WorldWideScience

Sample records for meal reduces tongue

  1. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for eliminating malodor. The authors of the General Dentistry article feel that future research is necessary to determine what role undetected odorants may play in oral malodor, as well as more well designed, randomized clinical trials to compare the effectiveness of tongue scrapers, ...

  2. Effectiveness of a new toothbrush design versus a conventional tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing tongue microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Assirati Casemiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30 had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05. When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group. The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning.

  3. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2015-12-01

    Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.

  4. A custom-made mouthpiece incorporating tongue depressors and elevators to reduce radiation-induced tongue mucositis during carbon-ion radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Hiroaki; Koto, Masashi; Ebner, Daniel K; Takagi, Ryo; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi

    We introduce a custom-made mouthpiece for carbon-ion radiation therapy for head and neck malignancy. The mouthpiece incorporates either a tongue depressor or elevator depending on tumor location. The risk of tongue mucositis may be reduced without compromising therapeutic efficacy through mouthpiece shaping. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The foreign-language effect: thinking in a foreign tongue reduces decision biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysar, Boaz; Hayakawa, Sayuri L; An, Sun Gyu

    2012-06-01

    Would you make the same decisions in a foreign language as you would in your native tongue? It may be intuitive that people would make the same choices regardless of the language they are using, or that the difficulty of using a foreign language would make decisions less systematic. We discovered, however, that the opposite is true: Using a foreign language reduces decision-making biases. Four experiments show that the framing effect disappears when choices are presented in a foreign tongue. Whereas people were risk averse for gains and risk seeking for losses when choices were presented in their native tongue, they were not influenced by this framing manipulation in a foreign language. Two additional experiments show that using a foreign language reduces loss aversion, increasing the acceptance of both hypothetical and real bets with positive expected value. We propose that these effects arise because a foreign language provides greater cognitive and emotional distance than a native tongue does.

  6. Customized mouthpieces designed to reduce tongue mucositis in carbon-ion radiotherapy for tumors of the nasal and paranasal sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Musha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mouthpieces are used to fix the positions of the lower jaw and teeth during carbon-ion radiotherapy for head and neck tumors. We used a customized mouthpiece to reduce radiation mucositis by displacing the tongue. Acute radiation mucositis gradually increased for the palate and tongue after approximately six irradiation fractions (maximal mean grade: palate, 2.5 during radiation fractions 15; tongue, 0.8 during radiation fractions 12 and 13. The mean grade of mucositis was significantly lower for the tongue than for the palate from irradiation fraction six until two weeks after irradiation.

  7. An attempt of 'out-tongue method' to reduce taste dysfunction following head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Tateno, Atsushi; Kumashiro, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Ohno, Haruyoshi; Sato, Iisaku.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce taste dysfunction which lowers QOL of patients with head and neck carcinoma during and after radiation therapy, an 'out-tongue method' was attempted where patients put out their tongue during the irradiation. The attempt was done on 15 patients of the carcinoma, aging 42-83 years old. They received enough information and training of the method. The training was important for reproducibility. Irradiation with 35-61.2 (mean 52.9) Gy of the oral cavity was performed by linac with continuous monitoring for keeping the method. The volume of irradiated tongue was reduced to 1/3-2/3 level. The effect of the method was evaluated by 4-graded score: no change, fair (a small change in taste post radiation), moderate and severe (no taste). The method gave no change in 9 patients (60%), fair in 3 (20%), moderate in 3 (20%) and severe in 0 (0%). These results suggested that this method was useful. (K.H.)

  8. Tongue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory medicines may be prescribed for glossititis and geographic tongue. Alternative Names Dark tongue; Burning tongue syndrome - symptoms Images Black hairy tongue Black hairy tongue ...

  9. Aversion learning can reduce meal size without taste avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Schurdak, Jennifer D; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C

    2016-03-01

    Nausea and aversive food responses are commonly reported following bariatric surgery, along with post-surgical reduction in meal size. This study investigates whether a meal size limit can be conditioned by associating large meals with aversive outcomes. In rats, the intake of meals exceeding a pre-defined size threshold was paired with lithium chloride-induced gastric illness, and the effects on self-determined food intakes and body weight were measured. Rats given LiCl contingent on the intake of a large meal learned to reliably reduce intake below this meal size threshold, while post-meal saline or LiCl before meals did not change meal size. It was further demonstrated that this is not a conditioned taste aversion and that this effect transferred to foods not explicitly trained. Finally, when rats received LiCl following all large meals, the number of small meals increased, but total food intake and body weight decreased. While further work is needed, this is the first demonstration that meal size may be conditioned, using an aversion procedure, to remain under a target threshold and that this effect is distinct from taste avoidance. Corresponding reduction in food intake and body weight suggests that this phenomenon may have implications for developing weight loss strategies and understanding the efficacy of bariatric surgery. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. 7 CFR 226.23 - Free and reduced-price meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to revise its free and reduced-price policy statement or its nondiscrimination statement unless the... shall develop a policy statement for determining eligibility for free and reduced-price meals which... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free and reduced-price meals. 226.23 Section 226.23...

  11. The role of music therapy in reducing post meal related anxiety for patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Jennifer; Castle, David; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that mealtime is anxiety provoking for patients with Anorexia Nervosa. However, there is little research into effective interventions for reducing meal related anxiety in an inpatient setting. This study compared the levels of distress and anxiety of patients with Anorexia Nervosa pre and post music therapy, in comparison to standard post meal support therapy. Data was collected using the Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) scale which was administered pre and post each condition. A total of 89 intervention and 84 control sessions were recorded. Results from an unpaired t-test analysis indicated statistically significant differences between the music therapy and supported meal conditions. Results indicated that participation in music therapy significantly decreases post meal related anxiety and distress in comparison to standard post meal support therapy. This research provides support for the use of music therapy in this setting as an effective clinical intervention in reducing meal related anxiety.

  12. Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-11-01

    Consuming soup can enhance satiety and reduce energy intake. Little is known about the influence on energy intake and satiety of varying the form of soup by altering the blending of ingredients. We tested the effects on meal intake of consuming different forms of soup as a preload: broth and vegetables served separately, chunky vegetable soup, chunky-pureed vegetable soup, or pureed vegetable soup. Normal-weight men and women (n = 60) came to the laboratory for lunch once a week for 5 weeks. Each week, one of four compulsory preloads, or no preload, was consumed prior to lunch. A test meal was consumed ad libitum 15 min after the soup was served. Results showed that consuming soup significantly reduced test meal intake and total meal energy intake (preload + test meal) compared to having no soup. When soup was consumed, subjects reduced meal energy intake by 20% (134+/-25 kcal; 561+/-105 kJ). The type of soup had no significant effect on test meal intake or total meal energy intake. Consuming a preload of low-energy-dense soup, in a variety of forms, is one strategy for moderating energy intake in adults.

  13. A nutritional intervention to reduce the calorie content of meals served at psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Dalcin, Arlene; McCarron, Phyllis; Appel, Lawrence J; Gayles, Debra; Hayes, Jennifer; Daumit, Gail

    2011-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the calorie content of meals served at two psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Intervention staff assisted kitchen staff with ways to reduce calories and improve the nutritional quality of meals. Breakfast and lunch menus were collected before and after a 6-month intervention period. ESHA software was used to determine total energy and nutrient profiles of meals. Total energy of served meals significantly decreased by 28% at breakfast and 29% at lunch for site 1 (P breakfast for site 2 (P = 0.018). Total sugars significantly decreased at breakfast for both sites (P ≤ 0.001). In general, sodium levels were high before and after the intervention period. The nutrition intervention was effective in decreasing the total energy and altering the composition of macro-nutrients of meals. These results highlight an unappreciated opportunity to improve diet quality in patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

  14. The role of music therapy in reducing post meal related anxiety for patients with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bibb, Jennifer; Castle, David; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that mealtime is anxiety provoking for patients with Anorexia Nervosa. However, there is little research into effective interventions for reducing meal related anxiety in an inpatient setting. Methods This study compared the levels of distress and anxiety of patients with Anorexia Nervosa pre and post music therapy, in comparison to standard post meal support therapy. Data was collected using the Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) scale which was administered pre ...

  15. Protective Role of Emodin in Reducing The Gamma Rays Induced Hazardous Effects On The Tongue of Diabetic or Normoglycaemic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, M.G.; Kazem, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation leads to damage at various cellular and sub-cellular levels and can be prevented by radio protectors. There is a need for natural prospective radio protectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation for treating malignant neoplasms. The study aimed to evaluate the potential protective role of emodin in reducing the severity of gamma rays-induced hazardous damage in the tongue of normoglycaemic and diabetic mice. Sixty-four male mice were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups: control group received vehicle, emodin group received daily emodin dose of 4g/kg orally for a week, diabetes mellitus (DM) group in which DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, emodin + DM received emodin for a week + STZ treatment, irradiated group submitted to 4 Gy of gamma rays and received vehicle for a week, gamma rays + DM group received gamma rays + STZ treatment, gamma rays + emodin group received gamma rays + emodin for a week, and gamma rays + DM + emodin group received gamma rays + STZ treatment + emodin for a week. Tongue and serum of mice were biochemically examined for screening gamma radiation and diabetic damages and the efficacy of emodin in ameliorating these damaging effects. The levels of cellular thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), total thiols (TT) and lipid peroxidation products; malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD), were assessed in tongue tissues. Tongue antioxidant enzymes; gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P), were measured and serum glucose level was estimated. The results revealed alterations of the levels of cellular thiols and antioxidant enzymes in tongue and the level of glucose in serum of gamma irradiated diabetic mice were ameliorated in mice groups received emodin treatment. The results suggest that emodin treatment (4 g

  16. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different...... isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants...... glucose (p = 0.001) was lower for RG+T, and triacylglycerols (p = 0.02) increased for LRG+T; however, insulin, C-peptide, and ghrelin were comparable in all other meals. In conclusion, our study indicates that acute consumption of whole-grain pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering...

  17. Tongue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of many muscles. The upper surface contains your taste buds. Problems with the tongue include Pain Swelling Changes in color or texture Abnormal movement or difficulty moving the tongue Taste problems These problems can have many different causes. ...

  18. Intracerebroventricular C75 decreases meal frequency and reduces AgRP gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Susan; Bi, Sheng; Knipp, Susan B; McFadden, Jill M; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H

    2006-07-01

    3-Carboxy-4-alkyl-2-methylenebutyrolactone (C75), an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase and stimulator of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, reduces food intake and body weight in rodents when given systemically or centrally. Intracellular molecular mechanisms involving changes in cellular energy status are proposed to initiate the feeding and body weight reductions. However, effectors that lie downstream of these initial steps are not yet fully identified. Present experiments characterize the time courses of hypophagia and weight loss after single injections of C75 into the lateral cerebroventicle in rats and go on to identify specific meal pattern changes and coinciding alterations in gene expression for feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides. C75 reduced chow intake and body weight dose dependently. Although the principal effects occurred on the first day, weight losses relative to vehicle control were maintained over multiple days. C75 did not affect generalized locomotor activity. C75 began to reduce feeding after a 6-h delay. The hypophagia was due primarily to decreased meal number during 6-12 h without a significant effect on meal size, suggesting that central C75 reduced the drive to initiate meals. C75 prevented the anticipated hypophagia-induced increases in mRNA for AgRP in the arcuate nucleus at 22 h and at 6 h when C75 begins to suppress feeding. Overall, the data suggest that gene expression changes leading to altered melanocortin signaling are important for the hypophagic response to intracerebroventricular C75.

  19. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; Finlayson, Graham; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100 kcal salad), hedonic (100 kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0 kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters' entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 76 FR 78095 - Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... 0584-AD54 [FNS-2007-0023] Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program and for Benefits in the Special Milk Program, and Technical... school meals to implement nondiscretionary provisions of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act...

  1. Management of Sodium-reduced Meals at Worksite Cafeterias: Perceptions, Practices, Barriers, and Needs among Food Service Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2016-04-01

    The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel. We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Chi-square tests and analysis of variance for statistical analysis. For post hoc testing, we used Bonferroni tests; when variances were unequal, we used Dunnett T3 tests. This study involved 104 individuals employed at the worksite cafeterias, comprised of 35 men and 69 women. Most of the participants had relatively high levels of perception regarding the importance of sodium reduction (very important, 51.0%; moderately important, 27.9%). Sodium reduction practices were higher, but perceived barriers appeared to be lower in participants with high-level perception of sodium-reduced meal provision. The results of the needs assessment revealed that the participants wanted to have more active education programs targeting the general population. The biggest barriers to providing sodium-reduced meals were use of processed foods and limited methods of sodium-reduced cooking in worksite cafeterias. To make the provision of sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias more successful and sustainable, we suggest implementing more active education programs targeting the general population, developing sodium-reduced cooking methods, and developing sodium-reduced processed foods.

  2. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea; Iacone, Roberto; Labruna, Giuseppe; Marra, Maurizio; Contaldo, Franco; Kristensen, Mette; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), postprandial fullness (p = 0.001) increased and hunger (p = 0.038) decreased. WG+T had a lower EE than did both LGR+T (p = 0.02) and RG+L (p pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile.

  3. Geographic tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to irritation from hot or spicy foods, or alcohol. The condition appears to be less common in ... Avoid irritating your tongue with hot or spicy food or alcohol if you are prone to this condition. Alternative ...

  4. Effect of aging on oral and swallowing function after meal consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramatsu T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Hiramatsu,1,2 Hideyuki Kataoka,3 Mari Osaki,4 Hiroshi Hagino3,4 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Matsue Co-medical College, Matsue, Japan; 2Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 3School of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 4Rehabilitation Division, Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan Background/purpose: Dysphagia may worsen due to fatigue of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscle groups as a result of repetitive swallowing during a meal. We investigated the hypothesis that meal consumption may reduce tongue strength and endurance in older adults (OAs.Methods: Tongue–palate pressure, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing, and surface electromyography activity before and after a meal were measured in 23 young adults (YAs and 23 OA volunteers.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in both tongue pressure and the number of voluntary swallows between YAs and OAs. Peak tongue pressure was significantly lower in OAs than YAs both before and after meal consumption. The most notable finding was that the first time interval (the time from test initiation to the beginning of the first swallow was prolonged after meal consumption only in OAs, whereas the first time interval showed no difference between YAs and OAs before meal consumption with reference to the repetitive saliva swallowing test. The initiation of swallowing was prolonged by both meal consumption and aging; there was a significant interaction between these two factors. The number of repetitions of the monosyllable/pa/was statistically similar between YAs and OAs before meal consumption, but it was significantly lower in OAs after meal consumption.Conclusion: Aging leads to declining tongue pressure and motor function of the lips. It is possible that swallowing function declines in older individuals when meal consumption is prolonged, especially at the end of mealtime, as a result of their

  5. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham T. Girgih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and total peroxides (TPx levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  6. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  7. Ballistic tongue projection in a miniaturized salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deban, Stephen M; Bloom, Segall V

    2018-05-20

    Miniaturization of body size is often accompanied by peculiarities in morphology that can have functional consequences. We examined the feeding behavior and morphology of the miniaturized plethodontid salamander Thorius, one of the smallest vertebrates, to determine if its performance and biomechanics differ from those of its larger relatives. High-speed imaging and dynamics analysis of feeding at a range of temperatures show that tongue projection in Thorius macdougalli is ballistic and achieves accelerations of up to 600 G with low thermal sensitivity, indicating that tongue projection is powered by an elastic-recoil mechanism. Preceding ballistic projection is an unusual preparatory phase of tongue protrusion, which, like tongue retraction, shows lower performance and higher thermal sensitivity that are indicative of movement being powered directly by muscle shortening. The variability of tongue-projection kinematics and dynamics is comparable to larger ballistic-tongued plethodontids and reveals that Thorius is capable of modulating its tongue movements in response to prey distance. Morphological examination revealed that T. macdougalli possesses a reduced number of myofibers in the tongue muscles, a large projector muscle mass relative to tongue mass, and an unusual folding of the tongue skeleton, compared with larger relatives. Nonetheless, T. macdougalli retains the elaborated collagen aponeuroses in the projector muscle that store elastic energy and a tongue skeleton that is free of direct myofiber insertion, two features that appear to be essential for ballistic tongue projection in salamanders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Free and Reduced-Price Meal Application and Income Verification Practices in School Nutrition Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junehee; Lee, Yee Ming; Park, Eunhye; Wang, Yujia; Rushing, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study assessed current practices and attitudes of school nutrition program (SNP) management staff regarding free and reduced-price (F-RP) meal application and verification in SNPs. Methods: Stratified, randomly selected 1,500 SNP management staff in 14 states received a link to an online questionnaire and/or a printed…

  9. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Gentile, Christopher L; Nindl, Bradley C; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Ruby, Maxwell

    2013-07-01

    Unrefined, complex carbohydrates and lean protein diets are used to combat obesity, although it's unknown whether more frequent meals may improve this response. The effects of consuming traditional (~15%) versus higher (~35%) protein intakes as three or six meals/day on abdominal fat, postprandial thermogenesis (TEM), and cardiometabolic biomarkers in overweight individuals during 28 days of energy balance (BAL) and deficit (NEG), respectively were compared. Overweight individuals (n = 30) were randomized into three groups: two high-protein groups (35% of energy) consumed as three (HP3) or six (HP6) meals/day and one group consumed three meals/day of a traditional intake (TD3). Following a 5-day baseline control (CON), subjects consumed their respective diets throughout a 56-day intervention consisting of two, 28 day phases: a BAL followed by a NEG phase (75% of energy needs). Total body fat (BF) and abdominal BF (ABF), body weight (BW), TEM, and fasting biomarkers were assessed at the end of CON, BAL, and NEG phases. BW remained stable throughout CON and BAL in all groups, whereas BF (P meals/day in overweight individuals during both BAL and NEG. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-21

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  11. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ferriday

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12 attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i video-recordings of the mouth and (ii real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24 consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert. When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  12. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Alistair; Martin, Alex; Jackson, Liam; Corrigan, Nick; Stringer, Ellen; Newey, Jack; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; James, Lewis J

    2018-03-01

    Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23.9 ± 3.6 g protein) or dextrose (CHO 26.5 ± 3.8 g carbohydrate) drink in the 5 min post-exercise. An ad libitum meal was served 60 min later, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Drinks were flavoured and matched for energy content and volume. The PRO drink provided 0.3 g/kg body mass protein. Ad libitum energy intake (PRO 3742 ± 994 kJ; CHO 4172 ± 1132 kJ; P = 0.007) and mean eating rate (PRO 339 ± 102 kJ/min; CHO 405 ± 154 kJ/min; P = 0.009) were lower during PRO. The change in eating rate was associated with the change in energy intake (R = 0.661, P = 0.007). No interaction effects were observed for subjective measures of appetite. The PRO drink was perceived as creamier and thicker, and less pleasant, sweet and refreshing (P consumption after resistance exercise reduces subsequent energy intake, and this might be partially mediated by a reduced eating rate. Whilst this reduced energy intake is unlikely to impair hypertrophy, it may be of value in supporting an energy deficit for weight loss.

  13. Processing of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal reduces protein digestibility and pig growth performance but does not affect nitrogen solubilization along the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM) as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Fifty-four growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 6 experimental diets. Four of the diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM as the sole protein source. The remaining 2 experimental diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to the same standardized ileal digestible AA levels as the SBM or RSM diet. Pigs were slaughtered at 40 kg, and organ weights were recorded. The organs plus blood and empty carcass were analyzed for CP content. The small intestine was divided into 3 segments, and chyme samples were taken from the last meter of each segment. Chyme of the SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM diets was centrifuged to separate the soluble and insoluble fractions, and N content was determined in the latter. The amount of insoluble N as a fraction of N in chyme at each small intestinal segment was not affected by processing. Diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, affected ( < 0.05) the G:F and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP. Processing reduced G:F from 0.56 to 0.38 for SBM and 0.49 to 0.40 for RSM, whereas supplementing crystalline AA increased G:F to the level of the SBM and RSM diets. Processing reduced the SID of CP from 87.2% to 69.2% for SBM and 71.0% to 52.2% for RSM. Diet type affected ( < 0.05) the CP content in the empty body, with processing reducing this content from 170 to 144 g/kg empty BW for SBM and 157 to 149 g/kg empty BW for RSM and supplementing crystalline AA restoring this content

  14. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If my agency authorizes...

  15. Effects of tongue cleaning on bacterial flora in tongue coating and dental plaque: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miki; Chosa, Naoyuki; Shimoyama, Yu; Minami, Kentaro; Kimura, Shigenobu; Kishi, Mitsuo

    2014-01-14

    The effects of tongue cleaning on reconstruction of bacterial flora in dental plaque and tongue coating itself are obscure. We assessed changes in the amounts of total bacteria as well as Fusobacterium nucleatum in tongue coating and dental plaque specimens obtained with and without tongue cleaning. We conducted a randomized examiner-blind crossover study using 30 volunteers (average 23.7 ± 3.2 years old) without periodontitis. After dividing randomly into 2 groups, 1 group was instructed to clean the tongue, while the other did not. On days 1 (baseline), 3, and 10, tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected after recording tongue coating score (Winkel tongue coating index: WTCI). After a washout period of 3 weeks, the same examinations were performed with the subjects allocated to the alternate group. Genomic DNA was purified from the samples and applied to SYBR® Green-based real-time PCR to quantify the amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum. After 3 days, the WTCI score recovered to baseline, though the amount of total bacteria in tongue coating was significantly lower as compared to the baseline. In plaque samples, the bacterial amounts on day 3 and 10 were significantly lower than the baseline with and without tongue cleaning. Principal component analysis showed that variations of bacterial amounts in the tongue coating and dental plaque samples were independent from each other. Furthermore, we found a strong association between amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum in specimens both. Tongue cleaning reduced the amount of bacteria in tongue coating. However, the cleaning had no obvious contribution to inhibit dental plaque formation. Furthermore, recovery of the total bacterial amount induced an increase in F. nucleatum in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Thus, it is recommended that tongue cleaning and tooth brushing should both be performed for promoting oral health.

  16. Randomized controlled clinical trial of behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement to reduce excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Brannen, Anna; McHugh, Angelica; Hagobian, Todd A; Schaffner, Andrew; Jelalian, Elissa; Hart, Chantelle N; Scholl, Theresa O; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Yin, Elaine; Phipps, Maureen G; Keadle, Sarah; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Behavioral lifestyle interventions during pregnancy can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) in women with normal weight; however, effective interventions to reduce GWG in ethnically diverse women with obesity are lacking. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to test whether a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement reduces GWG rate in Hispanic and non-Hispanic women with overweight or obesity relative to enhanced usual care. Participants (n = 257) were recruited in San Luis Obispo, California, and Providence, Rhode Island, between November 2012 and May 2016. Participants were pregnant (mean ± SD: 13.6 ± 1.8 wk of gestation) with overweight or obesity and had a mean age of 30.3 y; 41.6% of participants were Hispanic. Women were randomly assigned within site and by ethnicity to enhanced usual care (n = 128) or to a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement (n = 129). The primary outcome was GWG per week of observation. Secondary outcomes were proportions exceeding Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for total GWG, changes in weight-control behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk factors, and incidence of pregnancy complications. Study retention was 99.6% (256 of 257). The intervention compared with usual care resulted in less mean ± SD weekly GWG (0.33 ± 0.25 compared with 0.39 ± 0.23 kg/wk; P = 0.02) and total GWG (9.4 ± 6.9 compared with 11.2 ± 7.0 kg; P = 0.03) and reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines for total GWG (41.1% compared with 53.9%; P = 0.03). No significant group × time × demographic subgroup (ethnicity, BMI, age, parity, and income) interactions were observed. Among intervention participants, greater meal replacement intake was related to reduced GWG rate (β = -0.07; 95% CI:-0.12, -0.03; P = 0.002). The intervention compared with usual care increased weight-control strategies (P meal replacement significantly reduced GWG in Hispanic

  17. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight by reducing total meals with no conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Third Exposure to a Reduced Carbohydrate Meal Lowers Evening Postprandial Insulin and GIP Responses and HOMA-IR Estimate of Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Ju; Borer, Katarina T

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease mortality. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also occur in metabolically healthy subjects consuming high-carbohydrate diets particularly after evening meals and when carbohydrate loads follow acute exercise. We hypothesized the involvement of dietary carbohydrate load, especially when timed after exercise, and mediation by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in this phenomenon, as this incretin promotes insulin secretion after carbohydrate intake in insulin-sensitive, but not in insulin-resistant states. Four groups of eight metabolically healthy weight-matched postmenopausal women were provided with three isocaloric meals (a pre-trial meal and two meals during the trial day) containing either 30% or 60% carbohydrate, with and without two-hours of moderate-intensity exercise before the last two meals. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, GIP, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFAs), and D-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured during 4-h postprandial periods and 3-h exercise periods, and their areas under the curve (AUCs) were analyzed by mixed-model ANOVA, and insulin resistance during fasting and meal tolerance tests within each diet was estimated using homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR). The third low-carbohydrate meal, but not the high-carbohydrate meal, reduced: (1) evening insulin AUC by 39% without exercise and by 31% after exercise; (2) GIP AUC by 48% without exercise and by 45% after exercise, and (3) evening insulin resistance by 37% without exercise and by 24% after exercise. Pre-meal exercise did not alter insulin-, GIP- and HOMA-IR- lowering effects of low-carbohydrate diet, but exacerbated evening hyperglycemia. Evening postprandial insulin and GIP responses and insulin resistance declined by over 30% after three meals that limited daily carbohydrate intake to

  19. Reducing Glucose Variability Due to Meals and Postprandial Exercise in T1DM Using Switched LPV Control: In Silico Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmegna, Patricio H; Sánchez-Peña, Ricardo S; Gondhalekar, Ravi; Dassau, Eyal; Doyle, Francis J

    2016-05-01

    Time-varying dynamics is one of the main issues for achieving safe blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. In addition, the typical disturbances considered for controller design are meals, which increase the glucose level, and physical activity (PA), which increases the subject's sensitivity to insulin. In previous works the authors have applied a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control technique to manage unannounced meals. A switched LPV controller that switches between 3 LPV controllers, each with a different level of aggressiveness, is designed to further cope with both unannounced meals and postprandial PA. Thus, the proposed control strategy has a "standard" mode, an "aggressive" mode, and a "conservative" mode. The "standard" mode is designed to be applied most of the time, while the "aggressive" mode is designed to deal only with hyperglycemia situations. On the other hand, the "conservative" mode is focused on postprandial PA control. An ad hoc simulator has been developed to test the proposed controller. This simulator is based on the distribution version of the UVA/Padova model and includes the effect of PA based on Schiavon.(1) The test results obtained when using this simulator indicate that the proposed control law substantially reduces the risk of hypoglycemia with the conservative strategy, while the risk of hyperglycemia is scarcely affected. It is demonstrated that the announcement, or anticipation, of exercise is indispensable for letting a mono-hormonal artificial pancreas deal with the consequences of postprandial PA. In view of this the proposed controller allows switching into a conservative mode when notified of PA by the user. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Family Meals KidsHealth / For Parents / Family Meals What's in ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  1. Diabetter"T"M Reduces Post Meal Hyperglycemia Via Enhancement of Glucose Uptake Into Adipocytes and Muscles Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Mohd Hishamudin Mohd Jinal; Alqarni Bader Ayed; Shafii Khamis

    2014-01-01

    There are lots of herbal products for diabetes mellitus treatment available in local market. Most of these products are not standardized and lack of efficacy and safety data. DiaBetter"T"M is one of the herbal products that have been used for diabetes treatment. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of DiaBetter"T"M in reducing hyperglycemia and to elucidate the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia is reduced. The results showed that DiaBetter"T"M significantly reduced post meal hyperglycemia in normal and diabetic rats, and improved glucose tolerance activity in diabetic rats particularly after 4 and 6 hours of administration. Antihyperglycemic mechanisms elucidation revealed that the DiaBetter"T"M significantly enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into adipocytes and muscle cells, with the highest magnitude of enhancement were 1.54 fold (p<0.01) and 1.46 fold (p<0.001), respectively. Molecular mechanisms that responsible for this enhancement were the increment of insulin sensitivity at cells membrane. Cytotoxic evaluation was also done and confirmed that DiaBetter"T"M was toxicologically safe against muscle and adipocytes cells. In conclusion, post-meal antihyperglycemic and glucose tolerance activity of DiaBetter"T"M was mediated through the enhancement of glucose uptake into adipocytes and muscle cells. Insulin sensitizing activity showed by DiaBetter"T"M suggests that this product has the potential to ameliorate insulin resistance condition. Therefore, it is suggested that the DiaBetter"T"M can be used as dietary adjunct for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus which related to insulin resistance. (Author)

  2. DiabetterTM Reduces Post Meal Hyperglycemia Via Enhancement Of Glucose Uptake Into Adipocytes And Muscles Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are lots of herbal products available in local markets that are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Most of these products are not standardized and lack of efficacy and safety data. DiaBetterTM is one of the local herbal products that have been used for treatment of diabetes. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of DiaBetterTM in reducing hyperglycemia and to elucidate the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia is reduced. Antihyperglycemic evaluation was done in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at different prandial states and the antihyperglycemic mechanisms elucidation was carried out in muscle and adipocytes cells using glucose tracer method (2-deoxy-[1-3H]-glucose). The results showed that DiaBetterTM significantly reduced post meal hyperglycemia in normal and diabetic rats, and improved glucose tolerance activity in diabetic rats particularly after 4 and 6 hours of administration. Antihyperglycemic mechanisms elucidation revealed that the DiaBetterTM significantly enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into adipocytes and muscle cells, with the highest magnitude of enhancement were 1.54-fold (p<0.01) and 1.46-fold (p<0.001), respectively. Molecular mechanisms that responsible for this enhancement were the increment of insulin sensitivity at cells membrane. Cytotoxic evaluation was also done and confirmed that DiaBetterTM was toxicologically safe against muscle and adipocytes cells. In conclusion, post-meal antihyperglycemic and glucose tolerance activity activity of DiaBetterTM was mediated through the enhancement of glucose uptake into adipocytes and muscle cells. Insulin sensitizing activity showed by DiaBetterTM suggests that this product has the potential to ameliorate insulin resistance condition. Therefore, it is suggested that DiaBetterTM can be used as dietary adjunct for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus which related to insulin resistance. (author)

  3. Black, Hairy Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the surface of the tongue that contain taste buds. These papillae, which are longer than normal, can easily trap and be stained by bacteria, yeast, tobacco, food or other ... tongue Altered taste or metallic taste in your mouth Bad breath ( ...

  4. N-acetylcysteine is able to reduce the oxidation status and the endothelial activation after a high-glucose content meal in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, A; Brocato, L; Dinatale, S; Mascia, C; Biasi, F; Martina, V

    2009-04-01

    Post-prandial hyperglycemia seems to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular complications of diabetes mellitus, as it leads to an oxidative stress which in turn causes a reduced NO bioavailability. These conditions produce an endothelial activation. The aim of this study was to assure that the administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), thiolic antioxidant, is able to decrease the oxidation status and endothelial activation after a high-glucose content meal. Ten patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) (Group 1) and 10 normal subjects (Group 2) were studied. They assumed a high-glucose content meal without (phase A) or after (phase B) the administration of NAC. Glycemia, insulinemia, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, malonaldehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) were assessed at -30, 0, +30, +60, +90, +120, and +180 min with respect to the meal consumption. During the phase A in Group 1, only HNE and MDA levels increased after the meal assumption; all parameters remained unchanged in Group 2. During the phase B, in Group 1, HNE, MDA, VCAM-1, and E-selectin levels after the meal were lower than those in phase A, while no change for all variables were observed in Group 2. A high-glucose meal produces an increase in oxidation parameters in patients with DMT2. The administration of NAC reduces the oxidative stress and, by doing so, reduces the endothelial activation. In conclusion, NAC could be efficacious in the slackening of the progression of vascular damage in DMT2.

  5. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  6. Standard values of maximum tongue pressure taken using newly developed disposable tongue pressure measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utanohara, Yuri; Hayashi, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2008-09-01

    It is clinically important to evaluate tongue function in terms of rehabilitation of swallowing and eating ability. We have developed a disposable tongue pressure measurement device designed for clinical use. In this study we used this device to determine standard values of maximum tongue pressure in adult Japanese. Eight hundred fifty-three subjects (408 male, 445 female; 20-79 years) were selected for this study. All participants had no history of dysphagia and maintained occlusal contact in the premolar and molar regions with their own teeth. A balloon-type disposable oral probe was used to measure tongue pressure by asking subjects to compress it onto the palate for 7 s with maximum voluntary effort. Values were recorded three times for each subject, and the mean values were defined as maximum tongue pressure. Although maximum tongue pressure was higher for males than for females in the 20-49-year age groups, there was no significant difference between males and females in the 50-79-year age groups. The maximum tongue pressure of the seventies age group was significantly lower than that of the twenties to fifties age groups. It may be concluded that maximum tongue pressures were reduced with primary aging. Males may become weaker with age at a faster rate than females; however, further decreases in strength were in parallel for male and female subjects.

  7. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  8. The Tongue and Quill

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The Tongue and Quill is dedicated to every man and woman in today's twenty-first century Air Force who will ever sling ink at paper, pound a keyboard, give a briefing, or staff a package to support the mission...

  9. The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinova, Lenka; Kahleova, Hana; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Hill, Martin; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-01-01

    Background Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), peptide YY(PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP) and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved. Methods In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses. Results Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively). Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023). Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17). Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, pdiet regimens. Conclusions Both hypocaloric diet

  10. The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Belinova

    Full Text Available Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2 on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6. Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1, peptide YY(PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved.In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses.Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively. Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023. Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17. Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, p<0.043 and the postprandial reduction of ghrelin correlated positively with

  11. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  12. Tongue motor training support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Onishi, Kohei; Nakayama, Atsushi; Kamata, Katsuhiro; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new tongue-training system that can be used for improvement of the tongue's range of motion and muscle strength after dysphagia. The training process is organized in game-like manner. Initially, we analyzed surface electromyography (EMG) signals of the suprahyoid muscles of five subjects during tongue-training motions. This test revealed that four types tongue training motions and a swallowing motion could be classified with 93.5% accuracy. Recognized EMG signals during tongue motions were designed to allow control of a mouse cursor via intentional tongue motions. Results demonstrated that simple PC games could be played by tongue motions, achieving in this way efficient, enjoyable and pleasant tongue training. Using the proposed method, dysphagia patients can choose games that suit their preferences and/or state of mind. It is expected that the proposed system will be an efficient tool for long-term tongue motor training and maintaining patients' motivation.

  13. The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinova, Lenka; Kahleova, Hana; Malinska, Hana; Topolcan, Ondrej; Windrichova, Jindra; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Hill, Martin; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-01-01

    Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), peptide YY(PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP) and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved. In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses. Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively). Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023). Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17). Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, pmeals. The changes in fasting ghrelin correlated negatively with the decrease in

  14. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewanthwar Swathi Latha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.

