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Sample records for meal salmon bottom

  1. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sørensen

    Full Text Available Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group. The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.

  2. Variation in commercial sources of soybean meal influences the severity of enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urán, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Jaafari, S.; Baardsen, G.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Koppe, W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is a potential alternative for the replacement of fishmeal in aquafeeds. In Atlantic salmon, however, dietary SBM causes an inflammation of the distal intestine, known as SBM-induced enteritis. The objective of the present study is to verify whether different (geographically

  3. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  4. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

    2014-05-06

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem.

  5. Effect of diets containing dogfish (Squalus acanthias) meal on the mercury content and growth of pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, J [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle; Mahnken, C

    1976-08-01

    The use of dogfish (Squalus acanthias) meal as a complete replacement for herring or other low mercury (Hg) content fish meal in rations intended for rearing cultured salmon introduces the risk of producing fish that exceed the current U.S. FDA tolerance level of 0.5 ppM Hg. The amount of Hg that accumulates in the muscle is related not only to the total Hg content of the fish, but is probably also related to the form in which it is present in the diet and to other constituents that may react with the Hg in the diet. Our results indicate that dogfish meal may be used as a partial (<50%) replacement for the fish meal portion of the diet without encountering Hg values (in the muscle) that exceed 0.5 ppM Hg. No evidence was found that naturally occurring chelating agents in dehydrated orange peel or polygalacturonic acid--cellulose complexes (PG) have the ability to chelate and prevent the deposition of Hg in either the muscle or the liver of the fish. It was observed that growth is decreased in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fed OMP-type diets in which 50% or more of herring meal was replaced with dogfish meal. (auth)

  6. Functional Genomic Analysis of the Impact of Camelina (Camelina sativa) Meal on Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Distal Intestine Gene Expression and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyler D; Hori, Tiago S; Xue, Xi; Ye, Chang Lin; Anderson, Derek M; Rise, Matthew L

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of plant meals in diets of farmed Atlantic salmon can elicit inflammatory responses in the distal intestine (DI). For the present work, fish were fed a standard fish meal (FM) diet or a diet with partial replacement of FM with solvent-extracted camelina meal (CM) (8, 16, or 24 % CM inclusion) during a 16-week feeding trial. A significant decrease in growth performance was seen in fish fed all CM inclusion diets (Hixson et al. in Aquacult Nutr 22:615-630, 2016). A 4x44K oligonucleotide microarray experiment was carried out and significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and rank products (RP) methods were used to identify differentially expressed genes between the DIs of fish fed the 24 % CM diet and those fed the FM diet. Twelve features representing six known transcripts and two unknowns were identified as CM responsive by both SAM and RP. The six known transcripts (including thioredoxin and ependymin), in addition to tgfb, mmp13, and GILT, were studied using qPCR with RNA templates from all four experimental diet groups. All six microarray-identified genes were confirmed to be CM responsive, as was tgfb and mmp13. Histopathological analyses identified signs of inflammation in the DI of salmon fed CM-containing diets, including lamina propria and sub-epithelial mucosa thickening, infiltration of eosinophilic granule cells, increased goblet cells and decreased enterocyte vacuolization. All of these were significantly altered in 24 % CM compared to all other diets, with the latter two also altered in 16 % CM compared with 8 % CM and control diet groups. Significant correlation was seen between histological parameters as well as between five of the qPCR analyzed genes and histological parameters. These molecular biomarkers of inflammation arising from long-term dietary CM exposure will be useful in the development of CM-containing diets that do not have deleterious effects on salmon growth or physiology.

  7. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. The following areas consisting of the water, waterway bottom, and adjacent riparian zone of...

  8. Growth and development of skeletal anomalies in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed phosphorus-rich diets with fish meal and hydrolyzed fish protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Riesen, Guido; Seim, Rudi Ripman; Hagen, Ørjan; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Falk-Petersen, Inger-Britt; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Jobling, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    Diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar were fed high-protein, phosphorus-rich diets (56–60% protein; ca 18g phosphorus kg-1 diet) whilst being reared at low temperature from start-feeding until parr-smolt transformation. Performances of salmon fed diets based on fish meal (STD) or a mix of fishmeal and hydrolysed fish proteins (HFM) as the major protein sources were compared in terms of mortality, diet digestibility, growth and skeletal deformities. Separate groups of diploids and triploids were reared in triplicate tanks (initially 3000 fish per tank; tank biomass ca. 620 g) from 0–2745 degree-days post-start feeding (ddPSF). Growth metrics (weight, length, condition factor) were recorded at ca. 4 week intervals, external signs of deformities to the operculum, jaws and spinal column were examined in parr sampled at 1390 ddPSF, and external signs of deformity and vertebral anomalies (by radiography) were examined in fish sampled at the end of the trial (2745 ddPSF). The triploid salmon generally had a lower mass per unit length, i.e. lower condition factor, throughout the trial, but this did not seem to reflect any consistent dietary or ploidy effects on either dietary digestibility or the growth of the fish. By the end of the trial fish in all treatment groups had achieved a weight of 50+ g, and had completed the parr-smolt transformation. The triploids had slightly, but significantly, fewer vertebrae (Triploids STD 58.74 ± 0.10; HFM 58.68 ± 0.05) than the diploids (Diploids STD 58.97 ± 0.14; HFM 58.89 ± 0.01), and the incidence of skeletal (vertebral) abnormalities was higher in triploids (Triploids STD 31 ± 0.90%; HFM 15 ± 1.44%) than in diploids (Diploids STD 4 ± 0.80%; HFM 4 ± 0.83%). The HFM diet gave a significant reduction in the numbers of triploid salmon with vertebral anomalies in comparison with the triploids fed the STD diet possibly as a result of differences in phosphorus bioavailability between the two diets. Overall, the

  9. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  10. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

  11. Poached Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/poachedsalmon.html Poached Salmon To use the sharing features on this page, ... olive oil Ground black pepper, to taste For salmon: 4 salmon steaks, 5 oz each 3 cups ...

  12. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  14. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ogura

    Full Text Available The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

  15. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  16. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  17. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  18. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Family Meals KidsHealth / For Parents / Family Meals What's in ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  19. Salmon Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the web application to assist pesticide users' with an understanding of the spatial extent of certain pesticide use limitations to protect endangered or threatened salmon and steelhead in California, Oregon and Washington.

  20. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  1. Salmon's Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

  2. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  3. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  4. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

  5. Identification of a Low Digestibility ?-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hern?ndez, Adri?n; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iv?n J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase ...

  6. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom and...

  7. Development of rations for the enhanced survival of salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.D.; Lagasse, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ''fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990

  8. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  9. Salmon on the Edge: Growth and Condition of Juvenile Chum and Pink Salmon in the Northeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    As the Arctic and Subarctic regions warm, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are expected to expand their range northward during ice-free periods in the Bering and Chukchi seas. The oscillating control hypothesis, which describes energetic differences of primary consumers between ice-associated and pelagic production phases, provides a framework for understanding how juvenile salmon might respond to changing conditions at the northern edge of their marine range. Additionally, relationships between growth/condition and temperature, salinity and bottom depth will help identify marine habitats supporting growth at the Arctic-Subarctic interface. In this study, we used survey data from NOAA and Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey project to 1) compare growth and condition of juvenile pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon in the NE Bering Sea between warm and cool spring phases, and 2) describe relationships between summer environmental conditions and juvenile salmon growth and condition from 2006 - 2010. Chum and pink salmon were shorter, and chum salmon exhibited greater energy density, in years with cool springs; however, no other aspects of size and condition differed significantly between phases. Over all years, longer and more energy dense individuals of both species were caught at stations with greater bottom depths and in cooler sea-surface temperatures. We found little evidence that chlorophyll-a explained much of the variation in size or condition. We used insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration as an indicator of relative growth rate for fishes sampled in 2009-2012 and that found juvenile salmon exhibited higher IGF-1 concentrations in 2010-2012 than in 2009. IGF-1 concentrations tended to increase with SST in chum salmon and with bottom depth (a proxy for distance from shore) in pink salmon, but more years of data are needed to adequately describe the relationship of IGF with environmental conditions. This study, although descriptive in

  10. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P.; Schneider, O.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Vikas, P.; Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  11. Bottom up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockenden, James

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the electric supply industries in Eastern Europe. The development of more competitive and efficient plant in Poland and work on emissions control ahead of EU membership; the Czech's complicated tariff system; Hungary's promised 8% return on investment in their electricity supply industry and its tariff problems; Bulgaria and Ukraine's desperate need for investment to build alternative plants to their aging nuclear plants; and demand outstripping supply in Romania are among the topics considered.. The viscous circle of poor service and low utility income is considered, and the top-down approach for breaking the cycle by improving plant efficiency, and the bottom up approach of improving plant income as practiced by Moldavia are explained. (UK)

  12. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  13. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  14. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2018-01-01

    Sea lice infestations are an increasing challenge in the ever-growing salmon aquaculture sector and cause large economic losses. The high salmon production in a small area creates a perfect habitat for parasites. Knowledge of how salmon lice planktonic larvae disperse and spread the infection...... between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...... for the entire Faroese salmon industry...

  15. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  16. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  17. Atlantic Salmon Smolt Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual data are collected as part of smolt trapping operations using fish trapping methods. Traps collect emigrating salmon smolts to identify cohort...

  18. Microbial ecology of the salmon necrobiome: evidence salmon carrion decomposition influences aquatic and terrestrial insect microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric

    2016-05-01

    Carrion decomposition is driven by complex relationships that affect necrobiome community (i.e. all organisms and their genes associated with a dead animal) interactions, such as insect species arrival time to carrion and microbial succession. Little is understood about how microbial communities interact with invertebrates at the aquatic-terrestrial habitat interface. The first objective of the study was to characterize internal microbial communities using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for aquatic insects (three mayfly species) in streams with salmon carcasses compared with those in streams without salmon carcasses. The second objective was to assess the epinecrotic microbial communities of decomposing salmon carcasses (Oncorhynchus keta) compared with those of terrestrial necrophagous insects (Calliphora terraenovae larvae and adults) associated with the carcasses. There was a significant difference in the internal microbiomes of mayflies collected in salmon carcass-bearing streams and in non-carcass streams, while the developmental stage of blow flies was the governing factor in structuring necrophagous insect internal microbiota. Furthermore, the necrophagous internal microbiome was influenced by the resource on which the larvae developed, and changes in the adult microbiome varied temporally. Overall, these carrion subsidy-driven networks respond to resource pulses with bottom-up effects on consumer microbial structure, as revealed by shifting communities over space and time. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  20. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  1. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  2. Use of irradiation in combination with other treatments to improve the quality of precooked meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmonts, M.H.; Pierrat, N.; Ingersheim, A.; Strasser, A.; Hasselmann, C.

    1998-01-01

    Two different studies on the improvement in quality of precooked meals are presented. The microbiological, nutritional and organoleptic qualities of air packed, electron beam irradiated salmon pats were examined during a 42 day storage period at refrigeration temperature. The vitamin contents, although diminished, especially for retinol and α-tocopherol, were still appreciable. No lipid oxidation was detected. Under French legislation, the shelf-life of fresh precooked dishes should not exceed 6 days. In contrast, salmon pats irradiated at 2.5 and 6 kGy had a shelf-life of 11 and 23 days, respectively, at 4 deg. C. Electron beam irradiated precooked meals destined for immunosuppressed patients were also studied. The effects of low temperature (-40 deg. C) electron beam irradiation at doses ranging between 12 and 40 kGy, combined with vacuum packaging, on the bacteriological (sterility), nutritional (lipid oxidation, vitamin losses) and organoleptic qualities of selected precooked meals were investigated. All the meals remained sterile, even after 11 months of storage at 4 deg. C. Strict hygienic conditions were maintained during their preparation. The irradiated meals, which consisted of duck with orange sauce, chicken, salmon and while fish, fried potatoes, stuffed pancakes, rice with currants, and mashed potatoes and carrots, all showed good organoleptic qualities. Off-odour and off-flavour were detected only in the irradiated fried potatoes, which were rejected because of their soft texture. It is suggested that those meals that are organoleptically better than autoclaved foods could be proposed for immunosuppressed patients. (author)

  3. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  4. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...

  5. Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bumgarner, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins...... increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels...... of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25 % lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25 % lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25 % defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content...

  7. Salmon tracing: Genotyping to trace back escapees from salmon aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonk, R.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to assign an escaped salmon back to the farm responsible for the escape with near 100% accuracy. In this report, the potential of a set of genetic markers to assign an escaped salmon was determined for a set of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers, provided

  8. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  9. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  10. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... these changes affects obesity development and insulin sensitivity in mice eating the salmon. In addition, we wanted to investigate how the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO. Results: Western diets (WDs) were produced containing salmon fed either FO (WD-FO), or with partly replacement (80......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  11. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  12. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  13. Holiday Meal Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... plan ahead. Fitting in Sweets Learn about eating desserts on special occasions. In this section Planning Meals ...

  14. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  15. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  16. Utilization of smoked salmon trim in extruded smoked salmon jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J; Dougherty, M P; Perkins, L B; Camire, M E

    2012-06-01

    During smoked salmon processing, the dark meat along the lateral line is removed before packaging; this by-product currently has little economic value. In this study, the dark meat trim was incorporated into an extruded jerky. Three formulations were processed: 100% smoked trim, 75% : 25% smoked trim : fresh salmon fillet, and 50% : 50% smoked trim : fresh salmon blends (w/w basis). The base formulation contained salmon (approximately 83.5%), tapioca starch (8%), pregelatinized potato starch (3%), sucrose (4%), salt (1.5%), sodium nitrate (0.02%), and ascorbyl palmitate (0.02% of the lipid content). Blends were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder and then hot-smoked for 5 h. There were no significant differences among formulations in moisture, water activity, and pH. Protein was highest in the 50 : 50 blend jerky. Ash content was highest in the jerky made with 100% trim. Total lipids and salt were higher in the 100% trim jerky than in the 50 : 50 blend. Hot smoking did not adversely affect docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in lipids from 100% smoked trim jerky. Servings of salmon jerky made with 75% and 100% smoked trim provided at least 500 mg of EPA and DHA. The 50 : 50 formulation had the highest Intl. Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, and b* color values. Seventy consumers rated all sensory attributes as between "like slightly" and "like moderately." With some formulation and processing refinements, lateral line trim from smoked salmon processors has potential to be incorporated into acceptable, healthful snack products. Dark meat along the lateral line is typically discarded by smoked salmon processors. This omega-3 fatty acid rich by-product can be used to make a smoked salmon jerky that provides a convenient source of these healthful lipids for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Sockeye salmon evolution, ecology, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    This collection of articles and photographs gives managers a good idea of recent research into what the sockeye salmon is and does, covering such topics as the vulnerability and value of sockeye salmon ecotypes, their homing ability, using new technologies to monitor reproduction, DNA and a founder event in the Lake Clark sockeye salmon, marine-derived nutrients, the exploitation of large prey, dynamic lake spawning migrations by females, variability of sockeye salmon residence, expression profiling using cDNA microarray technology, learning from stable isotropic records of native otolith hatcheries, the amount of data needed to manage sockeye salmon and estimating salmon "escapement." 

  18. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn

    2007-01-01

    Effects of artificial salmon lice infection and pharmaceutical salmon lice prophylaxis on survival and rate of progression of Atlantic salmon (n = 72) and brown trout post-smolts (n = 72) during their fjord migration, were studied by telemetry. The infected groups were artificially exposed...... to infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...... development during the study period. Neither salmon lice infection nor pharmaceutical prophylaxis had any effects on survival and rate of progression of fjord migrating Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to control fish. Atlantic salmon spent on average only 151.2 h (maximum 207.3 h) in passing the 80 km...

  19. Growth Rate Potential of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Warmer and Cooler Years on the Eastern Bering Sea Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward V. Farley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatially explicit bioenergetics model was used to predict juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka growth rate potential (GRP on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during years with cooler and warmer spring sea surface temperatures (SSTs. Annual averages of juvenile sockeye salmon GRP were generally lower among years with cooler SSTs and generally higher in offshore than nearshore regions of the eastern Bering Sea shelf during years with warmer SSTs. Juvenile sockeye salmon distribution was significantly (P<.05 related to GRP and their prey densities were positively related to spring SST (P<.05. Juvenile sockeye salmon GRP was more sensitive to changes in prey density and observed SSTs during years when spring SSTs were warmer (2002, 2003, and 2005. Our results suggest that the pelagic productivity on the eastern Bering Sea shelf was higher during years with warmer spring SSTs and highlight the importance of bottom-up control on the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem.

  20. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  1. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat de Veterinària

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  2. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  3. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  4. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of hard...

  5. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  6. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  7. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  8. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  9. Rita Bottoms: Polyartist Librarian

    OpenAIRE

    Bottoms, Rita; Reti, Irene; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2005-01-01

    Project Director Irene Reti conducted fourteen hours of interviews with Rita Bottoms, Head of Special Collections at the University Library, UC Santa Cruz, shortly before her retirement in March 2003. This oral history provides a vivid and intimate look at thirty-seven years behind the scenes in the library's Special Collections. For thirty-seven years Bottoms dedicated herself to collecting work by some of the most eminent writers and photographers of the twentieth century, includin...

  10. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  11. Distributional impacts of meal vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Röhryová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze distributional impacts of meal voucher sys- tem in the Czech Republic, especially in the context of income inequality between different income groups. In the first part, we study the features of the Czech meal voucher scheme, relevant legislative framework and offer a comparison of the Czech meal voucher system with other European coun- tries. In the second part, we perform an analysis of the redistributive effects of meal allowances on various income deciles, quant...

  12. Bottom-linked innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative......Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...

  13. Effects of blood meal, chicken offal meal and fish meal as sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were studied of using combinations or plant protein sources, GNC, Palm Kernel cake, and cotton and seed cake diets, supplementeil with 4 sources of methionine (M) and Lysine (L), synthetic M + L, blood meal + M, fish meal, or chicken offal meal (COM) in 8-Week 3 x 4 factorial experiment with sta11er cockerels ...

  14. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  15. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  16. Effects of a high plant protein diet on the somatotropic system and cholecystokinin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevrøy, Ernst M; El-Mowafi, Adel; Taylor, Richard; Norberg, Birgitta; Espe, Marit

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the endocrine signalling from dietary plant protein on somatotropic system and gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), two iso-amino acid diets based on either high plant or high fish meal protein were fed to Atlantic salmon. Salmon with an average starting weight of 641+/-23 g (N=180), were fed a fish meal (FM) based diet (containing 40% FM) or diets mainly consisting of blended plant proteins (PP) containing only 13% marine protein, of which only 5% was FM for 3 months. mRNA levels of target genes GH, GH-R, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGF-IR in addition to CCK-L, were studied in brain, hepatic tissue and fast muscle, and circulating levels of IGF-I in plasma of Atlantic salmon were measured. We detected reduced feed intake resulting in lower growth, weight gain and muscle protein accretion in salmon fed plant protein compared to a diet based on fish meal. There were no significant effects on the regulation of the target genes in brain or in hepatic tissues, but a trend of down-regulation of IGF-I was detected in fast muscle. Lower feed intake, and therefore lower intake of the indispensable amino acids, may have resulted in lower pituitary GH and lower IGF-I mRNA levels in muscle tissues. This, together with higher protein catabolism, may be the main cause of the reduced growth of salmon fed plant protein diet. There were no signalling effects detected either by the minor differences of the diets on mRNA levels of GH, GH-R, IGF-IR, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, CCK or plasma protein IGF-I.

  17. Soyasaponins resist extrusion cooking and are not degraded during gut passage in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Røn, Ø.; Baardsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    The stability of soyasaponins in fish feed formulations was investigated. The level of soyasaponin Ab, Bb, Bc, Ba-2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (Ba-DDMP), Bb-DDMP, and BcDDMP was quantified in 15 samples of defatted soybean meal, two full fat soybean meals, and two soybean pro....... The present work demonstrates that non-DDMP-conjugated group B soyasaponins resist extrusion cooking and remain intact during gut passage in Atlantic salmon. The latter is contrary to earlier findings in endothermic animals....

  18. Hospitality and Institutional Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Strøjer, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: There is a growing interest in articulating institutional meal serving practices as a hospitality activity involving host and guest interactions. This study aims to qualify institutional hospitality and meal activities by exploring private hospitality events. The study is based......-structured interview, students reflected on their hospitality experiences. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis method. The emerging themes on hospitality activities were identified. It was found that hospitality activities could be characterized as a process where the individual...... was transformed into a guest. Information on purpose of the event and other information given in the invitation were part of this process. Furthermore, hospitality activities could be characterized by blurred host-guest relations and by being able to embrace unexpected events as well. The activities were...

