WorldWideScience

Sample records for meaning choice quality

  1. Generation and quality assessment of route choice sets in public transport networks by means of RP data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Literature in route choice modelling shows that a lot of attention has been devoted to route choices of car drivers, but much less attention has been dedicated to route choices of public transport users. As modelling route choice behaviour consists of generating relevant routes and estimating...... discrete choice models, this paper focuses on the issue of choice set generation in public transport networks. Specifically, this paper describes the generation of choice sets for users of the Greater Copenhagen public transport system by applying a doubly stochastic path generation algorithm...

  2. Predicting binary choices from probability phrase meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsten, Thomas S; Jang, Yoonhee

    2008-08-01

    The issues of how individuals decide which of two events is more likely and of how they understand probability phrases both involve judging relative likelihoods. In this study, we investigated whether derived scales representing probability phrase meanings could be used within a choice model to predict independently observed binary choices. If they can, this simultaneously provides support for our model and suggests that the phrase meanings are measured meaningfully. The model assumes that, when deciding which of two events is more likely, judges take a single sample from memory regarding each event and respond accordingly. The model predicts choice probabilities by using the scaled meanings of individually selected probability phrases as proxies for confidence distributions associated with sampling from memory. Predictions are sustained for 34 of 41 participants but, nevertheless, are biased slightly low. Sequential sampling models improve the fit. The results have both theoretical and applied implications.

  3. Consumers' food choice and quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Grunert, Klaus G.

    to which the topic has been researched at MAPP. As a general framework for analysing consumer quality perception and choice of food products, MAPP has developed the Total Food Quality Model, which will be used to structure this overview. We start by presenting the Total Food Quality Model and an overview......There is a long tradition of research into consumers' food choice and quality perception. In the last few years, however, these topics have received even more attention due to the intense debate about such issues as ethical considerations in relation to food production and quality, food scandals...... and the resulting food scares among consumers, genetic modification of foods, and animal welfare (or, rather, non-welfare), which has made questions regarding food quality and consumers' supposedly rational or irrational food choices even more urgent. Increased interest in health and quality stands in stark...

  4. Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Key policy choices in groundwater quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batie, S.S.; Diebel, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental policy choice of who has the right to do what to whom is a pivotal issue of governance. Over the last few decades, the answer to that question has become more restrictive to those who own and use natural resources as inputs into production processes. Increasingly, the beneficiaries of new policy initiatives are those who desire higher protection of groundwater quality. With respect to groundwater management, policy design increasingly reflects such diverse interests as agriculturists, industrialists, homeowners, local government officials and state officials. Policy design is becoming complex, in part because of this diversity and in part because scientific uncertainty hampers informed policy design. No umbrella federal legislation exists for managing groundwater resources. EPA's role has been mainly an advisory one on groundwater issues. The difficulties and responsibilities of protecting groundwater thus remain with the states. For the near future, it is the states that will address key policy choices with respect to groundwater quality management issues

  6. Diet quality index for healthy food choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caivano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a Diet Quality Index proper for dietary intake studies of Brazilian adults. METHODS: A diet quality index to analyze the incorporation of healthy food choices was associated with a digital food guide. This index includes moderation components, destined to indicate foods that may represent a risk when in excess, and adequacy components that include sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds in order to help individuals meet their nutritional requirements. The diet quality index-digital food guide performance was measured by determining its psychometric properties, namely content and construct validity, as well as internal consistency. RESULTS: The moderation and adequacy components correlated weakly with dietary energy (-0.16 to 0.09. The strongest correlation (0.52 occurred between the component 'sugars and sweets' and the total score. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha for reliability was 0.36. CONCLUSION: Given that diet quality is a complex and multidimensional construct, the Diet Quality Index-Digital Food Guide, whose validity is comparable to those of other indices, is a useful resource for Brazilian dietary studies. However, new studies can provide additional information to improve its reliability.

  7. After the withdrawal of 'informed choice': the meanings and social effects of mothers' choice for HIV prevention in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Alice

    2014-01-01

    To prevent HIV transmission through breastfeeding, African health services in 1998 implemented the World Health Organization's approach of 'informed choice' when recommending infant feeding options to HIV-positive mothers. In 2010, 'informed choice' was withdrawn in favour of antiretroviral prophylaxis with breastfeeding. A 2010-11 ethnographic study conducted in Senegal among HIV-positive mothers revealed three broad responses to the withdrawal of choice and formula provision: 'resistance' from association members claiming the health system was responsible for providing formula to ensure efficient prevention; 'compliance' among mothers adopting 'protected breastfeeding' without complaints; and 'self-reliance' among women trying to obtain formula through other means without mentioning choice. These three responses shed light on the meanings attributed to choice and on the social impact of formula provision during the 'informed choice era.' The analysis shows that the top-down introduction of 'informed choice' as an ethical and management imperative was appropriated and re-signified locally, making space for new forms of sociality within medical and associative social spaces. These social forms could not easily be maintained after the withdrawal of formula provision; women who continue to exert choice do so silently. By focusing on the upheaval of social care arrangements after the introduction of prophylaxis by pharmaceuticals, this paper sheds light on the understudied local consequences of changes in public health policies and the social framing of 'choice' in low-income countries' health systems.

  8. Errors as a Means of Reducing Impulsive Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-06-05

    Nowadays, the increasing incidence of eating disorders due to poor self-control has given rise to increased obesity and other chronic weight problems, and ultimately, to reduced life expectancy. The capacity to refrain from automatic responses is usually high in situations in which making errors is highly likely. The protocol described here aims at reducing imprudent preference in women during hypothetical intertemporal choices about appetitive food by associating it with errors. First, participants undergo an error task where two different edible stimuli are associated with two different error likelihoods (high and low). Second, they make intertemporal choices about the two edible stimuli, separately. As a result, this method decreases the discount rate for future amounts of the edible reward that cued higher error likelihood, selectively. This effect is under the influence of the self-reported hunger level. The present protocol demonstrates that errors, well known as motivationally salient events, can induce the recruitment of cognitive control, thus being ultimately useful in reducing impatient choices for edible commodities.

  9. Food choice patterns among frail older adults: The associations between social network, food choice values, and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-01-01

    Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  11. School Quality, Exam Performance and Career Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dustmann, C.; Rajah, N.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of school quality on performance in national exams and the career decision at age 16. We use micro data for the UK, which provides a rich set of variables on parental background, previous achievements, and community variables. We find that,

  12. Consumers and Food Choice: Quality, Nutrition and Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Iztok Ostan, I.; Borut Poljsak, B.; Simcic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and quality of food needed for reproduction differs from nutritional needs for health and longevity. The choice of food type and amount is driven by our genetic need for growth and reproduction, not for long term health. So, fast digestible food, rich in energy is searched for. We

  13. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically for ex...... in the topic of choice architecture and nudging has increased the scientific output since the last review. There is a clear limitation in the lack of a clear definitions and theoretical foundation....

  14. Quality choice in a health care market: a mixed duopoly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjo, Yasuo

    2009-05-01

    We investigate a health care market with uncertainty in a mixed duopoly, where a partially privatized public hospital competes against a private hospital in terms of quality choice. We use a simple Hotelling-type spatial competition model by incorporating mean-variance analysis and the framework of partial privatization. We show how the variance in the quality perceived by patients affects the true quality of medical care provided by hospitals. In addition, we show that a case exists in which the quality of the partially privatized hospital becomes higher than that of the private hospital when the patient's preference for quality is relatively high.

  15. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lourenco, Sofia; Laub Hansen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. 12 databases were searched systematically for experimental ...

  16. Information impact on quality of travel choices: analysis of data from a multimodal travel simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Silva, da A.N.R.; Souza, de L.C.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of travel information on the quality of travel choices. It distinguishes itself from earlier studies on this topic by empirically investigating the impact of a variety of travel information types on the quality of observed multimodal travel choices. Choice quality

  17. PEDAGOGICAL RESEARCH: IN SEARCH FOR MEANS OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Serikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose lacks of dissertational works on pedagogics and to show possible ways of improvement of their quality.Results. It is stated that despite high volume and a variety of dissertational researches on pedagogical sciences, efficiency of their influence on education practice still remains rather low. The reason is low degree of quality of researches as many researches do not stimulate occurrence of innovations and growth of quality of education. As shown in the article the basic lacks that obstruct practical application are the following: a triviality and the unsubstantiated character, and insufficient novelty and excessive « scientificity». The author finds out the process and result of the most widespread type of the pedagogical research devoted to process of formation of personal quality, a kind of cultural experience or any pupils’ competence. The result of pedagogical research should contain criteria characteristic: the purposes of this process; maintenances of «transferred» experience; psychological conditions of its mastering; the description of system of pedagogical means and the receptions providing actualisation of these conditions; criteria and indicators of productivity of process; requirements to the teachers who are carrying out this process, and characteristics of pupils for which the offered technique is the most effective. The typical errors made by authors of researches are listed: psychological conditions (common factors, mechanisms of expected innovations are not revealed; as a result the choice of means has no sufficient bases and reached effect can be a simple accident; authors do not provide evidence of changes that have resulted from application of any stated technique; the role of personal and professional qualities of the researcher are not pointed out, though it always takes a considerable place n pedagogical systems.cientific novelty. The paper is rather useful as the author

  18. Embodying Meaning: Qualities, Feelings, Selective Attention, and Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Joacim; Garrison, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing pedagogical interest in the qualities and characteristics of movement. This article examines these qualities and characteristics in terms of John Dewey's distinction between abstract, linguistic "significant" meanings and concrete, embodied "imminent" meanings. Imminent meanings are comprised…

  19. On Quality Intensification Expression Means in German And Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Račienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of German Adjectives’ derivational means, which intensify the meaning of quality, and which are compared with functional equivalents in Lithuanian. The intensification of quality is treated as the functional semantic category, implemented in various language levels. This semantics may be expressed morphologically, by lexical and syntactic means, as well as by stress and intonation. The German language has many first components of compound adjectives, representing the intensification of quality, such as: stock-, blitz-, hoch-, brand-, grund-, etc. The rendering function of this semantics is typical of German adjectives prefixes erz-, ur- as well as prefixes of foreign origin super-, ultra-, extra-, mega-, hyper-, top-. In the Lithuanian language, the intensifying meaning of quality is realized by syntactic com-pounds, while on the morphological level it can be conveyed by diminutive suffixes. The paper presents the comparison of German and Lithuanian quality intensification expression means in order to highlight typological similarities and differences.

  20. The choices, choosing model of quality of life: linkages to a science base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Barry J; Gurland, Roni V

    2009-01-01

    A previous paper began with a critical review of current models and measures of quality of life and then proposed criteria for judging the relative merits of alternative models: preference was given to finding a model with explicit mechanisms, linkages to a science base, a means of identifying deficits amenable to rational restorative interventions, and with embedded values of the whole person. A conjectured model, based on the processes of accessing choices and choosing among them, matched the proposed criteria. The choices and choosing (c-c) process is an evolved adaptive mechanism dedicated to the pursuit of quality of life, driven by specific biological and psychological systems, and influenced also by social and environmental forces. In this paper the c-c model is examined for its potential to strengthen the science base for the field of quality of life and thus to unify many approaches to concept and measurement. A third paper in this set will lay out a guide to applying the c-c model in evaluating impairments of quality of life and will tie this evaluation to corresponding interventions aimed at relieving restrictions or distortions of the c-c process; thus helping people to preserve and improve their quality of life. The fourth paper will demonstrate empirical analyses of the relationship between health imposed restrictions of options for living and conventional indicators of diminished quality of life. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [The meanings of quality of life for women with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Garanhani, Mara Lúcia; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; dos Santos, Wilson Correa

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study conducted among women with AIDS, was to identify the knowledge about how they acquired the disease, as well as the meaning AIDS has in their Quality of Life. This is a qualitative, exploratory descriptive study encompassing twelve women. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews from October 2006 to January 2007. After the analysis, two categories were identified. The first one related to how AIDS was acquired, and the other to the meanings of Quality of Life (QL) for these women. The results revealed that the interviewees know how the HIV infection was acquired. The meanings, as far as Quality of Life, had to do with keeping healthy, family and work relationships, and acceptance of current situation, all of which points out to the need of providing wholesome care for these women.

  2. Does better information about hospital quality affect patients’ choice? Empirical findings from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wübker, Ansgar; Sauerland, Dirk; Wübker, Achim

    2008-01-01

    Background: Economic theory strongly suggests that better information about the quality of care affects patients’ choice of health service providers. However, we have little empirical evidence about the impact of information provided on provider’s choice in Germany. Problem: In Germany, we recently find publicly available information about hospital quality. For example, 50 percent of the hospitals in the Rhine-Ruhr area do now publish their quality data voluntarily in a comprehensive, underst...

  3. Making Choices: Self-Directed Teams or Total Quality Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holpp, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Describes differences between total quality management and self-directed teams in terms of job design, decision making, flexibility, supervision, labor relations, quality, customers, and training. Offers suggestions for which method to choose when. (SK)

  4. Quality Assurance: Strategic Choices for Higher Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the number of students and higher education institutions in the world increases and there is a growing difficulty in financing the higher education systems, decision-makers have begun to show more interest in quality assurance. As quality assurance is given special attention in European countries, developing countries such as Turkey are interested in importing quality assurance systems. It is not possible to set quality assurance without sensitivity toward quality and without having quality as a cultural practice. The most likely encountered quality assurance approach in the world is that the higher education institution itself is responsible for its quality. In addition, external quality assurance procedures used are based on (academic peer review rather than on bureaucratic evaluations. Moreover, there is a lively debate across the world regarding the bureaucratic regulations of the quality assurance agencies and institutions that restrict the autonomy of higher education institutions. Without taking into consideration of the existing centralized structure of the higher education system in Turkey, of meeting social demands for the higher education, and of current higher education enrollment rates, the possible establishment of a quality assurance mechanism that may have sanctions on universities in Turkey is a threat to already limited autonomy of universities and is having a risk of additional bureaucratic burden. By laying out the roles and responsibilities of Turkish Council of Higher Education, the government and universities, this article discusses policies that should be adopted regarding the quality assurance.

  5. Conceptual Models, Choices, and Benchmarks for Building Quality Work Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    1996-01-01

    The two models in Florida's Educational Quality Benchmark System represent a new way of thinking about developing schools' work culture. The Quality Performance System Model identifies nine dimensions of work within a quality system. The Change Process Model provides a theoretical framework for changing existing beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors…

  6. Benefits of improved water quality: a discrete choice analysis of freshwater recreational demands

    OpenAIRE

    R S Tay; P S McCarthy

    1994-01-01

    Discrete choice methodologies are increasingly being used to estimate multiple-sites recreational demands and evaluate the welfare effects of alternative environmental policies aimed at water quality improvements. In this study the authors use 1985 data on Indiana anglers to estimate a multinomial logit model of destination choice and compute the benefits of alternative water quality improvements. In general, the results indicate that anglers are reasonably sensitive to changes in water quali...

  7. To cook or not to cook: A means-end study of motives for choice of meal solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Schoolmeester, D.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have approached the issue of the motivations for choice of meal solutions. This is, however, a matter of undeniable importance when individuals select, purchase, prepare and consume foods. This study resorted to the means-end chain theory and laddering interviews to conduct an analysis

  8. Measuring the difference in mean willingness to pay when dichotomous choice contingent valuation responses are not independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory L. Poe; Michael P. Welsh; Patricia A. Champ

    1997-01-01

    Dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys frequently elicit multiple values in a single questionnaire. If individual responses are correlated across scenarios, the standard approach of estimating willingness to pay (WTP) functions independently for each scenario may result in biased estimates of the significance of the difference in mean WTP values. This paper...

  9. Unmasking quality: exploring meanings of health by doing art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Moira; Rivas, Carol; Foell, Jens; Llewellyn-Dunn, Janet; England, Diana; Cocciadiferro, Anna; Hull, Sally

    2015-02-27

    Quality in healthcare has many potential meanings and interpretations. The case has been made for conceptualisations of quality that place more emphasis on describing quality and less on measuring it through structured, vertically oriented metrics. Through discussion of an interdisciplinary community arts project we explore and challenge the dominant reductionist meanings of quality in healthcare. The model for structured participatory arts workshops such as ours is 'art as conversation'. In creating textile art works, women involved in the sewing workshops engaged at a personal level, developing confidence through sharing ideas, experiences and humour. Group discussions built on the self-assurance gained from doing craft work together and talking in a relaxed way with a common purpose, exploring the health themes which were the focus of the art. For example, working on a textile about vitamin D created a framework which stimulated the emergence of a common discourse about different cultural practices around 'going out in the sun'. These conversations have value as 'bridging work', between the culture of medicine, with its current emphasis on lifestyle change to prevent illness, and patients' life worlds. Such bridges allow for innovation and flexibility to reflect local public health needs and community concerns. They also enable us to view care from a horizontally oriented perspective, so that the interface in which social worlds and the biomedical model meet and interpenetrate is made visible. Through this interdisciplinary art project involving academics, health professionals and the local community we have become more sensitised to conceptualising one aspect of health care quality as ensuring a 'space for the story' in health care encounters. This space gives precedence to the patient narratives, but acknowledges the importance of enabling clinicians to have time to share stories about care.

  10. THERMAL COMPOSITE COATINGS IMPROVING QUALITY OF TECHNICAL MEANS OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej POSMYK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the thermal properties of composite insulating material designed for producing of technical means of transport. This material can be coated on most of engineering materials. The matrix of this material is an acrylic resin ant non porous ceramic microspheres made of alumina are the reinforcing phase. Thanks to that into the spheres almost vacuum (0,13 Pa dominants and a big amount of spheres pro thickness unit is it possible to achieve low thermal conductivity. Usage of these coatings for producing of cooling cabins on vehicles let us to reduce of fuel for maintain of given temperature. Usage of these coatings in planes flying on high altitudes (temperature up to -60 allows to reduce of fuel consumption for heating. It has an important influence on transport quality and quality costs.

  11. Ranking the schools: How school-quality information affects school choice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.W.C.; van der Wiel, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether information about the quality of high schools published in a national newspaper affects school choice in the Netherlands. We find that negative (positive) school-quality scores decrease (increase) the number of first-year students who choose a school after the year of

  12. The relationship between career competencies, career identity, motivation and quality of choice

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka; Gundy, Chad

    2018-01-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of career education and guidance among students (ages 12–19) enrolled in prevocational and secondary vocational education in The Netherlands. Our study included 3,499 students and 166 teachers in 226 classes in 34 schools. The results showed that career competencies positively contributed to learning motivation, experienced quality of study choice, experienced fit of choice with learning tasks, and experienced fit of internship. Career identity positive...

  13. Measuring Strategic Firm Interaction in Product-Quality Choices: The Case of Airline Flight Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Jan K. Brueckner; Dan Luo

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic interaction among airlines in product-quality choices. Using an instrumental variables approach, the paper estimates flight-frequency reaction functions, which relate an airline’s frequency on a route to its own characteristics and to the frequencies of competing airlines. A positive reaction function slope is found in some cases, indicating the presence of strategic interaction in the choice of frequencies. The paper also asks whether multimarket contact g...

  14. Pronouns as Means of Impersonal Presentation in English Quality Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skorupa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the analysis of pronouns as means of impersonal presentation in English quality press. The article gives the definition of the pronoun as a grammatical category and describes the use and purpose of impersonalization strategies. The data for the investigation was taken from the international English quality newspapers: The Financial Times (UK and The Wall Street Journal (US, which are the leading daily broadsheet newspapers in the UK and the USA having millions of both print and online subscribers worldwide. The articles on political, economic, and social issues were chosen on a random basis and scrutinized for pronouns as means of impersonal presentation of fact. The body of 187 cases of impersonalization chosen for the analysis were divided into groups with focus on the grammatical category they belong to. The most and least often used classes of pronouns were identified and compared. The results of the current study may be useful for editors, journalists, writers, as well as for further study of impersonalization strategies in the English language.

  15. RELATION BETWEEN QUALITY OF LIFE, CHOICE MAKING, AND FUTURE EXPECTATIONS IN ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of life of individuals depends significantly on the ability to have control over everyday life, realized through the freedom to make choices from available options and self-determination. Objective: To determine the correlation between possibilities for making choices and expectations for the future with the quality of life in adults with intellectual disabilities according self-assessment and assessment by others. Methods: Descriptive, method of correlation and comparative analysis ware applied. From techniques, analysis of documents, surveys with the Quality of life questionnaire by Schalock and Keith and Questionnaire for expectations for the future by Speck, and scaling with the Scale for assessment of the opportunities for making choices by Kishi et al. Sample consisted of 130 intellectually disabled adults and 130 proxies. For establishing connection between the examined phenomena Pearson correlation coefficient (r was used, at p<0,01. Results: There is a strong correlation between the results obtained from the questionnaires about quality of life and opportunities for making choices, self-assessment r(130=0,497, p<0,01, assessment by others r(130=0,482, p<0,01. There is a correlation between the results obtained from the questionnaires about quality of life and expectations for the future, but not very strong, self-assessment r(130=0,233, p=0,008<0,01, assessment by others r(130=0,305, p<0,01. Conclusion: There is a correlation between opportunities for making choices and expectations for the future with the quality of life in adults with intellectual disabilities. To improve the quality of life in these individuals, it is necessary to design programs that will develop self-concept, abilities for self-determination and making personal choices.

  16. Socio-Semiotic Patterns in Digital Meaning-Making: Semiotic Choice as Indicator of Communicative Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofkova Hashemi, Sylvana

    2017-01-01

    Access to digital technology in the classroom enables the composition and organization of ideas on screen with a variety of semiotic systems of different modes and media. This study explores patterns of communication and preference of design in digital meaning-making of twelve 7-8 years old students. Meanings were shaped in complex uses and…

  17. An evaluation framework for multimodal interaction determining quality aspects and modality choice

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsung, Ina

    2014-01-01

    This book presents (1) an exhaustive and empirically validated taxonomy of quality aspects of multimodal interaction as well as respective measurement methods, (2) a validated questionnaire specifically tailored to the evaluation of multimodal systems and covering most of the taxonomy‘s quality aspects, (3) insights on how the quality perceptions of multimodal systems relate to the quality perceptions of its individual components, (4) a set of empirically tested factors which influence modality choice, and (5) models regarding the relationship of the perceived quality of a modality and the actual usage of a modality.

  18. Quality of life philosophy I. Quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-01

    In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL). The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one"s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it "coherence". Maslow called it "transcendence". Frankl called it "meaning of life". We call it simply "being". To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with "quality of life as medicine" that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient"s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence.

  19. Quality of Life Philosophy I. Quality of Life, Happiness, and Meaning in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL. The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one’s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it “coherence”. Maslow called it “transcendence”. Frankl called it “meaning of life”. We call it simply “being”.To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with “quality of life as medicine” that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient’s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence.

  20. Personal values underlying ethnic food choice: Means-end evidence for Japanese food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong S. Tey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic cuisines are increasingly popular in global food markets. This study identifies the personal values underlying Malaysian consumers' decision making with respect to Japanese food. Methods: A total of 134 Malaysian consumers were interviewed and analyzed using means-end chain methodology. Results: Our findings indicate that Japanese food is chosen for the values that the attribute “tasty” can help achieve, not for that attribute per se. Conclusion: Identified values primarily related to longevity, meaningful life-style and sense of accomplishment. The identification of these connections is an important step in understanding why a particular ethnic food is favored by foreign consumers. Our findings could be helpful to restaurateurs in meeting marketing strategies with consumer values and policymakers when designing health campaigns. Keywords: Attributes, Japanese food, Means-end chain, Personal values, Product attributes, Cognition

  1. [Choice between probability and value of alimentary reinforcement as means for revealing individual typological features of dog behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, L I

    2005-01-01

    Individual typological features of behavior of dogs were investigated by the method of choice between the low-valuable food available constantly and food of high quality presented with low probability. Animals were subjected to instrumental conditioning with the same conditioned stimuli but different types of reinforcement. Depression of a white pedal was always reinforced with meat-bread-crumb mixture, depression of a black pedal was reinforced with two pieces of liver (with probabilities of 100, 40, 33, 20, or 0%). The choice of reinforcement depended on probability of valuable food and individual typological features of the nervous system of a dog. Decreasing the probability of the reinforcement value to 40-20% revealed differences in behavior of dogs. Dogs of the first group, presumably with the weak type of the nervous system, more frequently pressed the white pedal (always reinforced) than the black pedal thus "avoiding a situation of risk" to receive an empty cup. They displayed symptoms of neurosis: whimper, refusals of food or of the choice of reinforcement, and obtrusive movements. Dogs of the second group, presumably with the strong type of the nervous system, more frequently pressed the black pedal (more valuable food) for the low-probability reward until they obtained the valuable food. They did not show neurosis symptoms and were not afraid of "situation of risk". A decrease in probability of the valuable reinforcement increased a percentage of long-latency depressions of pedals. It can be probably suggested that this phenomenon was associated with increasing involvement of cognitive processes, when contributions of the assessments of probability and value of the reinforcement to decision making became approximately equal. Choice between the probability and value of alimentary reinforcement is a good method for revealing individual typological features of dogs.

  2. Runoff amount and quality as influenced by tillage and fertilizer management choices in a Cecil soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage and fertilizer choices and their interactions have varying impacts on levels and qualities of runoff from agricultural fields. We quantified runoff, sediment loss, concentrations and loads of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and total...

  3. Consumer Choice between Food Safety and Food Quality: The Case of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiri, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. PMID:28231118

  4. The quality of life and satisfaction with life of women who are childless by choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna; Lecyk, Urszula; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-05-11

    Objective. The study attempts to identify and analyze factors affecting the quality of life and satisfaction with life of women who are childless by choice. Materials and method. The research instruments used were: the WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and author's own questionnaire. Results. A better overall quality of life, perception of own health and quality of life in all the specific domains analyzed was found among childless women living in cities, college/university-educated, and with a good or very good financial standing. Conclusions. A positive correlation was found between satisfaction with life and overall quality of life, general perceived health, and all quality of life domains. Higher satisfaction with life scores in childless women are correlated with a higher quality of life scores and better perceived health.

  5. TransCom 3 CO{sub 2} inversion intercomparison: 2. Sensitivity of annual mean results to data choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Rachel M. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Yu-Han Chen [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Science; Gurney, Kevin R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science; Baker, D. (TRANSCOM-3 Modelers) (and others)

    2003-04-01

    TransCom 3 is an intercomparison project for CO{sub 2} source inversions. Annual mean CO{sub 2} concentration data are used to estimate CO{sub 2} sources using 16 different atmospheric transport models. Here we test the sensitivity of the inversion to the concentration data. We examine data network choice, time period of data, baseline data selection and the choice of data uncertainty used. We find that in most cases regional source estimates lie within the source uncertainty range of the control inversion. This indicates that the estimated sources are relatively insensitive to the changes in data that were tested. In the data network tests, only the Australian region source estimates varied over a much larger range than that given by the control case uncertainty estimate. For the other regions, the sensitivity to data network was within or close to the uncertainty range. Most of the sensitivity was found to be associated with a small number of sites (e.g. Darwin, Easter Island). These sites are often identified by the inability of the inversion to fit the data at these locations. The model-mean inversion values are mostly insensitive to the time period of data used, with the exception of temperate North America and the tropical Indian ocean. Data selection has a small impact on source estimates for the mean across models, but individual model sensitivity can be large. The magnitude of data uncertainties controls the relative magnitude of the estimated source uncertainty and the spread in model source estimates. Smaller data uncertainties lead to larger differences in source estimates between models. Overall, the data sensitivity tests performed here support the robustness of the control inversion source estimates presented in Gurney et al. (2003. Tellus 55B, this issue). The test results also provide guidance in setting up and interpreting other inversions.

  6. TransCom 3 CO2 inversion intercomparison: 2. Sensitivity of annual mean results to data choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Rachel M.; Yu-Han Chen

    2003-01-01

    TransCom 3 is an intercomparison project for CO 2 source inversions. Annual mean CO 2 concentration data are used to estimate CO 2 sources using 16 different atmospheric transport models. Here we test the sensitivity of the inversion to the concentration data. We examine data network choice, time period of data, baseline data selection and the choice of data uncertainty used. We find that in most cases regional source estimates lie within the source uncertainty range of the control inversion. This indicates that the estimated sources are relatively insensitive to the changes in data that were tested. In the data network tests, only the Australian region source estimates varied over a much larger range than that given by the control case uncertainty estimate. For the other regions, the sensitivity to data network was within or close to the uncertainty range. Most of the sensitivity was found to be associated with a small number of sites (e.g. Darwin, Easter Island). These sites are often identified by the inability of the inversion to fit the data at these locations. The model-mean inversion values are mostly insensitive to the time period of data used, with the exception of temperate North America and the tropical Indian ocean. Data selection has a small impact on source estimates for the mean across models, but individual model sensitivity can be large. The magnitude of data uncertainties controls the relative magnitude of the estimated source uncertainty and the spread in model source estimates. Smaller data uncertainties lead to larger differences in source estimates between models. Overall, the data sensitivity tests performed here support the robustness of the control inversion source estimates presented in Gurney et al. (2003. Tellus 55B, this issue). The test results also provide guidance in setting up and interpreting other inversions

  7. Consumers' choice of drinking water: Is it dependent upon perceived quality, convenience, price and attitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Nabsiah Abdul; Cheng, Patrick Tan Foon; Abustan, Ismail; Nee, Goh Yen

    2017-10-01

    Tap water is one of the many sources of water that the public as consumers can choose for drinking. This study hypothesized that perceived quality, convenience, price and environmental attitude would determine consumers's choice of drinking water following the Attribution Theory as the underlying model. A survey was carried out on Malaysia's public at large. From 301 usable data, the PLS analysis revealed that only perceived quality, convenience and price attributed towards the public's choice of drinking water while attitude was not significant. The findings are beneficial for the water sector industry, particularly for drinking water operators, state governments, and alternative drinking water manufacturers like bottled water companies. The ability to identify factors for why consumers in the marketplace choose the source of their drinking water would enable the operators to plan and strategize tactics that can disseminate accurate knowledge about the product that can motivate marketability of drinking water in Malaysia.

  8. Factors Influencing the Choice and Quality Assessment of Hotel Facilities in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozimek Irena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selected factors on the choice of hotel facilities by customers. Particular attention was focused on the perception of the quality of services by consumers. The field research, the results of which are presented in the article, was conducted on a nationwide sample of 1,000 persons aged from 15 to 70 according to the author’s questionnaire.

  9. Impacts of sustainable consumption choices on quality of life: the Slow Food example

    OpenAIRE

    Nevison, James Holm

    2008-01-01

    Though increasingly understood that sustainable consumption is a key component for sustainable development, establishing its viability remains a crucial task. Moving towards sustainable consumption will realistically require significant changes in consumptio n patterns, as well as rethinking the connection between increased consumption and well-being. However, an identified knowledge gap exists in understanding how sustainable consumption choices impact lifestyle and quality of life. As a sta...

  10. Power generation mixes evaluation applying the mean-variance theory. Analysis of the choices for Japanese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaru, Yasuhiko; Nonaka, Yuzuru; Nonaka, Shunsuke; Endou, Misao

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Japanese power generation mixes in 2030, for both economic efficiency and energy security (less cost variance risk), are evaluated by applying the mean-variance portfolio theory. Technical assumptions, including remaining generation capacity out of the present generation mix, future load duration curve, and Research and Development risks for some renewable energy technologies in 2030, are taken into consideration as either the constraints or parameters for the evaluation. Efficiency frontiers, which consist of the optimal generation mixes for several future scenarios, are identified, taking not only power balance but also capacity balance into account, and are compared with three power generation mixes submitted by the Japanese government as 'the choices for energy and environment'. (author)

  11. Quality assurance of manufactures by means of intelligent tomographic processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, A.; Paggi, P.; Barbuzza, R.; Venere, Marcelo J.; Clausse, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Quality standards in industry require inspection tools to optimize the production. In this paper we present a non destructive test method that allows the inspection of defects as well as the 3D visualization of the piece. Previous knowledge of the material and geometry of the components are applied to improve the inspection system, classifying by position, dimension and orientation of defects, to verify manufacture quality standards. (author)

  12. Constructing Quality Adjusted Price Indexes: a Comparison of Hedonic and Discrete Choice Models

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jonker

    2001-01-01

    The Boskin report (1996) concluded that the US consumer price index (CPI) overestimated the inflation by 1.1 percentage points. This was due to several measurement errors in the CPI. One of them is called quality change bias. In this paper two methods are compared which can be used to eliminate quality change bias, namely the hedonic method and a method based on the use of discrete choice models. The underlying micro-economic fundations of the two methods are compared as well as their empiric...

  13. Signaling Product Quality Information in Supply Chains via Corporate Social Responsibility Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how an upstream supplier signals the private information of its product quality with corporate social responsibility (CSR choices to a downstream retailer and uninformed consumers in the final market. We build a signaling model to: capture the strategic interactions among the supplier, the retailer, and the final consumers in the supply chain; characterize completely the set of all separating perfect Bayesian equilibriums (PBEs; and finally, select a unique equilibrium that satisfies the intuitive criterion for exploring some comparative statics. The equilibrium results show that under some technical conditions: (1 a set of moderate levels of CSR conduct signal the upstream supplier’s high quality in the sense of separating PBEs; (2 the unique separating PBE satisfying the intuitive criterion is the one with the lowest CSR level that separates a high-quality supplier from a low-quality supplier; (3 the lowest CSR level decreases in the proportion of informed consumers and the low-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost, but is independent of the high-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost; (4 the profits of the high-quality supplier increase in proportion to the number of informed consumers and the low-quality supplier’s marginal cost CSR, but decrease in proportion to the high-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost. Managerial insights are also discussed.

  14. The Effect of Publicized Quality Information on Home Health Agency Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeah Kyoungrae; Wu, Bingxiao; Kim, Hyunjee; Polsky, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We examine consumers' use of publicized quality information in Medicare home health care markets, where consumer cost sharing and travel costs are absent. We report two findings. First, agencies with high quality scores are more likely to be preferred by consumers after the introduction of a public reporting program than before. Second, consumers' use of publicized quality information differs by patient group. Community-based patients have slightly larger responses to public reporting than hospital-discharged patients. Patients with functional limitations at the start of their care, at least among hospital-discharged patients, have a larger response to the reported functional outcome measure than those without functional limitations. In all cases of significant marginal effects, magnitudes are small. We conclude that the current public reporting approach is unlikely to have critical impacts on home health agency choice. Identifying and releasing quality information that is meaningful to consumers may help increase consumers' use of public reports. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Optimization of a radiodiagnostic service by means of quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizales, L.; Gamez, L.; Reggio, F.; Gamboa, M.; Quintero, A.; Almeida, J.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the radio diagnosis institutions (public and private) in Venezuela have a lack quality control applied to radiological equipment, as well as capable staff to implement it. It is intended to implant training programs and corrective policies to optimize their services [es

  16. Mate choice for genetic quality when environments vary: suggestions for empirical progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Luc F; Hunt, John; Stölting, Kai N; Jennions, Michael D; Brooks, Robert

    2008-09-01

    Mate choice for good-genes remains one of the most controversial evolutionary processes ever proposed. This is partly because strong directional choice should theoretically deplete the genetic variation that explains the evolution of this type of female mating preference (the so-called lek paradox). Moreover, good-genes benefits are generally assumed to be too small to outweigh opposing direct selection on females. Here, we review recent progress in the study of mate choice for genetic quality, focussing particularly on the potential for genotype by environment interactions (GEIs) to rescue additive genetic variation for quality, and thereby resolve the lek paradox. We raise five questions that we think will stimulate empirical progress in this field, and suggest directions for research in each area: (1) How is condition-dependence affected by environmental variation? (2) How important are GEIs for maintaining additive genetic variance in condition? (3) How much do GEIs reduce the signalling value of male condition? (4) How does GEI affect the multivariate version of the lek paradox? (5) Have mating biases for high-condition males evolved because of indirect benefits?

  17. Evaluating the quality of medical multiple-choice items created with automated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Lai, Hollis

    2013-07-01

    Computerised assessment raises formidable challenges because it requires large numbers of test items. Automatic item generation (AIG) can help address this test development problem because it yields large numbers of new items both quickly and efficiently. To date, however, the quality of the items produced using a generative approach has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether automatic processes yield items that meet standards of quality that are appropriate for medical testing. Quality was evaluated firstly by subjecting items created using both AIG and traditional processes to rating by a four-member expert medical panel using indicators of multiple-choice item quality, and secondly by asking the panellists to identify which items were developed using AIG in a blind review. Fifteen items from the domain of therapeutics were created in three different experimental test development conditions. The first 15 items were created by content specialists using traditional test development methods (Group 1 Traditional). The second 15 items were created by the same content specialists using AIG methods (Group 1 AIG). The third 15 items were created by a new group of content specialists using traditional methods (Group 2 Traditional). These 45 items were then evaluated for quality by a four-member panel of medical experts and were subsequently categorised as either Traditional or AIG items. Three outcomes were reported: (i) the items produced using traditional and AIG processes were comparable on seven of eight indicators of multiple-choice item quality; (ii) AIG items can be differentiated from Traditional items by the quality of their distractors, and (iii) the overall predictive accuracy of the four expert medical panellists was 42%. Items generated by AIG methods are, for the most part, equivalent to traditionally developed items from the perspective of expert medical reviewers. While the AIG method produced comparatively fewer plausible

  18. Quality education enhancement by means of university environmental edification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Čekanová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The submitted work partly describes the historical and actual trends of the introduction of targeted environmental edification at universities based on the framework of Slovakian sustainable development as well as its enhancement of quality educational processes. There has been a need to accentuate environmental consciousness and to bring closer a current state in an incorporating of more environmental and quality aspects for the education process at technical universities. The article emphasizes continuous development of observed problems and introduces the possible future visions from the point of reorganization and tending of study fields. This reorganization requires very a sensitive approach because duplications or triplicities can frequently occur in the environmental education of individual subjects. For this reason students’ interest and ability to learn better can gradually decrease and consequently, results can become worse. Upon graduation, students may not be as well prepared to face the strong competition of the labour market in the Slovak Republic as well as in European Union countries.