  15. Phonetic measures of reduced tongue movement correlate with negative symptom severity in hospitalized patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Michael A; Lunden, S L Anya; Cristofaro, Sarah L; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Bailey, C Thomas; Broussard, Beth; Fogarty, Robert; Johnson, Stephanie; Zhang, Shayi; Compton, Michael T

    2012-12-01

    Aprosody, or flattened speech intonation, is a recognized negative symptom of schizophrenia, though it has rarely been studied from a linguistic/phonological perspective. To bring the latest advances in computational linguistics to the phenomenology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, a clinical first-episode psychosis research team joined with a phonetics/computational linguistics team to conduct a preliminary, proof-of-concept study. Video recordings from a semi-structured clinical research interview were available from 47 first-episode psychosis patients. Audio tracks of the video recordings were extracted, and after review of quality, 25 recordings were available for phonetic analysis. These files were de-noised and a trained phonologist extracted a 1-minute sample of each patient's speech. WaveSurfer 1.8.5 was used to create, from each speech sample, a file of formant values (F0, F1, F2, where F0 is the fundamental frequency and F1 and F2 are resonance bands indicating the moment-by-moment shape of the oral cavity). Variability in these phonetic indices was correlated with severity of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom scores using Pearson correlations. A measure of variability of tongue front-to-back position-the standard deviation of F2-was statistically significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms (r=-0.446, p=0.03). This study demonstrates a statistically significant and meaningful correlation between negative symptom severity and phonetically measured reductions in tongue movements during speech in a sample of first-episode patients just initiating treatment. Further studies of negative symptoms, applying computational linguistics methods, are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparing the effects of meal replacements with an isocaloric reduced-fat diet on nutrient intake and lower urinary tract symptoms in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, J; Ling, P-S; Chen, R Y-T; Ng, K-K; Tay, T-L; Tan, E; Cho, L-W; Cheong, M

    2014-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are associated with obesity, particularly central obesity as measured by waist circumference (WC), and may improve with weight loss. We aimed to compare effects of a meal-replacement based diet with isocaloric reduced-fat plan on LUTS and nutrient intake in obese Asian men. Obese Asian [mean (range) body mass index of 32.9 (30.5-42.3) kg m(-2) ] men [mean (range) age 40.2 (30-61) years] were randomised to a reduced-fat (meal-replacement-based plan [meal replacement (MR) group; n = 23], to reduce daily intake by 2000 kJ for 12 weeks. CD and MR groups had statistically significant and similar reductions in weight (-2.6 ± 1.9 kg versus -4.2 ± 3.8 kg), overall LUTS severity measured with International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) scores (-1.71 ± 1.93 points versus -2.42 ± 2.12 points) and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) calculated from plasma glucose and insulin]. The MR group had significantly greater decreases in WC (-4.8 ± 3.3 cm versus -2.5 ± 2.3 cm), fat mass (-2.47 ± 3.63 kg versus -1.59 ± 2.32 kg), fat intake, plasma C-reactive protein, and in storage LUTS score (-1.59 ± 1.33 points versus -1.00 ± 0.87 points), which was associated with a decreased fat intake (r = 0.48, P = 0.03). A decrease in overall IPSS score was associated with reductions in weight, WC and HOMA. Weight loss as a result of CD or MR had similar efficacy in relieving LUTS. MR produced greater reductions in fat intake, adiposity and storage LUTS. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Increasing preload volume with water reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard W; French, Stephen J; Robinson, Tristan M; Yeomans, Martin R

    2003-02-01

    The role of gastric volume in the short-term control of eating in humans remains unclear, with some studies reporting that food volume alone can reduce appetite but others finding no such effect. A recent study in our laboratory, found effects of preload volume on subjective appetite (hunger, fullness) but not intake, and found effects of preload energy on intake but not appetite. That study used an interval of 30 min between serving preloads and the test meal, and the present study attempted to maximise the effects of the volume manipulation by removing the delay between the preload and test meal. We administered four soup-based preloads varying in volume (150 and 450 ml) using water, and energy density (1.4 and 4.2 kJ/ml) using maltodextrin, producing three energy levels (209, 629, 629 and 1886 kJ; repeated measures). These were followed immediately by an unlimited hot pasta lunch, during which food weight was monitored continuously by computer. Increasing soup volume at constant energy (629 kJ) reduced appetite ratings, but not intake. In contrast, increasing soup energy at constant volume (450 ml) reduced intake, without affecting appetite. The discrepancies between our results and other reported studies suggest that volume is more influential when intakes are large, or that there may be a threshold concentration for nutrients in the GI tract before volume alone is tangibly expressed in subsequent eating.

  18. AMDO TIBETAN TONGUE TWISTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blo rtan rdo rje

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan tongue twisters are a distinctive and significant part of Tibetan oral folk literature. They are made up of words and phrases related to what people see and experience in daily life. These words are strung together and are difficult to articulate rapidly and fluently, often because of a succession of questions and/ or similar consonantal sounds. This article sheds light on this poorly studied, vanishing, aspect of Tibetan tradition by focusing on tongue twisters that were once popular in Pha bzhi (Hayu 哈 玉 , a subdivision of Skya rgya (Jiajia 贾 加 Administrative Village, Skya rgya Township, Gcan tsha (Jianzha 尖扎 County, Rma lho (Huangnan 黄南 Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China.

  19. "Hidden" tongue jewellery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2001-06-01

    Tongue piercing has many associated risks. This is a case report of a patient who, to avoid parental disapproval, hid the dorsal aspect of a lingual stud device. Subsequently, the dorsum repaired. The device could no longer be removed manually and warranted surgical removal. Despite being in situ for over two years, no further complications arose, but all efforts to obtain patient agreement for removal of the device failed.

  20. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue's Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    2017-01-01

    In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye's ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue's multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM) whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k-means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k-means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black), deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds. PMID:29065640

  1. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue's Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Nur Diyana; Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    2017-01-01

    In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye's ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue's multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM) whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k -means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k -means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black), deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds.

  2. Scrotal tongue and geographic tongue: polygenic and associated traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, E; Chosack, A; Cohen, T

    1976-11-01

    The familial nature of scrotal and geographic tongue was investigated in parents and siblings of 156 probands having these conditions. The prevalence in parents and siblings was significantly higher than that in the control populations. The prevalence in sibilings from families in which at least one parent was also affected was significantly higher than that in siblings from families in which neither parent was affected. The prevalence of scrotal tongue alone in siblins was similar irrespective of the condition in the proband. The prevalence of geographic tongue alone was highest in siblins of probands having only geographic tongue. A polygenic mode of inheritance with some genes common to both conditions is suggested.

  3. Measurement and research on the appearance of tongue board based on modification to discuss centrifugal fan air performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Cheng, Tseng-Tang; Cho, Hung-Pin; Chiang, Wei-Tang; Chen, Sih-Li; Chen, Chien-Wei; Jian, Ling-You

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a reduced fan noise method, with increased fan-benefit analysis of various performances. The experimental approach adopts changes in the outlet in the form of two fans (flat tongue and a V-Type tongue plate) in order to measure the noise under the two forms of value and volume of supply air fan, shaft power consumption, operating current, and static pressure. The results showed that the tongue plate and the V-plane tongue plate noise between the value of the measurement location of 6.7 in the tongue plate in the plane below the noise level is about V-tongue plate 1 ~ 1.5dB (A). Air flow rate testing showed that the flat plate and the V-Type tongue plate between the tongue plate V-Type flow rate value, the measurement location of 3.4 in the tongue plate in the plane was more than the V-Type flow rate tongue plate 5 to 5.5%. Shaft power testing of measurement model 3, and measurement model 4, showed that the tongue plate in the plane V-tongue plate was more than 8%, 5%. The measurement models 3 and 4 and 5 showed more than the V-Type plane tongue plate 1%, 2.7%, and 2.6%. The measurement models 6 and 8 showed that, the flat tongue plate is less than the V-tongue plate of 2.9% and 2.3%. Static pressure testing showed that the flat tongue plate in particular measurement models (3,4,8,9), the static value of V-tongue plate than the 11.1% higher, respectively, 9%, 4.3%, and 3.7%. The results summarized above suggest that, in the specific measurement points, when parallel to the tongue plate the V-tongue board has better performance.

  4. Tongue metastasis mimicking an abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavili, Ertuğrul; Oztürk, Mustafa; Yücel, Tuba; Yüce, Imdat; Cağli, Sedat

    2010-03-01

    Primary tumors metastasizing to the oral cavity are extremely rare. Lung is one of the most common primary sources of metastases to the tongue. Although the incidence of lung cancer is increasing, tongue metastasis as the initial presentation of the tumor remains uncommon. Due to the rarity of tongue metastasis, little is known about its imaging findings. Herein we report the magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings of a lingual metastasis, mimicking an abscess, from a primary lung cancer.

  5. The influence of tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M

    2018-06-01

    The ability to generate tongue pressures is widely considered to be critical for liquid bolus propulsion in swallowing. It has been proposed that the application of tongue pressure may also serve the function of collecting sensory information regarding bolus viscosity (resistance to flow). In this study, we explored the impact of age-related reductions in tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity. The experiment employed a triangle test discrimination protocol with an array of xanthan-gum thickened liquids in the mildly to moderately thick consistency range. A sample of 346 healthy volunteers was recruited, with age ranging from 12 to 86 (164 men, 182 women). On average, participants were able to detect a 0.29-fold increase in xanthan-gum concentration, corresponding to a 0.5-fold increase in viscosity at 50/s. Despite having significantly reduced tongue strength on maximum isometric tongue-palate pressure tasks, and regardless of sex, older participants in this study showed no reductions in viscosity discrimination acuity. In this article, the relationship between tongue strength and the ability to discriminate small differences in liquid viscosity during oral processing is explored. Given that tongue strength declines with age in healthy adults and is also reduced in individuals with dysphagia, it is interesting to determine whether reduced tongue strength might contribute to difficulties in evaluating liquid viscosity during the oral stage of swallowing. Using an array of mildly to moderately thick xanthan-gum thickened liquids, this experiment failed to find any evidence that reductions in tongue strength influence oral viscosity discrimination acuity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Texture-Based Differences in Eating Rate Reduce the Impact of Increased Energy Density and Large Portions on Meal Size in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, Keri; Lim, Charlotte Mh; Leong, Claudia; Chia, Edwin M; Forde, Ciaran G

    2017-06-01

    Background: Large portions and high dietary energy density promote overconsumption at meal times. This could be reduced by eating slowly. Objective: Two studies investigated whether texture-based reductions in eating rate and oral processing moderate consumption at breakfast in combination with variations in energy density and portion size. Methods: Adults attended 4 breakfast sessions (2 × 2 repeated-measures design) to consume rice porridge, combining a 45% reduction in eating rate [thin porridge (140 g/min) compared with thick porridge (77 g/min)] with a 77% increase in energy density (0.57 compared with 1.01 kcal/g) in study 1 [ n = 61; aged 21-48 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 16-29] and a 50% increase in portion size (100% compared with 150%) in study 2 ( n = 53; aged 21-42 y; BMI: 16-29). Oral processing behaviors were coded by using webcams. Porridge intake was measured alongside changes in rated appetite. Results: Increases in energy density and portion size led to increases of 80% and 13% in energy intake at breakfast, respectively ( P portion size increased the weight of food consumed (13%). The thicker porridges were consumed at a slower rate and led to 11-13% reductions in food weight and energy intake compared with the thin versions ( P portion ( P portions, and natural variations in food texture to design meals that promote reductions in energy intake while maintaining satiety. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A. Solah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® was compared to wheat dextrin (WD in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC, mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form gave higher satiety (AUC (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min, than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min (p < 0.001. Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules and WD. Glucose response (AUC was significantly lower (p < 0.001 after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study.

  8. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  9. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  10. Literacy and the Mother Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

  11. Did mosasaurs have forked tongues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Mulder, E. W. A.; Schwenk, K.

    Ever since the first mosasaur restorations were published, these extinct marine reptiles have been pictured with either notched, forked or undivided tongues. Here, we present an overview of existing iconography, a review of the previous literature, and we discuss how best to reconstruct tongue form

  12. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue–fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  13. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM. Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA, while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA, the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  14. The neck-tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, R W; Marsden, C D

    1994-01-01

    The neck-tongue syndrome, consisting of pain in the neck and altered sensation in the ipsilateral half of the tongue aggravated by neck movement, has been attributed to damage to lingual afferent fibres travelling in the hypoglossal nerve to the C2 spinal roots. The lingual afferents in the hypoglossal nerve are thought to be proprioceptive. Two further cases of the neck-tongue syndrome are described, the spectrum of its clinical manifestations is explored, and the phenomenon of lingual pseudoathetosis is illustrated as a result of the presumed lingual deafferentation. Images PMID:8158185

  15. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, HB; Ahern, AL; Solis-Trapala, I; Walker, CG; Reimann, F; Gribble, FM; Jebb, SA

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. METHODS: In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced b...

  16. Meal replacement reduces insulin requirement, HbA1c and weight long-term in type 2 diabetes patients with >100 U insulin per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, K; Schloot, N C; Gärtner, B; Keil, R; Schadewaldt, P; Martin, S

    2014-04-01

    Despite high insulin doses, good glycaemic control is often lacking in type 2 diabetes patients and new therapeutic options are needed. In a proof of principle study, an energy-restricted, protein-rich meal replacement (PRMR) was examined as a means of reducing insulin requirement, HbA1C and body weight. Obese type 2 diabetes patients (n = 22) with >100 U insulin per day replaced, in week 1, the three main meals with 50 g of PRMR (Almased-Vitalkost) each (= 4903 kJ day(-1) ). In weeks 2-4, breakfast and dinner were replaced, and, in weeks 5-12, only dinner was replaced. Clinical parameters were determined at baseline, and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks, as well as after 1.5 years of follow-up. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the intention-to-treat analysis and the Mann-Whitney U-test for subgroup analyses. The 12-week-programme was completed by 15 participants (68%). After 1 week, the mean insulin dose was reduced from 147 (75) U to 91 (55) U day(-1) (P = 0.0001), and to 65 (32) U (P fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved significantly. After 1.5 years, insulin requirement and weight remained significantly lower than baseline. Participants who continued PRMR further reduced their HbA1c, weight and insulin dose. Two patients were able to stop insulin therapy altogether. Energy-restricted PRMR was effective in reducing insulin requirement of type 2 diabetes patients with intensified insulin therapy accompanied by a reduction of HbA1c, weight and other cardiometabolic risk factors. With the continuous use of PRMR, glycaemic control might be improved in the long term. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Amending reduced fish-meal feeds with marine lecithin, but not soy lecithin, improves the growth of juvenile cobia and may attenuate heightened responses to stress challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushenski, J; Schwarz, M; Pessoa, W V N; Mulligan, B; Crouse, C; Gause, B; Yamamoto, F; Delbos, B

    2013-02-01

    Sparing of marine resources in aquafeeds can be environmentally and economically advantageous; however, fish meal (FM) replacement can affect the production performance and physiological competence. Phospholipids are increasingly understood to be involved in maintaining growth and vigour in fish and may be deficient in reduced FM formulations. Accordingly, we evaluated the growth and stress tolerance of juvenile cobia fed typical (50% FM) or reduced FM feeds (12% FM) with or without phospholipid amendment [1% marine lecithin (12% FM + Marine PL) or soy lecithin (12% FM + Soy PL)] for 6 weeks in triplicate tanks (N = 3) in a recirculation aquaculture system. The 50% FM feed yielded significantly superior growth and growth efficiency in comparison with the 12% FM and 12% FM+ Soy PL feeds, but the 12% FM+ Marine PL feed yielded comparable results to 50% FM feed. A low-water stress challenge induced elevated plasma glucose, cortisol and lactate levels in all treatments. However, a significant interaction (diet × stress) effect suggested a lesser cortisol response among fish fed the 12% FM+ Marine PL and 50% FM diets. These findings demonstrate that growth performance and, perhaps, resilience of cobia raised on reduced FM feeds may be improved by the addition of marine-origin phospholipid to the diet. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  19. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue.

  20. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan Balaji; B Maharani; Velappan Ravichandran; Thiyagarajan Parthasarathi

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc) are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed dat...

  1. Arnold Tongues in Cell Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mogens

    In a recent work with Leo Kadanoff we studied the synchronization between an internal and an external frequency. One obtains a highly structured diagram with details that in essence are related to the difference between rational and irrational number. The synchronized regions appear as Arnold tongues that widen as the coupling between the frequencies increases. Such tongues have been observed in many physical systems, like in the Libchaber convective cell in the basement of the University of Chicago. In biological systems, where oscillators appear in in a broad variety, very little research on Arnold tongues has been performed. We discuss single cell oscillating dynamics triggered by an external cytokine signal. When this signal is overlaid by an oscillating variation, the two oscillators might couple leading to Arnold tongue diagram. When the tongues overlap, the cell dynamics can shift between the tongues eventually leading to a chaotic response. We quantify such switching in single cell experiments and in model systems based on Gillespie simulations. Kadanoff session.

  2. Involvement of peripheral artemin signaling in tongue pain: possible mechanism in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Takeda, Mamoru; Honda, Kuniya; Maruno, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Ayano; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely tongue pain hypersensitivity. We found that the mRNA expression of Artemin (Artn) in the tongue mucosa of patients with burning mouth syndrome was significantly higher than that of control subjects, and we developed a mouse model of burning mouth syndrome by application of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) diluted with 50% ethanol to the dorsum of the tongue. TNBS treatment to the tongue induced persistent, week-long, noninflammatory tongue pain and a significant increase in Artn expression in the tongue mucosa and marked tongue heat hyperalgesia. Following TNBS treatment, the successive administration of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist SB366791 or neutralizing anti-Artn antibody completely inhibited the heat hyperalgesia. The number of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α3 (GFRα3)-positive and TRPV1-positive trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the tongue significantly increased following TNBS treatment and was significantly reduced by successive administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody. The capsaicin-induced current in TG neurons innervating the tongue was enhanced following TNBS treatment and was inhibited by local administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody to the tongue. These results suggest that the overexpression of Artn in the TNBS-treated tongue increases the membrane excitability of TG neurons innervating the tongue by increasing TRPV1 sensitivity, which causes heat hyperalgesia. This model may be useful for the study of tongue pain hypersensitivity associated with burning mouth syndrome.

  3. Reducing crude protein content with supplementation of synthetic lysine and threonine in barley - rapeseed meal - pea diets for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Valaja

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the possibility to use synthetic amino acids to lower the nitrogen output from pig production. A performance experiment was carried out with 120triplet-fed growing pigs whose dietary crude protein was reduced from 179 g/feed unit (FU= 0.7 kg starch equivalent to 160, 140 and 122 g/FU, respectively. The diets were supplemented with synthetic lysine and threonine to keep the level of these amino acids constant. Dietary protein reduction did not affect the growth performance or feed conversion ratio of the pigs, but it did linearly increase the portion of fat to lean in the carcass. Significant linear effect was found in back fat (p

  4. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Walker, Celia G; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-07-01

    Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced by 20% and 40%. EI was measured at an ad libitum lunch (240 min) and snack (360 min) and by weighed diet diaries until bed. Blood was sampled until lunch in 20 participants. Appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales. EI at lunch (control: 2,930 ± 203; 20% reduction: 2,853 ± 198; 40% reduction: 2,911 ± 179 kJ) and over the whole day except breakfast (control: 7,374 ± 361; 20% reduction: 7,566 ± 468; 40% reduction: 7,413 ± 417 kJ) did not differ. Postprandial PYY, GLP-1, GIP, insulin, and fullness profiles were lower and hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption higher following 40% reduction compared to control. Appetite ratings profiles, but not hormone concentrations, were associated with subsequent EI. Smaller portions at breakfast led to reductions in gastrointestinal hormone secretion but did not affect subsequent energy intake, suggesting small reductions in portion size may be a useful strategy to constrain EI. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  5. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Lida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    . EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5kPa, 10kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during...

  6. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartl, Dana M. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: dmhartl@aol.com; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  7. Analysis of Tonguing and Blowing Actions During Clarinet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pàmies-Vilà

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Articulation on the clarinet is achieved by a combination of precise actions taking place inside the player's mouth. With the aim to analyse the effects of tonguing and blowing actions during playing, several physical variables are measured and parameters related to articulation are studied. Mouth pressure, mouthpiece pressure and reed displacement are recorded in an experiment with clarinet players to evaluate the influence of the player's actions on the selected parameters and on the sound. The results show that different combinations of tongue and blowing actions are used during performance. Portato and legato playing show constant blowing throughout the musical phrase, which varies according to the dynamic level. In portato, short tongue-reed interaction is used homogeneously among players and playing conditions. In staccato playing, where the tongue-reed contact is longer, the mouth pressure is reduced significantly between notes. Such a mouth-pressure decrease might be used to stop the note in slow staccato playing. It is hereby shown that when the note is stopped by the action of the tongue both the attack and release transients are shorter compared to the case where the vibration of the reed is stopped by a decrease of mouth pressure.

  8. Analysis of Tonguing and Blowing Actions During Clarinet Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pàmies-Vilà, Montserrat; Hofmann, Alex; Chatziioannou, Vasileios

    2018-01-01

    Articulation on the clarinet is achieved by a combination of precise actions taking place inside the player's mouth. With the aim to analyse the effects of tonguing and blowing actions during playing, several physical variables are measured and parameters related to articulation are studied. Mouth pressure, mouthpiece pressure and reed displacement are recorded in an experiment with clarinet players to evaluate the influence of the player's actions on the selected parameters and on the sound. The results show that different combinations of tongue and blowing actions are used during performance. Portato and legato playing show constant blowing throughout the musical phrase, which varies according to the dynamic level. In portato, short tongue-reed interaction is used homogeneously among players and playing conditions. In staccato playing, where the tongue-reed contact is longer, the mouth pressure is reduced significantly between notes. Such a mouth-pressure decrease might be used to stop the note in slow staccato playing. It is hereby shown that when the note is stopped by the action of the tongue both the attack and release transients are shorter compared to the case where the vibration of the reed is stopped by a decrease of mouth pressure.

  9. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, Dana M.; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne; Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  10. Tongue Images Classification Based on Constrained High Dispersal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided tongue diagnosis has a great potential to play important roles in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, the majority of the existing tongue image analyses and classification methods are based on the low-level features, which may not provide a holistic view of the tongue. Inspired by deep convolutional neural network (CNN, we propose a novel feature extraction framework called constrained high dispersal neural networks (CHDNet to extract unbiased features and reduce human labor for tongue diagnosis in TCM. Previous CNN models have mostly focused on learning convolutional filters and adapting weights between them, but these models have two major issues: redundancy and insufficient capability in handling unbalanced sample distribution. We introduce high dispersal and local response normalization operation to address the issue of redundancy. We also add multiscale feature analysis to avoid the problem of sensitivity to deformation. Our proposed CHDNet learns high-level features and provides more classification information during training time, which may result in higher accuracy when predicting testing samples. We tested the proposed method on a set of 267 gastritis patients and a control group of 48 healthy volunteers. Test results show that CHDNet is a promising method in tongue image classification for the TCM study.

  11. Tongues of Men and Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The accelerating popularity of Charismatic Christianity has brought with it a host of new sensibilities and ritual practices. Glossolalia, or ‘speaking in tongues,’ stands out among these as a particularly dramatic innovation. Typically staid churchgoers, once touched by the Holy Spirit, begin to...

  12. MRI diagnosis of tongue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Kazuyuki; Abe, Satoru; Ohmori, Keiichi; Hosokawa, Yoichirou; Yamasaki, Michio; Hirano, Masayasu.

    1992-01-01

    MRI studies were performed on 29 patients with tongue tumors. Twenty-six cases were fresh, others were recurrent. Signal intensity of tongue tumor was not characteristic and specific, and it was a low∼iso signal on T1 weighted image (WI), heterogeneously iso∼high signal intensity on T2 WI, heterogeneous enhancement on gadolinium-DTPA enhanced image compared to muscle signal intensity. In 3 of 29 patients, the tongue tumor invaded to the mandible. With regard to the grasping tumor invasion to the mandible, the STIR method was superior to T1, T2 WI of the spin echo method. Dynamic enhanced MR images were performed in 6 of 29 patients. Dynamic change of signal intensity after gadolinium-DTPA administration were assessed with fast low angle shot imaging. On dynamic study at about 20 seconds after gadolinium-DTPA injection, the first signal intensity in the periphery of the tumor gradually began to increase. Maximum signal intensity of the tumor showed at about 70 seconds after gadolinium-DTPA injection. In search from 0 to 5 minutes, after the tongue tumor showed maximum signal intensity, its signal maintain the maximum. Necrotic and peritumorous edema showed a significantly lower and more gradual increase in signal intensity than adjacent neoplastic tissue on dynamic enhanced MRI. (author)

  13. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  14. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  15. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Blue Tongue Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupama

    insect vectors. BTV serotypes are known to occur in Africa, Asia, South America, North America, Middle ... both direct (death, abortions, weight loss or reduced milk yield and meat ... The 10 dsRNA segments are packaged within a triple .... VP1 then synthesizes the negative strand ..... Morbidity and mortality rate, case fatality ...

  17. Ossifying chondrolipoma of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Desanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondrolipomas and osteolipomas are uncommon variants of lipomatous tumors. Case report. We presented a 60-year-old woman with ossifying chondrolipoma of the tongue. Clinical examination revealed a firm nodular mass, located in the midline of the posterior region on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Histologically, the lesion was well-delimited showing areas of mature adipocytes arranged in lobules and separated by fibrous connective tissue septa, islands of mature cartilaginous tissue and osseous metaplasia. Trabeculae of lamellar bone within a fibro-fatty background were visible throughout the tumor. The cartilaginous areas merging centrally with bone formation and fatty marrow tissue were present, as well as the hematopoietic elements in the fatty marrow. The bone forming was found to be through both membranous and enchondral mechanisms. Conclusion. Ossifying chrondrolipoma with hematopoietic elements is extremely unusual lesion. This interesting entity should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lingual lesions.

  18. Common tongue conditions in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

    2010-03-01

    Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology.

  19. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  20. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...

  1. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  2. Short faces, big tongues: developmental origin of the human chin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coquerelle

    Full Text Available During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.

  3. Using unconstrained tongue motion as an alternative control mechanism for wheeled mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-06-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers users' intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the tongue motion as an alternative control input for wheeled mobility. We tested the eTDS performance in driving PWCs on 12 able-bodied human subjects, of which 11 were novice. The results showed that all subjects could complete navigation tasks by operating the PWC using their tongue motions. Despite little prior experience, the average time using the eTDS and the tongue was only approximately three times longer than using a joystick and the fingers. Navigation time was strongly dependant on the number of issued commands, which reduced by gaining experience. Particularly, the unintended issued commands (the Midas touch problem) were rare, demonstrating the effectiveness of the tongue tracking and external magnetic field cancellation algorithms as well as the safety of the TDS for wheeled mobility.

  4. The MLC tongue-and-groove effect on IMRT dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States). E-mail: jun@reyes.stanford.edu; Pawlicki, Todd; Chen Yan; Li Jinsheng; Jiang, Steve B.; Ma, C.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions for a Varian MLC. We have compared the dose distributions calculated using the intensity maps with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Our results showed that, for one intensity-modulated treatment field, the maximum tongue-and-groove effect could be up to 10% of the maximum dose in the dose distributions. For an IMRT treatment with multiple gantry angles ({>=} 5), the difference between the dose distributions with and without the tongue-and-groove effect was hardly visible, less than 1.6% for the two typical clinical cases studied. After considering the patient setup errors, the dose distributions were smoothed with reduced and insignificant differences between plans with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Therefore, for a multiple-field IMRT plan ({>=} 5), the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions will be generally clinically insignificant due to the smearing effect of individual fields. The tongue-and-groove effect on an IMRT plan with small number of fields (<5) will vary depending on the number of fields in a plan (coplanar or non-coplanar), the MLC leaf sequences and the patient setup uncertainty, and may be significant (>5% of maximum dose) in some cases, especially when the patient setup uncertainty is small ({<=} 2 mm). (author)

  5. Tongue motion variability with changes of upper airway stimulation electrode configuration and effects on treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Armin; Kilic, Ayse; König, Inke R; Suurna, Maria V; Hofauer, Benedikt; Heiser, Clemens

    2017-12-27

    Upper airway stimulation (UAS) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous data have demonstrated a correlation between the phenotype of tongue motion and therapy response. Closed loop hypoglossal nerve stimulation implant offers five different electrode configuration settings which may result in different tongue motion. Two-center, prospective consecutive trial in a university hospital setting. Clinical outcomes of 35 patients were analyzed after at least 12 months of device use. Tongue motion was assessed at various electrode configuration settings. Correlation between the tongue motion and treatment response was evaluated. OSA severity was significantly reduced with the use of UAS therapy (P < .001). Changes in tongue motion patterns were frequently observed (58.8%) with different electrode configuration settings. Most of the patients alternated between right and bilateral protrusion (73.5%), which are considered to be the optimal phenotypes for selective UAS responses. Different voltage settings were required to achieve functional stimulation levels when changing between the electrode settings. UAS is highly effective for OSA treatment in selected patients with an apnea-hypopnea index between 15 and 65 events per hour and higher body mass index. Attention should be given to patients with shifting tongue movement in response to change of electrode configuration. The intraoperative cuff placement should be reassessed when tongue movement shifting is observed. 4 Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. 'Tongue-and-groove' effect in intensity modulated radiotherapy with static multileaf collimator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, W; Kung, J; Dai, J

    2004-01-01

    The 'tongue-and-groove problem' in step-and-shoot delivery of intensity modulated radiotherapy is investigated. A 'tongue-and-groove' index (TGI) is introduced to quantify the 'tongue-and-groove' effect in step-and-shoot delivery. Four different types of leaf sequencing methods are compared. The sliding window method and the reducing level method use the same number of field segments to deliver the same intensity map, but the TGI is much less for the reducing level method. The leaf synchronization method of Van Santvoort and Heijmen fails in step-and-shoot delivery, but a new method inspired by the method of Van Santvoort and Heijmen is shown to eliminate 'tongue-and-groove' underdosage completely

  7. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotoe eSakihara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS for the mu rhythm (8–13 Hz and beta (13−25 Hz bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance.

  8. Tongue force in patients with myasthenia gravis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijnen, FG; Kuks, JBM; van der Glas, HW; Wassenberg, MWM; Bosman, F

    2000-01-01

    Objectives - The aim was to study tongue force in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis and compare it with that of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients in clinical remission who previously suffered from bulbar myasthenia gravis, and healthy subjects. Material and methods - Tongue force

  9. Tongue controlled computer game: A new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of tongue-disability, age and gender on motor performance for a tongue training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Design: Two controlled observational studies. Setting: A neurorehabilitation center and a dental...... school. Participants: In Study 1, eleven tongue-disabled patients with symptoms of dysphagia and dysarthria and 11 age-and sex-matched controls participated in tongue training. In Study 2, 16 healthy elderly and 16 healthy young participants volunteered. Intervention: In study 1 and study 2, the tongue....... Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) were compared between groups. Results: In study 1, tongue-disabled patients performed poorer than healthy controls (P=0.005) and with a trend of a gender difference (P=0.046). In study 2, healthy...

  10. Paleoecology of the Niland Tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    The swamp or paludal ecosystem is preserved in coals and carbonaceous shales. Remains of organisms of the swamp communities consist of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, ostracodes, and insects; vertebrates such as a hard-shelled turtle and crocodiles; and vascular plant remains. Aquatic communities are found in dark shale and are represented by the remains of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, and insects; and vertebrates such as crocodiles, fish, and a soft-shelled turtle. No vascular macrophytes (rooted aquatic vegetation) could be identified in the pollen and spore assemblage. Charophytes are abundant and show that colonies of the aquatic alga lived on the lake bottoms. The great variety of organisms suggests that the environment had a high input of nutrients. The phosphate-rich Phosphoria Formation, which could serve as a good source of nutrients, cropped out in the watershed of the Niland Tongue basin. The ostracode-crocodile association, calcareous charophytes, and good preservation of plant tissues and palynomorphs put limits on the alkaline geochemical environment in which the lacustrine rocks were deposited. The palynomorphs in the Niland Tongue rocks are dark yellow and light brown in color. These colors suggest that rocks containing them have been buried deeper in the past than they are today.

  11. Statistical Feature Extraction and Recognition of Beverages Using Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. PANCHARIYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for extraction of features from data generated from an electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry. In this approach statistical features of the meaningful selected variables from current response signals are extracted and used for recognition of beverage samples. The proposed feature extraction approach not only reduces the computational complexity but also reduces the computation time and requirement of storage of data for the development of E-tongue for field applications. With the reduced information, a probabilistic neural network (PNN was trained for qualitative analysis of different beverages. Before the qualitative analysis of the beverages, the methodology has been tested for the basic artificial taste solutions i.e. sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. The proposed procedure was compared with the more conventional and linear feature extraction technique employing principal component analysis combined with PNN. Using the extracted feature vectors, highly correct classification by PNN was achieved for eight types of juices and six types of soft drinks. The results indicated that the electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry with reduced feature was capable of discriminating not only basic artificial taste solutions but also the various sorts of the same type of natural beverages (fruit juices, vegetable juices, soft drinks, etc..

  12. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  13. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  14. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  15. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  16. Rehabilitation and nutritional support for sarcopenic dysphagia and tongue atrophy after glossectomy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Nao; Shamoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Fujii, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is related to long-term weight loss and reduced body mass index in patients with head and neck cancer. We describe a 76-y-old woman who had severe sarcopenic dysphagia and atrophy of the reconstructed tongue for 17 mo after subtotal glossectomy due to tongue cancer and lost 14 kg during that period. Upon admission, the patient received diagnoses of malnutrition in the context of social or environmental circumstances with insufficient energy intake, loss of muscle mass, localized fluid accumulation, weight loss, and sarcopenia due to reduced skeletal muscle mass (skeletal muscle index protein intake to 70.3 g/d by supplying sufficient excess energy, and provided physical therapy and dysphagia rehabilitation to improve sarcopenia, atrophy of the reconstructed tongue, and dysphagia. After 20 mo of treatment, she was considered to be no longer malnourished (11 kg weight gain) and without sarcopenia (skeletal muscle index 4.01 cm 2 /m 2 ), and the volume of the reconstructed tongue was increased. Sarcopenia and atrophy of the reconstructed tongue may cause dysphagia after glossectomy due to tongue cancer. Additionally, nutritional support and rehabilitation could improve such dysphagia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  18. Influence of the ability to roll the tongue and tongue-training parameters on oral motor performance and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Basic, Aida

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Training of tongue function is an important part of rehabilitation of patients with brain damage. A standardized tongue-training task has been shown to induce cortical plasticity. This study tested the possible influence of the natural ability to roll the tongue and modulations of tongue...