  19. Bottom and top physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.; Fridman, A.; Gilman, F.J.; Herten, G.; Hinchliffe, I.; Jawahery, A.; Sanda, A.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schubert, K.R.

    1987-09-01

    The production of bottom quarks at the SSC and the formalism and phenomenology of observing CP violation in B meson decays is discussed. The production of a heavy t quark which decays into a real W boson, and what we might learn from its decays is examined

  20. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graff Ingvild E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium (Ca - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish and Atlantic cod (lean fish in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Methods Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3. Results Mean Ca absorption (± SEE from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 ± 1.7%, 22.5 ± 1.7% and 27.4 ± 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements.

  1. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Marian K; Bügel, Susanne; Kristensen, Mette; Malde, Ketil; Graff, Ingvild E; Pedersen, Jan I

    2010-07-20

    Calcium (Ca) - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish) and Atlantic cod (lean fish) in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3). Mean Ca absorption (+/- SEE) from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 +/- 1.7%, 22.5 +/- 1.7% and 27.4 +/- 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3), respectively. We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements.

  2. Salmon Habitat Modeling Using VELMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An EPA Western Ecology Division (WED) watershed modeling team has developed a watershed simulation model, VELMA, that state and federal agencies are interested in using for salmon recovery planning in the Pacific Northwest. Team member Bob McKane has been invited to serve on an e...

  3. Ocean Bottom Seismic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    EPR, the Clipperton and Orozco fracture zones , and along the coast of Mexico, were recorded for a two month period using ocean bottom seismometers...67. Tuthill, J.D., Lewis, B.R., and Garmany, J.D., 1981, Stonely waves, Lopez Island noise, and deep sea noise from I to 5 hz, Marine Geophysical...Patrol Pell Marine Science Library d/o Coast Guard R & D Center University of Rhode Island Avery Point Narragansett Bay Campus Groton, CT 06340

  4. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  5. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have...

  6. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  7. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  8. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  9. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing substitutions of soyabean meal for breadfruit meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings led to weight increases in all dietary types with exception of diet G and higher growth induction in catfishes fed all diets with exception of diet B. Diets C had induced better ...

  10. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  11. Ocean bottom seismometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, William A., Jr.

    Seismometers have been placed on the ocean bottom for about 45 years, beginning with the work of Ewing and Vine [1938], and their current use to measure signals from earthquakes and explosions constitutes an important research method for seismological studies. Approximately 20 research groups are active in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, and the United States. A review of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) instrument characteristics and OBS scientific studies may be found in Whitmarsh and Lilwall [1984]. OBS instrumentation is also important for land seismology. The recording systems that have been developed have been generally more sophisticated than those available for land use, and several modern land seismic recording systems are based on OBS recording system designs.The instrumentation developed for OBS work was the topic of a meeting held at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in July 1982. This article will discuss the state of the art of OBS Technology, some of the problems remaining to be solved, and some of the solutions proposed and implemented by OBS scientists and engineers. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of existing instrumentation.

  12. Intestinal Fluid Permeability in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. Is Affected by Dietary Protein Source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Hu

    Full Text Available In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted with five diets: A reference diet (FM in which fish meal (72% was the only protein source; Diet SBMWG with a mix of soybean meal (30% and wheat gluten (22%; Diet SPCPM with a mix of soy protein concentrate (30% and poultry meal (6%; Diet GMWG with guar meal (30% and wheat gluten (14.5%; Diet PM with 58% poultry meal. Compared to fish fed the FM reference diet, fish fed the soybean meal containing diet (SBMWG showed signs of enteritis in the DI, increased fecal water content of DI chyme and higher plasma osmolality. Altered DI expression of a battery of genes encoding aquaporins, ion transporters, tight junction and adherens junction proteins suggested reduced transcellular transport of water as well as a tightening of the junction barrier in fish fed the SBMWG diet, which may explain the observed higher fecal water content and plasma osmolality. DI structure was not altered for fish fed the other experimental diets but alterations in target gene expression and fecal water content were observed, indicating that alterations in water transport components may take place without clear effects on intestinal structure.

  13. Meal frequency and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André M; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse association between meal frequency and the prevalence of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between meal frequency and childhood obesity. Stature and weight of 4,370 German children ages 5 to 6 years were determined in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices during the obligatory school entry health examination in 2001/2002. An extensive questionnaire on risk factors for obesity was answered by their parents. Obesity was defined according to sex- and age-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The main exposure was daily meal frequency. The prevalence of obesity decreased by number of daily meals: three or fewer meals, 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8 to 6.1]; four meals, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.1 to 3.7); and 5 or more meals, 1.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4). These effects could not be explained by confounding due to a wide range of constitutional, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.21) for four meals and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.89) for five or more meals. Additional analyses pointed to a higher energy intake in nibblers compared with gorgers. A protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children was observed and appeared to be independent of other risk factors for childhood obesity. A modulation of the response of hormones such as insulin might be instrumental.

  14. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  15. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  16. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and tail...

  17. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  18. Proficiency test for paracitides in salmon muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for the quantitative analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle.

  19. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  20. Thiamine content of eggs and lengths of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to abundance of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in eastern Lake ontario, 2003 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.; Rinchard, J.; O'Gorman, R.; Begnoche, L.J.; Bishop, D.L.; Greulich, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome in fry of Great Lakes salmonines is linked to reduced levels of thiamine in eggs, which reflects maternal consumption of forage fishes such as alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) that contain thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine. We assessed annual variations in abundance and condition of alewives and thiamine status of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario. We analyzed total thiamine in eggs of 20 coho salmon collected annually between 2003 and 2006 at the Salmon River Hatchery on the Salmon River, New York. Alewife abundance was assessed annually in southern and eastern Lake Ontario with bottom trawls during late April and early May. Mean thiamine concentration in eggs varied annually, with those collected in 2003 (2.5 nmol/g) being significantly higher than those collected in 2004 to 2006 (1.5 to 1.7 nmol/g). Although we did not test survival of fry, if reported threshold levels of thiamine for preventing mortality of Lake Michigan coho salmon fry apply, then many or most Lake Ontario coho salmon produced fry were likely to incur thiamine-deficiency mortality, especially during years 2004 to 2006. Comparison to indices of annual abundance of alewife in Lake Ontario with thiamine concentration in coho salmon eggs failed to show any significant correlations (P > 0.05). However, total length of female spawning coho salmon was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with increasing condition and estimated energy content of adult alewives in the previous spring. These results suggest that growth of coho salmon in Lake Ontario was first limited by energy intake, whereas the amount of thiamine provided by alewives was sufficient for growth (in length) but not for producing thiamine-adequate eggs.

  1. Bottom and top physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.; Gilman, F.J.; Herten, G.; Hinchliffe, I.; Jawahery, A.; Sanda, A.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schubert, K.R.; Fridman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The production of heavy quark flavors occurs primarily by the strong interactions and offers another arena in which to test QCD and to probe gluon distributions at very small values of x. Such quarks can also be produced as decay products of possible new, yet undiscovered particles, e.g., Higgs bosons, and therefore are a necessary key to reconstructing such particles. The decay products of heavy quarks, especially from their semileptonic decays, can themselves form a background to other new physics processes. The production of bottom quarks at the SSC and the formalism and phenomenology of observing CP violation in B meson decays is discussed. The production of a heavy t quark which decays into a real W boson, and what might be learned from its decays is examined

  2. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  3. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  4. Cylinder-type bottom reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, C.; Fritz, R.; Kissel, K.F.; Schoening, J.

    1982-01-01

    Proposal of a bottom reflector for gas-cooled nuclear reactor plants with a pebble bed of spherical fuel elements, where the horizontal forces acting from the core and the bottom reflector upon the side reflector are equally distributed. This is attained by the upper edge of the bottom reflector being placed levelly and by the angle of inclination of the recesses varying. (orig.) [de

  5. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meals About Meals on Wheels Get Started The Issue The Problem & Our Solution Meals on Wheels Health Facts & Resources Senior Facts Map State Fact Sheets Research More Than a Meal Pilot Research Study Medicare Claims Analyses Policy Myths Hunger in Older Adults Take Action Volunteer Advocate #SAVELUNCH ...

  6. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  7. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Benjamin; J. Ryan Bellmore; Grace A. Watson

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to salmon runs. We explored whether low densities...

  8. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2018-01-01

    carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages......The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life....... By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  9. Effect of exposure on salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patursson, Esbern J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We assessed variations in salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms in relationship to their physical exposure to local circulation patterns and flushing with adjacent waters. Factors used in this study to quantify physical exposure are estimates...... of the freshwater exchange rate, the tidal exchange rate and dispersion by tidal currents. Salmon farms were ranked according to the rate of increase in the average numbers of salmon lice per fish. In a multiple linear regression, physical exposure together with temperature were shown to have a significant effect...... threshold of salmon stocking numbers for outbreaks of infection. The study presents a simple method of characterizing salmon farming fjords in terms of their different exposure levels and how they relate to potential self-infection at these sites...

  10. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  11. Bottom sample taker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbarenko, O V; Slonimskiy, L D

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the samples taken during offshore exploration from benthic sediments, the proposed design of the sample taker has a device which makes it possible to regulate the depth of submersion of the core lifter. For this purpose the upper part of the core lifter has an inner delimiting ring, and within the core lifter there is a piston suspended on a cable. The position of the piston in relation to the core lifter is previously assigned depending on the compactness of the benthic sediments and is fixed by tension of the cable which is held by a clamp in the cover of the core taker housing. When lowered to the bottom, the core taker is released, and under the influence of hydrostatic pressure of sea water, it enters the sediments. The magnitude of penetration is limited by the distance between the piston and the stopping ring. The piston also guarantees better preservation of the sample when the instrument is lifted to the surface.

  12. Rewetting during bottom flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1984-11-01

    A qualitative description of the rewetting process during bottom reflooding of a PWR is presented. Rewetting is seen as the end product of a path taken over a heat transfer surface which defines how the surface heat flux varies with surface temperature and with distance from the rewetting front. The main components are liquid contact, vapour convection and thermal radiation. In this paper the general topography of the heat transfer surface is deduced from consideration of the ways in which the conditions of the vapour and liquid phases in the flow are expected to vary with distance from the rewetting front. The deduced surface has a heat transfer ridge which decreases in height, and whose steep face moves to lower temperatures, with increasing distance from the rewetting front, and a valley which becomes negative with increasing distance. There is a different surface for each position along a subchannel, strongly influenced by the proximity of spacer grids, and by whether these grids are wet or dry. The form of this family of heat transfer surfaces is used to explain the phenomena of reflooding of clusters of heated rods. (U.K.)

  13. Lessons from sea louse and salmon epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Rogers, Luke A; Bateman, Andrew W; Connors, Brendan M; Frazer, L Neil; Godwin, Sean C; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Peacock, Stephanie J; Rees, Erin E; Revie, Crawford W; Schlägel, Ulrike E

    2016-03-05

    Effective disease management can benefit from mathematical models that identify drivers of epidemiological change and guide decision-making. This is well illustrated in the host-parasite system of sea lice and salmon, which has been modelled extensively due to the economic costs associated with sea louse infections on salmon farms and the conservation concerns associated with sea louse infections on wild salmon. Consequently, a rich modelling literature devoted to sea louse and salmon epidemiology has been developed. We provide a synthesis of the mathematical and statistical models that have been used to study the epidemiology of sea lice and salmon. These studies span both conceptual and tactical models to quantify the effects of infections on host populations and communities, describe and predict patterns of transmission and dispersal, and guide evidence-based management of wild and farmed salmon. As aquaculture production continues to increase, advances made in modelling sea louse and salmon epidemiology should inform the sustainable management of marine resources. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Consumption choice by bears feeding on salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gende, S M; Quinn, T P; Willson, M F

    2001-05-01

    Consumption choice by brown (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus) feeding on salmon was recorded for over 20,000 bear-killed fish from 1994 to 1999 in Bristol Bay (sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) and southeastern Alaska (pink, O. gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta). These data revealed striking patterns of partial and selective consumption that varied with relative availability and attributes of the fish. As the availability of salmon decreased, bears consumed a larger proportion of each fish among both years and habitats. When availability was high (absolute number and density of salmon), bears consumed less biomass per captured fish, targeting energy-rich fish (those that had not spawned) or energy-rich body parts (eggs in females; brain in males). In contrast, individual fish were consumed to a much greater extent, regardless of sex or spawning status, in habitats or years of low salmon availability. The proportion of biomass consumed per fish was similar for males and females, when spawning status was statistically controlled, but bears targeted different body parts: the body flesh, brain and dorsal hump in males and the roe in females. Bears thus appeared to maximize energy intake by modifying the amount and body parts consumed, based on availability and attributes of spawning salmon.

  15. Reduced Anxiety in Forensic Inpatients after a Long-Term Intervention with Atlantic Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Atlantic salmon consumption on underlying biological mechanisms associated with anxiety such as heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR as well as a measure of self-reported anxiety. Moreover, these biological and self-reported outcome measures were investigated in relation to specific nutrients; vitamin D status, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Ninety-five male forensic inpatients were randomly assigned into a Fish (Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February or a Control group (alternative meal, e.g., chicken, pork, or beef three times per week during the same period. HRV measured as the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD, HR, state- and trait-anxiety (STAI, were assessed before (pre-test and at the end of the 23 weeks dietary intervention period (post-test. The Fish group showed significant improvements in both rMSSD and HR. The Fish group also showed significant decreases in state-anxiety. Finally, there was a positive relationship between rMSSD and vitamin D status. The findings suggest that Atlantic salmon consumption may have an impact on mental health related variables such as underlying mechanisms playing a key role in emotion-regulation and state-anxiety.

  16. Environmental conditions and prey-switching by a seabird predator impact juvenile salmon survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brian K.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Henderson, Mark J.; Warzybok, Pete; Jahncke, Jaime; Bradley, Russell W.; Huff, David D.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Nelson, Peter; Field, John C.; Ainley, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Due to spatio-temporal variability of lower trophic-level productivity along the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), predators must be capable of switching prey or foraging areas in response to changes in environmental conditions and available forage. The Gulf of the Farallones in central California represents a biodiversity hotspot and contains the largest common murre (Uria aalge) colonies along the CCE. During spring, one of the West Coast's most important Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations out-migrates into the Gulf of the Farallones. We quantify the effect of predation on juvenile Chinook salmon associated with ecosystem-level variability by integrating long-term time series of environmental conditions (upwelling, river discharge), forage species abundance within central CCE, and population size, at-sea distribution, and diet of the common murre. Our results demonstrate common murres typically forage in the vicinity of their offshore breeding sites, but in years in which their primary prey, pelagic young-of-year rockfish (Sebastesspp.), are less available they forage for adult northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) nearshore. Incidentally, while foraging inshore, common murre consumption of out-migrating juvenile Chinook salmon, which are collocated with northern anchovy, increases and population survival of the salmon is significantly reduced. Results support earlier findings that show timing and strength of upwelling, and the resultant forage fish assemblage, is related to Chinook salmon recruitment variability in the CCE, but we extend those results by demonstrating the significance of top-down impacts associated with these bottom-up dynamics. Our results demonstrate the complexity of ecosystem interactions and impacts between higher trophic-level predators and their prey, complexities necessary to quantify in order to parameterize ecosystem models and evaluate likely outcomes of ecosystem management options.

  17. Environmental conditions and prey-switching by a seabird predator impact juvenile salmon survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brian K.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Henderson, Mark J.; Warzybok, Pete; Jahncke, Jaime; Bradley, Russell W.; Huff, David D.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Nelson, Peter; Field, John C.; Ainley, David G.

    2017-10-01

    Due to spatio-temporal variability of lower trophic-level productivity along the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), predators must be capable of switching prey or foraging areas in response to changes in environmental conditions and available forage. The Gulf of the Farallones in central California represents a biodiversity hotspot and contains the largest common murre (Uria aalge) colonies along the CCE. During spring, one of the West Coast's most important Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations out-migrates into the Gulf of the Farallones. We quantify the effect of predation on juvenile Chinook salmon associated with ecosystem-level variability by integrating long-term time series of environmental conditions (upwelling, river discharge), forage species abundance within central CCE, and population size, at-sea distribution, and diet of the common murre. Our results demonstrate common murres typically forage in the vicinity of their offshore breeding sites, but in years in which their primary prey, pelagic young-of-year rockfish (Sebastes spp.), are less available they forage for adult northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) nearshore. Incidentally, while foraging inshore, common murre consumption of out-migrating juvenile Chinook salmon, which are collocated with northern anchovy, increases and population survival of the salmon is significantly reduced. Results support earlier findings that show timing and strength of upwelling, and the resultant forage fish assemblage, is related to Chinook salmon recruitment variability in the CCE, but we extend those results by demonstrating the significance of top-down impacts associated with these bottom-up dynamics. Our results demonstrate the complexity of ecosystem interactions and impacts between higher trophic-level predators and their prey, complexities necessary to quantify in order to parameterize ecosystem models and evaluate likely outcomes of ecosystem management options.

  18. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Norambuena

    Full Text Available Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet of algae in fish feed (aquafeed resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal, Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp. for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar. Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination, in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  19. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  20. Shallow flows with bottom topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, van G.J.F.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Theunissen, R.; Rodi, W.; Uhlmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of dipolar vortex flows in a shallow fluid layer with bottom topography. Two cases are considered: a step topography and a linearly sloping bottom. It is found that viscous effects – i.e., no-slip conditions at the non-horizontal

  1. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon allozyme baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Allozymes from 46 loci were analyzed from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) collected at 61 locations in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Of the 42...

  2. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  3. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  4. Etiology of sockeye salmon 'virus' disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Raymond W.; Watson, S.W.; Rucker, R.R.; Ross, A.J.

    1959-01-01

    Violent epizootics among hatchery reared sockeye salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus nerka) caused by a filterable agent have occurred. In 1954, one source of this infectious, filterable agent was found to be adult sockeye viscera used in the diet for the fingerlings. The results of observations on an epizootic in 1958 indicate that the infection may be transmitted to fingerlings from a water supply to which adult sockeye salmon have access.

  5. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  6. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  7. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  9. Crambe meal : evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein

  10. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  11. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Krkošek, Martin; Proboszcz, Stan; Orr, Craig; Lewis, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application

  12. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & Licensure Vital Records ... food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. Many holiday dinners include meat and poultry, ...

  13. The effect of exposure to farmed salmon on piscine orthoreovirus infection and fitness in wild Pacific salmon in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Morton

    Full Text Available The disease Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI is causing substantial economic losses to the Norwegian salmon farming industry where the causative agent, piscine orthoreovirus (PRV, is reportedly spreading from farmed to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar with as yet undetermined impacts. To assess if PRV infection is epidemiologically linked between wild and farmed salmon in the eastern Pacific, wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp. from regions designated as high or low exposure to salmon farms and farmed Atlantic salmon reared in British Columbia (BC were tested for PRV. The proportion of PRV infection in wild fish was related to exposure to salmon farms (p = 0.0097. PRV was detected in: 95% of farmed Atlantic salmon, 37-45% of wild salmon from regions highly exposed to salmon farms and 5% of wild salmon from the regions furthest from salmon farms. The proportion of PRV infection was also significantly lower (p = 0.0008 where wild salmon had been challenged by an arduous return migration into high-elevation spawning habitat. Inter-annual PRV infection declined in both wild and farmed salmon from 2012-2013 (p ≤ 0.002. These results suggest that PRV transfer is occurring from farmed Atlantic salmon to wild Pacific salmon, that infection in farmed salmon may be influencing infection rates in wild salmon, and that this may pose a risk of reduced fitness in wild salmon impacting their survival and reproduction.

  14. Digestibility and pricing of Chlorella sorokiniana meal for use in tilapia feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Coelho Barone

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Several microalgae contain in excess of 50 % crude protein with amino acid profile comparable to that of fish meal. In addition, high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents encourage their use in animal feeding and nutrition, particularly in the formulation and processing of aquafeeds. This study aims at estimating the feasibility of Chlorella meal as feed ingredient for the feeding and nutrition of farmed tilapia based upon digestibility data. Juvenile tilapia were stocked in conical-bottomed tanks (200 L with superficial, continuous water flow, and fed to apparent satiation in three daily meals with a reference diet and a test diet containing 30 % lyophilized Chlorella sorokiniana added of an inert marker. Feces were collected overnight by sedimentation in refrigerated, plastic containers coupled to the tanks and analyzed for determination of chemical composition and inert marker contents to estimate apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of protein and energy of Chlorella meal; registered ADCs of Chlorella meal were 90.5 and 84.22, respectively. A pricing model considering the quantity of digestible nutrient was proposed based on ADCs of Chlorella and compared with the price of fishmeal (FM and soybean meal (SBM. The indicative prices to elicit the use of Chlorella as a protein source rather than FM or SBM for the feed and nutrition of tilapia were 2.65 USD kg−1 and 0.66 USD kg−1, respectively.

