatic variables with significant association to the dependent variable were selected through ARIMA models. The model explains 34% of observed variability. Precipitation was the climatic variable showing statistically significant association with the incidence of dengue fever, but with a 20 weeks delay. In Medellin, the transmission of dengue fever was influenced by climate variability, especially precipitation. The strong association dengue fever/precipitation allowed the construction of a model to help understand dengue transmission dynamics. This information will be useful to develop appropriate and timely strategies for dengue control.

  12. Summer does not always mean lower: seasonality of 24 h, daytime, and night-time blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedecostante, Massimiliano; Barbatelli, Paolo; Guerra, Federico; Espinosa, Emma; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of seasonal influences on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) values in a very large population living in a mild-climate geographic area. Among patients referred to our Hypertension Center between September 2002 and January 2011 with a reliable ABPM, we considered those in the two hottest (July and August) vs. those in the two coldest (January and February) months. Seven hundred and forty-two men (53.2%) and 653 women (46.8%) were studied; 1245 (89.3%) were hypertensive patients of which 795 (63.9%) were drug-treated. In winter, mean daytime SBP and DBP were higher (P = 0.001 and P hottest summer months are associated with lower daytime BP and also lower 24-h DBP. However, we found an inverse relationship regarding night-time BP, dipping pattern, and INH that were higher or more common in summer. These findings were even more evident in treated patients, especially when not at target. Different sleeping behaviors or improper dose reduction of drug therapy in summer may explain the findings.

  13. Building a Catalog of Time-Dependent Inversions for Cascadia ETS Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, N. M.; Williams, C. A.; Wallace, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS), composed of periodically occurring slow slip events accompanied by tectonic tremor, have been recognized in Cascadia since 1999. While the tremor has been continuously and automatically monitored for a few years (Wech et al., SRL, 2010; pnsn.org/tremor), the geodetically-derived slip has not been systematically monitored in the same way. Instead, numerous time-dependent and static inversions of the geodetic data have been performed for individual ETS events, with many events going unstudied. Careful study of, and monitoring of, ETS is important both to advance the scientific understanding of fault mechanics and to improve earthquake hazard forecasting in Cascadia. Here we present the results of initial efforts to standardize geodetic inversions of slow slip during Cascadia ETS. We use the Network Inversion Filter (NIF, Segall and Matthews,1997; McGuire and Segall, 2003; Miyazaki et al.,2006), applied evenly to an extended time period, to detect and catalog slow slip transients. Bartlow et al., 2014, conducted a similar study for the Hikurangi subduction zone, covering a 2.5 year period. Additionally, we generate Green's functions using the PyLith finite element code (Aagaard et al., 2013) to allow consideration of elastic property variations derived from a Cascadia-wide seismic velocity model (Stephenson, USGS pub., 2007). These Green's functions are then integrated to provide Green's functions compatible with the Network Inversion Filter. The use of heterogeneous elastic Green's functions allows for a more accurate estimation of slip amplitudes, both during individual ETS events and averaged over multiple events. This is useful for constraining the total slip budget in Cascadia, including whether ETS takes up the entire plate motion on the deeper extent of the plate interface where it occurs. The recent study of Williams and Wallace, GRL, 2015 demonstrated that the use heterogeneous elastic Green's Functions in inversions can make a

  14. A Real-Time Energy Consumption Simulation and Comparison of Buildings in Different Construction Years in the Olympic Central Area in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumed the in urban sector accounts for a large proportion of total world delivered energy consumption. Residential building energy consumption is an important part of urban energy consumption. However, there are few studies focused on this issue and that have simulated the energy consumption of residential buildings using questionnaire data. In this research, an eQUEST study was conducted for different residential buildings in the Olympic Central Area in Beijing. Real-time meteorological observation data and an actual energy consumption schedule generated by questionnaire data were used to improve the eQUEST model in the absence of actual energy consumption data. The simulated total energy consumption of residential buildings in the case area in 2015 is 21,262.28 tce, and the average annual energy consumption per unit area is 20.09 kgce/(m2·a. Space heating accounted for 45% of the total energy consumption as the highest proportion, and the second highest was household appliances, which accounted for 20%. The results showed that old residential buildings, multi-storey buildings and large-sized apartment buildings consume more energy. The internal units, building height, per capita construction area, the number of occupants and length of power use had significant impact on residential energy consumption. The result of this study will provide practical reference for energy saving reconstruction of residential buildings in Beijing.

  15. Incentives and means for energy savings in buildings. Network for energy renovation; Incitamenter og virkemidler til fremme af energibesparelser i bygninger. Netvaerk for energirenovering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ole Michael

    2013-01-15

    This report evaluates in detail the existing activities which promote energy conservation in buildings in Denmark. It is clear that some activities have more success than others. Among the successful ones are new initiatives developed by local networks, new models for energy savings in use by municipalities and new enhanced efforts in the social housing sector. A demonstration that high-ranking energy labels give higher sales prices represents in itself an interesting perspective. Among foreign schemes, the green funds in the Netherlands seem to be an interesting idea for a national scheme. (LN)

  16. SU-E-T-45: Antibody Mean Residence Time in Blood and Its Correlation with Protein Molecular Weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, C; Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve) divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results.

  17. [Relationship between daily mean temperature and emergency department visits for respiratory diseases: a time-series analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yun-zheng; Zheng, Ya-an; Tao, Hui; Xu, Mei-mei; Li, Guo-xing; Dong, Feng-ming; Liu, Jun-han; Pan, Xiao-chuan

    2012-06-18

    To quantitatively evaluate the influences of daily mean air temperature (DMT) on Emergency Department Visits (EDVs) for the respiratory diseases. The EDV data from medical records for respiratory diseases in Peking University Third Hospital between January 2004 and June 2009 were collected. The data of the air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and PM(10)) and meteorological factors at the same time periods were also collected from the local authorities of Beijing. Time-series analysis and generalized additive models (GAM) were used to explore the exposurrre-response relationship between DMT and EDVs for respiratory diseases. A total of 35 073 patients [males 14 707(41.93%,14 707/35 073), females 19 122(54.52%,19 122/35 073) and gender missing 1 244(3.55%, 1 244/35 073)] EDVs for respiratory diseases were included. The relationship between DMT and EDVs for the respiratory diseases was mainly of "V" shape, the optimum temperature(OT) was about 4 °C and the effect of DMT was significant with a 0-3 day lag structure for most of the models. When DMT≤OT, each 1°C decrease in DMT corresponded to 3.75% (95% CI of RR: 0.938 3-0.965 3), 3.10% (95% CI of RR:0.949 2-0.989 1), 4.09% (95% CI of RR:0.940 7-0.977 8) increase of EDVs for the overall, male, and female, respectively. When DMT>OT, the value caused by each increase in 1°C in DMT was 1.54% (95% CI of RR:1.006 6-1.024 3), 1.80% (95% CI of RR:1.005 3-1.030 9), and 1.51 (95% CI of RR:1.003 2- 1.027 2), respectively. The effect was statistically significant within the 0-3 day lag. When DMT≤OT, the effect was stronger for the older people, while the effect was strongest for the 45-59 years old people. The relationship between DMT and EDVs for respiratory diseases is mainly of "V" type, with an optimum temperature of 4 °C.Both DMT decrease when DMT≤OT and increase when DMT>OT correspond to different increase of EDVs for respiratory diseases. Low DMT has stronger effect than high DMT. Different age group and gender have

  18. SU-E-T-45: Antibody Mean Residence Time in Blood and Its Correlation with Protein Molecular Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, C; Williams, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve) divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results

  19. Single-Molecule Methods for Nucleotide Excision Repair: Building a System to Watch Repair in Real Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Muwen; Beckwitt, Emily C; Springall, Luke; Kad, Neil M; Van Houten, Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule approaches to solving biophysical problems are powerful tools that allow static and dynamic real-time observations of specific molecular interactions of interest in the absence of ensemble-averaging effects. Here, we provide detailed protocols for building an experimental system that employs atomic force microscopy and a single-molecule DNA tightrope assay based on oblique angle illumination fluorescence microscopy. Together with approaches for engineering site-specific lesions into DNA substrates, these complementary biophysical techniques are well suited for investigating protein-DNA interactions that involve target-specific DNA-binding proteins, such as those engaged in a variety of DNA repair pathways. In this chapter, we demonstrate the utility of the platform by applying these techniques in the studies of proteins participating in nucleotide excision repair. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Specifics of Manifestations of the Interrelation Political and Legal Consciousness and Development Ideology of State-Building in the Times of the Ancient East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Krasnokutsky

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work. Investigate the specificity of manifestations of the interrelation political and legal consciousness, and, at the same time, the development of the ideology of state-building as a particular species of theoretically informed practical consciousness, which was used by the creators of state forms in the times of the Ancient East. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics, historicism, formational and civilizational approaches. The scientific novelty. The obtained results of a study that summarize the scientific novelty can be formulated in the form of abstracts: a identified two lines of ideological interaction on state building in the East in ancient times; b formed a theoretical model of ideological matrix of state-building of the Ancient Orient; c revealed, that the motility of this ideological matrix is consistent with the development of power in the state of those times. Conclusions. Specificity of manifestations of the interrelation political and legal consciousness and development ideology of state-building in the times of the Ancient East – is the existence of two lines of ideological interaction in the field of state-building in a state-organized society: the first line – the unilateral influence of political consciousness on the legal consciousness; the second line – the asymmetric inverse influence of legal consciousness on political consciousness. These two lines of ideological interaction (the unilateral influence of political consciousness on the legal consciousness and the asymmetric inverse influence of legal consciousness on political consciousness have created original ideological matrix of state-building. Within this ideological matrix of state-building in the times of the Ancient East formed corresponding view ideological phenomenon – the ideology of state-building of oriental slave state.

  1. The error and covariance structures of the mean approach model of pooled cross-section and time series data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuamah, N.N.N.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper postulates the assumptions underlying the Mean Approach model and recasts the re-expressions of the normal equations of this model in partitioned matrices of covariances. These covariance structures have been analysed. (author). 16 refs

  2. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinenghi, E., E-mail: edoardo.martinenghi@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sanzaro, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm{sup 2} together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  3. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinenghi, E.; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Sanzaro, M.; Pifferi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm"2 together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  4. Usage of NASA's Near Real-Time Solar and Meteorological Data for Monitoring Building Energy Systems Using RETScreen International's Performance Analysis Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Charles, Robert W.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Ziegler, Urban; Leng, Gregory J.; Meloche, Nathalie; Bourque, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes building energy system production and usage monitoring using examples from the new RETScreen Performance Analysis Module, called RETScreen Plus. The module uses daily meteorological (i.e., temperature, humidity, wind and solar, etc.) over a period of time to derive a building system function that is used to monitor building performance. The new module can also be used to target building systems with enhanced technologies. If daily ambient meteorological and solar information are not available, these are obtained over the internet from NASA's near-term data products that provide global meteorological and solar information within 3-6 days of real-time. The accuracy of the NASA data are shown to be excellent for this purpose enabling RETScreen Plus to easily detect changes in the system function and efficiency. This is shown by several examples, one of which is a new building at the NASA Langley Research Center that uses solar panels to provide electrical energy for building energy and excess energy for other uses. The system shows steady performance within the uncertainties of the input data. The other example involves assessing the reduction in energy usage by an apartment building in Sweden before and after an energy efficiency upgrade. In this case, savings up to 16% are shown.

  5. On pre-commitment aspects of a time-consistent strategy for a mean-variance investor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cong (Fei); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, a link between a time-consistent and a pre-commitment investment strategy is established. We define an implied investment target, which is implicitly con- tained in a time-consistent strategy at a given time step and wealth level. By imposing the

  6. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE), a display building tool developed by Space Shuttle flight controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center, located at Johnson Space Center, is incrementally moving from a centralized architecture to a distributed architecture. Starting with STS-29, some host-driven console screens will be replaced with graphics terminals driven by workstations. These workstations will be supplied realtime data first by the Real Time Data System (RTDS), a system developed inhouse, and then months later (in parallel with RTDS) by interim and subsequently operational versions of the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) software package. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE) was built by Space Shuttle flight controllers to support the rapid development of multiple new displays to support Shuttle flights. RTIDE is a display building tool that allows non-programmers to define object-oriented, event-driven, mouseable displays. Particular emphasis was placed on upward compatibility between RTIDE versions, ability to acquire data from different data sources, realtime performance, ability to modularly upgrade RTIDE, machine portability, and a clean, powerful user interface. The operational and organizational factors that drove RTIDE to its present form, the actual design itself, simulation and flight performance, and lessons learned in the process are discussed.