  19. Hydatid Cyst of Tongue: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Aggarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis, endemic in the cattle and dog rearing region worldwide as well as in some parts of India.Cystic echinococcosis affects mostly the liver and lung (80%, but tongue is one of the very rare sites. Case Report A 10 year old boy had presented with an isolated cystic lesion in tongue, which was expelled spontaneously with no residual lesion. On detailed examination, no other site in the body was involved. Discussion Parasitic cyst of the tongue is rare entity. Microbiological and histopathological examination helped clinch the diagnosis Hydatid cyst should be considered as a differential diagnosis in isolated cystic lesion of tongue, especially in the risk group.

  20. Compressibility Analysis of the Tongue During Speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unay, Devrim

    2001-01-01

    .... In this paper, 3D compression and expansion analysis of the tongue will be presented. Patterns of expansion and compression have been compared for different syllables and various repetitions of each syllable...

  1. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  2. Tongue schwannomas associated with neurofibromatosis type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harusachi Kanazawa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are typically solitary benign neural tumors; however, multiple lesions associated with the rare genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 have been reported in some cases. We present the case of a tongue schwannomas in a 36-year-old woman previously diagnosed with NF2 with bilateral vestibular schwannomas. To alleviate difficulties with swallowing, tongue nodular masses were surgically removed, and schwannoma was histologically diagnosed. Our patient represents the first case of histologically confirmed tongue schwannoma associated with NF2. This indicates that in patient with NF2, schwannoma may be detected in the oral cavity as well as in other parts of the body. Thus, careful clinical and histological examinations are warranted to identify schwannomas associated with NF2 even in the oral cavity. Keywords: Schwannoma, Tongue, Oral manifestation, Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2

  3. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4-6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S; Keller, Kathleen L

    2010-10-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4-6-year-old children's self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n=70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (ED(food+drink)) and ED for foods only (ED(foods)) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food+drink). In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food). There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children.

  4. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue’s Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Diyana Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye’s ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue’s multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k-means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k-means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black, deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds.

  5. Resonance tongues in the linear Sitnikov equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misquero, Mauricio

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we deal with a Hill's equation, depending on two parameters e\\in [0,1) and Λ >0, that has applications to some problems in Celestial Mechanics of the Sitnikov type. Due to the nonlinearity of the eccentricity parameter e and the coexistence problem, the stability diagram in the (e,Λ )-plane presents unusual resonance tongues emerging from points (0,(n/2)^2), n=1,2,\\ldots The tongues bounded by curves of eigenvalues corresponding to 2π -periodic solutions collapse into a single curve of coexistence (for which there exist two independent 2π -periodic eigenfunctions), whereas the remaining tongues have no pockets and are very thin. Unlike most of the literature related to resonance tongues and Sitnikov-type problems, the study of the tongues is made from a global point of view in the whole range of e\\in [0,1). Indeed, an interesting behavior of the tongues is found: almost all of them concentrate in a small Λ -interval [1, 9 / 8] as e→ 1^-. We apply the stability diagram of our equation to determine the regions for which the equilibrium of a Sitnikov (N+1)-body problem is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and the regions having symmetric periodic solutions with a given number of zeros. We also study the Lyapunov stability of the equilibrium in the center of mass of a curved Sitnikov problem.

  6. Tongue-controlled computer game: a new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim; Holm, Trine Davidsen; Nielsen, Mathilde Skorstengaard; Mosegaard, Trine; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the influence of tongue disability, age, and sex on motor performance for a tongue-training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Two controlled observational studies. A neurorehabilitation center and a dental school. In study 1, tongue-disabled patients with symptoms of dysphagia and dysarthria (n=11) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=11) participated in tongue training. In study 2, healthy elderly persons (n=16) and healthy young persons (n=16) volunteered. In study 1 and study 2, the tongue training lasted 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. Participants were instructed to play a computer game with the tongue using TDS. Motor performance was compared between groups in both studies. Correlation analyses were performed between age and relative improvement in performance. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain, and fatigue evaluated on 0-to-10 numeric rating scales were compared between groups. In study 1, tongue-disabled patients performed poorer than healthy controls (P=.005) and with a trend of a sex difference (P=.046). In study 2, healthy young participants performed better than healthy elderly participants (Peffect of sex (P=.140). There was a significant negative correlation between age and relative improvement in performance (δ=-.450; P=.009). There were no significant differences in subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain, and fatigue between groups in any of the studies (P>.094). The present study provides evidence that tongue disability and age can influence behavioral measures of tongue motor performance. TDS may be a new adjunctive neurorehabilitation regimen in treating tongue-disabled patients. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Holiday Meal Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... plan ahead. Fitting in Sweets Learn about eating desserts on special occasions. In this section Planning Meals ...

  8. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  9. Economics of production of broiler chickens fed maggot meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economics of production of broiler chickens considered for 0-35 days, 35-56 days, and 0-56 days was compared for fishmeal (FM) and maggot meal (MM) diets. The maggot meal diet had a replacement of the fish meal at 75%> on protein basis. Replacing FM at 75% with MM resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as ...

  10. Amperometric Bioelectronic Tongue for glucose determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan Al-Issa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric Bioelectronic Tongue is reported for glucose determination that contains eight sensor electrodes constructed using different metal electrodes (Pt, Au, oxidoreductase enzymes (glucose oxidase, ascorbate oxidase, uricase, and membrane coatings (Nafion, chitosan. The response to varying concentrations of glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and acetaminophen was tested for two models, concentration determination by current density measurements at individual electrodes and concentration determination by a linear regression model for the entire electrode array. The reduced chi-squared for the full array model was found to be about one order of magnitude lower than that for the individual-electrode model. Discrimination of glucose from chemical interference by the other three species is accomplished through a combination of enzyme catalysis, metal electrocatalysis, and membrane surface charge. The benefit of incorporating enzyme electrodes into the sensor array is illustrated by the lower correlation coefficients between different enzyme electrodes relative to non-enzyme coated electrodes. This approach can be more generally applied to detection of other substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes.

  11. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pasteurization of fish meal by irradiation. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusse, U.; Bischoff, J.; Fleischhauer, G.; Geister, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made on a number of samples of fish meal heavily contaminated (several foci of infection per sample, corresponding 'more than 100% contamination') with salmonella. A dose of 0.7 Mrad proved to be sufficient to inactivate all salmonellaes in all samples. The apparently reduced effect of radiation after artificial contamination of the meal was due to the extreme super-infection. Inactivation curves showed that the salmonella strains used for artificial contamination were more susceptible than those in naturally infected fish meal. Calculation of the slope parameter for a single salmonella type enables the dose of radiation needed to ensure freedom of the meal from salmonella to be determined for each level of infection. With two naturally infected fish meals which contained a total of 18 different serotypes a mean slope parameter of b = -1.99 was calculated which met the requirements posed by the problem of freeing meal from salmonella. (orig.) [de

  13. Components of postprandial thermogenesis in relation to meal frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Mercier, I; Nadeau, A

    1993-12-01

    Experiments on dogs have shown that the size of the meal has no effect on the early cephalic postprandial thermogenesis, and that four small meals are more thermogenic than a larger meal with the same total caloric content as the four meals. A study was repeated on human subjects who were fed during alternating weeks either one large meal (653 kcal (1 kcal = 4.1855 kJ)) or four small meals (163 kcal) at 40-min intervals. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio determinations indicated (i) larger overall increase in postprandial thermogenesis with the four meals than with one meal and (ii) an enhancement of glucose utilization with the large meal compared with greater lipid utilization with the four meals. On the basis of indirect evidence from previous investigations it is suggested that the enhanced thermogenesis observed in the four-meal experiment is due to lipid mobilization caused by repeated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system with palatable food. Blood analysis indicated a reduced elevation of plasma glucose in the four-meal experiment. The variations of insulin and C-peptide exactly paralleled those observed for glucose. It is concluded that the increased frequency of feeding significantly reduces insulin secretion in subjects fed a relatively high carbohydrate meal. In addition to this beneficial effect, increasing the number of meals increased thermogenesis and fat utilization.

  14. Adolescent and parent views of family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2006-04-01

    To examine and compare the family mealtime environment from the perspectives of both adolescents and parents. Adolescents completed a school-based survey and parents participated in a telephone interview as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Participants were 902 adolescent females (n=424) and males (n=478) and one of their guardians/parents. Frequencies, chi(2) analyses, and Spearman correlations were used to assess relationships. Parents were more likely than adolescents to report eating five or more family meals per week, the importance of eating together, and scheduling difficulties (Ptogether, and more rule expectations at mealtime (PGirls reported more family meals per week and more scheduling conflicts than boys did; boys reported more rules at mealtime than girls did (Ptogetherness, and for role modeling behaviors that parents would like their children to emulate. Dietetics professionals can capitalize on positive attitudes toward family meals to help promote their frequency. Helping families learn to cook healthful, quick meals may reduce dependency on less healthful meal options, reduce the frequency of eating outside of the home, and promote greater nutritional intake.

  15. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects.

  16. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  17. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter

    2015-11-19

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41 min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5 kPa and 10 kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5 kPa, 10 kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (P<0.005), and there was also a significant increase in tongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Amino acids digestibility of pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suthama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commom protein sources for poultry, fish meal and soybean meal, were ground to obtain reduced particle size. The particle was then dissolved in distilled water (1 : 4 w/v, and added with 2 mL virgin coconut oil for every 500 mL solution prior to ultrasound transducer (ultrasonic bath treatment to obtain protein microparticle. Reducing particle size is one possible way to increase protein utilization.180 birds were used for forced feeding and 10 other birds were plotted for endogenous correction, when they were one month and a half old. Microparticle protein of both ingredients were tested separately in either mash or pelleted forms and compared to intact protein. Completely randomized design with 3 treatments (intact, mash, and pellet and 6 replications (10 bidrs each was arranged for the respective ingredient. Protein and essential amino acid digestibilities, and calcium retention were the parameters measured. Analysis of variance continued to Duncan test were applied to statistically evaluate the data. Pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal, respectively, resulted in significantly (P<0.05 highest protein and amino acids digestibilities, and Ca retention although lower disgestibility of fewer amino acids was found in mash form. In conclusion, pelleted form of microparticle protein of either fish meal or soybean meal improve protein and mostly amino acids digestibilities, and calcium retention in broiler.

  20. Specialized bat tongue is a hemodynamic nectar mop

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Cally J.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Brainerd, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Nectarivorous birds and bats have evolved highly specialized tongues to gather nectar from flowers. Here, we show that a nectar-feeding bat, Glossophaga soricina, uses dynamic erectile papillae to collect nectar. In G. soricina, the tip of the tongue is covered with long filamentous papillae and resembles a brush or mop. During nectar feeding, blood vessels within the tongue tip become engorged with blood and the papillae become erect. Tumescence and papilla erection persist throughout tongue...

  1. Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the National Policy on Education In Nigeria. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... the implementation of the mother-tongue/language policy; curriculum materials were not supplied in schools for mother-tongue instruction; specialized teachers were ...

  2. Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2004-01-01

    To capture prey, chameleons ballistically project their tongues as far as 1.5 body lengths with accelerations of up to 500 m s-2. At the core of a chameleon's tongue is a cylindrical tongue skeleton surrounded by the accelerator muscle. Previously, the cylindrical accelerator muscle was assumed to

  3. Distributional impacts of meal vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Röhryová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze distributional impacts of meal voucher sys- tem in the Czech Republic, especially in the context of income inequality between different income groups. In the first part, we study the features of the Czech meal voucher scheme, relevant legislative framework and offer a comparison of the Czech meal voucher system with other European coun- tries. In the second part, we perform an analysis of the redistributive effects of meal allowances on various income deciles, quant...

  4. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Salehi; Asma Kazemi; Jafar Hasan Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day) on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identi...

  5. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  6. ERK-GluR1 phosphorylation in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis neurons is involved in pain associated with dry tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yuka; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kubo, Asako; Chen, Jui Yen; Noma, Noboru; Batbold, Dulguun; Imamura, Yoshiki; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    was significantly reduced in PD98059-administrated rats compared to the vehicle-administrated tongue-dry rats. These findings suggest that the pERK-pGluR1 cascade is involved in central sensitization of trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis nociceptive neurons, thus resulting in tongue mechanical hyperalgesia associated with tongue drying. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Effects of blood meal, chicken offal meal and fish meal as sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were studied of using combinations or plant protein sources, GNC, Palm Kernel cake, and cotton and seed cake diets, supplementeil with 4 sources of methionine (M) and Lysine (L), synthetic M + L, blood meal + M, fish meal, or chicken offal meal (COM) in 8-Week 3 x 4 factorial experiment with sta11er cockerels ...

  8. A 3-Dimensional Atlas of Human Tongue Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI

    2013-01-01

    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue’s anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a 3-dimensional computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3-D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

  9. HOME Plus: Program design and implementation of a family-focused, community-based intervention to promote the frequency and healthfulness of family meals, reduce children's sedentary behavior, and prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flattum, Colleen; Draxten, Michelle; Horning, Melissa; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Kubik, Martha Y; Story, Mary

    2015-04-29

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with one's family are associated with better dietary quality and healthy body weight for youth. Given the poor dietary quality of many youth, potential benefits of family meals for better nutritional intake and great variation in family meals, development and evaluation of interventions aimed at improving and increasing family meals are needed. This paper presents the design of key intervention components and process evaluation of a community-based program (Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus) to prevent obesity. The HOME Plus intervention was part of a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) randomized-controlled trial. Ten monthly, two-hour sessions and five motivational/goal-setting telephone calls to promote healthy eating and increasing family meals were delivered in community-based settings in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. The present study included 81 families (8-12 year old children and their parents) in the intervention condition. Process surveys were administered at the end of each intervention session and at a home visit after the intervention period. Chi-squares and t-tests were used for process survey analysis. The HOME Plus program was successfully implemented and families were highly satisfied. Parents and children reported that the most enjoyable component was cooking with their families, learning how to eat more healthfully, and trying new recipes/foods and cooking tips. Average session attendance across the ten months was high for families (68%) and more than half completed their home activities. Findings support the value of a community-based, family-focused intervention program to promote family meals, limit screen time, and prevent obesity. NCT01538615.

  10. Hospitality and Institutional Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Strøjer, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: There is a growing interest in articulating institutional meal serving practices as a hospitality activity involving host and guest interactions. This study aims to qualify institutional hospitality and meal activities by exploring private hospitality events. The study is based......-structured interview, students reflected on their hospitality experiences. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis method. The emerging themes on hospitality activities were identified. It was found that hospitality activities could be characterized as a process where the individual...... was transformed into a guest. Information on purpose of the event and other information given in the invitation were part of this process. Furthermore, hospitality activities could be characterized by blurred host-guest relations and by being able to embrace unexpected events as well. The activities were...

  11. Toxicity studies of detoxified Jatropha meal (Jatropha curcas) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, K D; Darukeshwara, J; Rathina Raj, K; Narasimhamurthy, K; Saibaba, P; Bhagya, S

    2008-12-01

    Jatropha curcas, a tropical plant introduced in many Asian and African countries is presently used as a source of biodiesel. The cake after oil extraction is rich in protein and is a potential source of livestock feed. In view of the high toxic nature of whole as well as dehulled seed meal due to the presence of toxic phorbol esters and lectin, the meal was subjected to alkali and heat treatments to deactivate the phorbol ester as well as lectin content. After treatment, the phorbol ester content was reduced up to 89% in whole and dehulled seed meal. Toxicity studies were conducted on male growing rats by feeding treated as well as untreated meal through dietary source. All rats irrespective of treatment had reduced appetite and diet intake was low accompanied by diarrhoea. The rats also exhibited reduced motor activity. The rats fed with treated meals exhibited delayed mortality compared to untreated meal fed rats (p0.02). There were significant changes both in terms of food intake and gain in body weight. Gross examination of vital organs indicated atrophy compared to control casein fed rats. However, histopathological examination of various vital organs did not reveal any treatment related microscopic changes suggesting that the mortality of rats occurred due to lack of food intake, diarrhoea and emaciation. Further studies are in progress for complete detoxification of J. curcas meal for use in livestock feed.

  12. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Rats Fed Detoxified Jojoba Meal Through Radiation Processing and Other Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.; Diaa El-Din, H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The present of toxic cyano glucosides makes the jojoba meal, rich in protein, unacceptable for animal's feed. Irradiation jojoba meal at 25, 50, and 75 kGy, heat, microwave, fermented raw and fermented irradiated jojoba meal at 75 kGy were investigated for inactivation of glucosinolates. Raw jojoba meal contains 0.702%. Proceeding jojoba meal by above mentioned methods reducing the activity of glucosinolates by 8.26, 13.96, 20.66, 11.97, 5.27, 10.26 and 24.79%, respectively. The present study has investigated the effect of supplementation of 38.5% of raw jojoba meal and processed meals in the food of growing male Albino rats for four weeks on mortality rate, body and organs weight evaluation as well as the effect on blood chemistry. The present work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of jojoba meal at 75 kGy and the fermentation process by using Fusarium moniliforme reduced the bioactive antinutrional factors, glucosinolate compounds, present naturally in the meal under investigation. Also, the results confirm that the glucosinolates content of jojoba meal after irradiation process at 75 kGy is still high and has considerable biological effects on the animals fed such meals, during the experimental period (four weeks). Therefore, it seems that higher radiation dose is required to minimize glucosinolates in jojoba meal. (authors)

  13. Biomolecular Markers in Cancer of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daris Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tongue cancer is increasing worldwide, and its aggressiveness remains high regardless of treatment. Genetic changes and the expression of abnormal proteins have been frequently reported in the case of head and neck cancers, but the little information that has been published concerning tongue tumours is often contradictory. This review will concentrate on the immunohistochemical expression of biomolecular markers and their relationships with clinical behaviour and prognosis. Most of these proteins are associated with nodal stage, tumour progression and metastases, but there is still controversy concerning their impact on disease-free and overall survival, and treatment response. More extensive clinical studies are needed to identify the patterns of molecular alterations and the most reliable predictors in order to develop tailored anti-tumour strategies based on the targeting of hypoxia markers, vascular and lymphangiogenic factors, epidermal growth factor receptors, intracytoplasmatic signalling and apoptosis.

  14. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of electronic noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments.

  15. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tamir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82. Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43. As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003. Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings.

  16. Proposal for a New Noncontact Method for Measuring Tongue Moisture to Assist in Tongue Diagnosis and Development of the Tongue Image Analyzing System, Which Can Separately Record the Gloss Components of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Nakaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS, which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously.

  17. Proposal for a new noncontact method for measuring tongue moisture to assist in tongue diagnosis and development of the tongue image analyzing system, which can separately record the gloss components of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Takeda, Kanako; Ishikawa, Yuya; Oji, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ueda, Keigo; Nagamine, Koichi; Namiki, Takao; Miyake, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS), which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously.

  18. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  19. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiesa Estomba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the last decades. It is estimated that up to 20% of tuberculosis cases affect extra-pulmonary organs. In the ENT area, soft palate and tongue are the least probable locations.   Case Report A 62-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and treatment with corticosteroids and Adalimumab, developed a foreign body sensation in the pharynx accompanied by a sore throat and halitosis. The laryngoscopy with a 70 degree rigid telescope showed an ulcerated hypertrophic lesion in the right vallecula of about 2-3 cm in the base of the tongue. Acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were found positive for M. tuberculosis, through the Ziehl Neelsen method and Löwenstein culture the patient was treated with tuberculostatic medication. Conclusion:  TB is a possible diagnosis when in the presence of an ulcerated lesion at the base of the tongue, accompanied by sore throat, dysphagia, or foreign body sensation.

  20. Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonadaceae on the dorsum of the human tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Conti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux. RESULTS: 43% of the individuals, presented the target microorganisms on the tongue dorsum, with greater prevalence among individuals between 40 and 50 years of age (p = 0.001 and non-smokers (p=0.0485. CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae was observed on the tongue dorsum of the individuals evaluated. There was no correlation between these species and the presence and thickness of tongue coating, gender and presence of dentures.

  1. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  2. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  3. Energy and nutrient intake and acceptability of nutritionally balanced school meals in Filipino students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Neufingerl, Nicole; Magsadia, Clarita; Hiemstra, Harry; Patalen, Chona; Eilander, Ans

    2014-09-01

    School meals provide an excellent opportunity to improve children's diet. To investigate dietary intakes and acceptance of nutritionally balanced school meals ("nutrimeals") as compared with regular ("baseline") school meals among Filipino students. The study employed a before-after intervention design with one group. Students 13 to 16 years of age from a public school in Metro Manila (n = 112) consumed baseline school meals for 2 weeks followed by consumption of nutri-meals for 7 weeks. Served meals and plate waste were weighed to calculate food and nutrient intakes. Acceptability of meals was assessed daily in a random subsample using a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of covariance corrected for age and sex was conducted to test for differences in nutrient intakes and acceptability between nutri-meals and baseline meals. Feeding nutri-meals resulted in a higher intake of vegetables (95.3 ± 13.8 g), fruit (76.5 ± 6.3 g), and fish (19.1 ± 3.3 g) than baseline meals. Energy and protein intakes significantly increased by 140.7 ± 2.8 kcal and 3.2 ± 0.1 g, respectively. The quality of fat intake improved compared with baseline meals (p 90%) liked both baseline and nutrimeals; however, the mean acceptability score for baseline meals was slightly higher (0.2 ± 0.07 points, p = .004). Nutritionally balanced nutri-meals may be a healthier and acceptable alternative to regular Filipino school meals. Further optimization of nutri-meals is required to meet the nutritional needs of adolescents and reduce sodium content.

  4. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  5. Isometric and swallowing tongue strength in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Butler, Susan G

    2013-10-01

    The tongue contributes to a safe swallow. It facilitates bolus control during mastication, maintains a bolus in the oral cavity to prevent premature entry of the bolus into the hypopharynx, and helps generate pressure in the hypopharynx during swallowing. This study examined isometric tongue strength and tongue pressure measured during swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Prospective group design. One hundred twenty-six healthy individuals who were recruited as part of a larger study on swallowing participated in this study. Participants were divided into three age groups: 20 to 40 years, 41 to 60 years, and ≥61 years. A KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation with an air-filled bulb array was placed on the tongue of each participant (anterior to posterior). Participants completed three isometric tongue presses and three swallows. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a significant main effect of age (P = .01) and gender by tongue bulb location interaction (P = .02) for isometric tongue strength. That is, older adults had lower isometric tongue strength than young adults, and females had a greater difference between anterior and posterior tongue strength than males. Tongue strength during swallowing yielded significantly greater anterior versus posterior tongue pressure. This study comprises one of the largest in terms of number of healthy participants reported to date and confirms previous findings that isometric tongue strength decreases with age. Furthermore, given young and older adults generate similar swallowing pressures, swallowing is a submaximal strength activity, yet older adults have less functional reserve. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  7. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing substitutions of soyabean meal for breadfruit meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings led to weight increases in all dietary types with exception of diet G and higher growth induction in catfishes fed all diets with exception of diet B. Diets C had induced better ...

  8. Training induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue training paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue training paradigms: 1. Therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), 2. Playing computer games......) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at three time-points: (1) before tongue training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1 h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) after training....... The resting motor thresholds of tongue MEPs were lowered by training with TDS and TPT (Ptraining with TDS and TPT (P

  9. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  10. Age-related effect of cell death on fiber morphology and number in tongue muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzien, Heidi; Hare, Allison J; Leverson, Glen; Connor, Nadine P

    2018-01-01

    Multiple pathways may exist for age-related tongue muscle degeneration. Cell death is one mechanism contributing to muscle atrophy and decreased function. We hypothesized with aging, apoptosis, and apoptotic regulators would be increased, and muscle fiber size and number would be reduced in extrinsic tongue muscles. Cell death indices, expression of caspase-3 and Bcl-2, and measures of muscle morphology and number were determined in extrinsic tongue muscles of young and old rats. Significant increases in cell death, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 were observed in all extrinsic tongue muscles along with reductions in muscle fiber number in old rats. We demonstrated that apoptosis indices increase with age in lingual muscles and that alterations in apoptotic regulators may be associated with age-related degeneration in muscle fiber size and number. These observed apoptotic processes may be detrimental to muscle function, and may contribute to degradation of cranial functions with age. Muscle Nerve 57: E29-E37, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  12. Cat Got Your Tongue? Using the Tip-of-the-Tongue State to Investigate Fixed Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A.; Bull, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that they play a prominent role in everyday speech, the representation and processing of fixed expressions during language production is poorly understood. Here, we report a study investigating the processes underlying fixed expression production. "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) states were elicited for well-known idioms…

  13. 3D printed e-tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Gabriel; da Silva, Tatiana A.; Gaál, Vladimir; Hensel, Rafael C.; Amaral, Lucas R.; Rodrigues, Varlei; Riul, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest issues addressed to electronic sensor fabrication is the build-up of efficient electrodes as an alternative way to the expensive, complex and multistage processes required by traditional techniques. Printed electronics arises as an interesting alternative to fulfill this task due to the simplicity and speed to stamp electrodes on various surfaces. Within this context, the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing is an emerging, cost-effective and alternative technology to fabricate complex structures that potentiates several fields with more creative ideas and new materials for a rapid prototyping of devices. We show here the fabrication of interdigitated electrodes using a standard home-made CoreXY 3D printer using transparent and graphene-based PLA filaments. Macro 3D printed electrodes were easily assembled within 6 minutes with outstanding reproducibility. The electrodes were also functionalized with different nanostructured thin films via dip-coating Layer-by-Layer technique to develop a 3D printed e-tongue setup. As a proof of concept, the printed e-tongue was applied to soil analysis. A control soil sample was enriched with several macro-nutrients to the plants (N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca) and the discrimination was done by electrical impedance spectroscopy of water solution of the soil samples. The data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the 3D printed sensor distinguished clearly all enriched samples despite the complexity of the soil chemical composition. The 3D printed e-tongue successfully used in soil analysis encourages further investments in developing new sensory tools for precision agriculture and other fields exploiting the simplicity and flexibility offered by the 3D printing techniques.

  14. MYOPERICYTOMA OF THE TONGUE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevtap Akbulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopericytoma is a rare benign tumour composed of pericytic cells that show myoid differentiation and have a tendency for concentric perivascular growth. It belongs to a spectrum of perivascular myoid cell neoplasms. To date, only a small number of cases of myopericytoma involving the oral cavity have been reported. We describe a case of myopericytoma presenting as a slowly growing tongue nodule in a 61-year-old woman. A diagnosis of myopericytoma was established with the histopathological findings combined with immunohistochemical staining. Myopericytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of well-circumscribed, slow-growing lesions of the oral cavity.

  15. [Morphological changes in tongue cancer after cryosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X D; Mao, T Q

    1993-01-01

    Tca 8113 (human tongue cancer cell line) cell transplanted tumors in nude mice were treated with cryosurgery for three freeze-thaw cycles. Tumor samples were obtained by biopsies pre- and post-cryosurgery for morphological study. The results showed intercellular adhesion damage, nuclear pyknosis, cell death, etc. One week after, the deep parts of the frozen samples were similar to that of the untreated ones. Our study indicates the change of biomembrance may be also important as of nuclei in cell death and may play an important role in the treatment of cancer by cryochemistry.

  16. Tongue prints in biometric authentication: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddy, Nadeem; Radhika, T; Nithya, S

    2017-01-01

    Biometric authentication is an important process for the identification and verification of individuals for security purposes. There are many biometric systems that are currently in use and also being researched. Tongue print is a new biometric authentication tool that is unique and cannot be easily forged because no two tongue prints are similar. The present study aims to evaluate the common morphological features of the tongue and its variations in males and females. The usefulness of alginate impression and dental cast in obtaining the lingual impression was also evaluated. The study sample included twenty participants. The participants were subjected to visual examination following which digital photographs of the dorsal surface of the tongue were taken. Alginate impressions of the tongue were made, and casts were prepared using dental stone. The photographs and the casts were analyzed by two observers separately for the surface morphology including shape, presence or absence of fissures and its pattern of distribution. Three reference points were considered to determine the shape of the tongue. The most common morphological feature on the dorsum of the tongue was the presence of central fissures. Multiple vertical fissures were observed in males whereas single vertical fissure was a common finding in females. The fissures were predominantly shallow in males and deep in females. The tongue was predominantly U shaped in males and females. V-shaped tongue was observed in 25% of females. Tongue prints are useful in biometric authentication. The methodology used in the study is simple, easy and can be adopted by dentists on a regular basis. However, large-scale studies are required to validate the results and also identify other features of the tongue that can be used in forensics and biometric authentication process.

  17. Meal frequency and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André M; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse association between meal frequency and the prevalence of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between meal frequency and childhood obesity. Stature and weight of 4,370 German children ages 5 to 6 years were determined in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices during the obligatory school entry health examination in 2001/2002. An extensive questionnaire on risk factors for obesity was answered by their parents. Obesity was defined according to sex- and age-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The main exposure was daily meal frequency. The prevalence of obesity decreased by number of daily meals: three or fewer meals, 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8 to 6.1]; four meals, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.1 to 3.7); and 5 or more meals, 1.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4). These effects could not be explained by confounding due to a wide range of constitutional, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.21) for four meals and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.89) for five or more meals. Additional analyses pointed to a higher energy intake in nibblers compared with gorgers. A protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children was observed and appeared to be independent of other risk factors for childhood obesity. A modulation of the response of hormones such as insulin might be instrumental.

  18. Development of a Quality of Meals and Meal Service Set of Indicators for Residential Facilities for Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, N; Buijck, B; Van Hecke, A; Verhaeghe, S; Goossens, E; Beeckman, D

    2016-01-01

    are completed, the indicator set can be used to guide meal and meal service quality improvement projects in collaboration with kitchen staff and health care professionals. These improvement projects will help to improve food intake and reduce the risk of malnutrition among elders living in residential facilities.

  19. Tongue coating microbiome regulates the changes in tongue texture and coating in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis of Gan-shen deficiency syndrome type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenna; Li, Xihai; Li, Yachan; Li, Candong; Gao, Bizheng; Gan, Huijuan; Li, Sumin; Shen, Jianying; Kang, Jie; Ding, Shanshan; Lin, Xuejuan; Liao, Linghong

    2013-11-01

    Tongue inspection is a unique and important method of diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a diagnostic approach which involves observing the changes in the tongue proper and tongue coating in order to understand the physiological functions and pathological changes of the body. However, the biological basis of TCM tongue diagnosis remains to be poorly understood and lacks systematic investigation at the molecular level. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tongue coating microbiome on changes in the tongue texture and coating in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMO) of Gan‑shen deficiency syndrome type. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms of tongue coating microbiome-induced changes in the tongue texture and coating by investigating the histomorphological changes and performing a bacterial analysis of the tongue coating. We found that the number of intermediate cells in the red tongue with a thin coating was higher, while the number of superficial cells in the red tongue with a thin coating was lower. The maturation value (MV) of tongue exfoliated cells in the red tongue with a thin coating decreased, compared with that in the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. Furthermore, the total bacterial count, oral streptococcus, Gram‑positive (G+) and Gram‑negative (G-) anaerobic bacteria in the red tongue with a thin coating was significantly decreased compared with the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. The results of ultrastructural examination demonstrated that the number of epithelial cells and bacteria in the red tongue with a thin coating decreased compared with that in the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. These observations indicate that the tongue coating microbiome may be an important factor contributing to changes in the tongue in patients with PMO of Gan‑shen deficiency syndrome type.

  20. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( Pruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  1. Repair of large palatal fistula using tongue flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejjal Nawfal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large palatal fistulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue flap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fistula closure with anteriorly based tongue flap.

  2. Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to elaborate a framework for both the foundation and application of professional standards for mother-tongue teachers. The main issue with which this study is concerned constitutes the lack of a set of clear standards for the initial training of mother-tongue teachers. In terms of theory, that which has currently been analyzed in…

  3. Learners' Motivation for Literacy in the Mother Tongue 1: Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the desirability of and motivational needs for basic literacy in the mother tongue and library use in lbadan metropolis. Data were collected through indepth interviews with 25 adult basic learners. The study reveals a strong desire for literacy in the mother tongue by the respondents. The learners' ...

  4. Base of tongue varices associated with portal hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Jassar, P; Jaramillo, M; Nunez, D

    2000-01-01

    A symptomatic case of tongue base varices in a patient with portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis is presented. There are no previously documented cases in the world literature. Oesophageal varices may not be the only source of expectorated blood in a patient with portal hypertension.


Keywords: portal hypertension; lingual; tongue; varicose vein

  5. Dagara Tongue-Root Vowel Harmony | Kuubezelle | Ghana Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though tongue-root vowel harmony in many Ghanaian languages has been described, there still remain many others which have received little or no description at all. Dagara, a dialect of Dagaare a Mabia language, is one of such dialects. This paper presents a description of Dagara tongue-root vowel harmony using ...

  6. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same processing method) were discriminated using -Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) coupled with pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis (PCA), canonical discriminant analysis ...

  7. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  8. Mother tongue education: a panacea to effective teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The controversy as to whether the English Language or the child's mother tongue facilitates teaching and learning at primary school level has not been resolved. The advocates of mother-tongue medium claim that it makes for meaningful teaching and learning and better pupils' participation in the learning process while ...

  9. Mother tongue education in Kenya: significance, challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of mother tongue(s) (also referred to as vernaculars or indigenous languages or African languages) in the cognitive, linguistic, personal and educational development of children cannot be overemphasized. Indeed it is out of this recognition that the UNESCO declared 2006, the Year of African Languages.

  10. Inducing Speech Errors in Dysarthria Using Tongue Twisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Heather; Connaghan, Kathryn; Patel, Rupal

    2017-01-01

    Although tongue twisters have been widely use to study speech production in healthy speakers, few studies have employed this methodology for individuals with speech impairment. The present study compared tongue twister errors produced by adults with dysarthria and age-matched healthy controls. Eight speakers (four female, four male; mean age =…

  11. Repair of large palatal fistula using tongue flap | Nawfal | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large palatal fi stulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue fl ap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fi stula closure with anteriorly based tongue fl ap. Key words: Cleft surgery, ...

  12. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... the same processing method) were discriminated using α-Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) ... discovery and quantification of many of the key taste and ..... flavonoids from tea samples of different origins by HPLC-DAD-ESI-.