  19. Is the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis a tissue of choice for estimating cadmium exposure by means of metallothioneins?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspor, Biserka; Dragun, Zrinka; Erk, Marijana; Ivankovic, Dusica; Pavicic, Jasenka

    2004-01-01

    A study performed over 12 months with caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in the coastal marine zone, which is under urban pressure, reveals a temporal variation of digestive gland mass, which causes 'biological dilution' of cytosolic metallothionein (MT) and trace metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) concentrations. The dilution effect was corrected by expressing the cytosolic MT and metal concentrations as the tissue content. Consequently, the changes of the average digestive gland mass coincide with the changes of MT and trace metal contents. From February to June, MT contents are nearly twice and trace metal contents nearly three times higher than those of the other months. The period of increased average digestive gland mass, of MT and trace metal contents probably overlaps with the sexual maturation of mussels (gametogenesis) and enhanced food availability. Since natural factors contribute more to the MT content than the sublethal levels of Cd, the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis is not considered as a tissue of choice for estimating Cd exposure by means of MTs

  20. Treatment choice, satisfaction and quality of life in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaglen, Helen M; Tamatea, Jade A U; Conaglen, John V; Elston, Marianne S

    2018-04-06

    Thyrotoxicosis, most often caused by Graves' disease (GD), when treated inadequately may result in premature mortality. There is little consensus as to which of the 3 treatment options available - antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioactive iodine (RAI) and surgery, is better. (i) To assess factors involved in treatment choice and treatment satisfaction in patients treated for Graves' disease; (ii) To assess quality of life (QoL) following treatment of Graves' disease. Participants were selected from a prospective study cohort assessing thyrotoxicosis incidence and severity. Of the 172 eligible patients with Graves' disease, 123 treated patients participated (64% had received ATD only, 11% RAI and 25% total thyroidectomy, the latter 2 usually after a period of ATD), along with 18 untreated patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease (overall participation rate, 73%). Consented patients completed a questionnaire detailing factors involved in treatment choice, QoL and satisfaction with treatment. Participants reported that the most important factors in choosing a treatment were the following: the effects on activities of daily living, concern about use of radioiodine, possibility of depression or anxiety, and doctor's recommendations. Satisfaction levels were high across all 3 treatment types. QoL 1-year following treatment was higher than in untreated patients, and comparable with other international studies. Patient satisfaction with therapy and QoL does not differ by treatment type. Therefore, clinical and social factors, in combination with patient choice and resource availability, should determine which treatment modality patients with Graves' disease should receive. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  2. Exploring the impact of word-of-mouth about Physicians' service quality on patient choice based on online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Naiji; Wu, Hong

    2016-11-26

    Health care service is a high-credence service and patients may face difficulties ascertaining service quality in order to make choices about their available treatment options. Online health communities (OHCs) provide a convenient channel for patients to search for physicians' information, such as Word-of-Mouth (WOM), particularly on physicians' service quality evaluated by other patients. Existing studies from other service domains have proved that WOM impacts consumer choice. However, how patients make a choice based on physicians' WOM has not been studied, particularly with reference to different patient characteristics and by using real data. One thousand eight hundred fifty three physicians' real data were collected from a Chinese online health community. The data were analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS) method. The study found that functional quality negatively moderated the relationship between technical quality and patient choice, and disease risk moderated the relationship between physicians' service quality and patient choice. Our study recommends that hospital managers need to consider the roles of both technical quality and functional quality seriously. Physicians should improve their medical skills and bedside manners based on the severity and type of disease to provide better service.

  3. Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    The second world to be considered concerns Meaning. In contrast to Reality and Play, this world relates to the people, disciplines, and domains that are focused on creating a certain value. For example, if this value is about providing students knowledge about physics, it involves teachers, the learning sciences, and the domains education and physics. This level goes into the aspects and criteria that designers need to take into account from this perspective. The first aspect seems obvious when we talk of “games with a serious purpose.” They have a purpose and this needs to be elaborated on, for example in terms of what “learning objectives” it attempts to achieve. The subsequent aspect is not about what is being pursued but how. To attain a value, designers have to think about a strategy that they employ. In my case this concerned looking at the learning paradigms that have come into existence in the past century and see what they have to tell us about learning. This way, their principles can be translated into a game environment. This translation involves making the strategy concrete. Or, in other words, operationalizing the plan. This is the third aspect. In this level, I will further specifically explain how I derived requirements from each of the learning paradigms, like reflection and exploration, and how they can possibly be related to games. The fourth and final aspect is the context in which the game is going to be used. It matters who uses the game and when, where, and how the game is going to be used. When designers have looked at these aspects, they have developed a “value proposal” and the worth of it may be judged by criteria, like motivation, relevance, and transfer. But before I get to this, I first go into how we human beings are meaning creators and what role assumptions, knowledge, and ambiguity have in this. I will illustrate this with some silly jokes about doctors and Mickey Mouse, and with an illusion.

  4. Examining the Psychometric Quality of Multiple-Choice Assessment Items using Mokken Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A

    The concept of invariant measurement is typically associated with Rasch measurement theory (Engelhard, 2013). Concerned with the appropriateness of the parametric transformation upon which the Rasch model is based, Mokken (1971) proposed a nonparametric procedure for evaluating the quality of social science measurement that is theoretically and empirically related to the Rasch model. Mokken's nonparametric procedure can be used to evaluate the quality of dichotomous and polytomous items in terms of the requirements for invariant measurement. Despite these potential benefits, the use of Mokken scaling to examine the properties of multiple-choice (MC) items in education has not yet been fully explored. A nonparametric approach to evaluating MC items is promising in that this approach facilitates the evaluation of assessments in terms of invariant measurement without imposing potentially inappropriate transformations. Using Rasch-based indices of measurement quality as a frame of reference, data from an eighth-grade physical science assessment are used to illustrate and explore Mokken-based techniques for evaluating the quality of MC items. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Free Dietary Choice and Free-Range Rearing Improve the Product Quality, Gait Score, and Microbial Richness of Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry welfare has been extensively studied; however, there is a lack of rigorous scientific knowledge relating to the different aspects of welfare factors and how this may contribute to the production quantity and product quality as well as the welfare of chickens. Therefore, we conducted an integrated study to compare welfare factors in chickens by providing free dietary choice under cage rearing, and further comparing cage rearing with free-range rearing. One hundred chickens each were allocated to a cage rearing group with conventional feeding (CC, a cage rearing group with free dietary choice of mealworms (FDM, a cage rearing group with free dietary choice of mealworms and fresh grass (FDMG, and a free-range rearing system group with free dietary choice of mealworms and fresh grass (FRMG. Results showed that under cage rearing, free dietary choice contributed to better meat quality and gait score, higher values of blood platelets, and a richer gut microbial composition, but poorer egg production than CC chickens. As compared to FDMG, FRMG chickens showed better meat quality, gait score, and feather conditions, as well as a richer gut microbial composition; however, they had poorer egg production and a poorer foot pad and foot feather condition. We conclude that free dietary choice and free-range rearing systems improve the product quality, gait score, and microbial richness of chickens.

  6. Item and test analysis to identify quality multiple choice questions (MCQS from an assessment of medical students of Ahmedabad, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Gajjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are frequently used to assess students in different educational streams for their objectivity and wide reach of coverage in less time. However, the MCQs to be used must be of quality which depends upon its difficulty index (DIF I, discrimination index (DI and distracter efficiency (DE. Objective: To evaluate MCQs or items and develop a pool of valid items by assessing with DIF I, DI and DE and also to revise/ store or discard items based on obtained results. Settings: Study was conducted in a medical school of Ahmedabad. Materials and Methods: An internal examination in Community Medicine was conducted after 40 hours teaching during 1 st MBBS which was attended by 148 out of 150 students. Total 50 MCQs or items and 150 distractors were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered and analyzed in MS Excel 2007 and simple proportions, mean, standard deviations, coefficient of variation were calculated and unpaired t test was applied. Results: Out of 50 items, 24 had "good to excellent" DIF I (31 - 60% and 15 had "good to excellent" DI (> 0.25. Mean DE was 88.6% considered as ideal/ acceptable and non functional distractors (NFD were only 11.4%. Mean DI was 0.14. Poor DI (< 0.15 with negative DI in 10 items indicates poor preparedness of students and some issues with framing of at least some of the MCQs. Increased proportion of NFDs (incorrect alternatives selected by < 5% students in an item decrease DE and makes it easier. There were 15 items with 17 NFDs, while rest items did not have any NFD with mean DE of 100%. Conclusion: Study emphasizes the selection of quality MCQs which truly assess the knowledge and are able to differentiate the students of different abilities in correct manner.

  7. Cross-sectional analysis of food choice frequency, sleep confounding beverages, and psychological distress predictors of sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P; Burns, Maranda; Harcrow, Andy; Shewmake, Meghan E

    2016-03-16

    Poor sleep quality is a significant public health problem. The role of nutrition in predicting sleep quality is a relatively unexplored area of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of 10 food choice categories, sleep confounding beverages, and psychological distress to predict the sleep quality of college students. A logistic regression model comprising 10 food choice variables (healthy proteins, unhealthy proteins, healthy dairy, unhealthy dairy, healthy grains, unhealthy grains, healthy fruits and vegetables, unhealthy empty calories, healthy beverages, unhealthy beverages), sleep confounding beverages (caffeinated/alcoholic beverages), as well as psychological distress (low, moderate, serious distress) was computed to determine the capacity of the variables to predict sleep quality (good/poor). The odds of poor sleep quality were 32.4% lower for each unit of increased frequency of healthy proteins consumed (pempty calorie food choices consumed (p=0.003; OR=1.131), and 107.3% higher for those classified in the moderate psychological distress (p=0.016; OR=2.073). Collectively, healthy proteins, healthy dairy, unhealthy empty calories, and moderate psychological distress were moderately predictive of sleep quality in the sample (Nagelkerke R2=23.8%). Results of the study suggested higher frequency of consumption of healthy protein and healthy dairy food choices reduced the odds of poor sleep quality, while higher consumption of empty calories and moderate psychological distress increased the odds of poor sleep quality.

  8. Parents' perspectives on the quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: trajectory, choices and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Bogossian, Aline; Lach, Lucyna M; Shevell, Michael; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome of health interventions for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). When planning interventions it is fundamental to understand what constitutes a good QoL, a subjective construct, and what factors are important to consider from both parents' and children's perspectives. We used a grounded theory methodology to explore parents' perspectives on the factors that are important for the QoL of their adolescents with CP. Fourteen parents were interviewed using a purposeful sampling strategy, followed by theoretical sampling until saturation was reached. Parents reflected on several important aspects of their children's QoL. In particular, they described how their trajectories as parents of a child with a disability have contributed to their adolescents' current well-being. Over time, parents' hopes for a cure were transformed into hopes for their child's happiness. This trajectory was influenced by the adolescents' intrinsic characteristics and the parents' strategies to overcome challenges and was informed by the parents' and their children's ability to make choices in pursuit of their preferences. Adolescents' and parents' accounts should be considered when planning interventions for adolescents with disabilities. It is important to consider parents' personal characteristics, experiences and the strategies that have been proven to be efficacious in improving their children's QoL and to understand their need to make choices relating to participation and accessibility in order to promote QoL for this at-risk population. Implications for Rehabilitation Parents' trajectory on raising a child with a disability is important for understanding adolescents' QoL. Parents' characteristics and environmental factors influence adolescents' well-being. Hope and choice experiences by parents of children with CP are important for their children's QoL. Transition from pediatric to adult services are required to address disability

  9. Between Efficiency and Transformation: The Opinion of Deans on the Meaning of Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del Campo, Juan José; Barandiaran-Galdós, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The literature on quality management at higher education institutions has for some time been working on the basis of two issues: a) the diversity of ideas as to what "quality" means, which makes it harder to apply the principles of quality management in this context; and b) the idea that this diversity is in some way a response to the…

  10. Racial Residential Segregation: Measuring Location Choice Attributes of Environmental Quality and Self-Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Both sorting on public goods and tastes for segregation contribute to the persistence of segregation in America. Incorporating Schelling’s (1969, 1971 concept of “neighborhood tipping” into a two-stage equilibrium sorting model, in which both neighborhood demographic composition and public goods (e.g., environmental quality affect households’ residential location choice, this study investigates how preferences for neighborhood demographic composition could obscure the role of exogenous public goods on segregation. The results reveal that non-white households face higher level of exposure to air pollution, suggesting the presence of environmental injustice in Franklin County, OH. Using a counterfactual scenario of switching off heterogeneous taste for environmental quality, this study identifies that sorting on Toxic Release Inventory (TRI emissions drives little correlations between emissions and demographics. However, when taste parameters of the interactions between neighborhood demographic composition and household race are eliminated, segregation (as measured by over-exposure to households of the same race of black and white households decreases by 7.63% and 16.36%, respectively, and own-race neighbor preferences contribute to segregation differently according to household income. These results may help explain some recent puzzles in the relationship between environmental quality and demographics.

  11. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters - reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Participants were 3 rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants' option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Students score more ( P = 0.000) and took less time ( P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more ( P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs.

  12. Why Quality of Work Life Doesn't Always Mean Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah Shaw

    1981-01-01

    From participatory management to autonomous work groups, the quality of work life movement has made an impact on U.S. corporations. To make the quality of work life connection, commitment must originate with top management. (Author)

  13. What does the new breed of decision-making methodologies mean for choices and norms in hydrological science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman-Svahn, Per

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological sciences are increasingly utilized in decision-making contexts that need to manage deep uncertainty, changing conditions and very long-lead times and lifetimes. Traditional optimizing approaches become problematic in such situations. For example, optimizing approaches may underestimate the importance of low probability outcomes, or very uncertain outcomes. Alternative decision-making strategies are therefore increasingly used in hydrological applications, including "bottom-up/top-down", "context-first", "decision-scaling", "assess risk of policy", "robust", "resilient" or "flexible" approaches. These kinds of strategies are typically designed to handle very uncertain and diverse outcomes, and often start from the particular decision-making context, in contrast to more traditional "predict-then-act" or "science first" approaches. Contemporary research in philosophy of science stress the influence of value judgments and norms in scientific assessments. In particular, this literature points out that implicit anticipated applications often influence choices made in scientific assessments. Furthermore, this literature also emphasize that choices made at within scientific assessments have consequences for decision-making later on. One reason is that it is often difficult for decision-makers to see what choices are made and the implications of these choices. Another reason is that information that could be of use for decision-makers are lost at an early stage. For example, the choice to focus on central estimates and not providing assessments on more unlikely outcomes is a choice that has consequences for what outcomes are taken into account in the decision-making process. This paper develops this argument and then analyzes the implications of these new developments for hydrological science. One implication of the increasing use of the new breed of planning strategies is that a broader range of uncertainty in scientific assessments becomes desirable in order

  14. "The Choice of a New Generation": "Pop" Music, Advertising, and Meaning in the MTV Era and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Love-Tulloch, Joanna Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s it was uncommon for marketers to incorporate pre-existing popular music into television commercials. But following the rise of MTV as an innovative commercial endeavor and Pepsi-Cola's groundbreaking 1984 "Choice of a New Generation" campaign featuring Michael Jackson, musicians and corporations began to realize the benefits of incorporating new songs into commercials. Once considered taboo by many musicians and fans, television commercials have now become such a lucrative ...

  15. Accelerating Research Impact in a Learning Health Care System: VA's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative in the Choice Act Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Elwy, A Rani; Sales, Anne E; Atkins, David

    2017-07-01

    Since 1998, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) has supported more rapid implementation of research into clinical practice. With the passage of the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act of 2014 (Choice Act), QUERI further evolved to support VHA's transformation into a Learning Health Care System by aligning science with clinical priority goals based on a strategic planning process and alignment of funding priorities with updated VHA priority goals in response to the Choice Act. QUERI updated its strategic goals in response to independent assessments mandated by the Choice Act that recommended VHA reduce variation in care by providing a clear path to implement best practices. Specifically, QUERI updated its application process to ensure its centers (Programs) focus on cross-cutting VHA priorities and specify roadmaps for implementation of research-informed practices across different settings. QUERI also increased funding for scientific evaluations of the Choice Act and other policies in response to Commission on Care recommendations. QUERI's national network of Programs deploys effective practices using implementation strategies across different settings. QUERI Choice Act evaluations informed the law's further implementation, setting the stage for additional rigorous national evaluations of other VHA programs and policies including community provider networks. Grounded in implementation science and evidence-based policy, QUERI serves as an example of how to operationalize core components of a Learning Health Care System, notably through rigorous evaluation and scientific testing of implementation strategies to ultimately reduce variation in quality and improve overall population health.

  16. Does Educator Training or Experience Affect the Quality of Multiple-Choice Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emily M; Phuong, Jonathan S; Naeger, David M

    2015-10-01

    Physicians receive little training on proper multiple-choice question (MCQ) writing methods. Well-constructed MCQs follow rules, which ensure that a question tests what it is intended to test. Questions that break these are described as "flawed." We examined whether the prevalence of flawed questions differed significantly between those with or without prior training in question writing and between those with different levels of educator experience. We assessed 200 unedited MCQs from a question bank for our senior medical student radiology elective: an equal number of questions (50) were written by faculty with previous training in MCQ writing, other faculty, residents, and medical students. Questions were scored independently by two readers for the presence of 11 distinct flaws described in the literature. Questions written by faculty with MCQ writing training had significantly fewer errors: mean 0.4 errors per question compared to a mean of 1.5-1.7 errors per question for the other groups (P Educator experience alone had no effect on the frequency of flaws; faculty without dedicated training, residents, and students performed similarly. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge, Power and Meanings Shaping Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Systemic Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Don; Paewai, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, quality assurance schemes persist despite long-standing dissatisfaction and critique of their impact and outcomes. Adopting a critical systems perspective, the article explores the relationships between the knowledge, power and meanings that stakeholder groups bring to the design and implementation of quality assurance systems.…

  18. A choice modelling analysis on the similarity between distribution utilities’ and industrial customers’ price and quality preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderberg, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Electricity Act states that electricity distribution must comply with both price and quality requirements. In order to maintain efficient regulation it is necessary to firstly, define quality attributes and secondly, determine a customer's priorities concerning price and quality...... to evaluate the same twelve choice situations in which price and four specific quality attributes are varied. The preferences expressed by the utilities, and estimated by a random parameter logit, correspond quite well with the preferences expressed by the largest industrial customers. The preferences...

  19. Individualized choice in prenatal diagnosis : the impact of karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Oepkes, D.; Boekkooi, P. F.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the reasons and perceptions of women who are offered a choice between karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection (RAD) and to compare the impact of both tests on anxiety and health-related quality of life Methods In this prospective comparative study, women undergoing

  20. [Interaction between neurons of the frontal cortex and hippocampus during the realization of choice of food reinforcement quality in cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzhanova, G Kh; Dolbakian, E E; Khokhlova, V N

    2003-01-01

    Six cats were subjected to the procedure of appetitive instrumental conditioning (with light as a conditioned stimuls) by the method of the "active choice" of reinforcement quality. Short-delay conditioned bar-press responses were rewarded with bread-meat mixture, and the delayed responses were reinforced by meat. The animals differed in behavior strategy: four animals preferred the bar-pressing with a long delay (the so-called "self-control" group), and two cats preferred the bar-pressing with a short delay (the so-called "impulsive" group). Multiunit activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus (CA3) was recorded via chronically implanted nichrome wire semimicroelectrodes. An interaction between the neighboring neurons in the frontal cortex and hippocampus (within local neural networks) and between the neurons of the frontal cortex and hippocampus (distributed neural networks in frontal-hippocampal and hippocampal-frontal directions) was evaluated by means of statistical crosscorrelation analysis of spike trains. Crosscorrelations between neuronal spike trains in the delay range of 0-100 ms were explored. It was shown that the number of crosscorrelations between the neuronal discharges both in the local and distributed networks was significantly higher in the "self-control" cats. It was suggested that the local and distributed neural networks of the frontal cortex and hippocampus are involved in the system of brain structures which determine the behavioral strategy of animals in the "self-control" group.

  1. Justification and choice of hardware for automatic control system by technical means at the garage consumer cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnykh V.Yu.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the main system requirements of software of finished products for implementation of an automatic control system by technical means at the garage consumer cooperative.

  2. School Choice, Student Mobility, and School Quality: Evidence from Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.; Duque, Matthew; McEachin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, school choice policies predicated on student mobility have gained prominence as urban districts address chronically low-performing schools. However, scholars have highlighted equity concerns related to choice policies. The case of post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans provides an opportunity to examine student mobility patterns in…

  3. Identify High-Quality Protein Structural Models by Enhanced K-Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; Li, Haiou; Jiang, Min; Chen, Cheng; Lv, Qiang; Wu, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    Background. One critical issue in protein three-dimensional structure prediction using either ab initio or comparative modeling involves identification of high-quality protein structural models from generated decoys. Currently, clustering algorithms are widely used to identify near-native models; however, their performance is dependent upon different conformational decoys, and, for some algorithms, the accuracy declines when the decoy population increases. Results. Here, we proposed two enhanced K -means clustering algorithms capable of robustly identifying high-quality protein structural models. The first one employs the clustering algorithm SPICKER to determine the initial centroids for basic K -means clustering ( SK -means), whereas the other employs squared distance to optimize the initial centroids ( K -means++). Our results showed that SK -means and K -means++ were more robust as compared with SPICKER alone, detecting 33 (59%) and 42 (75%) of 56 targets, respectively, with template modeling scores better than or equal to those of SPICKER. Conclusions. We observed that the classic K -means algorithm showed a similar performance to that of SPICKER, which is a widely used algorithm for protein-structure identification. Both SK -means and K -means++ demonstrated substantial improvements relative to results from SPICKER and classical K -means.

  4. Behavioral Contexts, Food-Choice Coping Strategies, and Dietary Quality of a Multiethnic Sample of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Employed parents’ work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents’ food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed mothers (n=25) and fathers (n=25) were recruited from a low/moderate income urban area in upstate New York. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method) identified three clusters of parents differing in use of food-choice coping strategies (ie, Individualized Eating, Missing Meals, and Home Cooking). Cluster sociodemographic, work, and family characteristics were compared using χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Cluster differences in dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index 2005) were analyzed using analysis of variance. Clusters differed significantly (P≤0.05) on food-choice coping strategies, dietary quality, and behavioral contexts (ie, work schedule, marital status, partner’s employment, and number of children). Individualized Eating and Missing Meals clusters were characterized by nonstandard work hours, having a working partner, single parenthood and with family meals away from home, grabbing quick food instead of a meal, using convenience entrées at home, and missing meals or individualized eating. The Home Cooking cluster included considerably more married fathers with nonemployed spouses and more home-cooked family meals. Food-choice coping strategies affecting dietary quality reflect parents’ work and family conditions. Nutritional guidance and family policy needs to consider these important behavioral contexts for family nutrition and health. PMID:21338739

  5. Choices in recreational water quality monitoring: new opportunities and health risk trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    With the recent release of new recreational water quality monitoring criteria, there are more options for regulatory agencies seeking to protect beachgoers from waterborne pathogens. Included are methods that can reduce analytical time, providing timelier estimates of water quality, but the application of these methods has not been examined at most beaches for expectation of health risk and management decisions. In this analysis, we explore health and monitoring outcomes expected at Lake Michigan beaches using protocols for indicator bacteria including culturable Escherichia coli (E. coli; EC), culturable enterococci (ENT), and enterococci as analyzed by qPCR (QENT). Correlations between method results were generally high, except at beaches with historically high concentrations of EC. The “beach action value” was exceeded most often when using EC or ENT as the target indicator; QENT exceeded the limit far less frequently. Measured water quality between years was varied. Although methods with equivalent health expectation have been established, the lack of relationship among method outcomes and annual changes in mean indicator bacteria concentrations complicates the decision-making process. The monitoring approach selected by beach managers may be a combination of available tools that maximizes timely health protection, cost efficiency, and collaboration among beach jurisdictions.

  6. Meanings of quality of life held by patients with colorectal cancer in the context of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetto, Luciana Scatralhe; Zago, Marcia Maria Fontão

    2015-01-01

    this study's aim was to interpret the meanings assigned to quality of life by patients with colorectal cancer undergoing chemotherapy. the ethnographic method and the medical anthropology theoretical framework were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observations with 16 men and women aged from 43 to 75 years old undergoing chemotherapy in a university hospital. the meanings and senses describe biographical ruptures, loss of normality of life, personal and social suffering, and the need to respond to chemotherapy's side effects; chemotherapy is seen as a transitional stage for a cure. Quality of life is considered unsatisfactory because the treatment imposes personal and social limitations and QoL is linked to resuming normal life. the meanings show the importance of considering sociocultural aspects in the conceptualization and assessment of quality of life.

  7. What Sways People's Judgment of Sleep Quality? A Quantitative Choice-Making Study With Good and Poor Sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Fatanah; Sanborn, Adam N; Tang, Nicole K Y

    2017-07-01

    We conceptualized sleep quality judgment as a decision-making process and examined the relative importance of 17 parameters of sleep quality using a choice-based conjoint analysis. One hundred participants (50 good sleepers; 50 poor sleepers) were asked to choose between 2 written scenarios to answer 1 of 2 questions: "Which describes a better (or worse) night of sleep?". Each scenario described a self-reported experience of sleep, stringing together 17 possible determinants of sleep quality that occur at different times of the day (day before, pre-sleep, during sleep, upon waking, day after). Each participant answered 48 questions. Logistic regression models were fit to their choice data. Eleven of the 17 sleep quality parameters had a significant impact on the participants' choices. The top 3 determinants of sleep quality were: Total sleep time, feeling refreshed (upon waking), and mood (day after). Sleep quality judgments were most influenced by factors that occur during sleep, followed by feelings and activities upon waking and the day after. There was a significant interaction between wake after sleep onset and feeling refreshed (upon waking) and between feeling refreshed (upon waking) and question type (better or worse night of sleep). Type of sleeper (good vs poor sleepers) did not significantly influence the judgments. Sleep quality judgments appear to be determined by not only what happened during sleep, but also what happened after the sleep period. Interventions that improve mood and functioning during the day may inadvertently also improve people's self-reported evaluation of sleep quality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  8. New information technologies as a means of quality improvement of part-time students’ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нестеренко В. В.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ways and means aimed at facilitating the quality of part-time students’ training at an institution of higher education are considered in the article. The principles the conditions facilitating quality increase of adult part-time students’ training are based on as well as criteria of their effectiveness assessment are described. The definition of the notion «distance learning» has been given. Tuition by correspondence as a special form of continuous education allowing the use of elements of distance educational technologies is examined. The role of informational technologies in correspondence form of education providing essential improvement of students’ training quality is described.

  9. Environmental awareness and traffic behaviour. Empirical analyses on the choice of means of transport and the acceptance of environment-policy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the public and scientific discussion about options concerning solutions to the environmental problem, the role played by environmental awareness is often an area of interest. Two essential questions are posed: - What influence do environment-related attitudes have on the everyday, environmentally relevant actions of individuals? - What influence does environmental awareness have on voting behaviour and on the acceptance of environment policy measures? In this book, both questions are empirically examined in detail using, as examples, the choice of means of transport and the acceptance of measures to control traffic [de

  10. Qualitätsverbesserung von MC Fragen [Quality assurance of Multiple Choice Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotthoff, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Because of the missing relevance of graded examinations at the German medical faculties, there was no need to reflect the question quality in written examinations consistently. Through the new national legislation for medical education certification-relevant, faculty-internal examinations are prescribed. Until now, there is a lack of structures and processes which could lead to an improvement of the question quality. To reflect the different performance of the students, a different severity and a good selectivity of the test questions are necessary. For a interdisciplinary examination for fourth year undergraduate students at the University Hospital Duesseldorf, new Multiple choice (MC- questions which are application-orientated, clearly formulated and to a large extent free from formal errors should be developed. The implementation took place in the conception and performance of Workshops for the construction of MC-questions and the appointment of an interdisciplinary review-committee. It could be shown that an author training facilitates and accelerates the review-process for the committee and that a review process reflects itself in a high practise-orientation of the items. Prospectively, high-quality questions which are created in a review-process and metrological analysed could be read into inter-university databases. Therewith the initial expenditure of time could be reduced. The interdisciplinary constitution of the review-committee offers the possibility of an intensified discussion over content and relevance of the questions. [german] Wegen fehlender notenrelevanter Prüfungen an den Medizinischen Fakultäten in Deutschland bestand bisher keine Notwendigkeit, die Fragenqualität in schriftlichen Prüfungen konsequent zu reflektieren. Erst durch die neue Approbationsordnung sind zeugnisrelevante, fakultätsinterne Prüfungen vorgeschrieben. Es fehlen somit oftmals Strukturen und Prozesse, die zu einer Verbesserung der

  11. An Enhanced K-Means Algorithm for Water Quality Analysis of The Haihe River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui; Zou, Zhihong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-11-12

    The increase and the complexity of data caused by the uncertain environment is today's reality. In order to identify water quality effectively and reliably, this paper presents a modified fast clustering algorithm for water quality analysis. The algorithm has adopted a varying weights K-means cluster algorithm to analyze water monitoring data. The varying weights scheme was the best weighting indicator selected by a modified indicator weight self-adjustment algorithm based on K-means, which is named MIWAS-K-means. The new clustering algorithm avoids the margin of the iteration not being calculated in some cases. With the fast clustering analysis, we can identify the quality of water samples. The algorithm is applied in water quality analysis of the Haihe River (China) data obtained by the monitoring network over a period of eight years (2006-2013) with four indicators at seven different sites (2078 samples). Both the theoretical and simulated results demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and reliable for water quality analysis of the Haihe River. In addition, the algorithm can be applied to more complex data matrices with high dimensionality.

  12. System of application of information technologies as a means of increasing education quality at the institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Рубцова

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the essence of application of new information technologies in academic process at educational institution as one of the means of increasing quality of education. It will be achieved & supported by implementing automation education systems (AES based on module & system logics for preparing specialists, as well as working out & implementing didactic complex of automation education systems.

  13. Identifying individual changes in performance with composite quality indicators while accounting for regression to the mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Byron J; Dunton, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    Almost a decade ago Morton and Torgerson indicated that perceived medical benefits could be due to "regression to the mean." Despite this caution, the regression to the mean "effects on the identification of changes in institutional performance do not seem to have been considered previously in any depth" (Jones and Spiegelhalter). As a response, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a methodology to adjust for regression to the mean when modeling recent changes in institutional performance for one-variable quality indicators. Therefore, in our view, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a breakthrough methodology for performance measures. At the same time, in the interests of parsimony, it is useful to aggregate individual quality indicators into a composite score. Our question is, can we develop and demonstrate a methodology that extends the "regression to the mean" literature to allow for composite quality indicators? Using a latent variable modeling approach, we extend the methodology to the composite indicator case. We demonstrate the approach on 4 indicators collected by the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. A simulation study further demonstrates its "proof of concept."

  14. Non-destructive methods and means for quality control of structural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Progressive non-destructive methods (acoustic, magnetic, radiation with liquid penetrants) and means of control of structural product quality, allowing to determine the state of products and structures not only immediately after their production but directly at the erected or reconstructed objects are described

  15. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species.

  16. A choice modelling analysis on the similarity between distribution utilities' and industrial customers' price and quality preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Electricity Act states that electricity distribution must comply with both price and quality requirements. In order to maintain efficient regulation it is necessary to firstly, define quality attributes and secondly, determine a customer's priorities concerning price and quality attributes. If distribution utilities gain an understanding of customer preferences and incentives for reporting them, the regulator can save a lot of time by surveying them rather than their customers. This study applies a choice modelling methodology where utilities and industrial customers are asked to evaluate the same twelve choice situations in which price and four specific quality attributes are varied. The preferences expressed by the utilities, and estimated by a random parameter logit, correspond quite well with the preferences expressed by the largest industrial customers. The preferences expressed by the utilities are reasonably homogenous in relation to forms of association (private limited, public and trading partnership). If the regulator acts according to the preferences expressed by the utilities, smaller industrial customers will have to pay for quality they have not asked for. (author)

  17. Assessing the predictive value of means-end-chain theory: an application to meat product choice by Australian middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Aurore; Cox, David N; Georgie Russell, C; Leppard, Phillip I

    2005-04-01

    Means-end-chain theory seeks to understand how consumers make links between products and self-relevant consequences and values. To date, means-end-chain theory has remained a descriptive process and has not been applied to predicting product choice. Within the context of cooking meat, the main objective of this research was to assess the predictive value of the means-end-chain theory. In a two part study, we first undertook a laddering study (n=58 middle-aged women) focusing on cooking three different meat products, using small group administration and paper-and-pencil responses to elicit mean-end-chains (MEC). In the second part, we considered all the MEC independently and incorporated them into a questionnaire, which was also comprised of psycho-social predictors from a range of behavioural models. Responses were elicited from a sample of middle-aged women (n=247). Although MEC explained little of the variance in self-reported behaviour, they were shown to be an important predictor of attitude. Contrary to expectations, the least abstract levels of the MEC appeared to be the most predictive. A critical examination of the data suggested a need to reconsider the means-end-chain theory since it appears to take the respondents beyond their own awareness of their behaviours.

  18. Housing choice and control, housing quality, and control over professional support as contributors to the subjective quality of life and community adaptation of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Sylvestre, John; Aubry, Tim; George, Lindsey; Trainor, John

    2007-03-01

    This research examined two premises of supported housing: (a) that consumer choice/control over housing and support and the quality of housing are important contributors to the subjective quality of life and adaptation to community living of people with mental illness, and (b) that apartments provide mental health consumers with more choice/control over housing and support than group living arrangements. To test these two hypotheses, we collected data from participants with mental illness housed through a government initiative in Ontario, Canada. A total of 130 participants completed a baseline interview, and 91 of those participants also completed a follow-up interview 9-months later. Support was found for both hypotheses. The results were discussed in terms of the paradigm of supported housing, previous research, and implications for housing policy and program development in the community mental health sector.

  19. Measurement of Indoor Air Quality by Means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    When a person is located in a contaminant field with significant gradients the contaminant distribution is modified locally due to the entrainment and transport of room air in the human convective boundary layer as well as due to the effect of the person acting as an obstacle to the flow field, etc....... The local modification of the concentration distribution may affect the personal exposure significantly and, thus, the indoor air quality actually experienced. In this paper measurements of indoor air quality by means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin (BTM) are presented....

  20. School Quality and Social Stratification: The Determinants and Consequences of Parental School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven M.

    Those who favor expansion of consumer choice in education claim that competition would force schools to improve. Critics claim that it would sort students by race and class. A competitive market will provide what consumers demand, yet neither side has empirical evidence on such consumer preferences to back up their claims. This paper offers such…

  1. Improving the quality of discrete-choice experiments in health: how can we assess validity and reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ellen M; Marshall, Deborah A; Hauber, A Brett; Bridges, John F P

    2017-12-01

    The recent endorsement of discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and other stated-preference methods by regulatory and health technology assessment (HTA) agencies has placed a greater focus on demonstrating the validity and reliability of preference results. Areas covered: We present a practical overview of tests of validity and reliability that have been applied in the health DCE literature and explore other study qualities of DCEs. From the published literature, we identify a variety of methods to assess the validity and reliability of DCEs. We conceptualize these methods to create a conceptual model with four domains: measurement validity, measurement reliability, choice validity, and choice reliability. Each domain consists of three categories that can be assessed using one to four procedures (for a total of 24 tests). We present how these tests have been applied in the literature and direct readers to applications of these tests in the health DCE literature. Based on a stakeholder engagement exercise, we consider the importance of study characteristics beyond traditional concepts of validity and reliability. Expert commentary: We discuss study design considerations to assess the validity and reliability of a DCE, consider limitations to the current application of tests, and discuss future work to consider the quality of DCEs in healthcare.

  2. Motivations, image dimensions and affective qualities of places: the choice of place and photos in tourism and leisure travels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Luciane Scherer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is dependent on aspects that motivate people to travel and what they expect to receive. This study aimed to explore the dimensions of the images and affective qualities of places in tourism and leisure travel photos. Aimed also to identify the motivations that influence the choice of tourist destination. We conducted two studies. The first was a survey wtih 232 people who made tourism or leisure travel in the last three years. The second stage of the research, was performed by application of 12 interviews with leisure or tourism travel consumers. The results show that the affective image, the atmosphere and leisure are the most determinant dimensions in the choice of destination. It was also found that feelings of respondents in relation to your photo turn to the affective and emotional field.

  3. The quality of life and satisfaction with life of women who are childless by choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bień

    2017-05-01

    A positive correlation was found between satisfaction with life and overall quality of life, general perceived health, and all quality of life domains. Higher satisfaction with life scores in childless women are correlated with a higher quality of life scores and better perceived health.

  4. Relationship between quality of care and choice of clinical computing system: retrospective analysis of family practice performance under the UK's quality and outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Buchan, Iain; Reeves, David; Checkland, Kath; Doran, Tim

    2013-08-02

    To investigate the relationship between performance on the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework pay-for-performance scheme and choice of clinical computer system. Retrospective longitudinal study. Data for 2007-2008 to 2010-2011, extracted from the clinical computer systems of general practices in England. All English practices participating in the pay-for-performance scheme: average 8257 each year, covering over 99% of the English population registered with a general practice. Levels of achievement on 62 quality-of-care indicators, measured as: reported achievement (levels of care after excluding inappropriate patients); population achievement (levels of care for all patients with the relevant condition) and percentage of available quality points attained. Multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify population, practice and clinical computing system predictors of achievement. Seven clinical computer systems were consistently active in the study period, collectively holding approximately 99% of the market share. Of all population and practice characteristics assessed, choice of clinical computing system was the strongest predictor of performance across all three outcome measures. Differences between systems were greatest for intermediate outcomes indicators (eg, control of cholesterol levels). Under the UK's pay-for-performance scheme, differences in practice performance were associated with the choice of clinical computing system. This raises the question of whether particular system characteristics facilitate higher quality of care, better data recording or both. Inconsistencies across systems need to be understood and addressed, and researchers need to be cautious when generalising findings from samples of providers using a single computing system.