  15. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry...

  16. Adhesion mechanism of salmon to polymer-coated can walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommershuijzen, H.; Hviid, L.; Hartog, den H.; Vereijken, J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of the amount of salmon adhering to the can wall after emptying is one of the convenience requirements of consumers of canned salmon. In order to achieve this, the mechanism by which salmon adheres to cans needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to provide such knowledge for

  17. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-0531; Airspace Docket No. 13-ANM-20] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal... at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Salt Lake...

  18. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  19. Future challanges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand...... factor to future production growth in the salmon aquaculture industry....

  20. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review...

  1. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from hours...

  2. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... 101206604-1758-02] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  3. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... 101206604-1620-01] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  4. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    .... 120813333-2647-01] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  5. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    .... 120813333-3107-02] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  6. Pressing technology for large bottoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, L.

    1986-01-01

    The technology has been selected of a circular plate bent into the shape of a trough, for pressing bottoms of pressure vessels from a circular plate of large diameter. The initial sheet is first bent in the middle by heating with the edges remaining straight. These are then welded longitudinally by electroslag welding and the circular shape is flame cut. The result will be a plate with a straight surface in the middle with raised edges which may be pressed into the desired shape. In this manner it is also possible to press pressure vessel bottoms with tube couplings from plates which are thickened in the middle and drilled; additional welding is then eliminated. Deformation from heat treatment may be avoided by the use of a fixture in the shape of a ring with a groove into which is fixed the edge of the bottom. During hardening of the bottom it will be necessary to care for the withdrawal of vapours and gases which would hamper uniform cooling. Bottom hardening with the grill and the cupola downwards has been proven. Deformation which occurs during treatment may to a certain extent be removed by calibration which cannot, however, be made without special fixtures and instruments. (J.B.)

  7. Vertical self-sorting behavior in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): evidence for family differences and variation in growth and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrein, Julia R.; Billman, E.J.; Cogliati, Karen M.; Chitwood, Rob S.; Noakes, David L. G.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Life history variation is fundamental to the evolution of Pacific salmon and their persistence under variable conditions. We discovered that Chinook salmon sort themselves into surface- and bottom-oriented groups in tanks within days after exogenous feeding. We hypothesised that this behaviour is correlated with subsequent differences in body morphology and growth (as measured by final length and mass) observed later in life. We found consistent morphological differences between surface and bottom phenotypes. Furthermore, we found that surface and bottom orientation within each group is maintained for at least one year after the phenotypes were separated. These surface and bottom phenotypes are expressed across genetic stocks, brood years, and laboratories and we show that the proportion of surface- and bottom-oriented offspring also differed among families. Importantly, feed delivery location did not affect morphology or growth, and the surface fish were longer than bottom fish at the end of the rearing experiment. The body shape of the former correlates with wild individuals that rear in mainstem habitats and migrate in the fall as subyearlings and the latter resemble those that remain in the upper tributaries and migrate as yearling spring migrants. Our findings suggest that early self-sorting behaviour may have a genetic basis and be correlated with other phenotypic traits that are important indicators for juvenile migration timing.

  8. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  9. Salmon: Robust Proxy Distribution for Censorship Circumvention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many governments block their citizens’ access to much of the Internet. Simple workarounds are unreliable; censors quickly discover and patch them. Previously proposed robust approaches either have non-trivial obstacles to deployment, or rely on low-performance covert channels that cannot support typical Internet usage such as streaming video. We present Salmon, an incrementally deployable system designed to resist a censor with the resources of the “Great Firewall” of China. Salmon relies on a network of volunteers in uncensored countries to run proxy servers. Although any member of the public can become a user, Salmon protects the bulk of its servers from being discovered and blocked by the censor via an algorithm for quickly identifying malicious users. The algorithm entails identifying some users as especially trustworthy or suspicious, based on their actions. We impede Sybil attacks by requiring either an unobtrusive check of a social network account, or a referral from a trustworthy user.

  10. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  11. The quality of cold smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Ph. D. thesis was to study the liquid holding capacity/liquid loss of raw and smoked salmonids as affected by raw material and chill storage of the cold smoked product. The liquid holding capacity is an important quality parameter for cold smoked salmon. This study has shown...... that the liquid holding capacity in raw and cold smoked salmon is influenced by several factors. The size of the fish affected the liquid holding capacity as large fish had lower liquid holding capacity than smaller fish. The salt content influenced the liquid holding capacity in smoked fish as it was found...... capacity in raw salmon, as high lipid content gave lower liquid holding capacity. Thus, the lipid content is an important parameter regarding the liquid holding capacity as it can influence the liquid holding capacity directly or indirectly by affecting other factors e.g. the salt content which influences...

  12. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Pipelines and salmon in northern British Columbia : potential impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, D.A.

    2009-10-01

    Four pipeline projects have been proposed for northern British Columbia that could threaten the health of the Fraser, Skeena, and Kitimat watersheds. The pipelines will expose salmon to risks on several fronts. Enbridge's Northern Gateway pipeline project has generated the most concern for a several reasons, including the risks to salmon and freshwater habitat from pipeline failures, notably leaks or ruptures. This paper reviewed the salmon resources in affected watersheds; salmon and BC's economy; salmon diversity and abundance; impacts on fish from pipeline construction, operations and failures; behaviours of different petroleum products in fresh water; hydrocarbon toxicity; history of pipeline failures; sabotage and natural disasters; and Canadian case studies. Salmon are already experiencing stresses from forestry, hydro-electricity, transportation, agriculture, mining, mountain pine beetle, climate change and coalbed methane development. Their cumulative impact will dictate the long-term health and viability of salmon. It was concluded that if all of the proposed pipelines were built, they would extend over 4,000 km, crossing more than 1,000 rivers and streams in some of Canada's most productive salmon habitat. During construction, pipeline stream crossings are vulnerable to increased sedimentation, which can degrade salmon habitat. In the event of a spill, the condensate and oil sands products carried in the pipelines are highly toxic to salmon, with serious and lasting adverse impacts on salmon and their habitat. Any decision to approve such a pipeline should be made in recognition of these risks. 73 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs., 2 appendices.

  14. Coalbed methane and salmon : assessing the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, G.; Vadgama, J.; Holmes, R.

    2008-05-01

    The harmful environmental impacts from coalbed methane (CBM) development on land, water and wildlife have all been well documented based on experience in the United States and elsewhere. However, proposals to develop CBM resources in the headwaters region of northwest British Columbia raise a new issue regarding the impacts of CBM extraction on salmon. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap and provide essential information for communities, this report presented an assessment of the risks of CBM development on salmon, with a specific focus on a tenure held by Shell Canada Limited in the Klappan region of Northwest British Columbia. The report provided a general overview of the CBM extraction process and of the environmental impacts typically associated with commercial-scale production. The Klappan Tenure location and geology were described along with the significance of its CBM reserves. The report also addressed the question of salmon presence within the tenure, drawing on existing field research to identify streams where coho, chinook and sockeye salmon have been observed. The report also contained assessments of potential risks associated with the two primary impact pathways, notably runoff and erosion effects arising from land disturbance, and stream flow and temperature effects arising from groundwater extraction. The report provided a brief overview of additional CBM-related impacts which could have indirect effects on salmon. Last, the report considered factors external to the Klappan project which could influence the nature and severity of impacts on salmon, including climate change; inadequate regulations; and cumulative impacts. It was concluded that CBM development should not occur without social license. Communities need to be empowered to decide whether or not they support CBM extraction in their area before development proceeds. 73 refs., 3 tabs., 26 figs

  15. Cayenne pepper in a meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B. V.; Byrne, D. V.; Bredie, W. L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated appetite sensations, hedonics, sensory specific desires, physical- and psychological well-being sensations during and after intake of a meal with- and without increased oral heat induced by addition of cayenne pepper. Subjects (n = 66) completed a randomized cross......-over study involving a tomato soup with and without added cayenne pepper (0.593 mg capsaicin). Self-reports were evaluated at 5 min intervals during intake and at 1 h intervals until four hours post intake using VAS-scales and 9-point scales. Sensory specific desires were further studied by liking...... and wanting of food samples representing the sensory profiles: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, fat and spicy, respectively. The soup with cayenne pepper added was perceived significantly more spicy but equally liked, and resulted in significant higher satiation at the end of the meal and one hour post intake...

  16. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  17. Decay of the Bottom mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Phi; Duong Anh Duc

    1992-12-01

    The channels of the decay of Bottom mesons are deduced from a selection rule and the Lagrangians which are formed on the LxO(4) invariance and the principle of minimal structure. The estimation of the corresponding decay probabilities are considered. (author). 21 refs

  18. Bottom reflector for power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, C.; Kissel, K.F.; Schoening, J.; Schwiers, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    In pebble bed reactors erosion and damage due fuel elements movement on the surface of the bottom reflector should be minimized. This can be achieved by chamfering and/or rounding the cover edges of the graphite blocks and the edges between the drilled holes and the surface of the graphite block. (orig.) [de

  19. Salmon vulnerability maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  20. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits. Genetic,...

  1. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  2. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  3. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  4. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of ready meals and their meat components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the quality of a chicken masala ready meal, minced red meat and salmon meat were studied in a series of experiments. Chicken masala meals treated with a dose of 1-3 kGy and stored for up to 14 d at refrigeration temperatures were analysed for vitamins E and B 1 , oxidative rancidity, microbiological quality and 2-alkylcyclobutanones. It was found that vitamin levels were significantly reduced by a combination of irradiation, storage and reheating, while thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values decreased upon irradiation, which was an unexpected result. The shelf life of the meals was extended by irradiation as levels of bacteria were significantly reduced in the prepared meals upon treatment. Both 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone were detected in the irradiated samples, thereby showing that these compounds can be used as markers of irradiation treatment for such food products. In order to study potential components for ready meals, freshly minced beef was used to prepare beef patties, which were vacuum packed and treated with doses from 2.5 to 10 kGy. Following irradiation, half the samples were retained in vacuum packs while the remainder were transferred to sterile containers and overwrapped with cling film. Samples were stored for up to 21 d at refrigeration temperature with TBA values and microbiological quality being analysed at regular intervals. The TBA values of vacuum packed samples were unaffected by irradiation although storage did result in an increase. On the other hand, the TBA values of overwrapped patties increased upon irradiation and storage. The microbiological quality of the irradiated patties upon storage was significantly better than those of untreated patties. A further series of experiments were undertaken to determine the effect of adding antioxidants to beef and salmon patties in order to improve lipid stability upon irradiation. In an initial experiment, minced beef patties were prepared

  6. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work.

  7. 76 FR 54216 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model Evaluation...

  8. 77 FR 58526 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model Evaluation...

  9. Candida utilis and Chlorella vulgaris counteract intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Grammes

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE. In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM, a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU, Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV. Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.

  10. Outbreaks of phaeohyphomycosis in the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caused by Phoma herbarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohamed; Elsayed, Ehab; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Silva, Victor; Mendoza, Leonel

    2007-01-01

    Phoma herbarum has been associated with two outbreaks of systemic mycosis in hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fingerlings. Affected fish exhibited abnormal swimming behavior, exophthalmia, multiple rounded areas of muscle softening, protruded hemorrhagic vents, and abdominal swelling. In all affected fish, swimbladders were filled with whitish creamy viscous fungal mass, surrounded by dark red areas in swimbladder walls, kidneys, and musculature. Clinical and histopathological examinations suggest that the infection may have started primarily in the swimbladder and then spread to the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and surrounding musculature. Consistent microscopical findings included broad septate branched fungal hyaline hyphae, 5-12 microm in diameter within the swimbladder, stomach, and often within and adjacent to blood vessels. Profuse growths of woolly brown fungal colonies were obtained from swimbladders and kidneys on Sabouraud medium. On corn meal agar the formation of pycnidia, characteristic of Phoma spp., was detected within 10 days of incubation. Morphological and molecular analyses identified this fungus as Phoma herbarum. This report underscores systemic fungal infections as a threat to raceway-raised salmon.

  11. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  12. Salmon recovery planning using the VELMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a set of tools to provide decision support for community-based salmon recovery planning in Pacific Northwest watersheds. This seminar describes how these tools are being integrated and applied in collaboration with Puget Sound tribes and community stakeholders to add...

  13. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  14. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  15. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  16. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  17. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  18. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  19. Bottom head failure program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier this year the NRC staff presented a Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan (SECY-89-123) to the Commission and initiated work on that plan. Two of the near-term issues in that plan involve failure of the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel. These two issues are (1) depressurization and DCH and (2) BWR Mark I Containment Shell Meltthrough. ORNL has developed models for several competing failure mechanisms for BWRs. INEL has performed analytical and experimental work directly related to bottom head failure in connection with several programs. SNL has conducted a number of analyses and experimental activities to examine the failure of LWR vessels. In addition to the government-sponsored work mentioned above, EPRI and FAI performed studies on vessel failure for the Industry Degraded Core Rulemaking Program (IDCOR). EPRI examined the failure of a PWR vessel bottom head without penetrations, as found in some Combustion Engineering reactors. To give more attention to this subject as called for by the revised Severe Accident Research Plan, two things are being done. First, work previously done is being reviewed carefully to develop an overall picture and to determine the reliability of assumptions used in those studies. Second, new work is being planned for FY90 to try to complete a reasonable understanding of the failure process. The review and planning are being done in close cooperation with the ACRS. Results of this exercise will be presented in this paper

  20. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  2. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  3. Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, J.; Fazio, J.

    1993-01-01

    Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

  4. Surveys on Gyrodactylus parasites onwild Atlantic salmon in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    Gyrodactylus salaris is a monogenean ectoparasite parasitizing salmonids in freshwater. This parasite is highly pathogenic to both Norwegian and Scottish salmon and has decimated the salmon populations in 45 Norwegian rivers after anthropogenic transfer from Sweden. G. salaris has also been found...... on several occasions in Danish rainbow trout farms but has never been recorded as a pathogenic parasite on Danish wild salmon. In the present study the occurrence of G. salaris and other Gyrodactylus parasites on wild Danish salmon fry and parr were monitored. Electrofishing was conducted in three river......-systems (River Skjern, Ribe and Varde) and 0+ and 1+ salmon were collected and sacrificed using an overdose of MS222. During spring or summer time more salmon fry and parr will be collected. The fins were excised and fins and body were conserved separately in 96% ethanol. In the laboratory, the fins and body...

  5. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  6. Consumption of salmon. A survey of supermarkets in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingling

    2003-01-01

    To keep up with the recent trends in consumer demand for salmon product in supermarkets, an understanding of the relationship between consumption and variation of lifestyle is needed. The present paper seeks to address this question by hypothesizing that consumption is strongly influenced by consumers’ sociodemograhic status, experience of salmon, beliefs with salmon’s attributes and preference for the preferred type of salmon. Understanding the main lifestyle factors influe...

  7. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  8. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Bottom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social-ecological interactions across multiple scales that create difficult mismatches with the many jurisdictions that manage fisheries and other natural resources. Of particular importance to ecosystem resilience are large-scale shifts in oceanic and climatic regimes or in global economic conditions that unpredictably alter social and ecological systems. Past management actions that did not account for such changes have undermined salmon population resilience and increased the risk of irreversible regime shifts in salmon ecosystems. Because salmon convey important provisioning, cultural, and supporting services to their local watersheds, widespread population decline has undermined both human well-being and ecosystem resilience. Strengthening resilience will require expanding habitat opportunities for salmon populations to express their maximum life-history variation. Such actions also may benefit the "response diversity" of local communities by expanding the opportunities for people to express diverse social and economic values. Reestablishing social-ecological connections in salmon ecosystems will provide important ecosystem services, including those that depend on clean water, ample stream flows, functional wetlands and floodplains, intact riparian systems, and abundant fish populations.

  10. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  11. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  12. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  13. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  14. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9......) and the other with a less healthy diet (n 8). Both groups were recruited from respondents to a dietary survey. Semi-structured interviews took their starting point in photographs of their meals and snacks taken by the children themselves. RESULTS: Both subgroups of children had a meal pattern with three main...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  15. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Start-up of Hekni Power Station. 3. Investigation of the effects of particles on water chemistry, landlocked salmon and freshwater ecology; Igangkjoering av Hekni Kraftverk. 3. Undersoekelser av partikkeleffekter paa vannkjemi, Byglandsfjordbleke og vassdragsoekologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerknes, V.; Kvellestad, A.; Berntssen, M.

    1996-06-01

    The new Norwegian hydroelectric power station Hekni Power Station in the river Otra began operation in the autumn of 1995. Out of consideration for the landlocked salmon in the Byglandsfjord, valuable and nationally deserving of preservation as it is, the tunnel was gradually filled with water so as to avoid large amounts of suspended sediments downstream. During start-up, several environmental investigations were made, as discussed in this report: registrations and analyses of the water from Otra, experimental exposure of landlocked salmon, assessment of wild fish and collection of bottom animals from river stretches exposed to suspended sediments and from unexposed control stretches. Exposed salmon show clear evidence of typical gill changes due to acidification while there is no evidence of changes caused by suspended sediment particles. The changes in population densities of wild fish and bottom animals from before start-up to after start-up is primarily related to the altered water discharge. However, the absence of groups of particle sensitive bottom animals after exposure may be due to particle emission from the power station. The chemically unstable particles may have temporarily increased the pH and calcium concentration and reduced the concentration of unstable aluminium in the most affected part of the river system, while the particle level itself may have been too low to cause noticeable effects on fish. The extent to which the bottom ecology may have been damaged is not sufficiently well known. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. DANUBE SALMON (HUCHO HUCHO L.. THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating of the thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to ecological and zoogeographical, morphological and biological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the Danube salmon, as well as to its cultivation in Ukraine and abroad. Methodology. In the process of systematic search complete and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core have been formed by the literature from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed the thematic list of publications in a quantity of 100 sources, containing characteristics of Danube salmon as representative of salmonids. Literary sources was arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding, and researching of the salmon biological features.

  18. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  19. Quantitative risk assessment of salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolt Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bråthen Kristoffersen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian government recently implemented a new management system to regulate salmon farming in Norway, aiming to promote environmentally sustainable growth in the aquaculture industry. The Norwegian coast has been divided into 13 production zones and the volume of salmonid production in the zones will be regulated based on salmon lice effects on wild salmonids. Here we present a model for assessing salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolts of Atlantic salmon. The model quantifies expected salmon lice infestations and louse-induced mortality of migrating post-smolt salmon from 401 salmon rivers draining into Norwegian coastal waters. It is assumed that migrating post-smolts follow the shortest path from river outlets to the high seas, at constant progression rates. During this migration, fish are infested by salmon lice of farm origin according to an empirical infestation model. Furthermore, louse-induced mortality is estimated from the estimated louse infestations. Rivers draining into production zones on the West Coast of Norway were at the highest risk of adverse lice effects. In comparison, rivers draining into northerly production zones, along with the southernmost production zone, were at lower risk. After adjusting for standing stock biomass, estimates of louse-egg output varied by factors of up to 8 between production zones. Correlation between biomass adjusted output of louse infestation and densities of farmed salmon in the production zones suggests that a large-scale density-dependent host-parasite effect is a major driver of louse infestation rates and parasite-induced mortality. The estimates are sensitive to many of the processes in the chain of events in the model. Nevertheless, we argue that the model is suited to assess spatial and temporal risks associated with farm-origin salmon lice. Keywords: Density dependent, Sea lice, Transmission, Farmed salmon, Migration pathway, Migration time

  20. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P.A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of

  1. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied or...

  2. 77 FR 12568 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Salmon Fishery. NMFS will hold a series of public meetings with Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon... to Paul Marx, Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback...