  7. Gender-related differences in the apparent timing of skeletal density bands in the reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.; Vásquez-Bedoya, L. F.; Cabanillas-Terán, N.; Blanchon, P.

    2013-09-01

    Density banding in skeletons of reef-building corals is a valuable source of proxy environmental data. However, skeletal growth strategy has a significant impact on the apparent timing of density-band formation. Some corals employ a strategy where the tissue occupies previously formed skeleton during as the new band forms, which leads to differences between the actual and apparent band timing. To investigate this effect, we collected cores from female and male colonies of Siderastrea siderea and report tissue thicknesses and density-related growth parameters over a 17-yr interval. Correlating these results with monthly sea surface temperature (SST) shows that maximum skeletal density in the female coincides with low winter SSTs, whereas in the male, it coincides with high summer SSTs. Furthermore, maximum skeletal densities in the female coincide with peak Sr/Ca values, whereas in the male, they coincide with low Sr/Ca values. Both results indicate a 6-month difference in the apparent timing of density-band formation between genders. Examination of skeletal extension rates also show that the male has thicker tissue and extends faster, whereas the female has thinner tissue and a denser skeleton—but both calcify at the same rate. The correlation between extension and calcification, combined with the fact that density banding arises from thickening of the skeleton throughout the depth reached by the tissue layer, implies that S. siderea has the same growth strategy as massive Porites, investing its calcification resources into linear extension. In addition, differences in tissue thicknesses suggest that females offset the greater energy requirements of gamete production by generating less tissue, resulting in differences in the apparent timing of density-band formation. Such gender-related offsets may be common in other corals and require that environmental reconstructions be made from sexed colonies and that, in fossil corals where sex cannot be determined

  8. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: Using Goal-Oriented Applied Research as a Means of Building Comprehensive and Integrated Scientific Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, B. C.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional instruction in science often proceeds from the general to the specific and from text to action. Fundamental terminologies, concepts, and ideas that are often abstract are taught first and only after such introductory processes can a student engage in research. Many students struggle to find relevance when presented information without context specific to their own experiences. This challenge is exacerbated for students whose social circles do not include adults who can validate scientific learning from their own experiences. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program inverts the standard paradigm and places small groups of students in research projects where they begin by performing manageable tasks on complex applied research projects. These tasks are supplemented with informal mentoring and relevant articles (~1 per week). Quantitative metrics suggest the approach is highly successful—most participants report a dramatic increase in their enthusiasm for science, 100% attend college, and approximately 50% declare majors in science or technology. We use one project, the construction of a microbial battery, to illustrate this novel model of science learning and argue that it should be considered a best practice for project-based science education. The goal of this project was to build a rechargeable battery for a mobile phone based on a geochemical cycle, to generate and store electricity. The students, mostly from ethnic groups under-represented in the STEM fields, combined concepts and laboratory methods from biology, chemistry and physics to isolate photosynthetic bacteria from a natural salt marsh, and made an in situ device capable of powering a light bulb. The younger participants had been exposed to neither high school chemistry nor physics at the start of the project, yet they were able to use the project as a platform to deepen their science knowledge and their desire for increased participation in formal science education.

  9. Aggregation in environmental systems - Part 1: Seasonal tracer cycles quantify young water fractions, but not mean transit times, in spatially heterogeneous catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is ubiquitous, but environmental systems are often analyzed as if they were homogeneous instead, resulting in aggregation errors that are rarely explored and almost never quantified. Here I use simple benchmark tests to explore this general problem in one specific context: the use of seasonal cycles in chemical or isotopic tracers (such as Cl-, δ18O, or δ2H) to estimate timescales of storage in catchments. Timescales of catchment storage are typically quantified by the mean transit time, meaning the average time that elapses between parcels of water entering as precipitation and leaving again as streamflow. Longer mean transit times imply greater damping of seasonal tracer cycles. Thus, the amplitudes of tracer cycles in precipitation and streamflow are commonly used to calculate catchment mean transit times. Here I show that these calculations will typically be wrong by several hundred percent, when applied to catchments with realistic degrees of spatial heterogeneity. This aggregation bias arises from the strong nonlinearity in the relationship between tracer cycle amplitude and mean travel time. I propose an alternative storage metric, the young water fraction in streamflow, defined as the fraction of runoff with transit times of less than roughly 0.2 years. I show that this young water fraction (not to be confused with event-based "new water" in hydrograph separations) is accurately predicted by seasonal tracer cycles within a precision of a few percent, across the entire range of mean transit times from almost zero to almost infinity. Importantly, this relationship is also virtually free from aggregation error. That is, seasonal tracer cycles also accurately predict the young water fraction in runoff from highly heterogeneous mixtures of subcatchments with strongly contrasting transit-time distributions. Thus, although tracer cycle amplitudes yield biased and unreliable estimates of catchment mean travel times in heterogeneous

  10. Mean residence times of atmospheric aerosols in the boundary layer as determined from 210Bi/210Pb activity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of radioactive 210 Pb and 210 Bi were measured in surface air after chemical separation and radiochemical analysis in an annual cycle and were used to determine aerosol residence times in the lower atmosphere. It was concluded that residence times of 8 days would apply to aerosols of 0.3 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). Cascade impactor data are also presented in relating the residence times and the AMAD of atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  11. Physico-chemical aspects of radionuclide removal under accident conditions in nuclear power plants by means of containment-building spray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, M.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on industrial spray solutions, their thermal and radiation stability, drop effects, and the corrosion behaviour of reactor and containment materials. From the hitherto known spray experiments it may be concluded that (1) spray solutions can be used for the effective decontamination of the containment atmosphere in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident, (2) the spray efficiency for the removal of gaseous and volatile fission products can be assessed by means of simplified model considerations, (3) further work is necessary to optimize the technology of the spray process. (author)

  12. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.P.; Dews, J.; Harris, F.C. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D.J. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  13. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D P; Dews, J; Harris, F C [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D J [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  14. Construction of the exact Fisher information matrix of Gaussian time series models by means of matrix differential rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.A.B.; Melard, G.; Zahaf, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Fisher information matrix is of fundamental importance for the analysis of parameter estimation of time series models. In this paper the exact information matrix of a multivariate Gaussian time series model expressed in state space form is derived. A computationally efficient procedure is used

  15. A Post-Occupancy Monitored Evaluation of the Dimmable Lighting, Automated Shading, and Underfloor Air Distribution System in The New York Times Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, L. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Webster, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauman, F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heinzerling, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoyt, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    With aggressive goals to reduce national energy use and carbon emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will be looking to exemplary buildings that have already invested in new approaches to achieving the energy performance goals now needed at a national level. The New York Times Building, in New York, New York, incorporates a number of innovative technologies, systems and processes and could become model for widespread replication in new and existing buildings. A year-long monitored study was conducted to verify energy performance, assess occupant comfort and satisfaction with the indoor environment, and evaluate impact on maintenance and operations. Lessons learned were derived from the analysis; these lessons could help identify and shape policy, financial, or supporting strategies to accelerate diffusion in the commercial building market.

  16. A post-occupancy monitored evaluation of the dimmable lighting, automated shading, and underfloor air distribution system in The New York Times Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Webster, Tom [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauman, Fred [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heinzerling, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoyt, Tyler [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    With aggressive goals to reduce national energy use and carbon emissions, the US Department of Energy will be looking to exemplary buildings that have already invested in new approaches to achieving the energy performance goals now needed at a national level. The New York Times Building, in New York, New York, incorporates a number of innovative technologies, systems and processes and could become a model for widespread replication in new and existing buildings. Post-occupancy data are invaluable in establishing confidence in innovation. A year-long monitored study was conducted to verify energy performance, assess occupant comfort and satisfaction with the indoor environment, and evaluate impacts on maintenance and operations. Lessons learned were derived from the analysis; these lessons could help identify and shape policy, financial, or supporting strategies to accelerate diffusion in the commercial building market.

  17. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  18. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pompili, Riccardo; Bellaveglia, M; Biagioni, A; Castorina, G; Chiadroni, E; Cianchi, A; Croia, M; Di Giovenale, D; Ferrario, M; Filippi, F; Gallo, A; Gatti, G; Giorgianni, F; Giribono, A; Li, W; Lupi, S; Mostacci, A; Petrarca, M; Piersanti, L; Di Pirro, G; Romeo, S; Scifo, J; Shpakov, V; Vaccarezza, C; Villa, F

    2017-01-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC_LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations.

  19. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompili, R; Anania, M P; Bellaveglia, M; Biagioni, A; Castorina, G; Chiadroni, E; Croia, M; Giovenale, D Di; Ferrario, M; Gallo, A; Gatti, G; Cianchi, A; Filippi, F; Giorgianni, F; Giribono, A; Lupi, S; Mostacci, A; Petrarca, M; Piersanti, L; Li, W

    2016-01-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC-LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations. (paper)

  20. On the speed towards the mean for continuous time autoregressive moving average processes with applications to energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benth, Fred Espen; Taib, Che Mohd Imran Che

    2013-01-01

    We extend the concept of half life of an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to Lévy-driven continuous-time autoregressive moving average processes with stochastic volatility. The half life becomes state dependent, and we analyze its properties in terms of the characteristics of the process. An empirical example based on daily temperatures observed in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, is presented, where the proposed model is estimated and the distribution of the half life is simulated. The stationarity of the dynamics yield futures prices which asymptotically tend to constant at an exponential rate when time to maturity goes to infinity. The rate is characterized by the eigenvalues of the dynamics. An alternative description of this convergence can be given in terms of our concept of half life. - Highlights: • The concept of half life is extended to Levy-driven continuous time autoregressive moving average processes • The dynamics of Malaysian temperatures are modeled using a continuous time autoregressive model with stochastic volatility • Forward prices on temperature become constant when time to maturity tends to infinity • Convergence in time to maturity is at an exponential rate given by the eigenvalues of the model temperature model

  1. Measuring gas-residence times in large municipal incinerators, by means of a pseudo-random binary signal tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J.; Jones, B.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of measuring gas-residence time in large incinerators was studied by the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) stimulus tracer response technique at the Sheffield municipal solid-waste incinerator (35 MW plant). The steady-state system was disturbed by the superimposition of small fluctuations in the form of a pseudo-random binary sequence of methane pulses, and the response of the incinerator was determined from the CO 2 concentration in flue gases at the boiler exit, measured with a specially developed optical gas analyser with a high-frequency response. For data acquisition, an on-line PC computer was used together with the LAB Windows software system; the output response was then cross-correlated with the perturbation signal to give the impulse response of the incinerator. There was very good agreement between the gas-residence time for the Sheffield MSW incinerator as calculated by computational fluid dynamics (FLUENT Model) and gas-residence time at the plant as measured by the PRBS tracer technique. The results obtained from this research programme clearly demonstrate that the PRBS stimulus tracer response technique can be successfully and economically used to measure gas-residence times in large incinerator plants. It also suggests that the common commercial practice of characterising the incinerator operation by a single-residence-time parameter may lead to a misrepresentation of the complexities involved in describing the operation of the incineration system. (author)

  2. A Method for Measuring Fast Time Evolutions of the Plasma Potential by Means of a Simple Emissive Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1981-01-01

    potential is measured across a high resistance. During each sweep of the probe voltage, the changing of the sign of the probe current, which is sampled at a specific time, gives rise to a negative pulse, driving the pen-lift of an X-Y recorder. Since the real floating potential is measured where the probe......A method is presented for obtaining the temporal evolution of the plasma potential, which is assumed to be given by the floating potential of a simple emissive probe. The construction of the probe is also described. The method avoids the slow time response of the usual technique where the floating...