  5. On the subjective quality of social Interactions: Influence of neighborhood walkability, social cohesion and mobility choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, P. van den; Sharmeen, F.; Weijs-Perrée, M.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research in the field of transportation is paying due attention to the geography and composition of personal social networks. However, still little is known about the quality of social interactions, although arguably the subjective quality of social interaction is more important for

  6. On the subjective quality of social Interactions : Influence of neighborhood walkability, social cohesion and mobility choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.E.W.; Sharmeen, F.; Weijs - Perrée, M.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research in the field of transportation is paying due attention to the geography and composition of personal social networks. However, still little is known about the quality of social interactions, although arguably the subjective quality of social interaction is more important for

  7. Influences on the quality of young children's diets: the importance of maternal food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Catherine M; Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2011-01-01

    It is recognised that eating habits established in early childhood may track into adult life. Developing effective interventions to promote healthier patterns of eating throughout the life course requires a greater understanding of the diets of young children and the factors that influence early dietary patterns. In a longitudinal UK cohort study, we assessed the diets of 1640 children at age 3 years using an interviewer-administered FFQ and examined the influence of maternal and family factors on the quality of the children's diets. To describe dietary quality, we used a principal components analysis-defined pattern of foods that is consistent with healthy eating recommendations. This was termed a 'prudent' diet pattern and was characterised by high intakes of fruit, vegetables and wholemeal bread, but by low intakes of white bread, confectionery, chips and roast potatoes. The key influence on the quality of the children's diets was the quality of their mother's diets; alone it accounted for almost a third of the variance in child's dietary quality. Mothers who had better-quality diets, which complied with dietary recommendations, were more likely to have children with comparable diets. This relationship remained strong even after adjustment for all other factors considered, including maternal educational attainment, BMI and smoking, and the child's birth order and the time spent watching television. Our data provide strong evidence of shared family patterns of diet and suggest that interventions to improve the quality of young women's diets could be effective in improving the quality of their children's diets.

  8. Assembly and Quality Control of the LHC Cryostats at CERN Motivations, Means, Results and Lessons Learnt

    CERN Document Server

    Poncet, A; Parma, V; Strubin, P; Tock, JP; Tommasini, D

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the project management decided to perform at CERN the final assembly of the LHC superconducting magnets with cryostat parts and cold masses produced by European Industry in large series. This industrial-like production has required a very significant investment in tooling, production facilities, engineering and quality control efforts, in contractual partnership with a consortium of firms. This unusual endeavour of a limited lifetime represented more than 850,000 working hours spanning over five years, the work being done on a result-oriented basis by the contractor. This paper presents the reasons for having conducted this project at CERN, summarizes the work breakdown structure, the production means and methods, the infrastructure specially developed, the tooling, logistics and quality control aspects of the work performed and the results achieved, in analytical form. Finally, the lessons learnt are outlined.

  9. Improving quality of a rural CAMHS service using the Choice and Partnership Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Jonine; Basu, Soumya; O'Dowd, Frank; Carroll, Matthew; Maybery, Darryl

    2015-10-01

    This study outlines the service issues and adjustments associated with the implementation of Choice and Partnership Approach (CAPA) into a rural Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). A mixed-methods approach examined the impacts of the CAPA implementation. A qualitative review of the minutes from team and implementation group meetings illustrated themes according to 11 key CAPA components. Quantitative internal audit data illustrated waiting list times. Findings showed that inclusive language has replaced the traditional, pathology-driven psychiatric discourse, though this has been met with mixed response from CAMHS clinicians, service users and referrers. Data also showed that a waiting list for clinician allocation has been eliminated, and the waiting time between the referral date and the first face-to-face contact has decreased from 63.9 days to 10.7 days. A modified CAPA Choice appointment system has allowed quick access without a waiting list, in line with government guidelines. A full-booking system and focussed, goal-oriented interventions has led to lower caseloads and optimum use of CAMHS clinician skillsets. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  10. Beef quality labels: A combination of sensory acceptance test, stated willingness to pay, and choice-based conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerding, Stephan G H; Gentz, Maria; Altmann, Brianne; Meier-Dinkel, Lisa

    2018-08-01

    Consumer perspectives of beef quality are complex, leading to a market that is increasingly differentiating. Thus, ongoing monitoring and assessment of changes in consumer perspectives is essential to identify changing market conditions. Often only credence and search characteristics are evaluated in consumer studies; therefore the object of the present study is to examine consumer preferences and perceptions towards beef steaks, also including experience characteristics, using a mixed methods approach. For this reason, 55 consumers participated in an experiment in Germany, including a sensory acceptance test, stated willingness to pay, and choice-based conjoint analysis (CBCA). Different quality characteristics were included, but a focus on the quality labels of 'dry aged beef', 'Block House beef', and 'Angus beef' was predominant throughout the experiment with the results showing that quality labels significantly increased overall liking as well as the stated willingness to pay. Quality labels were also the one of the most important characteristics in the conjoint analysis, after origin and price. The results of all applied methods are comparable for the characteristic quality label. The combination of sensory acceptance test and CBCA were additionally able to evaluate all three kinds of beef quality characteristics, which could not be evaluated together only using a single method. This suggests that a mixture of methods should be used to gain better knowledge on the true behavior of beef consumers. Experience and credence characteristics, including beef quality labels, present opportunities for future research as well as the potential for determining product and market differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Weibull Analysis of Electrical Breakdown Strength as an Effective Means of Evaluating Elastomer Thin Film Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silau, Harald; Stabell, Nicolai Bogø; Petersen, Frederik Riddersholm

    2018-01-01

    To realize the commercial potential of dielectric elastomers, reliable, large-scale film production is required. Ensuring proper mixing and subsequently avoiding demixing after, for example, pumping and coating of elastomer premix in an online process is not facile. Weibull analysis...... of the electrical breakdown strength of dielectric elastomer films is shown to be an effective means of evaluating the film quality. The analysis is shown to be capable of distinguishing between proper and improper mixing schemes where similar analysis of ultimate mechanical properties fails to distinguish....

  12. Do taste expectations mediate the impact of quality cues on consumers’ choice of chicken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia; Thøgersen, John; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    . The conjoint design was a metric traditional conjoint approach based on an additive model, where 405 respondents had to rate their willingness to buy and expectations regarding taste of each one of the nine different chickens on scales from 0 to 10. It was thus possible to conduct two different conjoint...... analyses, in order to determine the impact of the quality cues on buying intention on the one hand, and on the expected taste on the other hand. In these models, quality cues are initial variables, while expected taste and willingness to buy are both outcome variables. The two models are then integrated...... when testing whether or not expected taste mediates the effects of quality cues on willingness to buy. Hence, in the mediational model, quality cues are initial variables, willingness to buy is the outcome and expected taste is the mediator. The most effective way to do the mediation analysis is still...

  13. Positive and negative meanings are simultaneously ascribed to colorectal cancer: relationship to quality of life and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Aldo Aguirre; Garland, Sheila N; Martopullo, Celestina; Pelletier, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Experiencing cancer can give rise to existential concerns causing great distress, and consequently drive individuals to make sense of what cancer may mean to their lives. To date, meaning-based research in the context of cancer has largely focused on one possible outcome of this process, the emergence of positive meanings (e.g. post-traumatic growth). However, negative meanings may also be ascribed to cancer, simultaneously with positive meanings. This study focused on the nature of the co-existence of positive and negative meanings in a sample of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer to find out whether negative meaning had an impact on quality of life and psychosocial adjustment above and beyond positive meaning. Participants were given questionnaires measuring meaning-made, quality of life, and psychological distress. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a subgroup from the original sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that negative meaning-made (i.e. helplessness) was a significant predictor of poor quality of life and increased levels of depression/anxiety above and beyond positive meaning-made (i.e. life meaningfulness, acceptance, and perceived benefits). Correlational analyses and interview data revealed that negative meaning-made was mainly associated with physical and functional disability, while positive meaning-made was mostly related to emotional and psychological well-being. Meanings of varying valence may simultaneously be ascribed to cancer as it impacts different life dimensions, and they may independently influence quality of life and psychosocial adjustment. The presence of positive meaning was not enough to prevent the detrimental effects of negative meaning on psychosocial adjustment and quality of life among individuals taking part in this study. Future attention to negative meaning is warranted, as it may be at least as important as positive meaning in predicting psychosocial adjustment and quality of

  14. Meaning and components of quality of life among individuals with spinal cord injury in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdiana, Astri; Post, Marcel W M; King, Nigel; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge on the meaning of quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury in developing countries is limited. This study aims to explore the meaning and components of quality of life for individuals with spinal cord injury in a rural area in Indonesia. Method: Data were obtained

  15. Temperature and vegetation effects on soil organic carbon quality along a forested mean annual temperature gradient in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; Gary M. King; Martin F. Jurgensen; Christopher D. Barton; S. Douglas McDowell

    2008-01-01

    Both climate and plant species are hypothesized to influence soil organic carbon (SOC) quality, but accurate prediction of how SOC process rates respond to global change will require an improved understanding of how SOC quality varies with mean annual temperature (MAT) and forest type. We investigated SOC quality in paired hardwood and pine stands growing in coarse...

  16. The National Coordinated Research Programme for Air Quality. Another choice for clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Giezen, M.; Havinga, A.; De Boer, H.

    2009-01-01

    On August 1st 2009 the National Coordinated Research Programme for Air quality (NSL in Dutch) entered into operation. This programme must help improve air quality such that it meets the European standards. At the same time the deadlock between environment and space is also solved. A special approach has been chosen for this purpose, which is based on a common interest of the State, provinces and local authorities. It was an intensive and interesting process. The annual monitoring will have to show whether or not the NSL will meet its objectives. [nl

  17. A multi-stakeholder framework for urban runoff quality management: Application of social choice and bargaining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, an integrated framework is proposed for urban runoff management. To control and improve runoff quality and quantity, Low Impact Development (LID) practices are utilized. In order to determine the LIDs' areas and locations, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), which considers three objective functions of minimizing runoff volume, runoff pollution and implementation cost of LIDs, is utilized. In this framework, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used for stream flow simulation. The non-dominated solutions provided by the NSGA-II are considered as management scenarios. To select the most preferred scenario, interactions among the main stakeholders in the study area with conflicting utilities are incorporated by utilizing bargaining models including a non-cooperative game, Nash model and social choice procedures of Borda count and approval voting. Moreover, a new social choice procedure, named pairwise voting method, is proposed and applied. Based on each conflict resolution approach, a scenario is identified as the ideal solution providing the LIDs' areas, locations and implementation cost. The proposed framework is applied for urban water quality and quantity management in the northern part of Tehran metropolitan city, Iran. Results show that the proposed pairwise voting method tends to select a scenario with a higher percentage of reduction in TSS (Total Suspended Solid) load and runoff volume, in comparison with the Borda count and approval voting methods. Besides, the Nash method presents a management scenario with the highest cost for LIDs' implementation and the maximum values for percentage of runoff volume reduction and TSS removal. The results also signify that selection of an appropriate management scenario by stakeholders in the study area depends on the available financial resources and the relative importance of runoff quality improvement in comparison with reducing the runoff volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  18. Double the dates and go for Bayes - Impacts of model choice, dating density and quality on chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Maarten; Christen, J. Andrés; Bennett, K. D.; Reimer, Paula J.

    2018-05-01

    Reliable chronologies are essential for most Quaternary studies, but little is known about how age-depth model choice, as well as dating density and quality, affect the precision and accuracy of chronologies. A meta-analysis suggests that most existing late-Quaternary studies contain fewer than one date per millennium, and provide millennial-scale precision at best. We use existing and simulated sediment cores to estimate what dating density and quality are required to obtain accurate chronologies at a desired precision. For many sites, a doubling in dating density would significantly improve chronologies and thus their value for reconstructing and interpreting past environmental changes. Commonly used classical age-depth models stop becoming more precise after a minimum dating density is reached, but the precision of Bayesian age-depth models which take advantage of chronological ordering continues to improve with more dates. Our simulations show that classical age-depth models severely underestimate uncertainty and are inaccurate at low dating densities, and also perform poorly at high dating densities. On the other hand, Bayesian age-depth models provide more realistic precision estimates, including at low to average dating densities, and are much more robust against dating scatter and outliers. Indeed, Bayesian age-depth models outperform classical ones at all tested dating densities, qualities and time-scales. We recommend that chronologies should be produced using Bayesian age-depth models taking into account chronological ordering and based on a minimum of 2 dates per millennium.

  19. Will a Short Training Session Improve Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Quality by Dental School Faculty? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinges, Mark A; Curtis, Donald A

    2017-08-01

    Faculty members are expected to write high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in order to accurately assess dental students' achievement. However, most dental school faculty members are not trained to write MCQs. Extensive faculty development programs have been used to help educators write better test items. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if a short workshop would result in improved MCQ item-writing by dental school faculty at one U.S. dental school. A total of 24 dental school faculty members who had previously written MCQs were randomized into a no-intervention group and an intervention group in 2015. Six previously written MCQs were randomly selected from each of the faculty members and given an item quality score. The intervention group participated in a training session of one-hour duration that focused on reviewing standard item-writing guidelines to improve in-house MCQs. The no-intervention group did not receive any training but did receive encouragement and an explanation of why good MCQ writing was important. The faculty members were then asked to revise their previously written questions, and these were given an item quality score. The item quality scores for each faculty member were averaged, and the difference from pre-training to post-training scores was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between pre-training and post-training MCQ difference scores for the intervention group (p=0.04). This pilot study provides evidence that the training session of short duration was effective in improving the quality of in-house MCQs.

  20. Online quality monitoring of welding processes by means of plasma optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Ancona, Antonio; Lugara, Pietro M.; Sibilano, Michele

    2000-02-01

    An optical monitoring system for the welding process has been developed; it is based on the study of the optical emission of the welding plasma plume, created during the welding of stainless steels and other iron-based materials. In the first approach a continuous wave CO2 laser of 2500-Watt maximum power, available at the INFM Research Unit labs in Bari University, has been used as welding source. A detailed spectroscopic study of the visible and UV welding plasma emission has been carried out; many transition lines corresponding to the elements composing the material to be welded have been found. By means of an appropriate selection of these lines and suitable algorithms, the electronic temperature of the plasma plume has been calculated and its evolution recorded as a function of several welding parameters. The behavior of the registered signal has resulted to be correlated to the welded joint quality. These findings have allowed to design and assemble a portable, non-intrusive and real-time welding quality optical sensor which has been successfully tested for laser welding of metals in different geometrical configurations; it has been capable of detecting a wide range of weld defects normally occurring during industrial laser metal-working. This sensor has also been tested in arc welding industrial processes (TIG) with promising results.

  1. The meaning of city noises: Investigating sound quality in Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie

    2004-05-01

    The sound quality of Paris (France) was investigated by using field inquiries in actual environments (open questionnaires) and using recordings under laboratory conditions (free-sorting tasks). Cognitive categories of soundscapes were inferred by means of psycholinguistic analyses of verbal data and of mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results show that auditory judgments mainly rely on source identification. The appraisal of urban noise therefore depends on the qualitative evaluation of noise sources. The salience of human sounds in public spaces has been demonstrated, in relation to pleasantness judgments: soundscapes with human presence tend to be perceived as more pleasant than soundscapes consisting solely of mechanical sounds. Furthermore, human sounds are qualitatively processed as indicators of human outdoor activities, such as open markets, pedestrian areas, and sidewalk cafe districts that reflect city life. In contrast, mechanical noises (mainly traffic noise) are commonly described in terms of physical properties (temporal structure, intensity) of a permanent background noise that also characterizes urban areas. This connotes considering both quantitative and qualitative descriptions to account for the diversity of cognitive interpretations of urban soundscapes, since subjective evaluations depend both on the meaning attributed to noise sources and on inherent properties of the acoustic signal.

  2. [Interneuronal relationships in the basolateral amygdala of cats trained for choice in the quality of food reinforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzhanova, G Kh; Dolbakian, E E; Partev, A Z

    1997-01-01

    The alimentary instrumental conditioned bar-pressing reflex was elaborated in cats by the method of "active choice" of either short-delayed reinforcement with bread-meat mixture of delayed more valuable reinforcement with meat. The animals differed in behavior strategy: some animals preferred bar-pressing with the long delay (the so-called "self-control" group), other animals pressed the bar with short delay (the so-called "impulsive" group). The multiunit activity in the basolateral amygdala was recorded with chronically implanted nichrome microelectrodes. The interactions between the spike trains of the neighbouring neurons selected from the multiunit activity were evaluated by means of statistical crosscorrelation analysis. It was shown that the number of correlations between the discharges of neurons was significantly higher in the "impulsive" cats. In both groups the number of cross-correlations was maximal in cases of a difficult choice, i.e., during the omission of the conditioned bar-pressing response. In "impulsive" cats the number of interneuronal correlations was highest with the latencies in the range of 0-30 msec. We suggest that the basolateral amygdala is involved in the system of structures which determine the individual-typological characteristics of animals.

  3. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  4. Objectifying user critique. A means of continuous quality assurance for physician discharge letter composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschem, M; Mahler, V; Prokosch, H U

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to objectify user critique rendering it usable for quality assurance. Based on formative and summative evaluation results we strive to promote software improvements; in our case, the physician discharge letter composition process at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, Germany. We developed a novel six-step approach to objectify user critique: 1) acquisition of user critique using subjectivist methods, 2) creation of a workflow model, 3) definition of hypothesis and indicators, 4) measuring of indicators, 5) analyzing results, 6) optimization of the system regarding both subjectivist and objectivist evaluation results. In particular, we derived indicators and workflows directly from user critique/narratives. The identified indicators were mapped onto workflow activities, creating a link between user critique and the evaluated system. Users criticized a new discharge letter system as "too slow" and "too labor-intensive" in comparison with the previously used system. In a stepwise approach we collected subjective user critique, derived a comprehensive process model including deviations and deduced a set of five indicators for objectivist evaluation: processing time, system-related waiting time, number of mouse clicks, number of keyboard inputs, and throughput time. About 3500 measurements have been performed to compare the workflow-steps of both systems, regarding 20 discharge letters. Although the difference of the mean total processing time between both systems was statistically insignificant (2011.7 s vs. 1971.5 s; p = 0.457), we detected a significant difference in waiting times (101.8 s vs. 37.2 s; p quality assurance. To our knowledge no previous study in medical informatics mapped user critique onto workflow steps. Subjectivist analysis prompted us to use the indicator system-related waiting time for the objectivist study, which was rarely done before. We consider combining subjectivist and objectivist methods

  5. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in both

  6. Education quality monitoring in a comprehensive secondary institution with the use of modern IT-based means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Николаевна Ромашкова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article one can find an example of the Balanced Score Card (BSC development for a comprehensive secondary organization. The idea of using the BSC for the education quality monitoring is justified. The interrelation between the modern IT-based means introduction and the educational process quality improvement in a comprehensive secondary organization has been set.

  7. Quality of Life Philosophy V. Seizing the Meaning of Life and Becoming Well Again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a positive philosophy of life developed to support and inspire patients to take more responsibility for their own lives and to draw more efficiently on their known or hidden resources. The idea is that everybody can become wiser, use themselves better, and thus improve quality of life, subjective health, and the ability to function.To be responsible means to see yourself as the cause of your own existence and state of being. To be the one who forms your own life to your liking, so that others do not shape it in the way they prefer to see you. Seen this way, taking responsibility in practice is one of the most difficult things to do. One of the greatest and most difficult things to do in this context is to be able to love. To be the one who loves, instead of being the one who demands love, care, awareness, respect, and acceptance from somebody else.Since almost all of us have had parents who maybe loved us too little and mostly conditionally, we all harbor a deep yearning to be loved as we are, unconditionally. A lot of our energy is spent trying to find recognition and acceptance, more or less as we did as children from our parents, who created the framework and defined the rules of the game. But today, reality is different. We have grown up and now life is about shaping our own existence. So we must be the ones who love. This is what responsibility is all about. Taking responsibility is, quite literally, moving the barriers in our lives inside ourselves. Taking responsibility for life means that you are willing to see that the real barriers are not all these external ones, but something that can be found within yourself. Of course there is an outside world that cannot be easily shaped according to your dreams. But a responsible point of view is that although it is difficult, the problem is not impossible; it is your real challenge and task. If there is something you really want, you can achieve it, but whether it happens

  8. Quality of life philosophy V. Seizing the meaning of life and becoming well again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a positive philosophy of life developed to support and inspire patients to take more responsibility for their own lives and to draw more efficiently on their known or hidden resources. The idea is that everybody can become wiser, use themselves better, and thus improve quality of life, subjective health, and the ability to function. To be responsible means to see yourself as the cause of your own existence and state of being. To be the one who forms your own life to your liking, so that others do not shape it in the way they prefer to see you. Seen this way, taking responsibility in practice is one of the most difficult things to do. One of the greatest and most difficult things to do in this context is to be able to love. To be the one who loves, instead of being the one who demands love, care, awareness, respect, and acceptance from somebody else. Since almost all of us have had parents who maybe loved us too little and mostly conditionally, we all harbor a deep yearning to be loved as we are, unconditionally. A lot of our energy is spent trying to find recognition and acceptance, more or less as we did as children from our parents, who created the framework and defined the rules of the game. But today, reality is different. We have grown up and now life is about shaping our own existence. So we must be the ones who love. This is what responsibility is all about. Taking responsibility is, quite literally, moving the barriers in our lives inside ourselves. Taking responsibility for life means that you are willing to see that the real barriers are not all these external ones, but something that can be found within yourself. Of course there is an outside world that cannot be easily shaped according to your dreams. But a responsible point of view is that although it is difficult, the problem is not impossible; it is your real challenge and task. If there is something you really want, you can achieve it, but whether it happens depends on your

  9. Quality evaluation of regional forage resources by means of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of grassland and pasture samples collected during a three-year period at two environmentally andgeographically different areas were analysed by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS. Chemical analysis forcrude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADLand crude ash (ASH carried out on two-thirds of the samples were used in calibration processes. The remaining onethirdof the data was used to validate the best calibrations obtained. Samples selection is discussed. Different math pretreatments(derivative, gap, primary smoothing and secondary smoothing, light scattering correction methods and calibrationalgorithms were tested to achieve the better predictive performances. We obtained the best results using differentregression algorithms to correlate spectral information to chemical data. For CP (R2 = 0.94, SEP=1.3, NDF (R2 =0.95, SEP = 2.14 and ADF (R2 = 0.92, SEP=2.06 Multiple Linear Regression (MLR models fit chemical data better thanMean Partial Least Square (MPLS regression. A molecular basis explanation of wavelengths selected was carried out.MPLS models worked well for CF (R2 = 0.93, SEP=1.57, and ASH (R2 = 0.95, SEP=1.17 while poor calibrations wereobtained for ADL using both algorithms. To confirm the reliability of the models developed, uncertainties of predictionswere compared with findings on nutritional variations and animal performances.

  10. The Impact of Students' Choice of Time of Day for Class Activity and Their Sleep Quality on Academic Performance in Multidisciplinary Distance Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the impact of students' choice of time of day for class activity and their sleep quality on academic performance in multidisciplinary distance education courses at a southeastern U.S. state college. The research addressed the relationship of other individual student characteristics (i.e., age, gender,…

  11. Meaning and barriers to quality care service provision in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services: Qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Ronzoni, Pablo; Dogra, Nisha

    2017-02-20

    Defining quality in health presents many challenges. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) defined quality clinical care as care that is equitable, timely, safe, efficient, effective and patient centred. However, it is not clear how different stakeholders within a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) understand and/or apply this framework. This project aims to identify key stakeholders" understanding of the meaning of quality in the context of CAMHS. The study sample comprised of three groups: (i) patients and carers, (ii) CAMHS clinical staff, and (iii) commissioners (Total N = 24). Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data and thematic analysis was applied to explore participant's views on the meaning and measurement of quality and how these might reflect the IOM indicators and their relevance in CAMHS. An initial barrier to implementing quality care in CAMHS was the difficulty and limited agreement in defining the meaning of quality care, its measurement and implementation for all participants. Clinical staff defined quality as personal values, a set of practical rules, or clinical discharge rates; while patients suggested being more involved in the decision-making process. Commissioners, while supportive of adequate safeguarding and patient satisfaction procedures, did not explicitly link their view on quality to commissioning guidelines. Identifying practical barriers to implementing quality care was easier for all interviewees and common themes included: lack of meaningful measures, recourses, accountability, and training. All interviewees considered the IOM six markers as comprehensive and relevant to CAMHS. No respondent individually or within one stakeholder group identified more than a few of the indicators or barriers of a quality CAMHS service. However, the composite responses of the respondents enable us to develop a more complete picture of how to improve quality care in practice and guide future research in the area.

  12. Convenience, quality and choice: Patient and service-provider perspectives for treating primary care complaints in urgent care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, David

    2017-11-01

    To investigate why patients chose to attend two, nurse-led, minor injury units (MIUs) to access primary healthcare services rather than attend their GP practice. Since the 1980's, healthcare organisations in the UK and elsewhere have implemented an increasingly consumer-orientated model of healthcare provision. As a result, patients with non-urgent presentations are attending Emergency Departments (EDs) and other urgent care facilities in growing numbers. A comparative case study approach was adopted and between October 2014 and May 2015 the researcher was embedded as a participant observer as part of the emergency nurse practitioner team at two, nurse-led, MIUs (site A and B). During this time, 40 patients, 17 service-providers and 1 senior manager were interviewed. Patients and service-providers at both sites identified convenience and quality of care as the principle reasons patients presented for primary healthcare services at MIUs rather than their GP practice. Service-providers were aware that by providing treatment, they established a precedent and a sense of expectation for future care. Patients are acting rationally and predictably in response to healthcare policy promises regarding choice, expectation created by service-providers, and local demographic factors. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a Digital Library by Means of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and the Kano Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay, Cecilia; Gutierrez, Humberto; Figueroa, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes utilizing a combination of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD)-Kano model as a useful tool to evaluate service quality. The digital library of the University of Guadalajara (Mexico) is presented as a case study. Data to feed the QFD-Kano model was gathered by an online questionnaire that was made available to users on the…

  14. MEASNET: Quality in Science and Technology by means of Inter-comparison and Mutual Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work present the interesting relation that exists between Quality Systems, specifically EN45001 one, and scientific and technological disciplines. It is described how the general approach of Quality, as management and continuous improvement tool, applies also to groups whose activity is purely non systematic and innovative. (Author) 4 refs

  15. Meanings of quality of life held by patients with colorectal cancer in the context of chemotherapy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetto, Luciana Scatralhe; Zago, Marcia Maria Fontão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: this study's aim was to interpret the meanings assigned to quality of life by patients with colorectal cancer undergoing chemotherapy. METHOD: the ethnographic method and the medical anthropology theoretical framework were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observations with 16 men and women aged from 43 to 75 years old undergoing chemotherapy in a university hospital. RESULTS: the meanings and senses describe biographical ruptures, loss of normality of life, personal and social suffering, and the need to respond to chemotherapy's side effects; chemotherapy is seen as a transitional stage for a cure. Quality of life is considered unsatisfactory because the treatment imposes personal and social limitations and QoL is linked to resuming normal life. CONCLUSIONS: the meanings show the importance of considering sociocultural aspects in the conceptualization and assessment of quality of life. PMID:26155014

  16. The developmental association of relationship quality, hormonal contraceptive choice and condom non-use among adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, M Aaron; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Shew, Marcia; Orr, Donald P

    2006-09-01

    Consistent condom use is critical to efforts to prevent sexually transmitted infections among adolescents, but condom use may decline as relationships and contraceptive needs change. The purpose of this research is to assess changes in condom non-use longitudinally in the context of changes in relationship quality, coital frequency and hormonal contraceptive choice. Participants were women (aged 14-17 years at enrollment) recruited from three urban adolescent medicine clinics. Data were collected at three-month intervals using a face-to-face structured interview. Participants were able to contribute up to 10 interviews, but on average contributed 4.2 interviews over the 27-month period. Independent variables assessed partner-specific relationship quality (five items; scale range 5-25; alpha = .92, e.g., this partner is a very important person to me); and, number of coital events with a specific partner. Additional items assessed experience with oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use and injected depo medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA). The outcome variable was number of coital events without condom use during the past three months. Analyses were conducted as a three-level hierarchical linear growth curve model using HLM 6. The Level 1 predictor was time, to test the hypothesis that condom non-use increases over time. Level 2 predictors assessed relationship quality and coital frequency across all partners to assess hypotheses that participants' condom non-use increases over time as a function of relationship quality and coital frequency. Level 3 predictors assessed the participant-level influence of OCP or DMPA experience on time-related changes in condom non-use. A total of 176 women reported 279 sex partners and contributed 478 visits. Both average coital frequency and average condom non-use linearly increased during the 27-month follow-up. At any given follow-up, about 35% reported recent OCP use, and 65% reported DMPA use. HLM analyses showed that condom non

  17. Hydrochemical characterizatin and water quality monitoring by means of specific computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, E.; Fagundo, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The computer systems SAPHIQ and SIMUCIN, for the hydrochemical data process with the aim to characterize and control the water quality, as well as to simulate the water-rock interaction process are presented. (author)

  18. Magnetic powder crack tests as a means of quality assurance in forged parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic powder process has been used for years for crack detection in forged parts, which are used as safety parts in car construction. The representation of the present state of technology appears useful, as terms and units have been redefined in DIN draft standards and guidelines, and because alternating field magnetisation has increasingly displaced earlier techniques. The correct choice of equipment, test materials and UV lamps, and the configuration of the working positions are discussed. As the complete automation of this test method is not possible at present, the organisation of the viewing process is of great importance. The comparison with other processes of non-destructive material testing proves the irreplaceability of the magnetic power crack testing at present. (orig.) [de

  19. Optical spectral signatures of liquids by means of fiber optic technology for product and quality parameter identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Diaz-Herrera, N.; Garcia-Allende, P. B.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.; Francalanci, S.; Paccagnini, A.; Pavone, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy in the wide 200-1700 nm spectral range is carried out by means of optical fiber instrumentation to achieve a digital mapping of liquids for the prediction of important quality parameters. Extra virgin olive oils from Italy and lubricant oils from turbines with different degrees of degradation were considered as "case studies". The spectral data were processed by means of multivariate analysis so as to obtain a correlation to quality parameters. In practice, the wide range absorption spectra were considered as an optical signature of the liquids from which to extract product quality information. The optical signatures of extra virgin olive oils were used to predict the content of the most important fatty acids. The optical signatures of lubricant oils were used to predict the concentration of the most important parameters for indicating the oil's degree of degradation, such as TAN, JOAP anti-wear index, and water content.

  20. Computation of External Quality Factors for RF Structures by Means of Model Order Reduction and a Perturbation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.

  1. Grape juice quality control by means of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandizoli, Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Simonelli, Fabio; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2014-07-01

    This work shows the application of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single {sup 1}H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration. (author)

  2. Gender Equality and Girls' Education: Investigating Frameworks, Disjunctures and Meanings of Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, Sheila; Rao, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    The article draws on qualitative educational research across a diversity of low-income countries to examine the gendered inequalities in education as complex, multi-faceted and situated rather than a series of barriers to be overcome through linear input-output processes focused on isolated dimensions of quality. It argues that frameworks for…

  3. Environmental quality of Italian marine water by means of marine strategy framework directive (MSFD descriptor 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Maggi

    Full Text Available ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates. As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates, which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell's grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good.

  4. Policies and means to assess and improve service quality in electricity supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Noferi, P.L.; Sani, G.

    1992-03-01

    Quality of electricity supply to users consists of a series of characteristics of the voltage at the points of delivery. This report shows how service quality, in the past basically related to the tolerance of voltage and frequency with respect to the nominal value, as well as, to the continuity of supply, is nowadays assessed also in relation to other aspects, generally referred to as disturbances. Short interruptions, voltage dips, transient overvoltages, harmonics and flicker are mainly taken into consideration. A description is given of the approach adopted by ENEL (the Italian Electricity Board) in order to evaluate and, if required, improve the quality of service, based upon the acquisition of data related to faults, interruptions and disturbances. These data are processed in order to obtain significant indices on the state of the network and on the effectiveness of the actions which can be implemented. Finally, the measures which may lead to an improvement in the quality of service are identified, and potential advantages, in terms of the reduction of non-supplied energy and number of faults, of adopting appropriate automatic devices and optimizing maintenance work on some distribution networks are illustrated

  5. Selective pruning in pineapple plants as means to reduce heterogeneity in fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.; Agbossou, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality (size and taste) is a major problem in pineapple production chains. The possibilities were investigated of reducing the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field by pruning slips on selected plants, in order to promote the fruit growth on these plants. Slips are side

  6. Forward-Oriented Designing for Learning as a Means to Achieve Educational Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislandi, Patrizia M. M.; Raffaghelli, Juliana E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on how Design for Learning can create the basis for a culture of educational quality. We explore the process of Design for Learning within a blended, undergraduate university course through a teacher-led inquiry approach, aiming at showing the connections between the process of Design for Learning and academic…

  7. Adapting Total Quality Doesn't Mean "Turning Learning into a Business."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, Mike; Wilson, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    Although Alfie Kohn is a first-rate thinker, his article in the same "Educational Leadership" issue confuses adopting Total Quality Management methods with intelligently adapting them. Kohn wrestles too hard with the "worker/student" metaphor and wrongly disparages Deming's emphasis on data and performance. Schools can definitely benefit from…

  8. Associations between motives for dish choice during home-meal preparation and diet quality in French adults: findings from the NutriNet-Santé study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Fassier, Philippine; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-03-01

    A number of motives such as constraints or pleasure have been suggested to influence dish choices during home-meal preparation. However, no study has evaluated how the importance conferred to these motives potentially influence diet quality. The present study aims at investigating the difference in diet quality according to the importance attached by individuals to various dish choice motives. The importance of twenty-seven criteria related to dish choices on weekdays was evaluated among 48 010 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé study. ANCOVA and logistic regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, were used to evaluate the association between the importance attached to dish choice motives (yes v. no) and energy and food group intakes, as well as adherence to French nutritional guidelines (modified Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS)). A higher adherence to nutritional guidelines was observed in individuals attaching importance to a healthy diet (mPNNS-GS score 7·87 (sd 0·09) v. 7·39 (sd 0·09)) and specific diets (mPNNS-GS score 7·73 (sd 0·09) v. 7·53 (sd 0·09)), compared with those who attached little/no importance (all Pfoods compared with their respective counterparts (all Pmotives, that is, constraints, pleasure and organisation, only small differences were observed. The main difference in diet quality was related to the importance placed on a healthy diet. Although a causal link should be demonstrated, our findings suggested that strategies aiming at enabling people to take into account diet quality during home-meal preparation might be effective levers to promote healthy eating.

  9. Effect of marketing activities, benefits, risks, confusion due to over-choice, price, quality and consumer trust on online tourism purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on website vendors and three fundamental aspects, which influence price quality and trust, the major factors that affect purchasing intentions amongst online consumers. The three fundamental aspects in question are: perceived benefits, risks and confusion due to over-choice. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of these three aspects on consumers' trust and their online purchasing intentions, and also to evaluate their interrelationship with marketing activit...

  10. Quality assurance systems - a means for an integrating organization of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The operators of nuclear power plants are in the process of introducing quality assurance systems of the type required in Rule 1401 by the German Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee). These systems as a cross sectional function cover most of the organizational areas of a nuclear power plant. Their introduction offers an opportunity to harmonize and supplement existing systems where necessary. Integrated quality assurance systems built up on a data base allow existing DP data and other logical data to be organized in such a way that certain sequences of events can be managed by enforced control. This relieves the personnel responsible for the safety of a nuclear power plant of routine jobs and routine decisions. Greater flexibility is created for personal decisions. Organized sequences of events can be monitored by having lists printed out in which the necessary data are combined into data sets. (orig.) [de

  11. Quality control, mean glandular dose estimate and room shielding calculation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotomalala, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses in the importance of Radiation Protection in mammography. A good control of the radiological risk depends on the dose optimization, room shielding calculation and the quality of equipment. The work was carried out in the three private medical centers called A, B, and C. Dosimetry estimates were made on the equipment of the three centers. Values has been compared with the Diagnostic Reference Levels established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Conformity control of the radiological devices has also been done with the Mammographic Quality Control Kit of the INSTN-Madagascar. Verifications of shields of the room containing the mammography equipment were done by theoretical calculations using the method provided by NCRP 147. [fr

  12. Does more mean better? Sibling sex composition and the link between family size and children's quality

    OpenAIRE

    Baez, Javier E.

    2008-01-01

    Exogenous variation in fertility from parental preferences for sex-mix among their children is used to identify the causal effect of family size on several measures associated with either the allocation of resources towards children within the household or the outcomes of these investments. Results using data from Colombia suggest that family size has negative effects on average child quality. Children from larger families have accumulated almost 1 year less of education, are less likely to e...