  3. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  4. Circadian Clocks for All Meal-Times: Anticipation of 2 Daily Meals in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Kent, Brianne A.; Chan, Sofina; Patton, Danica F.; Weinberg, Alexander; Parfyonov, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Anticipation of a daily meal in rats has been conceptualized as a rest-activity rhythm driven by a food-entrained circadian oscillator separate from the pacemaker generating light-dark (LD) entrained rhythms. Rats can also anticipate two daily mealtimes, but whether this involves independently entrained oscillators, one ‘continuously consulted’ clock, cue-dependent non-circadian interval timing or a combination of processes, is unclear. Rats received two daily meals, beginning 3-h (meal 1) and 13-h (meal 2) after lights-on (LD 14∶10). Anticipatory wheel running began 68±8 min prior to meal 1 and 101±9 min prior to meal 2 but neither the duration nor the variability of anticipation bout lengths exhibited the scalar property, a hallmark of interval timing. Meal omission tests in LD and constant dark (DD) did not alter the timing of either bout of anticipation, and anticipation of meal 2 was not altered by a 3-h advance of meal 1. Food anticipatory running in this 2-meal protocol thus does not exhibit properties of interval timing despite the availability of external time cues in LD. Across all days, the two bouts of anticipation were uncorrelated, a result more consistent with two independently entrained oscillators than a single consulted clock. Similar results were obtained for meals scheduled 3-h and 10-h after lights-on, and for a food-bin measure of anticipation. Most rats that showed weak or no anticipation to one or both meals exhibited elevated activity at mealtime during 1 or 2 day food deprivation tests in DD, suggesting covert operation of circadian timing in the absence of anticipatory behavior. A control experiment confirmed that daytime feeding did not shift LD-entrained rhythms, ruling out displaced nocturnal activity as an explanation for daytime activity. The results favor a multiple oscillator basis for 2-meal anticipatory rhythms and provide no evidence for involvement of cue-dependent interval timing. PMID:22355393

  5. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  6. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  7. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  8. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  9. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  10. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  11. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  14. SALMON AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: TROUBLESOME QUESTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest and California, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. In response to requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the Canadian Species at Risk Act, and ...

  15. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine salmon case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bölscher, T.; Slobbe, van E.J.J.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Werners, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon

  16. Price premium of organic salmon in Danish retail sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    for organic salmon in Danish retail sale using consumer panel scanner data from households by applying a random effect hedonic price model that permits unobserved household heterogeneity. A price premium of 20% was identified for organic salmon. The magnitude of this premium is comparable to organic labeled...

  17. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...... is considered to be an effective strategy to promote such changes and increasingly such strategies become embedded organic supply polices and strategies that pursue environmental goals. The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look into the current status of the organic school meal programme in Denmark....... Three municipalities which are involved in the organic school meal programme are chosen as the study subjects....

  18. Process analysis and data driven optimization in the salmon industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt

    Aquaculture supplies around 70% of the salmon in the World and the industry is thus an important player in meeting the increasing demand for salmon products. Such mass production calls for systems that can handle thousands of tonnes of salmon without compromising the welfare of the fish...... and the following product quality. Moreover, the requirement of increased profit performance for the industry should be met with sustainable production solutions. Optimization during the production of salmon fillets could be one feasible approach to increase the outcome from the same level of incoming raw material...... and analysis of data from the salmon industry could be utilized to extract information that will support the industry in their decision-making processes. Mapping of quality parameters, their fluctuations and influences on yield and texture has been investigated. Additionally, the ability to predict the texture...

  19. Benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway using foraminiferal metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the salmon industry necessitates the development of fast and accurate tools to assess its environmental impact. Macrobenthic monitoring is commonly used to measure the impact of organic enrichment associated with salmon farm activities. However, classical benthic monitoring can...... of macrofauna-based benthic monitoring. Here, we tested the application of foraminiferal metabarcoding to benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway. We analysed 140 samples of eDNA and environmental RNA (eRNA) extracted from surface sediment samples collected at 4 salmon farming sites in Norway. We sequenced...... of Foraminifera as bioindicators of organic enrichment associated with salmon farming. The foraminiferal diversity increased with the distance to fish cages, and metabarcoding provides an assessment of the ecological quality comparable to the morphological analyses. The foraminiferal metabarcoding approach...

  20. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  1. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-08

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB.

  2. Future of Pacific salmon in the face of environmental change: Lessons from one of the world's remaining productive salmon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Erik R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Trammell, Jamie; Rinella, Daniel J.; Floyd, Angelica L.; Grunblatt, Jess; McCarthy, Molly D.; Meyer, Benjamin E.; Morton, John M.; Powell, James E.; Prakash, Anupma; Reimer, Matthew N.; Stuefer, Svetlana L.; Toniolo, Horacio; Wells, Brett M.; Witmer, Frank D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. face serious challenges from climate and landscape change, particularly in the southern portion of their native range. Conversely, climate warming appears to be allowing salmon to expand northwards into the Arctic. Between these geographic extremes, in the Gulf of Alaska region, salmon are at historically high abundances but face an uncertain future due to rapid environmental change. We examined changes in climate, hydrology, land cover, salmon populations, and fisheries over the past 30–70 years in this region. We focused on the Kenai River, which supports world-famous fisheries but where Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha populations have declined, raising concerns about their future resilience. The region is warming and experiencing drier summers and wetter autumns. The landscape is also changing, with melting glaciers, wetland loss, wildfires, and human development. This environmental transformation will likely harm some salmon populations while benefiting others. Lowland salmon streams are especially vulnerable, but retreating glaciers may allow production gains in other streams. Some fishing communities harvest a diverse portfolio of fluctuating resources, whereas others have specialized over time, potentially limiting their resilience. Maintaining diverse habitats and salmon runs may allow ecosystems and fisheries to continue to thrive amidst these changes.

  3. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  4. Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree +chunks, puree +pink row, puree +pink row +chunks, puree +red row, puree +red roe +chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristi...

  5. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  6. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  7. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  8. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  9. The effect of chronic chromium exposure on the health of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, Aida M. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Jackson Field Research Station, P.O. Box 1089, Jackson, WY 83001 (United States)]. E-mail: aida_farag@usgs.gov; May, Thomas [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Marty, Gary D. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8732 (United States); Easton, Michael [International EcoGen Inc., 2015 McLallen Court, North Vancouver, BC, Canada V7P 3H6 (Canada); Harper, David D. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Jackson Field Research Station, P.O. Box 1089, Jackson, WY 83001 (United States); Little, Edward E. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Cleveland, Laverne [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    This study was designed to determine fish health impairment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to chromium. Juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to aqueous chromium concentrations (0-266 {mu}g l{sup -1}) that have been documented in porewater from bottom sediments and in well waters near salmon spawning areas in the Columbia River in the northwestern United States. After Chinook salmon parr were exposed to 24 and 54 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} for 105 days, neither growth nor survival of parr was affected. On day 105, concentrations were increased from 24 to 120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} and from 54 to 266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} until the end of the experiment on day 134. Weight of parr was decreased in the 24/120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatment, and survival was decreased in the 54/266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatment. Fish health was significantly impaired in both the 24/120 and 54/266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatments. The kidney is the target organ during chromium exposures through the water column. The kidneys of fish exposed to the greatest concentrations of chromium had gross and microscopic lesions (e.g. necrosis of cells lining kidney tububules) and products of lipid peroxidation were elevated. These changes were associated with elevated concentrations of chromium in the kidney, and reduced growth and survival. Also, variations in DNA in the blood were associated with pathological changes in the kidney and spleen. These changes suggest that chromium accumulates and enters the lipid peroxidation pathway where fatty acid damage and DNA damage (expressed as chromosome changes) occur to cause cell death and tissue damage. While most of the physiological malfunctions occurred following parr exposures to concentrations {>=}120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1}, nuclear DNA damage followed exposures to 24 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1}, which was the smallest concentration tested. The abnormalities measured during this study are particularly important because they are associated with impaired growth

  10. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in farmed salmon of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kiel (Germany); Schwind, K.H.; Jira, W. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    With a market share of 8.4% in 2001 (approx. 100,000 t) farmed salmon is one of the most important fish species on the German market. The world wide production of salmon in 2001 was approximately 1.2 Mio t. Norway has produced around 450,000 t of Atlantic salmon of which 60,000 t has been exported to Germany. Other important suppliers of salmon to the German market are Scotland, Denmark, Chile and Ireland. The annual amount from Ireland is relatively small, being approximately 2,000 t. Most salmon is raised under conventional farming conditions. During the last years also high priced organically grown salmon is available on the German market, mainly produced in Ireland. With 800 t per year the market share of organically farmed salmon is less than 1%. Within the context of a study to develop methods for the detection of organically produced products taking salmon as example it was checked if the contaminant levels and/or the contaminant patterns are suitable to differentiate between organically and conventionally farmed salmon. Conventionally farmed salmon, referred as to farmed salmon, was collected from different European farms; organically farmed salmon, referred as to organic salmon, came from Ireland as well as wild Atlantic salmon, which was included into the study. In the present study dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs and a range of organochlorine pesticides (toxaphene, chlordane, DDT, HCB etc.) in the muscle meat of salmon were investigated.

  11. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  13. Perceptual learning: top to bottom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R

    2014-06-01

    Perceptual learning has traditionally been portrayed as a bottom-up phenomenon that improves encoding or decoding of the trained stimulus. Cognitive skills such as attention and memory are thought to drive, guide and modulate learning but are, with notable exceptions, not generally considered to undergo changes themselves as a result of training with simple perceptual tasks. Moreover, shifts in threshold are interpreted as shifts in perceptual sensitivity, with no consideration for non-sensory factors (such as response bias) that may contribute to these changes. Accumulating evidence from our own research and others shows that perceptual learning is a conglomeration of effects, with training-induced changes ranging from the lowest (noise reduction in the phase locking of auditory signals) to the highest (working memory capacity) level of processing, and includes contributions from non-sensory factors that affect decision making even on a "simple" auditory task such as frequency discrimination. We discuss our emerging view of learning as a process that increases the signal-to-noise ratio associated with perceptual tasks by tackling noise sources and inefficiencies that cause performance bottlenecks, and present some implications for training populations other than young, smart, attentive and highly-motivated college students. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radio telemetry data - Characterizing migration and survival for juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin and Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project estimates survival and characterizes the migration of juvenile sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin in central Idaho and Lower Granite...

  15. Chemical data for 7 streams in Salmon River Basin - Importance of biotic and abiotic features of salmon habitat implications for juvenile Chinook and steelhead growth and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a large-scale, long-term comparative study that includes many streams (20+ streams in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho, including a few non-salmon streams for...

  16. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  17. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-12-01

    Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite. This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models. Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25-134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1-97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 to 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally. The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  20. Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) habitat/limnologic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock

  1. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  2. Price formation of the salmon aquaculture futures market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This study examines price formation of the internationally traded salmon futures exchange. Analyzing data from 2006 to 2015, the study identifies the co-integration relationship between the spot market price and 1–6-, 9- and 12-month futures contract prices. With exception of the 12-month maturity....... Analysis of the term structure of futures volatilities reveal that the shorter the length of the futures contract, the more volatility there is. This is because salmon prices exhibit short-term cyclical and seasonal patterns like other agricultural commodities. As such, salmon producers will be better off...

  3. Effect of replacing fish meal with maggot meal on growth nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) 4-week old finisher broilers of Ross breed were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal replacing fish meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and organ characteristics. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 24 birds in ...

  4. Teachers' interaction with children in the school meal situation: the example of pedagogic meals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Göranzon, Helen; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    School meals are also a teaching occasion in which children learn about food and meals, which is referred to as "pedagogic meals" in Sweden. The aim of the present article was to study how the pedagogic meal is practiced in preschool and school settings, with focus on how teachers acted when interacting with the children. Observations, interviews, and focus group interviews. School canteens. Three schools. Teaching in the school meal situation. Social constructionism, new social studies of childhood. The teachers took on 3 different roles. The sociable teacher role entailed turning the school lunch into a social occasion, the educating teacher role involved educating the children, and the evasive teacher role was not associated with the definition of a pedagogic meal. The teacher roles, which ranged from adult-oriented to child-oriented, and which varied in the level of interaction with the children, were summarized in a framework named the Adult- to Child-oriented Teacher Role Framework for School Meals (ACTS). To realize the potential of pedagogic meals, teachers must be educated and become aware of the effects of their behaviors. In this situation, the ACTS framework can constitute a useful tool. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. AFSC/ABL: Adult Pink Salmon Predation in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska, 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project objectives were to assess potential salmon predation impact on juvenile salmon and herring by: (1) comparing diets of adult pink salmon during their...

  7. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p effect of treatment on prepizza meal BG AUC (p = 0.07). Immediately after the pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  8. The influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on growth and production of juvenile coho salmon rearing in beaver ponds on the Copper River Delta, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk W. Lang; Gordon H. Reeves; James D. Hall; Mark S. Wipfli

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchrcs kisutch) on the density, growth rate, body condition, and survival to outmigration of juvenile coho salmon on the Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA. During the fall of 1999 and 2000, fish rearing in beaver ponds that received spawning salmon were compared with fish from...

  9. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  10. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  11. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  12. Dehydration-Anorexia Derives From A Reduction In Meal Size, But Not Meal Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N.; Lorenzen, Sarah M.; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, make dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable. PMID:21854794

  13. Impossible meals? The food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia - A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Maria; Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria

    2017-06-01

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  15. Irradiation of ready made meals -Lasagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkia, Ines

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological, nutritional, chemical and sensory quality of chilled ready-made meals was assessed. The ready meals used for this experimental work are lasagne. Following arrival at the semi-industrial Cobalt 60 irradiation facility, the meals were either left unirradiated or irradiated with doses of 2 or 4 kGy after which they were stored for up to 23 days at 3C. Results showed that 2 or 4 kGy doses of gamma irradiation decreased the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and increased the shelf-life of lasagne. In terms of nutritional quality, it was found that losses of vitamin A and E due to irradiation treatment were considerable at 4 kGy. Total acidity, and p H, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to one week for ready meals treated with 2 and 4 kGy whereas peroxide index showed high values at 4 kGy. Sensory results showed no significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meals at 2 kGy. However, the results were less promising at 4 kGy since differences were significant. (Author). 60 refs

  16. Adolescent and parent views of family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2006-04-01

    To examine and compare the family mealtime environment from the perspectives of both adolescents and parents. Adolescents completed a school-based survey and parents participated in a telephone interview as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Participants were 902 adolescent females (n=424) and males (n=478) and one of their guardians/parents. Frequencies, chi(2) analyses, and Spearman correlations were used to assess relationships. Parents were more likely than adolescents to report eating five or more family meals per week, the importance of eating together, and scheduling difficulties (Ptogether, and more rule expectations at mealtime (PGirls reported more family meals per week and more scheduling conflicts than boys did; boys reported more rules at mealtime than girls did (Ptogetherness, and for role modeling behaviors that parents would like their children to emulate. Dietetics professionals can capitalize on positive attitudes toward family meals to help promote their frequency. Helping families learn to cook healthful, quick meals may reduce dependency on less healthful meal options, reduce the frequency of eating outside of the home, and promote greater nutritional intake.

  17. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  18. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  20. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    year to year. The tendency to spawn in clusters suggests fall chinook salmon's use of spawning habitat is highly selective. Hydraulic characteristics of the redd clusters were significantly different than the habitat surrounding them. Velocity and lateral slope of the river bottom were the most important habitat variables in predicting redd site selection. While these variables explained a large proportion of the variance in redd site selection (86 to 96%), some unmeasured factors still accounted for a small percentage of actual spawning site selection. Chapter three describes the results from an investigation into the hyporheic characteristics of the two spawning areas studied in chapter two. This investigation showed that the magnitude and chemical characteristics of hyporheic discharge were different between and within two spawning areas. Apparently, fall chinook salmon used chemical and physical cues from the discharge to locate spawning areas. Finally, chapter four describes a unique method that was developed to install piezometers into the cobble bed of the Columbia River.

  1. Why are not there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, D. L. [Vermont Univ., School of Natural Resources, Vermont Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Burlington, VT (United States); Behnke, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Gephard, S. R. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmnetal Protection, Fisheries Div., Old Lyme, CT (United States); McCormick, S. D. [Anadromous Fish Research Center, USGS/Biological Resources Div., Turners Falls, MA (United States); Reeves, G. H. [USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The causes of decline and extirpation of salmon on a global scale are investigated. In some cases single factors such as dams, pollution and dewatering, increased density of humans near salmon rivers, overfishing, changes in ocean conditions or intensive aquaculture could be identified as likely causes. The available evidence is not sufficient to link cause and effect for most declines because they are the result of multiple factors, and data that would help to discriminate factors on scales of space or time are lacking. For this reason, it is not possible to allocate the proportional impact of multiple factors that contribute to the the demise of salmon populations. More rigorous methodologies, including more effective sampling techniques, testing of multiple effects integrated across space and time, and adaptive management are needed to account for the continuing decline of salmon.

  2. Light Experiment data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  3. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  4. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  5. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  6. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  7. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  8. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described

  9. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  10. Fish Health data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  11. AFSC/ABL: Ugashik sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 b?? 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Ugashik River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  12. AFSC/ABL: Naknek sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Naknek River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game....

  13. AFSC/ABL: Karluk sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To better understand how density-dependent growth of ocean-dwelling Pacific salmon varied with climate and population dynamics, we examined the marine growth of...

  14. Social Behavior - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  15. AFSC/ABL: Movements of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, relatively pristine river basin. A total of...

  16. AFSC/ABL: 2007-2013 Chinook Salmon Bycatch Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analyses of samples from the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bycatch from the 2007-2013 Bering Sea-Aleutian Island and Gulf of Alaska trawl...

  17. Diet - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  18. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  19. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  20. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  1. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. Application of Portfolio Theory in Recovery Planning for Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological applications of portfolio theory demonstrate the utility of this analytical framework for understanding the stability of commercial and indigenous Pacific Salmon fisheries. Portfolio theory also has the potential to aid in recovery planning for threatened and endangere...

  3. AFSC/FMA/Salmon Genetics From Observer Speimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic data of salmon bycatch samples collected by fisheries observers are used for mixed-stock analyses to determine geographic region of origin. This work is done...

  4. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  5. Climate refugia for salmon in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest t...

  6. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Scott, M.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Chatters, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant

  7. Estuarine and marine diets of out-migrating Chinook Salmon smolts in relation to local zooplankton populations, including harmful blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, C. M.; Sweeting, R.; Neville, C. M.; Young, K.; Galbraith, M.; Carmack, E.; Vagle, S.; Dempsey, M.; Eert, J.; Beamish, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in food availability during the early marine phase of wild Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) are being investigated as a cause of their recent declines in the Salish Sea. The marine survival of hatchery smolts, in particular, has been poor. This part of the Salish Sea Marine Survival Project examined the diet of young out-migrating Chinook Salmon for four consecutive years in the Cowichan River estuary and in Cowichan Bay, British Columbia, Canada. Local zooplankton communities were monitored during the final year of the study in the Cowichan River estuary, Cowichan Bay, and eastward to the Salish Sea to better understand the bottom-up processes that may be affecting Chinook Salmon survival. Rearing environment affected body size, diet, and distribution in the study area. Clipped smolts (hatchery-reared) were larger than the unclipped smolts (primarily naturally-reared), ate larger prey, spent very little time in the estuary, and disappeared from the bay earlier, likely due to emigration or mortality. Their larger body size may be a disadvantage for hatchery smolts if it necessitates their leaving the estuary prematurely to meet energy needs; the onset of piscivory began at a forklength of approximately 74 mm, which was less than the average forklength of the clipped fish in this study. The primary zooplankton bloom occurred during the last week of April/first week of May 2013, whereas the main release of hatchery-reared Chinook Salmon smolts occurs each year in mid-May-this timing mismatch may reduce their survival. Gut fullness was correlated with zooplankton biomass; however, both the clipped and unclipped smolts were not observed in the bay until the bloom of harmful Noctiluca was finished-20 days after the maximum recorded zooplankton abundance. Jellyfish medusa flourished in nearshore areas, becoming less prevalent towards the deeper waters of the Salish Sea. The sizable presence of Noctiluca and jellyfish in the zooplankton blooms may be repelling

  8. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  9. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications . Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  10. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  11. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming obese, healthier eating patterns are urgent. Organic school meals may be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children. The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the current status of organic school meal systems...... in Denmark, by conducting a case study of three municipalities in the Zealand region that have the most developed models for school meals service in this country. These municipalities have for some years introduced organic food for sale in their primary schools, with three quite different approaches....... Copenhagen has established a large central kitchen, producing partly organic food that is heated and sold in tuck shops at the schools. Roskilde cooperates with an organic catering company, delivering food to be sold in school canteens. Gladsaxe has part-time employed staff preparing and selling food at each...

  12. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  13. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2015-12-01

    Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.