  3. Characterization of noise sources in a rod-airfoil configuration by means of Time-Resolved Tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzoni, V.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved Tomographic PIV was used to characterize the flow around the leading edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in rod-airfoil configuration at ReD = 3500. The volumetric approach at relatively high temporal resolution allows the measurement of the evolution of the 3D vortical structures constituting

  4. Continuous-time mean-variance portfolio selection with value-at-risk and no-shorting constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei

    2012-01-01

    An investment problem is considered with dynamic mean-variance(M-V) portfolio criterion under discontinuous prices which follow jump-diffusion processes according to the actual prices of stocks and the normality and stability of the financial market. The short-selling of stocks is prohibited in this mathematical model. Then, the corresponding stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman(HJB) equation of the problem is presented and the solution of the stochastic HJB equation based on the theory of stochastic LQ control and viscosity solution is obtained. The efficient frontier and optimal strategies of the original dynamic M-V portfolio selection problem are also provided. And then, the effects on efficient frontier under the value-at-risk constraint are illustrated. Finally, an example illustrating the discontinuous prices based on M-V portfolio selection is presented.

  5. Influence of internal and external boundary conditions on the decrement factor and time lag heat flux of building walls in steady periodic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzeo, D.; Oliveti, G.; Arcuri, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behaviour of building walls subjected to sinusoidal and actual loadings. • The joint action of more temperature and heat flux loadings has been considered. • Dynamic parameters were defined by the internal and external fluctuating heat flux. • Use of the Total Harmonic Distortion to determine the number of harmonics required. • Study of the influence of external and internal loadings on dynamic parameters. - Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of opaque components of the building envelope in steady periodic regime is investigated using parameters defined by the fluctuating heat flux that is transferred in the wall. The use of the heat flux allows for the joint action of the loadings that characterise both the outdoor environment and the indoor air-conditioned environment to be taken into account. The analysis was developed in sinusoidal conditions to determine the frequency response of the wall and in non-sinusoidal conditions to identify the actual dynamic behaviour of the wall. The use of non-dimensional periodic thermal transmittance is proposed for the sinusoidal analysis in order to evaluate the decrement factor and the time lag that the heat flux undergoes in crossing the wall as well as the efficiency of heat storage. In the presence of non-sinusoidal loadings, the identification of the dynamic behaviour of the wall is obtained using several dynamic parameters: the decrement factor in terms of energy, defined as the ratio between the energy in a semi-period entering and exiting the wall; the decrement factor and the time lag in terms of heat flux, considering the maximum peak and the minimum peak. These parameters allow for the identification of how the form of the heat flux trend crossing the wall is modified. The number of harmonics to be considered for an accurate representation of heat fluxes is determined by means of the introduction of the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), which quantifies the distortion of a non

  6. Non-invasive analysis of swelling in polymer dispersions by means of time-domain(TD)-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Nikolaus, E-mail: nikolaus.nestle@basf.com [BASF SE, GKP/R - G 201, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Haeberle, Karl [BASF SE, GKP/R - G 201, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2009-11-03

    In this contribution, we discuss the potential of low-field time-domain(TD)-NMR to study the swelling of (aqueous) polymer dispersions by a volatile solvent. Due to the sensitivity of transverse relaxation times (T{sub 2}) to swelling-induced changes in the molecular dynamics of the polymer component, the effects of swelling can be measured without spectral resolution. The measurement is performed on polymer dispersions in native state with solids contents around 50% in a non-invasive way without separating the polymeric phase and the water phase from each other. Using acetone in two polyurethane (PU) dispersions with different hard phase contents, we explore the sensitivity of the method and present a data evaluation strategy based on multicomponent fitting and proton balancing. Furthermore, we report exchange continualization as a further effect that needs to be taken into account for correct interpretation of the data.

  7. Non-invasive analysis of swelling in polymer dispersions by means of time-domain(TD)-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Nikolaus; Häberle, Karl

    2009-11-03

    In this contribution, we discuss the potential of low-field time-domain(TD)-NMR to study the swelling of (aqueous) polymer dispersions by a volatile solvent. Due to the sensitivity of transverse relaxation times (T2) to swelling-induced changes in the molecular dynamics of the polymer component, the effects of swelling can be measured without spectral resolution. The measurement is performed on polymer dispersions in native state with solids contents around 50% in a non-invasive way without separating the polymeric phase and the water phase from each other. Using acetone in two polyurethane (PU) dispersions with different hard phase contents, we explore the sensitivity of the method and present a data evaluation strategy based on multicomponent fitting and proton balancing. Furthermore, we report exchange continualization as a further effect that needs to be taken into account for correct interpretation of the data.

  8. Tritium from bombs - the time behaviour since 1963 in mean-European rivers and smaller hydrological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, N.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical simulation models are presented to describe the observed of nuclear bomb tritium fallout (lyrimeter measurements) in the unsaturated ground zone and the ground water. These models are based on the well-known time-dependence of the tritium concentration in the local rainy waters and on water balance parameters. The tritium migration behaviour can be described well by the drainage model, the leakage model and the flow model (program-out, measured data). (DG) [de

  9. Dosing-time contributes to chronotoxicity of clofarabine in mice via means other than pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jie Luan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the time- and dose-dependent toxicity of clofarabine in mice and to further define the chronotherapy strategy of it in leukemia, we compared the mortality rates, LD50s, biochemical parameters, histological changes and organ indexes of mice treated with clofarabine at various doses and time points. Plasma clofarabine levels and pharmacokinetic parameters were monitored continuously for up to 8 hours after the single intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg at 12:00 noon and 12:00 midnight by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV method. Clofarabine toxicity in all groups fluctuated in accordance with circadian rhythms in vivo. The toxicity of clofarabine in mice in the rest phase was more severe than the active one, indicated by more severe liver damage, immunodepression, higher mortality rate, and lower LD50. No significant pharmacokinetic parameter changes were observed between the night and daytime treatment groups. These findings suggest the dosing-time dependent toxicity of clofarabine synchronizes with the circadian rhythm of mice, which might provide new therapeutic strategies in further clinical application.

  10. Love in the Time of Diaspora. Global Markets and Local Meanings in Prostitution, Marriage and Womanhood in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kummels

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrelations between the circulation of images concerning race and gender in the context of global hierarchies and new local forms and meanings of partnership and prostitution in Cuba have not been adequately understood until now. This is due to the image of a “sudden” revival of prostitution, after it had allegedly been eradicated in socialist Cuba. Exploring prostitution, marriage and womanhood in Havana from a historical perspective and examining jineterismo as part of the local ‘informal’ economy, this article demonstrates how these institutions were modified in a global context long before the 1990s. In the transcultural relations between foreigners and locals, models of womanhood, partnership and love were not merely ‘given’ by the social structure in the context of a globalized modernity. Instead they were to a large extent influenced by ideas concerning gender, race and morality, created and negotiated by agents as they interacted, Cuban women having resorted to these ideas and related institutions as arenas of empowerment.

  11. Real-time DNA barcoding in a rainforest using nanopore sequencing: opportunities for rapid biodiversity assessments and local capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Arteaga, Alejandro; Bustamante, Lucas; Pichardo, Frank; Coloma, Luis A; Barrio-Amorós, César L; Salazar-Valenzuela, David; Prost, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Advancements in portable scientific instruments provide promising avenues to expedite field work in order to understand the diverse array of organisms that inhabit our planet. Here, we tested the feasibility for in situ molecular analyses of endemic fauna using a portable laboratory fitting within a single backpack in one of the world's most imperiled biodiversity hotspots, the Ecuadorian Chocó rainforest. We used portable equipment, including the MinION nanopore sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and the miniPCR (miniPCR), to perform DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and real-time DNA barcoding of reptile specimens in the field. We demonstrate that nanopore sequencing can be implemented in a remote tropical forest to quickly and accurately identify species using DNA barcoding, as we generated consensus sequences for species resolution with an accuracy of >99% in less than 24 hours after collecting specimens. The flexibility of our mobile laboratory further allowed us to generate sequence information at the Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica in Quito for rare, endangered, and undescribed species. This includes the recently rediscovered Jambato toad, which was thought to be extinct for 28 years. Sequences generated on the MinION required as few as 30 reads to achieve high accuracy relative to Sanger sequencing, and with further multiplexing of samples, nanopore sequencing can become a cost-effective approach for rapid and portable DNA barcoding. Overall, we establish how mobile laboratories and nanopore sequencing can help to accelerate species identification in remote areas to aid in conservation efforts and be applied to research facilities in developing countries. This opens up possibilities for biodiversity studies by promoting local research capacity building, teaching nonspecialists and students about the environment, tackling wildlife crime, and promoting conservation via research-focused ecotourism.

  12. Real-Time Analysis of Online Product Reviews by Means of Multi-Layer Feed-Forward Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Decker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the quantitative analysis of online product reviews (OPRs has become a popular manifestation of marketing intelligence activities focusing on products that are frequently subject to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM. Typical elements of OPRs are overall star ratings, product at- tribute scores, recommendations, pros and cons, and free texts. The first three elements are of pa r- ticular interest because they provide an aggregate view of reviewers’ opinions about the products of interest. However, the significance of individual product attributes in the overall evaluation pro c- ess  can  vary  in  the  course  of  time.  Accordingly,  ad  hoc  analyses  of  OPRs  that  have  been downloaded at a certain point in time are of limited value for dynamic eWOM monitoring because of their snapshot character. On the other hand, opinion platforms can increase the meaningfulness of the OPRs posted there and, therewith, the usefulness of the platform as a whole, by directing eWOM activities to those product attributes that really matter at present. This paper therefore in- troduces a neural network-based approach that allows the dynamic tracking of the influence the posted scores of product attributes have on the overall star ratings of the concerning products. By using an elasticity measure, this approach supports the identification of those attributes that tend to lose or gain significance in the product evaluation process over time. The usability of this ap- proach is demonstrated using real OPR data on digital cameras and hotels.

  13. Determination of the residence time of rain water in some hydrographic basins by means of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.R.L.

    1979-10-01

    Samples of rain-and river water, monthly collected during one year from ten stations of the Amazon basin analysed in their 18 O and D content. The residence time of rain water for each station was determined using the values of Δ 18 O(%o) and ΔD(%). The values of Δ 18 O(%o) were correlated with the precipitation ones (mm) in order to determine the occurence of 'amount effect' in the stations. An analysis of samples was done along the Amazon River for simple observation of the 'isotopic fractionation' phenomenon the values of Δ 18 O(%o). (Author) [pt

  14. Race and time from diagnosis to radical prostatectomy: does equal access mean equal timely access to the operating room?--Results from the SEARCH database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañez, Lionel L; Terris, Martha K; Aronson, William J; Presti, Joseph C; Kane, Christopher J; Amling, Christopher L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    African American men with prostate cancer are at higher risk for cancer-specific death than Caucasian men. We determine whether significant delays in management contribute to this disparity. We hypothesize that in an equal-access health care system, time interval from diagnosis to treatment would not differ by race. We identified 1,532 African American and Caucasian men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) from 1988 to 2007 at one of four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers that comprise the Shared Equal-Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database with known biopsy date. We compared time from biopsy to RP between racial groups using linear regression adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. We analyzed risk of potential clinically relevant delays by determining odds of delays >90 and >180 days. Median time interval from diagnosis to RP was 76 and 68 days for African Americans and Caucasian men, respectively (P = 0.004). After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, race was not associated with the time interval between diagnosis and RP (P = 0.09). Furthermore, race was not associated with increased risk of delays >90 (P = 0.45) or >180 days (P = 0.31). In a cohort of men undergoing RP in an equal-access setting, there was no significant difference between racial groups with regard to time interval from diagnosis to RP. Thus, equal-access includes equal timely access to the operating room. Given our previous finding of poorer outcomes among African Americans, treatment delays do not seem to explain these observations. Our findings need to be confirmed in patients electing other treatment modalities and in other practice settings.

  15. Dependence of the mean time to failure of a hydraulic balancing machine unit on different factors for sectional pumps of the Alrosa JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, N. P.; Portnyagina, V. V.; Sobakina, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents factors that have a greater impact on the mean time to failure of a hydraulic balancing machine unit working in underground kimberlite mines of the Alrosa JSC, the hydraulic balancing machine unit being the least reliable structural elements in terms of error-free operation. In addition, a multifactor linear dependence of mean time to failure of a hydraulic balancing machine unit is shown regarding it being parts of stage sectional pumps in the underground kimberlite mines of the Alrosa JSC. In prospect, this diagram can allow us to predict the durability of the least reliable structural element of a sectional pump.