  13. Optimisation of quality in environmental education by means of software support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Čekanová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this article is based on the fact that environmental education and edification have got an irreplaceable and preferred position within the framework of a sustainable socio-economic development. Environmental education, which is performed at technical universities, has to offer professional and methodical knowledge concerning questions of environment for students of various technical branches. This education is performed in such way that the graduates, after entering the practical professional life, will be able to participate in solutions to the new actual problems that are related to environment and its protection, as well. Nowadays, during the educational proces it is also necessary to introduce technical development in a more extended rate. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts it is possible to say that the educational support for environmental studies is a relevant aspect, which should be integrated into the university educational process. It is a positive development trend that greater emphasis is focused on the quality of university education for the environmental engineers. Our society requires an increasing number of environmentally educated engineers who are able to participate in qualitative academic preparation, i.e. the so-called environmentalists. But the worldwide phenomena of technical development and globalisation also pose high claims for quality of their preparations including devices and computers skills. The Department of Process and Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University in Košice, the Slovak Republic is the institution specified and intended for quality optimisation. This Department introduced into the study programmes (“Environmental Management” and “Technology of Environmental Protection” study subjects with software support, which are oriented towards the indoor and outdoor environment and in this way the Department of Process and

  14. What do Social Processes mean for Quality of Human Resource Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Nielsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Well implemented human resource practice (HRP is linked to increased performance, innovation, and the well-being of both managers and employees. In the literature, a distinction between the hard and the soft HRM-models is drawn: the hard model focuses on employees as a cost, whereas the soft HRM-model treats them as a potential Nielsen (2008a. However, little is known about the informal aspects of HRP and which social processes actually lead to implementation success or failure. The purpose of this paper is to develop a concept of social processes between managers and employees that can increase the implementation and quality of HR-performance Two studies of HRP within two manufacturing companies are used to illustrate the pros and cons of this new theoretical concept from a performance perspective. Involvement, commitment, and competence development are identified as key aspects of the quality of HRP. Moreover, a good psychological working environment and systematic priority of HRP are essential contextual factors that can enable or hinder social processes. Otherwise, production pressure and power relations between managers and employees can hinder the implementation of the new concept. The concept of social processes can help HRP to contribute on social processes between managers and employees as important aspects of quality in work with human resources. However, the influence of team organization and the social processes between employees needs to be explored further.

  15. Corporatization as a means of improving water quality: the experience in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Narelle

    Factors including fragmentation, a lack of direction, poor accountability, poor water quality, and a sizable state government subsidy contributed to the rural water industry in Victoria, Australia, in 1993. In 1993 the state government set out parameters for reform to change the size, structure, performance, and culture of the water industry. The path taken was not privatization, but corporatization. Tools used included amalgamation of organizations; separating water provisions from local government; changing the composition and reporting mechanisms of the boards; establishing clear benchmarks and performance criteria; making information publicly available; and providing a commercial orientation. The outcomes of the reforms were to be a focus on water quality and effluent management. In 2001, 15 water authorities were in place. There were significant improvements in accountability, finances, and performance. The authorities provided information on performance to both the state and the public. Reductions of operating costs have been in the range of 20-35%, with savings put back into new infrastructure. Water quality has significantly improved in a number of parameters and effluent management has also improved. This paper describes the challenges faced before the reform process, the reforms initiated, and the outcomes. It argues that privatization is not the only path to improvement: Developing a corporate structure and accountability can also deliver substantial improvements.

  16. Hygienic quality control of chicken (thighs) by means of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.; Kairiyama, E.; Narvaiz, P.; Kaupert, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    High quality chicken thighs, packed in polystyrene trays covered with PVC films, were treated with ionizing energy provided by a semiindustrial 60 Co facility, with a dose of 2.5 kGy, at the temperature of melting ice. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 2 deg C ± 2 deg C and RH: 89 % ± 6 %. Microbiological, chemical and sensory evaluations were performed. This treatment improved significantly the hygienic quality of the product, and reduced in two log cycles the initial number of aerobic bacteria, which led to a 2.5 times extension of the commercialization period. A diminished water content was observed after irradiation. Decreasing values were also found in every sample as storage time went by; the irradiated sample, on day 23, had values 9 % lower than that of the control sample on day 2. Rancidity, measured as peroxide number, increased their values after irradiation, but in such extent that was not noticed organoleptically. It was never higher than 10 meg/kg of fat (specification of the Argentine Alimentary Codex for oils). The commercial quality of the irradiated samples was acceptable until day 22. (Author) [es

  17. Physical Fitness Monitoring as an Enhancing Means of Specialist's Training Quality in Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekeeva, Zinaida; Burlykov, Vladimir; Proshkin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is due to the needs of modern society in the preservation of the physical health of the nation, development of physical education in higher school. The purpose of the article is to disclose theoretical and methodological basis of organisation of physical fitness monitoring of a specialist as a means of…

  18. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; Baldovino-Pantaleón, Oscar; Domínguez Cruz, Rene F.; Zamarreño, Carlos R.; Matías, Ignacio R.; May-Arrioja, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol) blends using a multimode interference (MMI) fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI) of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends. PMID:25256111

  19. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo J. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol blends using a multimode interference (MMI fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends.

  20. Blueberry juices: a rapid multi-analysis of quality indicators by means of dispersive Raman spectroscopy excited at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccheri, L.; Yuan, T.; Zhang, S.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Trono, C.; Yuan, L.; Mignani, A. G.

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry juices produced in China and in Italy were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy. The reference data of important nutraceutical indicators such as degrees Brix and carbohydrates were available. Some juices were produced from fresh organic fruits, while others were industrial grade, differing in qualities and prices. Raman spectra obtained with excitation at 1064 nm were acquired using a dispersive fiber-optic spectrometer. Degrees Brix were measured by means of a commercial refractometer, while carbohydrate contents were available from the producers. Multivariate processing was used for predicting Brix and carbohydrates from Raman spectra and from the reference data. Determination coefficients equal to 0.88 and 0.84, respectively, were obtained. This experiment further confirms the excellent potentials of Raman spectroscopy for both non-destructive and rapid assessments of food quality.

  1. What do social processes mean for quality of human resource practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Louise Møller

    2014-01-01

    Well implemented Human Resource Practice (HRP) is linked to increased performance, innovation, and the well-being of both managers and employees. In the literature, a distinction between the hard and the soft HRM-models is drawn: the hard model focuses on employees as a cost, whereas the soft HRM......-model treats them as a potential (Nielsen 2008a). However, little is known about the informal aspects of HRP and which social processes actually lead to implementation success or failure. The purpose of this paper is to develop a concept of social processes between managers and employees which can increase...... of the quality of HRP. Moreover, a good psychological working environment and systematic priority of HRP are essential contextual factors which can enable or hinder social processes. Otherwise, production pressure and power relations between managers and employees can hinder the implementation of the new concept...

  2. The radiological examination standards of East Germany as a means of quality assurance and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerstein, W.

    1988-01-01

    The standards (technical standards) define the minimum expenditure required for an X-ray examination. They must be reconfirmed about every 5 years. The regulations refer to basic care and do not restrict the possibility of carrying out additional examinations. Their observance ensures an optimum quality of the diagnosis and an optimum comparability of the pictures and a radiation burden that is as low as possible under realizable conditions (expenditure). The standards regulate the extent of the examinations (minimal number of the pictures to be taken) and also the periodic sequence of the pictures in the case of angiocardiographies. Some types of examinations require special standards for examinations of adults and children. (orig./DG) [de

  3. The Effectiveness of Group Training of Choice Theory on Quality of Life and Hope in Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The choice theory concepts have positive effects on people with visual impairments. In addition, the findings of this research suggest that mental health professionals can use this psychological intervention for improving the life satisfaction and hope in those blind people.

  4. The impact of the non-distribution constraint and its enforcement on entrepreneurial choice, price, and quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brhlíková, Petra; Ortmann, Andreas

    -, č. 299 (2006), s. 1-20 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : entrepreneur ial choice * non-distribution constraint * nonprofit firms Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp299.pdf

  5. Quality in trauma care: improving the discharge procedure of patients by means of Lean Six Sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Gerard C; Trip, Albert; Ahaus, Kees T B; Does, Ronald J M M; Wendt, Klaus W

    2010-09-01

    The University Medical Center Groningen is a level I trauma center in the northern part of the Netherlands. Sixty-three percent of all the patients admitted at the Trauma Nursing Department (TND) are acute patients who are admitted directly after trauma. In 2006 and 2007, the University Medical Center Groningen was not always capable of admitting all trauma patients to the TND due to the relatively high-bed occupation. Therefore, the reduction of the average length of stay (LOS) formed the objective of the project described in this study. We used the process-focused method of Lean Six Sigma to reduce hospital stay by improving the discharge procedure of patients in the care processes and eliminating waste and waiting time. We used the "Dutch Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol" to identify the possible causes of inappropriate hospital stay. The average LOS of trauma patients at the TND at the beginning of the project was 10.4 days. Thirty percent of the LOS was unnecessary. The main causes of the inappropriate hospital stay were delays in several areas. The implementation of the improvement plan reduced almost 50% of the inappropriate hospital stay, enabling the trauma center to admit almost all trauma patients to the TND. After the implementation of the improvements, the average LOS was 8.5 days. Our study shows that Lean Six Sigma is an effective method to reduce inappropriate hospital stay, thereby improving the quality and financial efficiency of trauma care.

  6. Optimization of PET image quality by means of 3D data acquisition and iterative image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, J.; Zaers, J.; Trojan, H.; Bellemann, M.E.; Adam, L.E.; Haberkorn, U.; Brix, G.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were performed at the latest-generation whole-body PET system ECAT EXACT HR + . For 2D data acquisition, a collimator of thin tungsten septa was positioned in the field-of-view. Prior to image reconstruction, the measured 3D data were sorted into 2D sinograms by using the Fourier rebinning (FORE) algorithm developed by M. Defrise. The standard filtered backprojection (FBP) method and an optimized ML/EM algorithm with overrelaxation for accelerated convergence were employed for image reconstruction. The spatial resolution of both methods as well as the convergence and noise properties of the ML/EM algorithm were studied in phantom measurements. Furthermore, patient data were acquired in the 2D mode as well as in the 3D mode and reconstructed with both techniques. At the same spatial resolution, the ML/EM-reconstructed images showed fewer and less prominent artefacts than the FBP-reconstructed images. The resulting improved detail conspicuously was achieved for the data acquired in the 2D mode as well as in the 3D mode. The best image quality was obtained by iterative 2D reconstruction of 3D data sets which were previously rebinned into 2D sinograms with help of the FORE algorithm. The phantom measurements revealed that 50 iteration steps with the otpimized ML/EM algorithm were sufficient to keep the relative quantitation error below 5%. (orig./MG) [de

  7. [Using an employee survey as a means of quality assurance in newborn hearing screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depenbrock, A; Matulat, P; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A

    2013-03-01

    Studies drawing information not only from technical data but also from surveying human resources behind the universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) appear to be a rarity. This study aims at showing how the state of both knowledge and practical skills among the screening staff are essential aspects in future quality management. A self-developed questionnaire was sent to hospital staff addressing a total of 710 nurses who were registered as having undertaken a UNHS training course. Questions were aimed at aspects of organization, personal practical skills, current problems and improvement possibilities. High rates of occupancy, lack of trained personnel, technical issues and background noise disturbances were considered to be factors that increased time pressure and slowed down procedures. Of the participants 16 % considered communicating a "refer" result to parents a difficult step and 8 % felt insecure when explaining the aims and procedures to parents. There was a high interest in further training sessions. This survey served well to reveal aspects of improvement in screening procedures and meeting staff needs. The training sessions should outline practical aspects of conducting screening and also professional, sensitive communication to parents.

  8. Evaluation of quality of the post-mining reclaimed landscape by means of the landscape functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodlak, L.; Krovakova, K. [South Bohemia Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Faculty of Agriculture; Hesslerova, P.; Pecharova, E. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Science

    2010-07-01

    In order to evaluate landscape functions, the mutual correlation between land cover temperature, wetness and water conductivity can be employed. There is lower oscillation of temperatures with higher wetness and lower values of dissolved chemical substances or conductivity in the correctly functioning landscape. This paper presented a new approach to evaluate the quality of post-mining reclaimed landscape combining remote sensing methods and surface water chemistry monitoring. The studied area was the Podkrusnohorska dump in Northern Bohemia. Satellite scenes of the Landsat were used for evaluating land cover temperature and wetness indexes. Conductivity was measured in the surface waters discharged of the dump. The paper presented the methodology, with particular reference to temperature scenes and scenes of wetness indexes; standardization of the scenes; data synthesis; connection of temperature-wetness parameters with the chemical ones; data collection and processing; conductivity raster standardization; and visualization of the final layer. It was concluded that the method presented in this paper allowed the detection of well-functioning and unstable parts of the dump and provided basic information about the effectiveness of the reclamation. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Comparison of Epicyclic Gearing Design Methods by Means of Quality Criteria Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Leonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of modern economy depends on the usage of different machines. Execution of the many tasks a society entrusts to the machinery requires a huge amount of the mechanical energy imparted to the mechanical system due to different engines. Combining the motors and actuators in turn occurs through various transmissions.Among the numerous types of transmission the planetary gears occupy an important place. With a number of advantages and differences from other types of transmission of rotational motion, planetary gear can be used as a gear or a differential gear. The planetary gear firmly holds a leading position for its frequent use in transmissions of various technological and transport vehicles, as it has a convenient layout and high load capacity.Despite the fact that people have been using planetary gears over two thousand years, there is no simple method of their design, allowing both a minimizing design time and an optimization of their performance characteristics and technological qualities.The proposed design method is derived from the classical method of factors. It limits the number of options by isolating a promising region of a set of reduced criteria values of the overall dimensions, one of the main design criteria. A minimizing size criterion optimization is provided through rapprochement of gear sizes in two rows of gearings and proximity to the minimum possible number of teeth from the undercut condition, environment for numerous satellites, and gear assembly as well as through specifying the numbers of teeth of one of the rows to be equal to the arithmetic average of the teeth numbers of the other row.

  10. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  11. Fast segmentation of industrial quality pavement images using Laws texture energy measures and k -means clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathavan, Senthan; Kumar, Akash; Kamal, Khurram; Nieminen, Michael; Shah, Hitesh; Rahman, Mujib

    2016-09-01

    Thousands of pavement images are collected by road authorities daily for condition monitoring surveys. These images typically have intensity variations and texture nonuniformities that make their segmentation challenging. The automated segmentation of such pavement images is crucial for accurate, thorough, and expedited health monitoring of roads. In the pavement monitoring area, well-known texture descriptors, such as gray-level co-occurrence matrices and local binary patterns, are often used for surface segmentation and identification. These, despite being the established methods for texture discrimination, are inherently slow. This work evaluates Laws texture energy measures as a viable alternative for pavement images for the first time. k-means clustering is used to partition the feature space, limiting the human subjectivity in the process. Data classification, hence image segmentation, is performed by the k-nearest neighbor method. Laws texture energy masks are shown to perform well with resulting accuracy and precision values of more than 80%. The implementations of the algorithm, in both MATLAB® and OpenCV/C++, are extensively compared against the state of the art for execution speed, clearly showing the advantages of the proposed method. Furthermore, the OpenCV-based segmentation shows a 100% increase in processing speed when compared to the fastest algorithm available in literature.

  12. Quality assurance of the treatments performed with a linear accelerator by means of in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornet, N.; Ribas, M.; Eudaldo, T.; Carrasco, P.

    2001-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry by means of diode detectors has been used routinely in our hospital since 1996 to guarantee the dose administrated to patients undergoing a radiotherapy treatment. The aim of this work is to present how in vivo dosimetry was implemented in our centre and which kind of errors have been discovered and corrected. Before the implementation it has to be clear which kind of errors want to be traced, the tolerance and action level, who will perform the measurements and who will evaluate them. Once all these things are clear, the first thing to do is to choose the more appropriate type of diodes and to calibrate them. The lower the tolerance level, the more accurate the calibration has to be. At this point the training and motivation of people who will be involved is very important to succeed in implementing routine use of in vivo dosimetry. Choosing one treatment unit and one easy and frequent treatment technique is a good way of starting implementation. We started with prostate treatments. In vivo entrance and exit doses were measured and dose to the ICRU point was calculated. Nowadays in vivo dosimetry is performed in the second session of all treatments (X-rays and electrons). (author)

  13. Quality control on pre-serial Bridgman production of PbWO{sub 4} scintillating crystals by means of photoelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, D., E-mail: d.rinaldi@univpm.i [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INFN section of Perugia (Italy); Ciriaco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Lebeau, M. [CERN PH department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Paone, N. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-04-11

    Residual internal stresses in PbWO{sub 4} (PWO) scintillating crystals grown by Bridgman method have been systematically studied. Residual stresses induced during growth play an important role in production yield. Cracking probability during mechanical processing as well as stable mechanical properties in finished crystal are closely related to internal stress levels. A regular production of good-quality crystals requires a fast and easy feed-back on growth parameters. Samples from a pre-serial production were analyzed in order to give the producer a quality feed-back for process optimization. By means of photoelasticity, we measured residual stress distribution in several sections along the growth axis and for typical positions in every section. The stress analysis revealed defects occurring during the crystallization process, attributed to dislocations, lattice disorientation and poly-crystallinity. This work had been prompted by the need for quality monitoring of a pre-serial production of PWO for the CMS experiment at CERN's LHC. Mapping stress levels inside the ingot volume and proposing a synthetic parameter to be used as a quality indicator, the resulting analysis should contribute to parameter optimization and improve the growth performance. The proposed method may be useful in conventional crystal production.

  14. Variability analysis of industrial process puree by means of concentrated vegetable pulps, based on the engineering quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addys Castellanos Gómez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The instability in quality characteristics: physical-chemical of puree by means of the concentrate plant pulps, can provoke customer dissatisfaction and deterioration of the image of products. With the statistical analysis of the industrial process, was determined as the main cause of erratic behaviour, variability in plant pulps of different suppliers: the different varieties of raw materials and the technologies they used. The solution was established by the quality engineering for improving control and in this case was optimized the product design, consisted on the mixtures of pulps reformulation to ensure initial insensitivity of initial variability that provokes raw material, in this way was achieved the robustness of the process, with positive impact on the production results, both economic and company image to customers.

  15. The relative importance of food biomass and quality for patch and habitat choice in Brent Geese Branta bernicla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, D; Drent, RH; Rubinigg, M; Stahl, J

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of food biomass and food quality for habitat preference in Brent Geese Branta bernicla by expefimentally manipulating forage parameters. Levels of biomass and ford quality (nitrogen content) were independently enhanced in plots of 2 x 6 m by temporary exclusion

  16. Parental Choice and Learner Achievement in Primary Education in Rachuonyo Sub County, Kenya: Focusing on Quality of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyier, Charles Richard; Odundo, Paul Amollo; Obat, Rispa Atieno; Lilian, Ganira Khavugwi; Akondo, Joseph Ochieng

    2015-01-01

    Kenyan government launched Free Primary Education (FPE) in 2003 to make schooling affordable to all parents, but less attention has been paid to the quality assurance and equity of the education system. Studies have indicated that the FPE policy sacrificed the quality of education and this led to parents avoiding FPE offered in primary schools and…

  17. Choice of marker for assessment of RV dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism : NT-proBNP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure, or blood pressure index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, H; Ates, I; Kundi, H; Yilmaz, F M

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to examine the value of NT-proBNP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), blood pressure index (BPI), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the determination of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). A total of 547 patients diagnosed with APE were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions of patients were recorded in patient files. For blood pressure measurement, a calibrated digital blood pressure monitor was used at regular intervals. Blood samples were taken from patients at the time of admission for hemogram, biochemical, and hemostasis blood tests. Echocardiography was performed on all patients to detect RVD and evaluate pulmonary artery pressure. PASP (p blood pressure (p blood cell (p AUC ± SE = 0.975 ± 0.006; p < 0.001) was found to be the best predictor of RVD with a higher sensitivity (92.8%) and specificity (100%). We found that BPI had a better diagnostic discrimination for RVD compared with PASP and NT-proBNP.

  18. Size Exclusion HPLC Detection of Small-Size Impurities as a Complementary Means for Quality Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For extracellular vesicle research, whether for biomarker discoveries or therapeutic applications, it is critical to have high-quality samples. Both microscopy and NanoSight Tracking Analysis (NTA for size distribution have been used to detect large vesicles. However, there is currently no well-established method that is convenient for routine quality analysis of small-size impurities in vesicle samples. In this paper we report a convenient method, called ‘size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography’ (SE-HPLC, alongside NTA and Microscopy analysis to guide and qualify the isolation and processing of vesicles. First, the SE-HPLC analysis was used to detect impurities of small-size proteins during the ultra-centrifugation process of vesicle isolation; it was then employed to test the changes of vesicles under different pH conditions or integrity after storage. As SE-HPLC is generally accessible in most institutions, it could be used as a routine means to assist researchers in examining the integrity and quality of extracellular vesicles along with other techniques either during isolation/preparation or for further engineering and storage.

  19. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  20. The Impact Discounts and the Price-Quality Effect Have on the Choice of an Institution of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Charles J., Jr.; Bingham, Frank G., Jr.; Notarantonio, Elaine M.; Murray, Keith

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 303 potential college students and their parents found that high price and low price institutions are evaluated higher on quality attributes than are moderately priced institutions. Further, discounts (such as financial aid) were found to have little effect on the attendance decision. Implications for the pricing strategies used by…

  1. Relating Communications Mode Choice and Teamwork Quality: Conversational versus Textual Communication in IT System and Software Development Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James Robert

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored how IT system and software development team members communicated in the workplace and whether teams that used more verbal communication (and less text-based communication) experienced higher levels of collaboration as measured using the Teamwork Quality (TWQ) scale. Although computer-mediated communication tools…

  2. Expanding the Nudge : Designing Choice Contexts and Choice Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    To nudge is to design choice contexts in order to improve choice outcomes. Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein emphatically endorse nudging but reject more restrictive means. In contrast, I argue that the behavioral psychology that motivates nudging also motivates what may be called jolting—i.e. the design of choice content. I defend nudging and jolting by distinguishing them from the sometimes oppressive means with which they can be im- plemented, by responding to some common arguments against ...

  3. What do monkeys' music choices mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra M

    2005-08-01

    McDermott and Hauser have recently shown that although monkeys show some types of preferences for sound, preferences for music are found only in humans. This suggests that music might be a relatively recent adaptation in human evolution. Here, I focus on the research methods used by McDermott and Hauser, and consider the findings in relation to infancy research and music psychology.

  4. The EU anti-dumping policy towards Russia and China: product quality and the choice of an analogue country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of international trade in vertically differentiated products in order to assess whether the EU has calculated disproportionately high dumping margins in its anti-dumping policy towards the two non-market economies (NMEs) Russia and China since 1992. Specifically......, the investigation concerns cases in which the level of economic development in and the quality of the products from the chosen analogue country are higher than in the two NMEs. The conclusion drawn here is that, even when the EU chooses analogue countries at a higher level of economic development than Russia...... and China, the differences in product quality and in the levels of economic development between the dumpers and the analogue countries provide no systematic explanation of the size of dumping margins. Udgivelsesdato: JAN...

  5. Effects of choice white grease or poultry fat on growth performance, carcass leanness, and meat quality characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J J; Smith, J W; Unruh, J A; Goodband, R D; O'Quinn, P R; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2001-06-01

    Eighty-four crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effects of dietary choice white grease (CWG) or poultry fat (PF) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and quality characteristics of longissimus muscle (LM), belly, and bacon of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (initially 60 kg) were fed a control diet with no added fat or diets containing 2, 4, or 6% CWG or PF. Diets were fed from 60 to 110 kg and contained 2.26 g lysine/Mcal ME. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial plus a control with main effects of fat source (CWG and PF) and fat level (2, 4, and 6%). Pigs fed the control diet, 2% fat, and 4% fat had greater (P 0.05) were observed for ADG, dressing percentage, leaf fat weight, LM pH, backfat depth, LM area, percentage lean, LM visual evaluation, LM waterholding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation of the LM and bacon, fat color and firmness measurements, or bacon processing characteristics. Adding dietary fat improved G/F and altered the fatty acid profiles of the LM and bacon, but differences in growth rate, carcass characteristics, and quality and sensory characteristics of the LM and bacon were minimal. Dietary additions of up to 6% CWG or PF can be made with little effect on quality of pork LM, belly, or bacon.

  6. Household's willingness to pay for heterogeneous attributes of drinking water quality and services improvement: an application of choice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Suleiman Alhaji; Yacob, Mohd Rusli; Radam, Alias

    2015-09-01

    The service of providing good quality of drinking water can greatly improve the lives of the community and maintain a normal health standard. For a large number of population in the world, specifically in the developing countries, the availability of safe water for daily sustenance is none. Damaturu is the capital of Yobe State, Nigeria. It hosts a population of more than two hundred thousand, yet only 45 % of the households are connected to the network of Yobe State Water Corporation's pipe borne water services; this has led people to source for water from any available source and thus, exposed them to the danger of contracting waterborne diseases. In order to address the problem, Yobe State Government has embarked on the construction of a water treatment plant with a capacity and facility to improve the water quality and connect the town with water services network. The objectives of this study are to assess the households' demand preferences of the heterogeneous water attributes in Damaturu, and to estimate their marginal willingness to pay, using mixed logit model in comparison with conditional logit model. A survey of 300 households randomly sampled indicated that higher education greatly influenced the households' WTP decisions. The most significant variable from both of the models is TWQ, which is MRS that rates the water quality from the level of satisfactory to very good. 219 % in simple model is CLM, while 126 % is for the interaction model. As for MLM, 685 % is for the simple model and 572 % is for the interaction model. Estimate of MLM has more explanatory powers than CLM. Essentially, this finding can help the government in designing cost-effective management and efficient tariff structure.

  7. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-06-17

    To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. We analyzed MSI's social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008-2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011-2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI "Impact 2" model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44.0), with 46.1% (95% CI = 40.9, 51.2) of

  8. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44

  9. Education and Research Laboratories as a Means of Enhancing the Quality of Professional Engineering Education in Design and Production of Composite Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliulin, Valentin I.; Gershtein, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of this research is determined by quality improvement of professional engineering education. The purpose of this paper is to offer practical recommendations for those interested in establishment of education and research laboratories as a means of enhancing the quality of professional engineering education in design and production of…

  10. Power Quality Improvement and LVRT Capability Enhancement of Wind Farms by Means of an Inductive Filtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjian Peng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the traditional method for power quality improvement and low-voltage ride through (LVRT capability enhancement of wind farms, this paper proposes a new wind power integrated system by means of an inductive filtering method, especially if it contains a grid-connected transformer, a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM and fully-tuned (FT branches. First, the main circuit topology of the new wind power integrated system is presented. Then, the mathematical model is established to reveal the mechanism of harmonic suppression and the reactive compensation of the proposed wind power integrated system, and then the realization conditions of the inductive filtering method is obtained. Further, the control strategy of STATCOM is introduced. Based on the measured data for a real wind farm, the simulation studies are carried out to illustrate the performance of the proposed new wind power integrated system. The results indicate that the new system can not only enhance the LVRT capability of wind farms, but also prevent harmonic components flowing into the primary (grid winding of the grid-connected transformer. Moreover, since the new method can compensate for reactive power in a wind farm, the power factor at the grid side can be improved effectively.

  11. Smoothing data series by means of cubic splines: quality of approximation and introduction of a repeating spline approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Sabine; Wendt, Verena; Linz, Ricarda; Bittner, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Cubic splines with equidistant spline sampling points are a common method in atmospheric science, used for the approximation of background conditions by means of filtering superimposed fluctuations from a data series. What is defined as background or superimposed fluctuation depends on the specific research question. The latter also determines whether the spline or the residuals - the subtraction of the spline from the original time series - are further analysed.Based on test data sets, we show that the quality of approximation of the background state does not increase continuously with an increasing number of spline sampling points and/or decreasing distance between two spline sampling points. Splines can generate considerable artificial oscillations in the background and the residuals.We introduce a repeating spline approach which is able to significantly reduce this phenomenon. We apply it not only to the test data but also to TIMED-SABER temperature data and choose the distance between two spline sampling points in a way that is sensitive for a large spectrum of gravity waves.

  12. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-10-25

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  13. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  14. MAY THE HIGH-DEGREE SATISFYING UNREASONABLE REQUIREMENT ALSO MEANS THE GOOD QUALITY: FIVE BIG FLAWS IN THE SUBJECTIVE DEFINITION OF QUALITY AND THEIR SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runsheng Tu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J. M. Juran's subjective quality definition of "quality is degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements" and the account have five big inherent problems: "to disturb the language order", "to violate the objective of the standardized work", "the dependence to the subjective being too strong, to disobey the objectivity principle", "to be short of the enthusiastic limit", "to be possible to reduce the requirement through the reduction, to improve the quality", "to be possible provides the reason theoretically for the fake and shoddy manufacturer and the person whose quality is bad", "to have the suspicion of circular definition". The method to treat the wound is establishing the definition of "quality is the positive degree". This definition of quality both has guaranteed the positive connotation of J. M. Juran's quality definition and has cured the flaws of J. M. Juran's quality definition, but also has promulgated the condition of the symmetry and the connection between quality and value.

  15. Intrapersonal self-transcendence, meaning-in-life and nurse-patient interaction: powerful assets for quality of life in cognitively intact nursing-home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Gørill; Moksnes, Unni Karin; Løhre, Audhild

    2016-12-01

    Spirituality has demonstrated a significant impact on quality of life in nursing-home patients. Likewise, as essential aspects of spirituality, hope, self-transcendence, and meaning are found to be vital resources to nursing-home patients' global well-being. Further, nurse-patient interaction has demonstrated a powerful influence on patient's hope, self-transcendence, and meaning-in-life, as well as on anxiety and depression. The present study investigated the associations of hope, self-transcendence, meaning, and perceived nurse-patient interaction with quality of life. In a cross-sectional design, a sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing-home patients in Mid-Norway responded to the Herth Hope Index, the Self-Transcendence scale, the Purpose-in-Life test, the Nurse-Patient Interaction scale, and a one-item overall measure on quality of life. Using SPSS ordinal regression, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with quality of life as dependent variable. Controlling for gender, age, and residential time, all the scales were significantly related to quality of life in the bivariate analyses. Intrapersonal self-transcendence showed an exceptional position presenting a very high odds ratio in the bivariate analysis, and also the strongest association with quality of life in multivariate analyses. Meaning and nurse-patient interaction also showed independent and significant associations with quality of life. The associations found encourage the idea that intrapersonal self-transcendence, meaning-in-life, and nurse-patient interaction are powerful health-promoting factors that significantly influence on nursing-home patients' quality of life. Therefore, pedagogical approaches for advancing caregivers' presence and confidence in health-promoting interaction should be upgraded and matured. Proper educational programs for developing interacting skills including assessing and supporting patients' intrapersonal self-transcendence and meaning-in-life should be

  16. Vincent's Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Official publication to accompany the important exhibition Vincent's Choice, Van Gogh's 'musee imaginaire' at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam marking the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth. The exhibition runs from 14th February to 15th June 2003.Thanks to van Gogh's correspondence, it has been

  17. The choices before us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeten, P P

    1980-01-01

    This introduction is from the 16th World Conference of SID in Colombo, Sri Lanka, August 1979, which addressed the theme of development choices for the 1980's and beyond. Choices may refer to different political, ideological or social systems. Choices may refer to strategies and technical issues, e.g. agriculture vs. industry. A third meaning of choice is implicit in the idea of a Third World, or alternative, method of development. The third meaning implies a rejection of Western institutions, values, and standards. In the past, the transfer of Western or in this case Northern, institutions and standards has disappointed and created obstacles to development. The rapid rate of population growth forces choices of population control and resource management. Common themes of development have emerged from conference discussions: the need to build development efforts on indigenous values; the need for new institutions both at the sub-national and at the super-national level; and, the need to adjust to inevitable changes rationally and with foresight. The nation state is too large for many functions that are better decentralized and left to village or district administrations, yet it is too small to respond to global challenges and environmental risks like harvest failure, credit risks, marketing risks, failure of supplies. The interests of the state are not identical with those of society or particular groups in society.

  18. Resurgence as Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R

    2017-08-01

    Resurgence is typically defined as an increase in a previously extinguished target behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is later extinguished. Some treatments of the phenomenon have suggested that it might also extend to circumstances where either the historic or more recently reinforced behavior is reduced by other non-extinction related means (e.g., punishment, decreases in reinforcement rate, satiation, etc.). Here we present a theory of resurgence suggesting that the phenomenon results from the same basic processes governing choice. In its most general form, the theory suggests that resurgence results from changes in the allocation of target behavior driven by changes in the values of the target and alternative options across time. Specifically, resurgence occurs when there is an increase in the relative value of an historically effective target option as a result of a subsequent devaluation of a more recently effective alternative option. We develop a more specific quantitative model of how extinction of the target and alternative responses in a typical resurgence paradigm might produce such changes in relative value across time using a temporal weighting rule. The example model does a good job in accounting for the effects of reinforcement rate and related manipulations on resurgence in simple schedules where Behavioral Momentum Theory has failed. We also discuss how the general theory might be extended to other parameters of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, quality), other means to suppress target or alternative behavior (e.g., satiation, punishment, differential reinforcement of other behavior), and other factors (e.g., non- contingent versus contingent alternative reinforcement, serial alternative reinforcement, and multiple schedules). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance, behaviour and meat quality of beef heifers fed concentrate and straw offered as total mixed ration or free-choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraira, S.P.; Madruga, A.; Pérez-Juan, M.; Ruíz-de-la-Torre, J.; Rodríguez-Prado, M.; Calsamiglia, S.; Manteca, X.; Ferret, A.

    2015-07-01

    Eighteen Simmental heifers were fed concentrate and barley straw offered as a total mixed ration (TMR) or separately as a free choice (FCH) to compare performance, behaviour, and meat quality. The heifers were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Animals were allotted to roofed pens with 3 animals per pen, and 3 pens per treatment. Intake of concentrate, average daily gain, and gain to feed ratio were not different between diets, being on average 7.6 kg/day, 1.38 kg/day and 0.18 kg/kg, respectively. Straw intake was greater in TMR than in FCH treatment (0.7 vs 0.3 kg/day, respectively; p<0.001). Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fibre intake and water consumption did not differ between treatments. Time spent eating was longer in FCH than in TMR (p=0.001), whereas time spent ruminating and total chewing time were longer (p<0.01) in TMR than in FCH. The number of displacements resulting from competition for feed in the main feeder in TMR treatment tended to be greater than in FCH treatment. There were no differences in the carcass characteristics and quality of meat of animals assigned to the different feeding methods, but the percentage of 18:2 n-6 was higher in FCH treatment. In summary, these results suggest that the use of TMR as a feeding method in beef cattle fed high concentrate diets did not affect performance and increased time spent ruminating with a potential decrease of ruminal acidosis incidence. (Author)

  20. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  1. What does quality maternity care mean in a context of medical pluralism? Perspectives of women in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Wekesah, Frederick

    2018-01-01

    Abstract User priorities regarding quality care in contexts of medical pluralism are poorly documented. Drawing on group and individual interviews with women, we interrogate ideas of quality maternity care in the context of Nigeria’s medical pluralism. We found complex utilization patterns for conventional, complementary and alternative maternity care services as well as ideas of quality maternity care that stress effective coordination and integration of different typologies of maternity health services; socially sensitive and truthful providers; and socioeconomic, physical and parochial forms of safety. Informal providers were the commonly reported source of maternal health services in the study. Maternal health services in the country were also generally viewed as poor quality, characterized by pervasive abuse, quackery and lack of commitment to the needs and sensitivities of women. Convenience, availability and affordability of maternal health services, as well as sociocultural factors were major influences on women’s use of services. Results demonstrate the embeddedness of women’s quality of care notions in the vast socioeconomic inequities that typify Nigeria’s particular form of poorly regulated medical pluralism, raising need for strategies to strengthen the delivery, coordination and supervision of maternal health services in the country. PMID:29036530

  2. Influence of a Cooled Ceiling on Indoor Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room Examined by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    The influence of a cooled ceiling on the air quality in a displacement ventilated room is examined by means of CFD. The objective of the study is to examine how the flow field in a displacement ventilated room is influenced when a cooled ceiling removes a major part of the total heat I9ad, and in...

  3. Learning from the UK Research Excellence Framework: Ends and Means in Research Quality Assessment, and the Reliability of Results in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article first reviews the objectives/ends of research quality assessment in several countries to draw lessons for the UK Research Excellence Framework and similar exercises. It then reviews work on performance management as a framework for reviewing the views of participants on the means to the ends--the management of their experience in…

  4. Quality of School Life Scale: Means, Variances, Reliabilities, and Factor Analysis for Grades 10, 11, and 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.

    1979-01-01

    The Quality of School Life Scale (QLS) is an instrument designed to measure students' perceptions of their school experiences. Such an instrument may aid educators in evaluating students' perceptions in the three areas identified by the QSL: satisfaction, commitment to classwork, and reactions to teachers. (Author)

  5. State Child Care Regulatory, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems as a Means for Ensuring Quality Child Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard

    The development of a checklist for use in monitoring and evaluating the quality of child care services, and the implications of use of the checklist by day care providers, are discussed. Several research studies that used the indicator checklist model have attempted to determine whether compliance with state child care regulations has a positive…

  6. Customer prime s choice between quality and price of electric service. Denryoku hinshitsu to kakaku ni taisuru juyoka no sentaku. ; Ogata computerter dot user ni okeru back-up dengen kiki sentaku no suryo bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Y.; Matsukawa, I.