  14. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  15. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bile components and lecithin supplemented to plant based diets do not diminish diet related intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael H; Bjӧrkhem, Ingemar; Måsøval, Kjell; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-09-07

    The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1.8 %), bovine bile salt (1.8 %), taurine (0.4 %), lecithin (1.5 %), or a mix of supplements (suppl mix) containing taurocholate (1.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %) and lecithin (0.4 %). Two additional diets were made from the HPS diet by supplementing with: bovine bile salt (1.8 %) or the suppl mix. Body and intestinal weights were recorded, and blood, bile, intestinal tissues and digesta were sampled for evaluation of growth, nutrient metabolism and intestinal structure and function. In comparison with fish fed the HFM diet fish fed the LFM and HPS diets grew less and showed reduced plasma bile salt and cholesterol levels. Histological examination of the distal intestine showed signs of enteritis in both LFM and HPS diet groups, though more pronounced in the HPS diet group. The HPS diet reduced digesta dry matter and capacity of leucine amino peptidase in the distal intestine. None of the dietary supplements improved endpoints regarding fish performance, gut function or inflammation in the distal intestine. Some endpoints rather indicated negative effects. Dietary supplementation with bile components or lecithin in general did not improve endpoints regarding performance or gut health in Atlantic salmon, in clear contrast to what has been previously reported for rainbow trout. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify if lower levels of bile salts and cholesterol may give different and beneficial effects, or if other supplements

  17. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...... genetic variation, and that the resistances are weakly correlated genetically. We tested this reasoning by challenging Atlantic salmon from 920 (approximately) full-sib families with the causative agents of furunculosis and ISA, and fish from 265 of these families with the causative agent of IPN. Additive...... indicate that it should be relatively easy to improve resistance to the diseases simultaneously. We believe that there is now strong evidence that selectively breeding Atlantic salmon for resistance can be highly successful...

  18. A highly redundant BAC library of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: an important tool for salmon projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As farming of Atlantic salmon is growing as an aquaculture enterprise, the need to identify the genomic mechanisms for specific traits is becoming more important in breeding and management of the animal. Traits of importance might be related to growth, disease resistance, food conversion efficiency, color or taste. To identify genomic regions responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries have previously proven to be of crucial importance. These large insert libraries can be screened using gene or genetic markers in order to identify and map regions of interest. Furthermore, large-scale mapping can utilize highly redundant libraries in genome projects, and hence provide valuable data on the genome structure. Results Here we report the construction and characterization of a highly redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library constructed from a Norwegian aquaculture strain male of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The library consists of a total number of 305 557 clones, in which approximately 299 000 are recombinants. The average insert size of the library is 188 kbp, representing 18-fold genome coverage. High-density filters each consisting of 18 432 clones spotted in duplicates have been produced for hybridization screening, and are publicly available 1. To characterize the library, 15 expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived overgos and 12 oligo sequences derived from microsatellite markers were used in hybridization screening of the complete BAC library. Secondary hybridizations with individual probes were performed for the clones detected. The BACs positive for the EST probes were fingerprinted and mapped into contigs, yielding an average of 3 contigs for each probe. Clones identified using genomic probes were PCR verified using microsatellite specific primers. Conclusion Identification of genes and genomic regions of interest is greatly aided by the availability of the CHORI-214 Atlantic salmon BAC

  19. Bottom Scour Observed Under Hurricane Ivan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teague, William J; Jarosz, Eva; Keen, Timothy R; Wang, David W; Hulbert, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Observations that extensive bottom scour along the outer continental shelf under Hurricane Ivan resulted in the displacement of more than 100 million cubic meters of sediment from a 35x15 km region...

  20. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment.

  1. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment

  2. Looking for sustainable solutions in salmon aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bailey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development poses highly complex issues for those who attempt to implement it. Using the Brundtland Commission’s definition of sustainable development as a vantage point, this article discusses the issues posed by the production of one kind of food, farmed Atlantic salmon, as a means of illustrating the complexity, interconnectedness and high-data requirements involved in assessing whether a given industry is sustainable. These issues are explored using the three commonly accepted aspects of sustainability – its environmental, social and economic aspects – and the dilemmas posed by the need to make the trade-offs necessary among these. It concludes by arguing that decisions of this complexity require complex and multiple decision-making structures and suggests four that are essential for the task.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i1.1801

  3. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes nutrition: Including sweets in your meal plan Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods, but sweets aren't necessarily ... your meal plan. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods. But you can eat ...

  4. Influence of differently processed mango seed kernel meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of differently processed mango seed kernel meal on performance response of west African ... and TD( consisted spear grass and parboiled mango seed kernel meal with concentrate diet in a ratio of 35:30:35). ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... ratio were evaluated for the individual replicate of each dietary treatment.

  6. Ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi modifies the lactate response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Chacoff, L; Muñoz, J L P; Hawes, C; Oyarzún, R; Pontigo, J P; Saravia, J; González, M P; Mardones, O; Labbé, B S; Morera, F J; Bertrán, C; Pino, J; Wadsworth, S; Yáñez, A

    2017-08-30

    Although Caligus rogercresseyi negatively impacts Chilean salmon farming, the metabolic effects of infection by this sea louse have never been completely characterized. Therefore, this study analyzed lactate responses in the plasma, as well as the liver/muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and gene expression, in Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus kisutch infested by C. rogercresseyi. The lactate responses of Atlantic and Coho salmon were modified by the ectoparasite. Both salmon species showed increasing in plasma levels, whereas enzymatic activity increased in the muscle but decreased in the liver. Gene expression was overexpressed in both Coho salmon tissues but only in the liver for Atlantic salmon. These results suggest that salmonids need more energy to adapt to infection, resulting in increased gene expression, plasma levels, and enzyme activity in the muscles. The responses differed between both salmon species and over the course of infection, suggesting potential species-specific responses to sea-lice infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon bycatch genetic stock identification 1994-1995 Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In some years, the Bering Sea trawl fishery incidentally harvests (bycatch) large numbers of chum salmon. Because chum salmon were declining in some western Alaska...

  8. AFSC/ABL: Genetic Analysis of Immature Bering Sea Chum Salmon: Part I. Baseline Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chum salmon populations from across their geographic distribution have been analyzed with a set of SNP and microsatellite markers. As is typical for chum salmon...

  9. Tissue astaxanthin and canthaxanthin distribution in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, G I; Davies, S J

    2006-01-01

    A comparative investigation of tissue carotenoid distribution between rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, was undertaken to identify the relative efficiency of utilization of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Higher apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) (96% in trout vs. 28-31% in salmon; Ptrout vs. 5.5% in salmon; Ptrout. Astaxanthin deposition was higher than canthaxanthin in rainbow trout, while the reverse was true for Atlantic salmon, suggesting species-specificity in carotenoid utilization. The white muscle (95% in trout vs. 93% in salmon) and kidneys (0.5% in trout vs. 0.2% in salmon) represented higher proportions of the total body carotenoid pool in rainbow trout than in Atlantic salmon (Ptrout; Ptrout. Liver catabolism is suspected to be a critical determinant in carotenoid clearance, with higher catabolism expected in Atlantic salmon than in rainbow trout.

  10. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  11. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  12. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  13. Extended Shelf Life of Precooked Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    conducted on two items: Creamed Beef and Chicken a la King. The items were tested on the 30-day after storage began. The items were tempered at 40°F. to...Results» for Test Iroup III Product Creamed Beef Chicken a la King Experimental sample mean rating (28-32 °F) 6.6 + 1.4 7.k + 1.1 Control sample...Test Group IV Product Breaded Pork Slices* Meatloaf w/Gravy Salmon Cake? Roast P_-ef w/Gravy Roast Turkey w/Gravy Green Peas Whole Kernel Corn

  14. Outsourcing childcare, home cleaning and meal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Antonides, G.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the outsourcing of childcare, home cleaning and meal preparation is analysed by means of a socio-economic model that incorporates household-economic, lifecycle, lifestyle and health variables. The data (n= 700) was collected during a telephone survey in the Netherlands. About 10 per

  15. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    programme consisting of a morning snack and a hot lunch based on fixed seasonal menu plans and with 75 per cent organic content is 37 per cent more expensive in terms of ingredient costs than corresponding packed school meals. This cost differential can be almost halved by introducing more flexible...

  16. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined

  17. Atherogenic potentials of some Nigerian meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyong, E U; Umoh, I B; Ogu, T I; Edet, E E; Eteng, M U; Igiri, A O

    2007-01-01

    The atherogenic potentials of peeled grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa scot) "ekpang nkukwo", pounded yam (Discorea spp) with plain soup "afia efere", and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) "iwuk ukom" meals were investigated. The three meals were fed to three different groups of albino rats of Wistar strain for a period of twenty eight days. A fourth group which served as control was feed with normal rat pellet. The mean total plasma cholesterol level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control and peeled grated cocoyam fed groups. The mean total plasma triglyceride (MTPTG) level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control group. However the MTPTG level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups were comparable to control. The mean HDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain fed groups were comparable control. The mean LDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups was significantly lower [P < 0.05] than the control group. The LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to control. These findings suggest low atherogenic potentials of the pounded yam with plain soup meal compared to the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge meals.

  18. Meal Plans and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of carbs and other nutrients, both for diabetes management and to make meals satisfying. Here are some things to keep in mind: About 10% to 20% of the calories your child eats should come from protein . Try to select lean meats like chicken or beef. Roughly 25% to ...

  19. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1984-09-08

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined.

  20. Making a meal out of wood wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-23

    Researchers at Waterloo University, Canada, have developed a fungal based process for making animal feedstuffs from cellulose wastes. It could solve the severe pollution problems of the pulp and paper mills and save on imported soya meal at the same time.

  1. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... For example, an office employee who is required to eat at his desk or a factory worker who is required to be at his machine is working while eating. (Culkin v. Glenn L. Martin, Nebraska Co., 97 F. Supp... enough for a bona fide meal period. A shorter period may be long enough under special conditions. The...

  2. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth...

  3. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  4. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The material was milled using a hammer mill to produce the leaf meal. Microdesmis puberula leaf meal contain 17.32% crude protein, 6.52% ether extract, 12.25% total ash, 24.84% crude fibre, 24.06% NFE and an appreciable percent of minerals. Three broiler starter diets were formulated to contain the meal at dietary ...

  5. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-09-01

    The absorption of iron from tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  6. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, L; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  7. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  8. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., respectively) for the meal pattern requirements contained in this section. (p) Family-style meal service. Meals may be served in a family-style setting. (q) Offer versus serve. (1) Each adult day care center shall..., 1983] Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 226.20, see the List of CFR Sections...

  9. Cafeteria staff perceptions of the new USDA school meal standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of...

  10. Company and meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janhonen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    an effect on the frequency of family meals. Meals echoing or fully meeting the structural definition of a ‘proper meal’ were most common when describing meals for the family. The difference between the two social situations was most apparent for those who mentioned ‘Fast food dishes’ for themselves. Gender...

  11. How coarse is too coarse for salmon spawning substrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, J. K.; Riebe, C. S.; Ligon, F. K.; Overstreet, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Populations of Pacific salmon species have declined sharply in many rivers of the western US. Reversing these declines is a top priority and expense of many river restoration projects. To help restore salmon populations, managers often inject gravel into rivers, to supplement spawning habitat that has been depleted by gravel mining and the effects of dams—which block sediment and thus impair habitat downstream by coarsening the bed where salmon historically spawned. However, there is little quantitative understanding nor a methodology for determining when a river bed has become too coarse for salmon spawning. Hence there is little scientific basis for selecting sites that would optimize the restoration benefits of gravel injection (e.g., sites where flow velocities are suitable but bed materials are too coarse for spawning). To develop a quantitative understanding of what makes river beds too coarse for salmon spawning, we studied redds and spawning use in a series of California and Washington rivers where salmon spawning ability appears to be affected by coarse bed material. Our working hypothesis is that for a given flow condition, there is a maximum “threshold” particle size that a salmon of a given size is able to excavate and/or move as she builds her redd. A second, related hypothesis is that spawning use should decrease and eventually become impossible with increasing percent coverage by immovable particles. To test these hypotheses, we quantified the sizes and spatial distributions of immovably coarse particles in a series of salmon redds in each river during the peak of spawning. We also quantified spawning use and how it relates to percent coverage by immovable particles. Results from our studies of fall-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha) in the Feather River suggest that immovable particle size varies as a function of flow velocity over the redd, implying that faster water helps fish move bigger particles. Our Feather River study also

  12. Hermetia illucens meal as fish meal replacement for rainbow trout on farm

    OpenAIRE

    Stadtlander, Timo; Stamer, Andreas; Buser, Andrea; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Leiber, Florian; Sandrock, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In a 7-week on-farm feeding trial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were provided with a diet containing 28% mechanically de-fatted insect meal prepared from larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (HIM) and compared to a control that received a certified organic and fishmeal based diet. In the test diet insect meal replaced almost 50% of the fishmeal. The whole experiment was conducted under practical conditions on an organically certified rainbow trout farm in Switzerland. Fish...

  13. Amino acids digestibility of pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suthama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commom protein sources for poultry, fish meal and soybean meal, were ground to obtain reduced particle size. The particle was then dissolved in distilled water (1 : 4 w/v, and added with 2 mL virgin coconut oil for every 500 mL solution prior to ultrasound transducer (ultrasonic bath treatment to obtain protein microparticle. Reducing particle size is one possible way to increase protein utilization.180 birds were used for forced feeding and 10 other birds were plotted for endogenous correction, when they were one month and a half old. Microparticle protein of both ingredients were tested separately in either mash or pelleted forms and compared to intact protein. Completely randomized design with 3 treatments (intact, mash, and pellet and 6 replications (10 bidrs each was arranged for the respective ingredient. Protein and essential amino acid digestibilities, and calcium retention were the parameters measured. Analysis of variance continued to Duncan test were applied to statistically evaluate the data. Pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal, respectively, resulted in significantly (P<0.05 highest protein and amino acids digestibilities, and Ca retention although lower disgestibility of fewer amino acids was found in mash form. In conclusion, pelleted form of microparticle protein of either fish meal or soybean meal improve protein and mostly amino acids digestibilities, and calcium retention in broiler.

  14. Mind over platter: pre-meal planning and the control of meal size in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, J M

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that meal size is governed by psychological and physiological processes that generate fullness towards the end of a meal. However, observations of natural eating behaviour suggest that this preoccupation with within-meal events may be misplaced and that the role of immediate post-ingestive feedback (for example, gastric stretch) has been overstated. This review considers the proposition that the locus of control is more likely to be expressed in decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Consistent with this idea, we have discovered that people are extremely adept at estimating the 'expected satiety' and 'expected satiation' of different foods. These expectations are learned over time and they are highly correlated with the number of calories that end up on our plate. Indeed, across a range of foods, the large variation in expected satiety/satiation may be a more important determinant of meal size than relatively subtle differences in palatability. Building on related advances, it would also appear that memory for portion size has an important role in generating satiety after a meal has been consumed. Together, these findings expose the importance of planning and episodic memory in the control of appetite and food intake in humans.

  15. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to runs. We explored whether low densities (how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  16. Characterization of a Value-Added Salmon Product: Infant/Toddler Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santos, Felicia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Salmon are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These are important in the human diet and especially for young children in the first two years of life. Wild Alaskan salmon was utilized in a novel way by development and investigation of basic baby food product formulations from sockeye and pink salmon. Thus, physical and sensory properties of baby…

  17. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through 11 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial fisheries in the area from the U.S...: Background In the 2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS...

  18. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway AGENCY: Import... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway SUMMARY: On August 5... antidumping order on fresh and chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway and preliminarily determined that Nordic...

  19. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified the commercial fisheries in the area... ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and recreational...

  20. 78 FR 45478 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...-0531; Airspace Docket No. 13-ANM-20] Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules...

  1. 76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery (Reduction Fishery). The fee system involves future landings of... Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Rulemaking, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 or by calling...

  2. 76 FR 29707 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery (Reduction Fishery). The fee system involves...: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Rulemaking, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910...

  3. 76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia... of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on... the payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia, contact Dr. William G. Smith, Area...

  4. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market Testing... test products designated as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to...

  5. 77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. NMFS conducted a referendum to approve the..., Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West...

  6. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and 5 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial fisheries in...: Background In the 2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS...

  7. 78 FR 33810 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... reduction loan for the fishing capacity reduction program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery... July 22, 2012. Since then, all harvesters of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon must pay the fee and...

  8. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    .... 120330244-2242-01] RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY... to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of Alaska (FMP). If... Management Council's (Council's) salmon management policy and to comply with Federal law. This proposed rule...

  9. 76 FR 35755 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Threatened Status for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Oregon Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Oregon Coast (OC) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch... coho salmon ESU as threatened under the ESA in 1995 (60 FR 38011; July 25, 1995). Since then, we have...

  10. 77 FR 13072 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, Butte, Custer and Lemhi Counties, ID, Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, Butte, Custer and Lemhi Counties, ID, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement to the 2009 Salmon- Challis National Forest... of intent to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Salmon-Challis...

  11. 76 FR 36896 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive Plant Treatment Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Forestwide Invasive... to the biological diversity and ecological integrity within and outside the Salmon-Challis National... loss of recreational opportunities. Within the 3,108,904 acres of the of the Salmon-Challis National...

  12. 77 FR 26744 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... of reduction payment tender of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon permits. SUMMARY: The National... Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. The program authorizes NMFS to make payments to permit holders...

  13. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    .... 120330244-2673-02] RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY... Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of Alaska (FMP). Amendment 12 comprehensively revises and updates the FMP to reflect the North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) salmon...

  14. 76 FR 329 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Reporting Requirements for the Ocean Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Reporting Requirements for the Ocean Salmon Fishery Off the Coasts of Washington..., designated regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and... requirements to land salmon within specific time frames and in specific areas may be implemented in the...

  15. 76 FR 8345 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and Steelhead AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of availability; recovery plan module for Columbia River estuary salmon and steelhead... Plan Module for Salmon and Steelhead (Estuary Module). The Estuary Module addresses the estuary...

  16. 77 FR 19004 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Salmon Fishery. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before 5 p.m. EST April 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send... Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  17. Norwegian Salmon Goes to Market: The Case of the Austevoll Seafood Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyne, John; Hovgaard, Gestur; Hansen, Gard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon commodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the challenges of "buyer-driven" food chains by…

  18. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  19. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  20. [Exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation on otolith of chum salmon embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Pei-rong; Wang, Ji-long; Li, Pei-lun

    2015-10-01

    To explore the exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation on otolith of chum salmon embryos, chum salmon embryos were exposed to culture water contained Sr2+ at Sr2+ concentration of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg . L-1 for 48 h to imitate Sr2+ sedimentation. After a culturing period of 12 d and 100 d, the otoliths of the chum salmon were taken to detect exogenous Sr2+ sedimentation with electro-probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The results showed that obvious deep red strontium signatures were produced in the otolith of chum salmon at different concentrations of Sr2+. The mean and extreme values of peak strontium area were not stable for the same Sr2+ dose, but the lowest of all the peak values was 35.1 times as much as that of control. Overall, the strontium value increased with the increase of Sr2+concentration. The strontium peak had no signs of abating after a culture period of 100 d. The results also showed that strontium was gradually deposited in the otolith, and had obvious hysteresis to immersion. Strontium sedimentation could also return to a normal level after the peak. These characteristics accorded exactly with the requirement of discharge tag technology, which indicated that exogenous Sr2+ was suitable in the marking of salmon otolith.

  1. Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

    1997-05-01

    To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

  2. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  3. Effect of meal environment on diet quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-01-01

    Family meals have been associated with improved dietary quality in children and adolescents, and yet very little is known about family meals beyond their frequency. Specific aspects of the breakfast, lunch, and dinner meal environments were described and compared, and the associations with overall diet quality were investigated. Data on food intake and meal environments were obtained in northern Ontario, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia grades six, seven, and eight classrooms over the 2005 to 2006 school year. Specific aspects of the meal environments described were where the meal was consumed, with whom participants consumed each meal, who prepared the meal, and where the food was originally purchased. Diet quality was assessed using the Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index. Cluster K-means procedures were used to classify into groups observations about the four meal environment variables. Three, eight, and six clusters of meal environments were identified for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Diet quality was negatively associated with consuming/ purchasing meals outside the home, and with skipping breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner. Results have immediate relevance for family-based and/or school programs and policies aimed at educating and feeding children and adolescents.