  16. Generic mechanism of optimal energy transfer efficiency: a scaling theory of the mean first-passage time in exciton systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianlan; Silbey, Robert J; Cao, Jianshu

    2013-05-17

    An asymptotic scaling theory is presented using the conceptual basis of trapping-free subspace (i.e., orthogonal subspace) to establish the generic mechanism of optimal efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting systems. A quantum state orthogonal to the trap will exhibit noise-assisted transfer, clarifying the significance of initial preparation. For such an initial state, the efficiency is enhanced in the weak damping limit (⟨t⟩ ∼ 1/Γ), and suppressed in the strong damping limit (⟨t⟩ ∼ Γ), analogous to Kramers turnover in classical rate theory. An interpolating expression ⟨t⟩ = A/Γ + B + CΓ quantitatively describes the trapping time over the entire range of the dissipation strength, and predicts the optimal efficiency at Γ(opt) ∼ J for homogenous systems. In the presence of static disorder, the scaling law of transfer time with respect to dephasing rate changes from linear to square root, suggesting a weaker dependence on the environment. The prediction of the scaling theory is verified in a symmetric dendrimer system by numerically exact quantum calculations. Though formulated in the context of excitation energy transfer, the analysis and conclusions apply in general to open quantum processes, including electron transfer, fluorescence emission, and heat conduction.

  17. 3D+time acquisitions of 3D cell culture by means of lens-free tomographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeu, Anthony; Laperrousaz, Bastien; Bordy, Thomas; Morales, S.; Gidrol, Xavier; Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie; Allier, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) imaging platform based on lens-free microscopy to perform multi-angle acquisitions on 3D cell cultures embedded in extracellular matrix (ECM). We developed algorithms based on the Fourier diffraction theorem to perform fully 3D reconstructions of biological samples and we adapted the lens-free microscope to incubator conditions. Here we demonstrate for the first time, 3D+time lens-free acquisitions of 3D cell culture over 8 days directly into the incubator. The 3D reconstructed volume is as large as 5 mm3 and provides a unique way to observe in the same 3D cell culture experiment multiple cell migration strategies. Namely, in a 3D cell culture of prostate epithelial cells embedded within a Matrigel® matrix, we are able to distinguish single cell 'leaders', migration of cell clusters, migration of large aggregates of cells, and also close-gap and large-scale branching. In addition, we observe long-scale 3D deformations of the ECM that modify the geometry of the 3D cell culture. Interestingly, we also observed the opposite, i.e. we found that large aggregates of cells may deform the ECM by generating traction forces over very long distances. In sum we put forward a novel 3D lens-free microscopy tomographic technique to study the single and collective cell migrations, the cell-to-cell interactions and the cell-to-matrix interactions.

  18. Meteorological Reference Years of Daily Mean Temperature during the Sunlight Time; Anos Tipos de Temperaturas Medias Diarias durante las Horas de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchante Jimenez, M.; Ramirez Santigosa, L.N.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.

    2002-07-01

    In this work the characterization of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been analyzed. An algorithm for the hourly series generation from extreme daily values has been applied to evaluate the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time. A generic algorithm has been enounced as a function of the sunrise time. This algorithm allows taking into account the fractions related to the sunrise and sunset hours. This methodology has been applied in data from 45 Spanish stations, uniformly distributed in the Iberian Peninsula. Data for a period of 14 years has been used in most of locations, and once the interest variable has been calculated, the meteorological reference year of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been evaluated in each stations. The next step is the evaluation of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time in any point into the zone of evaluation, not only in the measured stations. >From the result data in each measured station, an geographic information system has been used in order to calculate the interpolation, obtaining maps with a data each 5 km for each of the 365 days of the year. Then, this results can be superposed with the solar radiation evaluation obtaining the input data for the sizing of the photovoltaic grid connected system in any point of the Spanish geography. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Using mean duration and variation of procedure times to plan a list of surgical operations to fit into the scheduled list time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Jaideep J; Tavare, Aniket

    2011-07-01

    It is important that a surgical list is planned to utilise as much of the scheduled time as possible while not over-running, because this can lead to cancellation of operations. We wished to assess whether, theoretically, the known duration of individual operations could be used quantitatively to predict the likely duration of the operating list. In a university hospital setting, we first assessed the extent to which the current ad-hoc method of operating list planning was able to match the scheduled operating list times for 153 consecutive historical lists. Using receiver operating curve analysis, we assessed the ability of an alternative method to predict operating list duration for the same operating lists. This method uses a simple formula: the sum of individual operation times and a pooled standard deviation of these times. We used the operating list duration estimated from this formula to generate a probability that the operating list would finish within its scheduled time. Finally, we applied the simple formula prospectively to 150 operating lists, 'shadowing' the current ad-hoc method, to confirm the predictive ability of the formula. The ad-hoc method was very poor at planning: 50% of historical operating lists were under-booked and 37% over-booked. In contrast, the simple formula predicted the correct outcome (under-run or over-run) for 76% of these operating lists. The calculated probability that a planned series of operations will over-run or under-run was found useful in developing an algorithm to adjust the planned cases optimally. In the prospective series, 65% of operating lists were over-booked and 10% were under-booked. The formula predicted the correct outcome for 84% of operating lists. A simple quantitative method of estimating operating list duration for a series of operations leads to an algorithm (readily created on an Excel spreadsheet, http://links.lww.com/EJA/A19) that can potentially improve operating list planning.

  20. The influence of reaction time on hydrogen sulphide removal from air by means of Fe(III)-EDTA/Fiban catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasag, H.; Cel, W.; Chomczynska, M.; Kujawska, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with a new method of hydrogen sulphide removal from air by its filtration and selective catalytic oxidation with the use of fibrous carriers of Fe(III)-EDTA complex. The basis of these filtering materials includes fibrous ion exchangers with the complex immobilized on their functional groups. It has been established that the degree of catalytic hydrogen sulphide decomposition depends on the reaction time. Thus, the required degree of hydrogen sulphide removal from air could be easily controlled by applying appropriate thickness of the filtering layer under a given filtering velocity. It allows applying very thin filtering layers of the Fe(III)-EDTA/Fiban AK-22 or Fiban A-6 catalysts. The obtained results of the research confirm the applicability of these materials for deep air purification from hydrogen sulphide.

  1. The Space-Time Continuum as a Transversely Isotropic Material and the Meaning of the Temporal Coordinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, C. I.

    2010-01-01

    A transversely isotropic elastic continuum is considered in four dimensions, three of which are isotropic, and the properties of the material change only related to the fourth dimension. The model employs two dilational and three shear Lame coefficients. The isotropic dilational coefficient is assumed to be much larger than the second dilational coefficient, and the three shear coefficients. This amounts to a material that is virtually incompressible in the three isotropic dimensions. The first and third shear coefficients are positive, while the second shear coefficient is assumed to be negative. As a result, in the equations of elastic equilibrium, the second derivatives of the displacement with respect to the fourth coordinate enter with negative sign. This makes the equations hyperbolic, with a fourth dimension opposing to the other three. The hyperbolic nature of the fourth dimension allows to be interpreted as time.

  2. New Constraints from the Seychelles on the Timing and Magnitude of Peak Global Mean Sea Level during the Last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyverberg, K.; Dechnik, B.; Dutton, A.; Webster, J.; Zwartz, D.; Edwards, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Projecting the rate of future sea-level rise remains a primary challenge associated with continued climate change. However, uncertainties remain in our understanding of the rate of polar ice sheet retreat in warmer-than-present climates. To address this issue, we present a new sea level reconstruction from the tectonically stable granitic Seychelles based on Last Interglacial coral ages and elevations within their sedimentary and stratigraphic context, including estimates of paleo-water depth based on newly defined coralgal assemblages. The reef facies analyzed here has a narrow and shallow paleowater depth range (dwelling barnacles. These disturbance layers may have been generated through internal reef processes and/or external agents, including coral disease, bleaching, predation, hurricanes, or sub-aerial exposure. In total, these new observations provide improved constraints on the timing, magnitude, and rates of sea-level rise during the Last Interglacial.

  3. Using heat as a tracer to estimate spatially distributed mean residence times in the hyporheic zone of a riffle-pool sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical reactions that occur in the hyporheic zone are highly dependent on the time solutes that are in contact with sediments of the riverbed. In this investigation, we developed a 2-D longitudinal flow and solute-transport model to estimate the spatial distribution of mean residence time in the hyporheic zone. The flow model was calibrated using observations of temperature and pressure, and the mean residence times were simulated using the age-mass approach for steady-state flow conditions. The approach used in this investigation includes the mixing of different ages and flow paths of water through advection and dispersion. Uncertainty of flow and transport parameters was evaluated using standard Monte Carlo and the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation method. Results of parameter estimation support the presence of a low-permeable zone in the riffle area that induced horizontal flow at a shallow depth within the riffle area. This establishes shallow and localized flow paths and limits deep vertical exchange. For the optimal model, mean residence times were found to be relatively long (9–40.0 days). The uncertainty of hydraulic conductivity resulted in a mean interquartile range (IQR) of 13 days across all piezometers and was reduced by 24% with the inclusion of temperature and pressure observations. To a lesser extent, uncertainty in streambed porosity and dispersivity resulted in a mean IQR of 2.2 and 4.7 days, respectively. Alternative conceptual models demonstrate the importance of accounting for the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity in simulating mean residence times in a riffle-pool sequence.

  4. A novel methodology for energy performance benchmarking of buildings by means of Linear Mixed Effect Model: The case of space and DHW heating of out-patient Healthcare Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozzoli, Alfonso; Piscitelli, Marco Savino; Neri, Francesco; Grassi, Daniele; Serale, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    each class of homogeneous class of buildings. From the median value of each frequency distribution, reference values were extracted to be used in a benchmarking analysis. Beyond being flexible, open and upgradeable over time, a benchmarking analysis relying on both a sound statistical basis and on stochastic simulation is indeed able to overcome the limitations of the more common deterministic or one-dimensional benchmarking approach.

  5. Use of tritium for estimation of groundwater mean residence time, a case study of the Ain Al-Samak Karst springs (Central Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2003-01-01

    This work is an attempt to estimate the mean residence time of groundwater in the Ain Al-Tanour and Ain-Samak, which are the major karst springs in the Upper Orontes Basin (Central Syria). This estimate, which consists on the application of a mathematical modeling approach, was based on the use of tritium, as a natural radioisotope tracer and a tool for ground water age dating. By adopting a completely mixed reservoir model, linked with exponential time distribution function, the mean residence time (turnover time) of these two springs was evaluated to be about 50 years. This result is in good agreement with previous estimation obtained for the Figeh main spring, which belongs to the same aquifer (Cenomanian-Turonian complex) in the Damascus Basin. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 800 million m 3 was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size

  6. Study of time dynamics of seismicity for the Mexican subduction zone by means of the visibility graph method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rojas, Alejandro; Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Flores, Leticia

    2015-04-01

    By using the method of the visibility graph (VG), five magnitude time series extracted from the seismic catalog of the Mexican subduction zone were investigated. The five seismic sequences represent the seismicity which occurred between 2005 and 2012 in five seismic areas: Guerrero, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Jalisco and Michoacan. Among the five seismic sequences, the Jalisco sequence shows VG properties significantly different from those shown by the other four. Such a difference could be inherent in the different tectonic settings of Jalisco with respect to those characterizing the other four areas. The VG properties of the seismic sequences have been put in relationship with the more typical seismological characteristics (b-value and a-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law). The present study was supported by the Bilateral Project Italy-Mexico "Experimental Stick-slip models of tectonic faults: innovative statistical approaches applied to synthetic seismic sequences", jointly funded by MAECI (Italy) and AMEXCID (Mexico) in the framework of the Bilateral Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation PE 2014-2016

  7. Relationships Between Tropical Deep Convection, Tropospheric Mean Temperature and Cloud-Induced Radiative Fluxes on Intraseasonal Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2010-01-01

    Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20degN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.

  8. The golden mean in the topology of four-manifolds, in conformal field theory, in the mathematical probability theory and in Cantorian space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work we show the connections between the topology of four-manifolds, conformal field theory, the mathematical probability theory and Cantorian space-time. In all these different mathematical fields, we find as the main connection the appearance of the golden mean

  9. An attempt at solving the problem of autocorrelation associated with use of mean approach for pooling cross-section and time series in regression modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuamah, N.N.N.N.