  13. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  14. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented

  15. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prepageran Narayanan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of base of tongue tuberculosis following pulmonary tuberculosis. Patient presented to us with chief complaints of sore throat and pain on swallowing for period of 3 months. On examination with 70 degree telescope, we observed an ulcer on right side of base of tongue. The edges of the ulcer appeared to be undermined with whitish slough at the centre of the ulcer. Examination of neck showed a multiple small palpable middle deep cervical lymph nodes on right side of neck. Biopsy of the ulcer was taken, which showed granulomatous inflammation, suggestive of tuberculosis. Laboratory investigations revealed a raise in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sputum for acid fast bacilli was strongly positive. Chest X ray was performed for patient showed multiple areas of consolidation. Patient was referred to chest clinic for further management of tuberculosis and was started on anti-tuberculous drugs. In conclusion tuberculosis of oral cavity is rare, but should be considered among one of the differential diagnosis of the oral lesions and biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

  16. Eating in the absence of hunger in adolescents: intake after a large-array meal compared with that after a standardized meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Zocca, Jaclyn M; Courville, Amber; Kozlosky, Merel; Columbo, Kelli M; Wolkoff, Laura E; Brady, Sheila M; Crocker, Melissa K; Ali, Asem H; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2010-10-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is typically assessed by measuring youths' intake of palatable snack foods after a standard meal designed to reduce hunger. Because energy intake required to reach satiety varies among individuals, a standard meal may not ensure the absence of hunger among participants of all weight strata. The objective of this study was to compare adolescents' EAH observed after access to a very large food array with EAH observed after a standardized meal. Seventy-eight adolescents participated in a randomized crossover study during which EAH was measured as intake of palatable snacks after ad libitum access to a very large array of lunch-type foods (>10,000 kcal) and after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of the daily estimated energy requirements. The adolescents consumed more energy and reported less hunger after the large-array meal than after the standardized meal (P values kcal less EAH after the large-array meal than after the standardized meal (295 ± 18 compared with 365 ± 20 kcal; P < 0.001), but EAH intakes after the large-array meal and after the standardized meal were positively correlated (P values < 0.001). The body mass index z score and overweight were positively associated with EAH in both paradigms after age, sex, race, pubertal stage, and meal intake were controlled for (P values ≤ 0.05). EAH is observable and positively related to body weight regardless of whether youth eat in the absence of hunger from a very large-array meal or from a standardized meal. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00631644.

  17. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-07-01

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Salt as a public health challenge in continental European convenience and ready meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Hartmann, Christina; Gruber, Anita; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2014-11-01

    To assess the salt content of continental European convenience and ready meals. A multistage study in which, after laboratory analysis of the products' salt contents (n 32), new salt-reduced meals were developed through food reformulation. Additionally, a comprehensive survey of convenience meals from the Austrian market (n 572) was conducted to evaluate the salt contents of a wider product range. Six continental European countries participated. No subjects enrolled. The salt contents of continental European convenience and ready meals mostly exceeded 1·8 g/100 g, which is 30 % of the targeted daily intake level; some contained even more than the recommended daily intake of 6 g. The highest salt contents were found in pizzas and pasta dishes, the lowest ones in sweet meals. Large variations in salt levels were found not only between and within meal type categories, but also between similar meals from different producers. In addition, our approach to develop new salt-reduced meals showed that a stepwise reduction of the ready meals' salt contents is possible without compromising the sensory quality. To address the problem of hypertension and increased risk for CVD through high salt intake, a reduction of the salt levels in continental European convenience and ready meals is urgently needed, since they are providing a major part of the daily salt intake. Successful national-wide salt reduction strategies in the UK or Finland have already demonstrated the public health impact of this setting.

  19. Dietary variety is associated with larger meals in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Johnson, Zachary P; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E

    2013-07-02

    The complex, interacting influences on eating behavior and energy expenditure prevent elucidation of the causal role of any single factor in the current obesity epidemic. However, greater variety in the food supply, particularly in the form of highly palatable, energy-dense foods, has likely made a contribution. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that greater dietary variety is associated with greater caloric intake within individual meals consumed by free-feeding, socially-housed female rhesus monkeys. Meal patterns were assessed during two, two-week dietary phases. One phase consisted of a choice between a standard chow diet and a highly palatable diet (HPD). The other phase consisted of access to the chow only. Food intake for each subject was recorded continuously using previously validated, automated feeders, and a meal was defined based on a minimum kilocalorie requirement and a minimum inter-meal interval. During the choice condition, animals electively consumed mixed meals that incorporated both diets as well as other meals that consisted exclusively of a single diet - chow-only or HPD-only. Animals consumed the most calories per meal when the meal was comprised of both the chow and HPD, which differed in caloric density, flavor, and texture. Interestingly, however, there was no significant difference in the amount of calories consumed as HPD-only meals in the choice condition compared to meals in the chow-only, no choice condition, suggesting consumption of a single food during a meal, regardless of palatability, provides a constant sensory experience that may lead to more rapid habituation and subsequent meal cessation. Additionally, during the dietary choice condition, animals consumed fewer calories in the form of chow-only meals. Thus, the present results suggest that limiting dietary variety, regardless of palatability, may be a useful strategy for weight loss in overweight and obese individuals by reducing caloric intake within

  20. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meals About Meals on Wheels Get Started The Issue The Problem & Our Solution Meals on Wheels Health Facts & Resources Senior Facts Map State Fact Sheets Research More Than a Meal Pilot Research Study Medicare Claims Analyses Policy Myths Hunger in Older Adults Take Action Volunteer Advocate #SAVELUNCH ...

  1. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  2. Emerging approach for analytical characterization and geographical classification of Moroccan and French honeys by means of a voltammetric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alami El Hassani, Nadia; Tahri, Khalid; Llobet, Eduard; Bouchikhi, Benachir; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Zine, Nadia; El Bari, Nezha

    2018-03-15

    Moroccan and French honeys from different geographical areas were classified and characterized by applying a voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) coupled to analytical methods. The studied parameters include color intensity, free lactonic and total acidity, proteins, phenols, hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF), sucrose, reducing and total sugars. The geographical classification of different honeys was developed through three-pattern recognition techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), support vector machines (SVMs) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Honey characterization was achieved by partial least squares modeling (PLS). All the PLS models developed were able to accurately estimate the correct values of the parameters analyzed using as input the voltammetric experimental data (i.e. r>0.9). This confirms the potential ability of the VE-tongue for performing a rapid characterization of honeys via PLS in which an uncomplicated, cost-effective sample preparation process that does not require the use of additional chemicals is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2018-01-01

    carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages......The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life....... By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  4. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  5. ParselTongue: AIPS Talking Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettenis, M.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Reynolds, C.; Cotton, B.

    2006-07-01

    After more than 20 years of service, classic AIPS still is the data reduction package of choice for many radio-interferometry projects, especially for VLBI. Its age shows, most prominently in the limited scripting capabilities of its user interface: POPS. ParselTongue is an attempt to make the trusted AIPS algorithms and AIPS data structures available in a modern dynamic programming language: Python. It also provides an environment to do distributed computing to take advantage of modern computing clusters. This makes it suitable for use as a scripting interface for doing complicated data reduction on large data sets. It is also used as a coding platform for the new calibration algorithms that are being developed for the European VLBI Network as part of the ALBUS project. Here we hope to take advantage of Python's extensive support for web-based technologies to automate things like collecting calibration data.

  6. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Philiponis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis - in keeping with the methodology of the main study - we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process "living in limbo." This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself - "self-detected lesion," "lack of concern," "seeking help," "not a straightforward diagnosis," and "hearing the diagnosis." Entry into treatment concludes "Living in Limbo" and is described by the theme "worry and trust." Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, "living in limbo" suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed.

  7. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, T; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.

  8. Mood-induced variations of mandible and tongue postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2013-06-01

    Twelve young adults in a good general health were observed during habitual posture of tongue and jaw in different emotional conditions induced by watching three video sequences. The position of the mandible was tracked by the displacements of an electromagnetic sensor glued to the chin. The tongue-to-palate distance was obtained by 2-D location of three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper midline surface. Head displacements were evaluated with a sensor fixed to an upper central incisor and were subtracted from corresponding displacements of tongue and chin sensors to obtain the real tongue and mandible positions during continuous recording sequences. Emotional conditioning by a fear movie influenced the vertical position of the mandible: the mean interarch distances during the fear movie (2·34 ± 0·24 mm) were significantly different from those measured during the tender (3·13 ± 0·35) and neutral (3·42 ± 0·80) movies, respectively (anova repeated measure, SNK; P < 0·05). anova repeated measure indicated that the tongue-to-palate distance differed significantly when the subjects were watching the conditioning movies (P = 0·003), the tip of the tongue taking a lower position during the fear movie than during the tender and neutral movies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jeong Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days, the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days, the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days. In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days, the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB and the posterior cranial base (PCB was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

  10. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  11. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue: A rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Munlima; Rahman, Tashnin; Sarma, Anupam; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva

    2014-05-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are highly aggressive neoplasms that most commonly occur in the kidneys of young children. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue is an extremely rare entity and very few have been reported in the literature. The course of extra-renal MRT is short and its prognosis is very poor. A 19-year-old female presented with a progressive swelling and restricted mobility of the tongue for over 3 months duration. We present here a locally advanced case of MRT of the tongue, its diagnosis, management and review of the literature related to it.

  12. Force and complexity of tongue task training influences behavioral measures of motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    Relearning of motor skills is important in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the improvement of training success during simple tongue protrusion (two force levels) and a more complex tongue-training paradigm using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). We also compared subject-based reports of fun, pain...... training influences behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning....

  13. Functional MRI of tongue motor tasks in patients with tongue cancer: observations before and after partial glossectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haupage, Samantha; Branski, Ryan C.; Kraus, Dennis; Peck, Kyung K.; Hsu, Meier; Holodny, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    The current study seeks to provide preliminary data regarding this central, adaptive response during tongue motor tasks utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after glossectomy. Six patients, with confirmed histological diagnoses of oral tongue cancer, underwent fMRI before and 6 months after partial glossectomy. These data were compared to nine healthy controls. All subjects performed three tongue motor tasks during fMRI: tongue tapping (TT), dry swallow (Dry), and wet swallow (Wet). Following surgery, increased activation was subjectively observed in the superior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the precentral gyrus confirmed increased cortical activity following surgery. In addition, comparisons between pre-surgical scans and controls suggested the dry swallow task was sensitive to elicit tongue-related activation in the precentral gyrus (p ≤ 0.05). The adaptive changes in the cortex following partial glossectomy reflect recruitment of the parietal, frontal, and cingulate cortex during tongue motor tasks. In addition, post-operative activation patterns more closely approximated control levels than the pre-operative scans. Furthermore, the dry swallow task appears most specific to elicit tongue-related cortical activity. (orig.)

  14. Functional MRI of tongue motor tasks in patients with tongue cancer: observations before and after partial glossectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupage, Samantha; Branski, Ryan C.; Kraus, Dennis [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Head and Neck Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Peck, Kyung K. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Hsu, Meier [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Holodny, Andrei [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The current study seeks to provide preliminary data regarding this central, adaptive response during tongue motor tasks utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after glossectomy. Six patients, with confirmed histological diagnoses of oral tongue cancer, underwent fMRI before and 6 months after partial glossectomy. These data were compared to nine healthy controls. All subjects performed three tongue motor tasks during fMRI: tongue tapping (TT), dry swallow (Dry), and wet swallow (Wet). Following surgery, increased activation was subjectively observed in the superior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the precentral gyrus confirmed increased cortical activity following surgery. In addition, comparisons between pre-surgical scans and controls suggested the dry swallow task was sensitive to elicit tongue-related activation in the precentral gyrus (p {<=} 0.05). The adaptive changes in the cortex following partial glossectomy reflect recruitment of the parietal, frontal, and cingulate cortex during tongue motor tasks. In addition, post-operative activation patterns more closely approximated control levels than the pre-operative scans. Furthermore, the dry swallow task appears most specific to elicit tongue-related cortical activity. (orig.)

  15. Locally advanced cancer of the tongue base: new method of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaderenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients are characterized by locally advanced tumors in 70–80 % of cases at presentation, so possibility of cure and surgical treatment is limited. Total glossectomy, tongue base resection is associated with severe and permanent disability. Such surgical procedures lead to severe dysphagia, alalia and social maladjustment. Enumerated issues motivated us to develop new method of surgical treatment  of locally advanced base of tongue cancer.Objective is to introduce new opportunities of surgical treatment of locally advanced cancer of the tongue base.Materials and methods. Glossectomy is accomplished in 5 patients suffering from tongue cancer and admitted to N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology. Swallowing and speech is preserved in all 5 cases.Results. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the cut out muscle flap has a different innervation from different cranial nerves involved in the rate of swallowing, so there is not just a mechanical movement of the epiglottis, but also the control of swallowing by the central nervous system. The reduction of injury and operation time in the proposed method is due to the fact that tissues directly contacting with the defect are used to preserve swallowing and speech. The proposed muscle flap has various sources of blood supply, which improves its nutrition and reduces the risk of complications, and healing occurs in a shorter time in comparison with the prototype. All of the above reduces the duration of hospitalization for an average of 7–9 days.Conclusion. The developed surgical technique allows to achieve early rehabilitation; patients are able to breathe effortlessly, swallow and speak. There is no need in permanent tracheostoma and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. All patients remains socially active. 

  16. Functional anatomy of the hypoglossal innervated muscles of the rat tongue: a model for elongation and protrusion of the mammalian tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, J R; Goldberg, S J

    2000-12-01

    This anatomical investigation in the rat was designed to illustrate the detailed organization of the tongue's muscles and their innervation in order to elucidate the actions of the muscles of the higher mammalian tongue and thereby clarify the protrusor subdivision of the hypoglossal-tongue complex. The hypoglossal innervated, extrinsic styloglossus, hyoglossus, and genioglossus and the intrinsic transversus, verticalis and longitudinalis linguae muscles were observed by microdissection and analysis of serial transverse-sections of the tongue. Sihler's staining technique was applied to whole rat tongues to demonstrate the hypoglossal nerve branching patterns. Dissections of the tongue demonstrate the angles at which the extrinsic muscles act on the base of the tongue. The Sihler stained hypoglossal nerves demonstrate branches to the styloglossus and hyoglossus emanating from its lateral division while branches to the genioglossus muscle exit from its medial division. The largest portions of both XIIth nerve divisions can be seen to enter the body of the tongue to innervate the intrinsic muscles. Transverse sections of the tongue demonstrate the organization of the intrinsic muscle fibers of the tongue. Longitudinal muscle fibers run along the entire circumference of the tongue. Alternating sheets of transverse lingual and vertical lingual muscles can be observed to insert into the circumference of the tongue. Most importantly in clarifying tongue protrusion, we demonstrate the transversus muscle fibers enveloping the most superior and inferior portions of the longitudinalis muscles. Longitudinal muscle fascicles are completely encircled and thus are likely to be compressed by transverse muscle fascicles resulting in elongation of the tongue. We discuss our findings in relation to biomechanical studies, that describe the tongue as a muscular hydrostat and thereby define the "elongation-protrusion apparatus" of the mammalian tongue. In so doing, we clarify the

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on rapeseed meal with special reference to the quantitative changes in oxazolidinethione and other constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Tetsuro

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to confirm whether the irradiation treatment of rapeseed meal with gamma rays was effective in reducing the goitrogenic effect of meal, and to obtain the information on the reasonable dose level to reduce the above effect. The rapeseed meals from two ordinary and one non-commercial low glucosinolate (Brassica napus L. cv. Bronowski) seeds were exposed to gamma rays of 5, 10, 50 and 100 Mrad respectively. And the changes in oxazolidinethone (OZT) content of these meals by the irradiation were investigated compared with those by the autoclaving treatment under the reasonable condition. The influences of irradiation treatment on the content of the several constituents of meal were also examined. Furthermore, with chicks, the influences of irradiation treatment on the palatability of meal and on the apparent digestibility of its crude protein or crude fiber were investigated. When two ordinary meals were irradiated at the level of 50 Mrad or above, their OZT content reduced to the level of that in a low glucosinolate meal (Bronowski meal) and such irradiation dosages also resulted in a loss of the available lysine (AL) of meals. The extent of the above changes in the contents of OZT and AL was similar to that in rapeseed meal which was autoclaved under the reasonable condition. Treatment at irradiation dosage of either 50 or 100 Mrad resulted in lower crude fiber and higher reducing sugar content than those of non-irradiated meal respectively. Tests with chicks revealed that an irradiation treatment tended to improve the palatability and the crude fiber digestibility of meal but had no appreciable effect on the digestibility of its crude protein. In summary, these findings indicate that the gamma irradiation at dosage of 50 Mrad or above as well as the autoclaving treatment under the reasonable condition is effective in reducing the goitrogenic effect of rapeseed meal. (auth.)

  18. Simultaneous treatment of tongue cancer with interstitial brachytherapy and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarai, Jiro; Itagaki, Takatomo; Yamaguchi, Kouichi

    1983-01-01

    During a period of 5 years, from 1977 to 1982, twenty five patients with tongue cancer were treated by radium needle implantation and bleomycin at Yamagata University Hospital. In this paper, authors analysed seventeen patients followed over two years. All had biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma. According to the TNM system (UICC, 1978), primary tumor was classified into 4 cases of T1, 8 cases of T2 and 5 cases of T3. The main purpose of this study was to obtain a high local control rate and reduce subsequent regional lymphnode metastasis. Our curative treatment method was simultaneous combination of 70 Gy of brachy-therapy and 40 mg of bleomycin. The results of this study were as follows: 1. A control rate in the primary lesion was 91% (10/11) in survivors having survived more than 2 years. 2. Radioosteonecrosis of mandible was found in 6% (1/17) and transient ulcer formation in the primary site was observed in 35% (6/17) of patients treated. However, all patients were cured by conservative treatment. 3. This treatment method did not reduce subsequent lymph node metastasis. (author)

  19. Meal box schemes as a convenient way to avoid convenience food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frej; Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical......The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological...

  20. Contrastive analysis in mother tongue teaching in Sweden – teacher’sperceptions and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Marina

    2017-01-01

    This study is about contrastive analysis in mother tongue teaching in Sweden. Contrastive analysis between mother tongue and Swedish is part of the Swedish syllabus for the school subject mother tongue and is therefore a pertinent subject to be investigated. The study analyzes how five mother tongue teachers in a medium-sized Swedish city work with contrastive analysis in their classes and how they evaluate the importance of this content in mother tongue teaching. The question concerning the ...

  1. On the tip of the tongue: learning typing and pointing with an intra-oral computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltenco, Héctor A; Breidegard, Björn; Struijk, Lotte N S Andreasen

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate typing and pointing performance and improvement over time of four able-bodied participants using an intra-oral tongue-computer interface for computer control. A physically disabled individual may lack the ability to efficiently control standard computer input devices. There have been several efforts to produce and evaluate interfaces that provide individuals with physical disabilities the possibility to control personal computers. Training with the intra-oral tongue-computer interface was performed by playing games over 18 sessions. Skill improvement was measured through typing and pointing exercises at the end of each training session. Typing throughput improved from averages of 2.36 to 5.43 correct words per minute. Pointing throughput improved from averages of 0.47 to 0.85 bits/s. Target tracking performance, measured as relative time on target, improved from averages of 36% to 47%. Path following throughput improved from averages of 0.31 to 0.83 bits/s and decreased to 0.53 bits/s with more difficult tasks. Learning curves support the notion that the tongue can rapidly learn novel motor tasks. Typing and pointing performance of the tongue-computer interface is comparable to performances of other proficient assistive devices, which makes the tongue a feasible input organ for computer control. Intra-oral computer interfaces could provide individuals with severe upper-limb mobility impairments the opportunity to control computers and automatic equipment. Typing and pointing performance of the tongue-computer interface is comparable to performances of other proficient assistive devices, but does not cause fatigue easily and might be invisible to other people, which is highly prioritized by assistive device users. Combination of visual and auditory feedback is vital for a good performance of an intra-oral computer interface and helps to reduce involuntary or erroneous activations.

  2. Carcinoma of the tongue in Norway and Wisconsin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermund, H.

    1982-01-01

    The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis. (Auth.)

  3. Expression of FGFs during early mouse tongue development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Du, W.; Procházka, Jan; Procházková, Michaela; Klein, O.D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 81-87 ISSN 1567-133X Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Tongue * FGF * Expression * Papilla Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2016

  4. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on ... All the students in Year 1Б4 were included in the study. .... agents which are beneficial for prevention and treatment.

  5. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2, 2014 Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition Researchers funded by the National Institute of Biomedical ... significant step towards vastly improving the independence and quality of life of individuals with tetraplegia, and is ...

  6. Dental and oral complications of lip and tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, R J G; De Witte, A M J C; Delmé, K I M; De Bruyne, M A A; Hommez, G M G; Goyvaerts, D

    2005-10-22

    Piercing of the tongue and perioral regions is an increasingly popular expression of body art, with more patients coming in for a routine check-up with tongue and/or lip piercings. Several complications of oral piercing have been reported, some of which are life-threatening. In the present clinical survey the prevalence of both tongue and lip piercing complications in oral health was assessed in a group of 50 patients. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of the teeth, especially in association with tongue piercing. Gingival recession was seen as a result of lip piercing with studs. Post-procedural complications included oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Therefore, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be given more authority to advise patients with oral and facial piercings or those who plan to acquire this type of body art.

  7. The right to mother tongue education: a multidisciplinary, normative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (4) of the National Education Policy Act (1996), the Department of Education recognises the benefits to be derived from mother-tongue education and commits itself to an additive approach to bilingualism within the education system.

  8. Bilingual Children's Mother Tongue: Why is it important in for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Midaso

    Both African and international second language studies show that children who go ... Due to this lack of development of mother tongue languages, Kenya like ..... is strengthened and this increases motivation and initiative as well as creativity.

  9. Marriage, Sexuality and Moral Responsibility among the Tongu Mafi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... practices of the Tongu Mafi people of Ghana reveals that marriage rites and ... religious values and practices with the larger Ewe community. However, the ...... cooking responsibilities. ... of 'dirty money' and source of wealth.

  10. Congenital Midline Tongue Base Mass in An Infant: Lingual Hamartoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fadzilah, Noraziana; Azman, Mawaddah; See, Goh Bee

    2016-01-01

    Lingual hamartoma is a rare finding of congenital midline posterior tongue mass. The lesion may be seen as a single anomaly or maybe associated with syndrome especially the Oral Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS). Here, we report an otherwise normal and healthy two-month-old boy with a congenital midline base of tongue mass presented with snoring and episodic vomiting since the age of 1 month. Tumour excision from the area of foramen of caecum recovered a pinkish pedunculated tumour. Histopatholo...

  11. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  12. Neck-tongue syndrome on sudden turning of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J W; Anthony, M

    1980-01-01

    A syndrome of unilateral upper nuchal or occipital pain, with or without numbness in these areas, accompanied by simultaneous ipsilateral numbness of the tongue is explicable by compression of the second cervical root in the atlantoaxial space on sharp rotation of the neck. Afferents fibres from the lingual nerve travelling via the hypoglossal nerve to the second cervical root provide a plausible anatomical explanation for compression of that root causing numbness of half the tongue. PMID:7359159

  13. Tongue color changes within a menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Feng Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue color (舌色 shé sè has been used to diagnose abnormal body conditions for thousands of years in traditional Chinese Medicine (中醫 zhōng yī. However, it is not clear whether tongue color alters with physiological changes within a normal menstrual cycle (月經周期 yuè jīng zhōu qī. This study investigated difference in tongue color between the follicular phase and luteal phase in eumenorrheic women. Tongue surface photographs were taken in the follicular phase and the luteal phase of thirty-two volunteers with biphasic basal body temperature. Color values on five areas of the tongue surface were examined and comparisons of color values were made between the two phases according to the red–green–blue (RGB, hue–saturation–brightness (HSB, luminance-a-b (Lab, and cyan–magenta–yellow–black (CMYK models. Based on the RGB model, the values of green and blue in the tip area were larger in the follicular phase than both in the luteal phase. The values of magenta and yellow based in the CMYK model were smaller in the tip area in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The saturation in the tip area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. Based on the Lab model, b value in the middle area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The data revealed that tongue color varied within a eumenorrheic menstrual cycle, suggesting that tongue color differences between the follicular and luteal phases need to be considered while practicing tongue diagnosis (舌診 shé zhěn or performing clinical studies among childbearing women.

  14. The carcinomas tongue-incidence risk factor, presentation and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Mazafar, K.

    2000-01-01

    The tongue is one of the common site for the development of carcinoma in the oral cavity. A prospective study was done from 1st January 1995 to 30th November, 1995. A total of 47 new cases of the oral cavity cancer were seen during this period. Out of which 10 (21.3%) cases were of tongue carcinoma and it was found to be the commonest tumor of the oral cavity. Surgery was the best option for early lesions. (author)

  15. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence....... In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster......-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  16. Passive wireless tags for tongue controlled assistive technology interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakibet, Osman O.; Horne, Robert J.; Kelly, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Tongue control with low profile, passive mouth tags is demonstrated as a human–device interface by communicating values of tongue-tag separation over a wireless link. Confusion matrices are provided to demonstrate user accuracy in targeting by tongue position. Accuracy is found to increase dramatically after short training sequences with errors falling close to 1% in magnitude with zero missed targets. The rate at which users are able to learn accurate targeting with high accuracy indicates that this is an intuitive device to operate. The significance of the work is that innovative very unobtrusive, wireless tags can be used to provide intuitive human–computer interfaces based on low cost and disposable mouth mounted technology. With the development of an appropriate reading system, control of assistive devices such as computer mice or wheelchairs could be possible for tetraplegics and others who retain fine motor control capability of their tongues. The tags contain no battery and are intended to fit directly on the hard palate, detecting tongue position in the mouth with no need for tongue piercings. PMID:27222736

  17. Do long-term tongue piercings affect speech quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Esther; Birkholz, Peter; Willmes, Klaus; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    To explore possible effects of tongue piercing on perceived speech quality. Using a quasi-experimental design, we analyzed the effect of tongue piercing on speech in a perception experiment. Samples of spontaneous speech and read speech were recorded from 20 long-term pierced and 20 non-pierced individuals (10 males, 10 females each). The individuals having a tongue piercing were recorded with attached and removed piercing. The audio samples were blindly rated by 26 female and 20 male laypersons and by 5 female speech-language pathologists with regard to perceived speech quality along 5 dimensions: speech clarity, speech rate, prosody, rhythm and fluency. We found no statistically significant differences for any of the speech quality dimensions between the pierced and non-pierced individuals, neither for the read nor for the spontaneous speech. In addition, neither length nor position of piercing had a significant effect on speech quality. The removal of tongue piercings had no effects on speech performance either. Rating differences between laypersons and speech-language pathologists were not dependent on the presence of a tongue piercing. People are able to perfectly adapt their articulation to long-term tongue piercings such that their speech quality is not perceptually affected.

  18. Ultrasonography in the evaluation of tongue and mouth pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Wha; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Tae; Hong, Won Pyo; Park, Hyung Sik

    1991-01-01

    The evaluation of the tongue and mouth floor using the CT scan can be limited due to dental artifacts. Because the therapeutic plan depends on the nature and the cancer staging of lesions, it is essential to obtain accurate evaluation of lesions. In this study are explored the of Ultrasonography for the evaluation of tongue and mouth floor pathology. We have obtained ultrasonograms in 20 patients who had benign and malignant lesions in the tongue and mouth floor. Comparative analysis was made on 15 patients who underwent both CT and ultrasonography. We used the bimanual compression technique and the phonation technique during real-time scanning. Out of 15 cases, six had tongue cancer, and seven of them had cancer of the mouth floor. The other cases included a ranula, a dermoid cyst, a Ludwig's angina, and abscess of salivary gland, and one care with stones of the submandibular gland. All the benign and malignant masses appeared hypoechoic. Even though the lesions of tongue and mouth floor could not be evaluated by CT scan due to dental artifacts and extremely small size in 5 cases, ultrasonogram using the bimanual compression technique demonstrated good localization of the lesion, and also was greatly helpful in visualizing the invasion of the surrounding structures. Ultrasonography of the tongue and mouth floor proved to be superior to the CT scan not only in delineating the size and extent of the primary lesion, but also in visualizing invasion of surrounding structures

  19. A clinical assessment of laser surgery for recurrent tongue cancer following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Junnosuke; Fujita, Kunio; Komatsubara, Hideki; Umeda, Masahiro; Komori, Takahide

    2004-01-01

    Laser surgery can control intraoperative hemorrhaging and enable lesions to be accurately removed since, unlike an electrotome, it does not effect electrocontractility. It can also reduce postoperative pain and dysfunction. This study investigated the efficacy of laser surgery in recurrent tongue cancer following radiotherapy. Of the total of 105 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (T1, T2N0) who underwent radiotherapy at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, at some point between 1980 and 1998, 24 (22.9%) experienced local recurrence. Sixteen of these patients underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Of these 16 patients, 8 (4 early- and 4 late-stage recurrence) had partial glossectomy by laser surgery. Following laser surgery, 2 (1 early- and 1 late-stage recurrence) of the 8 patients died from neck metastasis and another 2 (early-stage recurrence) died from other diseases. The primary and neck tumors are both under control in 3 (late-stage recurrence) of the remaining 4 patients. Laser surgery for late-stage recurrent tongue cancer following radiotherapy appears to be a suitable treatment, although comprehensive glossectomy with/without radical neck dissection is necessary for early-stage recurrent cases after radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Radium therapy for carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shizumi; Makino, Sohtaro; Satake, Bunsuke; Takahashi, Keiichi; Sakaino, Kohji; Nakajima, Nobuaki

    1984-01-01

    Results of radium therapy with or without multi-disciplinary treatment for carcinoma of the tongue were studied in 117 patients treated from 1973 to 1981 at Gunma Cancer Center. 1. The patients were classified according to the TNM classification of UICC (1978). Seventeen patients were T1, 42 were T2, 31 were T3, 27 were T4, 92 were NO, 18 were N1, 2 were N2 and 5 were N3. 2. The treatment methods included external irradiation with 1,000-2,000 rads by 6MV X-ray followed by radium interstitial implants of 6,000-8,000 rads in 93 patients (73.9 per cent), radium therapy with additional Bleomycin 45-60 mg in 24 patients (20.5 per cent), and cryosurgery in 3 patients. 3. The five year survival rate was 41.6 per cent; 100.0 per cent for T1, 50.0 per cent for T2, 38.8 per cent for T3 and 10.5 per cent for T4. The overall five-year cumulative survival rate was 46.9 per cent. For primary lesions of T3 or T4, greater efforts should be made with combined modalities, such as planned multi-disciplinary treatments with combined radiation and major surgery. (author)

  1. The Mother Tongue of Leila Sebbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Marx-Scouras

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Leila Sebbar grew up in French colonial Algeria where her parents taught French to the indigenous children. The daughter of a metropolitan French woman and an Algerian, Sebbar is a croisée . At the height of the Algerian War, Sebbar left her homeland to pursue her university studies in France. She became a French teacher and made France her home. Sebbar writes in her mother tongue, but she treats it like a foreign language. Although she never learned Arabic and left Algeria, her paternal identity haunts all of her writings. Anchored by the notion of exile, Sebbar drifts between two shores as she seeks to personally come to terms with both a pied-noir and Algerian identity bequeathed by her parents. This dual and contradictory identity allows Sebbar to explore the colonial legacy inherent to immigration in France. Continually on the move or on the run, Sebbar's eccentric protagonists follow a geographical itinerary which acknowledges the common history and cultural heritage of Europe and the Arab world. In forging a new identity for the France of tomorrow, this génération métisse attempts to work through the torturous relationship between France and its former colonies that continues to mark cultural manifestations and political events in France.

  2. Crambe meal : evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein

  3. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  4. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & Licensure Vital Records ... food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. Many holiday dinners include meat and poultry, ...

  5. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction Integration and Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Whitmire, A.; Williams, T.; Young, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability to support crew health and performance for exploration missions. Meal replacement with nutritionally balanced, 700-900 calorie bars was identified as a method to reduce mass. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced, high quality, breakfast replacement bars, which enable a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, all of which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensory, and shelf-life requirements. The four highest scoring bars were evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. color and texture), and microbiological compliance over a period of two years to predict long-term acceptability. All bars maintained overall acceptability throughout the first year of storage, despite minor changes in color and texture. However, added vitamins C, B1, and B9 degraded rapidly in fortified samples of Banana Nut bars, indicating the need for additional development. In addition to shelf-life testing, four bar varieties were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), campaign 3, to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented, based on impact to satiety and psychosocial measurements. Crewmembers (n=16) were asked to consume meal replacement bars every day for the first fifteen days of the mission and every three days for the second half of the mission. Daily surveys assessed the crew's responses to bar acceptability, mood, food fatigue and perceived stress. Preliminary results indicate that the

  6. Improvement Utilization Efficiency of Sunflower Meal as a Feed for Ruminant Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; AL-Sultan, A.; AL-Shekhly, M.

    2001-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of blood, formaldehyde, heating or roasting on sunflower meal including chemical composition, particle size, solubility, in vitro digestion coefficient, dry matter and nitrogen degradability and true nitrogen digestion coefficient. Results of chemical composition indicated that treatments caused high significant (P<0.01) differences in comparison with untreated meal particularly in protein. It was shown that treatment with blood or roasting caused an increase in protein percentage about 7.75% and 3.81%; respectively. Treatments casued a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in particle size and reduction in small particle ratio in comparison with untreated meal. Superiority was for blood treatment. Meanwhile, solubility results reflected no significant differences between used solutions . Different treatments tended to reduce solubility compared to untreated meal. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in nitrogen solubility was for treating meal with blood or roasting . Results indicated that treatment tended to reduce (P<0.01) dry and organic mater digestion coefficients in comparison with untreated meal. Dry matter and nitrogen degradability was greatly reduced (P<0.01) compared to untreated meal, especially blood and roasting treatments . True nitrogen digestion coefficient showed high significance (P<0.01) due to treatment . This study indicated that sunflower meal protein could be protected effectively from degradation in rumen by treatment with blood or roasting without any inverse effect on nitrogen digestion and absorbability in ruminant animal abomasum and small intestine. (authors) 32 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Geographic Tongue and Fissured Tongue in 348 Patients with Psoriasis: Correlation with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna L. S. Picciani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic tongue (GT and fissured tongue (FT are the more frequent oral lesions in patients with psoriasis. The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of GT/FT between psoriasis group (PG and healthy controls (HC and investigate the correlation between GT/FT and psoriasis severity using the PASI and age of psoriasis onset. Three hundred and forty-eight PG and 348 HC were selected. According to the age of psoriasis onset, the individuals were classified as having early psoriasis and late psoriasis. The severity of vulgaris psoriasis was determined according to PASI. A follow-up was conducted in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV with GT to evaluate the progression of oral and cutaneous lesions. The FT and GT were more frequent in PG than in HC. The incidence of GT was higher in patients with early psoriasis and that of FT in late-psoriasis. There is association between psoriasis intensity and GT; and a higher monthly decrease of PASI score in patients without GT. The presence of GT and FT is higher in PG than in the HC. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of bitter leaf meal ( Vernonia amygdalina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional evaluation of bitter leaf meal ( Vernonia amygdalina ): effects on ... A total of 72 one-day-old broiler chicks of Abor-acre breed were used for the trial and ... reduced the level of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, low density lipoprotein, ...