  4. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  5. Guangzhou’s Baozai Meal a Popular Fast Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN Guangzhou, where restaurants are plentiful and food from many places is served, the baozai meal, a kind of traditional Chinese fast food, has retained its place in the hearts of Guangzhou’s caterers. The history of the baozai meal starts at least from the beginning of this century. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou was the largest trading port in south China with a developed, commodities-based economy. There were many dockworkers and porters living in the city at the time. They worked very hard and were often too busy to eat their meals at home. As a result, different kinds of meals were invented to meet their needs, such as the botou meal (bo is kind of earthen bowl), the dietou meal (die is small plate) and the baozai meal

  6. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-01-01

    An audit of ‘standard’ (STD) and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy)-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein. PMID:29461476

  7. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by 'Meals on Wheels' South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-02-20

    An audit of 'standard' (STD) and 'energy and protein fortified' (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia's summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia's kitchen and delivered to three 'sham(dummy)-clients' over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21-39% for energy and 42-63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29-55% for energy and 46-69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  8. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Arjuna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An audit of ‘standard’ (STD and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia. On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  9. Television, Home-Cooked Meals, and Family Meal Frequency: Associations with Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Rachel; Anderson, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    Adults, regardless of whether they are parents, regularly eat meals with family at home, but few studies have analyzed large, population-based samples to examine how mealtime practices or family meal frequency are associated with health. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between the frequency of family meals eaten at home, watching television or videos during family meals, and consumption of meals that were cooked and eaten at home and the odds of being obese in adults. This was an analysis of the cross-sectional 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey (OMAS), a telephone survey of Ohio's population. The study sample was adult Ohio residents responding to the 2012 OMAS who ate at least one family meal in the past week (n=12,842). Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30), calculated from self-reported height and weight, was the outcome. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between obesity and family meal practices, adjusted for respondents' employment status, marital status, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and age. Family meal frequency was not associated with odds of obesity: those who ate family meals most (6-7) days were as likely as those who ate family meals few (1-2) days to be obese (adjusted odds ratio [OR adj ]=1.01, 95% CI=0.86, 1.18). Thirty-six percent of adults never watched television or videos while eating family meals, and 62% ate family meals that were all home-cooked. Adults who never watched television or videos during family meals had 37% lower odds of obesity compared with those who always did (95% CI=0.54, 0.73), regardless of family meal frequency. Adults whose family meals were all home-cooked had 26% lower odds of obesity than those who ate some or no home-cooked family meals (95% CI=0.62, 0.88). This association was more pronounced among adults who ate few family meals. Family meal practices may be associated with obesity in adults, even if they eat few family meals per week. Future research

  10. Relation between cognitive and hedonic responses to a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccantelli, B; Pribic, T; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-05-01

    Ingestion of a meal induces cognitive and hedonic sensations and our aim was to determine the relation between both dimensions. In three groups of healthy non-obese men (n=10 per group) three types of meals with equivalent levels of palatability were tested: a liquid meal, a solid-liquid low-calorie meal, and a solid-liquid high-calorie meal. The cognitive and hedonic responses were measured on 10-cm scales before and during the 30-minute postprandial period. The liquid meal induced a relatively strong cognitive response with satiation (4.7±0.7 score increment), fullness (3.3±0.7 score increment), and inhibition of desire of eating a food of choice; in contrast, its impact on sensation of digestive well-being and satisfaction was not significant (0.7±0.7 score increment). The high-calorie solid-liquid meal, with larger volume load and caloric content, induced much lower satiation (2.4±0.8 score increment; P=.041 vs liquid meal) and fullness sensation (1.3±0.6 score increment; P=.031 vs liquid meal), but a markedly higher level of satisfaction (2.7±0.4 score increment; P=.021 vs liquid meal); the low-calorie mixed meal had less prominent effects with significantly lower satisfaction (1.0±0.4 score increment; P=.039 vs high-calorie meal). The cognitive (satiation, fullness) and hedonic responses (satisfaction) to meals with equivalent levels of palatability, that is, equally likable, are dissociable. The characteristics of meals in terms of satiation and rewarding power could be adapted to specific clinical targets, whether nutritional supplementation or restriction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Quantification of vitellogenin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) plasma by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idler, D.R.; Hwang, S.J.; Crim, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    An antibody prepared against salmon egg yolk proteins has been used to quantify Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) plasma vitellogenin using radioimmunoassay. A low molecular weight fraction isolated from salmon egg yolk was used for radioiodination and as standard solution because plasma vitellogenin could not be iodinated successfully. Parallelism of the egg yolk standard to displacement given by a fraction isolated from vitellogenic salmon plasma and dilutions of plasma samples allowed the assay to be used to evaluate the state of gonadal development of migrating females several months in advance of spawning and for sexing relatively immature salmon. (author)

  12. In situ localisation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II and CD8 positive cells in infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV)-infected Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Skjødt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that the mobilisation of a strong cellular immune response is important for the survival of Atlantic salmon infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). In this study, the characterisation of immune cell populations in tissues of non-ISAV infected Atlantic salmon and during...... the early viraemia of ISAV was undertaken. Immunohistochemical investigations of spleen, head kidney and gills using monoclonal antibodies against recombinant proteins from MHC I, II and CD8 were performed on tissues from Atlantic salmon collected day 17 post-challenge in a cohabitant infection model....... The localisations of MHC I and II in control salmon were consistent with previous reports but this study presents novel observations on the distribution of CD8 labelled cell populations in Atlantic salmon including the description of significant mucosal populations in the gills. The distribution of MHC I, MHC II...

  13. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  14. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Frequency of Hospital Use Before and After Home-Delivery Meal by Meals On Wheels, of Tarrant County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Thorud, J L; Marishak-Simon, S; Hammack, L; Stevens, A B

    2018-01-01

    Patients recently discharged from the hospital are vulnerable and are at high risk for readmission. Home-delivered meals may be beneficial in improving their health and facilitating independent living in the community. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between home-delivered meals and use of hospital services. This study includes 120 clients recently discharged from an inpatient hospital stay or from an emergency department (ED) visit who received meal services from Meals On Wheels, Inc., of Tarrant County. Healthcare utilization data was extracted from the Dallas-Fort Worth Hospital Council Foundation, a regional all claims database used by over 90% of hospitals in Dallas-Fort Worth area. Signed tests and generalized linear models (GLM) were performed. A total of 16,959 meals were delivered from March 2013 through March 2014. Each client received an average of 6.19 meals per week. The average number of ED visits decreased from 5.03 before receipt of meals to 1.45 after receipt of meals, z = -5.23, p meals were less likely to experience ED visits and hospitalizations after controlling for demographic characteristics and levels of physical functioning. The findings of this study indicate that home-delivered meals services may contribute to a reduction in hospital based care services among frail and vulnerable adults. Additional studies should consider the short and long-term effects of home-delivered meals services on healthcare utilization and the potential to decrease healthcare costs.

  16. Distribution, feeding and growth of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. parr stocked into rivers with various abiotic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev A. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the research of efficiency of Atlantic salmon the artificial reproduction, feeding rate, distribution and growth of farm-raised one-year-old Atlantic salmon have been examined. The fish has been released into nursery areas with different hydrological characteristics located in the Rivers Kola, Umba, Srednyaya and Akkim in the Murmansk region. The observations have being conducted for 1–5 months since the moment of fish release. In natural habitat, juveniles rapidly distribute downstream and upstream regardless of water temperature, depth and current velocity. In all examined nursery areas adapting one-year-old juveniles prefer to stay at weak current sites close to the shore, hiding in the gravel. In all the cases farmed parr shows high feed rate, but qualitative composition of their food differs significantly from food composition of wild juveniles. Revealed peculiarities of adapting parr's distribution and qualitative food composition indicate the impact of long-term rearing at hatcheries on fish behavior. Growth rate of one-year-old juveniles is arcwise connected with fraction composition of gravel and the level of bottom fouling: the bigger bottom rocks are and the thicker the fouling is, the more intensive fish growth is. The revealed correlations have been described with equations of linear regression. Connections between juvenile growth and water temperature, current velocity and depth of the area have not been detected. The research outcomes could provide a basis for scientific advice for planning release sites and number of released one-year-old Atlantic salmon by hatcheries in the Murmansk region.

  17. Evidence for a Peripheral Olfactory Memory in Imprinted Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Gabrielle A.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Moody, William J., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The remarkable homing ability of salmon relies on olfactory cues, but its cellular basis is unknown. To test the role of peripheral olfactory receptors in odorant memory retention, we imprinted coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to micromolar concentrations of phenyl ethyl alcohol during parr-smolt transformation. The following year, we measured phenyl ethyl alcohol responses in the peripheral receptor cells using patch clamp. Cells from imprinted fish showed increased sensitivity to phenyl ethyl alcohol compared either to cells from naive fish or to sensitivity to another behaviorally important odorant (L-serine). Field experiments verified an increased behavioral preference for phenyl ethyl alcohol by imprinted salmon as adults. Thus, some component of the imprinted olfactory homestream memory appears to be retained peripherally.

  18. GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Finn, Fia; Persson, Lo; Alanärä, Anders; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt. These results implicate that salmon migration may be affected by human-induced changes in water chemical properties, such as acidification and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluent, via alterations in the GABAA receptor function.

  19. Antibodies recognizing both IgM isotypes in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedfors, Ida Aagård; Bakke, Hege; Skjødt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    these molecules. The present study aimed at identifying tools to separate IgM positive (IgM(+)) B cells from IgM negative (IgM(-)) non-B cell populations using flow cytometry. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and one polyclonal antibody (pAb) to both rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon...... (Salmo salar) IgM, either commercially available or locally produced were tested for their recognition of Atlantic salmon IgM(+) cells. Leukocytes were isolated from peripheral blood (PB), spleen (S) and head kidney (HK) and stained with all mAbs and the pAb, to possibly verify the approximate number...... of IgM(+) cells in the respective tissues in salmon. To our surprise, this seemingly simple task did not reveal similar staining patterns for all antibodies as expected, but rather large differences in the number of positively stained cells were discovered. In short, positively stained cells by each...

  20. How Glycosaminoglycans Promote Fibrillation of Salmon Calcitonin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmos, Kirsten Gade; Bjerring, Morten; Jessen, Christian Moestrup; Nielsen, Erik Holm Toustrup; Poulsen, Ebbe T.; Christiansen, Gunna; Vosegaard, Thomas; Skrydstrup, Troels; Enghild, Jan J.; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) bind all known amyloid plaques and help store protein hormones in (acidic) granular vesicles, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these important effects are unclear. Here we investigate GAG interactions with the peptide hormone salmon calcitonin (sCT). GAGs induce fast sCT fibrillation at acidic pH and only bind monomeric sCT at acidic pH, inducing sCT helicity. Increasing GAG sulfation expands the pH range for binding. Heparin, the most highly sulfated GAG, binds sCT in the pH interval 3–7. Small angle x-ray scattering indicates that sCT monomers densely decorate and pack single heparin chains, possibly via hydrophobic patches on helical sCT. sCT fibrillates without GAGs, but heparin binding accelerates the process by decreasing the otherwise long fibrillation lag times at low pH and accelerates fibril growth rates at neutral pH. sCT·heparin complexes form β-sheet-rich heparin-covered fibrils. Solid-state NMR reveals that heparin does not alter the sCT fibrillary core around Lys11 but makes changes to Val8 on the exterior side of the β-strand, possibly through contacts to Lys18. Thus GAGs significantly modulate sCT fibrillation in a pH-dependent manner by interacting with both monomeric and aggregated sCT. PMID:27281819

  1. Yukon River King Salmon - Ichthyophonus Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    When king salmon enter the Yukon River on their spawning migration in mid June, over 25% of the population are infected with Ichthyophonus. The percent of infected fish remains relatively constant until the fish pass river mile 1,319 at Dawson, Y.T., then it drops to 13% when they reach river mile 1,745 at Whitehorse, Y.T. When the sexes are examined separately, slightly more females are infected than males (29% vs 22%). The percent of fish exhibiting clinical signs (diseased) is 2-3% when they enter the river, but increases to over 20% at river mile 715 near Tanana, AK. Disease prevalence within the population remains constant at >20% until fish pass Dawson, then the percent of diseased fish drops to <9% at Whitehorse. When the sexes are examined separately, male disease prevalence is highest at Tanana (22.6%) then gradually drops to just 12.9% at Whitehorse. Females however, continue to show an increase in disease prevalence peaking at river mile 1,081 near Circle, AK, at 36.4%, then dropping to just 5.3% at Whitehorse. Data on infection and disease collected from kings at Nenana on the Tanana River more closely resembles that seen at Whitehorse than the lower and middle Yukon River.

  2. Upstream Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    Upstream salmon passage though a dam is discussed with respect to three main components: the fishway entrance, the fishway, and the exit. Design considerations and alternative types of components are presented. For fishway entrances, an important consideration is the positioning of the entrance as far upstream as the fish can swim with respect to obstacles. For powerhouses using water diverted from a river, the problem of leading fish past the powerhouse may be overcome by either installing a tailrace barrier or increasing the flow until the home stream odor is sufficient to attract fish. Swimming ability should be the first consideration in fishway design. Fishways with 50 cm drops per pool would be satisfactory in most cases. The problem of headwater fluctuation is overcome through careful fishway selection. Fish locks, hoists, and elevators are other alternatives to pool/weir fishways. The location for a fish exit must be decided on the basis of whether the fishway will be used only for upstream migrations. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  4. Acute effects on metabolism and appetite profile of one meal difference in the lower range of meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-06-01

    A gorging pattern of food intake has been shown to enhance lipogenesis and increase body weight, which may be due to large fluctuations in storage and mobilisation of nutrients. In a state of energy balance, increasing meal frequency, and thereby decreasing inter-meal interval, may prevent large metabolic fluctuations. Our aim was to study the effect of the inter-meal interval by dividing energy intake over two or three meals on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and 24 h satiety, in healthy, normal-weight women in a state of energy balance. The study was a randomised crossover design with two experimental conditions. During the two experimental conditions subjects (fourteen normal-weight women, aged 24.4 (SD 7.1) years, underwent 36 h sessions in energy balance in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. The subjects were given two (breakfast, dinner) or three (breakfast, lunch, dinner) meals per d. We chose to omit lunch in the two meals condition, because this resulted in a marked difference in inter-meal-interval after breakfast (8.5 h v. 4 h). Eating three meals compared with two meals had no effects on 24 h energy expenditure, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-induced energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate. Eating three meals compared with two meals increased 24 h fat oxidation, but decreased the amount of fat oxidised from the breakfast. The same amount of energy divided over three meals compared with over two meals increased satiety feelings over 24 h. In healthy, normal-weight women, decreasing the inter-meal interval sustains satiety, particularly during the day, and sustains fat oxidation, particularly during the night.

  5. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Hayley; Williams, Sheila; Brown, Rachel; Venn, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Glycemic index (GI) testing is normally based on individual foods, whereas GIs for meals or diets are based on a formula using a weighted sum of the constituents. The accuracy with which the formula can predict a meal or diet GI is questionable. Our objective was to compare the GI of meals, obtained by using the formula and by using both measured food GI and published values, with directly measured meal GIs. The GIs of 7 foods were tested in 30 healthy people. The foods were combined into 3 meals, each of which provided 50 g available carbohydrate, including a staple (potato, rice, or spaghetti), vegetables, sauce, and pan-fried chicken. The mean (95% CI) meal GIs determined from individual food GI values and by direct measurement were as follows: potato meal [predicted, 63 (56, 70); measured, 53 (46, 62)], rice meal [predicted, 51 (45, 56); measured, 38 (33, 45)], and spaghetti meal [predicted, 54 (49, 60); measured, 38 (33, 44)]. The predicted meal GIs were all higher than the measured GIs (P < 0.001). The extent of the overestimation depended on the particular food, ie, 12, 15, and 19 GI units (or 22%, 40%, and 50%) for the potato, rice, and spaghetti meals, respectively. The formula overestimated the GI of the meals by between 22% and 50%. The use of published food values also overestimated the measured meal GIs. Investigators using the formula to calculate a meal or diet GI should be aware of limitations in the method. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12611000210976.

  6. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analys...

  7. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  8. Coil in bottom part of splitter magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-resistant coil being bedded into the bottom part of a splitter magnet. This very particular magnet split the beam into 3 branches, for 3 target stations in the West-Area. See Annual Report 1975, p.176, Figs.14 and 15.

  9. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  10. Bottom fauna of the Malacca Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Bottom fauna of Malacca Strait (connecting the Indian Ocean with Pacific) in the depth range of 80 to 1350 m, is dominated by meiofauna which exceeds macrofauna by 12.5 times in weight and by more than 780 times in population density. Standing crop...

  11. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays

  12. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  13. Inclusion of Palmaria palmata (red seaweed) in Atlantic salmon diets: effects on the quality, shelf-life parameters and sensory properties of fresh and cooked salmon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Natasha C; Wan, Alex H L; Soler-Vila, Anna; FitzGerald, Richard D; Johnson, Mark P; Kerry, Joe P

    2015-03-30

    The use of Palmaria palmata (PP) as a natural ingredient in farmed Atlantic salmon diets was investigated. The effect of salmon diet supplementation with P. palmata (0, 5, 10 and 15%) or synthetic astaxanthin (positive control, PC) for 16 weeks pre-slaughter on quality indices of fresh salmon fillets was examined. The susceptibility of salmon fillets/homogenates to oxidative stress conditions was also measured. In salmon fillets stored in modified atmosphere packs (60% N2 /40% CO2 ) for up to 15 days at 4 °C, P. palmata increased surface -a* (greenness) and b* (yellowness) values in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a final yellow/orange flesh colour. In general, the dietary addition of P. palmata had no effect on pH, lipid oxidation (fresh, cooked and fillet homogenates) and microbiological status. 'Eating quality' sensory descriptors (texture, odour and oxidation flavour) in cooked salmon fillets were not influenced by dietary P. palmata. Salmon fed 5% PP showed increased overall acceptability compared with those fed PC and 0% PP. Dietary P. palmata was ineffective at providing red coloration in salmon fillets, but pigment deposition enhanced fillets with a yellow/orange colour. Carotenoids from P. palmata may prove to be a natural pigment alternative to canthaxanthin in salmon feeds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The Salmon Smai Family of Short Interspersed Repetitive Elements (Sines): Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation of the Insertion of Sines in the Genomes of Chum and Pink Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, N.; Yamaki, T.; Hamada, M.; Park, L.; Okada, N.

    1997-01-01

    The genomes of chum salmon and pink salmon contain a family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated the salmon SmaI family. It is restricted to these two species, a distribution that suggests that this SINE family might have been generated in their common ancestor. When insertions of the SmaI SINEs at 10 orthologous loci of these species were analyzed, however, it was found that there were no shared insertion sites between chum and pink salmon. Furthermore, at six loci w...

  15. Hydro models and salmon recovery in the northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoon, K.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro regulation models provide extensive support for analyzing the efficacy of salmon recovery plans in the Northwest. Power planners developed these computer programs to help plan and efficiently operate a large multiple use river system. The models represent physical relationships and operational requirements on the system. They also simulate coordinated system operations for efficient power generation. These models are being pressed into service to provide data for fish recovery plans. They provide important information about hydro system capabilities and responses to recovery programs. However, the models cannot meet all of the analytical needs of fish biologists working toward salmon recovery

  16. Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical...... control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended...

  17. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides derived from salmon sperm DNA: an alternative to defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chang-Ye; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Xi; Shao, Jian-Hua; Yang, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Wen

    2013-05-01

    Defibrotide is a single-stranded nucleic acid polymer originally derived from porcine mucosa. Cheap salmon sperm DNA is commercially available and widely used in drug production. In this study, oligodeoxyribonucleotides were successfully obtained from the controlled depolymerization of salmon sperm DNA. The obtained product shared similar chemical and biological properties with defibrotide produced by Gentium SpA, Italy. It was also found that oligodeoxyribonucleotides derived from non-mammalian origins could also directly stimulate tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release from cultured human endothelial cells, and enhance fibrinolytic activity in the rabbit. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2016-02-01

    Salmon are a valuable resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the long term implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat after 12 years of re-colonization, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the long term, landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Meal frequency and timing: impact on metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Krista A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent human intervention trials that have examined the impact of meal frequency or meal timing on metabolic disease risk factors. Findings from intervention studies published over the past 12 months indicate that weight loss may be more pronounced with decreased meal frequency (two meals per day) versus increased meal frequency (six meals per day) under hypocaloric conditions. However, under isocaloric conditions, no effect on body weight was noted. Plasma lipid concentrations and glucoregulatory factors (fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin sensitivity) were not affected by alterations in meal frequency. As for meal timing, delaying the lunchtime meal by 3.5 h (from 1.30 p.m. to 4.30 p.m.) has no impact on body weight, but may impair glucose tolerance in young healthy adults. In sum, altering meal frequency has little impact on body weight, plasma lipids, or glucoregulatory factors, whereas eating the majority of calories later in the day may be detrimental for glycemic control. These preliminary findings, however, still require confirmation by longer term, larger scale controlled trials.