    1990-12-01

    The paradoxical nature of results of the mean approach in pooling cross-section and time series data has been identified to be caused by the presence in the normal equations of phenomena such as autocovariances, multicollinear covariances, drift covariances and drift multicollinear covariances. This paper considers the problem of autocorrelation and suggests ways of solving it. (author). 4 refs

  10. Effects of dietary energy concentration, nonstarch polysaccharide concentration, and particle sizes of nonstarch polysaccharides on digesta mean retention time and gut development in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    1. From an experiment with 504 laying hens (ISA Brown strain, 18–40 weeks of age), 90 40-week old hens were used for determining digesta mean retention time (MRT) and gut weight development. This experiment comprised 6 dietary treatments according to a 2¿×¿3 factorial design. Factors were dietary

  11. Isotope Investigations at an Alpine Karst Aquifer by Means of On-Site Measurements with High Time Resolution and Near Real-Time Data Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leis, A.; Plieschnegger, M.; Harum, T.; Stadler, H.; Schmitt, R.; Pelt, A. Van; Zerobin, W.

    2011-01-01

    For numerous hydrological investigations as the characterization of storage and discharge dynamics at karst springs on-site isotopic measurements with high time resolution could improve the significance of the investigations. Conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) can only be used in laboratories because of their technical complexity. Since a short time more compact laser based instruments, the so called cavity ringdown spectrometers (CRDS) are commercially available. For on-site use of such an instrument several adaptations are necessary. This concerns especially a direct sample injection from the outflow of the spring, because this is originally not intended. The studied alpine and mountainous karst system is located in the so called Northern Calcareous Alps in Austria reaching altitudes up to approx. 2300 masl. The spring is situated in the Salza-valley at an altitude of approximately 650 masl. The investigated karst spring is a typical limestone spring type according to having well developed karst conduits. The isotopic composition of the water samples were measured by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a WS-CRDS (Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy) instrument (Picarro, Inc.). In order to adapt the System for on-site isotope measurements at the spring the laser spectrometer was coupled to an automatic injection module for continuous measurements of liquid samples based on a VALCO valve. The device replaces the auto-sampler and allows quasi-continuous injections of a 2 ul-water samples into the Picarro L1102-iso-water analyzer via the Picarro vaporizer module.

  12. Time versus frequency domain calculation of the main building complex of the VVER 440/213 NPP PAKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Ratkai, S.; Halbritter, A.; Krutzik, N.J.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-01-01

    Various dynamic analyses were conducted for the main building complex of the VVER 440/213 PAKS in order to determine the dynamic response and assess the aseismic capacity of this nuclear power plant. Different types of mathematical models for idealizing the soil and the building structures were used. The main goal of the study presented here was to demonstrate the effects of different procedures for consideration of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of the structures mentioned above. The analyses were based on appropriate mathematical models of the coupled vibration structures (reactor building, turbine hall, intermediate building structures) and the layered soil. On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that substructure models using frequency-independent impedances and cut-off of modal damping usually provide conservative results. Complex models which allow the soil-soil and the structure or by frequency-dependent impedances) provide more accurate results. The latter approach results in more efficient designs which are not only safe but also economical. (author). 7 refs., 15 figs

  13. Regionalized sensitivity analysis with respect to multiple outputs - and an application for real-time building space exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben

    coordinate plot (PCP) is a popular tool, because it is easy to use in “real-time” – even for multiple decision-makers. However, the PCP becomes unmanageable if it contains many variables, e.g. more than 10–15. Since building simulations typically involve a lot more parameters, we would like to reduce...

  14. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  15. Building a democratic education. The Teacher Training College Model in times of revolutionary crisis (1974-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Mota

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to analyze the model and meaning of the reform of ordinary primary education, its ends and goals, and to address the ideological debate and clashes present in Teacher Training Colleges during the Ongoing Revolutionary Process (PREC. Experimental times of «pedagogical experiences», of the democratic construction of education, supported by a logic of equal opportunities and openness and intervention in the community, at a time when the educational system received the mandate to democratize success and combat social inequalities (Stoer, Stoleroff, Correia, 1990. Based on the triangulation of information (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000, our analysis focuses on the stakeholders’ discourses published by media specialized in education and teaching, or other, using anamnesis, oral accounts collected through interviews, and the few (still existing information sources. During the ideological debate and clash, two trends of the revolutionary process competed, that of the basic dynamics and of instrumentalisation. In the context of Teacher Training Colleges, the latter prevailed. It formed a centralised vision of the revolutionary process by fostering a mobilising dynamics, from the centre to the periphery, using the dimensions of academic knowledge, ideological principles and techniques for organising society following the ideological model established. It captured the strength and energy of the basic dynamics, either by outlining first the sense of mobilisation or assessing the propriety of the proposals arising from the mobilisation and adjusting them to its purposes. How to reference this article Mota, L., & Ferreira, A. G. (2015. La construcción de una educación democrática. Las escuelas de magisterio primario en tiempos de crisis revolucionaria (1974-1976. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(2, 265-288. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.002.013

  16. Diabetic Driving Studies-Part 3: A Comparison of Mean Brake Response Time Between Neuropathic Diabetic Drivers With and Without Foot Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansosti, Laura E; Spiess, Kerianne E; Meyr, Andrew J

    We have previously demonstrated an abnormally delayed mean brake response time and an increased frequency of abnormally delayed brake responses in a group of neuropathic diabetic drivers compared with a control group of drivers with neither diabetes nor lower extremity neuropathy. The objective of the present case-control study was to compare the mean brake response time between neuropathic diabetic drivers with and without specific diabetic foot pathology. The braking performances of the participants were evaluated using a computerized driving simulator with specific measurement of the mean brake response time and the frequency of abnormally delayed brake responses. We analyzed a control group of 20 active drivers with type 2 diabetes, lower extremity neuropathy, and no history of diabetic foot pathology and an experimental group of 20 active drivers with type 2 diabetes, lower extremity neuropathy, and a history of diabetic foot pathology (ulceration, amputation, and/or Charcot neuroarthropathy) from an urban U.S. podiatric medical clinic. Neuropathic diabetic drivers without a history of specific foot pathology demonstrated an 11.11% slower mean brake response time (0.790 ± 0.223 versus 0.711 ± 0.135 second; p time slower than a suggested threshold of 0.70 second. The results of the present investigation provide evidence that diabetic patients across a spectrum of lower extremity sensorimotor neuropathy and foot pathology demonstrate abnormal automobile brake responses and might be at risk of impaired driving function. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. On the use of mean groundwater age, life expectancy and capture probability for defining aquifer vulnerability and time-of-travel zones for source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molson, J W; Frind, E O

    2012-01-01

    Protection and sustainability of water supply wells requires the assessment of vulnerability to contamination and the delineation of well capture zones. Capture zones, or more generally, time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific contaminant travel times, are most commonly delineated using advective particle tracking. More recently, the capture probability approach has been used in which a probability of capture of P=1 is assigned to the well and the growth of a probability-of-capture plume is tracked backward in time using an advective-dispersive transport model. This approach accounts for uncertainty due to local-scale heterogeneities through the use of macrodispersion. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach to capture zone delineation by applying the concept of mean life expectancy E (time remaining before being captured by the well), and we show how life expectancy E is related to capture probability P. Either approach can be used to delineate time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific travel times, as well as the ultimate capture zone. The related concept of mean groundwater age A (time since recharge) can also be applied in the context of defining the vulnerability of a pumped aquifer. In the same way as capture probability, mean life expectancy and groundwater age account for local-scale uncertainty or unresolved heterogeneities through macrodispersion, which standard particle tracking neglects. The approach is tested on 2D and 3D idealized systems, as well as on several watershed-scale well fields within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Time-History Seismic Analysis of Masonry Buildings: A Comparison between Two Non-Linear Modelling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Betti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between two numerical modelling approaches employed to investigate the seismic behavior of unreinforced masonry buildings with flexible diaphragms. The comparison is performed analyzing a two-story prototype tested on a shaking table at the CNR-ENEA research center of Casaccia (Italy. The first numerical model was built by using the finite element (FE technique, while the second one was built by a simplified macro-element (ME approach. Both models were employed to perform non-linear dynamic analyses, integrating the equations of motion by step-by-step procedures. The shaking table tests were simulated to analyze the behavior of the prototype from the initial elastic state until the development of extensive damage. The main results of the analyses are discussed and critically compared in terms of engineering parameters, such as accelerations, displacements and base shears. The effectiveness of both models within the investigated typology of buildings is then evaluated in depth.

  19. Online Build-Order Optimization for Real-Time Strategy Agents using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Their chromosome representation is a binary string of 13 actions or 39 bits. Plans consist of a limited number of build actions for the creation of...injected via case-injection which resembles case-base reasoning. Expert actions are recorded and then transformed into chromosomes for injection into GAPs...sites supply a finite amount of a resource. For example, a gold mine in AOE will disappear after a player’s workers have extracted the finite amount of

  20. Building blocks for modular data acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B

    1996-12-31

    The principles of building blocks for modular data acquisition systems by means of the VIC bus are discussed. Real time operating systems based on the VME environment for program development drastically reducing the time needed to develop a working system. 4 figs.

  1. Generality of the Hartman and Fletcher effect for the mean tunneling time in nonrelativistic particle and photon tunnelling without absorption and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakiel, J.; Olkhovsky, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that, under certain conditions, the tunnelling time becomes independent of barrier width (the Hartman and Fletcher effect). Here, the generality of this effect is shown for mean tunnelling times in all known nonrelativistic approaches, in the cases of rectangular potential barriers without absorption and dissipation. On the base of this effect and the reshaping phenomenon, taking the analogy between nonrelativistic-particle and photon tunnelling into, account, one can self-consistently explain the observed superluminal effective (group) velocities in various photon tunnelling experiments without violation of the Einstein causality

  2. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  3. Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type. A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.

  4. Build up of radon, /sup 218/Po and /sup 214/Po in a Karlsruhe diffusion chamber as a function of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Jamil, K.; Ali, S.; Khan, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Passive radon /sup 222/Rn dosimeters employing particle detectors are widely used in concentration (p Ci/l) measurement in houses, mines and other areas of activity. These dosimeters yield track density which is needed to be converted into physically meaningful parameter of radon concentration in either p Ci/l or Bq m/sup -3/. Therefore, it is required to know the separate contributions of /sup 222/Rn and its progeny. In the present study we have measured the concentration of /sup 222/Rn and its daughters (/sup 218/Po and /sup 214/Po) separately in the Karlsruhe diffusion chamber radon dosimeter, with and without a filter, as a function of time by an active method using a surface barrier detector. The build up behavior of radon and its two daughters (/sup 218/Po and /sup 214/Po) as a function of time was studied by plotting the area under each peak versus collection time. The differential curves and the relative concentration of radon daughters as a function of time were also studied. The concentration of radon and its daughters shows a somewhat linear build up as a function of time for the presently studied time periods. The results of this experiment are expected to be useful in converting the integrated alpha track density as measured by a particle track detector, (used in passive radon dosimetry) to radon concentration levels and for determination of equilibrium factor. (author)

  5. Hypotensive anesthesia: Comparing the effects of different drug combinations on mean arterial pressure, estimated blood loss, and surgery time in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, James; Portnof, Jason E; Kalayeh, Mona; Hardigan, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Sevoflurane, an inhalational hypotensive anesthetic agent with a vasodilatory property, has been commonly used as a single agent to induce hypotension and effectively decrease blood loss in orthognathic surgery. However, it is common for patients to receive other hypotensive anesthetic agents in combination with sevoflurane. The purpose of our retrospective cohort study is to investigate whether administering an additional hypotensive agent has greater effect at reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP), estimated blood loss (EBL) and surgery time during orthognathic surgery. 57 subjects, aged 0-89 of both genders, who underwent orthognathic surgery were investigated in this study. Each patient's anesthesia records were reviewed to record the following variables of interest: EBL, duration of surgery, and MAP reduction in %. 41 subjects were placed in Group I and they received sevoflurane alone. 16 subjects were placed in Group II and they received sevoflurane plus a "supportive" agent. These "supportive" agents were esmolol, labetalol, metoprolol, nicardipine, and dexmedetomidine. The significant differences between two groups were assessed by using ANCOVA and p surgery time. Subjects in Group II experienced a greater reduction in MAP during surgery than subjects in Group I, 27.30% and 20.44%, respectively (p = 0.027). There was no significant difference for sex (p = 0.417) or age group (p = 0.113) in estimated blood loss, however. The mean surgery time in Group I was 1.93, 2.77, and 4.54 h with respect to LeFort, BSSO/IVRO, and double jaw surgery. Patients in Group II had a mean surgery time of 1.73, 2.07, and 5.64 h with respect to LeFort, BSSO/IVRO, and double jaw surgery. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated in surgery time between Group I vs. Group II (p > 0.05). Subjects in Group II experienced, on average, more blood loss than subjects in Group I, 355.50 ml and 238.90 ml, respectively. The use of multi-drug combination may offer

  6. Real-Time Recognition Non-Intrusive Electrical Appliance Monitoring Algorithm for a Residential Building Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Afrifa Agyeman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The concern of energy price hikes and the impact of climate change because of energy generation and usage forms the basis for residential building energy conservation. Existing energy meters do not provide much information about the energy usage of the individual appliance apart from its power rating. The detection of the appliance energy usage will not only help in energy conservation, but also facilitate the demand response (DR market participation as well as being one way of building energy conservation. However, energy usage by individual appliance is quite difficult to estimate. This paper proposes a novel approach: an unsupervised disaggregation method, which is a variant of the hidden Markov model (HMM, to detect an appliance and its operation state based on practicable measurable parameters from the household energy meter. Performing experiments in a practical environment validates our proposed method. Our results show that our model can provide appliance detection and power usage information in a non-intrusive manner, which is ideal for enabling power conservation efforts and participation in the demand response market.