  9. Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-03

    Jan 3, 2018 ... Caribbean countries have paid limited attention to local food production, ... local produce comprises less than 10% of school meals, with local ... of fresh fruit and vegetables, and new sources of year-round forage for sheep and goats. ... than 100% compared to imported materials, while reducing the cost of ...

  10. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry...

  11. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from hours...

  12. Taste Receptor Signaling-- From Tongues to Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50–100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second messenger signaling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signaling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli, and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signaling effectors that include Gβγ activation of PLCβ2, IP3-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and Ca2+-dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials, and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The Gα subunit, α-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signaling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signaling effectors as taste cells. PMID:21481196

  13. Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1, and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5. The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.

  14. [Methodological study on digitalization of tongue image in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Yang, Jie; Shen, Li

    2004-12-01

    This is a research aimed at proposing a computerized tongue analysis method based on computerized image processing for quantizing the tongue properties in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The chromatic algorithm and 2-D Gabor wavelet transformation are applied to segmenting tongue from original image. The statistical method is adopted in identifying the colors of each pixel, which are attributed to the tongue substance and coating respectively. Thickness of tongue coating is determined by energy of 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients (GWTE). The distribution of GWTE and invariant moment algorithm are used to judge the tongue texture. The experiment result shows that all methods proposed in this paper are effective.

  15. Simultaneous minimization of leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect for segmental intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianrong; Que, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to simultaneously minimize the leaf travel distance and the tongue-and-groove effect for IMRT leaf sequences to be delivered in segmental mode. The basic idea is to add a large enough number of openings through cutting or splitting existing openings for those leaf pairs with openings fewer than the number of segments so that all leaf pairs have the same number of openings. The cutting positions are optimally determined with a simulated annealing technique called adaptive simulated annealing. The optimization goal is set to minimize the weighted summation of the leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect. Its performance was evaluated with 19 beams from three clinical cases; one brain, one head-and-neck and one prostate case. The results show that it can reduce the leaf travel distance and (or) tongue-and-groove effect; the reduction of the leaf travel distance reaches its maximum of about 50% when minimized alone; the reduction of the tongue-and-groove reaches its maximum of about 70% when minimized alone. The maximum reduction in the leaf travel distance translates to a 1 to 2 min reduction in treatment delivery time per fraction, depending on leaf speed. If the method is implemented clinically, it could result in significant savings in treatment delivery time, and also result in significant reduction in the wear-and-tear of MLC mechanics

  16. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  17. Inhibition of Tongue Coat and Dental Plaque Formation by Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Vs Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse: A Randomized, Triple Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Seema Roodmal; Kini, Vineet Vaman; Padhye, Ashvini

    2015-09-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is an oxidizing agent with known bactericidal, viricidal and fungicidal properties. Its efficacy in reducing the halitosis has been established by previous literature. However, data evaluating its antiplaque property is scarce. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is considered as the gold standard and an effective adjunctive to mechanical plaque removal. However, it is associated with few reversible side effects. Therefore a study was conducted to assess the antiplaque property of ClO2 containing mouthrinse against CHX mouthrinse. To evaluate the efficacy of stabilized chlorine dioxide containing mouthrinse and CHX containing mouthrinse in inhibition of tongue coat accumulation and dental plaque formation using a four day plaque regrowth model clinically and microbiologically in a healthy dental cohort. A Single Center, Randomized, Triple blinded, Microbiological clinical trial was conducted involving 25 healthy dental students volunteers (11 males, 14 females). Two commercially available mouthrinse: Mouthrinse A - Aqueous based ClO2 mouthrinse Freshchlor(®) and Mouthrinse B - Aqueous based 0.2% CHX mouthrinse Hexidine(®) were selected as the test products. Subjects were asked to rinse and gargle for 1 minute with the allocated mouthrinse under supervision after supragingival scaling, polishing and tongue coat removal. After four hours, smears were taken from the buccal mucosa and tooth surface. On the fifth day from baseline of four day non brushing plaque regrowth model the samples were again taken from buccal mucosa and tooth surface followed by recording of plaque scores by Rastogi Modification of Navy Plaque index, extent of tongue coat by Winkel's tongue coating index and measuring tongue coat wet weight in grams. The samples collected were subjected to microbial analysis and the results were expressed as colony forming units (CFUs) per sample. The Data was analysed using SPSS 16.00 and presented using descriptive statistics. Independent t-test was

  18. Meal Pattern of Male Rats Maintained on Amino Acid Supplemented Diets: The Effect of Tryptophan, Lysine, Arginine, Proline and Threonine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Ayaso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient composition of the diet has been shown to affect food intake, with proteins having distinct effects. The present study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with individual amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine on meal pattern among male rats. Meal pattern and body weight were monitored for two weeks. Proline and threonine had minimal effects on meal pattern, while the most pronounced changes were observed in the tryptophan group. Both tryptophan and lysine decreased overall food intake, which was translated into a reduction in body weight. The reduced food intake of the tryptophan group was associated with an increase in meal size, intermeal intervals (IMI and meal time and a decrease in meal number. The decrease in the food intake of the lysine group was associated with a reduction in both IMI and meal number, and this was accompanied by an increase in meal time. Arginine increased meal number, while decreasing IMI. Proline and threonine had a minimal effect on meal pattern. Lysine seems to increase satiety, and arginine seems to decrease it, while tryptophan seems to increase satiety and decrease satiation. Accordingly, changes in meal patterns are associated with the type of amino acid added to the diet.

  19. Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Erin M; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2008-01-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, often occurs secondary to conditions such as stroke, head injury or progressive disease, many of which increase in frequency with advancing age. Sarcopenia, the gradual loss of muscle bulk and strength, can place older individuals at greater risk for dysphagia. Data are reported for three older participants in a pilot trial of a tongue-pressure training therapy. During the experimental therapy protocol, participants performed isometric strength exercises for the tongue as well as tongue pressure accuracy tasks. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), an instrument that measures tongue pressure. Treatment outcome measures show increased isometric tongue strength, improved tongue pressure generation accuracy, improved bolus control on videofluoroscopy, and improved functional dietary intake by mouth. These preliminary results indicate that, for these three adults with dysphagia, tongue-pressure training was beneficial for improving both instrumental and functional aspects of swallowing. The experimental treatment protocol holds promise as a rehabilitative tool for various dysphagia populations.

  20. Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H D; Choi, J B; Yoo, S J; Chang, M Y; Lee, S W; Park, J S

    2017-01-01

    Tongue function can affect both the oral and pharyngeal stages of the swallowing process, and proper tongue strength is vital for safe oropharyngeal swallowing. This trial investigated the effect of tongue-to-palate resistance training (TPRT) on tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in stroke with dysphagia patients. This trial was performed using a 4-week, two-group, pre-post-design. Participants were allocated to the experimental group (n = 18) or the control group (n = 17). The experimental group performed TPRT for 4 weeks (5 days per week) and traditional dysphagia therapy, whereas the control group performed traditional dysphagia therapy on the same schedule. Tongue strength was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Swallowing function was measured using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Experimental group showed more improved in the tongue strength (both anterior and posterior regions, P = 0·009, 0·015). In addition, the experimental group showed more improved scores on the oral and pharyngeal phase of VDS (P = 0·029, 0·007), but not on the PAS (P = 0·471), compared with the control group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of TPRT in increasing tongue muscle strength and improving swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Therefore, we recommend TPRT as an easy and simple rehabilitation strategy for improving swallowing in patients with dysphagia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Policy and experiment in mother tongue literacy in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1993-07-01

    The advocacy for initial mother tongue literacy in elementary schools and in adult education has been intensified within the past three decades, reflecting new attitudes to cultural diversity, especially to multilingual and multicultural education. This paper assesses the efforts made in one country, Nigeria, to achieve mother tongue literacy for its citizens, through a comparative analysis of the national policy on mother tongue literacy and the Ife experimental project, whose major purpose was to test the effectiveness of the use of the mother tongue as a medium of instruction throughout the six years of primary education. Although, like the Ife project, many experimental projects on mother tongue literacy in other countries are shown to have succeeded in realizing their objectives, the findings highlight the mediating effects of several non-linguistic variables. The findings indicate that its use as the medium of instruction in schools cannot compensate for the deficiencies in the educational system, particularly poor quality instructional facilities, or the social barriers in the wider society which prevent certain groups of minority children from learning well in school. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Does Mother Tongue Interfere in Second Language Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Nur Denizer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the questions and tick-circle or write in the correct blank. The questionnaire was based on both quantitative and qualitative approaches with the help of 4-point Likert-scale questions and one open-ended question at the last part. The participants of the study were 20 volunteer students (15 females and 5 males in Uludag University on whom the questionnaire was randomly applied.  They ranged in age from 18 to 40 and the mean age was 23. Their mother tongue was Turkish, and they knew English as a foreign language. The questionnaire shows that mother tongue interferes with second language learning in some way. In English language, the most challenging part was Grammar, while the most difficult and influenced skills was Speaking. In addition, participants had difficulty with speaking without any preparation. When it comes to having difficulty, participants had difficulty with determiners, English tenses and articles. The results indicated the interference of mother tongue in almost all aspects.

  3. Tongue thickness relates to nutritional status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tohara, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Many elderly people under long-term care suffer from malnutrition caused by dysphagia, frequently leading to sarcopenia. Our hypothesis is that sarcopenia may compromise oral function, resulting in dysphagia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sarcopenia of the lingual muscles by measuring the tongue thickness, and elucidate its relationship with nutritional status. We examined 104 elderly subjects (mean age = 80.3 ± 7.9 years). Anthropometric data, such as triceps skinfold thickness and midarm muscle area (AMA), were obtained. The tongue thickness of the central part was determined using ultrasonography. Measurement was performed twice and the mean value was obtained. The relationship between tongue thickness and nutritional status was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. AMA and age were identified by multiple-regression analysis as factors influencing tongue thickness. The results of this study suggest that malnutrition may induce sarcopenia not only in the skeletal muscles but also in the tongue.

  4. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jin Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  5. Tongue-mandible coupling movements during saliva swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tongue and mandible positions and displacements in relation to the maxilla in the midsagittal plane to characterize the different saliva swallowing patterns by recording their kinematics. A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health. During 170 s sequences recorded at a frequency of 100 Hz, subjects were at rest, silently reading a text they had chosen. The subjects were free to swallow during the sequence. Deglutition of accumulated saliva was analysed after averaging all values obtained during successive 250 ms periods. We identified three elementary swallowing patterns. Mean duration of tongue-mandible movements were 1·51 ± 0·17 s, 1·63 ± 0·14 s and 2·00 ± 0·08 s for the first, second and third patterns respectively. In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue-mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in-mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Jin; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Keun Ho

    2012-12-01

    Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs) are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D) image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of binahong leaf meal, betel nut meal or their combination on serum albumin and globulin, fecal endoparasites and bacterial counts in milk of Saanen goats suffering from subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Kusumanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect was investigated of dietary supplementation of binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis leaf meal, betel nut (Arecha catechu L. meal or their combination on serum albumin and globulin, fecal endoparasites and bacterial counts in the milk of Saanen goats suffering from subclinical mastitis. The goats were randomly allotted to one of four experimental groups: control diet (diet without binahong leaf meal or betel nut meal; CON, diet supplemented with binahong leaf meal (1 g/kg body weight; BNH, diet supplemented with betel nut meal (1 g/kg body weight; BTN and diet supplemented with a combination of binahong leaf meal and betel nut meal (both 0.5 g/kg body weight; BNH + BTN. After 14 d treatment, the pH was higher (p  0.05 in levels of serum albumin and globulin and milk production across the treatment diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of binahong leaf meal, betel nut meal and a combination of both showed potential to reduce the load of endoparasites in the gastrointestinal tract and to reduce subclinical mastitis in lactating Saanen goats. Keywords: Antibiotics, Betel nut, Binahong, Saanen goat, Subclinical mastitis

  8. CT Accuracy of Extrinsic Tongue Muscle Invasion in Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, J C; Baugnon, K L; Lacayo, E A; Hudgins, P A; Patel, M R; Magliocca, K R; Corey, A S; El-Deiry, M; Wadsworth, J T; Beitler, J J; Saba, N F; Liu, Y; Aiken, A H

    2017-02-01

    Extrinsic tongue muscle invasion in oral cavity cancer upstages the primary tumor to a T4a. Despite this American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criterion, no studies have investigated the accuracy or prognostic importance of radiologic extrinsic tongue muscle invasion, the feasibility of standardizing extrinsic tongue muscle invasion reporting, or the degree of agreement across different disciplines: radiology, surgery, and pathology. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement among radiology, surgery, and pathology for extrinsic tongue muscle invasion and to determine the imaging features most predictive of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion with surgical/pathologic confirmation. Thirty-three patients with untreated primary oral cavity cancer were included. Two head and neck radiologists, 3 otolaryngologists, and 1 pathologist prospectively evaluated extrinsic tongue muscle invasion. Fourteen of 33 patients had radiologic extrinsic tongue muscle invasion; however, only 8 extrinsic tongue muscle invasions were confirmed intraoperatively. Pathologists were unable to determine extrinsic tongue muscle invasion in post-formalin-fixed samples. Radiologic extrinsic tongue muscle invasion had 100% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 57% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value with concurrent surgical-pathologic evaluation of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion as the criterion standard. On further evaluation, the imaging characteristic most consistent with surgical-pathologic evaluation positive for extrinsic tongue muscle invasion was masslike enhancement. Evaluation of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion is a subjective finding for all 3 disciplines. For radiology, masslike enhancement of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion most consistently corresponded to concurrent surgery/pathology evaluation positive for extrinsic tongue muscle invasion. Intraoperative surgical and pathologic evaluation should be encouraged to verify radiologic extrinsic tongue

  9. Simply delivered meals: a tale of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah L; Connelly, Nancy; Parsons, Cassandra; Blackstone, Katlyn

    2018-06-01

    Western medicine is undergoing a transition toward transparency of quality and costs, and healthcare systems are striving to achieve the Triple Aim, a framework for improving the patient experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing the per capita cost of healthcare. Meanwhile, there is growing recognition of the impact of social determinants of health and a new federal requirement for nonprofit hospitals to implement prevention strategies. A specialized meal delivery program called Simply Delivered for ME (SDM) was formed in an effort to improve care and reduce 30-day hospital readmission rates.The Maine Medical Center (MMC) partnered with the Southern Maine Agency on Aging to offer SDM on a voluntary basis to high-risk Medicare patients already enrolled in the Community-based Care Transition Program (CCTP) at MMC. We report the results of the 2-year intervention in terms of 30-day hospital readmission rates and cost measures (ie, return on investment and cost savings).Of the 622 MMC patients who received SDM during the 24 months, the 30-day readmission rate was 10.3% (compared with the 16.6% 30-day rate of hospital readmission at baseline [ie, before the adoption of CCTP]) for all-cause readmissions. The cost savings for reduced readmissions were $212,160. The return on investment was 387%, or a benefit-cost ratio of $3.87 for every $1.00 spent on meals. Programs such as SDM may reduce the rate of hospital readmission among high-risk older adults and, thereby, yield lower healthcare costs.

  10. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  11. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ella H; Gaban-Chong, Natasha; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-10

    In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma γ-tocopherol but not for α-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC(0-5h)) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial

  12. Modeling of Transient Nectar Flow in Hummingbird Tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that hummingbirds do not pick up floral nectar via capillary action. The long believed capillary rise models were mistaken and unable to predict the dynamic nectar intake process. Instead, hummingbird's tongue acts as an elastic micropump. Nectar is drawn into the tongue grooves during elastic expansion after the grooves are squeezed flat by the beak. The new model is compared with experimental data from high-speed videos of 18 species and tens of individuals of wild hummingbirds. Self-similarity and transitions of short-to-long time behaviours have been resolved for the nectar flow driven by expansive filling. The transient dynamics is characterized by the relative contributions of negative excess pressure and the apparent area modulus of the tongue grooves.

  13. Cavernous hemangioma of the tongue: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient′s age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue.

  14. Improving the Supply Chain and Food Quality of Professionally Prepared Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Akkerman, R.; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    of the meal production in order to transfer labour-intensive operations from the kitchens to the industry; 2) Systemic use of a new concept: thawing during distribution, which improves shelf-life and reduces waste; 3) Supply chain modelling to improve delivery schedules and reduce environmental impact......An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation...

  15. The relation between family meals and health of infants and toddlers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhage, Chantal L; Gillebaart, Marleen; van der Veek, Shelley M C; Vereijken, Carolus M J L

    2018-04-11

    Family meals are associated with multiple health benefits in children and adolescents including evidence that eating together as a family may play a role in reducing childhood obesity. The current review aims to investigate whether the beneficial health effects of the family meal also apply to infants and toddlers. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycInfo were searched and 14 empirical studies were identified. The findings were discussed according to frequency of having a family meal and parental perception, associations between the family meal and health aspects (e.g., eating behaviors and diet quality) and causal influences of these associations. Descriptive data showed that mothers offer food at a structured mealtime, but that eating together as a family was not always upheld. The frequency of family meals was positively associated with more nutrient-dense food intake and a more balanced diet. Different advantages (e.g., social importance, practical considerations) and obstacles (e.g., planning, possible mess) of the family meal were mentioned by parents. Further, having structured mealtimes and family meals was associated with more food enjoyment and less fussy and emotional eating. Finally, no causal studies were identified. The limited number of studies suggests that the pattern of positive associations between family meal and child health which has been shown in older children may also exist in infants and toddlers. More specific research is needed to examine the causality of the associations between the family meal and health of the infant and toddler. The associations between the family meal and less fussiness and emotional eating, more food enjoyment and better nutrient intake suggest that the family meal is a valuable moment to promote healthy eating in toddlers and infants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Cayenne pepper in a meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B. V.; Byrne, D. V.; Bredie, W. L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated appetite sensations, hedonics, sensory specific desires, physical- and psychological well-being sensations during and after intake of a meal with- and without increased oral heat induced by addition of cayenne pepper. Subjects (n = 66) completed a randomized cross......-over study involving a tomato soup with and without added cayenne pepper (0.593 mg capsaicin). Self-reports were evaluated at 5 min intervals during intake and at 1 h intervals until four hours post intake using VAS-scales and 9-point scales. Sensory specific desires were further studied by liking...... and wanting of food samples representing the sensory profiles: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, fat and spicy, respectively. The soup with cayenne pepper added was perceived significantly more spicy but equally liked, and resulted in significant higher satiation at the end of the meal and one hour post intake...

  17. Small interfering RNA targeting ILK inhibits metastasis in human tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Yu; Qi, Jin; Deng, Shixiong; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Luyu; Chen, Junxia

    2013-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase. Accumulating evidences suggest that ILK are involved in cell–matrix interactions, cell proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. EMT has been postulated as a prerequisite for metastasis. The reports have demonstrated that EMT was implicated in metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, here we further postulate that ILK might participate in EMT of tongue cancer. We showed that ILK siRNA inhibited EMT with low N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as high E-cadherin expression in vivo and in vitro. We found that knockdown of ILK inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as changed cell morphology. We also demonstrated that ILK siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets Akt and GSK3β as well as reduced expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Furthermore, we found that the tongue tumor with high metastasis capability showed higher ILK, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as lower E-cadherin expression in clinical specimens. Finally, ILK siRNA led to the suppression for tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest that ILK could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for tongue cancer. Highlights: • ILK siRNA influences cell morphology, cell cycle, migration and invasion. • ILK siRNA affects the expression of proteins associated with EMT. • ILK expression is related to EMT in clinical human tongue tumors. • ILK siRNA inhibits metastasis of the tongue cancer cells through suppressing EMT

  18. Controversies in the management of tongue base cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Tongue base cancer is one of the most lethal head and neck cancers. There is considerable controversy in the management of this disease with wide variation of opinion within the literature. METHODS: We discuss the presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies which exist in the literature. Articles were reviewed from 1970 to 2007 within the Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane libraries. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with a history of persistent unilateral neck pain, even in the absence of clinical signs warrant MRI neck imaging. Tongue base cancer organ preservation therapeutic strategies, radiation and concomitant platinum based chemotherapy, currently optimise oncologic and quality of life outcomes.

  19. Cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue with an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gregório Wrublevski; Pereira, Volnei David; Pereira Junior, José Antonio de Castro; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici

    2012-01-01

    By definition, choristomas are normal tissues found in anomalous topography. The cartilaginous features of these lesions are rare in the soft tissues of the oral cavity. The majority of cartilaginous choristomas of the tongue—the primary site of emergence of the oropharynx—are associated with adipose, fibrous or bone tissues—apart from that, only a few of these were confirmed by an immunohistochemical study. The neoplasm exclusively composed of chondromatous tissue is extremely rare in the tongue. This paper reports the clinical, surgical and pathological characteristics of a cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman. PMID:23220826

  20. Does Mother Tongue Interfere in Second Language Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Denizer, Elif Nur

    2017-01-01

    Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s) it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the quest...

  1. Using Unconstrained Tongue Motion as an Alternative Control Mechanism for Wheeled Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers users’ intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the tongue motion as an alternative control input fo...

  2. Bacteriome and mycobiome associations in oral tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pranab K; Wang, Hannah; Retuerto, Mauricio; Zhang, Huan; Burkey, Brian; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Eng, Charis

    2017-11-14

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral (mobile) tongue (OMTC), a non-human papilloma virus-associated oral cancer, is rapidly increasing without clear etiology. Poor oral hygiene has been associated with oral cancers, suggesting that oral bacteriome (bacterial community) and mycobiome (fungal community) could play a role. While the bacteriome is increasingly recognized as an active participant in health, the role of the mycobiome has not been studied in OMTC. Tissue DNA was extracted from 39 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from patients with OMTC. Microbiome profiling, principal coordinate, and dissimilarity index analyses showed bacterial diversity and richness, and fungal richness, were significantly reduced in tumor tissue (TT) compared to their matched non-tumor tissues (NTT, P <0.006). Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial phylum, which was significantly increased in TT compared to NTT (48% vs. 40%, respectively; P =0.004). Abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were significantly decreased in TT compared to matched NTT ( P ≤0.003 for both). Abundance of 22 bacterial and 7 fungal genera was significantly different between the TT and NTT, including Streptococcus , which was the most abundant and significantly increased in the tumor group (34% vs. 22%, P <0.001). Abundance of fungal genus Aspergillus in TT correlated negatively with bacteria ( Actinomyces, Prevotella , Streptococcus) , but positively with Aggregatibacter . Patients with high T-stage disease had lower mean differences between TT and NTT compared with patients with low T-stage disease (0.07 vs. 0.21, P =0.04). Our results demonstrate differences in bacteriome and mycobiome between OMTC and their matched normal oral epithelium, and their association with T-stage.

  3. Effects of protein supplements consumed with meals, versus between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joshua L; Bergia, Robert E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2018-06-01

    The impact of timing the consumption of protein supplements in relation to meals on resistance training-induced changes in body composition has not been evaluated systematically. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of consuming protein supplements with meals, vs between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults. Studies published up to 2017 were identified with the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. Two researchers independently screened 2077 abstracts for eligible randomized controlled trials of parallel design that prescribed a protein supplement and measured changes in body composition for a period of 6 weeks or more. In total, 34 randomized controlled trials with 59 intervention groups were included and qualitatively assessed. Of the intervention groups designated as consuming protein supplements with meals (n = 16) vs between meals (n = 43), 56% vs 72% showed an increase in body mass, 94% vs 90% showed an increase in lean mass, 87% vs 59% showed a reduction in fat mass, and 100% vs 84% showed an increase in the ratio of lean mass to fat mass over time, respectively. Concurrently with resistance training, consuming protein supplements with meals, rather than between meals, may more effectively promote weight control and reduce fat mass without influencing improvements in lean mass.

  4. A three-dimensional kinematic analysis of tongue flicking in Python molurus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.H.; Sluijs, van der I.; Snelderwaard, P.C.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The forked snake tongue is a muscular organ without hard skeletal support. A functional interpretation of the variable arrangement of the intrinsic muscles along the tongue requires a quantitative analysis of the motion performance during tongue protrusion and flicking. Therefore, high-speed

  5. Analysis of 3-D Tongue Motion from Tagged and Cine Magnetic Resonance Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Lee, Junghoon; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring tongue deformation and internal muscle motion during speech has been a challenging task because the tongue deforms in 3 dimensions, contains interdigitated muscles, and is largely hidden within the vocal tract. In this article, a new method is proposed to analyze tagged and cine magnetic resonance images of the tongue during…

  6. Right of Knowing and Using Mother Tongue: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan, Burhan

    2017-01-01

    Language is a crucial factor for the academic achievement of minority people. Speaking the mother tongue in school increases self-confidence and thinking skills, and conveys freedom of speech. Mother tongue is an inseparable element of his or her culture and that everyone has the right to learn his or her mother tongue. The main objective of this…

  7. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mucous retention cyst of the tongue: distinction from other cystic lesions of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Casas, L E; Bardales, R H

    2000-05-01

    Mucous retention cyst (MRC) is a common submucosal lesion of the oral cavity that, when deeply seated, simulates a neoplasm. This report describes the fine-needle aspiration cytology findings of a lingual MRC of complex architecture and with metaplastic epithelium. In addition, we emphasize its cytologic differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant cystic lesions of the tongue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of aspiration cytology of a complex MRC of the tongue. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Sociological aspects of meat in meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals and environmental experts advocate reduced consumption of meat in industrialized regions. On this background, and in light of a number of sociological studies of food practices and meal formats among consumers, this paper examines some aspects of the cultural entrenchment...... and vulnerability of meat consumption. Tacit meanings of meat products are seen as arising from the human tendency to rank and grade objects relative to each other, a process that is intrinsic to consumption practices. Examples of the ways in which gradient meanings of meat products are entrenched in food practices...... and of ways in which this consumption is vulnerable to change, are presented. On this basis, the likelihood that current levels of meat consumption in industrialized societies will remain relatively stable or tend to decrease are briefly discussed....

  9. The Holy Spirit as Dove and as Tongues of Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the dove and the tongues of fire in Jørgen Gustava Brandt's hymn "Hør himmelsus i tredie time!" (Hear the rush from heaven at the third hour!) The following intertexts are included in the analysis: Acts 2:1-4; Gen 11:1-9, examples of fire as image of God in the Old Testament...

  10. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pg4) from white ginseng was checked using an electronic tongue. The bitterness and aftertaste-B of Pg3 were perceived as significantly higher than those of the other subfractions. The sourness of Pg2 had the highest rating compared to that of the other subfractions. The umami of Pg4 was higher than that of the other ...

  11. Cat Got Your Tongue? Teaching Idioms to English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Why do questions about idioms often leave us "tongue-tied" in our classrooms? This book takes a look at learning and teaching idioms from two perspectives. First is a survey of recent work on learning and teaching idioms from diverse perspectives in the linguistics and educational research literature. The survey includes definitions of…

  12. How Children Learn Their Mother Tongue: They Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new solution is offered to the Infant Language Acquisition Problem, rejecting both of Chomsky's alternatives. It proposes that the infant does not acquire his mother tongue by mastering its grammar, whether by inference from personal experience or via an innate Language Acquisition Device such as the UG, but that the language he hears is all…

  13. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  14. The challenge of mother tongue education in Kenya | Kobia | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of mother tongue in the cognitive, linguistic, personal and educational development of children cannot be overemphasised. It is out of this recognition that the UNESCO declared 2006 the Year of African Languages. In spite of this, the language policy in Kenya continues to be tilted in favour of English and to ...

  15. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold interdigitated electrodes for electronic tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; de Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Filho, José A.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Riul, Antonio; Mendonca, Cleber R.; Correa, Daniel S.

    2015-06-01

    Electronic tongue (e-tongue) sensors based on impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a potential technology to evaluate the quality and chemical composition of food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. E-tongues usually employ transducers based on metal interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) coated with a thin layer of an active material, which is capable of interacting chemically with several types of analytes. IDEs are usually produced by photolithographic methods, which are time-consuming and costly, therefore, new fabrication technologies are required to make it more affordable. Here, we employed femtosecond laser ablation with pulse duration of 50 fs to microfabricate gold IDEs having finger width from 2.3 μm up to 3.2 μm. The parameters used in the laser ablation technique, such as light intensity, scan speed and beam spot size have been optimized to achieve uniform IDEs, which were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of gold IDEs fabricated by laser ablation were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, and compared to those produced by conventional photolithography. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation is a promising alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metal IDEs for e-tongue systems.

  16. Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa: theories, pedagogies and sustainability. ... academics and other stakeholders in education in South Africa. There remains a need for a population proficient ... the relationship between theory, approaches and contexts in language development in South Africa.

  17. Tapping into tongue motion to substitute or augment upper limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghovanloo, Maysam; Sahadat, M. Nazmus; Zhang, Zhenxuan; Kong, Fanpeng; Sebkhi, Nordine

    2017-05-01

    Assistive technologies (AT) play an important role in the lives of people with disabilities. Most importantly, they allow individuals with severe physical disabilities become more independence. Inherent abilities of the human tongue originated from its strong representation in the motor cortex, its direct connection to the brain through well-protected cranial nerves, and easy access without a surgery have resulted in development of a series of tongue-operated ATs that tap into the dexterous, intuitive, rapid, precise, and tireless motion of the tongue. These ATs not only help people with tetraplegia as a result of spinal cord injury or degenerative neurological diseases to access computers/smartphones, drive wheelchairs, and interact with their environments but also have the potential to enhance rehabilitation paradigms for stroke survivors. In this paper, various types of tongue operated ATs are discussed based on their working principles and task based performances. Comparisons are drawn based on widely accepted and standardized quantitative measures, such as throughput, information transfer rate, typing speed/accuracy, tracking error, navigation period, and navigation accuracy as well as qualitative measures, such as user feedback. Finally, the prospects of using variations of these versatile devices to enhance human performance in environments that limit hand and finger movements, such as space exploration or underwater operations are discussed.

  18. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational policy…

  19. Negotiating ironies and paradoxes of mother-tongue education: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article an introspective and retrospective overview of mother-tongue education in South Africa during the Bantu Education era (1955–c1990) is presented within the context of the discourse of learning and teaching language policies of the pre- and post-apartheid era (c1990–2014), with specific reference to literary ...

  20. Artificial tongue based on metal-biomolecule coordination polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ran, Xiang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-02-25

    We construct an array-based recognition system (the so-called artificial tongue) through the self-assembly of nucleotides, dyes and lanthanide ions. Metal ions are selected as model analytes for verifying its discrimination ability. The work provides valuable insights into the application and development of biomolecule-based materials.

  1. Analysis of normal tongue by dynamic enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    We qualitatively evaluated dynamic enhanced MR images of normal tongues of 26 patients without oral malignancy, inflammatory diseases or systemic diseases. The selected slices were not affected by apparent artifacts including motion and susceptibility, and the tongue shape was delineated as symmetrical on coronal images, which were obtained using a T1 weighted spin echo pulse sequence (repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=200/20). Slices at the incisor and molar levels were evaluated. Structures that could be identified on each pre-contrast image could also be identified on the post-contrast dynamic enhanced image. However, identification of the intrinsic tongue musculature was impossible on the images that were composed of symmetrical, relatively high signal areas surrounded by a low signal area. Both areas were gradually but apparently enhanced. The sublingual space was easily identified at the molar level, as it was rapidly enhanced and symmetrically delineated on each image, however, it was difficult to determine at the incisor level. Further, the lingual septum could also be identified in almost all images at the molar level, and showed no enhancement pattern, whereas, the mucosal surface of the dorsum tongue was rapidly enhanced, and identified on each image. (author)

  2. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... the flavor of substances such as foods and poisons. Humans perceive taste through sensory organs called taste buds concentrated on the upper tongue surface. Basic taste contributes to the sensation and flavor of foods in the mouth. Sourness is the taste that detects acidity. The sourness of substances is ...

  3. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on ...

  4. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  5. Gingival recession is likely associated with tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    A convenience sample of 60 subjects (27 male; 33 female) with tongue piercings (case group) and 120 subjects (43 male; 77 female) without tongue piercings (control group), ranging in age from 13 to 28 years, were identified from a mix of races living in a geographic area of low socioeconomic status in Brazil. Subjects were recruited from school groups and university centers between January 2008 and March 2009. For each case, 2 controls were selected on a consecutive basis from the same school according to criteria that included age, gender, smoking, and previous orthodontic treatment. Exclusion criteria included individuals with systemic diseases that might compromise the immune system, as well as antibiotics within 3 months or other medications that could affect the gingival tissues. The key study factor was the use or nonuse of tongue piercings (jewelry). The analysis compared periodontal parameters, such as the occurrence, location, and severity of gingival recession, in subjects with and without tongue jewelry. Gingival recession in the anterior lingual mandibular region was assessed as the primary outcome measure. The study sample was divided according to the presence or absence of gingival recession as well as the severity (1-2, 3, and ≥ 4 mm) of gingival recession. The average age of subjects was similar in the case and control groups (18.9 versus 17.7 years, respectively). Fractures of the anterior teeth were present significantly more frequently in cases than controls (26.7% versus 11.7%, respectively; P piercings (OR = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.02-24.09, P <.001). The severity of recession in this region was also significantly higher (calculated using an ordinal scale) in cases than in controls (P < .001). The final multivariate logistic regression model for occurrence of gingival recession included the variables tongue jewelry (yes/no), age, male gender, and the presence of bleeding on probing in the anterior region. Subjects with tongue

  6. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  7. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  8. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  9. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debray, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s -1 and accelerations 350 m s -2 , with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s -1 with an acceleration of 573 m s -2 while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  10. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, Alexis

    2011-06-01

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s(-1) and accelerations 350 m s(-2), with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s(-1) with an acceleration of 573 m s(-2) while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  11. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debray, Alexis, E-mail: debray.alexis@canon.co.jp [Canon Incorporation, 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s{sup -1} and accelerations 350 m s{sup -2}, with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s{sup -1} with an acceleration of 573 m s{sup -2} while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  12. Tongue-driven sonar beam steering by a lingual-echolocating fruit bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals enhance sensory acquisition from a specific direction by movements of head, ears, or eyes. As active sensing animals, echolocating bats also aim their directional sonar beam to selectively "illuminate" a confined volume of space, facilitating efficient information processing by reducing echo interference and clutter. Such sonar beam control is generally achieved by head movements or shape changes of the sound-emitting mouth or nose. However, lingual-echolocating Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus, which produce sound by clicking their tongue, can dramatically change beam direction at very short temporal intervals without visible morphological changes. The mechanism supporting this capability has remained a mystery. Here, we measured signals from free-flying Egyptian fruit bats and discovered a systematic angular sweep of beam focus across increasing frequency. This unusual signal structure has not been observed in other animals and cannot be explained by the conventional and widely-used "piston model" that describes the emission pattern of other bat species. Through modeling, we show that the observed beam features can be captured by an array of tongue-driven sound sources located along the side of the mouth, and that the sonar beam direction can be steered parsimoniously by inducing changes to the pattern of phase differences through moving tongue location. The effects are broadly similar to those found in a phased array-an engineering design widely found in human-made sonar systems that enables beam direction changes without changes in the physical transducer assembly. Our study reveals an intriguing parallel between biology and human engineering in solving problems in fundamentally similar ways.