  20. Bottom water circulation in Cascadia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Susan L.; Paul Johnson, H.; Hammond, Douglas E.

    2009-10-01

    A combination of beta spiral and minimum length inverse methods, along with a compilation of historical and recent high-resolution CTD data, are used to produce a quantitative estimate of the subthermocline circulation in Cascadia Basin. Flow in the North Pacific Deep Water, from 900-1900 m, is characterized by a basin-scale anticyclonic gyre. Below 2000 m, two water masses are present within the basin interior, distinguished by different potential temperature-salinity lines. These water masses, referred to as Cascadia Basin Bottom Water (CBBW) and Cascadia Basin Deep Water (CBDW), are separated by a transition zone at about 2400 m depth. Below the depth where it freely communicates with the broader North Pacific, Cascadia Basin is renewed by northward flow through deep gaps in the Blanco Fracture Zone that feeds the lower limb of a vertical circulation cell within the CBBW. Lower CBBW gradually warms and returns to the south at lighter density. Isopycnal layer renewal times, based on combined lateral and diapycnal advective fluxes, increase upwards from the bottom. The densest layer, existing in the southeast quadrant of the basin below ˜2850 m, has an advective flushing time of 0.6 years. The total volume flushing time for the entire CBBW is 2.4 years, corresponding to an average water parcel residence time of 4.7 years. Geothermal heating at the Cascadia Basin seafloor produces a characteristic bottom-intensified temperature anomaly and plays an important role in the conversion of cold bottom water to lighter density within the CBBW. Although covering only about 0.05% of the global seafloor, the combined effects of bottom heat flux and diapycnal mixing within Cascadia Basin provide about 2-3% of the total required global input to the upward branch of the global thermohaline circulation.

  1. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  2. Salmon and steelhead in the White Salmon River after the removal of Condit Dam–Planning efforts and recolonization results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brady; Engle, Rod O; Zendt, Joseph S; Shrier, Frank C; Wilson, Jeremy T; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and completely removed in 2012. This action opened habitat to migratory fish for the first time in 100 years. The White Salmon Working Group was formed to create plans for fish salvage in preparation for fish recolonization and to prescribe the actions necessary to restore anadromous salmonid populations in the White Salmon River after Condit Dam removal. Studies conducted by work group members and others served to inform management decisions. Management options for individual species were considered, including natural recolonization, introduction of a neighboring stock, hatchery supplementation, and monitoring natural recolonization for some time period to assess the need for hatchery supplementation. Monitoring to date indicates that multiple species and stocks of anadromous salmonids are finding and spawning in the now accessible and recovering habitat.

  3. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on nitrogen metabolism and total tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary canola meal (CM) has been shown to improve N efficiency in dairy cows when compared with soybean meal (SBM). Treating CM may increase amino acid (AA) supply from the rumen undegradable protein fraction and improve absorbable AA in the metabolizable protein. The objective of this study was to...

  4. Use of Sunflower Meal with Enzyme Mixture Substituted for Soybean Meal in Broiler Diets

    OpenAIRE

    KIRKPINAR, Figen; BASMACIOĞLU, Hatice

    2001-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of sunflower meal with an enzyme mixture containing a-amylase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, lipase and protease substituted for soybean meal in broiler diets on performance, intestinal weight, viscosity and pH, as well as the frequency of sticky droppings and abdominal fat. In the trial, a total of 960 one-day-old Avian broiler chicks were used. The trial lasted 6 weeks. A total of 12 experimental diets were supplied ad libitum. Dietary treatme...

  5. Development and validation of a new simple Healthy Meal Index for canteen meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; L Hansen, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nutrition evaluation tools should be developed both for scientific purposes and to encourage and facilitate healthy nutritional practices. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a simple food-based Healthy Meal Index (HMI) reflecting the nutritional profile...... and potatoes. The development was built on the principles embodied by the Plate Model, but providing more specificity in some areas. The simple HMI was validated against weighed and chemically analysed food and nutrient content of a representative sample of canteen meals. The sample was split into four...

  6. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  7. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  8. Pasteurization of fish meal by irradiation. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusse, U.; Bischoff, J.; Fleischhauer, G.; Geister, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made on a number of samples of fish meal heavily contaminated (several foci of infection per sample, corresponding 'more than 100% contamination') with salmonella. A dose of 0.7 Mrad proved to be sufficient to inactivate all salmonellaes in all samples. The apparently reduced effect of radiation after artificial contamination of the meal was due to the extreme super-infection. Inactivation curves showed that the salmonella strains used for artificial contamination were more susceptible than those in naturally infected fish meal. Calculation of the slope parameter for a single salmonella type enables the dose of radiation needed to ensure freedom of the meal from salmonella to be determined for each level of infection. With two naturally infected fish meals which contained a total of 18 different serotypes a mean slope parameter of b = -1.99 was calculated which met the requirements posed by the problem of freeing meal from salmonella. (orig.) [de

  9. Geophysical investigation, Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Geophysical surveys were conducted in 1992 and 1993 on 21 sites at the Salmon Site (SS) located in Lamar County, Mississippi. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by IT Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). During the 1960s, two nuclear devices and two chemical tests were detonated 826 meters (in) (2710 feet [ft]) below the ground surface in the salt dome underlying the SS. These tests were part of the Vela Uniform Program conducted to improve the United States capability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The RI/FS is being conducted to determine if any contamination is migrating from the underground shot cavity in the salt dome and if there is any residual contamination in the near surface mud and debris disposal pits used during the testing activities. The objective of the surface geophysical surveys was to locate buried debris, disposal pits, and abandoned mud pits that may be present at the site. This information will then be used to identify the locations for test pits, cone penetrometer tests, and drill hole/monitor well installation. The disposal pits were used during the operation of the test site in the 1960s. Vertical magnetic gradient (magnetic gradient), electromagnetic (EM) conductivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to accomplish these objectives. A description of the equipment used and a theoretical discussion of the geophysical methods are presented Appendix A. Because of the large number of figures relative to the number of pages of text, the geophysical grid-location maps, the contour maps of the magnetic-gradient data, the contour maps of the EM conductivity data, and the GPR traverse location maps are located in Appendix B, Tabs I through 22. In addition, selected GPR records are located in Appendix C

  10. Replacement of dietary soy- with air classified faba bean protein concentrate alters the hepatic transcriptome in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Christian; Crampton, Viv O; Bicskei, Beatrix; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic response of salmon to increasing inclusion of air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC) in feeds as a replacement for soy protein concentrate (SPC). Specifically, we tested treatments with identical contents of fishmeal (222.4gkg(-1)) and progressively higher inclusion of BPC (0gkg(-1), 111.8gkg(-1), 223.6gkg(-1), 335.4gkg(-1), 447.2gkg(-1)) substituting SPC. This study demonstrated a dose-dependent metabolic response to a plant ingredient and was the first to compare the nutrigenomic transcriptional responses after substitution of terrestrial feed ingredients such as BPC and SPC without withdrawal of marine ingredients. It was found that after eight weeks a major physiological response in liver was only evident above 335.4gkg(-1) BPC and included decreased expression of metabolic pathways, and increased expression of genes regulating transcription and translation processes and the innate immune response. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritional stress caused by BPC resembled, at least at hepatic transcriptional level, that caused by soybean meal (included as a positive control in our experimental design). The outcomes of the present study suggested that Atlantic salmon parr might efficiently utilize moderate substitution of dietary SPC with BPC, with the optimum inclusion level being around 120gkg(-1)in the type of feeds

  11. Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    The mature jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is consumed in Sri Lanka either as a main meal or a meal accompaniment. However, there is no scientific data on the nutrient compositions of cooked jackfruit meals. Thus, the objective of the study was to carry out a nutritional assessment of a composite jackfruit breakfast meal comprising seeds and flesh. A jackfruit meal comprising of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available carbohydrate) was included in the study. The study was carried out in a random cross over design. Setting University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Study participants Healthy individuals (n=10, age: 20-30 yrs). The macronutrient contents, rapidly and slowly available glucose (SAG) contents, water solubility index of the jackfruit meal were determined according to standard methods. The GI of the meal was calculated according to FAO/WHO guidelines. The moisture content of the boiled jackfruit flesh was high (82% FW). Jack seeds contained 4.7% protein (FW), 11.1% total dietary fibre (FW) and 8% resistant starch (FW). Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75. The Glycaemic Load (GL) of the normal serving size of the meal is medium. The slowly available glucose (SAG) percentage of jackfruit meal (30%) was twice that of the standard. The boiled jackfruit flesh contained disintegrated starch granules while seeds contained intact swollen and disintegrated granules. The jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fibre. The meal is categorized as a low GI meal. The low GI could be dueto the collective contributions from dietary fibre, slowly available glucose and un-gelatinised (intact) starch granules in the seeds.

  12. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than 1.2...

  13. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differences (P> 0.05) could be found in mean growth rate (0.77 kg/day and 0.80 kg/day) and ... Digestible energy, pigs, poultry, protein content, rats, relative nutritive value, sunflower oilcake meal, ... density of the meal is increased while the crude fibre content ..... two meals differed by only 3.5%, while a range of 6% to 28%.

  14. Economics of production of broiler chickens fed maggot meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economics of production of broiler chickens considered for 0-35 days, 35-56 days, and 0-56 days was compared for fishmeal (FM) and maggot meal (MM) diets. The maggot meal diet had a replacement of the fish meal at 75%> on protein basis. Replacing FM at 75% with MM resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as ...

  15. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  16. School meals and educational outcomes in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, Robert; Frölich, Markus; Haile, Getinet

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between providing school meals programme and educational outcomes in Ethiopia. Using data from school catchment areas across rural Ethiopia, the paper examines the role played by programme modalities and their implementation. The results indicate that supplementing on-site school meals with take-home rations can be beneficial for concentration, reading, writing and arithmetic skills. The timing of the distribution of school meals is also found to play an import...

  17. Planning for meals-on-wheels: algorithms and application

    OpenAIRE

    H Yildiz; M P Johnson; S Roehrig

    2013-01-01

    Home-delivered meals provision, also known as meals-on-wheels, is a volunteer-staffed activity for which little strategic planning is performed. We develop a Memetic Algorithm to solve the Home Delivered Meals Location-Routing Problem. This planning model addresses facility location, allocation of demand to facilities, and design of delivery routes, while balancing efficiency and effectiveness considerations. The case study presented on a large data set shows how trade-off curves, which are v...

  18. Earthworm and maggots meals as potential fishmeal replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqub, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three meals were formulated from the earthworm (Endrilus eugineae) and maggot (Musca domestica) and fish (Engraulis encrosicolus). These meals were evaluated as a potential replacement for fishmeal. This is because fishmeal could be very expensive at times. The three meals were used in feeding the catfish (Heterobranchus isopterus) fry for 30 days. The study was conducted in 1991 at the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources Farm, University of Science and Technology. Two replicate...

  19. Factors in Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Co-management in British Columbia Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Pinkerton

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten years of research and efforts to implement co-management in British Columbia fisheries have demonstrated that we lack neither good models nor the political will in communities to design and test local and regional institutions for successful involvement in various aspects of management. The barriers lie rather in the distrust and resistance of management agencies and the lack of broadly organized political support. The nature of the barriers and some of the elements of a successful approach to overcoming them are identified and discussed. The analysis is focused around the barriers encountered by two differently situated fishing communities or regions that have launched conservation initiatives through cooperation between local aboriginal and nonaboriginal fishing groups. In attempting to overcome the political barriers, the communities seek to develop expertise in selective fishing technology for more sustainable harvest, principled multi-stakeholder negotiation, marketing, shared databases, and preliminary ecosystem monitoring. The communities exemplify small- and medium-scale bottom-up approaches to adaptive management. The analysis shows the key and possibly unique contributions of processes at these levels, and suggests how they can be scaled up and linked to processes at other levels. Both types of analysis are largely missing in adaptive management theory, which has tended to focus on larger scale processes and to dismiss the potential of smaller scale ones to transform, expand, and link. This analysis focuses on salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. fisheries of British Columbia, Canada, but the literature suggests that the findings have far broader applicability.

  20. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  1. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1997-01-01

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories

  2. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  3. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruemmel, Eva M.; Scheer, Michael; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Macdonald, Robie W.; Kimpe, Lynda E.; Smol, John P.; Finney, Bruce; Blais, Jules M.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to ΣPCB concentrations and δ 15 N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and δ 15 N, as well as ΣPCB concentrations and δ 15 N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, ΣPCBs and δ 15 N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years

  4. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  5. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SALMON RECOVERY: AN IRRECONCILABLE CONFLICT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied and reasonably well understood combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the d...

  6. Salmon mortalities associated with a bloom of Alexandrium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue mussels Mytilus edulis analysed from areas affected by the bloom reached levels of 18 000ìg STX equivalents 100g–1 of tissue. As a result of the salmon mortalities, a project was initiated to establish a monitoring approach for harmful algal blooms to provide an early warning of potential events and to act as a tool for ...

  7. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains reports on subprojects involving the determining of alternatives to enhance salmonid habitat on patented land in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, coordination activities for habitat projects occurring on streams within fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribes, and habitat and fish inventories in the Salmon River. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  8. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Luo, Xinle; Yu, Nansheng; Zeng, Bingfang

    2007-01-01

    To explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, China, during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had sham-operation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 sham-operated rats served as control group. After the fracture the rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated with normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (pnormalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase BMD in osteoporotic bone, but also enhance the bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fracture healing in fractured osteoporotic bone.

  9. Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Duffield; Christopher J. Neher; David A. Patterson; Oliver S. Goldsmith

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of the economic value of wild salmon ecosystems in the major watershed of Bristol Bay, Alaska. The analysis utilizes both regional economic and social benefit-cost accounting frameworks. Key sectors analyzed include subsistence, commercial fishing, sport fishing, hunting, and nonconsumptive wildlife viewing and tourism. The mixed cash-...

  10. Tracing salmon to their birthplace by activable tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masao

    1978-01-01

    Activable tracer technique was applied to trace the recurrent migration of white salmons, as a typical example of employing radioactivation analysis to the study of agricultural and marinefields. Europium was adopted because it is easy to use technically with less influence on fish body and easy to detect, and its remaining time is very long. Artificially hatched young white salmons were stocked in the Saibetsu River after being raised for a month with europium-containing feed. These stocked fish were labeled by fin-cutting method. Recurrent salmons (fin cutting-labeled fish) were then collected and dissected. The fishes were divided into otoliths, scales, flesh, internal organs, gills, bones, etc., and irradiated for 5 min in JRR-2 reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Europium was detected from the scales and otoliths of 3 to 4 year stocked adult fishes by γ-spectrometry of Eu. This proved the availability of activable tracer method for tracing the recurrent migration of salmons. (Kobatake, H.)

  11. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zeng, Bingfang; Luo, Xinle; Yu, Nansheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhaou Medical College, Guangzhaou, China during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had shamoperation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 shamoperated rats served as control group. After the fracture rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (p<0.05), and presented with stronger callus formation, shorter fracture healing time and faster normalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase in osteoporotic bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fractured osteoporotic bone. (author)

  12. Fluorescence of muscle and connective tissue from cod and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Wold, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Autofluorescence of salmon and cod muscle was measured and compared with autofluorescence of collagen type I and type V. Similarities between fluorescence of fish muscle and collagen were found in that the same peaks were obtained around 390, 430, and 480 nm, These similarities are supported...

  13. Stream temperature variability: why it matters to salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Ashley Steel; Brian Beckman; Marie Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Salmon evolved in natural river systems, where temperatures fluctuate daily, weekly, seasonally, and all along a stream’s path—from the mountains to the sea. Climate change and human activities alter this natural variability. Dams, for example, tend to reduce thermal fluctuations.Currently, scientists gauge habitat suitability for aquatic species by...

  14. Effects of salmon calcitonin and calcitonin gene related peptide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this investigation was to examine and compare the effects of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and salmon calcitonin (sCT) on gastric lesions and mucosal barrier components such as mucus and phospholipids in rats exposed to cold + restraint stress (CRS). Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats (150 – 200 g) ...

  15. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro H Buschmann

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  16. Navigating benefit transfer for salmon improvements in the Western US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew August Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A perennial problem in environmental resource management is targeting an efficient level of resource provision that maximizes societal well-being. Such management requires knowledge of both costs and benefits associated with varying management options. This paper illustrates the challenge of estimating the benefits of an improvement in a marine resource when secondary data must be used, and when total economic benefits include non-use values. An example of non-use values is existence value, which is not contingent on resource extraction nor recreational activities. State of the art techniques for adapting secondary data, or benefit transfer, are reviewed in the context of increasing anadromous salmon for an example Western US policy scenario. An extensive summary of applicable primary studies is provided, compiling observations from several studies surveying several thousand Western US households. The studies consistently indicate a high willingness to pay for increased salmon abundance. Analytical techniques for transferring data are described, with calculation examples using published tools, focusing on meta-regression and structural benefit transfer. While these advanced benefit transfer tools offer perspective on benefits beyond what can be learned by relying on a single study, they also represent a variety of challenges limiting their usefulness. While transparently navigating these issues, a monetized estimate of increased salmon for the policy case is provided, along with discussion on interpreting benefit transfer techniques and their results more generally. From this synthesis, several suggestions are also made for future primary salmon valuation studies.

  17. Accounting for risk conflicts in Scottish salmon farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakopoulos, G.; Thomson, I.; Kaldis, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To offer a theoretical analysis, inspired by contemporary research into risk, of the social and environmental accounting processes observed in an empirical study on Scottish salmon farming. Methodology / Approach: This paper used a Grounded Theory approach. Empirical evidence was collected

  18. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  19. Transcriptomic and physiological responses to fishmeal substitution with plant proteins in formulated feed in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacchi Luca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaculture of piscivorous fish is in continual expansion resulting in a global requirement to reduce the dependence on wild caught fish for generation of fishmeal and fish oil. Plant proteins represent a suitable protein alternative to fish meal and are increasingly being used in fish feed. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar to a high marine protein (MP or low fishmeal, higher plant protein replacement diet (PP, formulated to the same nutritional specification within previously determined acceptable maximum levels of individual plant feed materials. Results After 77 days of feeding the fish in both groups doubled in weight, however neither growth performance, feed efficiency, condition factor nor organ indices were significantly different. Assessment of histopathological changes in the heart, intestine or liver did not reveal any negative effects of the PP diet. Transcriptomic analysis was performed in mid intestine, liver and skeletal muscle, using an Atlantic salmon oligonucleotide microarray (Salar_2, Agilent 4x44K. The dietary comparison revealed large alteration in gene expression in all the tissues studied between fish on the two diets. Gene ontology analysis showed, in the mid intestine of fish fed PP, higher expression of genes involved in enteritis, protein and energy metabolism, mitochondrial activity/kinases and transport, and a lower expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis compared to fish fed MP. The liver of fish fed PP showed a lower expression of immune response genes but a higher expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis processes that may lead to cell reorganization in this tissue. The skeletal muscle of fish fed PP vs MP was characterized by a suppression of processes including immune response, energy and protein metabolism, cell proliferation and apoptosis which may reflect a more energy efficient tissue. Conclusions The PP

  20. Substitution of soybean meal by meal moringa oleifera leaves in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the effect of the substitution of the soy bean meal by Moringa oleifera leaf powder in the diet of finish broiler were carry out in the Dschang University Experimental Farm ration completion from December 2003 to January 2004. Two hundred and four twenty eight chicks “Arbor acres” hens, four weeks old were ...

  1. Comparison of the adhesive performances of soy meal, water washed meal fractions, and protein isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhesive bonding of wood plays an increasing role in the forest products industry and is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. In this work, we obtained five soy meal products through commercial sources or in-house preparations. The protein content was 49...

  2. Effect of dietary substitution of feather meal for fish meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed cost/kg weight gain. Considering the results of final live weight and daily weight gain, it appeared that the 7.5% level of FEM is the optimal replacement level for FM. Keywords: Feather meal, fishmeal, poultry feed, broiler chick ...

  3. Partial substitution of cumin seed meal by Jatropha meal as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... mixture (40% yellow corn grains; 20% cumin seed meal; 17% wheat bran; 20% bean straw, 2.0% ... The seeds contain 30 to 32% protein and 60 to 66% oil ... strong cation exchange chromatography followed by the ninhydrin.