  7. The Meaning of Meaning, Etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This paper attempts to dispel a number of misconceptions about the nature of meaning, namely that: (1) synonyms are words that have the same meanings, (2) antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, (3) homonyms are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings, (4) converses are antonyms rather than synonyms, (5)…

  8. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing the...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed.......The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing...... history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...

  9. UNCERTAINTY AND ORIENTATION TOWARDS ERRORS IN TIMES OF CRISIS. THE IMPORTANCE OF BUILDING CONFIDENCE, ENCOURAGING COLLECTIVE EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Tabernero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis is triggering a new scenario of uncertainty, which is affecting the organizational behavior of individuals and working teams. In contexts of uncertainty, organizational performance suffers a significant decline—workers are faced with the perceived threat of job loss, individuals distrust their organization and perceive that they must compete with their peers. This paper analyzes the effect of uncertainty on both performance and the affective states of workers, as well as the cognitive, affective and personality strategies (goals and error orientation to cope with uncertainty as either learning pportunities or as situations to be avoided. Moreover, this paper explores gender differences in both coping styles in situations of uncertainty and the results of a training program based on error affect inoculation in which positive emotional responses were emphasized. Finally, we discuss the relevance of generating practices and experiences of team cooperation that build trust and promote collective efficacy in work teams.

  10. An equation of mean velocity of flow in non uniform regime, its relationship with the dispersion phenomenon as time function and its application to study of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constain Aragon, A.; Lemos Ruiz, R.

    2011-01-01

    It is very well known the basic equation of hydraulics discovered by Antoine de Chezy in 1769, which relates in a quadratic from the mean velocity of flow with the slope of energy line and the hydraulic radius, in a uniform regime. This equation has been the central axis of development of hydro metrics as science that faces the huge challenges of penetrating the knowledge of earths streams every time more contaminated. In virtue of that, its mathematical structure and the relationship with other related formulas have been carefully examined, despite the limitation due to constancy of velocity. Starting from chemical considerations rather than dynamic ones as was used to obtain chezys relationship it is possible to establish a second equation for mean velocity of fluid in a non uniform regime that corresponds to averaged movement of a solute poured to steam. This equation will go to relate in an accurate way several aspects hydraulics and mass transport, sight as a single thing, allowing a vital tool for a depth study of water contaminations. to arrive this equation it was reviewed the foundations of mass transport theory in flows, stating a time dependent nature for coefficient currently used in describing dispersion phenomena allowing to interpret properly certain inconsistencies detected long time ago in this theory. It is presented the detailed results of application of this new approach to a small steam and a larger river in Colombia. (Author) 23 refs.

  11. On the real-time estimation of the wheel-rail contact force by means of a new nonlinear estimator design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of the railway vehicles is strongly influenced by the interaction between the wheel and the rail. This kind of contact is affected by several conditioning factors such as vehicle speed, wear, adhesion level and, moreover, it is nonlinear. As a consequence, the modelling and the observation of this kind of phenomenon are complex tasks but, at the same time, they constitute a fundamental step for the estimation of the adhesion level or for the vehicle condition monitoring. This paper presents a novel technique for the real time estimation of the wheel-rail contact forces based on an estimator design model that takes into account the nonlinearities of the interaction by means of a fitting model functional to reproduce the contact mechanics in a wide range of slip and to be easily integrated in a complete model based estimator for railway vehicle.

  12. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  13. Complex time series analysis of PM10 and PM2.5 for a coastal site using artificial neural network modelling and k-means clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangasinghe, M. A.; Singhal, N.; Dirks, K. N.; Salmond, J. A.; Samarasinghe, S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper uses artificial neural networks (ANN), combined with k-means clustering, to understand the complex time series of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at a coastal location of New Zealand based on data from a single site. Out of available meteorological parameters from the network (wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity), key factors governing the pattern of the time series concentrations were identified through input sensitivity analysis performed on the trained neural network model. The transport pathways of particulate matter under these key meteorological parameters were further analysed through bivariate concentration polar plots and k-means clustering techniques. The analysis shows that the external sources such as marine aerosols and local sources such as traffic and biomass burning contribute equally to the particulate matter concentrations at the study site. These results are in agreement with the results of receptor modelling by the Auckland Council based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Our findings also show that contrasting concentration-wind speed relationships exist between marine aerosols and local traffic sources resulting in very noisy and seemingly large random PM10 concentrations. The inclusion of cluster rankings as an input parameter to the ANN model showed a statistically significant (p advanced air dispersion models.

  14. A Real-Time Construction Safety Monitoring System for Hazardous Gas Integrating Wireless Sensor Network and Building Information Modeling Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Weng-Fong; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2018-02-02

    In recent years, many studies have focused on the application of advanced technology as a way to improve management of construction safety management. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), one of the key technologies in Internet of Things (IoT) development, enables objects and devices to sense and communicate environmental conditions; Building Information Modeling (BIM), a revolutionary technology in construction, integrates database and geometry into a digital model which provides a visualized way in all construction lifecycle management. This paper integrates BIM and WSN into a unique system which enables the construction site to visually monitor the safety status via a spatial, colored interface and remove any hazardous gas automatically. Many wireless sensor nodes were placed on an underground construction site and to collect hazardous gas level and environmental condition (temperature and humidity) data, and in any region where an abnormal status is detected, the BIM model will alert the region and an alarm and ventilator on site will start automatically for warning and removing the hazard. The proposed system can greatly enhance the efficiency in construction safety management and provide an important reference information in rescue tasks. Finally, a case study demonstrates the applicability of the proposed system and the practical benefits, limitations, conclusions, and suggestions are summarized for further applications.

  15. A New Approach to Performing Bundle Adjustment for Time Series UAV Images 3D Building Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhuo Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful change detection in multi-temporal images relies on high spatial co-registration accuracy. However, co-registration accuracy alone cannot meet the needs of change detection when using several ground control points to separately geo-reference multi-temporal images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. This letter reports on a new approach to perform bundle adjustment—named united bundle adjustment (UBA—to solve this co-registration problem for change detection in multi-temporal UAV images. In UBA, multi-temporal UAV images are matched with each other to construct a unified tie point net. One single bundle adjustment process is performed on the unified tie point net, placing every image into the same coordinate system and thus automatically accomplishing spatial co-registration. We then perform change detection using both orthophotos and three-dimensional height information derived from dense image matching techniques. Experimental results show that UBA co-registration accuracy is higher than the accuracy of commonly-used approaches for multi-temporal UAV images. Our proposed preprocessing method extends the capacities of consumer-level UAVs so they can eventually meet the growing need for automatic building change detection and dynamic monitoring using only RGB band images.

  16. Building a strategy for obesity prevention one piece at a time: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Susan; Raine, Kim D; Arango, Manuel; Pellerin, Suzie; Neary, Neil E

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health issue in Canada that is reaching historically high levels in spite of efforts, targeted primarily at individual behaviour, to promote changes in diet and physical activity. Urgency for change at the population level compels moving "upstream" toward multilevel, societal approaches for obesity prevention. Public health researchers, advocates and policy makers are increasingly recognizing the current food environment, including availability, pricing, and marketing of foods and beverages, promotes overconsumption of unhealthy food and beverage choices and have identified the food environment as a point for intervention for obesity prevention. In April 2011, a consensus conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice fields was held. The conference aimed to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity, including next logical steps toward further policy action. Using economic policies, such as taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), was discussed as one opportunity to promote healthy eating. This article reports on the consensus discussion that led to recommendations to tax sugar-sweetened beverages as one step in a multipronged comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. This recommendation is based on a synthesis of available evidence, including evidence regarding political feasibility, and potential impacts of a tax. In addition, we present additional primary research using current SSB consumption data to model the economic and behavioural impact of such a tax in Canada. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A SVDD and K-Means Based Early Warning Method for Dual-Rotor Equipment under Time-Varying Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinong Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Under frequently time-varying operating conditions, equipment with dual rotors like gas turbines is influenced by two rotors with different rotating speeds. Alarm methods of fixed threshold are unable to consider the influences of time-varying operating conditions. Hence, those methods are not suitable for monitoring dual-rotor equipment. An early warning method for dual-rotor equipment under time-varying operating conditions is proposed in this paper. The influences of time-varying rotating speeds of dual rotors on alarm thresholds have been considered. Firstly, the operating conditions are divided into several limited intervals according to rotating speeds of dual rotors. Secondly, the train data within each interval is processed by SVDD and the allowable ranges (i.e., the alarm threshold of the vibration are determined. The alarm threshold of each interval of operating conditions is obtained. The alarm threshold can be expressed as a sphere, whose controlling parameters are the coordinate of the center and the radius. Then, the cluster center of the test data, whose alarm state is to be judged, can be extracted through K-means. Finally, the alarm state can be obtained by comparing the cluster center with the corresponding sphere. Experiments are conducted to validate the proposed method.

  18. Short-term volcano-tectonic earthquake forecasts based on a moving mean recurrence time algorithm: the El Hierro seismo-volcanic crisis experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alicia; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Marrero, José M.; Ortiz, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Under certain conditions, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes may pose significant hazards to people living in or near active volcanic regions, especially on volcanic islands; however, hazard arising from VT activity caused by localized volcanic sources is rarely addressed in the literature. The evolution of VT earthquakes resulting from a magmatic intrusion shows some orderly behaviour that may allow the occurrence and magnitude of major events to be forecast. Thus governmental decision makers can be supplied with warnings of the increased probability of larger-magnitude earthquakes on the short-term timescale. We present here a methodology for forecasting the occurrence of large-magnitude VT events during volcanic crises; it is based on a mean recurrence time (MRT) algorithm that translates the Gutenberg-Richter distribution parameter fluctuations into time windows of increased probability of a major VT earthquake. The MRT forecasting algorithm was developed after observing a repetitive pattern in the seismic swarm episodes occurring between July and November 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands). From then on, this methodology has been applied to the consecutive seismic crises registered at El Hierro, achieving a high success rate in the real-time forecasting, within 10-day time windows, of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

  19. Modeling In-Use Steel Stock in China’s Buildings and Civil Engineering Infrastructure Using Time-Series of DMSP/OLS Nighttime Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwei Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid urbanization has led to increasing steel consumption for buildings and civil engineering infrastructure. The in-use steel stock in the same is considered to be closely related to social welfare and urban metabolism. Traditional approaches for determining the in-use steel stock are labor-intensive and time-consuming processes and always hindered by the availability of statistical data. To address this issue, this study proposed the use of long-term nighttime lights as a proxy to effectively estimate in-use steel stock for buildings (IUSSB and civil engineering infrastructure (IUSSCE at the provincial level in China. Significant relationships between nighttime lights versus IUSSB and IUSSCE were observed for provincial variables in a single year, as well as for time series variables of a single province. However, these relationships were found to differ among provinces (referred to as “inter-individual differences” and with time (referred to as “temporal differences”. Panel regression models were therefore proposed to estimate IUSSB and IUSSCE in consideration of the temporal and inter-individual differences based on a dataset covering 1992–2007. These models were validated using data for 2008, and the results showed good estimation for both IUSSB and IUSSCE. The proposed approach can be used to easily monitor the dynamic of IUSSB and IUSSCE in China. This should be critical in providing valuable information for policy making regarding regional development of buildings and infrastructure, sustainable urban resource management, and cross-boundary material recycling.