    1990-03-01

    This study is done for the purpose of numerically analyzing how customers react to make their choice between quality and price, as well as to evaluating the marketability of the new electric service differentiated by quality, on the assumption that electric utility is capable of providing the multi-product of the service with various combinations instead of the conventional single product between price and quality. An analysis was made for the customers like the large-scale computer users those who attach importance to quality. As for the method of the analysis, the choice (the introduction of emergency power source or uninterruptible power system) which have been actually done by the customers for the following two conditions, were used as the model of the analysis: The one was the standard of the requirements for the quality of electric power, of which requirements were composed of the two factors, such as the reliability on power supply and momentary voltage drop; The other was the cost (purchased power price plus investment by consumers for back-up power system) necessary to maintain the quality. Consequently, it was found that in order to heighten the competitiveness for the competition in electricity market, electric utility had to establish their service rate corresponding to the load, as well as that the quality was a important strategic factor for them. 30 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Quality analysis of commercial samples of Ziziphi spinosae semen (suanzaoren by means of chromatographic fingerprinting assisted by principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of resources of Ziziphi spinosae semen (ZSS, many inferior goods and even adulterants are generally found in medicine markets. To strengthen the quality control, HPLC fingerprint common pattern established in this paper showed three main bioactive compounds in one chromatogram simultaneously. Principal component analysis based on DAD signals could discriminate adulterants and inferiorities. Principal component analysis indicated that all samples could be mainly regrouped into two main clusters according to the first principal component (PC1, redefined as Vicenin II and the second principal component (PC2, redefined as zizyphusine. PC1 and PC2 could explain 91.42% of the variance. Content of zizyphusine fluctuated more greatly than that of spinosin, and this result was also confirmed by the HPTLC result. Samples with low content of jujubosides and two common adulterants could not be used equivalently with authenticated ones in clinic, while one reference standard extract could substitute the crude drug in pharmaceutical production. Giving special consideration to the well-known bioactive saponins but with low response by end absorption, a fast and cheap HPTLC method for quality control of ZSS was developed and the result obtained was commensurate well with that of HPLC analysis. Samples having similar fingerprints to HPTLC common pattern targeting at saponins could be regarded as authenticated ones. This work provided a faster and cheaper way for quality control of ZSS and laid foundation for establishing a more effective quality control method for ZSS. Keywords: Adulterant, Common pattern, Principal component analysis, Quality control, Ziziphi spinosae semen

  8. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  9. Automatic Quality Inspection of Percussion Cap Mass Production by Means of 3D Machine Vision and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellaeche, A.; Arana, R.; Ibarguren, A.; Martínez-Otzeta, J. M.

    The exhaustive quality control is becoming very important in the world's globalized market. One of these examples where quality control becomes critical is the percussion cap mass production. These elements must achieve a minimum tolerance deviation in their fabrication. This paper outlines a machine vision development using a 3D camera for the inspection of the whole production of percussion caps. This system presents multiple problems, such as metallic reflections in the percussion caps, high speed movement of the system and mechanical errors and irregularities in percussion cap placement. Due to these problems, it is impossible to solve the problem by traditional image processing methods, and hence, machine learning algorithms have been tested to provide a feasible classification of the possible errors present in the percussion caps.

  10. Image quality of mean temporal arterial and mean temporal portal venous phase images calculated from low dose dynamic volume perfusion CT datasets in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Radiology Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Henzler, T., E-mail: thomas.henzler@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany); Gawlitza, J.; Diehl, S. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany); Wilhelm, T. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany); Jin, Z.Y.; Xue, H.D. [Radiology Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Smakic, A. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: Dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) provides valuable information on tissue perfusion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreatic cancer. However, currently dVPCT is often performed in addition to conventional CT acquisitions due to the limited morphologic image quality of dose optimized dVPCT protocols. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare objective and subjective image quality, lesion detectability and radiation dose between mean temporal arterial (mTA) and mean temporal portal venous (mTPV) images calculated from low dose dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) datasets with linearly blended 120-kVp arterial and portal venous datasets in patients with HCC and pancreatic cancer. Materials and methods: All patients gave written informed consent for this institutional review board–approved HIPAA compliant study. 27 consecutive patients (18 men, 9 women, mean age, 69.1 years ± 9.4) with histologically proven HCC or suspected pancreatic cancer were prospectively enrolled. The study CT protocol included a dVPCT protocol performed with 70 or 80 kVp tube voltage (18 spiral acquisitions, 71.2 s total acquisition times) and standard dual-energy (90/150 kVpSn) arterial and portal venous acquisition performed 25 min after the dVPCT. The mTA and mTPV images were manually reconstructed from the 3 to 5 best visually selected single arterial and 3 to 5 best single portal venous phases dVPCT dataset. The linearly blended 120-kVp images were calculated from dual-energy CT (DECT) raw data. Image noise, SNR, and CNR of the liver, abdominal aorta (AA) and main portal vein (PV) were compared between the mTA/mTPV and the linearly blended 120-kVp dual-energy arterial and portal venous datasets, respectively. Subjective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists regarding subjective image noise, sharpness and overall diagnostic image quality using a 5-point Likert Scale. In addition, liver lesion detectability was performed for each liver

  11. Image quality of mean temporal arterial and mean temporal portal venous phase images calculated from low dose dynamic volume perfusion CT datasets in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Henzler, T.; Gawlitza, J.; Diehl, S.; Wilhelm, T.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Jin, Z.Y.; Xue, H.D.; Smakic, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) provides valuable information on tissue perfusion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreatic cancer. However, currently dVPCT is often performed in addition to conventional CT acquisitions due to the limited morphologic image quality of dose optimized dVPCT protocols. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare objective and subjective image quality, lesion detectability and radiation dose between mean temporal arterial (mTA) and mean temporal portal venous (mTPV) images calculated from low dose dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) datasets with linearly blended 120-kVp arterial and portal venous datasets in patients with HCC and pancreatic cancer. Materials and methods: All patients gave written informed consent for this institutional review board–approved HIPAA compliant study. 27 consecutive patients (18 men, 9 women, mean age, 69.1 years ± 9.4) with histologically proven HCC or suspected pancreatic cancer were prospectively enrolled. The study CT protocol included a dVPCT protocol performed with 70 or 80 kVp tube voltage (18 spiral acquisitions, 71.2 s total acquisition times) and standard dual-energy (90/150 kVpSn) arterial and portal venous acquisition performed 25 min after the dVPCT. The mTA and mTPV images were manually reconstructed from the 3 to 5 best visually selected single arterial and 3 to 5 best single portal venous phases dVPCT dataset. The linearly blended 120-kVp images were calculated from dual-energy CT (DECT) raw data. Image noise, SNR, and CNR of the liver, abdominal aorta (AA) and main portal vein (PV) were compared between the mTA/mTPV and the linearly blended 120-kVp dual-energy arterial and portal venous datasets, respectively. Subjective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists regarding subjective image noise, sharpness and overall diagnostic image quality using a 5-point Likert Scale. In addition, liver lesion detectability was performed for each liver

  12. Water quality of storm runoff and comparison of procedures for estimating storm-runoff loads, volume, event-mean concentrations, and the mean load for a storm for selected properties and constituents for Colorado Springs, southeastern Colorado, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110

  13. Arc-welding quality assurance by means of embedded fiber sensor and spectral processing combining feature selection and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, J.; García-Allende, P. B.; Cobo, A.; Conde, O.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    A new spectral processing technique designed for its application in the on-line detection and classification of arc-welding defects is presented in this paper. A non-invasive fiber sensor embedded within a TIG torch collects the plasma radiation originated during the welding process. The spectral information is then processed by means of two consecutive stages. A compression algorithm is first applied to the data allowing real-time analysis. The selected spectral bands are then used to feed a classification algorithm, which will be demonstrated to provide an efficient weld defect detection and classification. The results obtained with the proposed technique are compared to a similar processing scheme presented in a previous paper, giving rise to an improvement in the performance of the monitoring system.

  14. Patient complaints as a means to improve quality of hospital care. Results of a qualitative content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Susanne; Dreher-Hummel, Thomas; Dollinger, Claudia; Frei, Irena Anna

    2018-04-01

    Background: Many hospitals have defined procedures for a complaint management. A systematic analysis of patient complaints helps to identify similar complaints and patterns so that targeted improvement measures can be derived (Gallagher & Mazor, 2015). Aim: Our three-month, nurse-led practice development project aimed 1) to identify complaints regarding communication issues, 2) to systemise and prioritise complaints regarding communication issues, and 3) to derive clinic-specific recommendations for improvement. Method: We analysed 273 complaints of patients documented by the quality management (secondary data analysis). Using content analysis and applying the coding taxonomy for inpatient complaints by Reader, Gillespie and Roberts (2014), we distinguished communication-related complaints. By further inductive differentiation of these complaints, we identified patterns and prioritised fields of action. Results: We identified 186 communication-related complaints divided into 16 subcategories. For each subcategory, improvement interventions were derived, discussed and prioritised. Conclusions: Thus, patient complaints provided an excellent opportunity for reflection and workplace learning for nurses. The analysis gave impulse to exemplify the subject “person-centered care” for nurses.

  15. 256-slice CT coronary angiography in atrial fibrillation: The impact of mean heart rate and heart rate variability on image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang [Department of Radiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Ming [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Mok, Greta S.P. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau (China); Law, Wei-Yip; Lu, Kun-Mu [Department of Radiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ching-Ching, E-mail: g39220003@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiological Technology, Tzu Chi College of Technology, 880, Sec.2, Chien-kuo Rd. Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin, E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of 256-MDCT in atrial fibrillation and to compare the findings with those among patients in sinus rhythm. Materials: All reconstructed images were evaluated by two independent experienced readers blinded to patient information, heart rate, and ECG results to assess the diagnostic quality of images of the coronary artery segments using axial images, multi-planar reformations, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering technique. Results: No statistical significance was detected in terms of the overall image quality between patients in sinus rhythm and with atrial fibrillation. Pearson's correlation analysis showed no significant association between image quality and mean heart rate no matter for patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Similarly, there was no correlation between image quality and heart rate variability for either patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Our results showed that the optimal reconstruction window depends on patient's HR, and the pattern for patients in atrial fibrillation is similar to that obtained from non-atrial fibrillation patients. Conclusion: This study shows the potential of using 256-MDCT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our results suggest that when appropriate reconstruction timing window is applied, patients with atrial fibrillation do not have to be excluded from MDCT coronary angiographic examinations.

  16. The Prediction of Mental Quality of Life Based on Defectiveness/Shame Schema with Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence and Coping Strategies by Means of Structural Equations Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehghani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schema is assumed to be a disrupting factor for quality of life. Yet, the mechanism of this vulnerability is not well known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristic of emotional intelligence and coping strategy with stress as a mediator between early maladaptive defectiveness/ shame and mental quality of life. Participants were 245 men and women in Isfahan who were selected as the sample by availability sampling method. They completed the Petrides and Furnham's Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF, Coping Inventory for stressful situation (CISS and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF. Data was analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. The results indicated that the suggested model of study needs modification and only emotional intelligence was the mediator. Standard path coefficient of defectiveness/shame schema to emotional intelligence was -0.55 and emotional intelligence to problem focused coping, emotion focused coping and mental quality of life were 0.49, -0.59 and 0.78 (p<0.05. Based on results, emotional intelligence training can improve mental quality of life and coping strategies in people who have early defectiveness/shame maladaptive schema.

  17. 256-slice CT coronary angiography in atrial fibrillation: The impact of mean heart rate and heart rate variability on image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Mok, Greta S.P.; Law, Wei-Yip; Lu, Kun-Mu; Yang, Ching-Ching; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of 256-MDCT in atrial fibrillation and to compare the findings with those among patients in sinus rhythm. Materials: All reconstructed images were evaluated by two independent experienced readers blinded to patient information, heart rate, and ECG results to assess the diagnostic quality of images of the coronary artery segments using axial images, multi-planar reformations, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering technique. Results: No statistical significance was detected in terms of the overall image quality between patients in sinus rhythm and with atrial fibrillation. Pearson's correlation analysis showed no significant association between image quality and mean heart rate no matter for patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Similarly, there was no correlation between image quality and heart rate variability for either patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Our results showed that the optimal reconstruction window depends on patient's HR, and the pattern for patients in atrial fibrillation is similar to that obtained from non-atrial fibrillation patients. Conclusion: This study shows the potential of using 256-MDCT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our results suggest that when appropriate reconstruction timing window is applied, patients with atrial fibrillation do not have to be excluded from MDCT coronary angiographic examinations.

  18. Constructing the meaning of quality of life for residents in care homes in the Lebanon: perspectives of residents, staff and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adra, Marina Gharibian; Hopton, John; Keady, John

    2015-12-01

    Located in two care homes in Lebanon, the study explores the perspectives of quality of life for a sample of older residents, care staff and family caregivers. Quality of life for older people living in care homes is traditionally reported in the literature as a Westernised construct and so far little is known about its meanings from an Arabic cultural perspective and context. There is also a knowledge gap about the conditions of older people living in care homes in Lebanon. The study was a qualitative exploration of perspectives of quality of life of older residents, care staff and family caregivers. Two care homes for older people situated in Beirut took part in the study. Between 2010 and 2011 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of 20 residents, eight family caregivers and 11 care staff. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Four categories emerged from this analytical process: (i) maintaining family connectedness; (ii) engaging in worthwhile activities; (iii) maintaining and developing significant relationships; and (iv) holding and practicing spiritual beliefs. The emergence of these categories confirmed the complex, interrelated and multidimensional nature of quality of life for residents and other stakeholders. The findings supplement an emerging body of knowledge about the composition of quality of life for older residents in Lebanon. Improving the quality of life of older residents will require action in respect of all of the domains identified in study. Moving nursing practice from task-based care to relationship-centred approaches was seen as pivotal in helping to develop quality of life for residents living in the participating care homes. The findings have implications for education, nursing practice and research in Lebanon and help start an evidence base for care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Improving Process Quality by Means of Accurate and Traceable Calibration of Flow Devices with Process-oriented Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Hugo; Tschannen, Martin; de Huu, Marc

    2018-03-30

    Calibration of flow devices is important in several areas of pharmaceutical, flow chemistry and health care applications where volumetric dosage or delivery at given flow rates are crucial for the process. Although most of the flow devices are measuring flow rates of process-oriented liquids, their calibrations are often performed with water as calibration liquid. It is recommended to perform the calibrations of the flow devices with process-oriented liquids as the liquid itself might influence the performance of the flow devices. Therefore, METAS has developed facilities with METAS flow generators to address the issue of measuring with process-oriented liquids for flow rates from 400 ml/min down to 50 nl/min with uncertainties from 0.07-0.9 %. Traceability is guaranteed through the calibration of the generated flow rates of the METAS flow generators by means of the dynamic gravimetric method where a liquid of well-known density and a well-controlled evaporation rate is used. The design of the milli-flow facility will be discussed as well as first measurement results of the METAS flow generators in the range of micro-flow and milli-flow using water and other liquids.

  20. Cultures of choice: towards a sociology of choice as a cultural phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ori

    2017-09-07

    The article explores different ways to conceptualize the relationship between choice and culture. These two notions are often constructed as opposites: while sociologies of modernization (such as Giddens') portray a shift from cultural traditions to culturally disembedded choice, dispositional sociologies (such as Bourdieu's) uncover cultural determination as the hidden truth behind apparent choice. However, choice may be real and cultural simultaneously. Culture moulds choice not only by inculcating dispositions or shaping repertoires of alternatives, but also by offering culturally specific choice practices, ways of choosing embedded in meaning, normativity, and materiality; and by shaping attributions of choice in everyday life. By bringing together insights from rival schools, I portray an outline for a comparative cultural sociology of choice, and demonstrate its purchase while discussing the digitalization of choice; and cultural logics that shape choice attribution in ways opposing neoliberal trends. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  1. Improvement of image quality and radiation dose of CT perfusion of the brain by means of low-tube voltage (70 KV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen-lin; Zhang, Kai; Li, Wang-jiang; Chen, Xian; Wu, Bin; Song, Bin; Li, Hang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of 70 kV cerebral CT perfusion by comparing image quality and radiation exposure to 80 kV. Thirty patients with suspected cerebral ischemia who underwent dual-source CT perfusion were divided into group A (80 kV, 150 mAs) and group B (70 kV, 150 mAs). Quantitative comparisons were used for maximum enhancement, signal-to-noise index (SNI), and values of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood flow (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) on CBF, CBV, and MTT images, and radiation dose from these two groups. Qualitative perfusion images were assessed by two readers. Maximum enhancement for group B was higher than group A (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups for SNI on CBF and CBV maps (P = 0.06 - 0.576), but significant differences for MTT when SNI was measured on frontal white matter and temporo-occipital white matter (P < 0.05). There were no differences among values of CBF, CBV, and MTT for both groups (P = 0.251-0.917). Mean image quality score in group B was higher than group A for CBF (P < 0.05), but no differences for CBV (P = 0.542) and MTT (P = 0.962). Radiation dose for group B decreased compared with group A. 70 kV cerebral CT perfusion reduces radiation dose without compromising image quality. (orig.)

  2. Improvement of image quality and radiation dose of CT perfusion of the brain by means of low-tube voltage (70 KV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen-lin; Zhang, Kai; Li, Wang-jiang; Chen, Xian; Wu, Bin; Song, Bin [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Li, Hang [Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the feasibility of 70 kV cerebral CT perfusion by comparing image quality and radiation exposure to 80 kV. Thirty patients with suspected cerebral ischemia who underwent dual-source CT perfusion were divided into group A (80 kV, 150 mAs) and group B (70 kV, 150 mAs). Quantitative comparisons were used for maximum enhancement, signal-to-noise index (SNI), and values of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood flow (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) on CBF, CBV, and MTT images, and radiation dose from these two groups. Qualitative perfusion images were assessed by two readers. Maximum enhancement for group B was higher than group A (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups for SNI on CBF and CBV maps (P = 0.06 - 0.576), but significant differences for MTT when SNI was measured on frontal white matter and temporo-occipital white matter (P < 0.05). There were no differences among values of CBF, CBV, and MTT for both groups (P = 0.251-0.917). Mean image quality score in group B was higher than group A for CBF (P < 0.05), but no differences for CBV (P = 0.542) and MTT (P = 0.962). Radiation dose for group B decreased compared with group A. 70 kV cerebral CT perfusion reduces radiation dose without compromising image quality. (orig.)

  3. Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggeldahl, Kennet Christian; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...

  4. The Association between Freedom of Choice and Effectiveness of Home Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffansson, Marina; Pulliainen, Marjo; Kettunen, Aija; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Halonen, Miikka

    2016-03-31

    The aim of this paper is to study home care clients' freedom to choose their services, as well the association between the effectiveness of home care services and freedom of choice, among other factors. A structured postal survey was conducted among regular home care clients (n = 2096) aged 65 or older in three towns in Finland. Freedom of choice was studied based on clients' subjective experiences. The effectiveness of the services was evaluated by means of changes in the social-care-related quality of life. Regression analyses were used to test associations. As much as 62% of home care recipients reported having some choice regarding their services. Choosing meals and visiting times for the care worker were associated with better effectiveness. The basic model, which included needs and other factors expected to have an impact on quality of life, explained 15.4% of the changes in quality of life, while the extended model, which included the freedom-of-choice variables, explained 17.4%. The inclusion of freedom-of-choice variables increased the adjusted coefficient of determination by 2%. There was a significant positive association between freedom of choice and the effectiveness of public home care services. Freedom of choice does not exist for all clients of home care who desire it. By changing social welfare activities and structures, it is possible to show respect for clients' opinions and to thereby improve the effectiveness of home care services.

  5. School Choice and Segregation: "Tracking" Racial Equity in Magnet Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2014-01-01

    Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…

  6. Pairwise Choice Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ragain, Stephen; Ugander, Johan

    2016-01-01

    As datasets capturing human choices grow in richness and scale---particularly in online domains---there is an increasing need for choice models that escape traditional choice-theoretic axioms such as regularity, stochastic transitivity, and Luce's choice axiom. In this work we introduce the Pairwise Choice Markov Chain (PCMC) model of discrete choice, an inferentially tractable model that does not assume any of the above axioms while still satisfying the foundational axiom of uniform expansio...

  7. Patient pools and the use of "patient means" are valuable tools in quality control illustrated by a bone-specific alkaline phosphatase assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Lund, Erik D.; Brandslund, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality control (QC) is an essential part of clinical biochemistry to ensure that laboratory test results are reliable and correct. Those tests without a defined reference method constitute a special challenge, as is the case with bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP). METHODS...... AND RESULTS: The present study reports an example where a shift in a BAP assay was detected by use of a patient pool and supported by a retrospective calculation of "patient mean", while the external QC and specific assay control material were unaffected by the shift. CONCLUSIONS: Patient pools and the use...

  8. Classification of sediments by means of Self-Organizing Maps and sediment quality guidelines in sites of the southern Spanish coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. VESES

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to classify 112 marine and estuarine sites of the southern Spanish coastline (about 918 km long according to similar sediment characteristics by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs such as Self-Organizing Maps (SOM and sediment quality guidelines from a dataset consisted of 16 physical and chemical parameters including sediment granulometry, trace and major elements, total N and P and organic carbon content. The use of ANNs such as SOM made possible the classification of the sampling sites according to their similar chemical characteristics. Visual correlations between geochemical parameters were extracted due to the powerful visual characteristics (component planes of the SOM revealing that ANNs are an excellent tool to be incorporated in sediment quality assessments. Besides, almost 20% of the sites were classified as medium-high or high priority sites in order to take future remediation actions due to their high mean Effects Range-Median Quotient (m-ERMQ value. Priority sites included the estuaries of the major rivers (Tinto, Odiel, Palmones, etc. and several locations along the eastern coastline.

  9. To Engage Students, Give Them Meaningful Choices in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Frieda; Novak, Jodie; Bartell, Tonya

    2017-01-01

    Providing students with choice can be a powerful means of supporting student engagement. However, not all choice opportunities lead to improved student engagement. Teachers can increase the likelihood that students will value choice by analyzing how students associate feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness with the choice provided them.…

  10. The Impact of a Teaching or Singing Career on the Female Vocal Quality at the Mean Age of 67 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Bettens, Kim; Leemans, Laura; Van Calster, Ann-Sophie; Van Damme, Nina; Thijs, Zoë; Daelman, Julie; Leyns, Clara; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the objective and subjective vocal quality in women aged between 60 and 75 years. Secondly, the impact of a teaching or singing career on the vocal quality was investigated by comparing the vocal quality of retired women with different careers. This is a case-control study. Seventy-three retired women between 60 and 75 years (mean age: 67 years, standard deviation: 4.49) participated in the study and were divided into three groups: women with a teaching career (n = 21), choir singers with a singing career (n = 12), and women with a non-vocal career (n = 40). All subjects underwent the same assessment protocol consisting of objective (aerodynamic, maximum performance, vocal range, acoustic measurements, and the Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (the Voice Handicap Index, auditory-perceptual evaluations by three listeners) voice measurements. In all three groups, objective and perceptual voice analysis showed a mild dysphonia. No differences in the Dysphonia Severity Index were found between the three groups. The voices of choir singers with a singing career were perceived significantly less rough than voices of the women with a non-vocal career. Additionally, the lowest frequency of the frequency range was significantly lower in the retired teachers and choir singers than in the controls. The results of this study prudently suggest that a singing or a teaching career compared with a non-vocal career has a positive impact on the vocal frequency range, and that singing has a positive impact on the perceptual vocal quality of the older female voice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Teacher Characteristics and Students' Choice of Teaching as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teacher Characteristics and Students' Choice of Teaching as a Career in Osun ... the teacher characteristics that influence students' choice of teaching as a career ... The result revealed that factors such as quality of teaching, mode of dressing ...

  12. Voice and choice by delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.

  13. The effect of melliferous bee (Apis mellifera carnica poll and mechanical means on seed yield, yield components and quality of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of alfalfa pollinators in free pollination was investigated as well as effect of measures that promote pollination alfalfa (using sugar syrup and mechanical means. In first year of investigations, with higher precipitation, higher number of others pollinators (80,8 then honeybees (45,6 on alfalfa field was determined. In second year, there were much more honeybees (139,5 then all others alfalfa pollinators (12,37. Pollination improvement with sugar syrup had positive effect on seed yield and seed yield components since by this way more seeds were obtained compare to free pollination and by using mechanical means. Highest seed yield was obtained with sugar syrup (44,90 gm-2, with mechanical improvement of pollination 40,74 gm-2 and in free pollination 30,41 gm-2. As for yield components pollination improvement gave better results compare to free pollination. Pod setting and number of seeds per pod were especially significant compare to control. There were no statistically significant differences between free pollination and improved pollination for seed quality components (mass of 1000 seeds, energy of germination and germination ability.

  14. A generalized partially linear mean-covariance regression model for longitudinal proportional data, with applications to the analysis of quality of life data from cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueying; Qin, Guoyou; Tu, Dongsheng

    2017-05-30

    Motivated by the analysis of quality of life data from a clinical trial on early breast cancer, we propose in this paper a generalized partially linear mean-covariance regression model for longitudinal proportional data, which are bounded in a closed interval. Cholesky decomposition of the covariance matrix for within-subject responses and generalized estimation equations are used to estimate unknown parameters and the nonlinear function in the model. Simulation studies are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimation procedures. Our new model is also applied to analyze the data from the cancer clinical trial that motivated this research. In comparison with available models in the literature, the proposed model does not require specific parametric assumptions on the density function of the longitudinal responses and the probability function of the boundary values and can capture dynamic changes of time or other interested variables on both mean and covariance of the correlated proportional responses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Power generation choices: costs, risks and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document from OECD deals with the choices between the different means of producing electricity: supply and demand trends, power generation choices, management of development and technologies, environmental impacts and costs around energy sources. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers of this volume. (TEC)

  16. Macro-Choices, Micro-Choosers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The ways in which the world produces, distributes, and consumes its food are as varied as the small societies with which the world's growing billions most closely identify. Making food choices for the world means first understanding the myriad ways in which the world's microcultures make choices for themselves. (BT)

  17. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  18. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  19. The Choice of Canned Whole Peeled Tomatoes is Driven by Different Key Quality Attributes Perceived by Consumers Having Different Familiarity with the Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez-Muñoz, Lucía; Steenbekkers, Bea Lpa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Canned whole peeled tomatoes are a premium tomato product; however, no information is available about the key intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes perceived by consumers when buying this product. This research considered consumers differing in the level of familiarity with peeled tomatoes, that is, knowledge, frequency of consumption, and availability of this product, on 3 markets: Chile (low), The Netherlands (medium), and Italy (high). The perceptions and preferences of each group were studied using first focus groups and subsequently conjoint analysis in order to identify the key quality attributes leading their preferences for this product. Focus groups identified 7 intrinsic attributes (color, packing medium, tomato consistency, acidity level, sweetness level, extra ingredients, and intensity of product taste), and 5 extrinsic attributes (packaging material, product type, country of origin, brand, and label design). Significant variations according to the familiarity were found. The conjoint analyses showed that color of tomatoes was the most important intrinsic quality attribute for all groups, while packaging material was the most important extrinsic quality attribute for Chileans and Dutch, being a glass container or a can with easy open the preferred packaging for respective groups. In contrast, country of origin was the most important parameter for Italians. We concluded that intrinsic and extrinsic attributes were strongly influenced by the degree of familiarity with canned whole peeled tomatoes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Emotion regulation choice : A conceptual framework and supporting evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Radu, Peter; Blechert, Jens; Gross, James J.

    Choice behavior is considered the fundamental means by which individuals exert control over their environments. One important choice domain that remains virtually unexplored is that of emotion regulation. This is surprising given that healthy adaptation requires flexibly choosing between regulation

  1. Making Antibiotic Choices: Formula Derivation and Usage in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formulae was demonstrated in the rational selection of antibiotics most appropriate in the empirical ... antibiotics provides a suitable means of making antibiotic choices in the empirical treatment of ... decisions are made on their choices.

  2. The Meaning of Meaning, Etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This paper attempts to dispel a number of misconceptions about the nature of meaning, namely that: (1) synonyms are words that have the same meanings, (2) antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, (3) homonyms are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings, (4) converses are antonyms rather than synonyms, (5)…

  3. Noise reduction and functional maps image quality improvement in dynamic CT perfusion using a new k-means clustering guided bilateral filter (KMGB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisana, Francesco; Henzler, Thomas; Schönberg, Stefan; Klotz, Ernst; Schmidt, Bernhard; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Dynamic CT perfusion (CTP) consists in repeated acquisitions of the same volume in different time steps, slightly before, during and slightly afterwards the injection of contrast media. Important functional information can be derived for each voxel, which reflect the local hemodynamic properties and hence the metabolism of the tissue. Different approaches are being investigated to exploit data redundancy and prior knowledge for noise reduction of such datasets, ranging from iterative reconstruction schemes to high dimensional filters. We propose a new spatial bilateral filter which makes use of the k-means clustering algorithm and of an optimal calculated guiding image. We named the proposed filter as k-means clustering guided bilateral filter (KMGB). In this study, the KMGB filter is compared with the partial temporal non-local means filter (PATEN), with the time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) filter, and with a new version derived from it, by introducing the guiding image (GB-TIPS). All the filters were tested on a digital in-house developed brain CTP phantom, were noise was added to simulate 80 kV and 200 mAs (default scanning parameters), 100 mAs and 30 mAs. Moreover, the filters performances were tested on 7 noisy clinical datasets with different pathologies in different body regions. The original contribution of our work is two-fold: first we propose an efficient algorithm to calculate a guiding image to improve the results of the TIPS filter, secondly we propose the introduction of the k-means clustering step and demonstrate how this can potentially replace the TIPS part of the filter obtaining better results at lower computational efforts. As expected, in the GB-TIPS, the introduction of the guiding image limits the over-smoothing of the TIPS filter, improving spatial resolution by more than 50%. Furthermore, replacing the time-intensity profile similarity calculation with a fuzzy k-means clustering strategy (KMGB) allows to control the edge preserving

  4. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  5. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications....

  6. Using best-worst scaling choice experiments to elicit the most important domains of health for health-related quality of life in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Uy, Elenore Judy B.; Bautista, Dianne Carrol; Xin, Xiaohui; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thio, Szu-Tien; Thumboo, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments are sometimes used without explicit understanding of which HRQOL domains are important to a given population. In this study, we sought to elicit an importance hierarchy among 27 HRQOL domains (derived from the general population) via a best-worst scaling survey of the population in Singapore, and to determine whether these domains were consistently valued across gender, age, ethnicity, and presence of chronic illnesses. We conducted a communi...

  7. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications. The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended...

  8. Factors Influencing Food Choices Among Older Adults in the Rural Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Haack, Sarah; Tarabochia, Dawn; Bates, Kate; Christenson, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Nutrition is an essential component in promoting health and quality of life into the older adults years. The purpose of this qualitative research is to explore how the rural food environment influences food choices of older adults. Four focus groups were conducted with 33 older adults (50 years of age and older) residing in rural Montana communities. Four major themes related to factors influencing food choices among rural older adults emerged from this study: perception of the rural community environment, support as a means of increasing food access, personal access to food sources, and dietary factors. The findings from this current study warrant further research and promotion of specifically tailored approaches that influence the food choices of older adults in the rural western USA, including the developing and expanding public transportation systems, increasing availability of local grocers with quality and affordable food options, increasing awareness and decreasing stigma surrounding community food programs, and increasing nutrition education targeting senior health issues.

  9. Motherhood as a choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-06-01

    The choice of motherhood for women and women's rights have been forbidden in law by men, in religious doctrines by men, and within the medical system by men. Women in poverty have little say in determining whether to have children or not. When choice is exercised for abortion, poor women have unsafe and illegal abortions, which can be life-threatening. Rich women have safer options. Women historically have allowed their rights to be eroded by gender inequality and patriarchal manipulation. The religious right and the Roman Catholic church have been allowed to speak and decide for women. Abortion rights are not about western influences, but about maternal mortality. The right to make choices about one's life is the fundamental premise of the universal rights of all human beings. African governments have signed the UN Convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, but the practice of human rights has not been implemented at the local and family level. Motherhood needs to be demystified. Motherhood is linked with the absence of personhood and bodily integrity. The rhetoric of moral obligations and the rights of the unborn child take precedence over the rights of women. The right of an African woman not to have children is not recognized in most Africa societies. The issue of AIDS creates an even more difficult milieu for women. The interests of the family and the interests of men overwhelm the interests of women to protect themselves. Motherhood is essential to validating one's heterosexuality and gaining stature, and females without a child are marginalized and unrecognized. Women whose babies do not survive are marginalized further than barren women. Men derive power from women's birthing. The terminology of male power is replete with expressions such as "pregnant with promise" and "miscarriage of justice's", no one says "uterus envy." Male psychologists only recognize "penis envy." Men need children for purposes of property, lineage, and

  10. Patient factors in referral choice for total joint replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner-Spady, Barbara L; Marshall, Deborah A; Bohm, Eric; Dunbar, Michael J; Loucks, Lynda; Hennigar, Allan W; Frank, Cy; Noseworthy, Tom W

    2014-04-01

    Although the option of next available surgeon can be found on surgeon referral forms for total joint replacement surgery, its selection varies across surgical practices. Objectives are to assess the determinants of (a) a patient's request for a particular surgeon; and (b) the actual referral to a specific versus the next available surgeon. Questionnaires were mailed to 306 consecutive patients referred to orthopedic surgeons. We assessed quality of life (Oxford Hip and Knee scores, Short Form-12, EuroQol 5D, Pain Visual Analogue Scale), referral experience, and the importance of surgeon choice, surgeon reputation, and wait time. We used logistic regression to build models for the 2 objectives. We obtained 176 respondents (response rate, 58%), 60% female, 65% knee patients, mean age of 65 years, with no significant differences between responders versus nonresponders. Forty-three percent requested a particular surgeon. Seventy-one percent were referred to a specific surgeon. Patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 6.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.57-16.64] and with household incomes of $90,000+ versus <$30,000 (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.56-21.03) were more likely to request a particular surgeon. Hip patients (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.18-7.78), better Physical Component Summary-12 (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63), and patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.56-9.70) were more likely to be referred to a specific surgeon. Most patients want some choice in the referral decision. Providing sufficient information is important, so that patients are aware of their choices and can make an informed choice. Some patients prefer a particular surgeon despite longer wait times.

  11. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  12. Meaning in life and perceived quality of life in Switzerland: results of a representative survey in the German, French and Italian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mathieu; Braunschweig, Giliane; Fegg, Martin Johannes; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2015-09-29

    The concept of meaning in life (MIL) has become a central one in recent years, particularly in psycho-oncology and palliative care. The Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMILE) has been developed to allow individuals to choose the life areas that they consider to be important for their own MIL. This approach relates to the "World Health Organisation" definition of quality of life (QOL) as an individual's perception of his own position. The aims of this study were (i) to assess MIL in a representative sample of the Swiss population according to the three linguistic regions and (ii) to evaluate whether MIL constitutes a significant determinant of the perceived QOL. A telephone survey of the Swiss population, performed by a professional survey company, was conducted between November and December 2013. The interview included the SMILE, perceived QOL (0-10) and health status (1-5), and various sociodemographic variables. In the SMILE, an index of weighting (IOW, 20-100), an index of satisfaction (IOS, 0-100), and a total SMILE index (IOWS, 0-100) are calculated from the areas mentioned by the participants as providing MIL. Among the 6671 telephonic contacts realized, 1015 (15%) participants completed the survey: 405 French, 400 German and 210 Italian participants. "Family" (80.2%), "occupation/work" (51%), and "social relations" (43.3%) were the most cited MIL-relevant categories. Italian participants listed "health" more frequently than German and French participants (50.4% vs 31.5% and 24.8% respectively, χ(2) = 12.229, p = .002). Age, gender, education, employment, and marital status significantly influenced either the MIL scores or the MIL-relevant categories. Linear regression analyses indicate that 24.3% of the QOL variance (p = .000) is explained by health status (B = .609, IC = .490-.728, p = .000), MIL (B = .034, IC = .028-.041, p = .000) and socioeconomic status (F = 11.01, p = .000). The major finding of our

  13. CHOICE OF MACROPHYTE SUBSTRATE IN THE USE OF DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF POND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT: PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE CASE OF ALALAY POND (COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alalay Pond is a 230-hectare, shallow aquatic ecosystem within Cochabamba, the third largest city in Bolivia. With the aim to determine the suitability of epiphytic diatoms for water quality assessment in the pond and to choose a substrate that would hold a representative bioindicator epiphytic community, the macrophytes Schoenoplectus californicus subsp. tatora (Kunth T. Koyama, Typha dominguensis Pers., Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. were selected and differences in diatom community composition and structure were tested. Diatoms were collected during four sampling campaigns in the March-September, 2011 period, from three stations contiguous to the pelagic zone and prepared for analysis using standard, internationally used protocols. In all, 27 samples were collected from which 28 taxa characteristic of eutrophic environments were identified and 17 others could not be assigned names from the literature. Although many of the species are shared among sampling sites, the epiphytic communities developing at each station were different in structure and composition. Although, there are marked temporal variations in community features on each of the macrophytes, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes, as well as canonical correspondence analysis, showed no marked differences within a single campaign and station among the 4 macrophytes. Shifts in structure and composition are denoted less commonly by species replacement and more often by changes in percent relative abundance of dominant and rare species. Very few species are restricted to a station or seem to show strong preference for a particular substrate. Taking into account growth, structural and ecological characteristics, as well as some phenological features of the macrophytes, S. californicus subsp. tatora and T. dominguensis are the most suitable substrates for water quality assessments in the pond. As demonstrated by multivariate analyses, among-site and time

  14. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  15. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  16. Increased nutritional quality of plants for long-duration spaceflight missions through choice of plant variety and manipulation of growth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohu, Christopher M.; Lombardi, Elizabeth; Adams, William W.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Low levels of radiation during spaceflight increase the incidence of eye damage and consumption of certain carotenoids (especially zeaxanthin), via a whole-food-based diet (rather than from supplements), is recommended to protect human vision against radiation damage. Availability of fresh leafy produce has, furthermore, been identified as desirable for morale during long spaceflight missions. We report that only trace amounts of zeaxanthin are retained post-harvest in leaves grown under conditions conducive to rapid plant growth. We show that growth of plants under cool temperatures and very high light can trigger a greater retention of zeaxanthin, while, however, simultaneously retarding plant growth. We here introduce a novel growth condition—low growth light supplemented with several short daily light pulses of higher intensity—that also triggers zeaxanthin retention, but without causing any growth retardation. Moreover, two plant varieties with different hardiness exhibited a different propensity for zeaxanthin retention. These findings demonstrate that growth light environment and plant variety can be exploited to simultaneously optimize nutritional quality (with respect to zeaxanthin and two other carotenoids important for human vision, lutein and β-carotene) as well as biomass production of leafy greens suitable as bioregenerative systems for long-duration manned spaceflight missions.