  13. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Tip-of-the-Tongue Heuristic: How Tip-of-the-Tongue States Confer Perceptibility on Inaccessible Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne M.; Claxton, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to…

  15. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  16. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  17. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal. Subjects/Methods: Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 23 overweight or obese individuals (body mass index ⩾25 kg m−2) performed: walking exercise (90 min) at 1800 h followed by no meal (EX); exercise followed by a meal with LGI carbohydrates (that is, lentils, EX-LGI); exercise followed by a meal with HGI carbohydrates (that is, instant potatoes, white bread, EX-HGI); and a control condition with no exercise or meal. After a 10-h overnight fast, participants were given a standardized high-fat meal. Fat oxidation was estimated before and for 6 h after this meal from respiratory gas measures and TG determined from blood samples. Results: Fat oxidation (mean±s.d.) was higher with EX (6.9±1.7 g h−1) than EX-HGI (6.3±1.6 g h−1; P=0.007) and Control (5.9±1.7 g h−1; P=0.00002), and EX-LGI (6.6±1.7 g h−1) was higher than Control (P=0.002). TG total area under the curve was 18–32% lower with EX and EX-LGI compared with control (P=0.0005 and P=0.0001, respectively) and EX-HGI (P=0.05 and P=0.021, respectively). Conclusions: A meal containing HGI carbohydrates consumed after an evening exercise session cancels the beneficial effect of exercise for stimulating fat oxidation and lowering TG after a subsequent high-fat meal, whereas consuming a post-exercise meal with LGI carbohydrates retains the positive effect of exercise. PMID:27376698

  18. Research on Techniques of Multifeatures Extraction for Tongue Image and Its Application in Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is one of the important methods in the Chinese traditional medicine. Doctors can judge the disease’s situation by observing patient’s tongue color and texture. This paper presents a novel approach to extract color and texture features of tongue images. First, we use improved GLA (Generalized Lloyd Algorithm to extract the main color of tongue image. Considering that the color feature cannot fully express tongue image information, the paper analyzes tongue edge’s texture features and proposes an algorithm to extract them. Then, we integrate the two features in retrieval by different weight. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the detection rate of lesion in tongue image relative to single feature retrieval.

  19. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  20. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  1. Functional outcome of tongue motions with selective hypoglossal nerve stimulation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, C; Maurer, J T; Steffen, A

    2016-05-01

    Selective upper airway stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve is a novel therapy option for obstructive sleep apnea. Different tongue motions were observed after surgery during active therapy. We examined tongue motions in 14 patients (mean age 51 ± 10 years) who received an implantation of an upper airway stimulation system (Inspire Medical Systems) from September 2013 to February 2014 in three different implantation centers in Germany after surgery. Sleep recording was performed preoperatively: 2 months (M02) and 6 months (M06) after surgery. There were three different tongue motions observed after surgery at 1 month (M01), M02, and M06 after surgery: bilateral protrusion (BP), right protrusion (RP), and mixed activation (MA). At M01: 10 BP, 2 RP, and 2 MA; at M02: 12 BP, 0 RP, and 2 MA; and at M06: 12 BP, 0 RP, and 2 MA could be detected. The average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was reduced from 32.5 ± 14.2/h before surgery to 17.9 ± 23.3/h at M02 and 14.1 ± 19.8/h at M06. An increased reduction in AHI was found in BP and RP group (Baseline: 29.6 ± 12.6/h; M02: 12.06 ± 14.1/h; M06: 9.7 ± 12.6/h) compared to the MA group (Baseline 49.6 ± 13.8/h; M02: 49.7 ± 5.1/h; M06: 40.5 ± 4.1/h). These findings suggest that the postoperative tongue motions in upper airway stimulation are associated with the therapy outcome. The stimulation electrode placement on the hypoglossal nerve for selective muscle recruitment may play a role in the mechanism of action.

  2. Morphology of the tongue of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae. II. Histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Crole

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of brief, fragmented descriptions have been provided on the gross morphology of the ratite tongue, very few studies have documented the histological structure of this organ. This paper presents the first definitive histological description of the emu tongue and reviews, consolidates and compares the scattered information on the histology of the ratite tongue available in the literature. Five tongues were removed from heads obtained from birds at slaughter and fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin. Appropriate longitudinal and transverse segments were removed, routinely processed for light microscopy, and sections examined after staining with H & E and PAS. The entire tongue (body and root is invested by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The supporting connective tissue of the tongue dorsum displays only large, simple branched tubular mucussecreting glands, whereas the caudal tongue body ventrum and tongue root, in addition to these glands, also exhibits small, simple tubular mucus-secreting glands. Herbst corpuscles are associated with the large, simple branched glands. Lymphoid tissue is restricted to the tongue ventrum and is particularly obvious at the junction of the ventral tongue body and frenulum where a large aggregation of diffuse lymphoid tissue, with nodular tissue proximally, was consistently observed. A structure resembling a taste bud was located in the epithelium on the caudal extremity of the tongue root of one bird. This is the first reported observation of taste buds in ratites. Forming the core of the tongue body is the cartilaginous paraglossum lying dorsal to the partially ossified rostral projection of the basihyale. The histological features of the emu tongue are generally similar to those described for the greater rhea and ostrich, except that taste buds were not identified in these species. The results would suggest that the emu tongue functions as a sensory organ, both for taste and

  3. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Williams, T.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long-duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore the team is challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining product safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Commercially available products do not meet the nutritional requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system, and it is currently unknown if daily meal replacements will impact crew food intake and psychosocial health over time. The purpose of this study was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars that meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% savings in food mass. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars (approximately 700 calories per bar) have been developed, using traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). The four highest rated bars were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact of bars on mood, satiety, digestive discomfort, and satisfaction with food. These factors are currently being analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies where crew maintain adequate food intake. In addition, these bars are currently undergoing shelf-life testing to determine long-term sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that

  5. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  6. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  7. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with 51 Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK

  8. How about Lunch? Consequences of the Meal Context on Cognition and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Werner; Stürmer, Birgit; Shmuilovich, Olga; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2013-01-01

    Although research addresses the effects of a meal’s context on food preference, the psychological consequences of meal situations are largely unexplored. We compared the cognitive and emotional effects of a restaurant meal eaten in the company of others to a solitary meal consumed in a plain office using pre- and post-tests analysis and controlling for the kind and amount of food consumed. Three tasks were conducted, measuring: (1) semantic memory (2) cognitive control and error monitoring, and (3) processing of emotional facial expressions. Covert processes in these tasks were assessed with event-related brain potentials. A mood rating questionnaire indicated a relaxation effect of the restaurant as compared to the plain meal situation. The restaurant meal increased sensitivity to threatening facial expressions and diminished cognitive control and error monitoring. No effects were observed for semantic memory. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that a restaurant meal with a social component may be more relaxing than a meal eaten alone in a plain setting and may reduce cognitive control. PMID:23936184

  9. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P 60 kDa) (P 60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.

  10. Dysregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Anxun; Liu, Xiqiang; Sheng, Shihu; Ye, Hui; Peng, Tingsheng; Shi, Fei; Crowe, David L; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies identified Hsp27 as a highly over-expressed protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Clinical studies that attempted to evaluate the prognostic values of Hsp27 yielded inconsistent results, which may be due to inclusion of OSCC cases from multiple anatomic sites. In this study, to determine the utility of Hsp27 for prognosis, we focused on oral tongue SCC (OTSCC), one of the most aggressive forms of OSCC. Archival clinical samples of 15 normal oral tongue mucosa, 31 dysplastic lesions, 80 primary OTSCC, and 32 lymph node metastases were examined for Hsp27 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Statistical analyses were carried out to assess the prognostic value of Hsp27 expression for patients with this disease. Dysregulation of Hsp27 expression was observed in dysplastic lesions, primary OTSCC, and lymph node metastases, and appears to be associated with disease progression. Statistical analysis revealed that the reduced Hsp27 expression in primary tumor tissue was associated with poor differentiation. Furthermore, the higher expression of Hsp27 was correlated with better overall survival. Our study confirmed that the dysregulation of Hsp27 expression is a frequent event during the progression of OTSCC. The expression of Hsp27 appears to be an independent prognostic marker for patients with this disease

  11. Exploring the effects of gravity on tongue motion using ultrasound image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Maureen; Crouse, Ulla; Sutton, Marty

    2002-05-01

    Our goal in the research was to explore the effect that gravity had on the vocal-tract system by using ultrasound data collected in the upright and supine positions. All potential subjects were given an ultrasound pretest to determine whether they could repeat a series of 3-4 words precise enough to allow an accurate series of images to be collected. Out of these potential subjects, approximately 5-7 subjects were eventually used in the research. The method of collecting ultrasound data required the immobilization of the patient by restraining their neck in a custom fitted neck restraint. The neck restraint held an ultrasound transducer positioned at a critical angle underneath the patients' lower jawbone, which served to reduce errors and increase image resolution. To accurately analyze the series of images collected from ultrasound imaging, the surfaces of the tongue were digitized and tongue motion was time-aligned across the upright and supine sequences. Comparisons between the upright and supine data were then made by using L2 norms to determine averages and differences regarding the behavior between the two positions. Curves and locations of the maximum and minimum differences will be discussed.

  12. Second-meal effects of pulses on blood glucose and subjective appetite following a standardized meal 2 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05).

  13. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  14. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  15. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9......) and the other with a less healthy diet (n 8). Both groups were recruited from respondents to a dietary survey. Semi-structured interviews took their starting point in photographs of their meals and snacks taken by the children themselves. RESULTS: Both subgroups of children had a meal pattern with three main...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  16. Main processes of the Atlantic cold tongue interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Yann; Voldoire, Aurore; Giordani, Hervé; Caniaux, Guy

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of the Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) is studied by means of a mixed-layer heat budget analysis. A method to classify extreme cold and warm ACT events is proposed and applied to ten various analysis and reanalysis products. This classification allows 5 cold and 5 warm ACT events to be selected over the period 1982-2007. Cold (warm) ACT events are defined by the presence of negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies at the center of the equatorial Atlantic in late boreal spring, preceded by negative (positive) zonal wind stress anomalies in the western equatorial Atlantic. An ocean general circulation model capable of reconstructing the interannual variability of the ACT correctly is used to demonstrate that cold ACT events develop rapidly from May to June mainly due to intense cooling by vertical mixing and horizontal advection. The simulated cooling at the center of the basin is the result of the combined effects of non-local and local processes. The non-local process is an upwelling associated with an eastward-propagating Kelvin wave, which makes the mixed-layer more shallow and preconditions the upper layers to be cooled by an intense heat loss at the base of the mixed-layer, which is amplified by a stronger local injection of energy from the atmosphere. The early cooling by vertical mixing in March is also shown to be a good predictor of June cooling. In July, horizontal advection starts to warm the mixed-layer abnormally and damps SST anomalies. The advection anomalies, which result from changes in the horizontal temperature gradient, are associated in some cases with the propagation of Rossby waves along the equator. During warm ACT events, processes are reversed, generating positive SST anomalies: a downwelling Kelvin wave triggers stratification anomalies and mixed-layer depth anomalies, amplified by a weaker injection of energy from the atmosphere in May-June. In July, warm ACT events are abnormally cooled due to

  17. Meal support using mobile technology in Anorexia Nervosa. Contextual differences between inpatient and outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Lounes, Naima; Kan, Carol; Treasure, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a "supported eating" intervention using mobile technology in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Twenty Inpatients and 18 Outpatients with AN underwent a test meal on two occasions, whilst listening to either a short video-clip ('vodcast'), or music delivered on an MP4 player. Self-report and behavioural measures were collected before and after each test meal. Differences were found between the inpatient and outpatient settings. Inpatients drank more of the test meal and had increased levels of vigilance to food after the test meal, in both conditions. When the support conditions (Vodcast vs. Music) were compared, inpatients seemed to benefit more from listening to music (reduced distress and more smoothie drunk), whereas outpatients benefitted more from using the vodcast (reduced distress, more smoothie drunk, and reduced vigilance to food). The context in which the intervention was delivered had an impact on self-report and behavioural measures collected during the test meal. This suggests that the form of meal support in AN needs to match the context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Postprandial effects of consuming a staggered meal on gut peptide and glycemic responses in obese women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lisa; Haddad, Ella H; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Eating slowly by staggering a meal may reduce energy intake. Our aim was to examine the effect of eating a portion of beans 15min before the rest of the meal, on gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, glucose and insulin concentrations and subsequent energy intake in obese adults. This was a randomised crossover design study with 28 obese subjects. Participants consumed a standardised breakfast on test days followed by test meals: (1) control meal containing 86g (0.5 cup) of beans, and (2) staggered meal in which 86g (0.5 cup) of beans were consumed 15min before the rest of the meal. Blood obtained prior to and at 30, 60, and 120min following the meals was analysed for acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose and insulin. Feelings of hunger and satiety were assessed using analog visual scales. Energy intake following the test meal was obtained by computer assisted dietary recalls. Mixed model statistical analysis of data showed time effects for unacylated ghrelin, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, hunger and fullness, however, meal effects were not shown for any of the parameters. GLP-1 area under the curve from baseline to 120min (AUC0-120) decreased by 19% (P=0.024) and that of glucose increased by 7% (P=0.046) following the staggered compared to the control bean meal. Energy intake subsequent to the test meals did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, lengthening meal times by staggering eating did not benefit hormonal, metabolic or appetite control in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Free flap transfer reconstruction in managing tongue carcinoma during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuko; Fukuda, Kenji; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Nishimoto, Soh; Terada, Tomonori; Wada, Ryu; Sotsuka, Yohei; Kawai, Kenichiro; Kakibuchi, Masao

    2017-08-01

    Malignant oral cancers do not commonly occur in pregnant women. But when they do, the presence of a foetus and maternal physiological changes complicate and limit the treatment options. Risk benefit assessment and balancing of them are always important. A 33-year-old woman, who was 25 weeks pregnant, presented with a squamous cell carcinoma on her tongue. She was clinically staged II (T2, N0 and M0). Discussions between the patient, surgical teams and obstetricians agreed to continue her pregnancy while managing the tumour. Hemi-glossectomy and ipsilateral neck dissection was performed. Free antero-lateral thigh flap was transferred to reconstruct the tongue defect, successfully. The patient gave birth to a healthy baby afterward. She is tumour free for 6 years. Free flap reconstruction can be an option, even if the patient is pregnant.

  20. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden - Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne REATH WARREN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT which has developed in Sweden since the 1970’s offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its syllabus outside of its Nordic context. This article examines the syllabus for MTT from two perspectives; firstly using the framework of Constructive Alignment, secondly from the perspective of what is hidden. The intended syllabus is revealed as well-aligned, but the hidden curriculum impedes successful enactment in many contexts. Examples from case studies in a larger on-going research project offer an alternate approach to syllabus implementation when the negative effects of the hidden curriculum are challenged. While highly context-specific, this model may represent a step in the right direction for implementation of the syllabus.

  1. Giant Cell Fibroma of the Tongue: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Farhadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell fibroma of the tongue is a rare benign fibrous tumor of connective tissues in the oral cavity, very few of which have been reported. This benign neoplasm has a predilection for the gingiva and .usually occurs in women under 30. Since this tumor is clinically, and especially histopathologically, placed in the differential diagnosis list of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors, its proper diagnosis is of great significance because widespread and unnecessary surgeries are avoided as a result. The aim of the present report is to present a case of the tumor in the tongue of a 65-year-old man. The fibroma is a benign fibrous tumor of connective tissues which is microscopically classified in differential diagnosis with other soft tissue tumors since its proper diagnosis prevents from extensive and unnecessary surgeries on the patient.

  2. The Classification of Tongue Colors with Standardized Acquisition and ICC Profile Correction in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhen; Tu, Li-Ping; Chen, Jing-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Jia-Tuo; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Goal . The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods . Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L * a * b * of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results . The L * a * b * values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions . At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible.

  3. Relationship between dynamic infrared thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongue in anaemia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiwei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between dynamic infrared (IR) thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongues of anaemia patients was investigated. Blood perfusion rates at multiple locations on the tongues of 62 anaemia patients and 70 control subjects were measured. For both groups of subjects, dynamic IR thermal images were also recorded within 16 s after the mouth opened. The results showed that the blood perfusion rates at different sites (apex, middle, left side and right side) on the tongues in anaemia patients (3.49, 3.71, 3.85 and 3.77 kg/s m-3) were significantly lower than those at the corresponding sites in control subjects (4.45, 4.66, 4.81 and 4.70 kg/s m-3). After the mouth opened, the tongue temperature decreased more rapidly in anaemia patients than in control subjects. To analyse the heat transfer mechanism, a transient heat transfer model of the tongue was developed. The tongue temperatures in anaemia patients and control subjects were calculated using this model and compared to the tongue temperatures measured by the IR thermal imager. The relationship between the tongue surface temperature and the tongue blood perfusion rate was analysed. The simulation results indicated that the low blood perfusion rate and the correlated changes in anaemia patients can cause faster temperature decreases of the tongue surface.

  4. Overview of complications secondary to tongue and lip piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu-Robert, Léo-François; Andrian, Elisoa; Grenier, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, intraoral and perioral piercings have grown in popularity among teenagers and young adults. This is of concern to dental and medical professionals because of the risks and complications for oral, dental and general health. The risks and complications associated with tongue and lip piercings range from abnormal tooth wear and cracked tooth syndrome to gingival recession and systemic infections. In this report, we provide an overview of possible problems associated with oral piercings that may be encountered by dentists.

  5. Brachytherapy for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Fujita, Minoru; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Ito, Katsuhide

    2003-01-01

    In treatment choices of stage II (T2N0M0) tongue cancer, brachytherapy is less invasive and superior in function preservation, therefore its role is more important in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment results and morbidity of brachytherapy for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer. Between 1980 and 2001, 198 patients with stage II tongue cancer were treated with brachytherapy at Hiroshima University Hospital. Patient ages ranged from 21 to 89 years old (median: 62 years old). Patients were divided into three groups as follows: 119 patients younger than 65 years old (Non-Elderly group), 53 patients between 65 and 75 years old (Junior Elderly group), and 26 patients 75 years or older (Senior Elderly group). Radiotherapy was performed in 101 patients with brachytherapy alone, and in 97 patients with brachytherapy and external radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was also performed in 77 patients. Follow-up period ranged from 4 to 243 months (median: 55 months). The 5-year local control rate was 85% in the Non-Elderly group, 85% in the Junior Elderly group and 81% in the Senior Elderly group. There was no significant difference among these groups. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 85%, 81% and 70% respectively. The Senior Elderly group showed poorer cause-specific survival rate than the other two groups (p=0.03). There was also a tendency of higher incidence of neck metastasis and low salvage rate by neck dissection in the Senior Elderly group. Although the Senior Elderly group showed poorer cause-specific survival rate, the local control rate was similar to those of the other two groups. Brachytherapy is an effective treatment option for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer. (author)

  6. Fissured and geographic tongue in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS is a rare, most often sporadic, genetic disease caused by a chromosomal microdeletion at locus 7q11.23 involving 28 genes. It is characterized by congenital heart defects, neonatal hypercalcemia, skeletal and renal abnormalities, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder, and dysmorphic facies. A number of clinical findings has been reported, but none of the studies evaluated this syndrome considering oral cavity. We here report a fissured and geographic tongue in association with WBS.

  7. Clinical study on N0-stage tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Yasubumi; Ando, Tomohiro; Hoshino, Makoto; Sangu, Yoshikuni; Ogiuchi, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the cases of N0-stage tongue cancer patients treated at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, between January 1980 and December 2000. Primary tongue cancers were treated by surgery (52%) and radiotherapy (48%). In principle, we did not perform elective neck dissection for N0-stage necks. Instead, a policy of careful observation was adopted for the management of N0-stage necks in patients with tongue cancer, and a radical neck dissection or modified radical neck dissection was performed in the event of a secondary neck metastasis. A local recurrence was confirmed in 25 patients. Twenty of the 25 local recurrences were successfully controlled by a therapy. The incidence of secondary neck metastasis was 4/46 (8%) for T1 patients, 21/48 (45%) for T2 patients, and 9/15 (60%) for T3/T4 patients. Overall, secondary neck metastases occurred in 34 out of 109 (32%) patients, and eventually 12 patients died from uncontrolled tumors. As for the distribution of involved lymph nodes, level I to level III nodes were involved in 30 (88%) patients, and level IV nodes were involved in 4 patients. (author)

  8. Visual feedback of tongue movement for novel speech sound learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Katz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation training studies have yielded important information concerning the processing of audiovisual (AV information. Second language (L2 learners show increased reliance on bottom-up, multimodal input for speech perception (compared to monolingual individuals. However, little is known about the role of viewing one’s own speech articulation processes during speech training. The current study investigated whether real-time, visual feedback for tongue movement can improve a speaker’s learning of non-native speech sounds. An interactive 3D tongue visualization system based on electromagnetic articulography (EMA was used in a speech training experiment. Native speakers of American English produced a novel speech sound (/ɖ̠/; a voiced, coronal, palatal stop before, during, and after trials in which they viewed their own speech movements using the 3D model. Talkers’ productions were evaluated using kinematic (tongue-tip spatial positioning and acoustic (burst spectra measures. The results indicated a rapid gain in accuracy associated with visual feedback training. The findings are discussed with respect to neural models for multimodal speech processing.

  9. PEDICLE TONGUE FLAP SURGERY IN ORAL SUBMUCOUS FIBROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthubabu K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Oral submucous fibrosis is a disease of unknown aetiology and is a legacy of Indians. It has been variously treated both medically and surgically but neither has been found to be rewarding. Various groups have been studying the therapy schedules and aetiological association, but the conclusions have remained unclear. AIM The study aims to focus on newer surgical therapy stressing on the mechanics and use of pedicle tongue flap in the management of this condition. METHODS AND MATERIALS The study comprised of 40 patients from our outpatient department suffering from oral submucous fibrosis in the age group of 11 to 70 years. The contributory factors of oral submucous fibrosis and the symptoms of the disease were evaluated and the role of pedicle tongue flap surgery in the management of this disease which is a premalignant condition is discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Pedicle tongue flap surgery has given promising results in the treatment of trismus due to oral submucous fibrosis. After the surgery, none of our patients developed any malignant change.

  10. Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noèlia Carbó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the quantitative analysis of quality parameters in spring water is proposed here. The electronic voltammetric tongue consisted of a set of four noble electrodes (iridium, rhodium, platinum, and gold housed inside a stainless steel cylinder. These noble metals have a high durability and are not demanding for maintenance, features required for the development of future automated equipment. A pulse voltammetry study was conducted in 83 spring water samples to determine concentrations of nitrate (range: 6.9–115 mg/L, sulfate (32–472 mg/L, fluoride (0.08–0.26 mg/L, chloride (17–190 mg/L, and sodium (11–94 mg/L as well as pH (7.3–7.8. These parameters were also determined by routine analytical methods in spring water samples. A partial least squares (PLS analysis was run to obtain a model to predict these parameter. Orthogonal signal correction (OSC was applied in the preprocessing step. Calibration (67% and validation (33% sets were selected randomly. The electronic tongue showed good predictive power to determine the concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and sodium as well as pH and displayed a lower R2 and slope in the validation set for fluoride. Nitrate and fluoride concentrations were estimated with errors lower than 15%, whereas chloride, sulfate, and sodium concentrations as well as pH were estimated with errors below 10%.

  11. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  12. Morphological evaluation of tongue mucosa in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Andrea; Gualerzi, Alice; Lodi, Giovanni; Sforza, Chiarella; Carrassi, Antonio; Donetti, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a morphological evaluation by immunofluorescence of biomarkers of keratinocyte intercellular adhesion, and of differentiation in the tongue mucosa of burning mouth syndrome patients (BMS), compared with a control group. A prospective blinded evaluation of tongue mucosal specimens processed for light microscopy was performed. Intercellular adhesion was evaluated by investigating the expression of desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, and of occludin. Keratin 10 and keratin 14 (markers of epithelial differentiation) were also evaluated, as keratin 16 (marker for activated keratinocytes after epithelial injury). Apoptotic cascade was investigated by p53 and activated caspase-3 expression. The basal membrane integrity was analysed through laminin immunoreactivity. In both groups, a preserved three-dimensional architecture of the tongue was observed. Desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 epithelial distributions were similar in the desmosomes of patients and control subjects. Again, keratin 10 immunoreactivity and distribution pattern of keratin 14 in the epithelial compartment was similar in both groups. In control samples, keratin 16 immunoreactivity was scant throughout the epithelium with a punctuate and scattered cytoplasmic labelling. In contrast, in all BMS patients keratinocyte cytoplasm was homogeneously labelled for keratin 16, with a more intense staining than controls. Furthermore, keratin 16 staining progressively decreased proceeding towards the most superficial epithelial layers. The results of this study are consistent with and support the clinically normal features of oral mucosa in BMS, and suggest that keratin 16 may be involved in the cell mechanisms underlying the syndrome occurrence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation of sensory bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates: Comparison of prediction models built using sensory, chromatographic and electronic tongue data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J; Egan, T; Harbourne, N; O'Riordan, D; Jacquier, J C; O'Sullivan, M

    2014-08-01

    Sensory evaluation can be problematic for ingredients with a bitter taste during research and development phase of new food products. In this study, 19 dairy protein hydrolysates (DPH) were analysed by an electronic tongue and their physicochemical characteristics, the data obtained from these methods were correlated with their bitterness intensity as scored by a trained sensory panel and each model was also assessed by its predictive capabilities. The physiochemical characteristics of the DPHs investigated were degree of hydrolysis (DH%), and data relating to peptide size and relative hydrophobicity from size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reverse phase (RP) HPLC. Partial least square regression (PLS) was used to construct the prediction models. All PLS regressions had good correlations (0.78 to 0.93) with the strongest being the combination of data obtained from SEC and RP HPLC. However, the PLS with the strongest predictive power was based on the e-tongue which had the PLS regression with the lowest root mean predicted residual error sum of squares (PRESS) in the study. The results show that the PLS models constructed with the e-tongue and the combination of SEC and RP-HPLC has potential to be used for prediction of bitterness and thus reducing the reliance on sensory analysis in DPHs for future food research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventing gastric sieving by blending a solid/water meal enhances satiation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Luca; Hall, Nicholas; Pritchard, Susan E; Cox, Eleanor F; Totman, John J; Lad, Mita; Hoad, Caroline L; Foster, Tim J; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2012-07-01

    Separation of solids and liquids within the stomach allows faster gastric emptying of liquids compared with solids, a phenomenon known as sieving. We tested the hypothesis that blending a solid and water meal would abolish sieving, preventing the early rapid decrease in gastric volume and thereby enhancing satiety. We carried out 2 separate studies. Study 1 was a 2-way, crossover, satiety study of 22 healthy volunteers who consumed roasted chicken and vegetables with a glass of water (1008 kJ) or the same blended to a soup. They completed satiety visual analogue scales at intervals for 3 h. Study 2 was a 2-way, crossover, mechanistic study of 18 volunteers who consumed the same meals and underwent an MRI to assess gastric emptying, gallbladder contraction, and small bowel water content (SBWC) at intervals for 3 h. In Study 1, the soup meal was associated with reduced hunger (P = 0.02). In Study 2, the volume of the gastric contents after the soup meal decreased more slowly than after the solid/liquid meal (P = 0.0003). The soup meal caused greater gallbladder contraction (P < 0.04). SBWC showed a biphasic response with an initial "gastric" phase during which SBWC was greater when the solid/liquid meal was consumed (P < 0.001) and a later "small bowel" phase when SBWC was greater when the soup meal was consumed (P < 0.01). Blending the solid/liquid meal to a soup delayed gastric emptying and increased the hormonal response to feeding, which may contribute to enhanced postprandial satiety.

  15. Daylong Effect of Tooth Brushing or Combination Tooth Brushing and Tongue Cleaning Using Antiplaque®Toothpaste on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriasti Indah Wardhany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplaque® toothpaste active copound and the effect of tooth brushing or combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning on Volatile Sulphur Compounds (VSC levels. Methods: Clinical experimental double blinded microbiological and clinical examination. Subjects mainly from dental faculty student with or without a chief complain of halitosis. One hundred and twenty subjects were divided into four groups that consist of thirty samples each group. Two group are treatment subjects were divided into four groups that consist thirty samples each group. Two groups are treatment groups using Antiplaque® toothpaste and two groups are control groups using placebo toothpaste. The daylong effects of VSC levels are measured by Halimeter and organoleptic. The intraoral status were measured including periodontal status and tongue index. Result: There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment and control group, but the reduction only significant in group using Antiplaque® toothpaste (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05. There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste, but the combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning reduced VSC levels significantly lower than tooth brushing treatment (Mann Whitney U test, P,0.05. Conclusion: Tooth brushing and tongue cleaning using Antiplaque® toothpaste significantly reduced VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.95

  16. Clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and early cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najeeb, T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and to calculate survival rates (SR) with disease free survival rates (DFSR) and recurrence rates (RR) in different treatment modalities and to compare the results of surgery alone and radiotherapy alone in stage I and stage II disease and to calculate better option of treatment in early tongue cancers. Design: A longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad (PIMS) from January 1987 to June 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 67 patients were collected from departmental record. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender of patient, location of tumor, presenting symptoms and their duration, biopsy report, predominant histological pattern of tumor, nodal status, stage of tumor, treatment modality employed, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival rates with disease-free survival rates after 2 years' follow-up. Results: Among 67 patients there were 31 males and 36 females. Mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Sixty seven patients with primary cancer of tongue constituted 38.8% of oral cavity cancers during period of 1987 - 1998 in PIMS. Smoking, poor oro dental hygiene (POOH) and betel nuts chewing were the main risk factors. Odynophagia and painful ulcers on lateral border of tongue were the main clinical symptoms with average duration of 7 months. Regional lymph nodes were palpable in 32.8%, 5.5% was in stage I, 35.8% in stage II, 29.8% in stage III, and 28.3% was in stage IV. No patient was found to have distant metastasis. Histopathology in 94% of cases was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recurrence and survival rates were determined in 49 patients. Average time of recurrence was 12.5 months. Recurrence was 100% loco regional (LR). It was 85.7% in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, 42.1% in patients treated with surgery alone and 31.2% in patients

  17. Circadian Clocks for All Meal-Times: Anticipation of 2 Daily Meals in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Kent, Brianne A.; Chan, Sofina; Patton, Danica F.; Weinberg, Alexander; Parfyonov, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Anticipation of a daily meal in rats has been conceptualized as a rest-activity rhythm driven by a food-entrained circadian oscillator separate from the pacemaker generating light-dark (LD) entrained rhythms. Rats can also anticipate two daily mealtimes, but whether this involves independently entrained oscillators, one ‘continuously consulted’ clock, cue-dependent non-circadian interval timing or a combination of processes, is unclear. Rats received two daily meals, beginning 3-h (meal 1) and 13-h (meal 2) after lights-on (LD 14∶10). Anticipatory wheel running began 68±8 min prior to meal 1 and 101±9 min prior to meal 2 but neither the duration nor the variability of anticipation bout lengths exhibited the scalar property, a hallmark of interval timing. Meal omission tests in LD and constant dark (DD) did not alter the timing of either bout of anticipation, and anticipation of meal 2 was not altered by a 3-h advance of meal 1. Food anticipatory running in this 2-meal protocol thus does not exhibit properties of interval timing despite the availability of external time cues in LD. Across all days, the two bouts of anticipation were uncorrelated, a result more consistent with two independently entrained oscillators than a single consulted clock. Similar results were obtained for meals scheduled 3-h and 10-h after lights-on, and for a food-bin measure of anticipation. Most rats that showed weak or no anticipation to one or both meals exhibited elevated activity at mealtime during 1 or 2 day food deprivation tests in DD, suggesting covert operation of circadian timing in the absence of anticipatory behavior. A control experiment confirmed that daytime feeding did not shift LD-entrained rhythms, ruling out displaced nocturnal activity as an explanation for daytime activity. The results favor a multiple oscillator basis for 2-meal anticipatory rhythms and provide no evidence for involvement of cue-dependent interval timing. PMID:22355393

  18. Reliability and validity of a tool to measure the severity of tongue thrust in children: the Tongue Thrust Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, S; Demir, N; Karaduman, A A

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a scale called Tongue Thrust Rating Scale (TTRS), which categorised tongue thrust in children in terms of its severity during swallowing, and to investigate its validity and reliability. The study describes the developmental phase of the TTRS and presented its content and criterion-based validity and interobserver and intra-observer reliability. For content validation, seven experts assessed the steps in the scale over two Delphi rounds. Two physical therapists evaluated videos of 50 children with cerebral palsy (mean age, 57·9 ± 16·8 months), using the TTRS to test criterion-based validity, interobserver and intra-observer reliability. The Karaduman Chewing Performance Scale (KCPS) and Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS) were used for criterion-based validity. All the TTRS steps were deemed necessary. The content validity index was 0·857. A very strong positive correlation was found between two examinations by one physical therapist, which indicated intra-observer reliability (r = 0·938, P reliability (r = 0·892, P validity of the TTRS. The TTRS is a valid, reliable and clinically easy-to-use functional instrument to document the severity of tongue thrust in children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...... is considered to be an effective strategy to promote such changes and increasingly such strategies become embedded organic supply polices and strategies that pursue environmental goals. The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look into the current status of the organic school meal programme in Denmark....... Three municipalities which are involved in the organic school meal programme are chosen as the study subjects....