  4. Comparative evaluation of different soybean meal and the replacement using peanut, rapeseed and fish meal for broilers .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding experiments have been conducted to test the different sources of soybean meal (local, India, USA and the partial substitution with peanut meal (10%, rapeseed meal (5% and fish meal (5% in the diet for broiler. The first feeding experiment was carried out on broiler starter for 4 weeks in wire cages . Twelve rations in factorial design (3 x 4 were conducted using 6 birds/cage and replicated 6 times . Birds fed India soybean meal had significantly less body weight (1,000 g than those fed local or USA soybean meals (1,037 and 1,023 g, respectively . Partial substitution with peanut, rapeseed or fish meal did not affect body weight, feed consumption or feed/gain ratio . The average consumption and feed/gain were 1,535 g and 1,569, respectively . In second experiment, one thousand five hundred broiler chicks were allocated in 6 dietary treatments in factorial design (3 x 2 . Factor one was different sources of soybean meal (local, India and USA and factor two was the inclusion of peanut meal at 0 and 10%. Birds were kept on litter system for 6 weeks . Each treatment used 5 replicates and 50 birds/replicate . The results show no effect of the treatment to any parameter measured . Body weight of bird fed local, India and USA soybean meal were 1,662, 1,641 and 1,669 g and feed/gain were 2 .043, 2 .051 and 2.035, respectively . Cost analysis indicates that ration uses local soybean meal gives a higher cost than those of India and USA soybean meals.

  5. Does children's energy intake at one meal influence their intake at subsequent meals? Or do we just think it does?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, James A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A

    2010-05-01

    It is widely believed that young children are able to adjust their energy intake across successive meals to compensate for higher or lower intakes at a given meal. This conclusion is based on past observations that although children's intake at individual meals is highly variable, total daily intakes are relatively constant. We investigated how much of this reduction in variability could be explained by the statistical phenomenon of the variability of individual components (each meal) always being relatively larger than the variability of their sum (total daily intake), independent of any physiological compensatory mechanism. We calculated, theoretically and by simulation, how variable a child's daily intake would be if there was no correlation between intakes at individual meals. We simulated groups of children with meal/snack intakes and variability in meal/snack intakes based on previously published values. Most importantly, we assumed that there was no correlation between intakes on successive meals. In both approaches, the coefficient of variation of the daily intakes was roughly 15%, considerably less than the 34% for individual meals. Thus, most of the reduction in variability found in past studies was explained without positing strong 'compensation'. Although children's daily energy intakes are indeed considerably less variable than their individual components, this phenomenon was observed even when intakes at each meal were simulated to be totally independent. We conclude that the commonly held belief that young children have a strong physiological compensatory mechanism to adjust intake at one meal based on intake at prior meals is likely to be based on flawed statistical reasoning.

  6. Nutritional Status of Irish Older People in Receipt of Meals-on-Wheels and the Nutritional Content of Meals Provided

    OpenAIRE

    O'DWYER, CIARA MARY; TIMONEN, VIRPI

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED BACKGROUND: Research has suggested that meals-on-wheels recipients can be at risk for poor nutritional status. Despite this, few countries have statutory minimum requirements for the nutrient content of meals-on-wheels. This study examined both the nutritional status of a sample of Irish recipients and the nutrient content of a sample of meals provided to determine whether Irish recipients would benefit from statutory minimum nutritional standards. METHODS: The study had two phas...

  7. Deepening Thermocline Displaces Salmon Catch On The Oregon Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. S.; Lawson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a linkage between fish stock distributions and physical oceanography at a fine scale provides insights into the dynamic nature of near-shore ocean habitats. Characterization of habitat preferences adds to our understanding of the ecosystem, and may improve forecasts of distribution for harvest management. The Project CROOS (Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon) Chinook salmon catch data set represents an unprecedented high-resolution record of catch location and depth, with associated in-situ temperature measurements and stock identification derived from genetic data. Here we connect this data set with physical ocean observations to gain understanding of how circulation affects salmon catch distributions. The CROOS observations were combined with remote and in situ observations of temperature, as well as a data assimilative regional ocean model that incorporates satellite and HF radar data. Across the CROOS data set, catch is primarily located within the upwelling front over the seamounts and reef structures associated with Heceta and Stonewall Banks along the shelf break. In late September of 2014 the anomalously warm "blob" began to arrive on the Oregon coast coincident with a strong downwelling event. At this time the thermocline deepened from 20 to 40 m, associated with a deepening of salmon catch depth. A cold "bulb" of water over Heceta Bank may have provided a thermal refuge for salmon during the initial onshore movement of the anomalously warm water. These observations suggest that a warming ocean, and regional warming events in particular, will have large effects on fish distributions at local and regional scales, in turn impacting fisheries.

  8. Differential incorporation of natural spawners vs. artificially planted salmon carcasses in a stream food web: Evidence from delta 15N of juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placement of salmon carcasses is a common restoration technique in Oregon and Washington streams, with the goal of improving food resources and productivity of juvenile salmon. To explore the effectiveness of this restoration technique, we measured the δ15N of juvenile coho salmo...

  9. Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unpurified red salmon oil (UPSO) was purified (PSO) using chitosan. Both unpurified and purified oils were evaluated for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), moisture, and color. An emulsion system containing PSO (EPSO) was prepared: system was analyzed for c...

  10. Regular meal frequency creates more appropriate insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles compared with irregular meal frequency in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, H R; Taylor, M A; Macdonald, I A

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on circulating lipids, insulin, glucose and uric acid concentrations which are known cardiovascular risk factors. A randomised crossover dietary intervention study. Nottingham, UK--Healthy free-living women. A total of nine lean healthy women aged 18-42 y recruited via advertisement. A randomised crossover trial with two phases of 14 days each. In Phase 1, subjects consumed their normal diet on either 6 occasions per day (regular) or by following a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/day, irregular). In Phase 2, subjects followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-week (wash-out) period. Subjects were asked to come to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. Blood samples were taken for measurement of circulating glucose, lipids, insulin and uric acid concentrations before and for 3 h after consumption of a high-carbohydrate test meal. Fasting glucose and insulin values were not affected by meal frequency, but peak insulin and AUC of insulin responses to the test meal were higher after the irregular compared to the regular eating patterns (P meal frequency was associated with higher fasting total (P meal frequency appears to produce a degree of insulin resistance and higher fasting lipid profiles, which may indicate a deleterious effect on these cardiovascular risk factors. : The Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran.

  11. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M

    1987-02-01

    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets.

  12. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p [es

  13. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of this...

  14. Bottom Trawl Survey Protocol Development (HB0706, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruise objectives include: 1) Investigate performance characteristics of new research bottom trawl; 2) Develop standard operating procedures for the NEFSC Bottom...

  15. Conservation and care: material politics and Atlantic salmon on Newfoundland’s Gander River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Daniels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to contribute to an emerging and vibrant body of post-structural scholarship situated within science technology and society (STS on practices and their role in world making. Our focus is Atlantic salmon conservation in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. We examine the different material and social orders that have over time connected human and salmon bodies. These different socio-material orders do not exist in harmony. On the contrary, they are in tension and reflect different visions/versions of how to conserve and care for Atlantic salmon. Our contribution is to interfere with the dominant narrative of Atlantic salmon conservation by drawing on the concept of care, and by introducing a new salmon that we call the willful salmon.

  16. Tainting by short-term exposure of Atlantic salmon to water soluble petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackman, R.G.; Heras, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the extent of tainting of salmon by exposure to the soluble fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons. The experiments were conducted on Atlantic salmon in tanks containing seawater artificially contaminated at three different concentrations with the soluble fraction of a North Sea crude. The salmon flesh was analyzed by gas chromatography and taste tests were conducted on cooked salmon samples to determine the extent of tainting. Salmon in control tanks with uncontaminated seawater had muscle accumulations of total hydrocarbons of ca 1 ppM. The muscle accumulations of total hydrocarbons in the salmon were 13.5 ppM, 25.6 ppM, and 31.3 ppM for water soluble fraction concentrations of 0.45, 0.87, and 1.54 ppM respectively. The threshold for taint was clearly inferred to be less than 0.45 ppM of water soluble fraction. 18 refs., 2 figs

  17. Effect of Prudhoe Bay crude oil on the homing of coho salmon in marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, R.E.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Resource managers and the fishing industry have expressed concern that a crude-oil spill occurring in the pathway of a salmon run may destroy the ability of the maturing salmon to reach the home stream. To address this concern, groups of mature 3-year-old and precocious 2-year-old coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were tagged and exposed in seawater for 1 hr to sublethal concentration of Prudhoe Bay crude oil, dispersed oil, or seawater oil dispersant alone, and then were released in seawater about 5 km from their home stream. The results show that the coho salmon's homing success and speed of return to the home stream were not affected by any of the treatments. The longevity or holding tests, in which coho salmon were held in saltwater netpens after experimental treatments, showed that the larger 3-year-old coho salmon were more sensitive to the stress of confinement than the smaller 2-year-old fish

  18. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas chromatographic analysis of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, M; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

    2000-09-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal, in detoxified jojoba meal, in jojoba meal extracts, and in animal food mixtures.

  20. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  1. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P.; Krasnov, Aleksei; Helland, Ståle; Takle, Harald Rune

    2013-01-01

    Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming per...

  2. Modelling the return distribution of salmon farming companies : a quantile regression approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    The salmon farming industry has gained increased attention from investors, portfolio managers, financial analysts and other stakeholders the recent years. Despite this development, very little is known about the risk and return of salmon farming company stocks, and especially how the relationship between risk and return varies under different market conditions, given the volatile nature of the salmon farming industry. We approach this problem by using quantile regression to examine the relati...

  3. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  4. Effect of Replacement of Maize with Cassava Root Meal Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...

  5. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  6. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  7. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...

  8. Biochemical evaluation of Gmelina arborea fruit meal as a swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Gmelina arborea fruits (GAF) meal on haematology and certain biochemical parameters including blood ... regards to blood urea nitrogen, creatinine in blood and urine and uric acids) though not significantly as the dietary inclusion level of raw GAF meal increased.

  9. Replacement Value of Feather Meal for Fishmeal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement Value of Feather Meal for Fishmeal on the Performance of Starter Cockerels. ... ratio and feed cost/kg weights gain. Considering the results of final live weight and daily weight gain, it appeared that the 7.5% level of FEM could be the optimal inclusion level feather meal in the diets of growing cockerels.

  10. Value of Bitter Leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) Meal as Feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) leaf meal as feed ingredient on the performance, feed cost and carcass and organ weights of finisher broilers. The leaves were air dried under room temperature, ground and sieved through a 3 mm mesh to produce the meal.

  11. Evaluation of Jacaranda mimosifolia T. (Stans) leaf meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic benefit analysis indicated that as the leaf meal increased in the diets the cost of production of the broilers decreased. Jacaranda leaf meal could be best utilized at 5.0% level of inclusion though the 7.5% levels broilers attained market size in a recorded time. Animal Production Research Advances Vol.

  12. Detarium microcarpium Bread Meal: It's Physiological Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental breads rolls provided 5g of s-NSP as calculated from the nutrient analysis plus s-NSP from the brown flour. The subjects visited the metabolic kitchen twice a week after an overnight fast. All the subjects ate the two types of meals detarium and control bread meal in random order. The subjects were ...

  13. Response of bread wheat to increasing mustard meal nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greenhouse experiment on the nitrogen uptake from the mustard meal using 15N showed significant difference on both soil types. On the Vertisol the per cent nitrogen derived from the meal and per cent nitrogen use efficiency varied from 18 to 40 and from 18 to 62%, respectively. On the Nitosol, these values varied from 25 ...

  14. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  15. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  16. A comparison between hominy chop and defatted maize germ meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...

  17. The associations of meals and snacks on family meals among a sample of grade 7 students from Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Campbell, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Research has shown the positive associations of family meals and diet quality. However, little is known about how other meals/snacks may be associated with family meals. The purpose was to determine the associations among the frequency and calorie consumption of meals/snacks and family dinners. Cross-sectional. Data were collected using Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q), including a 24-h diet recall for breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and evening snack. Measured height and weight were used to determine body weight status (BMI). Participants included 1068 grade 7 students (52% males) from 26 schools in Windsor Essex County, Ontario, Canada. Meal, snack, and total daily caloric intake; meal and snack frequency; with whom dinner was consumed, and weekly family dinner frequency. Exploratory one-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests; nominal and ordinal logistic regression. Ninety-three percent of participants consumed dinner with family members on the night prior to the survey and 77% reported usually consuming dinner/supper with at least one parent on six to seven nights/week. Those who had dinner with family members consumed 4.88 (SD 1.1) meals/snacks per day compared with 4.40 (SD 1.3) and 4.40 (SD 1.3) times/day for consuming dinner alone or with friends, respectively (p=0.006). On the day prior to the survey, participants were less likely to consume a family meal if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR=0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), psnacks per day (OR=0.84 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.96), p=0.009). While specific meals and snacks were not associated with family dinner, overall eating frequency was positively associated with family meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  19. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  20. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  1. Pemanfaatan Bottom Ash Sebagai Agregat Buatan

    OpenAIRE

    Nuciferani, Felicia Tria; Antoni, Antoni; Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possible use of bottom ash as artificial aggregates. It is found that the pelletizer method by using mixer without blade is one possibility to manufacture artificial aggregates. The optimum mixture composition of artificial aggregate is found to be 3 BA : 1FA : 0,5 C , by weight, and immersed once in cement slurry. The water content in ssd condition is 27% with the compressive strength of the aggregate 2.4 MPa on the seventh day. Concrete produced with ...

  2. Development of debris resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Kyung; Sohn, Dong Seong; Yim, Jeong Sik; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Song, Kee Nam; Oh, Dong Seok; Rhu, Ho Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Seong Soo; Oh, Jong Myung

    1993-12-01

    Debris-related fuel failures have been identified as one of the major causes of fuel failures. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. For this development, mechanical strength test and pressure drop test were performed, and the test results were analyzed. And the laser cutting, laser welding and electron beam welding technology, which were the core manufacturing technology of DRBEP, were developed. Final design were performed, and the final drawing and specifications were prepared. The prototype of DRBEP was manufactured according to the developed munufacturing procedure. (Author)

  3. Bottom nozzle of a LWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The bottom nozzle consists of a transverse element in form of box having a bending resistant grid structure which has an outer peripheral frame of cross-section corresponding to that of the fuel assembly and which has walls defining large cells. The transverse element has a retainer plate with a regular array of openings. The retainer plate is fixed above and parallel to the grid structure with a spacing in order to form, between the grid structure and the retainer plate a free space for tranquil flow of cooling water and for debris collection [fr

  4. Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to equipment for filtering liquids and more particularly to filter assemblies for use with radioactive by-products of nuclear power plants. The invention provides a compact, bottom-loaded filter assembly that can be quickly and safely loaded and unloaded without the use of complex remote equipment. The assembly is integrally shielded and does not require external shielding. The closure hatch may be automatically aligned to facilitate quick sealing attachment after replacement of the filter cartridge, and the filter cartridge may be automatically positioned within the filter housing during the replacement operation

  5. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.; Strikman, M.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1991-01-01

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 10 9 B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 10 9 B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs

  6. Neoliberalism Viewed From the Bottom Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the assumption that it is pivotal to include a bottom up perspective to understand the way in which the welfare system functions, this chapter sets out to explore the lived experience of neoliberalism. The purpose is to gain insight into the consequences of neoliberalism from...... the viewpoint of the vulnerable benefit claimants who encounter it on a daily basis. The analysis is based on a qualitative longitudinal study conducted from 2013 to 2015, which shows how, in varying ways, clients routinely cope with being part of a neoliberal welfare state: by resignation, by taking action...

  7. Revisiting the round bottom flask rainbow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmke, Markus; Selmke, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    A popular demonstration experiment in optics uses a round-bottom flask filled with water to project a circular rainbow on a screen with a hole through which the flask is illuminated. We show how the vessel's wall shifts the first- and second-order bows towards each other and consequently reduces the width of Alexander's dark band. We address the challenge this introduces in observing Alexander's dark band, and explain the importance of a sufficient distance between the flask and the screen. The wall-effect also introduces a splitting of the bows that can easily be misinterpreted.

  8. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  9. Land use, fishing, climate change, and decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M. J.; Irvine, J. R. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reasons for the decline in abundance of Pacific salmon population in the Thompson River watershed in British Columbia was investigated. Results suggests that the decline could be the result of a declining trend in productivity related to changes in ocean conditions, overfishing, and changes in the freshwater habitat. The abundance of salmon correlated with agricultural land use, road density, and qualitative changes in stream habitat status; logging appeared to have had no such effect. It was concluded that salmon populations will continue to decline unless limits on fishing are strictly enforced, and unless salmon producing watersheds are restored and ocean conditions are significantly improved . 12 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce (moromi, and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format. Keywords: Fish sauce, Chum salmon, Fermentation, Chemical properties, Color

  11. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site1). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

  12. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects.

  13. School meals in children’s social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye

    This dissertation explores the role of different school meal arrangements in children’s social life from a child’s perspective. The dissertation utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011-12 to compare the same group of children in different school meal arrangements, thereby...... overcoming typical challenges of comparison across school meal arrangements, such as differences across children, schools or countries. The dissertation builds on data from a four month field work in 4th grade, 26 semi-structured interviews with children, chefs, and teachers, and 834 children’s self...... in children’s evaluation of new food initiatives in school; that children meet conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context; and that the social powers of sharing and exchanging individual lunch packs could outweigh some of the benefits of a collective meal system. Overall...

  14. EFFECT OF POULTRY MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDLOT STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera-Nuñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry meal on weight gain and carcass yield, under a housing system. 30 Swiss x Zebu steers were used, with an approximate weight of 353 kg, which were assigned under a completely randomized design in three treatments. T1 (control concentrate without poultry meal; T2 concentrate + 30% poultry meal and T3 concentrate + 35% poultry meal. The composition of the concentrate was based on ground sorghum, maize grain, wheat bran, ground mineral salt bale with 18% crude protein and 70% TDN. A significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the percentage of carcass weight of 53.0 was observed; 59.5 and 58.8% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results indicate that supplementation based poultry meal 35% promoted greater yield in feedlot steers.

  15. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  16. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  17. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  18. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  19. Addition of different tuna meal levels to pizza dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abreu Vasconcelos Campelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop pizza dough with different levels of tuna meal (Tunnus spp.. In order to produce tuna meal, tuna torsos without fins were used, cooked for 1 hour, pressed, milled and dehydrated for 24 hours at 60 °C. Pizza dough was produced without (0% or with the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of tuna meal, calculated based on the quantity of wheat flour. The tuna meal and different pizza pastries were analyzed for moisture content, crude protein, total lipids, ash, carbohydrates, caloric value and fatty acid profiles. Microbiological and sensory analyses were also carried out on the pizza pastries. The increasing addition of tuna meal resulted in gains in the crude protein (10.89 to 18.94%, total lipid (4.63 to 5.89% and ash (2.54 to 3.54% contents of the pizza pastries, not influencing the moisture content or caloric value. The inclusion of tuna meal linearly increased the quantity of n-3 series fatty acids in the pizza pastry, from 1.56 to 5.93 g/kg with the addition of 20% tuna meal. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the tuna meal and pizza pastries varied from 1.21 to 1.85. The microbiological analyses showed that the pizza pastries were produced under proper hygiene conditions. It was also observed that the addition of 5 to 20% of tuna meal to the pizza pastry did not significantly (p>0.05 alter the parameters of aroma, flavor, overall impression and purchase intention. It was therefore concluded that the addition of 5 to 20% tuna meal is effective in improving the nutritional value and fatty acid profile of pizza pastry.

  20. The epidemiology of family meals among Ohio's adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Rachel; Anderson, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    The epidemiology of family meals among adults at a population level is poorly characterized and whether living with children impacts this health behaviour is uncertain. We determined the prevalence of family meals among US adults in a mid-western state whose families did and did not include minor children and described how it varied by sociodemographic characteristics. The cross-sectional 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey is representative of Ohio adults and included questions on their sociodemographic characteristics and the frequency with which they eat family meals at home. Trained interviewers administered landline and cell phone surveys to adults sampled from Ohio's non-institutionalized population. We analysed data from 5766 adults living with minor children and 8291 adults not living alone or with children. The prevalence of family meals was similar for adults who did and did not live with minor children: 47 % (95 % CI 46, 49 %) of adults living with and 51 % (95 % CI 50, 53 %) of adults living without children reported eating family meals on most (six or seven) days of the week. Family meal frequency varied by race/ethnicity, marital and employment status in both groups. Non-Hispanic African-American adults, those who were not married and those who were employed ate family meals less often. Adults in Ohio frequently shared meals with their family and family meal frequency was not strongly related to living with children. Broadening the scope of future studies to include adults who are not parents could enhance our understanding of the potential health benefits of sharing meals.