  17. Choice, changeover, and travel

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, William M.

    1982-01-01

    Since foraging in nature can be viewed as instrumental behavior, choice between sources of food, known as “patches,” can be viewed as choice between instrumental response alternatives. Whereas the travel required to change alternatives deters changeover in nature, the changeover delay (COD) usually deters changeover in the laboratory. In this experiment, pigeons were exposed to laboratory choice situations, concurrent variable-interval schedules, that were standard except for the introduction...

  18. Key determinants of students’ mobile phone choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dzigbordi Dzandu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As there is still only limited research on students brand choice of mobile phones, the focus of this study was to ascertain drivers of tertiary students’ mobile phone brand choice in Ghana. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from a random sample of 840 students from three tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study revealed that the most significant determinant of the students brand choice of mobile phones was perceived quality (p0.05. The study concludes that in spite of their economic handicaps, students brand choice was driven most by perceived quality and not price. Recommendations on how information technology manufacturers’ particularly mobile phone companies and marketers can exploit these drivers to sustain and improve their brand equity among students have been made.

  19. Integrated multi-choice goal programming and multi-segment goal programming for supplier selection considering imperfect-quality and price-quantity discounts in a multiple sourcing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Ter; Chen, Huang-Mu; Zhuang, Zheng-Yun

    2014-05-01

    Supplier selection (SS) is a multi-criteria and multi-objective problem, in which multi-segment (e.g. imperfect-quality discount (IQD) and price-quantity discount (PQD)) and multi-aspiration level problems may be significantly important; however, little attention had been given to dealing with both of them simultaneously in the past. This study proposes a model for integrating multi-choice goal programming and multi-segment goal programming to solve the above-mentioned problems by providing the following main contributions: (1) it allows decision-makers to set multiple aspiration levels on the right-hand side of each goal to suit real-world situations, (2) the PQD and IQD conditions are considered in the proposed model simultaneously and (3) the proposed model can solve a SS problem with n suppliers where each supplier offers m IQD with r PQD intervals, where only ? extra binary variables are required. The usefulness of the proposed model is explained using a real case. The results indicate that the proposed model not only can deal with a SS problem with multi-segment and multi-aspiration levels, but also can help the decision-maker to find the appropriate order quantities for each supplier by considering cost, quality and delivery.

  20. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  1. Constructing food choice decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-12-01

    Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making. Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes limiting assumptions that prevent fully explaining food choice decisions. We used constructionist social definition perspectives to inductively develop a food choice process model that organizes a broad scope of factors and dynamics involved in food behaviors. This food choice process model includes (1) life course events and experiences that establish a food choice trajectory through transitions, turning points, timing, and contexts; (2) influences on food choices that include cultural ideals, personal factors, resources, social factors, and present contexts; and (3) a personal system that develops food choice values, negotiates and balances values, classifies foods and situations, and forms/revises food choice strategies, scripts, and routines. The parts of the model dynamically interact to make food choice decisions leading to food behaviors. No single theory can fully explain decision making in food behavior. Multiple perspectives are needed, including constructionist thinking.

  2. Study of flue gas condensers with reference to corrosion risks, biofuel quality, techniques and choice of material; Kartlaeggning av roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar med avseende paa korrosionsrisker, biobraenslekvaliteter, teknik och materialval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenqvist, Per-Aake

    2012-02-15

    Corrosion in flue gas appliances installed in small and medium sized biomass fired boiler plants has become a problem in an increasing number of sites around Sweden. A trend seems to be that the problems are greater in those plants that use so called terminal chips than those that utilize more homogeneous fuels. In pace with the increasing number of biomass power plants in the country, the demand for cheaper fuel is increased. Through the increasing number of fuel terminals the market is provided even with biofuel mixes in the form of traditional wood chips mixed with bark, forest residue, sawdust, willow, returned wood, etc. Both users and suppliers of boiler and flue gas systems, and fuel suppliers have currently no clear rules or guidelines for relationships between different chemical properties of fuels, technologies, operating data and material. In this report has experience in the form of questionnaires completed by field visits, interviews of operational personnel and literature studies been compiled from a number of plants using different types of flue gas condensers for increased energy output from various types of bio fuels. The purpose of this assignment is to survey the flue gas condensation plant in biomass fired boiler plants for the presence of corrosion damage made in relation to the use of technologies and fuel qualities. A milestone is that the report will be able to be used to support the selection of materials and appropriate techniques for both new facilities and for the repair and improvement of existing ones. Another objective is to compile existing experience and assessment criteria which are reported in the literature. This report describes some typical construction techniques, whenever applicable harmful images and links to various substances present in fuels, ash and condensate

  3. Firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives : A theory of organizational choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, Patrick; Prüfer, Jens

    We formalize the difference between profit-maximizing firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identify optimal organizational choice in a model of quality provision. Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however, depends on the competitive environment, the

  4. Choice Criteria of Cosmetics among Chinese Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    LI, ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Becoming familiar with consumers’ choice criteria towards a certain kind of product can help marketers tailor more efficient market strategies. Cosmetics play a very important part in the lives of women. Plautus asserted, “A woman without paint is like food without salt”. In recent years, the Chinese cosmetic market has flourished. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the choice criteria of cosmetics in the context of the Chinese market. Country-of-origin, brand image and quality are...

  5. A singular choice for multiple choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2006-01-01

    How should multiple choice tests be scored and graded, in particular when students are allowed to check several boxes to convey partial knowledge? Many strategies may seem reasonable, but we demonstrate that five self-evident axioms are sufficient to determine completely the correct strategy. We ...

  6. Mobile telecommunication networks choice among Ghanaians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Henry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the factors influencing customers choice of telecommunication network in Ghana. The survey design was employed to enable the researchers perform statistical analysis. Questionnaire consisting of Likert scale question was used to collect the primary data. Multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the factors influencing customers’ choice of telecommunication networks. The study found six factors that influence customers to choose a particular network. These factors include; brand awareness, brand image, perceived quality, price, convenience and brand loyalty. The study concludes that all the six factors contribute to the factors that drive consumer choice of telecommunications service in Ghana.

  7. Health-related quality of life in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer treated with etirinotecan pegol versus treatment of physician's choice: Results from the randomised phase III BEACON trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelves, Chris; Cortés, Javier; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Awada, Ahmad; Perez, Edith A; Im, Seock-Ah; Gómez-Pardo, Patricia; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Diéras, Véronique; Yardley, Denise A; Potter, David A; Mailliez, Audrey; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Zhao, Carol; Hoch, Ute; Tagliaferri, Mary; Hannah, Alison L; Rugo, Hope S

    2017-05-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) enhances understanding of treatment effects that impact clinical decision-making. Although the primary end-point was not achieved, the BEACON (BrEAst Cancer Outcomes with NKTR-102) trial established etirinotecan pegol, a long-acting topoisomerase-1 (TOP1) inhibitor, as a promising therapeutic for patients with advanced/metastatic breast cancer (MBC) achieving clinically meaningful benefits in median overall survival (OS) for patients with stable brain metastases, with liver metastases or ≥ 2 sites of metastatic disease compared to treatment of physician's choice (TPC). Reported herein are the findings from the preplanned secondary end-point of HRQoL. HRQoL, assessed by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30) (version 3.0) supplemented by the breast cancer-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-BR23), was evaluated post randomisation in 733 of 852 patients with either anthracycline-, taxane- and capecitabine-pretreated locally recurrent or MBC randomised to etirinotecan pegol (n = 378; 145 mg/m 2 every 3 weeks (q3wk)) or single-agent TPC (n = 355). Patients completed assessments at screening, every 8 weeks (q8wk) during treatment, and end-of-treatment. Changes from baseline were analysed, and the proportions of patients achieving differences (≥5 points) in HRQoL scores were compared. Differences were seen favouring etirinotecan pegol up to 32 weeks for global health status (GHS) and physical functioning scales (P Patients in both arms had a decline in HRQoL at disease progression. NCT01492101. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. School Choice Marches forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted…

  9. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  10. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  11. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthy choices easier...

  12. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2011-01-01

    and the best alternative to that. We test this hypothesis using data from two independent Choice Experiments both focusing on nature values. In modelling respondents’ self-reported certainty in choice, we find evidence that the stated level of certainty increases significantly as utility difference in choice......Respondents in Stated Preference studies may be uncertain about their preferences for the good presented to them. Inspired by Wang (J Environ Econ Manag 32:219–232, 1997) we hypothesize that respondents’ stated certainty in choice increases with the utility difference between the alternative chosen...... sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  13. What counts as a choice? U.S. Americans are more likely than Indians to construe actions as choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Markus, Hazel Rose; Naidu, N V R; Kumar, Satishchandra; Berlia, Neha

    2010-03-01

    People everywhere select among multiple alternatives, but are they always making choices? In five studies, we found that people in U.S. American contexts, where the disjoint model of agency is prevalent, are more likely than those in Indian contexts to construe their own and other individuals' behaviors as choices, to construe ongoing behaviors and behaviors recalled from memory as choices, to construe naturally occurring and experimentally controlled behaviors as choices, to construe mundane and important actions as choices, and to construe personal and interpersonal actions as choices. Indians showed a greater tendency to construe actions as choices when these actions involved responding to other people than when they did not. These findings show that whether people construe actions as choices is significantly shaped by sociocultural systems of meanings and practices. Together, they suggest that the positive consequences associated with maximizing the availability of personal choice may not be universal and instead may be limited to North American contexts.

  14. The Diffusion Decision Model: Theory and Data for Two-Choice Decision Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion decision model allows detailed explanations of behavior in two-choice discrimination tasks. In this article, the model is reviewed to show how it translates behavioral data—accuracy, mean response times, and response time distributions—into components of cognitive processing. Three experiments are used to illustrate experimental manipulations of three components: stimulus difficulty affects the quality of information on which a decision is based; instructions emphasizing either ...

  15. Quality Control in Mammography: Image Quality and Patient Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj Bjelac, O.; Arandjic, D.; Boris Loncar, B.; Kosutic, D.

    2008-01-01

    Mammography is method of choice for early detection of breast cancer. The purpose of this paper is preliminary evaluation the mammography practice in Serbia, in terms of both quality control indicators, i.e. image quality and patient doses. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality and patients doses. Mean glandular doses ranged from 0.12 to 2.8 mGy, while reference optical density ranged from 1.2 to 2.8. Correlation between image contrast and mean glandular doses was demonstrated. Systematic implementation of quality control protocol should provide satisfactory performance of mammography units and maintain satisfactory image quality and keep patient doses as low as reasonably practicable. (author)

  16. Nutrieconomic model can facilitate healthy and low-cost food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavesi, Laura; Caccavelli, Giovanna; Ciliberto, Alessandra; Pauze, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Promotion of healthy eating can no longer be postponed as a priority, given the alarming growth rate of chronic degenerative diseases in Western countries. We elaborated a nutrieconomic model to assess and identify the most nutritious and affordable food choices. Seventy-one food items representing the main food categories were included and their nationally representative prices monitored. Food composition was determined using CRA-NUT (Centro di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione) and IEO (Istituto Europeo di Oncologia) databases. To define food nutritional quality, the mean adequacy ratio and mean excess ratio were combined. Both prices and nutritional quality were normalised for the edible food content and for the recommended serving sizes for the Italian adult population. Stores located in different provinces throughout Italy. Not applicable. Cereals and legumes presented very similar nutritional qualities and prices per serving. Seasonal fruits and vegetables presented differentiated nutritional qualities and almost equal prices. Products of animal origin showed similar nutritional qualities and varied prices: the best nutrieconomic choices were milk, oily fish and poultry for the dairy products, fish and meat groups, respectively. Analysing two balanced weekly menus, our nutrieconomic model was able to note a significant decrease in cost of approximately 30 % by varying animal-protein sources without affecting nutritional quality. Healthy eating does not necessarily imply spending large amounts of money but rather being able to make nutritionally optimal choices. The nutrieconomic model is an innovative and practical way to help consumers make correct food choices and nutritionists increase the compliance of their patients.

  17. Does Expert Advice Improve Educational Choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Borghans

    Full Text Available This paper reports evidence that an individual meeting with a study counselor at high school significantly improves the quality of choice of tertiary educational field, as self-assessed 18 months after graduation from college. To address endogeneity, we explore the variation in study counseling practices between schools as an instrumental variable (IV. Following careful scrutiny of the validity of the IV, our results indicate a significant and positive influence of study counseling on the quality of educational choice, foremost among males and those with low educated parents. The overall result is stable across a number of robustness checks.

  18. TECHNICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL SERVICE QUALITY OF E-LEARNING: a research framework for the development of a systematic means of identification and adaptation testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Chiran Jayasundara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a research framework that can be applied to develop and measure technical and pedagogical service quality of e-leaning in Sri Lankan phenomenon. This study is an in-depth empirical investigation which seeks to build up an instrument to predict technical and pedagogical service quality of e-learning in Sri Lanka. The specific objectives are to investigate what comprises technical and pedagogical service quality of e-learning: to establish a deeper understanding of the phenomenon to identify effective technical and pedagogical dimensions of: e-learning on user perspectives and finally to develop a scale: to fill the gap detected in the area of assessing/measuring Technical and pedagogical service quality of e- Leaning which can be used by designers and practitioners in the field of e-learning. A comprehensive methodology will be used to design the instrument.

  19. A framework for estimating health state utility values within a discrete choice experiment: modeling risky choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Angela; Spencer, Anne; Moffatt, Peter

    2015-04-01

    There has been recent interest in using the discrete choice experiment (DCE) method to derive health state utilities for use in quality-adjusted life year (QALY) calculations, but challenges remain. We set out to develop a risk-based DCE approach to derive utility values for health states that allowed 1) utility values to be anchored directly to normal health and death and 2) worse than dead health states to be assessed in the same manner as better than dead states. Furthermore, we set out to estimate alternative models of risky choice within a DCE model. A survey was designed that incorporated a risk-based DCE and a "modified" standard gamble (SG). Health state utility values were elicited for 3 EQ-5D health states assuming "standard" expected utility (EU) preferences. The DCE model was then generalized to allow for rank-dependent expected utility (RDU) preferences, thereby allowing for probability weighting. A convenience sample of 60 students was recruited and data collected in small groups. Under the assumption of "standard" EU preferences, the utility values derived within the DCE corresponded fairly closely to the mean results from the modified SG. Under the assumption of RDU preferences, the utility values estimated are somewhat lower than under the assumption of standard EU, suggesting that the latter may be biased upward. Applying the correct model of risky choice is important whether a modified SG or a risk-based DCE is deployed. It is, however, possible to estimate a probability weighting function within a DCE and estimate "unbiased" utility values directly, which is not possible within a modified SG. We conclude by setting out the relative strengths and weaknesses of the 2 approaches in this context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Jech, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive in its selection of topics and results, this self-contained text examines the relative strengths and consequences of the axiom of choice. Each chapter contains several problems, graded according to difficulty, and concludes with some historical remarks.An introduction to the use of the axiom of choice is followed by explorations of consistency, permutation models, and independence. Subsequent chapters examine embedding theorems, models with finite supports, weaker versions of the axiom, and nontransferable statements. The final sections consider mathematics without choice, cardin

  1. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....

  2. Make Better Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  3. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  4. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  5. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc.......The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  6. Occupational choice and values.

    OpenAIRE

    Kantas, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that psychological and sociological approaches to occupational choice can be linked together by employment of three concepts: work salience, values and motivation. Employing Vroom's (1964) cognitive model of motivation occupational choice was examined as a value attainment process. The subjects were 225 male pupils of two different school complexes in Athens, Greece. They were asked to respond to a work salience questionnaire and to rank order a set of ...

  7. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  8. Tai chi qigong as a means to improve night-time sleep quality among older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan AWK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aileen WK Chan, Doris SF Yu, KC Choi, Diana TF Lee, Janet WH Sit, Helen YL Chan The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Age-related cognitive decline is a growing public health concern worldwide. More than a quarter of adults with cognitive impairment experience sleep disturbance. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of tai chi qigong (TCQ on improving the night-time sleep quality of older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants: Older adults with cognitive impairment who complain of sleep disturbance. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with two groups. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from two district elderly community centers and randomly assigned to either the TCQ group (n=27 or the control group (n=25. The intervention group received TCQ training consisting of two 60-minute sessions each week for 2 months. The control group was advised to maintain their usual activities. Sleep quality was measured by the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Quality of life was measured by Short-form 12, cognitive functions measured by mini-mental state examination, and subjective memory deficits measured by the memory inventory for Chinese. Results: Data were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Significant results were noted at 6 months in the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score (P=0.004, sleep duration (P=0.003, habitual sleep efficiency (P=0.002, and the Short-form 12 mental health component (P<0.001. The TCQ participants reported better sleep quality and a better (quality of life mental health component than the control group. Conclusion: TCQ can be considered a useful nonpharmacological approach for improving sleep quality in older adults with cognitive impairment.Clinical trial registration: CUHK_CCT00448 (https://www2.ccrb.cuhk.edu.hk/registry/public/287. Keywords: cognitive decline, mind

  9. Discretionary Time of Chinese College Students: Activities and Impact of SARS-Induced Constraints on Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, He; Hutchinson, Susan; Zinn, Harry; Watson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    How people make choices about activity engagement during discretionary time is a topic of increasing interest to those studying quality of life issues. Assuming choices are made to maximize individual welfare, several factors are believed to influence these choices. Constraints theory from the leisure research literature suggests these choices are…

  10. Discretionary time of Chinese college students: Activities and impact of SARS-induced constraints on choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    He Yang; Susan Hutchinson; Harry Zinn; Alan Watson

    2011-01-01

    How people make choices about activity engagement during discretionary time is a topic of increasing interest to those studying quality of life issues. Assuming choices are made to maximize individual welfare, several factors are believed to influence these choices. Constraints theory from the leisure research literature suggests these choices are heavily influenced by...

  11. Methods of equipment choice in shotcreting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, R. R.; Yadykina, V. V.; Stepanov, M. A.; Kitukov, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Shotcrete is widely used in architecture, hydraulic engineering structures, finishing works in tunnels, arc covers and ceilings. The problem of the equipment choice in shotcreting is very important. The main issues influencing the equipment choice are quality improvement and intensification of shotcreting. Main parameters and rational limits of technological characteristic of machines used in solving different problems in shotcreting are described. It is suggested to take into account peculiarities of shotcrete mixing processes and peculiarities of applying these mixtures with compressed air kinetic energy. The described method suggests choosing a mixer with the account of energy capacity, Reynolds number and rotational frequency of the mixing drum. The suggested choice procedure of the equipment nomenclature allows decreasing exploitation costs, increasing the quality of shotcrete and shotcreting in general.

  12. LA CALIDAD: EVOLUCIÓN DE SU SIGNIFICADO Y APLICACIÓN EN SERVICIOS // QUALITY: EVOLUTION OF ITS MEANING AND APPLICATION IN SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Torres Samuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La definición de calidad ha evolucionado en los último ochenta años por las contribuciones de diversos autores y organizaciones internacionales reconocidos por la comunidad científica. En el presente artículo se presenta una investigación documental de la evolución cronológica de la definición de calidad a través de los aportes de los principales filósofos o “gurúes” de la calidad así como también de Organizaciones Internacionales, quienes han contribuido significativamente con su adecuación, estudio y divulgación. Estas definiciones son aplicadas y contrastadas con algunas teorías de calidad de servicios, donde destacan aspectos como su carácter multidimensional, correspondencia con atributos que respondan a las necesidades del cliente y ligada a la satisfacción del cliente. Se aprecia la vigencia de los postulados teóricos de los filósofos de la calidad, puestos a prueba en una nueva modalidad de sociedad basada especialmente en servicios e información. // Abstract: The definition of quality has evolved over the last eighty years by the contributions of various authors and international organizations recognized by the scientific community. This article presents a documentary investigation of the chronological evolution of the definition of quality through the contributions of major philosophers or “gurus” of quality as well as international organizations who have contributed significantly to its suitability, study and dissemination. These definitions are applied and compared with some theories of quality of services, which include aspects such as its multidimensional nature, correspondence with attributes that meet customer needs and linked to customer satisfaction. You can see the validity of the theoretical tenets of the philosophers of quality, tested in a new form of society based primarily on services and information.

  13. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-06-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods ("Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions" [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the 'ranking' and 'which-won-where' plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields.

  14. Individual Vs Collective Choice In Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is meant to be an extension of the theories of choice, empirical analysis and theories concerning communication between macro-economic sub-systems and even between (sub systems. A new perception will be given to all these theories and a different meaning of the factors influencing finance decisions will be shown. Another factor is introduced taking into account one’s choice, which restructures somehow the perception of the function of individuals’ choice. I named it factor α (alpha which is a spirituality factor provoking exchanges of information between economic sub-systems. This leads to a rearrangement of the economic and social patterns of behavior and of choice directly influencing the finance decisions and re-equilibrating the inter-conditioning sub-systems of the world.

  15. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    1979-01-01

    A marketing management paradigm for academe is discussed along with aspects of the pricing policy process. The two most important factors affecting the college choice process are shown to be college quality and price-related considerations. Implications for marketing are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  16. Information, switching costs, and consumer choice:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Anders; Dietrichson, Jens; Maria Ellegård, Lina

    Consumers of services that are financed by a third party, such as publicly financed health care or firm-sponsored health plans, are often allowed to freely choose provider. The rationale is that consumer choice may improve the matching of consumers and providers and spur quality competition...... by individuals living reasonably close to alternative providers....

  17. Choice, Charters, and Public School Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last century, public schools changed in ways that dramatically reduced the control that parents have over their local schools. Regaining that control is one key to improving the quality of our schools, and giving students a choice of schools is one way of increasing the influence that parents have over the way schools are run. Several…

  18. Generation and application of soft-X-ray by means of inverse compton scattering between high quality election beam and IR laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, M.; Sakaue, K.; Hama, Y.; Kamiya, Y.; Moriyama, R.; Hezume, K.; Saito, T.; Kuroda, R.; Kashiwagi, S.; Ushida, K.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.

    2006-01-01

    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emittance was about 3 mm·mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft X-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called 'water window', by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emittance electron beams. (authors)

  19. How can I improve my life-affirming, need-fulfilling, and performance enhancing capacity to understand and model the meaning of educational quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, WJ

    2012-01-01

    Infectious pessimism, widespread apathy, and volatile relationships: these describe the high school culture I unwittingly adopted as a first-time principal at Potsdam High School in a rural suburban town in New England. I conducted a three-year intensive self-study and participatory action research project to challenge the status quo definition of educational quality in American public high school as a statistical tool of ranking, separating students, and compliance. I sought through co-inves...

  20. Analysis of High Quality Agar wood Oil Chemical Compounds By Means Of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-Score Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila Ismail; Mohd Ali Nor Azah; Mailina Jamil; Saiful Nizam Tajuddin; Mohd Nasir Taib

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the grading of the agar wood oil to the high and low quality is done using manually such as human trained grader. It was performed based on the agar wood oil physical properties such as human experience and perception and the oil colour, odor and long lasting aroma. Several researchers found that chemical profiles of the oil should be utilized to overcome the problem facing by manual techniques for example human nose cannot tolerate with the many oils at the same time, so that accurate result can be obtained in grading the agar wood oil. The analysis involved of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-score techniques have been proposed in this study to analyze the chemical compounds especially from the high quality samples of agar wood oil (Aquilariamalaccensis) from Malaysia. Two SPME fibers were used such as divinylbenzene-carbogen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in extracting the oils compound under three different sampling temperature conditions such as 40, 60 and 80 degree Celsius. The chemical compounds extracted by SPME/ GC-MS were analyzed. The chemical compounds as identified by Z-score as significant compounds were discussed before the conclusion is made. It was found that 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, aromadendrene, β-agar ofuran, α-agar ofuran and γ-eudesmol were highlighted as significant for high quality agar wood oil and can be used as a marker compounds in classifying the agar wood oil. (author)

  1. Guideline for determining the mean glandular dose according to DIN 6868-162 and threshold contrast visibility according to the quality assurance guideline for digital mammography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, A; Schopphoven, S; Land, I; Blaser, D; Sobczak, T

    2014-05-01

    As part of the physico-technical quality assurance of the German breast cancer screening program, the threshold contrast visibility and the average glandular dose of every digital mammography system have to fulfill the requirements of the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" (4th Edition). To accomplish uniform measurements in all federal states of Germany, the physical board of the reference centers developed a special guideline in 2009. Due to recent changes in the guidelines and standards, a second version of the guideline was developed by the reference centers. This guideline describes the determination of the average glandular dose as well as the CDMAM image acquisition and the CDMAM image evaluation. The determination of the threshold contrast visibility can be performed visually or automatically. The determination of the average glandular dose is based on DIN 6868 - 162 and the threshold contrast visibility test is based on the German "Quality Assurance Guideline". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The impact of presentation format on visual attention and choice in discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    with visual attributes, or as product mock-ups simulating realistic products as close as possible. So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behavior. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice...... experiments across three different presentation formats. Method. Participants’ visual attention was measured by means of eye tracking during a discrete choice experiment for yoghurt products varying on six attributes with two to four levels. The study used a mixed within-between subjects design in which...... the presentation format varied between a verbal information table, a table with visual attributes levels and a realistic product mock-up presentation. Results. A strong relationship between attention and choice was observed so that attributes with a higher importance for participant choices also received a higher...

  3. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  4. Parameter Estimation for Thurstone Choice Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojnovic, Milan [London School of Economics (United Kingdom); Yun, Seyoung [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-24

    We consider the estimation accuracy of individual strength parameters of a Thurstone choice model when each input observation consists of a choice of one item from a set of two or more items (so called top-1 lists). This model accommodates the well-known choice models such as the Luce choice model for comparison sets of two or more items and the Bradley-Terry model for pair comparisons. We provide a tight characterization of the mean squared error of the maximum likelihood parameter estimator. We also provide similar characterizations for parameter estimators defined by a rank-breaking method, which amounts to deducing one or more pair comparisons from a comparison of two or more items, assuming independence of these pair comparisons, and maximizing a likelihood function derived under these assumptions. We also consider a related binary classification problem where each individual parameter takes value from a set of two possible values and the goal is to correctly classify all items within a prescribed classification error. The results of this paper shed light on how the parameter estimation accuracy depends on given Thurstone choice model and the structure of comparison sets. In particular, we found that for unbiased input comparison sets of a given cardinality, when in expectation each comparison set of given cardinality occurs the same number of times, for a broad class of Thurstone choice models, the mean squared error decreases with the cardinality of comparison sets, but only marginally according to a diminishing returns relation. On the other hand, we found that there exist Thurstone choice models for which the mean squared error of the maximum likelihood parameter estimator can decrease much faster with the cardinality of comparison sets. We report empirical evaluation of some claims and key parameters revealed by theory using both synthetic and real-world input data from some popular sport competitions and online labor platforms.

  5. The meaning of (quality of) life in patients with eating disorders: a comparison of generic and disease-specific measures across diagnosis and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackard, Diann M; Richter, Sara; Egan, Amber; Engel, Scott; Cronemeyer, Catherine L

    2014-04-01

    Compare general and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among female patients with an eating disorder (ED). Female patients (n = 221; 95.3% Caucasian; 94.0% never married) completed the Medical Outcome Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Eating Disorders Quality of Life (EDQoL) as part of a study of treatment outcomes. Multivariate regression models were used to compare HRQoL differences across initial ED diagnosis (85 AN-R, 19 AN-B/P, 27 BN, 90 EDNOS) and ED diagnostic classification at time of outcome assessment (140 no ED, 38 subthreshold ED, 43 full threshold ED). There were no significant differences across ED diagnosis at initial assessment on either of the SF-36 Component Summary scores. However, patients with AN-B/P scored poorer on the work/school EDQoL subscales than other ED diagnoses, and on the psychological EDQoL subscale compared to AN-R and EDNOS. At outcome assessment, comparisons across full threshold, subthreshold and no ED classification indicated that those with no ED reported better HRQoL than those with full threshold ED on the SF-36 Mental Components Summary and three of four EDQoL subscales. Furthermore, those with no ED reported better psychological HRQoL than those with subthreshold ED. Disease-specific HRQOL measures are important to use when comparing HRQoL in ED patients across treatment and outcome, and may have the sensitivity to detect meaningful differences by diagnosis more so than generic instruments. EDQoL scores from patients remitted from symptoms approach but do not reach scores for unaffected college females; thus, treatment should continue until quality of life is restored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anxiety and Search during Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Mukherjee, Ashkesh

    2011-01-01

    this type of condensed information will in fact motivate extended information search. Originality/value – This paper contributes to research in marketing on food choice and consumption: a consumption area that is important but difficult to navigate due to an increasing complexity of nutritional information......Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on information search during food choice and to test a key moderator of the effect of anxiety on search, namely attitude towards nutritional claims. Design/methodology/approach – By means of qualitative study the paper investigates...... the notion that consumers experience anxiety about health outcomes during food choice. Further, by means of structural equation modelling based on two studies with representative samples of Danish consumers, the paper investigates the effects outlined above. Findings – The authors show that anxiety during...

  7. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  8. Producers' Complex Risk Management Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Garcia, P.; Good, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available, making their choice(s) complex. The way producers deal with this complexity can vary and may influence the impact that the determinants, such as risk aversion, have on their choices. A recently developed choice bracketing

  9. A practical test for the choice of mixing distribution in discrete choice models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Bierlaire, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The choice of a specific distribution for random parameters of discrete choice models is a critical issue in transportation analysis. Indeed, various pieces of research have demonstrated that an inappropriate choice of the distribution may lead to serious bias in model forecast and in the estimated...... means of random parameters. In this paper, we propose a practical test, based on seminonparametric techniques. The test is analyzed both on synthetic and real data, and is shown to be simple and powerful. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements. Revised Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    further information and a means of opting out. Revised October 7, 2011. Keywords: Online behavioral advertising ; privacy; consumer choice; notice... consumers ’ activities online to target advertising .”1 The FTC has been examining ways to reduce the privacy concerns associated with OBA for over a decade...behavioral advertising practices that would foster transparency, knowledge and choice for consumers . As the FTC determines what to do next, it is

  11. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  12. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  13. Project Choice: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    Project Choice began with a simple goal: to increase the number of inner-city students who graduate from high school on time and become productive members of society. To that end, Ewing M. Kauffman, his Foundation, and associates designed and implemented a program that promised postsecondary education or training to some students in the Kansas…

  14. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  15. Choices and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Carmany

    1995-01-01

    Describes student use of Hyperstudio computer software to create history adventure games. History came alive while students learned efficient writing skills; learned to understand and manipulate cause, effect choice and consequence; and learned to incorporate succinct locational, climatic, and historical detail. (ET)

  16. Food choices in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba; Beuving, Joost; Ruben, Ruerd

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a framed market experiment conducted to examine whether milk choices are responsive to changes in the nutritional characteristics of milk products. Using a random-effect Tobit model, we analyzed experimental data collected from 160 participants in urban Ethiopia.

  17. Choices in Pension Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe organization of pensions differs greatly across, and within, countries, and these differences affect the large number of stakeholders differently. The choices that underlie these differences tend to be very complicated, as they have to be balanced over the interests of different

  18. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahmati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar (“Elberta” under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on

  19. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Mirás-Avalos, José M; Valsesia, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Génard, Michel; Davarynejad, Gholam H; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree) was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch) vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar ("Elberta") under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on its sink strength

  20. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  1. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); K. Vlagsma-Brangule (Kristine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social

  2. Comparison of established and novel purity tests for the quality control of heparin by means of a set of 177 heparin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Susanne; Lühn, Susanne; Schiemann, Simone; Beyer, Tanja; Norwig, Jochen; Schilling, Claudia; Rädler, Oliver; Wolf, Bernhard; Matz, Magnus; Baumann, Knut; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of heparin contaminated with oversulfated chrondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in 2008 initiated a comprehensive revision process of the Pharmacopoeial heparin monographs and stimulated research in analytical techniques for the quality control of heparin. Here, a set of 177 heparin samples from the market in 2008 as well as pure heparin sodium spiked with defined amounts of OSCS and DS were used to evaluate established and novel methods for the quality control of heparin. Besides (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), the assessment included two further spectroscopic methods, i.e., attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, three coagulation assays, i.e., activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) performed with both sheep and human plasma and the prothrombin time (PT), and finally two novel purity assays, each consisting of an incubation step with heparinase I followed by either a fluorescence measurement (Inc-PolyH-assay) or by a chromogenic aXa-assay (Inc-aXa-assay). NMR was shown to allow not only sensitive detection, but also quantification of OSCS by using the peak-height method and a response factor determined by calibration. Chemometric evaluation of the NMR, ATR-IR, and Raman spectra by statistical classification techniques turned out to be best with NMR spectra concerning the detection of OSCS. The validity of the aPTT, the current EP assay, could be considerably improved by replacing the sheep plasma by human plasma. In this way, most of the contaminated heparin samples did not meet the novel potency limit of 180 IU/mg. However, also more than 50% of the uncontaminated samples had interpretation of the results.

  3. An equation of mean velocity of flow in non uniform regime, its relationship with the dispersion phenomenon as time function and its application to study of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constain Aragon, A.; Lemos Ruiz, R.

    2011-01-01

    It is very well known the basic equation of hydraulics discovered by Antoine de Chezy in 1769, which relates in a quadratic from the mean velocity of flow with the slope of energy line and the hydraulic radius, in a uniform regime. This equation has been the central axis of development of hydro metrics as science that faces the huge challenges of penetrating the knowledge of earths streams every time more contaminated. In virtue of that, its mathematical structure and the relationship with other related formulas have been carefully examined, despite the limitation due to constancy of velocity. Starting from chemical considerations rather than dynamic ones as was used to obtain chezys relationship it is possible to establish a second equation for mean velocity of fluid in a non uniform regime that corresponds to averaged movement of a solute poured to steam. This equation will go to relate in an accurate way several aspects hydraulics and mass transport, sight as a single thing, allowing a vital tool for a depth study of water contaminations. to arrive this equation it was reviewed the foundations of mass transport theory in flows, stating a time dependent nature for coefficient currently used in describing dispersion phenomena allowing to interpret properly certain inconsistencies detected long time ago in this theory. It is presented the detailed results of application of this new approach to a small steam and a larger river in Colombia. (Author) 23 refs.

  4. Effects of Brand Awareness on Choice for a Common, Repeat-Purchase Product.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Wayne D; Brown, Steven P

    1990-01-01

    Results of a controlled experiment on the role of brand awareness in the consumer choice process showed that brand awareness was a dominant choice heuristic among awareness-group subjects. Subjects with no brand awareness tended to sample more brands and selected the high-quality brand on the final choice significantly more often than those with brand awareness. Thus, when quality differences exist among competing brands, consumers may "pay a price" for employing simple choice heuristics such...

  5. Firms, Nonprofits, and Cooperatives : A Theory of Organizational Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, P.; Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper formalizes the difference between firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identifies optimal organizational choice. In a model of quality provision, we find a clear ranking of quality produced: Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however, depends on

  6. Firms, Nonprofits, and Cooperatives : A Theory of Organizational Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, P.; Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper formalizes the difference between firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identifies optimal organizational choice. In a model of quality provision, we find a clear ranking of quality produced: Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however,

  7. [Blood-sugar self control. A means for the diabetic of controlling his metabolic management. Quality control of a battery-run pocket size reflectometer (glucose-meter)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, F; Jörgens, V; Chantelau, E; Berchtold, P; Berger, M

    1980-07-26

    Home blood glucose monitoring by diabetic patients has recently been advocated as an effective means to improve metabolic control. The Glucocheck apparatus, a pocket-size battery-driven reflectance-meter (in Germany commercially available under the name Glucose-meter), has been evaluated for accuracy and practicability. In 450 blood glucose measurements, the variance between the values obtained using the Glucocheck apparatus and routine clinical laboratory procedures was +/- 11.7%. Especially in the low range of blood glucose concentrations, the Glucocheck method was very reliable. The quantitative precision of the Glucocheck method depends, however, quite considerably on the ability of the patient to use the apparatus correctly. In order to profit from Glucocheck in clinical practice, particular efforts to educate the patients in its use are necessary.

  8. School choice : challenge to Sharpeville public primary school principals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. This qualitative phenomenological study focuses on school choice as challenge to principals of Sharpeville public primary schools. Different aspects of these choices are explored. School choice is an important component of parental involvement in the education of their children. Parents and learners tend to be open about their right through the support of the Schools Act 84 of 1996. You may not discriminate on the basis of race trough the language policy at your school. This means th...

  9. Assessing choice making among children with multiple disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sigafoos, J; Dempsey, R

    1992-01-01

    Some learners with multiple disabilities display idiosyncratic gestures that are interpreted as a means of making choices. In the present study, we assessed the validity of idiosyncratic choice-making behaviors of 3 children with multiple disabilities. Opportunities for each child to choose between food and drink were provided under two conditions. In one condition, the children were given the food or drink item corresponding to their prior choice. In the other condition, the teacher delivere...

  10. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  11. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS*

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Justine S.; Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise, consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis t...

  12. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  13. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  14. ParaChoice Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Levinson, Rebecca Sobel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Analysis with the ParaChoice model addresses three barriers from the VTO Multi-Year Program Plan: availability of alternative fuels and electric charging station infrastructure, availability of AFVs and electric drive vehicles, and consumer reluctance to purchase new technologies. In this fiscal year, we first examined the relationship between the availability of alternative fuels and station infrastructure. Specifically, we studied how electric vehicle charging infrastructure affects the ability of EVs to compete with vehicles that rely on mature, conventional petroleum-based fuels. Second, we studied how the availability of less costly AFVs promotes their representation in the LDV fleet. Third, we used ParaChoice trade space analyses to help inform which consumers are reluctant to purchase new technologies. Last, we began analysis of impacts of alternative energy technologies on Class 8 trucks to isolate those that may most efficaciously advance HDV efficiency and petroleum use reduction goals.