  20. A Low-Power Wearable Stand-Alone Tongue Drive System for People With Severe Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Ali; Buswell, Nathanael; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a low-power stand-alone tongue drive system (sTDS) used for individuals with severe disabilities to potentially control their environment such as computer, smartphone, and wheelchair using their voluntary tongue movements. A low-power local processor is proposed, which can perform signal processing to convert raw magnetic sensor signals to user-defined commands, on the sTDS wearable headset, rather than sending all raw data out to a PC or smartphone. The proposed sTDS significantly reduces the transmitter power consumption and subsequently increases the battery life. Assuming the sTDS user issues one command every 20 ms, the proposed local processor reduces the data volume that needs to be wirelessly transmitted by a factor of 64, from 9.6 to 0.15 kb/s. The proposed processor consists of three main blocks: serial peripheral interface bus for receiving raw data from magnetic sensors, external magnetic interference attenuation to attenuate external magnetic field from the raw magnetic signal, and a machine learning classifier for command detection. A proof-of-concept prototype sTDS has been implemented with a low-power IGLOO-nano field programmable gate array (FPGA), bluetooth low energy, battery and magnetic sensors on a headset, and tested. At clock frequency of 20 MHz, the processor takes 6.6 s and consumes 27 nJ for detecting a command with a detection accuracy of 96.9%. To further reduce power consumption, an application-specified integrated circuit processor for the sTDS is implemented at the postlayout level in 65-nm CMOS technology with 1-V power supply, and it consumes 0.43 mW, which is 10 lower than FPGA power consumption and occupies an area of only 0.016 mm.

  1. Use of low-dose irradiation to enhance the safety and quality of chilled ready meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, E M [Department of Food Science, Queen' s University Belfast (QUB) (United Kingdom); Patterson, M F [Food Science Division, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD), Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    The market for 'cook-chill' ready meals has expanded significantly during the past ten years. This specific category of food has been defined as a catering system based on the full cooking of food followed by fast chilling and storage in controlled temperature conditions (0-3 deg. C) and subsequent thorough re-heating before consumption. Such meals cover a wide range of commodities including meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, pasta and desserts and are used at home by consumers and by the catering industry for use, for example, as hospital meals or meals-on-wheels. These products have a relatively short shelf-life with a recommended maximum shelf-life of 5 days at 0-3 deg. C including the day of cooking. In addition, there are other concerns with regard to microbiological quality, reduced sensory quality and decreased nutritive value. It has been suggested that low-dose irradiation could be used to extend the shelf-life of these products while at the same time reducing the risk of food poisoning. Research carried out at QUB and DARD has readily demonstrated that the safety and shelf-life of chilled ready meals consisting of meat (chicken, beef or pork) and certain vegetables (e.g. broccoli, carrots and roast potatoes) can be enhanced by irradiation doses of 2 or 3 kGy without having a detrimental effect on sensory or nutritional quality. To date, investigations have been limited to such traditional meals with no research being carried out on the more popular ready meals such as lasagna, cottage pies, curries, etc. which have a relatively short shelf-life upon purchase. It is therefore the objective of this work program to investigate the effect of low-dose irradiation (1-5 kGy) on the microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality of these meals and to determine if their overall quality can be enhanced.

  2. The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube

    OpenAIRE

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instea...

  3. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of tongue atrophy on midsagittal magnetic resonance images (MRIs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Akio; Oishi, Tomonari; Murai, Yoshiyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Masato

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken mainly to establish the quantitative parameter to evaluate the tongue atrophy on midsagittal MRIs and to show the clinical usefulness of such quantitative evaluation. Midsagittal MRIs of the tongue of consecutive 103 patients were analyzed. They were classified into 67 patients showing normal size (group without atrophy), 11 patients showing atrophy (group with atrophy) and 25 patients showing unsatifactory MRIs with artifacts based on the routine evaluation. The patients in the group without atrophy did not show any pathologic processes to produce tongue atrophy on clinical findings. The area and perimeter of tongue and oral cavity, and the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area and the ratio of tongue perimeter to oral cavity perimeter on midsagittal MRIs were obtained in each patient of groups with and without atrophy by using quantitative image analysis system. In the group without atrophy, regression analysis of the data on age was made and the 95% confidence interval of the data for age was obtained. No evidence that the tongue becomes atrophic with aging was obtained in the group without atrophy. Patients in the group with atrophy were best separated from those in the group without atrophy statistically when the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area was regressed on age. Among 11 patients in the group with atrophy, 6 patients were not regarded as having tongue atrophy on clinical neurological examinations. Therefore, the evaluation of midsagittal MRIs is clinically useful. (author)

  5. Research on the Method of Big Data Collecting, Storing and Analyzing of Tongue Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wu, Qingfeng

    2018-03-01

    This paper analyzes the contents of the clinical data of tongue diagnosis of TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine), and puts forward a method to collect, store and analyze the clinical data of tongue diagnosis. Under the guidance of TCM theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment, this method combines with Hadoop, which is a distributed computing system with strong expansibility, and integrates the functions of analysis and conversion of big data of clinic tongue diagnosis. At the same time, the consistency, scalability and security of big data in tongue diagnosis are realized.

  6. Morphology of the tongue of Vermilingua (Xenarthra: Pilosa) and evolutionary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Daniel M; Martins-Santos, Elisângela; Santos, André L Q; Miranda, Flávia R; Mahecha, Germán A B; Perini, Fernando A

    2017-10-01

    The tongue of anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Vermilingua) is a highly specialized for myrmecophagy. Here, we describe the topography and histology of the tongue, and compare it to that of other xenarthrans and other myrmecophagous eutherian mammals. The tongue of Vermilingua is long and slender, with an apical protuberance, which differs between Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopes didactylus. In the former, the rostral region is conical, and in the latter, it is dorsoventrally compressed, as observed in sloths. The tongue of Vermilingua has filiform and circumvallate papillae on the surface; foliate and fungiform papillae are absent. The filiform papillae of Myrmecophaga tridactyla are simple all over the tongue, differing from Tamandua tetradactyla and Cyclopes didactylus, which present composed filiform papillae in the rostral and middle regions. Histologically, the tongue has a peculiar organization of muscular and neurovascular tissues, differing from the usual mammalian pattern. However, the tongue structure is less divergent in Cyclopes. The presence of two circumvallate papillae is common to the three major clades of Xenarthra (Cingulata, Folivora and Vermilingua). In each group, the tongue may reflect functional features related to myrmecophagous (anteaters and some armadillos), omnivorous (remaining armadillos) and folivorous (sloths) feeding habits. The similarities between the tongues of Vermiligua and other non-xenarthran eutherian myrmecophagous mammals are somewhat general and, under close inspection, superficial, being an example of different lineages achieving the same morphofunctional adaptations through distinct evolutionary pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Yeates

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Yeates1, Sonja M Molfenter1, Catriona M Steele1,2,3,41Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Canada; 2Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 3Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator in Aging; 4Bloorview Kids Rehab, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, often occurs secondary to conditions such as stroke, head injury or progressive disease, many of which increase in frequency with advancing age. Sarcopenia, the gradual loss of muscle bulk and strength, can place older individuals at greater risk for dysphagia. Data are reported for three older participants in a pilot trial of a tongue-pressure training therapy. During the experimental therapy protocol, participants performed isometric strength exercises for the tongue as well as tongue pressure accuracy tasks. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI, an instrument that measures tongue pressure. Treatment outcome measures show increased isometric tongue strength, improved tongue pressure generation accuracy, improved bolus control on videofluoroscopy, and improved functional dietary intake by mouth. These preliminary results indicate that, for these three adults with dysphagia, tongue-pressure training was beneficial for improving both instrumental and functional aspects of swallowing. The experimental treatment protocol holds promise as a rehabilitative tool for various dysphagia populations.Keywords: speech-language pathology, dysphagia, rehabilitation, aging, strength, accuracy

  8. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Pre-Meal Effect of Whey Proteins on Metabolic Parameters in Subjects with and without Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Bjørnshave

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic dyslipidemia with elevated postprandial triglyceride (TG responses is characteristic in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Diet and meal timing can modify postprandial lipemia (PPL. The impact of a pre-meal of whey proteins (WP on lipid metabolism is unidentified. We determined whether a WP pre-meal prior to a fat-rich meal influences TG and apolipoprotein B-48 (ApoB-48 responses differentially in patients with and without T2D. Two matched groups of 12 subjects with and without T2D accomplished an acute, randomized, cross-over trial. A pre-meal of WP (20 g or water (control was consumed 15 min before a fat-rich meal (supplemented with 20 g WP in case of water pre-meal. Postprandial responses were examined during a 360-min period. A WP pre-meal significantly increased postprandial concentrations of insulin (P < 0.0001, glucagon (P < 0.0001 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP (P < 0.0001 in subjects with and without T2D. We detected no effects of the WP pre-meal on TG, ApoB-48, or non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA responses to the fat-rich meal in either group. Paracetamol absorption i.e. gastric emptying was delayed by the WP pre-meal (P = 0.039. In conclusion, the WP pre-meal induced similar hormone and lipid responses in subjects with and without T2D. Thus, the WP pre-meal enhanced insulin, glucagon and GIP responses but did not influence lipid or glucose responses. In addition, we demonstrated that a WP pre-meal reduced gastric emptying in both groups.

  10. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  11. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  12. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  13. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  14. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Lupin Seed-based Meal in Chicken Diet on Performance, Carcass Value and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-01-01

    soybean meal with lupin seed. Higher inclusion rate of lupin meal in diets may reduce the growth intensity of chickens, particularly the yield of breast muscles. Due to substantial inter-varietal differences, it is necessary to optimize individual nutrients, particularly amino acids when formulating lupin-containing diets.

  15. Time, dose and volume factors in interstitial brachytherapy combined with external irradiation for oral tongue carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorozu, Atsunori

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 136 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of stages I and II of the oral tongue who were treated with interstitial brachytherapy alone or in combination with external irradiation between 1976 and 1991. Control of the primary lesion and the occurrence of late complications were analyzed with respect to dose, time and tumor size with the Cox hazard model. The 5-year survival rates for stages I and II were 84.5% and 75.6%. The 5-year primary control rate was 91.3% for stage I and 77.3% for stage II (p 50 Gy compared with a brachytherapy dose 30 mm. Late complications should be reduced by using a spacer, improvements in dental and oral hygiene, and a sophisticated implant method. (author)

  16. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  17. Suitability of E-tongue Sensors to Assess Taste-Masking of Pediatric Liquids by Different Beverages Considering Their Physico-chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immohr, Laura Isabell; Hedfeld, Claas; Lang, Artur; Pein-Hackelbusch, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Manipulation of liquid oral drugs by mixing them into foodstuff is a common procedure for taste-masking of OTC pharmaceuticals when administered to children. However, the taste-masking capability of such application media is not systematically evaluated, and recommendations for suitable media are hardly published. In this study, a sensor array of commercially available and self-developed electronic tongue sensors was employed to assess the taste-masking efficiency of eight different beverages (tap water, apple juice, carrot juice, fennel tea, fruit tea, milk, cocoa, and Alete meal to drink) on the OTC pharmaceuticals Ambroxol-ratiopharm®, Cetirizin AL, and Laxoberal® by multivariate data analysis. The Euclidean distances between each pure application medium and its corresponding drug mixture were used as an indicator for the taste-masking efficiency and correlated to the physico-chemical properties of the beverages. Thus, the pH value, the viscosity, as well as the fat and sugar content of the beverages were included, whereas only the viscosity appeared to be insignificant in all cases. The sugar content as well as the fat content and pH value emerged to be a significant variable in taste-masking efficiency for some of the tested drug products. It was shown that the applied electronic tongue sensors were capable to demonstrate the impact of the physico-chemical properties of the application media on their taste-masking capacity regardless of their non-selectivity towards these characteristics.

  18. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  19. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  20. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-06-03

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (-47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  1. Pre-Meal Effect of Whey Proteins on Metabolic Parameters in Subjects with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnshave, Ann; Holst, Jens Juul; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia with elevated postprandial triglyceride (TG) responses is characteristic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diet and meal timing can modify postprandial lipemia (PPL). The impact of a pre-meal of whey proteins (WP) on lipid metabolism is unidentified. We determined whether a WP pre......-meal prior to a fat-rich meal influences TG and apolipoprotein B-48 (ApoB-48) responses differentially in patients with and without T2D. Two matched groups of 12 subjects with and without T2D accomplished an acute, randomized, cross-over trial. A pre-meal of WP (20 g) or water (control) was consumed 15 min......-meal induced similar hormone and lipid responses in subjects with and without T2D. Thus, the WP pre-meal enhanced insulin, glucagon and GIP responses but did not influence lipid or glucose responses. In addition, we demonstrated that a WP pre-meal reduced gastric emptying in both groups....

  2. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Östman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol, or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol. A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (−47%, p = 0.0000 but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019, compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  3. Intelligent Agent for Acquisition of the Mother Tongue Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor Moldovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the following: firstly, the basic ideas of a system that simulate how we consider that a child acquires the mother tongue vocabulary and makes the correspondences between objects, words and senses; secondly: the mechanism for a system that can learn the mother tongue vocabulary using observations and, thirdly, how to make an intelligent agent that can behave like a little child, in the process of mother tongue acquisition.

  4. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dezio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov of studies about lingual frenum written in English between January 1980 and May 2014. The keywords inserted were “lingual frenum”, “frenectomy”, “laser therapy”. We have analyzed: case series, case reports, clinical studies, and also literature reviews in which embryology, physiology, diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia were described. We excluded laboratory studies, studies based on animal tests and studies about patients with particular syndromes in which we can also find tongue-tie. The selection criteria allowed us to select 42 articles. The treatment options for the releasing of the frenum are surgically represented by frenotomy (i.e. simple horizontal cut of this training and frenectomy (i.e. removal. In both cases, the intervention on the short lingual frenum is simple, short-lasting, and without particular complications. Furthermore, this kind of treatment can be carried out with different devices: with the typical cold blade scalpel or by the use of laser, a new method that shows more advantages over the prior art. Laser-assisted therapy permits to intervene on newborns (from 0 to 20 days, when there are breastfeeding problems without total anesthesia and suture. The Er:YAG, CO2 laser (according to literature data and Diode laser (according to our experience are advantageous, safe and effective in tongue-tie treatment.

  5. Reproductive performance of rats treated with defatted jojoba meal or simmondsin before or during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Daenens, P; Decuypere, E; Flo, G; Kühn, E; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S

    1998-01-01

    The effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance parameters of defatted jojoba meal and pure simmondsin, an extract from jojoba meal, were compared in female Wistar rats. Rats fed 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal (equivalent to 0.15% simmondsin) for 8 weeks before conception showed a similar reduction in food intake (about 20%) and a similar growth retardation compared with controls. Both treatments induced a reduction in the number of corpora lutea on gestation day 16: this effect could be ascribed to the lower food intake before conception because it was also observed in rats pair-fed to the treated ones. Rats given feed containing 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal during days 1-16 of gestation showed a similar reduction in food intake relative to controls. Foetal and placental weights were reduced, relative to controls, to a similar extent in both groups, and the reductions were slightly greater than in the corresponding pair-fed groups. We conclude that the effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance that were seen after feeding rats defatted jojoba meal were due to the simmondsin content of the meal. The simmondsin induced reduction in food intake and probably also a relative protein shortage.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Missing Meals Among High School Students-United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.

  7. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  8. Psychoanalytic peregrinations. III: Confusion of tongues, psychoanalyst as translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2002-01-01

    A variety of problems cause a confusion of tongues between the psychoanalyst and the patient. In this sense the psychoanalyst faces the same problems as the translator of a text from one language to another. Examples are given of confusion due cultural differences, confusion due translation differences among translators, confusion due translator prejudice or ignorance, confusion due ambiguous visual cues and images, and confusion due to an inherently ambiguous text. It is due to this unavoidable confusion that the humanistic sciences cannot in principle achieve the mathematical exactness of the natural sciences and should not be expected to do so or condemned because they do not.

  9. The politics of mother tongue education: The case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssentanda, Medadi Erisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the trend of mother tongue (MT education in Uganda by examining particularly government’s practices towards MT education. MT education was (reintroduced in Uganda in 2006/2007 due to disappointing literacy acquisition by learners with the hope of improving literacy skills among particularly rural children. Based on data gathered from rural government and private schools in rural areas, this paper questions what exactly it is that government seeks to reclaim, restore and/or rejuvenate in Uganda’s education system via MT education.

  10. Ulcerated Lesion of the Tongue as Manifestation of Systemic Coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Mendez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic mycoses and their oral manifestations are very rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old man with an ulcerated lesion on the lateral border of the tongue. Histologic studies revealed a granulomatous fungal infection by Coccidioides immitis. After pharmacological treatment, the lesion resolved. Recently, northern Mexico has been reported to be an endemic zone of C. immitis infections; therefore it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mouth lesions. A comprehensive clinical history, physical exploration, and complementary studies are essential for an accurate diagnosis.

  11. Ulcerated Lesion of the Tongue as Manifestation of Systemic Coccidioidomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Sergio A.; Martinez, Ricardo; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2017-01-01

    Systemic mycoses and their oral manifestations are very rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old man with an ulcerated lesion on the lateral border of the tongue. Histologic studies revealed a granulomatous fungal infection by Coccidioides immitis. After pharmacological treatment, the lesion resolved. Recently, northern Mexico has been reported to be an endemic zone of C. immitis infections; therefore it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mouth lesions. A comprehensive clinical history, physical exploration, and complementary studies are essential for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:28386282

  12. Anesthetic management of schwannoma of the base of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma B Batra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma arising from the base of the tongue are very rare and only a few cases have been reported so far. Definitive diagnosis is always made after a histological examination. Apart from an anticipated difficult airway with a risk of airway obstruction upon induction of general anesthesia, anesthetic concerns also include possibility of trauma to the growth and bleeding with attendant risks. We discuss the awake fiberoptic technique used for endotracheal intubation in such a case. This case report highlights the importance of detailed history taking and clinical examination, with emphasis on airway assessment and preoperative planning.

  13. Use of a standard meal to study iron absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.B.; Cook, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Iron absorption varies widely between subjects and groups of subjects because of differences in iron status which markedly influence iron assimilation from the gastrointestinal tract. A small dose of isotopically labelled inorganic iron termed the reference dose (3 mg iron as FeSO 4 ) has been used extensively during the past two decades to standardize food iron absorption in human subjects and thereby eliminate the effect of differences in iron status. Recent studies from this laboratory have shown that because of the high variability of absorption from the reference dose, nonheme iron absorption from a standardized meal provides a more reliable means of standardizing absorption from regional diets. We therefore performed initial studies with a rice based meal but we found a relatively high variation in absorption from 2.0 to 4.7% that presumably reflects differences in the phytate content of rice fours. We then undertook the evaluation of meals prepared with farina, a wheat product that is available in most regions of the world. In six different studies from a farina based meal, iron absorption ranged from 3.4 to 6.5%. Nonheme iron absorption from the farina meal when evaluated in separate laboratories extensively engaged in human studies of iron absorption, ranged from 5.1 to 10.8% but when related to the FeSO 4 dose, a more consistent ratio between 0.21 to 0.26 was observed with the exception of one laboratory where a very low absorption of 1.1.% was observed. Percentage absorption from the farina based meal decreased when the iron content of the meal was increased and showed the expected facilitation of absorption when increasing amounts of ascorbic acid were added. By reducing variability and measuring iron absorption from food rather than inorganic iron, we believe that the use of this standard meal will facilitate comparison of iron absorption data obtained in laboratories throughout the world. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  14. The Protective Role of Family Meals for Youth Obesity: 10-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Hsueh, Tsun-Fang; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. Study design Data from Project EAT-III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999) adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n=2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19-31 (mean age=25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10-years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. Results All levels of baseline family meal frequency (i.e., 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/week) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity ten years later in young adulthood as compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black versus white young adults. Conclusions Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least one to two family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. PMID:25266343

  15. Parameters of Alumina Cement and Portland Cement with Addition of Chalcedonite Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwa, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Aluminous cement is a quick binder with special properties. It is used primarily to make non-standard monolithic components exposed to high temperatures, + 1300°C. It is also a component of adhesives and mortars. It has a very short setting time. It is characterized by rapid increase in mechanical strength and resistance to aggressive sulphates. It can be used in reinforced concrete structures. Laying of concrete, construction mortar made of alumina cement can be carried out even at temperatures of -10°C. This article discusses a comparison of the parameters of hardened mortar made of alumina cement GÓRKAL 40 and Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. The mortars contain an addition of chalcedonite meal with pozzolanic properties, with particle size of less than 0.063μm. The meal was added in amounts of 5% and 20% of cement weight. Chalcedonite meal used in the laboratory research is waste material, resulting from chalcedonite aggregate mining. It has the same properties as the rock from which it originates. We have compared the parameters of hardened mortar i.e. compressive strength, water absorption and capillarity. The addition of 20% chalcedonite meal to mortars made from aluminous cement will decrease durability by 6.1% relative to aluminous cement mortar without addition of meal. Considering the results obtained during the absorbency tests, it can be stated that the addition of chalcedonite meal reduces weight gains in mortars made with cement CEM I 42.5 R and alumina cement. Use of alumina cement without addition of meal in mortars causes an increase of mass by 248% compared to Portland cement mortars without additions, in the absorption tests. The addition of chalcedonite meal did not cause increased weight gain in the capillary action tests. For the alumina cement mortars, a lesser weight gains of 24.7% was reported, compared to the Portland cement mortar after 28 days of maturing.

  16. Effect of a test meal on meal responses of satiation hormones and their association to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Svetlana; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Graf, Steffi; Zumsteg, Urs; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The role of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones in the pathophysiology of obesity is unclear, although they are involved in the regulation of satiation and glucose metabolism. To (i) examine glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, ghrelin, and glucagon responses to a meal in obese adolescents and to (ii) test which GI peptides are associated with insulin resistance are presented. A total of 16 obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 97th percentile for age and gender) and 14 control (BMI between 25th and 75th percentiles) adolescents were included. Subjects were instructed to eat a test meal (490 kcal). Plasma samples were collected for hormone and glucose analysis. Obese adolescents were insulin resistant as expressed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and had significantly increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels compared to the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.044, respectively). In response to the meal, the increase in GLP-1 levels was reduced in obese adolescents (P < 0.001). In contrast, amylin secretion was significantly increased in the obese population compared to the control group (P < 0.005). Obese adolescents have increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels and attenuated post-prandial GLP-1 concentrations compared with the control group. These factors could contribute to the metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  17. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-12-01

    Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite. This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models. Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25-134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1-97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 to 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally. The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Yue, Hongyuan; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly used in hens’ diets to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, the molecular consequences of this substitution remains unclear. To investigate the impact of this substitution at the molecular level, iTRAQ combined with biochemical analysis was performed in Hy-Line W-36 hens supplemented with a mixed diet of CSM and SBM. Egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly reduced in the CSM100 group (100% crude protein of SBM replaced by CSM) compared with the SBM group (Phen diet. PMID:28813468

  20. Does better for the environment mean less tasty? Offering more climate-friendly meals is good for the environment and customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Food consumption comprises a significant portion of the total environmental impact of households. One way to reduce this impact may be to offer consumers more climate-friendly meal choices, such as when eating out. However, the environmental benefits of such an intervention will depend on not only consumers' liking of the climate-friendlier meals, but also on the perceived environmental impact. We therefore investigated the relationship between the global warming potential (GWP) of and consumers' liking of meals in two field studies in the same restaurant. Visitors to the restaurant were asked to rate the taste of the meal they had just consumed. These taste ratings were then related to the meals' GWP and number of purchases. In the second study, an intervention was tested consisting of a climate-friendly choice label and information posters. Contrary to expectations, it was found in both studies that the GWP of the meals was unrelated to the taste or the number of purchases. Offering more climate-friendly meals did not change consumer satisfaction. As expected, the introduction of the climate-friendly choice label increased the number of climate-friendly meal purchases. Therefore, offering more climate-friendly meals with a climate-friendly choice label can affect consumers' meal choices, but not their preferences or satisfaction, which is beneficial for the climate, consumers and gastronomic establishments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of replacing fish meal with maggot meal on growth nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) 4-week old finisher broilers of Ross breed were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal replacing fish meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and organ characteristics. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 24 birds in ...

  2. Teachers' interaction with children in the school meal situation: the example of pedagogic meals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Göranzon, Helen; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    School meals are also a teaching occasion in which children learn about food and meals, which is referred to as "pedagogic meals" in Sweden. The aim of the present article was to study how the pedagogic meal is practiced in preschool and school settings, with focus on how teachers acted when interacting with the children. Observations, interviews, and focus group interviews. School canteens. Three schools. Teaching in the school meal situation. Social constructionism, new social studies of childhood. The teachers took on 3 different roles. The sociable teacher role entailed turning the school lunch into a social occasion, the educating teacher role involved educating the children, and the evasive teacher role was not associated with the definition of a pedagogic meal. The teacher roles, which ranged from adult-oriented to child-oriented, and which varied in the level of interaction with the children, were summarized in a framework named the Adult- to Child-oriented Teacher Role Framework for School Meals (ACTS). To realize the potential of pedagogic meals, teachers must be educated and become aware of the effects of their behaviors. In this situation, the ACTS framework can constitute a useful tool. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home: cross-sectional analysis of the UK national diet and nutrition survey, waves 1-4 (2008-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Brown, Tamara; Lake, Amelia A; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Adamson, Ashley J

    2015-04-16

    Food prepared out-of-home tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home, with a positive association between frequency of consumption and both fat intake and body fatness. There is little current data on who eats out-of-home food. We explored frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home, using data from a large, UK, population representative study. Data were from waves 1-4 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12). Socio-demographic variables of interest were gender, age group, and socio-economic position. Self-reported frequency of consuming meals out and take-away meals at home was categorised as: less than once per week and once per week or more. Analyses were performed separately for adults (aged 18 years or older) and children. Data from 2001 adults and 1963 children were included. More than one quarter (27.1%) of adults and one fifth (19.0%) of children ate meals out once per week or more. One fifth of adults (21.1%) and children (21.0%) ate take-away meals at home once per week or more. There were no gender differences in consumption of meals out, but more boys than girls ate take-away meals at home at least weekly. The proportion of participants eating both meals out and take-away meals at home at least weekly peaked in young adults aged 19-29 years. Adults living in more affluent households were more likely to eat meals out at least once per week, but children living in less affluent households were more likely to eat take-away meals at home at least once per week. There was no relationship between socio-economic position and consumption of take-away meals at home in adults. One-fifth to one-quarter of individuals eat meals prepared out-of-home weekly. Interventions seeking to improve dietary intake by reducing consumption of out-of-home food may be more effective if tailored to and targeted at adults aged less than 30 years. It may also be important to develop interventions to help

  4. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p effect of treatment on prepizza meal BG AUC (p = 0.07). Immediately after the pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  6. Marital Patterns and Use of Mother Tongue at Home among Native-Born Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap

    2010-01-01

    This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…

  7. Giant neurofibrolipoma of the tip of the tongue: Case report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurofibrolipoma is a very rare benign oral tumor with other synonyms such as neural fibrolipoma, perineural lipoma and intraneural lipoma. A 50 years old female presented with a massive swelling of the tongue of 6 years duration. The tumor was attached to the mucosa of the tip of the tongue, disturbing mastication and ...

  8. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of the anterior tongue. Report of two cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, de JG; Kibbelaar, RE; Waal, van der I.

    2003-01-01

    The ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECT) of the tongue is a recently proposed entity that presents clinically as a slow-growing, painless, firm, submucosal nodule of the anterior dorsum of the tongue. The lesion is histologically characterized by a well-circumscribed lobular proliferation of

  9. The tongue microbiome in healthy subjects and patients with intraoral halitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seerangaiyan, Kavitha; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Winkel, Edwin G.

    2017-01-01

    Intra-oral halitosis (IOH) is an unpleasant odor emanating from the oral cavity. It is thought that the microbiota of the dorsal tongue coating plays a crucial role in this condition. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of the tongue microbiome in subjects with and without IOH. A

  10. Reinvigorating Ethnic Cultural Identity Through Mother-Tongue-Teaching Materials in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-chiao

    1996-01-01

    Explores to what extent a mother-tongue educational program can reinvigorate Taiwan's ethnic cultural identity. Content of mother-tongue materials used in Taipei county for Taiwanese, Hakka, and Ataylic students is analyzed, and interviews with members from each ethnic group are also conducted as a supplement. (JL)

  11. Severe tongue laceration with massive hemorrhage in a 35-year-old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs G.T. presented as an unbooked grandmultipara, in eclamptic fits and severe tongue laceration complicated by intrauterine foetal death, anaemia, acute renal failure and cerebrovascular injury. A female fresh stillbirth was delivered following induction of labor at 28 weeks gestation. Tongue was observed to be ...

  12. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  13. Fighting A Losing Battle: Assessing The Impact Of Mother-Tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although UNESCO (1953) and a number of other educational organizations have persistently advocated for mother-tongue education, such advocacy has made little impact in most countries. This paper takes stock of some of the issues and arguments involved. It then shows how mother-tongue education remains an ...

  14. Effect of chemical compounds on electronic tongue response to citrus juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electronic tongue system mimics the process of taste detection by human taste buds and recognition by the brain, hence helping in prediction of taste. With this unique capability, the electronic tongue has been used for taste detection of a wide range of food products. As a preliminary step in p...

  15. Arnol'd tongues for a resonant injection-locked frequency divider: analytical and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartuccelli, Michele; Deane, Jonathan H.B.; Gentile, Guido

    2010-01-01

    ’d tongues in the frequency–amplitude plane. In particular, we provide exact analytical formulae for the widths of the tongues, which correspond to the plateaux of the devil’s staircase picture. The results account for numerical and experimental findings presented in the literature for special driving terms...

  16. Relating speech production to tongue muscle compressions using tagged and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use fourdimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two postglossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies.

  17. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  18. E-tongue: a tool for taste evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Sharma, Aarti; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj K

    2010-01-01

    Taste has an important role in the development of oral pharmaceuticals. With respect to patient acceptability and compliance, taste is one of the prime factors determining the market penetration and commercial success of oral formulations, especially in pediatric medicine. Taste assessment is one important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. Hence, pharmaceutical industries invest time, money and resources into developing palatable and pleasant-tasting products. The primary method for the taste measurement of a drug substance or a formulation is by human sensory evaluation, in which tasting a sample is relayed to inspectors. However, this method is impractical for early stage drug development because the test in humans is expensive and the taste of a drug candidate may not be important to the final product. Therefore, taste-sensing analytical devices, which can detect tastes, have been replacing the taste panelists. In the present review we are presenting different aspect of electronic tongue. The review article also discussed some useful patents and instrument with respect to E-tongue.

  19. Tissue kinetics in mouse tongue mucosa during daily fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Emmendoerfer, H.; Weber-Frisch, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to quantify cell flux between the distinct layers of the epithelial lining of the ventral surface of mouse tongue during daily fractionated radiotherapy. In tongue epithelium of untreated mice, the minimum residence time of cells in the germinal layer is 2-3 days. Migration through the functional layers requires an additional 2-3 days before labelled cells are observed in the most superficial layer of nucleated cells. A plateau in LI is observed for several days post-labelling in control epithelium, indicating an equilibrium between loss and proliferation of labelled cells. During fractionated radiotherapy, the minimum time from division to occurrence of labelled cells in the stratum lucidum is less than 2 days, and hence significantly shorter than in control epithelium. In contrast to untreated epithelium, no plateau in the germinal layer LI is seen, indicating that frequently both labelled daughters from dividing labelled cells are being lost from this compartment. In conclusion, the present data support a recently described model of radiation-induced accelerated repopulation in squamous epithelia, which postulates that the majority of damaged cells undergoes abortive divisions resulting in two differentiating daughters. (Author)

  20. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  1. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  2. Leiomiosarcoma infiltrante en la lengua Infiltrating leiomyosarcoma of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Sarra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La localización de un leiomiosarcoma infiltrante en la lengua es extremadamente rara. Solo se han reportado casos aislados en la literatura. Caso clínico: Hombre de 62 años, fumador, que consulta por una tumoración ulcerada en la lengua de un mes de evolución. Al mes presenta metástasis pulmonares, subcutáneas y óseas. Fallece a los 6 meses con enfermedad diseminada. Discusión: Pensamos que se trató de una metástasis lingual, situación aún más rara que un tumor primitivo, con tres casos comunicados en la literatura. El diagnóstico diferencial fue resuelto con técnicas de inmunomarcación.Introduction: Leiomyosarcoma of the tongue, is extremely rare and poorly documented in the literature. Case report: We present the case of a 62-year-old male who consult with an ulcerated mass in the oral tongue. The lesion had an evolution of one month. Surgical biopsy was performed. Six months later the patient died with multiple metastases. Discusion: We thought that was a lingual metastase, situation even rarer that a primitive tumor, with three cases communicated in literature. Definitive diagnosis was facilitated by immunohistochemical techniques.

  3. Monitoring of beer fermentation based on hybrid electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Zaborowski, Michał; Prokaryn, Piotr; Ciosek, Patrycja

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of biotechnological processes, including fermentation is extremely important because of the rapidly occurring changes in the composition of the samples during the production. In the case of beer, the analysis of physicochemical parameters allows for the determination of the stage of fermentation process and the control of its possible perturbations. As a tool to control the beer production process a sensor array can be used, composed of potentiometric and voltammetric sensors (so-called hybrid Electronic Tongue, h-ET). The aim of this study is to apply electronic tongue system to distinguish samples obtained during alcoholic fermentation. The samples originate from batch of homemade beer fermentation and from two stages of the process: fermentation reaction and maturation of beer. The applied sensor array consists of 10 miniaturized ion-selective electrodes (potentiometric ET) and silicon based 3-electrode voltammetric transducers (voltammetric ET). The obtained results were processed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). For potentiometric data, voltammetric data, and combined potentiometric and voltammetric data, comparison of the classification ability was conducted based on Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), sensitivity, specificity, and coefficient F calculation. It is shown, that in the contrast to the separately used techniques, the developed hybrid system allowed for a better characterization of the beer samples. Data fusion in hybrid ET enables to obtain better results both in qualitative analysis (RMSE, specificity, sensitivity) and in quantitative analysis (RMSE, R(2), a, b). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Curcumin on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Tongue: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardito, F; Perrone, D; Giuliani, M; Testa, N F; Muzio, L Lo

    2018-01-01

    The Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue (TSCC) is the most frequent cancer of oral cavity often characterized by poor prognosis. Conventional therapies are not very efficient and often may cause serious side effects. In this context, introduction of natural substances as possible adjuvant in the treatment and prevention of cancer is becoming a relevant topic. In fact, curcumin has been used for decades in Chinese traditional medicine for its beneficial effects. Curcumin has anticancer properties in many tumors however, its action on the tongue carcinoma is not entirely clear and many other investigations are necessary. Curcumin seems to be a good adjuvant in the treatment of head and neck tumors. However, these studies are generic and there are not many specific studies on TSCC, the most frequent and most aggressive cancer of the head-neck region. Our goal is to demonstrate its effectiveness also for TSCC. In this study, we evaluated the effects of curcumin on TSCC cells using different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 µM) and 3 different treatment times (24, 48 and 72 hours). The inhibition of adhesion, proliferation, viability, migration and apoptosis was studied. IC50 value of curcumin is about 10 µM and there have been inhibitory effects even for treatments at low concentrations. Curcumin reduces migration and progression of TSCC cells and it promotes apoptosis and inhibits tumorigenesis. These results suggest the possible use of curcumin as an anti-cancer agent in TSCC. However, in vivo studies are needed to confirm these effects and overcome its low bioavailability. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  6. Intra-cortical excitability in healthy human subjects after tongue training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Blicher, Jakob; Lapitskaya, Natallia

    2009-01-01

    Training of specific muscles causes plastic changes in corticomotor pathways which may underlie the effect of various clinical rehabilitation procedures. The paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) technique can be used to assess short interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI...... tongue muscles. In tongue motor cortex, bilateral SICI (P training. There were no significant effects of training on single MEPs or SICI/ICF (P > 0.063). The success rate improved during training (P ...) and intra-cortical facilitatory (ICF) networks. This study examined changes in SICI and ICF in tongue motor cortex after tongue training in 11 healthy volunteers using ppTMS. Paired pulse TMS was applied to the 'hot-spot' for the tongue motor cortex and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from...