  20. Characterization of mean transit time at large springs in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA: A tool for assessing groundwater discharge vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John; Stolp, Bernard J.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental tracers (noble gases, tritium, industrial gases, stable isotopes, and radio-carbon) and hydrogeology were interpreted to determine groundwater transit-time distribution and calculate mean transit time (MTT) with lumped parameter modeling at 19 large springs distributed throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA. The predictive value of the MTT to evaluate the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress (i.e., vulnerability) is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the springs range from 10 to 15,000 years and 90 % of the cumulative discharge-weighted travel-time distribution falls within the range of 2−10,000 years. Historical variability in discharge was assessed as the ratio of 10–90 % flow-exceedance (R 10/90%) and ranged from 2.8 to 1.1 for select springs with available discharge data. The lag-time (i.e., delay in discharge response to drought conditions) was determined by cross-correlation analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 6 years for the same select springs. Springs with shorter MTTs (<80 years) statistically correlate with larger discharge variations and faster responses to drought, indicating MTT can be used for estimating the relative magnitude and timing of groundwater response. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to streams in the UCRB will likely respond on the order of years to climate variation and increasing groundwater withdrawals.

  1. First results from plasma density measurements in the FTU tokamak by means of a two-frequency pulsed time-of-flight refractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, V. G.; Malyshev, A. Yu.; Markov, V. K.; Petrov, A. A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Avino, F.; Angelis, R. de; Tudisco, O. [ENEA-UT Fusione Centro Ricerche Frascati (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    A pulsed time-of-flight refractometer was developed and tested to determine the mean plasma density in the T-11M tokamak by measuring the propagation time of nanosecond microwave pulses in plasma. Later, it was also proposed to use such an instrument to measure and control the mean plasma density in the ITER tokamak by probing the plasma with an extraordinary wave, the electric field of which is perpendicular to the magnetic field in plasma, in the transparency window at frequencies of 50-100 GHz. To avoid the effect of the density profile shape on the measurement results in the nonlinear mode of refractometer operation (near the cutoff), a system operating at two different probing frequencies was developed and tested. Such a system provides two values of the time delay, which can be used to estimate the peaking factor of the density distribution {alpha} and correctly determine the linear density Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Nl Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , regardless of the density profile (assuming a smooth density profile of the form of N({rho}) = N(0)(1 - {rho}{sup 2}){sup {alpha}}, where N(0) is the central plasma density and {rho} = r/a is the normalized plasma radius). The first experiments on density measurements in the FTU tokamak performed with this refractometer are described, and results from these experiments are presented. The formation of a thin dense plasma layer in the zone of a strong magnetic field (the so-called MARFE layer) at a relatively low (for FTU) plasma density of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} was detected. The thickness of this layer, determined from the refractometry data, agrees well with the data obtained using a digital camera.

  2. The Influence Of Nitridation Temperature And Time On The Surface Hardness Of AISI 1010 Low Carbon Steels Nitrided By Means Of Plasma Glow Discharge Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujitno, Tjipto; Mujiman, Supardjono

    1996-01-01

    The results of the influence of nitridation temperature and time on the surface hardness of AISI 1010 low carbon steels nitrided by means of plasma glow discharge technique are presented in this paper. The results are the changing of surface hardiness, the changing of surface microstructure and the penetration profile depth. The experiment has been carried out at the temperature 400 o C, 450 o C, 500 o C, 550 o C, 570 o C and 600 o C, whereas the time is 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 90 minutes and 180 minutes. All the experiments have been carried out at the optimum plasma density condition. The optimum plasma density condition is achieved at the pressure of p = 0.2 torr, when thr gas flow of nitrogen is 0.6 liter/minute and the distance of electrode plate is 4.5 cm. It was found that the optimum hardness of the surface was achieved at the temperature of 570 o C and the time of nitridation was 90 minutes, i.e. 190 KHN

  3. Quite time convection electric field properties derived from keV electron measurements at the inner edge of the plasma sheet by means of GEOS 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reme, H.; Kremser, G.; Bahnsen, A.; Jespersen, M.; Hultqvist, B.; Borg, H.; Holmgren, L.Aa.

    1981-04-01

    From an analysis of the local time distribution of the electron upper energy limit reached by the geostationary satellite GEOS 2 in cutting through the innermost part of the electron plasma sheet during fairly quite condition the following results have been obtained, among others: An electric field model given by E = -grad(AR 4 sinphi), with the dusk singular point of the forbidden region boundary at 1500, instead of at 1800 MLT, is in quite good agreement with the observations. This means that effects due to the shielding by the hot plasma of the inner magnetosphere from the convection electric field are quite strong in situations of low disturbance level. The quiet time convection electric field strength at 2100 MLT in the geostationary orbit obtained from this analysis varies in the range 0.15 - 0.3 keV/Rsub(e). Six hours earlier or later in the satellite orbit the convection field is 4 times stronger. Also when the convection field varies, some information about its magnitude can be obtained from the keV electron measurements. (author)

  4. Elucidating fluctuating diffusivity in center-of-mass motion of polymer models with time-averaged mean-square-displacement tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige

    2017-10-01

    There have been increasing reports that the diffusion coefficient of macromolecules depends on time and fluctuates randomly. Here a method is developed to elucidate this fluctuating diffusivity from trajectory data. Time-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD), a common tool in single-particle-tracking (SPT) experiments, is generalized to a second-order tensor with which both magnitude and orientation fluctuations of the diffusivity can be clearly detected. This method is used to analyze the center-of-mass motion of four fundamental polymer models: the Rouse model, the Zimm model, a reptation model, and a rigid rodlike polymer. It is found that these models exhibit distinctly different types of magnitude and orientation fluctuations of diffusivity. This is an advantage of the present method over previous ones, such as the ergodicity-breaking parameter and a non-Gaussian parameter, because with either of these parameters it is difficult to distinguish the dynamics of the four polymer models. Also, the present method of a time-averaged MSD tensor could be used to analyze trajectory data obtained in SPT experiments.

  5. Quantitation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene messenger RNA in gliomas by means of real-time RT-PCR and clinical response to nitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Oka, Hidehiro; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Watanabe, Kaoru; Nagao, Kumi; Kakimoto, Atsushi

    2005-09-01

    1. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) mRNA was measured in 50 malignant gliomas that had received 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidynyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) after the resection of the tumor by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using TaqMan probe. 2. The mean absolute value of MGMTmRNA normalized to the level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) for 50 tumors was 1.29 x 10(4)+/- 1.28 x 10(4) copy/microg RNA (mean +/- SD). The amount of MGMTmRNA less than 6 x 10(3) copy/microg RNA was the most significant factor in predicting the initial effect of treatment with ACNU by multi-variant regression analysis (p = 0.0157). 3. These results suggest that quantitation of MGMTmRNA is the excellent method for predicting for the effect of ACNU in glioma therapy.

  6. Characterization of gate oxynitrides by means of time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantification of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, S.; Perego, M.; Fanciulli, M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a methodology for the quantitative estimation of nitrogen in ultrathin oxynitrides by means of time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We consider an innovative approach to TOF-SIMS depth profiling, by elemental distribution of single species as sum of peaks containing such species. This approach is very efficient in overcoming matrix effect arising when quantifying elements were distributed in silicon and silicon oxide. We use XPS to calibrate TOF-SIMS and to obtain quantitative information on nitrogen distribution in oxynitride thin layers. In the method we propose we process TOF-SIMS and XPS data simultaneously to obtain a quantitative depth profile

  7. Cooperative effect of random and time-periodic coupling strength on synchronization transitions in one-way coupled neural system: mean field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiancheng, Shi; Min, Luo; Chusheng, Huang

    2017-08-01

    The cooperative effect of random coupling strength and time-periodic coupling strengh on synchronization transitions in one-way coupled neural system has been investigated by mean field approach. Results show that cooperative coupling strength (CCS) plays an active role for the enhancement of synchronization transitions. There exist an optimal frequency of CCS which makes the system display the best CCS-induced synchronization transitions, a critical frequency of CCS which can not further affect the CCS-induced synchronization transitions, and a critical amplitude of CCS which can not occur the CCS-induced synchronization transitions. Meanwhile, noise intensity plays a negative role for the CCS-induced synchronization transitions. Furthermore, it is found that the novel CCS amplitude-induced synchronization transitions and CCS frequency-induced synchronization transitions are found.

  8. Teaching "The Lesson of Satire": Using "The Wipers Times" to Build an Enquiry on the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary; Massey, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    "Blackadder for real" is how the British journalist and broadcaster, Ian Hislop, characterised "The Wipers Time", the newspaper published on the front line by members of the 12th Battalion Sherwood, and recently brought to a new audience in Hislop's BBC dramatisation. Mary Brown and Carolyn Massey were immediately struck by the…

  9. Building health behavior models to guide the development of just-in-time adaptive interventions: A pragmatic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Hekler, Eric B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Advances in wireless devices and mobile technology offer many opportunities for delivering just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs)-suites of interventions that adapt over time to an individual's changing status and circumstances with the goal to address the individual's need for support, whenever this need arises. A major challenge confronting behavioral scientists aiming to develop a JITAI concerns the selection and integration of existing empirical, theoretical and practical evidence into a scientific model that can inform the construction of a JITAI and help identify scientific gaps. The purpose of this paper is to establish a pragmatic framework that can be used to organize existing evidence into a useful model for JITAI construction. This framework involves clarifying the conceptual purpose of a JITAI, namely, the provision of just-in-time support via adaptation, as well as describing the components of a JITAI and articulating a list of concrete questions to guide the establishment of a useful model for JITAI construction. The proposed framework includes an organizing scheme for translating the relatively static scientific models underlying many health behavior interventions into a more dynamic model that better incorporates the element of time. This framework will help to guide the next generation of empirical work to support the creation of effective JITAIs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. UNAVCO GPS High-Rate and Real-Time Products and Services: Building a next generation geodetic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, David; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen; Feaux, Karl; Looney, Sara; Sievers, Charles; Austin, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in GPS technology and data processing are providing position estimates with centimeter-level precision at high-rate (1-5 Hz) and low latency (transforming rapid event characterization, early warning, as well as hazard mitigation and response. Other scientific and operational applications for high-rate GPS also include glacier and ice sheet motions, tropospheric modeling, and better constraints on the dynamics of space weather. UNAVCO, through community input and the recent Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) NSF-ARRA Cascadia initiative, has nearly completed the process of upgrading a total of 373 PBO GPS sites to real-time high-rate capability and these streams are now being archived in the UNAVCO data center. Further, through the UNAVCO core proposal (GAGE), currently under review at NSF, UNAVCO has proposed upgrading a significant portion of the ~1100 GPS stations that PBO currently operates to real-time high-rate capability to address community science and operational needs. In addition, in collaboration with NOAA, 74 of these stations will provide meteorological data in real-time, primarily to support watershed and flood analyses for regional early-warning systems related to NOAA's work with California Department of Water Resources. In preparation for this increased emphasis on high-rate GPS data, UNAVCO hosted an NSF funded workshop in Boulder, CO on March 26-28, 2012, which brought together 70 participants representing a spectrum of research fields with a goal to develop a community plan for the use of real-time GPS data products within the UNAVCO and EarthScope communities. These data products are expected to improve and expand the use of real-time, high-rate GPS data over the next decade.