  15. Item response theory and factor analysis as a mean to characterize occurrence of response shift in a longitudinal quality of life study in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The occurrence of response shift (RS) in longitudinal health-related quality of life (HRQoL) studies, reflecting patient adaptation to disease, has already been demonstrated. Several methods have been developed to detect the three different types of response shift (RS), i.e. recalibration RS, 2) reprioritization RS, and 3) reconceptualization RS. We investigated two complementary methods that characterize the occurrence of RS: factor analysis, comprising Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), and a method of Item Response Theory (IRT). Methods Breast cancer patients (n = 381) completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaires at baseline, immediately following surgery, and three and six months after surgery, according to the “then-test/post-test” design. Recalibration was explored using MCA and a model of IRT, called the Linear Logistic Model with Relaxed Assumptions (LLRA) using the then-test method. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to explore reconceptualization and reprioritization. Results MCA highlighted the main profiles of recalibration: patients with high HRQoL level report a slightly worse HRQoL level retrospectively and vice versa. The LLRA model indicated a downward or upward recalibration for each dimension. At six months, the recalibration effect was statistically significant for 11/22 dimensions of the QLQ-C30 and BR23 according to the LLRA model (p ≤ 0.001). Regarding the QLQ-C30, PCA indicated a reprioritization of symptom scales and reconceptualization via an increased correlation between functional scales. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of these analyses in characterizing the occurrence of RS. MCA and IRT model had convergent results with then-test method to characterize recalibration component of RS. PCA is an indirect method in investigating the reprioritization and reconceptualization components of RS. PMID:24606836

  16. Food choices during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamina Rashid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the dietary Practices of people with diabetes during Ramadan (1. A sub study of Ramadan prospective diabetes study (2 which was conducted at the outpatient department of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and endocrinology, Karachi Pakistan in 2009 analyzed the food choices of patients with diabetes during Ramadan. Several irregularities regarding dietary intake and food choices were noted among the study participants. Although, the patients were counseled regarding diet before Ramadan, many did not follow the dietary advice. All patients had taken food at Iftar but majority of them preferred fried items like samosas, pakoras (fried snack, chicken rolls etc. these deeply fried items can lead to post Iftar hyperglycemia. Patients were also opted for fruit chat, dahibara and chanachaat at Iftar, higher load of these items can also worsen glycemic control. The striking finding was almost absence of meat (protein intake at Iftar but study from India showed increment of all three macronutrients during Ramadan (3. This may result in higher intake of items from carbohydrate and fat groups resulting in hyperglycemia after iftar. Intake of vegetables at Iftar was also negligible and hence the diet was not well balanced. The food choices at sahoor included roti, paratha (fried bread, slices, khajla, pheni, meat, egg and milk. Though it is advisable to take complex carbohydrates, protein and fat at sahoor as these are slowly digestible and can prevent hypoglycemia during fasting but khajla pheni are extremely rich in fat and carbohydrate content and should be avoided (4. However, paratha in 2 teaspoon of oil can be taken at sahoor.Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan should have pre Ramadan dietary guidance and counseling session in order to modify their food preferences and choices during the holy month of Ramadan (4.

  17. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  18. Leisure and Travel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  19. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compare...... how a change from a typical price order to a sensory order in wine menus affects consumer choice. We use pre-specified latent heuristic classes to analyse the existence of different choice processes, which begins to untangle the ‘black box’ of how consumers choose. Our findings indicate...... that in the absence of price order, consumers are less price-sensitive, pay more attention to visually salient cues, are less consistent in their choices and employ other simple choice heuristics more frequently than price. Implications for consumer research, marketing and consumer policy are discussed....

  20. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  1. Advertising and Consumer Choice of Telecommunication Services in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oladipo Olalekan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the critical influence of advertising on consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria. The advertisement played a key role in providing the consumers with product information. The study investigates the effect of marketing medium of telecommunication as a proxy for advertisement on preference of telecommunication services as a proxy for consumer choice in Nigeria. The Binary Logit Model (BLM and descriptive analytical frameworks are used to evaluate the statistical importance of advertisement, quality of services, income of the consumer, product’s self and related service charges for a consumer choice of telecommunication services through Wald test. The findings show that product’s self service charge and service quality are statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 1 percent significance level. And, related product’s service is statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 5 percent significance level. While advertisement and income of the consumer are statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 10 percent. The study concludes that advertisement is important for the choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria but having less impact. And, product’s self service charge and service quality are hugely significant for the choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria. Therefore, the sector of telecommunications needs more investment in advertisement so as to have telecommunications’ products information spread in order to stimulate the increase in demand for telecommunication services in Nigeria.

  2. Comparisons and Characterizations of the Mean-Variance, Mean-VaR, Mean-CVaR Models for Portfolio Selection With Background Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Guo; Wing-Keung, Wong; Lixing, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of background risk on an investor’s portfolio choice in a mean-VaR, mean-CVaR and mean-variance framework, and analyzes the characterizations of the mean-variance boundary and mean-VaR efficient frontier in the presence of background risk. We also consider the case with a risk-free security.

  3. Environmental policy based on economic efficiency - The case of policy instrument choice for air quality standards for nitro dioxide and particles; Miljoepolitik paa samhaellsekonomisk grund - En fallstudie om styrmedlet miljoekvalitetsnormer foer partiklar och kvaevedioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyddoke, Roger; Nerhagen, Lena

    2010-09-15

    (or standards) is exceeded, based on these types of assessments. This is so even though it is a requirement stated in the Environmental Code, but also in the information provided to the local authority by the Swedish EPA. There appears to be several reasons for the lack of economic information and quantified assessment in the decision process. One is introduced already in the government bill which, regarding air quality, states that the objective that low risk levels for human health of emissions in air are not to be exceeded, while at the same time stating that evaluations of the consequences on overall society from different policy measures needs to be done. In practice, the introduction of these strict limit values appears to have reduced the incentives to evaluate the trade-offs between these and other goals in society. There was also room for interpretation of the actual meaning of the Code concerning the environmental quality standards where the Swedish EPA made the interpretation that these were strict values that could not be exceeded (a stop rule). The strict interpretation of the Code also seems to have reduced the incentives to undertake more thorough evaluations. There are however additional reasons for why these analyses are not carried out. One is that evaluations of the policy instrument have only been done by legal expertise while the action programmes have mainly been produced by persons with a background in environmental sciences or transport planning. Not even the National Road Administration, that has a long tradition of cost benefit analysis, has used cost benefit analysis in the area of air quality evaluation regarding road transport. A hypothesis is therefore that this information is not used because the public officials involved in the evaluation do not know the insights potential of cost benefit analysis and hence it is not demanded. We therefore give suggestions, based on lessons from the transport sector, on how requirements on the decision

  4. Mate choice in fruit flies is rational and adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Fedina, Tatyana Y; Pletcher, Scott D; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2017-01-17

    According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that female behaviours and cues act redundantly in mate detection and assessment, as rational mate choice largely persists when visual or chemical sensory modalities are impaired, but not when both are impaired. Transitivity in mate choice demonstrates that the quality of potential mates varies significantly among genotypes, and that males and females behave in such a way as to facilitate adaptive mate choice.

  5. Quality of management of oral anticoagulation as assessed by time in therapeutic INR range in elderly and younger patients with low mean years of formal education: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo Lamego de Barros; Ferreira, Diana Carvalho; Valacio, Reginaldo Aparecido; Vieira Moreira, Maria da Consolação

    2011-05-01

    despite the overwhelming evidence of its effectiveness, oral anticoagulation continues to be underused in the elderly, presumably due to physicians' misconceptions when estimating bleeding risk and ability to comply with treatment. to investigate the quality of anticoagulation control among deprived elderly and younger patients. prospective observational study. a public anticoagulation clinic in a developing country. all adult patients on intended long-term (>90 days) oral anticoagulation. We studied 171 patients (79 elderly and 92 non-elderly) with a mean follow-up of 273 ± 84.9 days. the main outcome measure was the quality of anticoagulation management as measured by the time in therapeutic (TTR) international normalised ratio (INR) range. Elderly patients (≥60 years) were compared with younger patients with respect to the educational level and co-morbidities. the mean number of years of formal education was 4.37 ± 3.2 years. The mean TTR was 62.50 ± 17.9% in non-elderly and 62.10 ± 16.6% in elderly (P = 0.862) subjects, despite the higher prevalence of co-morbidities in the latter group: heart failure (46.3 versus 28.6%, P = 0.042), diabetes mellitus (22.8 versus 8.7%, P = 0.011), renal failure (estimated glomerular filtration rate educational levels (3.42 ± 2.5 versus 5.55 ± 3.4 years of formal education, P < 0.001) and higher rates of cognitive impairment (34.0 versus 13.1%, P = 0.004), but a similar mean TTR (62.46 ± 16.1 versus 63.02 ± 17.8%, P = 0.856). The oldest (≥75 years) patients did as well as those aged ≤50 years (mean TTR: 62.54 ± 16.0 versus 62.23 ± 16.4%, respectively, P = 0.98). good-quality management of oral anticoagulation is achievable in deprived populations attending an anticoagulation clinic. Elderly patients may experience similar quality of anticoagulation despite having higher levels of co-morbidities and polypharmacy. These results add evidence to the safety of such therapeutic interventions in the elderly.

  6. Loci of Causality and Orientation in Occupational and Educational Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Friberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A student self-determination profile of occupational and educational choices was examined through the concepts of Locus of Causality and Locus of Orientation. Research questions associated with respondents’ certainty of occupation and orientation to vocational education were answered. The tested hypotheses were as follows: (a Independence, initiative, self-guidance, choice of discussion forums, and gender are related to certainty of future occupation choice and choice of vocational education; (b certainty of occupation relates to choosing vocational education; (c negatively biased media lessens interest in vocational education; and (d vocational education choices are related to gender. A survey of ninth-grade students in Finnish comprehensive school was conducted after implementation of a work-orientation program defined in the national comprehensive school curriculum. At the local school system level, 649 subjects of the mean ages of 16.0 years participated in an Internet survey in two school districts in southwestern Finland in 2008. The variables were inserted in Linear Multiple Regression Analysis in IBM SPSS. The means of vocational school choice and certainty of occupation, and vocational school choice and negative media image were compared in SPSS means. An independent-samples t test for vocational school choice and sex was conducted. Statistically significant regression models of loci of orientation and locus of causality were found. The more the respondents were certain of their occupation choice, the more they expressed their secondary education orientation to be vocational school. When students discussed their choices less at home, their orientation to vocational education weakened. A negative media image was not associated with vocational school choice in this data. The measured means for girls’ and boys’ orientations to vocational school did not show statistically significant differences.

  7. Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries | Mafela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not ...

  8. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  9. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  10. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  11. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...

  12. Retirement Choice 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION...retirement choice in 2016. We start by describing the $30,000 bonus as an early, partial cash -out of the servicemember’s retirement pension. This...30,000 cash -out will be “paid back” later in the form of reduced retirement checks. By providing information on how much this cash -out will cost in

  13. Overconfidence and Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F.; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in. PMID:26808273

  14. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  15. Multiple choices of time in quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Małkiewicz, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    It is often conjectured that a choice of time function merely sets up a frame for the quantum evolution of the gravitational field, meaning that all choices should be in some sense compatible. In order to explore this conjecture (and the meaning of compatibility), we develop suitable tools for determining the relation between quantum theories based on different time functions. First, we discuss how a time function fixes a canonical structure on the constraint surface. The presentation includes both the kinematical and the reduced perspective, and the relation between them. Second, we formulate twin theorems about the existence of two inequivalent maps between any two deparameterizations, a formal canonical and a coordinate one. They are used to separate the effects induced by choice of clock and other factors. We show, in an example, how the spectra of quantum observables are transformed under the change of clock and prove, via a general argument, the existence of choice-of-time-induced semiclassical effects. Finally, we study an example, in which we find that the semiclassical discrepancies can in fact be arbitrarily large for dynamical observables. We conclude that the values of critical energy density or critical volume in the bouncing scenarios of quantum cosmology cannot in general be at the Planck scale, and always need to be given with reference to a specific time function. (paper)

  16. Mexico's critical choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, E.

    1990-01-01

    In Mexico, the 1982 fall in international oil prices shook the national conscience and pushed the Mexican people in search of a new national image and toward the choices they must make to attain that image. But, according to the author of this paper, the country as a whole has already made critical choices for overall strategy and there are reasons for optimism. In the current economic environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, the author sees PEMEX (the Mexican national oil company) facing not only the challenge of responding to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but also making a significant contribution toward the solid and stable growth of the country. The relevant question is how PEMEX will live up to these expectations. This paper describes several steps PEMEX has taken already or is preparing to take in order to meet this challenge, including: investment in the domestic petrochemical industry; entry into the Eurobond market; development of new methods of project financing

  17. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  18. Bottom-up effects on attention capture and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    Attention processes and decision making are accepted to be closely linked together because only information that is attended to can be incorporated in the decision process. Little is known however, to which extent bottom-up processes of attention affect stimulus selection and therefore...... the information available to form a decision. Does changing one visual cue in the stimulus set affect attention towards this cue and what does that mean for the choice outcome? To address this, we conducted a combined eye tracking and choice experiment in a consumer choice setting with visual shelf simulations...... salient. The observed effect on attention also carries over into increased choice likelihood. From these results, we conclude that even small changes in the choice capture attention based on bottom-up processes. Also for eye tracking studies in other domains (e.g. search tasks) this means that stimulus...

  19. Re-examining the Contributions of Faith, Meaning, and Peace to Quality of Life: a Report from the American Cancer Society's Studies of Cancer Survivors-II (SCS-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Andrea L; Murphy, Patricia E; Fitchett, George; Stein, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on spirituality in cancer survivors has often failed to distinguish the specific contributions of faith, meaning, and peace, dimensions of spiritual well-being, to quality of life (QoL), and has misinterpreted mediation analyses with these indices. We hypothesized a model in which faith would have a significant indirect effect on survivors' functional QoL, mediated through meaning and/or peace. Data were from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-II (N = 8405). Mediation analyses were conducted with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp) predicting the mental component summary (i.e., mental functioning) as well as the physical component summary (i.e., physical functioning) of the SF-36. The indirect effect of faith through meaning on mental functioning, 0.4303 (95 % CI, 0.3988, 0.4649), and the indirect effect of faith through meaning and peace on physical functioning, 0.1769 (95 % CI, 0.1505, 0.2045), were significant. The study findings suggest that faith makes a significant contribution to cancer survivors' functional QoL. Should future longitudinal research replicate these findings, investigators may need to reconsider the role of faith in oncology QoL studies.

  20. "It's Our Best Choice Right Now": Exploring How Charter School Parents Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    One of the underlying premises of the charter school movement is that quality drives consumer choice. As educational consumers, parents are viewed as rational actors who, if given the choice, will select better performing school. In examining the choice processes of charter school parents, however, this study calls into question the extent to…

  1. Measuring educational quality by means of indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, J; Luyten, H.; van Ravens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the input-process-outcomes-context framework, introduced in Chapter 1 is used for categorising and describing input indicators, process indicators, outcome indicators and context indicators. The chapter starts out with a review and further illustration of this framework and follows

  2. Ensuring Educational Quality Means Assessing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazin, Cathrael; Payne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    As many experienced board members know, given the national debate in recent years over institutional accountability, learning--the heart of the educational enterprise--is often treated as a by-product of other more measurable processes. The fact is, no matter how excellent the curricula, no matter how stellar the faculty, no matter how talented…

  3. Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products

    OpenAIRE

    Mondelaers, Koen; Verbeke, Wim; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to explore consumer preference for fresh vegetables labelled as organic in combination with health and environment related quality traits. The study decomposes organic farming into its main quality aspects and measures consumers' preference structure for organic, in general, and for specific organic quality traits in particular. Design/methodology/approach - By means of stated choice preference modelling, the following hypotheses are tested: consumers prefer healt...

  4. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... is suitable for a particular use. How is water quality measured? Some aspects of water quality can be ...

  5. Analytical quality assessment and interpretation of the trace element data obtained in the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Blaauw, M.; Zegers, C.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the IAEA, the authors have performed an assessment of the analytical quality and the interpretation of the trace element data obtained within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on The Significance of Hair Mineral Analysis as a Means of Assessing Internal Body Burdens of Environmental Pollutants. In this CRP research groups from various countries participated, using different analytical procedures, based on NAA, XRF and AAS. Data have been collected for Zn, CU, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Se in male human hair, liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone. The samples analyzed originated from China, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan, the former GDR, Sweden and Norway. The analytical quality of the data has been assessed on basis of the calculated limits of quantitation per trace element determined, per tissue analyzed and per participant, as well as from the trace element values found for reference materials and ''blind'' materials. The analytical quality of the data differs widely, from generally good to reasonable (Zn, Cu, and Se) to generally inadequate to strongly inadequate (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). 15 refs, 29 tabs

  6. Current issues in the understanding of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer food choice is framed in terms of the formation of quality expectations before and quality experience after the purchase. For the formation of quality expectations, lack of consumer ability to form expectations that will be predictive of later experience is mentioned as a problem......-called credence qualities - qualities which are invisible to the consumer both before and after the purchase. Such qualities provide a challenge for communication about the product, not only to induce consumers to buy the product, but also to reinforce their choice after the purchase. Concerning experienced...... quality after the purchase, the role of home production - turning products into meals - is mentioned as important, but underresearced topic. Finally, differences in consumer behaviour between normal situations and situations of food crises are addressed. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...

  7. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  8. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting......This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  9. Divergent language choices and maintenance of intersubjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa; Sert, Olcay

    2018-01-01

    The role of students’ first language(s) in foreign language classrooms has been hotly debated in the last decades. Although this line of research has advanced our understanding of language choice in the L2 classroom, it has mostly dealt with adolescent and adult learners. From a contextual perspe......-constructed in this classroom context are possible because the teacher encourages shared multilingual meaning-making practices. This research has implications for teaching EFL to young learners, and classroom language policies....

  10. Environment and fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerman, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy of environmental regulation as a determinant of fossil fuel choice is examined, with a focus on coal and natural gas in the United States market. It is thought that with the current concern over greenhouse gas emissions, gas would become the fuel of choice and would benefit from measures such as emission trading and carbon taxes. In the USA, in spite of environmental regulations set forth in the Clean Air Act, coal consumption has not decreased with respect to gas because coal is successfully competing on an economic and environmental level. Coal mine productivity has increased over the past 15 years and significant progress has been made in both reducing the emission forming materials in coal through better processing and reducing stack emissions via pollution control devices. An economic analysis of the premium that should attach to natural gas as compared to coal for power generation shows that an emissions trading premium on gas is not sufficient to compensate for the lower cost of coal. The advantages of natural gas for power generation lie in the lower capital and operating costs for combined cycle generation technology and the good prospects for a low, long-term equilibrium price for natural gas. Lower wellhead prices and combined cycle technology will cause gas to have a larger share of the electric utility market than coal in areas where transport economics are favorable. However, the economics of existing coal-fired plants favor continued use of coal, and the increase in gas use will depend on the rate at which new plants are built. 4 figs

  11. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  12. Behavioral and EEG reactions in primary school-aged children to emotionally colored verbal stimuli with the condition of their own or forced choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiusheeva T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare behavioral and EEG reactions of primary school-aged children during the recognition of syntactic errors in emotionally (positively or negatively colored sentences that appeal to the choice of the child differently. 20 children (mean age 9,0±0,3 years, 12 boys, 8 girls were examined. We found out that the children with a high quality of solving a linguistic task concentrate all their attention on finding an error in the sentences, and children with a low quality of solving a task demonstrate increased emotionality, possibly connected with their unsuccessfulness. The strongest EEG reactions in the ranges of alpha- and theta- rhythms were recorded in children with slow speed and bad quality of the solution of the task. The recognition of sentences with negative emotions took longer than sentences with positive emotions. The increase of emotions (synchronization in theta range during the recognition of negative sentences was provoked by the expectation of failure and “identification” with it. The children found the mistake better in the sentences with their own choice than in the sentences that describes the forced-choice situation. Desynchronization (i.e. decrease in the spectral power and synchronization (i.e. increase in spectral power was detected on the EEG in the alpha-rhythm range. Desynchronization was associated with the recognition of sentences describing the children’s own choice; synchronization was recorded when recognizing sentences describing the forced-choice situation.

  13. Energy Choices. Choices for future technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billfalk, Lennart; Haegermark, Harald

    2009-03-01

    national vision for plug-in hybrids and electric cars in Sweden. According to the proposal from the Energy Users Group, this means that Sweden will have 600,000 plug-in hybrids and electric cars in 2020. This could radically reduce the carbon dioxide emissions, oil consumption and energy consumption of the transport sector, as well as develop Swedish industry. The consequences for electricity production and electricity networks in Sweden will be moderate. Some infrastructure investments would be required, but this would also create some opportunities for energy storage in the electricity system. Introduce second-generation biofuels to reduce competition for land for food production, and to make production of biofuels more energy efficient. This will require political decisions in the next few years, particularly regarding policy instruments and regarding support for research and demonstration, even though commercial application of second-generation biofuels lies beyond 2020. Sweden is already making substantial investments in this area. The issue of whether biofuels are climate neutral is a contentious one and will require further research

  14. Performing a Choice-Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students’ science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students’ choices of higher education...... side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students’ sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students’ social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study...... demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students’ choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students’ interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more...

  15. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  16. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

  17. Motherhood: From rights to choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salecl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood has been perceived as choice in the developed world after the liberalisation of abortion. However, this choice can be extremely anxiety provoking for women, especially in times when the ideology of choice dominates our lives in all possible ways. The paper shows how psychotherapy and psychoanalysis look at this anxiety, it reflects on how family relations are often the traumatic kernel behind this choice, and how the changes that women experience in today's times contribute to the increase of anxiety related to reproduction.

  18. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  19. Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955

  20. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1 In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  1. Goal Management Training Combined With External Cuing as a Means to Improve Emotional Regulation, Psychological Functioning, and Quality of Life in Patients With Acquired Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornås, Sveinung; Løvstad, Marianne; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Stubberud, Jan

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether goal management training (GMT) expanded to include external cuing and an emotional regulation module is associated with improved emotional regulation, psychological functioning, and quality of life (QOL) after chronic acquired brain injury (ABI). Randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment at baseline, posttraining, and 6-month follow-up. Outpatient. Persons with ABI and executive dysfunction (N=70; 64% traumatic brain injury; 52% men; mean age ± SD, 43±13y; mean time since injury ± SD, 8.1±9.4y). Eight sessions of GMT in groups, including a new module addressing emotional regulation, and external cuing. A psychoeducative control condition (Brain Health Workshop) was matched on amount of training, therapist contact, and homework. Emotional regulation was assessed with the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire, the Emotional Control subscale and the Emotion Regulation factor (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version), and the Positive and Negative Affect subscales from the Dysexecutive Questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures included psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25) and QOL (Quality of Life After Brain Injury Scale). Findings indicated beneficial effects of GMT on emotional regulation skills in everyday life and in QOL 6 months posttreatment. No intervention effects on measures of psychological distress were registered. GMT is a promising intervention for improving emotional regulation after ABI, even in the chronic phase. More research using objective measures of emotional regulation is needed to investigate the efficacy of this type of training. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A narrative approach to understand students’ identities and choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Ulriksen, Lars; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2015-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how narrative theory in general, and narrative psychology in particular, contribute to understand how students make meaning of their choice of post-secondary studies. In particular two central ideas within the theory are unfolded; the concept of identity and the concept...... of time. The applicability of the theory is discussed using empirical examples. The chapter argues that a narrative approach provides an understanding of choice of study as continuous processes where individuals work on their identities in terms of negotiating and constructing a coherent choice...... of the chapter consequences for future research are discussed as well as how this approach to students’ choices of study contributes to our understanding of students’ science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) choices....

  3. The Role of Social Supports, Spirituality, Religiousness, Life Meaning and Affiliation with 12-Step Fellowships in Quality of Life Satisfaction Among Individuals in Recovery from Alcohol and Drug Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B.; Morgen, Keith; White, William L.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Many recovering substance users report quitting drugs because they wanted a better life. The road of recovery is the path to a better life but a challenging and stressful path for most. There has been little research among recovering persons in spite of the numbers involved, and most research has focused on substance use outcomes. This study examines stress and quality of life as a function of time in recovery, and uses structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that social supports, spirituality, religiousness, life meaning, and 12-step affiliation buffer stress toward enhanced life satisfaction. Recovering persons (N = 353) recruited in New York City were mostly inner-city ethnic minority members whose primary substance had been crack or heroin. Longer recovery time was significantly associated with lower stress and with higher quality of life. Findings supported the study hypothesis; the ‘buffer’ constructs accounted for 22% of the variance in life satisfaction. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:16892161

  4. Diabetes and diet : food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  5. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco; Vischetti, Costantino

    2006-01-01

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested [it

  6. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered...

  7. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  8. Sex Education: Challenges and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…

  9. PATERNAL INFLUENCE ON CAREER CHOICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WERTS, CHARLES E.

    FATHER'S OCCUPATION WAS COMPARED WITH SON'S CAREER CHOICE FOR A SAMPLE OF 76,015 MALE, COLLEGE FRESHMEN. RESULTS INDICATED THAT CERTAIN TYPES OF FATHERS' OCCUPATIONS WERE ASSOCIATED WITH SIMILAR TYPES OF CAREER CHOICES BY SONS. BOYS WHOSE FATHERS WERE IN SCIENTIFIC OCCUPATIONS (ENGINEERS, MILITARY OFFICERS, ARCHITECTS, BIOLOGISTS, CHEMISTS, AND…

  10. Strategy-proof social choice

    OpenAIRE

    Barberà, Salvador, 1946-

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on strategy-proofness from a historical perspective. While I discuss the connections with other works on incentives in mechanism design, the main emphasis is on social choice models. This article has been prepared for the Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare, Volume 2, Edited by K. Arrow, A. Sen and K. Suzumura

  11. Substitution in recreation choice behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Peterson; Daniel J. Stynes; Donald H. Rosenthal; John F. Dwyer

    1985-01-01

    This review discusses concepts and theories of substitution in recreation choice. It brings together the literature of recreation research, psychology, geography, economics, and transportation. Parallel and complementary developments need integration into an improved theory of substitution. Recreation decision behavior is characterized as a nested or sequential choice...

  12. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  13. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the

  14. Commitment-based action: Rational choice theory and contrapreferential choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Sen’s concept of contrapreferential choice. Sen has developed this concept in order to overcome weaknesses of the rational choice theory. According to rational choice theory a decision-maker can be always seen as someone who maximises utility, and each choice he makes as the one that brings to him the highest level of personal wellbeing. Sen argues that in some situations we chose alternatives that bring us lower level of wellbeing than we could achieve if we had chosen some other alternative available to us. This happens when we base our decisions on moral principles, when we act out of duty. Sen calls such action a commitment-based action. When we act out of commitment we actually neglect our preferences and thus we make a contrapreferential choice, as Sen argues. This paper shows that, contrary to Sen, a commitment-based action can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory. However, when each choice we make can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory, when in everything we do maximisation principle can be loaded, then the variety of our motives and traits is lost, and the explanatory power of the rational choice theory is questionable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  15. Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R

    2014-06-01

    Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Patient Preferences for Pain Management in Advanced Cancer: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, David M; O'Dwyer, John L; Hulme, Claire T; Chintakayala, Phani; Vinall-Collier, Karen; Bennett, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Pain from advanced cancer remains prevalent, severe and often under-treated. The aim of this study was to conduct a discrete choice experiment with patients to understand their preferences for pain management services and inform service development. Focus groups were used to develop the attributes and levels of the discrete choice experiment. The attributes were: waiting time, type of healthcare professional, out-of-pocket costs, side-effect control, quality of communication, quality of information and pain control. Patients completed the discrete choice experiment along with clinical and health-related quality of life questions. Conditional and mixed logit models were used to analyse the data. Patients with cancer pain (n = 221) and within palliative care services completed the survey (45% were female, mean age 64.6 years; age range 21-92 years). The most important aspects of pain management were: good pain control, zero out-of-pocket costs and good side-effect control. Poor or moderate pain control and £30 costs drew the highest negative preferences. Respondents preferred control of side effects and provision of better information and communication, over access to certain healthcare professionals. Those with lower health-related quality of life were less willing to wait for treatment and willing to incur higher costs. The presence of a carer influenced preferences. Outcome attributes were more important than process attributes but the latter were still valued. Thus, supporting self-management, for example by providing better information on pain may be a worthwhile endeavour. However, service provision may need to account for individual characteristics given the heterogeneity in preferences.

  17. Corporate Governance & Auditor Choice in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nasrudin Wan Asma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of firm’s auditor choice in Malaysia in respect of their corporate governance mechanisms. A logit regression model was developed to test the impact of firms’ internal corporate governance mechanism on auditor choice decisions made by public listed companies listed on main board of Bursa Malaysia from year 2006 to 2015. Five variables are used to proxy for firm’s internal corporate mechanism which are the ownership concentration, the duality of CEO and chairman of BOD, the size of audit committee, the size of BOD and the number of independent directors on the board. All auditors in Malaysia were classified into Big Four and non-Big Four, assuming Big Four auditors can provide higher quality audit services. The final result show that firms with less concentrated ownership, with larger size of audit committee, larger size of the BOD, with lower proportion of independent directors on the board, or in which CEO and BOD’s chairman are not the same person are more likely to hire a high-quality auditor. Hence, it suggests that when benefits from lowering capital raising costs are trivial, firms with good corporate governance mechanism are prone to choose a high-quality auditor.

  18. Choice probability for apple juice based on novel processing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Menichelli, E.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate an old challenge for means-end chain (MEC) theory; the lack of demonstration for means-end chains choice relevance. Even though MEC has become a commonly used tool in commercial market research and has been widely used in applied consumer research, wit...

  19. The dance of meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup

    2005-01-01

    competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship......competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship...

  20. Impact of communication on consumers' food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim

    2008-08-01

    Consumers' food choices and dietary behaviour can be markedly affected by communication and information. Whether the provided information is processed by the receiver, and thus becomes likely to be effective, depends on numerous factors. The role of selected determinants such as uncertainty, knowledge, involvement, health-related motives and trust, as well as message content variables, are discussed in the present paper based on previous empirical studies. The different studies indicate that: uncertainty about meat quality and safety does not automatically result in more active information search; subjective knowledge about fish is a better predictor of fish consumption than objective knowledge; high subjective knowledge about functional foods as a result of a low trusted information source such as mass media advertising leads to a lower probability of adopting these foods in the diet. Also, evidence of the stronger impact of negative news as compared with messages promoting positive outcomes of food choices is discussed. Finally, three audience-segmentation studies based on consumers' involvement with fresh meat, individuals' health-related-motive orientations and their use of and trust in fish information sources are presented. A clear message from these studies is that communication and information provision strategies targeted to a specific audience's needs, interests or motives stand a higher likelihood of being attended to and processed by the receiving audience, and therefore also stand a higher chance of yielding their envisaged impact in terms of food choice and dietary behaviour.

  1. The mean photon energy anti E{sub F} at the point of measurement determines the detector-specific radiation quality correction factor k{sub Q,M} in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Selbach, Hans-Joachim; Poppe, Bjoern [University of Oldenburg and Pius-Hospital Oldenburg (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics Group

    2016-11-01

    The application of various radiation detectors for brachytherapy dosimetry has motivated this study of the energy dependence of radiation quality correction factor k{sub Q,M}, the quotient of the detector responses under calibration conditions at a {sup 60}Co unit and under the given non-reference conditions at the point of measurement, M, occurring in photon brachytherapy. The investigated detectors comprise TLD, radiochromic film, ESR, Si diode, plastic scintillator and diamond crystal detectors as well as ionization chambers of various sizes, whose measured response-energy relationships, taken from the literature, served as input data. Brachytherapy photon fields were Monte-Carlo simulated for an ideal isotropic {sup 192}Ir point source, a model spherical {sup 192}Ir source with steel encapsulation and a commercial HDR GammaMed Plus source. The radial source distance was varied within cylindrical water phantoms with outer radii ranging from 10 to 30 cm and heights from 20 to 60 cm. By application of this semiempirical method - originally developed for teletherapy dosimetry - it has been shown that factor k{sub Q,M} is closely correlated with a single variable, the fluence-weighted mean photon energy anti E{sub F} at the point of measurement. The radial profiles of anti E{sub F} obtained with either the commercial {sup 192}Ir source or the two simplified source variants show little variation. The observed correlations between parameters k{sub Q,M} and anti E{sub F} are represented by fitting formulae for all investigated detectors, and further variation of the detector type is foreseen. The herewith established close correlation of radiation quality correction factor k{sub Q,M} with local mean photon energy anti E{sub F} can be regarded as a simple regularity, facilitating the practical application of correction factor k{sub Q,M} for in-phantom dosimetry around {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources. anti E{sub F} values can be assessed by Monte Carlo simulation or

  2. School Choice: The Personal and the Political

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuls, James V.

    2018-01-01

    Enrollment in school choice programs is growing, so is overall support for school choice. Many have analyzed what demographic characteristics impact attitudes towards school choice. This article adds to the literature by exploring the interaction between personal decisions regarding school choice and broader support for school choice programs.…

  3. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling the dynamics of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2009-06-01

    A simple linear-operator model both describes and predicts the dynamics of choice that may underlie the matching relation. We measured inter-food choice within components of a schedule that presented seven different pairs of concurrent variable-interval schedules for 12 food deliveries each with no signals indicating which pair was in force. This measure of local choice was accurately described and predicted as obtained reinforcer sequences shifted it to favor one alternative or the other. The effect of a changeover delay was reflected in one parameter, the asymptote, whereas the effect of a difference in overall rate of food delivery was reflected in the other parameter, rate of approach to the asymptote. The model takes choice as a primary dependent variable, not derived by comparison between alternatives-an approach that agrees with the molar view of behaviour.

  5. New paradoxes in intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Similar to research on risky choice, the traditional analysis of intertemporal choice takes the view that an individual behaves so as to maximize the discounted sum of all future utilities. The well-known Allais paradox contradicts the fundamental postulates of maximizing the expected value or utility of a risky option. We describe a violation of the law of diminishing marginal utility as well as an intertemporal version of the Allais paradox.

  6. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  7. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  8. Can Free Choice Be Known?

    OpenAIRE

    Itzhak Gilboa

    1993-01-01

    In this note we reconsider an argument, borrowed from causal decision theory, according to which rational and identical players should cooperate in a one-shot prisoner's dilemma. We argue that, regardless of how one views this type of reasoning, the example rpoints at a possible inconsistency in standard formulations of knowledge and decision. We suggest that when formalizing notions of "decision," "choice," and "rationality," care must be taken not to assume knowledge of one's own choice. Fi...

  9. Nudging consumers towards healthier choices: a systematic review of positional influences on food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Tamara; Collins, Clare; Rollo, Megan E; McCaffrey, Tracy A; De Vlieger, Nienke; Van der Bend, Daphne; Truby, Helen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2016-06-01

    Nudging or 'choice architecture' refers to strategic changes in the environment that are anticipated to alter people's behaviour in a predictable way, without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. Nudging strategies may be used to promote healthy eating behaviour. However, to date, the scientific evidence has not been systematically reviewed to enable practitioners and policymakers to implement, or argue for the implementation of, specific measures to support nudging strategies. This systematic review investigated the effect of positional changes of food placement on food choice. In total, seven scientific databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify interventions that manipulated food position (proximity or order) to generate a change in food selection, sales or consumption, among normal-weight or overweight individuals across any age group. From 2576 identified articles, fifteen articles comprising eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. This review has identified that manipulation of food product order or proximity can influence food choice. Such approaches offer promise in terms of impacting on consumer behaviour. However, there is a need for high-quality studies that quantify the magnitude of positional effects on food choice in conjunction with measuring the impact on food intake, particularly in the longer term. Future studies should use outcome measures such as change in grams of food consumed or energy intake to quantify the impact on dietary intake and potential impacts on nutrition-related health. Research is also needed to evaluate potential compensatory behaviours secondary to such interventions.

  10. Socio-economic applications of finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Machado Velho, Roberto; Wolfram, Marie Therese

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite

  11. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-04-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

  12. Paradoxical choice in rats: Subjective valuation and mechanism of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Andrés; Murphy, Robin A; Kacelnik, Alex

    2018-07-01

    Decision-makers benefit from information only when they can use it to guide behavior. However, recent experiments found that pigeons and starlings value information that they cannot use. Here we show that this paradox is also present in rats, and explore the underlying decision process. Subjects chose between two options that delivered food probabilistically after a fixed delay. In one option ("info"), outcomes (food/no-food) were signaled immediately after choice, whereas in the alternative ("non-info") the outcome was uncertain until the delay lapsed. Rats sacrificed up to 20% potential rewards by preferring the info option, but reversed preference when the cost was 60%. This reversal contrasts with the results found with pigeons and starlings and may reflect species' differences worth of further investigation. Results are consistent with predictions of the Sequential Choice Model (SCM), that proposes that choices are driven by the mechanisms that control action in sequential encounters. As expected from the SCM, latencies to respond in single-option trials predicted preferences in choice trials, and latencies in choice trials were the same or shorter than in single-option trials. We argue that the congruence of results in distant vertebrates probably reflects evolved adaptations to shared fundamental challenges in nature, and that the apparently paradoxical overvaluing of information is not sub-optimal as has been claimed, even though its functional significance is not yet understood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Darwinism and the meaning of "meaning"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrodeza, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the meaning of life is herewith contemplated from a Darwinian perspective. It is argued how factors such as existential depression, the concern about the meaning of "meaning," the problem of evil, death as the end of our personal identity, happiness as an unachievable goal, etc. may well have an adaptive dimension "controlled" neither by ourselves nor obscure third parties (conspiracy theories) but "simply" by our genes (replicators in general) so that little if anything is to be done to find a radical remedy for the human condition.