  11. Intra-individual gait patterns across different time-scales as revealed by means of a supervised learning model using kernel-based discriminant regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Horst

    Full Text Available Traditionally, gait analysis has been centered on the idea of average behavior and normality. On one hand, clinical diagnoses and therapeutic interventions typically assume that average gait patterns remain constant over time. On the other hand, it is well known that all our movements are accompanied by a certain amount of variability, which does not allow us to make two identical steps. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the intra-individual gait patterns across different time-scales (i.e., tens-of-mins, tens-of-hours.Nine healthy subjects performed 15 gait trials at a self-selected speed on 6 sessions within one day (duration between two subsequent sessions from 10 to 90 mins. For each trial, time-continuous ground reaction forces and lower body joint angles were measured. A supervised learning model using a kernel-based discriminant regression was applied for classifying sessions within individual gait patterns.Discernable characteristics of intra-individual gait patterns could be distinguished between repeated sessions by classification rates of 67.8 ± 8.8% and 86.3 ± 7.9% for the six-session-classification of ground reaction forces and lower body joint angles, respectively. Furthermore, the one-on-one-classification showed that increasing classification rates go along with increasing time durations between two sessions and indicate that changes of gait patterns appear at different time-scales.Discernable characteristics between repeated sessions indicate continuous intrinsic changes in intra-individual gait patterns and suggest a predominant role of deterministic processes in human motor control and learning. Natural changes of gait patterns without any externally induced injury or intervention may reflect continuous adaptations of the motor system over several time-scales. Accordingly, the modelling of walking by means of average gait patterns that are assumed to be near constant over time needs to be reconsidered in the

  12. Evaluating the impact of land use changes on the behaviour of shallow aquifers, by quantifying the groundwater mean residence times distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Gillon, Marina; Marc, Vincent; Cognard-Plancq, Anne-Laure; Baillieux, Antoine; Babic, Milanka; Simler, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Residence time is one of the key factors of the groundwater resource management. The Crau aquifer (Mediterranean area, south of France) is a major resource for drinking water supply, threatened by climate change, changes in irrigation patterns, and urban expansion. Water residence time in the aquifer is expected to be highly dependent on these changes. We propose to determinate it using an isotopic approach, associated to numerical modelling. The Crau aquifer is a palaeo-alluvial fan of the Durance river, made of alluviums lying on a Miocene substratum, and recharged by rainwater and gravity irrigation water, diverted from the Durance river. The irrigation water being more depleted in 18O than the rain water, the contribution of irrigation to the aquifer recharge can be quantified (up to 80 to 85% of the total recharge), but is variable in space and time. The modelling approach uses two models, a lumped one and a discretised one. They are based on daily recharge data (rainfall, drainage rates under irrigated crops calculated from the STICS crop model, Olioso et al., 2013), and on monthly water sampling conducted from February 2012 to November 2016 for δ18O content in rainwater, surface water and groundwater. The lumped approach was carried out at a monthly time step, using a binary mixing model, including two exponentially draining reservoirs in parallel. It leads to a satisfying simulation of the δ18O variations in the monitored wells, and gives mean residence times between 3 and 20 months depending on the wells locations. The discretised model is a combination of MODFLOW and MODPATH, through the free user interface MODELMUSE, on a daily time-step. The permeability map used is the one calibrated by Baillieux et al. (2015). Recharge is applied with an increasing spatial complexity, in three successive steps: - a homogeneous recharge, provided by the intermediate output of the lumped model, in order to compare the two models results; - a recharge discretised in

  13. Intra-individual gait patterns across different time-scales as revealed by means of a supervised learning model using kernel-based discriminant regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Fabian; Eekhoff, Alexander; Newell, Karl M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, gait analysis has been centered on the idea of average behavior and normality. On one hand, clinical diagnoses and therapeutic interventions typically assume that average gait patterns remain constant over time. On the other hand, it is well known that all our movements are accompanied by a certain amount of variability, which does not allow us to make two identical steps. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the intra-individual gait patterns across different time-scales (i.e., tens-of-mins, tens-of-hours). Nine healthy subjects performed 15 gait trials at a self-selected speed on 6 sessions within one day (duration between two subsequent sessions from 10 to 90 mins). For each trial, time-continuous ground reaction forces and lower body joint angles were measured. A supervised learning model using a kernel-based discriminant regression was applied for classifying sessions within individual gait patterns. Discernable characteristics of intra-individual gait patterns could be distinguished between repeated sessions by classification rates of 67.8 ± 8.8% and 86.3 ± 7.9% for the six-session-classification of ground reaction forces and lower body joint angles, respectively. Furthermore, the one-on-one-classification showed that increasing classification rates go along with increasing time durations between two sessions and indicate that changes of gait patterns appear at different time-scales. Discernable characteristics between repeated sessions indicate continuous intrinsic changes in intra-individual gait patterns and suggest a predominant role of deterministic processes in human motor control and learning. Natural changes of gait patterns without any externally induced injury or intervention may reflect continuous adaptations of the motor system over several time-scales. Accordingly, the modelling of walking by means of average gait patterns that are assumed to be near constant over time needs to be reconsidered in the context of

  14. Using tritium to document the mean transit time and sources of water contributing to a chain-of-ponds river system: Implications for resource protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, I.; Morgenstern, U.

    2016-01-01

    Documenting the interaction between groundwater and rivers is fundamental to understanding hydrological systems. While many studies have examined the location and magnitude of groundwater inflows to rivers, much less is known about the transit times of water in catchments and from where in the aquifer the groundwater originates. Resolving those questions is vital for protecting riverine ecosystems, assessing the impact of contamination, and understanding the potential consequences of groundwater pumping. This study uses tritium ("3H) to evaluate the mean transit times of water contributing to Deep Creek (southeast Australia), which is a chain-of-ponds river system. "3H activities of river water vary between 1.47 and 2.91 TU with lower "3H activities recorded during cease-to-flow periods when the river comprises isolated groundwater-fed pools. Regional groundwater 1–2.5 km away from Deep Creek at depths of 7.5–46.5 m has "3H activities of between 100 years. Alternatively the variation in "3H activities can be explained by mixing of a young near-river water component with up to 50% older groundwater. The results of this study reinforce the need to protect shallow near-river groundwater from contamination in order to safeguard riverine ecosystems and also illustrate the potential pitfalls in using regional bores to characterise the geochemistry of near-river groundwater. - Highlights: • We measured tritium in river water and groundwater from a groundwater-fed river. • Transit times of the river water are years to decades. • Transit times of regional groundwater are decades to centuries. • Regional groundwater is only a minor component of the river water. • Results have implications for protection of the river and its ecosystems.

  15. Assessment of the heterogeneous ruminal fiber pool and development of a mathematical approach for predicting the mean retention time of feeds in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate ruminal fiber stratification and to develop a mathematical approach for predicting the mean retention time (MRT) of forage and concentrates in goats. A dataset from 3 studies was used that contained information regarding fiber and lignin intake as well as ruminal content and the kinetics of fiber passage for forage and concentrates. The kinetic information was obtained through pulse dose and the fecal concentration measurement of forage and concentrate markers in the same animals that were used to measure ruminal content. The evaluation of heterogeneous fiber pools in the rumen was performed using the Lucas' test assumptions, and the marker excretion profiles were interpreted using a model known in the literature as GNG1. The GNG1 model assumes an age-dependent fractional rate for the transfer of particles from the raft to the escapable pool in the rumen (λ(r); h(-1)) and an age-independent fractional rate for the escape of particles from the escapable pool to the remaining parts of the stomach (k(e); h(-1)). The equations used to predict the MRT for forage and concentrate fiber were developed using stepwise regression. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the relationships between the dependent and independent variables and between forage and concentrate passage rates. The Lucas' test yields goodness-of-fit estimates for NDF analysis; however, the homogeneous fiber pool approach could not be applied because a positive intercept (P ruminal content. The stepwise regression model for MRT estimation had an approximate coefficient of determination and a root mean square error (RMSE) for forage of 0.53 and 9.78 h, respectively, and for concentrate of 0.49 and 5.86 h, respectively. The sensitivity analysis yielded a mean rate of passage (k(p)) value for forage of 0.0322 h(-1) (0.0158 to 0.0556 h(-1)) with 99% confidence interval. For the concentrate, the mean k(p) value was of 0

  16. Thermal insulation. Non-utilized energy need not be generated. Four rules for a successful thermal insulation by means of building insulation; Waermedaemmung. Energie, die nicht gebraucht wird, muss man nicht erzeugen. Vier Regeln fuer erfolgreichen Waermeschutz durch Gebaeudedaemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patschke, Markus [3E-Consult, Nordkirchen (Germany); Drewer, Arnold [IpeG-Institut, Paderborn (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The heat supply of buildings causes nearly one third of the energy consumption of an industrialized country. In 2006, the climate-adjusted heat consumption of private households in Germany amounted nearly 600 billion kWh. This consumption caused more than 167 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Heat insulation measures in buildings are required for all heat-transferring enveloping surface. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on four fundamental rules for a cost-efficient building insulation: (a) Only heated rooms should be insulated thermally; (b) Location and thermal insulation of cavities; (c) Selection of a suitable insulating material; (d) Consideration of an economic sustainability.

  17. Building metamemorial knowledge over time: insights from eye tracking about the bases of feeling-of-knowing and confidence judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Elizabeth F; Solinger, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Metamemory processes depend on different factors across the learning and memory time-scale. In the laboratory, subjects are often asked to make prospective feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments about target retrievability, or are asked to make retrospective confidence judgments (RCJs) about the retrieved target. We examined distinct and shared contributors to metamemory judgments, and how they were built over time. Eye movements were monitored during a face-scene associative memory task. At test, participants viewed a studied scene, then rated their FOK that they would remember the associated face. This was followed by a forced choice recognition test and RCJs. FOK judgments were less accurate than RCJ judgments, showing that the addition of mnemonic experience can increase metacognitive accuracy over time. However, there was also evidence that the given FOK rating influenced RCJs. Turning to eye movements, initial analyses showed that higher cue fluency was related to both higher FOKs and higher RCJs. However, further analyses revealed that the effects of the scene cue on RCJs were mediated by FOKs. Turning to the target, increased viewing time and faster viewing of the correct associate related to higher FOKs, consistent with the idea that target accessibility is a basis of FOKs. In contrast, the amount of viewing directed to the chosen face, regardless of whether it was correct, predicted higher RCJs, suggesting that choice experience is a significant contributor RCJs. We also examined covariates of the change in RCJ rating from the FOK rating, and showed that increased and faster viewing of the chosen face predicted raising one's confidence above one's FOK. Taken together these results suggest that metamemory judgments should not be thought of only as distinct subjective experiences, but complex processes that interact and evolve as new psychological bases for subjective experience become available.

  18. Speakers' acceptance of real-time speech exchange indicates that we use auditory feedback to specify the meaning of what we say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Andreas; Hall, Lars; Breidegard, Björn; Balkenius, Christian; Johansson, Petter

    2014-06-01

    Speech is usually assumed to start with a clearly defined preverbal message, which provides a benchmark for self-monitoring and a robust sense of agency for one's utterances. However, an alternative hypothesis states that speakers often have no detailed preview of what they are about to say, and that they instead use auditory feedback to infer the meaning of their words. In the experiment reported here, participants performed a Stroop color-naming task while we covertly manipulated their auditory feedback in real time so that they said one thing but heard themselves saying something else. Under ideal timing conditions, two thirds of these semantic exchanges went undetected by the participants, and in 85% of all nondetected exchanges, the inserted words were experienced as self-produced. These findings indicate that the sense of agency for speech has a strong inferential component, and that auditory feedback of one's own voice acts as a pathway for semantic monitoring, potentially overriding other feedback loops. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  20. Multi-Objective Optimization of Building Energy Design to Reconcile Collective and Private Perspectives: CO2-eq vs. Discounted Payback Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hamdy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Building energy design is a multi-objective optimization problem where collective and private perspectives conflict each other. For instance, whereas the collectivity pursues the minimization of environmental impact, the private pursues the maximization of financial viability. Solving such trade-off design problems usually involves a big computational cost for exploring a huge solution domain including a large number of design options. To reduce that computational cost, a bi-objective simulation-based optimization algorithm, developed in a previous study, is applied in the present investigation. The algorithm is implemented for minimizing the CO2-eq emissions and the discounted payback time (DPB of a single-family house in cold climate, where 13,456 design solutions including building envelope and heating system options are explored and compared to a predefined reference case. The whole building life is considered by assuming a calculation period of 30 years. The results show that the type of heating system significantly affects energy performance; notably, the ground source heat pump leads to the highest reduction in CO2-eq emissions, around 1300 kgCO2-eq/m2, with 17 year DPB; the oil fire boiler can provide the lowest DPB, equal to 8.5 years, with 850 kgCO2-eq/m2 reduction. In addition, it is shown that using too high levels of thermal insulation is not an effective solution as it causes unacceptable levels of summertime overheating. Finally a multi-objective decision making approach is proposed in order to enable the stakeholders to choice among the optimal solutions according to the weight given to each objective, and thus to each perspective.