  14. Traffic-light labels and choice architecture: promoting healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M; Levy, Douglas E

    2014-02-01

    Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Longitudinal pre-post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Large hospital cafeteria with a mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) a longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. After a 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy); yellow (less healthy); or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (pchoice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting that food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  15. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Missouri. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    As a large body of high-quality research has emerged in the past few years showing that school choice benefits the students who use it, much of the debate has shifted to the "public" or "social" effects of school choice. This study examines how school choice in Missouri would raise high school graduation rates, and measures the…

  16. A Conceptual Framework of Consumer Food Choice Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Marreiros; Mitchell Ness

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the analysis of consumer behaviour concerning the evaluation and choice of food products. The paper presents a review of theory on the processes of consumers' decision making and quality perception. Following this review, a theoretical framework is proposed that integrates the models of Engel, Blackwell and Miniard (1995), the main constructs of the Total Food Quality model of Grunert (1997), together with additional constructs an...

  17. Characterizing Mathematics Classroom Practice: Impact of Observation and Coding Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha; Webb, Noreen M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale observational measures of classroom practice increasingly focus on opportunities for student participation as an indicator of instructional quality. Each observational measure necessitates making design and coding choices on how to best measure student participation. This study investigated variations of coding approaches that may be…

  18. Correcting Grade Deflation Caused by Multiple-Choice Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranchik, Alvin; Cherkas, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Presents a study involving three sections of pre-calculus (n=181) at four-year college where partial credit scoring on multiple-choice questions was examined over an entire semester. Indicates that grades determined by partial credit scoring seemed more reflective of both the quantity and quality of student knowledge than grades determined by…

  19. Rhetorical Choice in Mansfield's November 25, 1963 Eulogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    One of the most memorable eulogies delivered in the United States Senate is the one by Senator Michael Mansfield for President John F. Kennedy. An analysis of his word choice reveals that he (1) forced the audience to participate in the creation of the message; (2) employed active, forceful descriptions; (3) focused on praiseworthy qualities of…

  20. Mate choice in the face of costly competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, TW; Johnstone, RA

    2003-01-01

    Studies of mate choice commonly ignore variation in preferences and assume that all individuals should favor the highest-quality mate available. However, individuals may differ in their mate preferences according to their own age, experience, size, or genotype. In the present study, we highlight

  1. Preferences and choices for care and health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Stam, P.; Laske-Aldershof, T.; Buchmueller, T.; Schut, F.T.

    2008-01-01

    Legislation that came into effect in 2006 has dramatically altered the health insurance system in the Netherlands, placing greater emphasis on consumer choice and competition among insurers. The potential for such competition depends largely on consumer preferences for price and quality of service

  2. Kinetics of aggregation with choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2016-12-01

    We generalize the ordinary aggregation process to allow for choice. In ordinary aggregation, two random clusters merge and form a larger aggregate. In our implementation of choice, a target cluster and two candidate clusters are randomly selected and the target cluster merges with the larger of the two candidate clusters. We study the long-time asymptotic behavior and find that as in ordinary aggregation, the size density adheres to the standard scaling form. However, aggregation with choice exhibits a number of different features. First, the density of the smallest clusters exhibits anomalous scaling. Second, both the small-size and the large-size tails of the density are overpopulated, at the expense of the density of moderate-size clusters. We also study the complementary case where the smaller candidate cluster participates in the aggregation process and find an abundance of moderate clusters at the expense of small and large clusters. Additionally, we investigate aggregation processes with choice among multiple candidate clusters and a symmetric implementation where the choice is between two pairs of clusters.

  3. Meaning through Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marilynn

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation is the process by which we find meaning in the things in the world around us: clouds on the horizon, bones, street signs, hairbrushes, uniforms, paintings, letters, and utterances. But where does that meaning come from and on what basis are we justified in saying a particular meaning is the right meaning? Drawing from debates in the…

  4. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  5. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  6. Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public...... transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the feasibility of its implementation by applying the method to reproduce 5131 real-life trips in the Greater Copenhagen Area...... and to assess the choice set quality in a complex multimodal transport network. Results illustrate the applicability of the algorithm and the relevance of the utility specification chosen for the reproduction of real-life path choices. Moreover, results show that the level of stochasticity used in choice set...

  7. Making healthy choices easy choices: the role of empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Lindström, B.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of health promotion is to make it easier for people to make healthy choices. However, this may be difficult if people do not feel control over their environment and their personal circumstances. An important concept in relation to this is empowerment. Health professionals are

  8. Consumer Choice of Modularized Products : A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Louviere, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of

  9. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    2007-12-01

    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  10. Traffic-Light Labels and Choice Architecture Promoting Healthy Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Levy, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Purpose Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Design Longitudinal pre–post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants Large hospital cafeteria with mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for: (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. Intervention After 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy) or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. Results The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (p<0.001), and green sales increased from 41% to 46% (p<0.001). Red beverages decreased from 26% of beverage sales at baseline to 17% at 24 months (p<0.001); green beverages increased from 52% to 60% (p<0.001). Similar patterns were observed for the cohort of employees, with largest change for red beverages (23% to 14%, p<0.001). Conclusions A traffic-light and choice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. PMID:24439347

  11. Determinants of journal choice among Nigerian medics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusegun, Nwhator Solomon; Olayinka, Agbaje Maarufah; Modupe, Soroye; Ikenna, Isiekwe Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known maxim "publish or perish" among academicians, productivity remains low in Nigeria. There are barriers to academic writing which must be identified and addressed. Even after addressing those barriers, authors are faced with another dilemma-where to publish. It was the concern of the authors to evaluate perceived barriers to academic writing and the determinants of journal choice among Nigerian academics. They also attempted to evaluate the determinants of journal choice and perceived barriers to academic writing among Nigerian academicians. Respondents were academicians used in the context of this study to mean anyone involved in academic writing. Such persons must have written and published at least one paper in a peer-reviewed journal in the preceding year to be included in the survey. An online-based self-administered questionnaire. An online structured and self-administered questionnaire-based cross sectional survey of Nigerian medical academicians was conducted over a period of one year using a Google-powered questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the determinants of journal choice, perceived barriers to publications, number of publications in the preceding year as a measure of academic productivity and the highest publication fee authors were willing to pay. Of the over 500 email request sent, a total of 200 academicians responded (response rate of 40%). The male and female distribution was 120 and 80 respectively. The highest number of respondents were lecturer 1 and senior lecturers (or junior faculty) (69.5%) however the senior faculty had the higher number of publications in the preceding year. Indexing (35.5%) was the most important determinant of journal choice whilst ease of submission (2.1%) was the least. Unfriendly environment (46%) was the most perceived barrier to publication. Though, majority (88.5%) of the respondents were willing to pay up $300 as publication fees, twice as many junior faculty members (28%) were willing

  12. Complexity, Public Reporting, and Choice of Doctors: A Look Inside the Blackest Box of Consumer Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E.; Martino, Steven C.; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a “black box” that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers’ skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality. PMID:23999489

  13. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Egalitarianism in Multi-Choice Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Llorca, N.; Sánchez-Soriano, J.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the equal division core for arbitrary multi-choice games and the constrained egalitarian solution for con- vex multi-choice games, using a multi-choice version of the Dutta-Ray algorithm for traditional convex games. These egalitarian solutions for multi-choice games have

  15. Quality of delivered care for people with type 2 diabetes: a new patient-centred model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar S

    2009-12-28

    The quality of care from the perspective of people with Type 2 diabetes using a new model (CQMH) including three dimensions of quality in health care (Technical, Service and Customer Quality) was assessed. A cross-sectional survey with a sample of 577 people with Type 2 diabetes was conducted. Measures were self-reported adherence to national guidelines for technical quality, the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research questionnaire for service quality and the short form of the Patient Activation Measure for Customer Quality. There was a significant gap in technical quality between what diabetes care the patients reported receiving and what was recommended in the guideline, particularly for management and lifestyle aspects. For service quality, the lowest scores were for choice of care provider and accessibility of care. The mean Customer Quality score was 64.5 (meaning higher score indicating better quality). A positive relationship was demonstrated between higher technical, service and customer quality scores, and better diabetes control status as well as maintaining continuity of care. The average Quality Index was 70.0 of a 0-100 scale. Customer Quality appears to be a useful third dimension in conceptualising quality in health care, particularly in the context of chronic disease, where good self-management can improve the outcomes of care. A high proportion of Queensland adults with Type 2 diabetes reported receiving suboptimal care in the majority aspects of provided care services as reflected in the overall Quality Index score indicating substantial room for quality improvement.

  16. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... are defended by, e.g., Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich and Huw Price), that promises to solve the problems. According to this position, the problem of meaning can be solved by prohibiting an external perspective on meaning constituting properties. The idea is that if we stick to a perspective on meaning...

  17. Implicit markers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the health risks associated with unhealthy eating and overweight, it is important to better understand the motives underlying (un)healthy food choice. Explicit measures, such as questionnaires and focus groups, are suboptimal because they only tap into that specific part of the motive

  18. Dynamic Portfolio Choice with Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    We show how portfolio choice can be modeled in continuous time with transitory and persistent transaction costs, multiple assets, multiple signals predicting returns, and general signal dynamics. The objective function is derived from the limit of discrete-time models with endogenous transaction...

  19. On Procedural Freedom of Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlegi, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous works in the last decade have analyzed the question of how to compare opportunity sets as a way to measure and evaluate individual freedom of choice.This paper defends that, in many contexts, external procedural aspects that are associated to an opportunity set should be taken into account

  20. A Choice for the Chosen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Examines reasons for opposition to school-choice programs by the American Jewish Congress and the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith. There is skepticism that more Jewish families would send their children to separate schools, and there is concern that government aid would foster a more religious tone in the country. Suggests that these…

  1. Self-Determination and Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Abery, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Promoting self-determination and choice opportunities for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities has become best practice in the field. This article reviews the research and development activities conducted by the authors over the past several decades and provides a synthesis of the knowledge in the field pertaining to efforts to…

  2. How to make moral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Moral choice is committing to act for what one believes is right and good. It is less about what we know than about defining who we are. Three cases typical of those used in the principles or dilemmas approach to teaching ethics are presented. But they are analyzed using an alternative approach based on seven moral choice heuristics--approaches proven to increase the likelihood of locating the best course of action. The approaches suggested for analyzing moral choice situations include: (a) identify the outcomes of available alternative courses of action; (b) rule out strategies that involve deception, coercion, reneging on promises, collusion, and contempt for others; (c) be authentic (do not deceive yourself); (d) relate to others on a human basis; (e) downplay rational justifications; (f) match the solution to the problem, not the other way around; (g) execute on the best solution, do not hold out for the perfect one; and (h) take action to improve the choice after it has been made.

  3. Transitivity of an entangled choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W

    2011-01-01

    We describe a quantum model of a simple choice game (constructed upon the entangled state of two qubits), which involves the fundamental problem of transitive-intransitive preferences. We compare attainability of optimal intransitive strategies in both classical and quantum models with the use of geometrical interpretation.

  4. Modelling Choice of Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agha Faisal Habib Pathan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the significance of traveller information sources including mono-modal and multimodal websites for travel decisions. The research follows a decision paradigm developed earlier, involving an information acquisition process for travel choices, and identifies the abstract characteristics of new information sources that deserve further investigation (e.g. by incorporating these in models and studying their significance in model estimation. A Stated Preference experiment is developed and the utility functions are formulated by expanding the travellers' choice set to include different combinations of sources of information. In order to study the underlying choice mechanisms, the resulting variables are examined in models based on different behavioural strategies, including utility maximisation and minimising the regret associated with the foregone alternatives. This research confirmed that RRM (Random Regret Minimisation Theory can fruitfully be used and can provide important insights for behavioural studies. The study also analyses the properties of travel planning websites and establishes a link between travel choices and the content, provenance, design, presence of advertisements, and presentation of information. The results indicate that travellers give particular credence to governmentowned sources and put more importance on their own previous experiences than on any other single source of information. Information from multimodal websites is more influential than that on train-only websites. This in turn is more influential than information from friends, while information from coachonly websites is the least influential. A website with less search time, specific information on users' own criteria, and real time information is regarded as most attractive

  5. Differentiated Bayesian Conjoint Choice Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sándor (Zsolt); M. Wedel (Michel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrevious conjoint choice design construction procedures have produced a single design that is administered to all subjects. This paper proposes to construct a limited set of different designs. The designs are constructed in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account prior uncertainty about

  6. The Determinants of Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leng, Gareth; Adan, Roger A. H.; Belot, Michele

    2017-01-01

    , we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social...

  7. Choice Orientations, Discussions, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raywid, Mary Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…

  8. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  9. De controller als choice architect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.S. Maas (Victor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractManagement accountants are choice architects: they provide information that is used in managerial decision making and they have considerable influence on the monetary and non-monetary incentives that drive managers’ decision-making processes. Over the past two decades, our know

  10. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice

  11. Portfolio Optimization and Mortgage Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Britt Nordfang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal mortgage choice of an investor in a simple bond market with a stochastic interest rate and access to term life insurance. The study is based on advances in stochastic control theory, which provides analytical solutions to portfolio problems with a stochastic interest rate. We derive the optimal portfolio of a mortgagor in a simple framework and formulate stylized versions of mortgage products offered in the market today. This allows us to analyze the optimal investment strategy in terms of optimal mortgage choice. We conclude that certain extreme investors optimally choose either a traditional fixed rate mortgage or an adjustable rate mortgage, while investors with moderate risk aversion and income prefer a mix of the two. By matching specific investor characteristics to existing mortgage products, our study provides a better understanding of the complex and yet restricted mortgage choice faced by many household investors. In addition, the simple analytical framework enables a detailed analysis of how changes to market, income and preference parameters affect the optimal mortgage choice.

  12. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  13. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  14. Exploring the Influence of Attitudes to Walking and Cycling on Commute Mode Choice Using a Hybrid Choice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport-related problems, such as automobile dependence, traffic congestion, and greenhouse emissions, lead to a great burden on the environment. In developing countries like China, in order to improve the air quality, promoting sustainable travel modes to reduce the automobile usage is gradually recognized as an emerging national concern. Though there are many studies related to the physically active modes (e.g., walking and cycling, the research on the influence of attitudes to active modes on travel behavior is limited, especially in China. To fill up this gap, this paper focuses on examining the impact of attitudes to walking and cycling on commute mode choice. Using the survey data collected in China cities, an integrated discrete choice model and the structural equation model are proposed. By applying the hybrid choice model, not only the role of the latent attitude played in travel mode choice, but also the indirect effects of social factors on travel mode choice are obtained. The comparison indicates that the hybrid choice model outperforms the traditional model. This study is expected to provide a better understanding for urban planners on the influential factors of green travel modes.

  15. Learning Physics Teaching through Collaborative Design of Conceptual Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student engagement through Electronic Response Systems (clickers) has been widely researched. Its success largely depends on the quality of multiple-choice questions used by instructors. This paper describes a pilot project that focused on the implementation of online collaborative multiple-choice question repository, PeerWise, in a…

  16. Factors Affecting the Choice of Anesthesiology by Medical Students for Specialty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Phool; Hughes, Mark

    1984-01-01

    A study of medical students' choice of anesthesiology as a specialty and the quality of clerkships available established several factors in students' choice, including the negative effect of certified registered nurse anesthetists on the operating room floor. A study of relationships with nurse practitioners, physician's assistants, and…

  17. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices. What is…

  18. A Content Analysis of Women's Career Choices in Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tonya R.

    2010-01-01

    A feminist content analysis of 81 films was conducted as a means to assist mental health practitioners in guiding the career choices of young women and to explore the possibilities for change through this medium. The review of the 117 lead female characters revealed themes including: the idea that relationships should be secondary to careers in…

  19. Price vector effects in choice experiments: an empirical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, Nick; Wright, Robert E.; Adamowicz, Wiktor

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the preference and willingness-to-pay estimates obtained from the choice experiment method of estimating non-market values are sensitive to the vector of prices used in the experimental design. We undertake this test in the context of water quality improvements under the European Union's new Water Framework Directive. Using a mixed logit model, which allows for differing scale between the two samples, we find no significant impact of changing the price vector on estimates of preferences or willingness-to-pay. (author) (Choice modelling; Non-market valuation; Design effects; Water Framework Directive)

  20. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  1. Energy Choices. The energy markets and the energy policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Lars; Lindh, Hampus

    2009-03-01

    Well-functioning energy markets are in society's interests whatever the circumstances. Furthermore, supply, demand and the competitive situation in the various energy markets influence the effect of energy and climate change policy measures. There are therefore good reasons to examine and evaluate how the energy markets operate. In this report we specifically focus on the energy markets. The analysis has been carried out against the background of the overall objectives for energy and climate change policy in Sweden and the EU. However, for these goals to be attainable a number of concrete energy and climate change policy decisions will have to be taken in the coming years. Some of these are key issues that will prove decisive for the formulation of energy and climate change policy, and we therefore also discuss these. The first of these concerns which policy instruments should be chosen to influence the energy markets. The second key issue concerns the power companies' prospects for using nuclear power even in the future. We will also focus on the extent to which energy and climate change policy chooses to prioritise measures which mean that climate change policy objectives can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. We can briefly summarize our results in the following conclusions: The cost of achieving the climate change policy objectives set by Sweden and the EU will probably be very high. It is therefore important that the choices made ensure that climate change policy objectives are achieved at the lowest possible cost. Focusing on keeping costs to a minimum may in actual fact be the very thing that makes it at all possible to achieve these goals. The best solution then is as far as possible to base energy and climate change policy on so-called market-based instruments, such as emission charges and tradable emission permits. Emissions of carbon dioxide are easy to measure and the siting of emission sources is irrelevant in terms of the effect of the emissions

  2. Means on scattered compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banakh T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a separable Hausdor_ topological space X containing a cocountable subset homeomorphic to [0, ω1] admits no separately continuous mean operation and no diagonally continuous n-mean for n ≥ 2.

  3. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Meaning in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Paola; Hoyles, Celia; Skovsmose, Ole

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to know mathematics? How does meaning in mathematics education connect to common sense or to the meaning of mathematics itself? How are meanings constructed and communicated and what are the dilemmas related to these processes? There are many answers to these questions, some of which might appear to be contradictory. Thus understanding the complexity of meaning in mathematics education is a matter of huge importance. There are twin directions in which discussions have developed - theoretical and practical - and this book seeks to move the debate forward along both dimensions while seeking to relate them where appropriate. A discussion of meaning can start from a theoretical examination of mathematics and how mathematicians over time have made sense of their work. However, from a more practical perspective, anybody involved in teaching mathematics is faced with the need to orchestrate the myriad of meanings derived from multiple sources that students develop of mathematical knowledge.

  5. Quality management using TQC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ui Cheol

    1992-03-01

    This book introduces conception on quality and quality management, standardization with meaning, principle and structure of it, and system, company standard for quality management, quality management on planning, organization and operation, quality guarantee with system evaluation and information, policy management on policy, purpose and daily life, quality management on research and development infrastructure, quality management on design and production facilities, statistical method of quality management, control chart and process capability.

  6. Dependence of surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) enhancement and spectral quality on the choice of underlying substrate: a closer look at silver (Ag) films prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Michelle M; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Sun, Zhelin; Crittenden, Scott; Leverette, Chad L

    2011-03-01

    Silver (Ag) films of varying thickness were simultaneously deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) onto six infrared (IR) substrates (BaF(2), CaF(2), Ge, AMTIR, KRS-5, and ZnSe) in order to correlate the morphology of the deposited film with optimal SEIRA response and spectral band symmetry and quality. Significant differences were observed in the surface morphology of the deposited silver films, the degree of enhancement provided, and the spectral appearance of para-nitrobenzoic acid (PNBA) cast films for each silver-coated substrate. These differences were attributed to each substrate's chemical properties, which dictate the morphology of the Ag film and ultimately determine the spectral appearance of the adsorbed analyte and the magnitude of SEIRA enhancement. Routine SEIRA enhancement factors (EFs) for all substrates were between 5 and 150. For single-step Ag depositions, the following ranking identifies the greatest SEIRA enhancement factor and the maximum absorption of the 1345 cm(-1) spectral marker of PNBA at the optimal silver thickness for each substrate: BaF(2) (EF = 85 ± 19, 0.059 A, 10 nm Ag) > CaF(2) (EF = 75 ± 30, 0.052 A, 10 nm Ag) > Ge (EF = 45 ± 8, 0.019 A, 5 nm Ag) > AMTIR (EF = 38 ± 8, 0.024 A, 15 nm Ag) > KRS-5 (EF = 24 ± 1, 0.015 A, 12 nm Ag) > ZnSe (EF = 9 ± 5, 0.008 A, 8 nm Ag). A two-step deposition provides 59% larger EFs than single-step depositions of Ag on CaF(2). A maximum EF of 147 was calculated for a cast film of PNBA (surface coverage = 341 ng/cm(2)) on a 10 nm two-step Ag film on CaF(2) (0.102 A, 1345 cm(-1) symmetric NO(2) stretching band). The morphology of the two-step Ag film has smaller particles and greater particle density than the single-step Ag film.

  7. Factors affecting food choices of older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Freedom of choice and bounded rationality: a brief appraisal of behavioral economists' plea for light paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Muramatsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economics has addressed interesting positive and normative questions underlying the standard rational choice theory. More recently, it suggests that, in a real world of boundedly rational agents, economists could help people to improve the quality of their choices without any harm to autonomy and freedom of choice. This paper aims to scrutinize available arguments for and against current proposals of light paternalistic interventions mainly in the domain of intertemporal choice. It argues that incorporating the notion of bounded rationality in economic analysis and empirical findings of cognitive biases and self-control problems cannot make an indisputable case for paternalism.

  9. Modeling decisions from experience: How models with a set of parameters for aggregate choices explain individual choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the paradigms (called “sampling paradigm” in judgment and decision-making involves decision-makers sample information before making a final consequential choice. In the sampling paradigm, certain computational models have been proposed where a set of single or distribution parameters is calibrated to the choice proportions of a group of participants (aggregate and hierarchical models. However, currently little is known on how aggregate and hierarchical models would account for choices made by individual participants in the sampling paradigm. In this paper, we test the ability of aggregate and hierarchical models to explain choices made by individual participants. Several models, Ensemble, Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT, Best Estimation and Simulation Techniques (BEAST, Natural-Mean Heuristic (NMH, and Instance-Based Learning (IBL, had their parameters calibrated to individual choices in a large dataset involving the sampling paradigm. Later, these models were generalized to two large datasets in the sampling paradigm. Results revealed that the aggregate models (like CPT and IBL accounted for individual choices better than hierarchical models (like Ensemble and BEAST upon generalization to problems that were like those encountered during calibration. Furthermore, the CPT model, which relies on differential valuing of gains and losses, respectively, performed better than other models during calibration and generalization on datasets with similar set of problems. The IBL model, relying on recency and frequency of sampled information, and the NMH model, relying on frequency of sampled information, performed better than other models during generalization to a challenging dataset. Sequential analyses of results from different models showed how these models accounted for transitions from the last sample to final choice in human data. We highlight the implications of using aggregate and hierarchical models in explaining individual choices

  10. Language Choice & Global Learning Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sayers

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant classes. Next, an important historical precedent --the social controversy which accompanied the introduction of telephone technology at the end of the last century-- is examined in terms of its implications for language choice in contemporary classroom telecomputing projects. Finally, recommendations are offered to guide decision making concerning the role of language choice in promoting collaborative critical inquiry.

  11. The Concepts of Quality, Quality Assurance and Quality Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elassy, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to critically review and discuss different definitions of the concepts of quality, quality assurance (QA) and quality enhancement (QE) in higher education (HE) with presenting critical perspectives of the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper looks at literature concerns with the meaning of quality, QA and QE,…

  12. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value....... The paper shows why this happens. The resulting estimated MRS can then be manipulated by adapting the target MRS in the experimental design. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. De controller als choice architect

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, V.S.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractManagement accountants are choice architects: they provide information that is used in managerial decision making and they have considerable influence on the monetary and non-monetary incentives that drive managers’ decision-making processes. Over the past two decades, our know - ledge of how people make economic decisions has increased tremendously. However, this has had only very little impact on the design of management accounting and control systems in organizations. Consequen...

  14. NEIGHBORHOOD CHOICE AND NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bruch, Elizabeth; Mare, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the residential choices of individuals and aggregate patterns of neighborhood change. We investigate the conditions under which individuals’ preferences for the race-ethnic composition of their neighborhoods produce high levels of segregation. Using computational models, we find that high levels of segregation occur only when individuals’ preferences follow a threshold function. If individuals make finer-grained distinctions among neighborhoods th...

  15. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  16. Brand Meaning Cocreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kieran D.; Karpen, Ingo; Westberg, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consolidate and advance the understanding of brand meaning and the evolving process by which it is determined by introducing and explicating the concept of brand meaning cocreation (BMCC). Design/methodology/approach: In-depth review and integration...... of literature from branding, cocreation, service systems, and practice theory. To support deep theorizing, the authors also examine the role of institutional logics in the BMCC process in framing interactions and brand meaning outcomes. Findings: Prior research is limited in that it neither maps the process...... of cocreation within which meanings emerge nor provides theoretical conceptualizations of brand meaning or the process of BMCC. While the literature acknowledges that brand meaning is influenced by multiple interactions, their nature and how they contribute to BMCC have been overlooked. Research limitations...

  17. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... subjectivity in the present study is gender dependent, pointing towards, that female respondents are prone to be affected by the price levels employed. Male respondents, on the other hand, are not sensitive towards these prices levels. Overall, this implicates that female respondents, when employing a low......-priced Instruction Choice Set, tend to express lower willingness-to-pay than when higher prices are employed....

  18. Does health affect portfolio choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David A; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    A number of recent studies find that poor health is empirically associated with a safer portfolio allocation. It is difficult to say, however, whether this relationship is truly causal. Both health status and portfolio choice are influenced by unobserved characteristics such as risk attitudes, impatience, information, and motivation, and these unobserved factors, if not adequately controlled for, can induce significant bias in the estimates of asset demand equations. Using the 1992-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we investigate how much of the connection between health and portfolio choice is causal and how much is due to the effects of unobserved heterogeneity. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity with fixed effects and correlated random effects models, we find that health does not appear to significantly affect portfolio choice among single households. For married households, we find a small effect (about 2-3 percentage points) from being in the lowest of five self-reported health categories. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Consumer choice of theme parks : a conjoint choice model of seasonality effects and variety seeking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Oppewal, H.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Most existing mathematical models of tourist choice behavior assume that individuals' preferences for choice alternatives remain invariant over time. Although the assumption of invariant preference functions may be reasonable in some choice contexts, this study examines the hypothesis that

  20. The changing importance of quality aspects in food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    in the pricing of foods. Five scales from the Food-related Lifestyle instrument (FRL) were used in replication surveys in Germany in 1993 and 1996 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), France in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), and the UK in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), measuring the importance of health, price....../quality relation, novelty, organic products, and freshness to consumers' food choices. Trends in the importance of these quality aspects were modeled using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate that, contrary to widespread expectations, the importance of healthy...

  1. The changing importance of quality aspects in food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    in the pricing of foods. Five scales from the Food-related Lifestyle instrument (FRL) were used in replication surveys in Germany in 1993 and 1996 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), France in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), and the UK in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), measuring the importance of health, price....../quality relation, novelty, organic products, and freshness to consumers' food choices. Trends in the importance of these quality aspects were modeled using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate that, contrary to widespread expectations, the importance of healthy...

  2. Choice Is Not True Or False

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2009-01-01

    employs to do so. However, a central strand in the rhetorical tradition itself, led by Aristotle, and arguably the dominant view, sees rhetorical argumentation as defined with reference to the domain of issues discussed. On that view, the domain of rhetorical argumentation is centered on choice of action......Leading contemporary argumentation theories such as those of Ralph Johnson, van Eemeren and Houtlosser, and Tindale, in their attempt to address rhetoric, tend to define rhetorical argumentation with reference to (a) the rhetorical arguer’s goal (to persuade effectively), and (b) the means he...... in the civic sphere, and the distinctive nature of issues in this domain is considered crucial. Hence, argumentation theories such as those discussed, insofar as they do not see rhetoric as defined by its distinctive domain, apply an understanding of rhetoric that is historically inadequate. It is further...

  3. Addiction: lifestyle choice or medical diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David

    2013-06-01

    The concept of addiction is under threat from the current UK government's attempt to define it as a lifestyle choice rather than an illness. This overturns the previous government's rational policy on drug treatment and is both dishonest and damaging. It is dishonest because addiction fulfils all the criteria for an illness. It is damaging because proven treatments for many addictions exist and the failure to optimize these means that more patients will die, get blood-borne viruses, and encourage others into drug use. In this paper, I detail these issues and suggest ways to avoid irreparable damage to the current care provisions that are proving effective. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing the...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed.......The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing...... history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...

  5. Parallel k-means++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-04

    A parallelization of the k-means++ seed selection algorithm on three distinct hardware platforms: GPU, multicore CPU, and multithreaded architecture. K-means++ was developed by David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitskii in 2007 as an extension of the k-means data clustering technique. These algorithms allow people to cluster multidimensional data, by attempting to minimize the mean distance of data points within a cluster. K-means++ improved upon traditional k-means by using a more intelligent approach to selecting the initial seeds for the clustering process. While k-means++ has become a popular alternative to traditional k-means clustering, little work has been done to parallelize this technique. We have developed original C++ code for parallelizing the algorithm on three unique hardware architectures: GPU using NVidia's CUDA/Thrust framework, multicore CPU using OpenMP, and the Cray XMT multithreaded architecture. By parallelizing the process for these platforms, we are able to perform k-means++ clustering much more quickly than it could be done before.

  6. Defining and Leveraging Game Qualities for Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Serious games can and should leverage the unique qualities of video games to effectively deliver educational experiences for the learners. However, leveraging these qualities is incumbent upon understanding what these unique 'game' qualities are , and how they can facilitate the learning process. This paper presents an examination of the meaning of the term 'game' . as it applies to both serious games and digital entertainment games. Through the examination of counter examples, we derive three game characteristics; games are self contained, provide a variety of meaningful choices, and are intrinsically compelling. We also discuss the theoretical educational foundations which support the application of these 'game qualities' to educational endeavors. This paper concludes with a presentation of results achieved through the application of these qualities and the applicable educational theories to teach learners about the periodic table of elements via a serious game developed by the authors.

  7. How Do Marginalized Families Engage in School Choice in Inequitable Urban Landscapes? A Critical Geographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ee-Seul; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The normalization of school choice in the education system is purported to provide more schooling options for all families, particularly those who do not have the means to move into affluent areas with "better" schools. Nonetheless, it is still unclear to what extent the policy of school choice has been effective in achieving the goal of…

  8. Assessing the value of museums with a combined discrete choice/ count data model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Boter, J.

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the value of Dutch museums using information about destination choice as well as about the number of trips undertaken by an actor. Destination choice is analysed by means of a mixed logit model, and a count data model is used to explain trip generation. We use a

  9. Using stop signals to reduce impulsive choices for palatable unhealthy foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exposure to palatable foods in the environment can trigger impulsive reactions to obtain them, which may lead to unhealthy food choices and eating behaviour. Two studies tested the fundamental question whether impulsive unhealthy food choices can be altered by means of linking unhealthy

  10. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Making Choices: Valletta, Development, Archaeology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney Sloane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Archaeological Council's working group on 'Making Choices' conducted a survey of EAC member states about the ways in which they make decisions in archaeological heritage management with particular reference to development-led archaeological investigation. The driver for this is the belief that the approaches to development-led archaeology need to be more transparent and proportional to ensure continued state and developer/investor support. Based on a significant response (73% the survey gave a very useful insight into the way in which archaeological sites are defined and inventorised, the processes by which development-led investigations are designed, the means by which information is published and results (and collections archived, and the means by which the public are engaged in the process. The survey identified three key areas where choice-making is very much in the hands of the professional practice. These are: developing a clearer understanding of the significance of protected archaeological sites in the context of Valletta, assessing sensitivity to change for any sites proposed for development, and the design of the investigation itself. In addition, the survey revealed a clear interest in developing better ways of advocating the public value of development-led archaeology. This article summarises the issues raised in the survey and concludes that the most useful ways in which EAC could help its members would be through the preparation of guidance, case studies or toolkits — regardless of what legal or statutory structures are in operation in a given state — on the following subjects: understanding and articulating significance, developing national and regional research frameworks into which new excavations might be integrated, articulating the public value of archaeological investigation and developing better approaches to archaeological archives.

  12. Residency choices by graduating medical students: why not pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tawny; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ford, Jason C

    2011-06-01

    Pathology is an unpopular residency choice for medical students worldwide. In some countries, this has contributed to a crisis in pathologist human resources that has affected the quality of clinical laboratories. Several previous studies have used information from junior medical students and from residents to suggest ways of improving pathology recruitment. There are, however, no published studies of pathology residency choice that focus on the senior medical students who must be recruited. This study uses focus groups of senior medical students to explore both general and pathology-specific influences on residency choice. Several general influences are identified, including students' expectations for their future clinical practices, their own clinical rotation experiences, influences from other people including mentors, and their choice to reject certain fields. Several specific antipathology influences are also revealed, including negative stereotypes about pathologists, a perceived incompatibility of personality between most medical students (extroverted) and pathologists (introverted), and perceptions of pathologists as being in some ways nonmedical. The most important antipathology influence was that, from the students' perspective, pathology was utterly invisible in clinical practice. Most students did not consider and then reject a pathology residency: instead, pathology was completely ignored. Given the importance of clerkship electives in influencing medical student career choice, promoting clerkship experiences in pathology may improve recruitment. However, departments of pathology must first make pathology visible to students and teach them how pathologists contribute to clinical care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Continuing medical education: how to write multiple choice questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Fernández, R; Méndez Díaz, C; Rodríguez García, E

    2013-06-01

    Evaluating professional competence in medicine is a difficult but indispensable task because it makes it possible to evaluate, at different times and from different perspectives, the extent to which the knowledge, skills, and values required for exercising the profession have been acquired. Tests based on multiple choice questions have been and continue to be among the most useful tools for objectively evaluating learning in medicine. When these tests are well designed and correctly used, they can stimulate learning and even measure higher cognitive skills. Designing a multiple choice test is a difficult task that requires knowledge of the material to be tested and of the methodology of test preparation as well as time to prepare the test. The aim of this article is to review what can be evaluated through multiple choice tests, the rules and guidelines that should be taken into account when writing multiple choice questions, the different formats that can be used, the most common errors in elaborating multiple choice tests, and how to analyze the results of the test to verify its quality. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. High costs of female choice in a lekking lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren N Vitousek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the cost of mate choice is an essential component of the evolution and maintenance of sexual selection, the energetic cost of female choice has not previously been assessed directly. Here we report that females can incur high energetic costs as a result of discriminating among potential mates. We used heart rate biologging to quantify energetic expenditure in lek-mating female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus. Receptive females spent 78.9+/-23.2 kJ of energy on mate choice over a 30-day period, which is equivalent to approximately (3/4 of one day's energy budget. Females that spent more time on the territories of high-quality, high-activity males displayed greater energetic expenditure on mate choice, lost more mass, and showed a trend towards producing smaller follicles. Choosy females also appear to face a reduced probability of survival if El Niño conditions occur in the year following breeding. These findings indicate that female choice can carry significant costs, and suggest that the benefits that lek-mating females gain through mating with a preferred male may be higher than previously predicted.

  15. Housing choices and care home design for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjri, Karim; Rooney, Cliona; Faith, Verity

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of housing for people with dementia by exploring housing choices available to this group, and identifying potential issues with design of care homes. Older people who wish to age in place are faced with the challenge of adapting their domestic environment to ensure independence, accessibility, and social connectivity. This is even more challenging for people with dementia who continue to live at home, given the risks of self-harm and getting lost. More imaginative and inclusive forms of collective housing are needed. For people with dementia, a move to a new environment is often a stressful experience that causes shock, withdrawal, and anger. Hence, more research is needed to develop more fitting long-term housing options for people with dementia. This article presents a brief review on housing choices and housing design for people with dementia. Interviews with managers of 22 care homes were conducted to explore housing choices and design issues. Results show that the main housing choices available to people with dementia offer different levels of care. The choice of care homes relates to the atmosphere of a home as some occupants favor a homely or relaxing environment and others prefer dynamic settings. A combination of appropriate level of care, a good atmosphere, and design quality within the care home are elements that lead to a more enabling environment. Design of a successful caring environment also requires appropriate care and a positive therapeutic and domestic-looking environment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  17. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  18. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. ... basic philosophical nature of phenomenological meaning and inquiry, and that he not ... In keeping with the title of my book, Researching. Lived Experience ...... a quantitative social science that can make generalizing.

  19. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-01

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  20. Quality assurance and product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Bastiani, P. de

    2004-01-01

    The basic quality assurance requirements have to be completed by means that are oriented towards the quality of products; in COGEMA LOGISTICS our approach is based on four principles: 1) an integrated management system: Quality, health and safety, environment 2) an organization based on the responsibility of all actors, trust and transparency 3) a methodical approach to continuously improve the methods that are employed to achieve quality: -process management -corrective and preventive actions -self assessments and various surveys 4) but at the same time strong procedures for control and monitoring of all activities: -technical and quality audits (external and internal) -at source inspections -engineering activities inspections This performance-based approach is necessary to guaranty the effectiveness of the traditional formal QA means