  7. Healthier Standards for School Meals and Snacks: Impact on School Food Revenues and Lunch Participation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary T; Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the updated U.S. Department of Agriculture school meals standards and a competitive food law similar to the fully implemented version of the national Smart Snack standards went into effect in Massachusetts. This study evaluated the impact of these updated school meal standards and Massachusetts' comprehensive competitive food standards on school food revenues and school lunch participation. Revenue and participation data from 11 Massachusetts school districts were collected from 2011 to 2014 and analyzed in 2015 using multilevel modeling. The association between the change in compliance with the competitive food standards and revenues/participation was assessed using linear regression. Schools experienced declines in school food revenues of $15.40/student in Year 1 from baseline (p=0.05), due to competitive food revenue losses. In schools with 3 years of data, overall revenues rebounded by the second year post-implementation. Additionally, by Year 2, school lunch participation increased by 15% (p=0.0006) among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Better competitive food compliance was inversely associated with school food revenues in the first year only; an absolute change in compliance by 10% was associated with a $9.78/student decrease in food revenues over the entire school year (p=0.04). No association was seen between the change in compliance and school meal participation. Schools experienced initial revenue losses after implementation of the standards, yet longer-term school food revenues were not impacted and school meal participation increased among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Weakening the school meal or competitive food guidelines based on revenue concerns appears unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Obese and overweight individuals are less sensitive to information about meal times in portion size judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A R; Mason, A; Rogers, P J; Brunstrom, J M

    2017-11-16

    Obesity is related to a tendency to discount the future. Information regarding inter-meal interval (IMI) allows meal planning. We sought to assess how obese, overweight, and lean people select portion sizes based on the length of an IMI. We hypothesised that individuals with a high BMI would discount information about the IMI. In addition, we investigated how reduced sensitivity to IMIs relates to monetary temporal discounting. Participants (lean, n=35; overweight, n=31; obese, n=22), selected lunchtime portion sizes in response to information about the timings of their next meal. In seven trials, the time of the IMI was systematically manipulated, ranging from 'right now' to '8 h'. Participants then completed a monetary temporal discounting task. BMI was included as a continuous measure. For each participant, we conducted a linear regression of portion size on IMI to yield a gradient that reflected reduced sensitivity to future meal timings. As expected, participants selected larger portion sizes in response to a long IMI. Consistent with our hypothesis, individuals with a high BMI discounted information about the IMI (β=-3.49, P=0.015; confidence interval (CI) 6.29 to -0.70). Monetary discounting also negatively predicted BMI (β=-8.1, P=0.003; CI=-13.43 to -2.77), but did not correlate with IMI sensitivity (P>0.05). These results are the first to demonstrate that temporal discounting operates in planning from one meal to the next, and is more prevalent in obese and overweight, relative to lean individuals. Participants with a high BMI discounted concerns about potential future fullness and hunger in the IMI. Our observations might begin to explain associations between obesity and irregular meal timings or help to form the basis for a targeted intervention that promotes future thinking in meal planning.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.275.

  9. Dehydration-Anorexia Derives From A Reduction In Meal Size, But Not Meal Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N.; Lorenzen, Sarah M.; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, make dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable. PMID:21854794

  10. Impossible meals? The food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia - A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Maria; Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria

    2017-06-01

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  12. Irradiation of ready made meals -Lasagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkia, Ines

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological, nutritional, chemical and sensory quality of chilled ready-made meals was assessed. The ready meals used for this experimental work are lasagne. Following arrival at the semi-industrial Cobalt 60 irradiation facility, the meals were either left unirradiated or irradiated with doses of 2 or 4 kGy after which they were stored for up to 23 days at 3C. Results showed that 2 or 4 kGy doses of gamma irradiation decreased the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and increased the shelf-life of lasagne. In terms of nutritional quality, it was found that losses of vitamin A and E due to irradiation treatment were considerable at 4 kGy. Total acidity, and p H, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to one week for ready meals treated with 2 and 4 kGy whereas peroxide index showed high values at 4 kGy. Sensory results showed no significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meals at 2 kGy. However, the results were less promising at 4 kGy since differences were significant. (Author). 60 refs

  13. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  14. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  15. Parameters of Concrete Modified with Glass Meal and Chalcedonite Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwa, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Additives used for production of concrete mixtures affect the rheological properties and parameters of hardened concrete, including compressive strength, water resistance, durability and shrinkage of hardened concrete. By their application, the use of cement and production costs may be reduced. The scheduled program of laboratory tests included preparation of six batches of concrete mixtures with addition of glass meal and / or chalcedonite dust. Mineral dust is a waste product obtained from crushed aggregate mining, with grain size below 0,063μm. The main ingredient of chalcedonite dust is silica. Glass meal used in the study is a material with very fine grain size, less than 65μm. This particle size is present in 60% - 90% of the sample. Additives were used to replace cement in concrete mixes in an amount of 15% and 25%. The amount of aggregate was left unchanged. The study used Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. Concrete mixes were prepared with a constant rate w / s = 0.4. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of the addition of chalcedonite dust and / or glass meal on the parameters of hardened concrete, i.e. compressive strength, water absorption and capillarity. Additives used in the laboratory tests significantly affect the compressive strength. The largest decrease in compressive strength of concrete samples was recorded for samples with 50% substitutes of cement additives. This decrease is 34.35%. The smallest decrease in compressive strength was noted in concrete with the addition of 15% of chalcedonite dust or 15% glass meal, it amounts to an average of 15%. The study of absorption shows that all concrete with the addition of chalcedonite dust and glass meal gained a percentage weight increase between 2.7 ÷ 3.1% for the test batches. This is a very good result, which is probably due to grout sealing. In capillary action for the test batches, the percentage weight gains of samples ranges from 4.6% to 5.1%. However, the reference concrete obtained

  16. Analysis of speech and tongue motion in normal and post-glossectomy speaker using cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jinhee; Sung, Iel-Yong; Son, Jang-Ho; Stone, Maureen; Ord, Robert; Cho, Yeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Since the tongue is the oral structure responsible for mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing functions, patients who undergo glossectomy can be affected in various aspects of these functions. The vowel /i/ uses the tongue shape, whereas /u/ uses tongue and lip shapes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes of the tongue and the adaptation of pronunciation using cine MRI for speech of patients who undergo glossectomy. Twenty-three controls (11 males and 12 females) and 13 patients (eight males and five females) volunteered to participate in the experiment. The patients underwent glossectomy surgery for T1 or T2 lateral lingual tumors. The speech tasks "a souk" and "a geese" were spoken by all subjects providing data for the vowels /u/ and /i/. Cine MRI and speech acoustics were recorded and measured to compare the changes in the tongue with vowel acoustics after surgery. 2D measurements were made of the interlip distance, tongue-palate distance, tongue position (anterior-posterior and superior-inferior), tongue height on the left and right sides, and pharynx size. Vowel formants Fl, F2, and F3 were measured. The patients had significantly lower F2/Fl ratios (F=5.911, p=0.018), and lower F3/F1 ratios that approached significance. This was seen primarily in the /u/ data. Patients had flatter tongue shapes than controls with a greater effect seen in /u/ than /i/. The patients showed complex adaptation motion in order to preserve the acoustic integrity of the vowels, and the tongue modified cavity size relationships to maintain the value of the formant frequencies.

  17. Metabolic markers and microecological characteristics of tongue coating in patients with chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue diagnosis is a non-invasive, simple and valuable diagnostic tool. TCM treats the tongue coating on a very sensitive scale that reflects physiological and pathological changes in the organs, especially the spleen and stomach. Tongue coating can diagnose disease severity and determine the TCM syndrome (“Zheng” in Chinese). The biological bases of different tongue coating appearances are still poorly understood and lack systematic investigation at the molecular level. Methods Tongue coating samples were collected from 70 chronic gastritis patients and 20 normal controls. 16S rRNA denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA–DGGE) and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC–MS) were designed to profile tongue coatings. The statistical techniques used were principal component analysis and partial least squares–discriminate analysis. Results Ten potential metabolites or markers were found in chronic gastritis patients, including UDP-D-galactose, 3-ketolactose, and vitamin D2, based on LC–MS. Eight significantly different strips were observed in samples from chronic gastritis patients based on 16S rRNA–DGGE. Two strips, Strips 8 and 10, were selected for gene sequencing. Strip 10 sequencing showed a 100% similarity to Rothia mucilaginosa. Strip 8 sequencing showed a 96.2% similarity to Moraxella catarrhalis. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism could possibly form the basis of tongue coating conformation in chronic gastritis patients. The study revealed important connections between metabolic components, microecological components and tongue coating in chronic gastritis patients. Compared with other diagnostic regimens, such as blood tests or tissue biopsies, tongue coating is more amenable to, and more convenient for, both patients and doctors. PMID:24041039

  18. Bioelectronic tongues: New trends and applications in water and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz

    2016-05-15

    Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for fast, highly sensitive and selective methods of analysis to meet new challenges in environmental monitoring, food safety and public health. In response to this demand, biosensors have arisen as a promising tool, which offers accurate chemical data in a timely and cost-effective manner. However, the difficulty to obtain sensors with appropriate selectivity and sensitivity for a given analyte, and to solve analytical problems which do not require the quantification of a certain analyte, but an overall effect on a biological system (e.g. toxicity, quality indices, provenance, freshness, etc.), led to the concept of electronic tongues as a new strategy to tackle these problems. In this direction, to improve the performance of electronic tongues, and thus to spawn new application fields, biosensors have recently been incorporated to electronic tongue arrays, leading to what is known as bioelectronic tongues. Bioelectronic tongues provide superior performance by combining the capabilities of electronic tongues to derive meaning from complex or imprecise data, and the high selectivity and specificity of biosensors. The result is postulated as a tool that exploits chemometrics to solve biosensors' interference problems, and biosensors to solve electronic tongues' selectivity problems. The review presented herein aims to illustrate the capabilities of bioelectronic tongues as analytical tools, especially suited for screening analysis, with particular emphasis in water analysis and the characterization of food and beverages. After briefly reviewing the key concepts related to the design and principles of electronic tongues, we provide an overview of significant contributions to the field of bioelectronic tongues and their future perspectives. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. 3-D neurohistology of transparent tongue in health and injury with optical clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-En eHua

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tongue receives extensive innervation to perform taste, sensory, and motor functions. Details of the tongue neuroanatomy and its plasticity in response to injury offer insights to investigate tongue neurophysiology and pathophysiology. However, due to the dispersed nature of the neural network, standard histology cannot provide a global view of the innervation. We prepared transparent mouse tongue by optical clearing to reveal the spatial features of the tongue innervation and its remodeling in injury. Immunostaining of neuronal markers, including PGP9.5 (pan-neuronal marker, calcitonin gene-related peptide (sensory nerves, tyrosine hydroxylase (sympathetic nerves, and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cholinergic parasympathetic nerves and neuromuscular junctions, was combined with vessel painting and nuclear staining to label the tissue network and architecture. The tongue specimens were immersed in the optical-clearing solution to facilitate photon penetration for 3-dimensiontal (3-D confocal microscopy. Taking advantage of the transparent tissue, we simultaneously revealed the tongue microstructure and innervation with subcellular-level resolution. 3-D projection of the papillary neurovascular complex and taste bud innervation was used to demonstrate the spatial features of tongue mucosa and the panoramic imaging approach. In the tongue injury induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide administration in the drinking water, we observed neural tissue remodeling in response to the changes of mucosal and muscular structures. Neural networks and the neuromuscular junctions were both found rearranged at the peri-lesional region, suggesting the nerve-lesion interactions in response to injury. Overall, this new tongue histological approach provides a useful tool for 3-D imaging of neural tissues to better characterize their roles with the mucosal and muscular components in health and disease.

  20. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

  1. Modulation of stimulus-induced 20-Hz activity for the tongue and hard palate during tongue movement in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maezawa, Hitoshi; Onishi, Kaori; Yagyu, Kazuyori; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Funahashi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of 20-Hz activity in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) may be important for oral functions. Here, we show that 20-Hz event-related desynchronization/synchronization (20-Hz ERD/ERS) is modulated by sensory input and motor output in the oral region. Magnetic 20-Hz activity was recorded following right-sided tongue stimulation during rest (Rest) and self-paced repetitive tongue movement (Move). To exclude proprioception effects, 20-Hz activity induced by right-sided hard palate stimulation was also recorded. The 20-Hz activity in the two conditions was compared via temporal spectral evolution analyses. 20-Hz ERD/ERS was detected over bilateral temporoparietal areas in the Rest condition for both regions. Moreover, 20-Hz ERS was significantly suppressed in the Move condition for both regions. Detection of 20-Hz ERD/ERS during the Rest condition for both regions suggests that the SM1 functional state may be modulated by oral stimulation, with or without proprioceptive effects. Moreover, the suppression of 20-Hz ERS for the hard palate during the Move condition suggests that the stimulation-induced functional state of SM1 may have been modulated by the movement, even though the movement and stimulation areas were different. Sensorimotor function of the general oral region may be finely coordinated through 20-Hz cortical oscillation. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; Pmeal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (PIndex (quick: 0.1; slow: 0.2; Pmeal completion, pleasantness ratings tended to be higher under the slow condition (P=0.04; but not significant after Bonferroni adjustment). Ad libitum energy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.

  3. Occupational doses in pediatric barium meal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H.R.; Denyak, V.; Legnani, A.; Ledesma, J.A.; Paschuk, S.A.; Sauzen, J.; Yagui, A.; Hoff, G.; Khoury, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has become an indispensable tool when it comes to diagnosis and therapy. However, its use should happen in a rational manner, taking into account the risks to which the staff is being exposed. Barium meal (BM), or upper gastrointestinal (GI) studies, using fluoroscopy, are widely used for gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnostic in children and professionals are required to stay inside the examination room to position and immobilize pediatric patients during the procedure. Therefore, it is very important that proffessionals strictly follow the technical standards of radiation protection. According to the ICRP and the NCRP recommendations, the annual limit equivalent doses for eyes, thyroid and hands are, espectively, 20 mSv, 150 mSv and 500 mSv. Based on those data, the aim of the current study is to estimate the annual equivalent dose for eyes, thyroid and hands of professionals who perform BM procedures in children. This was done using properly package LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters in 37 procedures; 2 pairs were positioned near each staff´s eye, 2 pairs on each professional´s neck (on and under the lead protector) and 2 pairs on both staff´s hands. The range of the estimative annual equivalent doses, for eyes, thyroid and hands, are, respectively: 14 – 36 mSv, 7 – 22 mSv and 14 – 58 mSv. Only the closest staff to the patient exceeded the annual equivalent doses in the eyes (around 80% higher than the limit set by ICRP). However, the results from this study, for hands and thyroid, compared to similar studies, show higher values. Therefore, the optimization implementation is necessary, so that the radiation levels can be reduced. (authors)

  4. Solid state fermentation of carinata (Brassica carinata) meal using various fungal strains to produce a protein-rich product for feed application

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the efficacy of several fungal strains to reduce GLS (GLS) content and enhance protein content during solid state fermentation (SSF) of carinata meal was evaluated. Solid state fermentation of hexane extracted (HE) and cold pressed (CP) carinata meals were performed at 50% moisture co...

  5. Fasting and meal-induced CCK and PP secretion following intragastric balloon treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H; de Groot, Gerrit H

    2013-05-01

    Satiety is centrally and peripherally mediated by gastrointestinal peptides and the vagal nerve. We aimed to investigate whether intragastric balloon treatment affects satiety through effects on fasting and meal-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) secretion. Patients referred for obesity treatment were randomised to 13 weeks of sham treatment followed by 13 weeks of balloon treatment (group 1; sham/balloon) or to twice a 13-week period of balloon treatment (group 2; balloon/balloon). Blood samples were taken for fasting and meal-stimulated CCK and PP levels at the start (T0) and after 13 (T1) and 26 (T2) weeks. Patients filled out visual analogue scales (VAS) to assess satiety. Forty-two patients (35 females, body weight 125.1 kg, BMI 43.3 kg/m(2)) participated. In group 1, basal CCK levels decreased but meal-stimulated response remained unchanged after 13 weeks of sham treatment. In group 2, basal and meal-stimulated CCK levels decreased after 13 weeks of balloon treatment. At the end of the second 13-week period, when group 1 had their first balloon treatment, they duplicated the initial 13-week results of group 2, whereas group 2 continued their balloon treatment and reduced meal-stimulated CCK release. Both groups showed reduced meal-stimulated PP secretions at T1 and T2 compared to T0. Changes in diet composition and VAS scores were similar. Improvements in glucose homeostasis partly explained the PP results. The reduced CCK and PP secretion after balloon positioning was unexpected and may reflect delayed gastric emptying induced by the balloon. Improved glucose metabolism partly explained the reduced PP secretion. Satiety and weight loss were not adversely influenced by these hormonal changes.

  6. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming obese, healthier eating patterns are urgent. Organic school meals may be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children. The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the current status of organic school meal systems...... in Denmark, by conducting a case study of three municipalities in the Zealand region that have the most developed models for school meals service in this country. These municipalities have for some years introduced organic food for sale in their primary schools, with three quite different approaches....... Copenhagen has established a large central kitchen, producing partly organic food that is heated and sold in tuck shops at the schools. Roskilde cooperates with an organic catering company, delivering food to be sold in school canteens. Gladsaxe has part-time employed staff preparing and selling food at each...

  7. Effect of particle size distribution of maize and soybean meal on the precaecal amino acid digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, W; Ganzer, C; Kluth, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2018-02-01

    1. Herein, it was investigated whether different particle size distributions of feed ingredients achieved by grinding through a 2- or 3-mm grid would have an effect on precaecal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility. Maize and soybean meal were used as the test ingredients. 2. Maize and soybean meal was ground with grid sizes of 2 or 3 mm. Nine diets were prepared. The basal diet contained 500 g/kg of maize starch. The other experimental diets contained maize or soybean meal samples at concentrations of 250 and 500, and 150 and 300 g/kg, respectively, instead of maize starch. Each diet was tested using 6 replicate groups of 10 birds each. The regression approach was applied to calculate the pc AA digestibility of the test ingredients. 3. The reduction of the grid size from 3 to 2 mm reduced the average particle size of both maize and soybean meal, mainly by reducing the proportion of coarse particles. Reducing the grid size significantly (P digestibility of all AA in the soybean meal. In maize, reducing the grid size decreased the pc digestibility of all AA numerically, but not significantly (P > 0.050). The mean numerical differences in pc AA digestibility between the grid sizes were 0.045 and 0.055 in maize and soybean meal, respectively. 4. Future studies investigating the pc AA digestibility should specify the particle size distribution and should investigate the test ingredients ground similarly for practical applications.

  8. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  9. Life history attributes of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) reared on transgenic corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, J D; Komaravalli, S R; Hanley, A M; Price, B D; Davis, P M

    2001-04-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), are two globally distributed stored-grain pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the impact that corn (Zea mays L.) kernels (i.e., grain) of some Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn hybrids containing CrylAb Bt delta-endotoxin have on life history attributes of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Stored grain is at risk to damage from Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth; therefore, Bt corn may provide a means of protecting this commodity from damage. Thus, the objective of this research was to quantify the effects of transgenic corn seed containing CrylAb delta-endotoxin on Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth survival, fecundity, and duration of development. Experiments with Bt grain, non-Bt isolines, and non-Bt grain were conducted in environmental chambers at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and > or = 60% RH in continuous dark. Fifty eggs were placed in ventilated pint jars containing 170 g of cracked or whole corn for the Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth, respectively. Emergence and fecundity were observed for 5 wk. Emergence and fecundity of Indian meal moth and emergence of Angoumois grain moth were significantly lower for individuals reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt, MON 810 and Bt-11 transformed hybrids, respectively, than on their non-Bt transformed isolines. Longer developmental times were observed for Indian meal moth reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt than their non-Bt-transformed isolines. These results indicate that MON 810 and Bt-11 CrylAb delta-endotoxin-containing kernels reduce laboratory populations of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Thus, storing Bt-transformed grain is a management tactic that warrants bin scale testing and may effectively reduce Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth populations in grain without application of synthetic chemicals or pesticides.

  10. Media use as a reason for meal skipping and fast eating in secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulck, J; Eggermont, S

    2006-04-01

    This study examined self-reported meal skipping and eating faster than usual with the goal of watching television or playing computer games. Respondents reported their media use and indicated how often they skipped a meal to watch a favourite television programme or to play a computer game, and how often they ate faster than usual in order to watch television or play a computer game. Respondents were 2546 adolescents of 13 (first year of secondary school) and 16 years (fourth year of secondary school) of age. About one respondent in 10 skipped at least one meal every week for either television viewing or computer game playing. Weekly meal skipping for television viewing occurs more regularly in boys and first-year students, but particularly in teenagers who view 5 h or more daily (15% of the sample). The category of teenagers who play computer games four times a week or more (25.3% of the sample) is at increased risk of meal skipping; those who play more than four times a week are 10 times more likely weekly to skip a meal. A quarter of the adolescents eat faster at least once a week to be able to watch television or play a computer game. Regardless of gender and school year, teenagers' risk of eating faster progressively increases with their use of the media. Those who watch 4 h or more daily are about seven times more likely to skip a meal for television and those who play computer games at least four times a week are nine times more likely weekly to skip a meal. Unhealthy eating habits can be a side effect of heavy or excessive media use. Teenagers' use of television or game computers during nonworking or out-of-school hours partly displaces the amount of time that needs to be spent at meals. Practitioners and educators may try to encourage or restore a pattern of healthful meal consumption habits by reducing the amount of media use, and by supporting parental rule-making regarding children's eating habits and media use.

  11. Broiler performance fed jatropha curcas seed meal detoxified by fermentation, physic and chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replications and each replication in one cage consisted of 5 chicks. R1 was control feed (K without jatropha seed meal., 2 R2 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Neurosphora sitophila (FNS, R3 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FAS, R4 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by rumen microbes and R5 with 4% of Jatropha seed meal treated by autoclaved, refluxed by hexane and soaked in methanol (OEHM. Treated feed was given for 14 days at the end of the feeding treatment, two chickens from each replication were slaughtered and organ weights were recorded. Body weight of chicken and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The rest of the chicken was fed commercial feed for the next 7 days (recovery periode. Chicken mortality was almost 0% but 1 chicken from FAS treatment died at the recovery period. Feed consumption was lower at fermented jatropha seed meal than control (K or OEHM, resulted in lower body weight of chicken. The abdomen fat weight and organ weights especially pancreas or spleen resulted from treatment with jatropha were much lower than that of K. In the recovery period, body weight of chicken in the OEHM treatment was almost similar from that of control chicken. In conclusion, biological detoxification on BBJ was able to reduce chicken mortality but could not improve the daily gain higher than control treatment. The best method to detoxify jatropha seed meal was the combination of physical and

  12. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Leeuwis, F.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake.Objective:To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal.Design:Longitudinal randomized

  13. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  14. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of walking performed immediately before meals with moderate fat content on postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombani Paolo C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipemia is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Single bouts of moderate exercise may lower this risk, but the minimum duration of moderate intensity exercise that still lowers postprandial lipemia is not known. We, therefore, performed a dose-response study with a normal, daily life setting, to identify the minimum duration of moderate intensity walking that lowers postprandial lipemia in sedentary, healthy young men. Methods Sixteen men performed three activity trials (30, 60, or 90 min of treadmill walking at 50% of their individual VO2max and a control trial with no physical activity in a repeated measures crossover design. The subjects walked immediately before ingestion of the first of two mixed meals, which were served 3 h apart. The meals had a moderate fat content (0.5 g per kg body mass and 33% of total energy per meal and a macronutrient composition corresponding to current recommendations. Each meal provided one third of the subject's estimated daily energy requirement. Venous blood samples were taken in the fasted state, and then hourly for 6 h after the first meal to assess the postprandial phase. Postprandial lipemia (the incremental area under the curve (dAUC of triacylglycerol was compared with a mixed model analysis and Tukey's adjustment. Results Postprandial lipemia (dAUC of triacylglycerol was, compared to the control trial, +2% (P = 1.00, -14% (P = 0.24, and -15% (P = 0.23 in the 30, 60, and 90 min walking trials, respectively. Conclusion Moderate intensity walking of 60 and 90 min duration slightly, but insignificantly, reduced postprandial lipemia after two mixed meals with moderate fat content in sedentary, healthy young men, compared to inactivity. Therefore, it should be reconsidered if the acute exercise-induced reduction in postprandial lipemia usually observed in studies using high fat meals is of importance in a real, daily life setting.

  16. Measurement of gastric emptying during and between meal intake in free-feeding Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, P; Koslowsky, I; Koopmans, H S

    1999-02-01

    A new scintigraphic measurement technique is described that allows accurate assessment of gastric emptying in between as well as during a number of successive meals. Measurements were made every minute of food intake, gastric nutrient filling, and gastric emptying over a 6 h, 40 min period in conscious, free-feeding, loosely restrained rats. Before receiving access to the food, the animals had been deprived for a period of 31 h. Over the full duration of the experiment, an average rate of gastric emptying of 2.46 +/- 0.18 (SE) kcal/h was established. During most meals, however, the gastric emptying rate was increased so that an average of 26.9 +/- 2.7% of the ingested calories was emptied while the animals were feeding, with an average emptying rate of 0.15 +/- 0.014 kcal/min or 8.88 +/- 0.84 kcal/h. This transient increase in the rate of gastric emptying was followed by a subsequent slowing of gastric emptying after meal termination; in the 10-min postmeal interval, an average emptying rate of 0.96 +/- 0.12 kcal/h was found. Despite these fluctuations during and immediately after meals, a relatively constant rate of caloric emptying is maintained over longer periods. There were no differences between the emptying rate during the first meal when the gastrointestinal tract was still empty, compared with later meals when the gastrointestinal tract had been filled with food. The emptying rate during the 10-min postmeal interval, however, was significantly reduced during later meals. The results suggest that gastric emptying is controlled by different mechanisms during and after the ingestion of food and that these mechanisms remain in effect at various degrees of gastrointestinal filling.

  17. The tongue: deglutition, orofacial functions and craniofacial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landouzy, Jean-Marie; Sergent Delattre, Anne; Fenart, Raphaël; Delattre, Benoît; Claire, Jacques; Biecq, Marion

    2009-09-01

    So-called "primary" or "infantile" forms of deglutition, also termed lingual dyspraxia, are treated in different ways by orthodontists using various appliances to correct the condition and are also managed by speech-therapists and physiotherapists. The results obtained are often unstable. We have developed a more holistic approach to this disorder by attempting to grasp the underlying mechanisms in order to achieve more satisfactory correction. By establishing normal salivary deglutition more rapidly, this manual osteopathic technique complements the methods which use voluntary rehabilitation to impress upon the body's physical reflexes the "motor image" of the act to be accomplished. In order to render this article more lively and accessible, we have chosen to let the tongue speak in the first person--which, after all, is only normal! Copyright (c) 2009 Collège Européen d'Orthodontie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. THE MOTHER TONGUE IN MONOLINGUAL AND MULTILINGUAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuchukov, H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a small research project on Russian monolingual children in Moscow, and Turkish bilingual children living in Berlin, Germany. The children were examined with using the Test of Early Language Development (3rd ed., and despite the limitations of the study, the findings point up interesting tendencies. In the comprehension section of the test, the Russian monolinguals did much better than the Turkish bilinguals; however, in the section testing production, both groups of children had the same results. All children had difficulties in acquisition of abstract terms, certain prepositions, complex sentences and retelling or creating a story narrative from pictures. Bilingualism is not an obstacle for mother tongue development, but it seems there are universal factors which influence the process of language acquisition.

  19. Ultrastructural aspects of the tongue in Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster, 1781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Plácido Guimarães

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tongue of birds presents diversified morphologic characteristics, related directly their feeding habits and may be adapted to food capture. Penguins of the Spheniscidae family are pelagic birds that are totally adapted to the marine environment.  The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of the tongue in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus. In order to investigate these characteristics, six tongues of juvenile S. magellanicus were collected and their morphology analyzed macroscopically and microscopically.  The tongue of the Magellanic penguin has a fusiform shape with a round apex that is narrower than the root, following the shape of the beak.  The epithelium of the tongue of the Magellanic penguin showed to be stratified and very keratinized, with the presence of lingual papillae that showed a caudally inclined apex. The neighboring connective tissue showed absence of mucous glands. The cartilaginous skeleton was observed in the medial region of the tongue, extending from the base to the apex. The structure of the tongue of the Magellanic penguin showed to be similar to that of other penguin species, but also showed peculiar characteristics that were not observed in other bird families.

  20. Tongue and hyoid musculature and functional morphology of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sarah S; Ekdale, Eric G; Reidenberg, Joy S; Deméré, Tom A

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the anatomy and musculature of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), especially related to the anatomy of the tongue and hyoid region. The recovery of an extremely fresh head of a neonatal female gray whale provided an opportunity to conduct the first in-depth investigation of the musculoskeletal features of the tongue and hyoid apparatus. Unlike other mysticetes, the gray whale tongue is strong, muscular, and freely mobile inside the buccal cavity. In particular, the genioglossus and hyoglossus muscles are extremely large and robust making up the majority of the body of the tongue. In addition, the genioglossus had a unique position and fiber orientation in the tongue compared to other mammals. The structure of the hyoid apparatus differs between E. robustus and other mysticete species, although there are similarities among individual elements. We provide the first documentation of fungiform papillae that may be associated with taste buds in Mysticeti. The highly mobile, robust tongue and the presence of well-defined tongue and hyoid musculature are in keeping with observations of gray whale feeding that suggest this group of whales utilize oral suction to draw benthic prey into the buccal cavity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Differences in the Tongue Features of Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients and Controls over a Normal Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between tongue features and the existence of menstrual pain and to provide basic information regarding the changes in tongue features during a menstrual cycle. Methods. This study was conducted at the Kyung Hee University Medical Center. Forty-eight eligible participants aged 20 to 29 years were enrolled and assigned to two groups according to their visual analogue scale (VAS scores. Group A included 24 females suffering from primary dysmenorrhea (PD caused by qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome with VAS ≥ 4. In contrast, Group B included 24 females with few premenstrual symptoms and VAS < 4. All participants completed four visits (menses-follicular-luteal-menses phases, and the tongue images were taken by using a computerized tongue image analysis system (CTIS. Results. The results revealed that the tongue coating color value and the tongue coating thickness in the PD group during the menstrual phase were significantly lower than those of the control group (P=0.031 and P=0.029, resp.. Conclusions. These results suggest that the tongue features obtained from the CTIS may serve as a supplementary means for the differentiation of syndromes and the evaluation of therapeutic effect and prognosis in PD. Trial Registration. This trial was registered with Clinical Research Information Service, registration number KCT0001604, registered on 27 August 2015.

  2. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S

    2015-08-01

    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70.7 ± 10.3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis

    2012-05-15

    The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carp’s-tongue swords - morphological, metallurgical and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandherm, Dirk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the results from a study of the spatial distribution of different morphological sub-groups of carp’s-tongue swords at a European scale, relating morphological types to the metallurgial make-up of the respective pieces. From this study some surprising conclusions concerning the chronological as well as the spatial dimension of the evolution of carp’s-tongue swords emerge. We also look at the degree of variability in the deposition of these artefacts and in the composition of the assemblages in question, with considerable repercussions for our understanding of the depositional contexts of metal objects in the Atlantic Bronze Age world in general.

    Se presentan los resultados de un análisis de la dispersión geográfica de los distintos subgrupos morfológicos de las espadas en lengua de carpa a nivel europeo, poniéndolas en relación con una marcada variabilidad en la composición metalúrgica de estas piezas, que lleva a conclusiones inesperadas sobre la dimensión temporal y espacial de su evolución. El análisis de la variabilidad en los ritos de deposición de estos artefactos y en la composición de los conjuntos en que se encuentran, tiene importantes repercusiones sobre nuestra imagen de los contextos deposicionales de los objetos metálicos en el mundo del Bronce Final atlántico en general.

  5. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes nutrition: Including sweets in your meal plan Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods, but sweets aren't necessarily ... your meal plan. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods. But you can eat ...

  6. Influence of differently processed mango seed kernel meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of differently processed mango seed kernel meal on performance response of west African ... and TD( consisted spear grass and parboiled mango seed kernel meal with concentrate diet in a ratio of 35:30:35). ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... ratio were evaluated for the individual replicate of each dietary treatment.

  8. Relationships between dysphagia and tongue pressure during swallowing in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagi, Y; Ono, T; Hori, K; Fujiwara, S; Tokuda, Y; Murakami, K; Maeda, Y; Sakoda, S; Yokoe, M; Mihara, M; Mochizuki, H

    2018-03-25

    Although dysphagia is a life-threatening problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathophysiology of oropharyngeal dysphagia is yet to be understood. This study investigated the tongue motor function during swallowing in relation to dysphagia and the severity of PD. Thirty patients with PD (14 males and 16 females; average age, 69.4 years), Hoehn and Yahr stage II-IV, in Osaka University Hospital are participated in this study. During swallowing 5 ml of water, tongue pressure on the hard palate was measured using a sensor sheet with 5 measuring points. The maximal tongue pressure at each measuring point during swallowing was compared between patients with PD and healthy controls. Subjective assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia was performed using Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire-Japanese. The maximal tongue pressure at each measuring point was significantly lower in patients with PD than in healthy controls (8 males and 12 females; average age, 71.6 years). Furthermore, the maximal tongue pressure was significantly lower in dysphagic PD patients than non-dysphagic PD patients. Loss of tongue pressure production at the anterior part of the hard palate was strongly related to dysphagia in the oral phase as well as in the pharyngeal phase. An abnormal pattern of tongue pressure production was more frequently observed in dysphagic PD patients than in non-dysphagic PD patients. The results suggest that tongue pressure measurement might be useful for early and quantitative detection of tongue motor disability during swallowing in patients with PD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly

    2011-10-01

    High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the reduced intake was not the dietary composition of the meal replacement, but the controlled portion sized meals. Seventeen volunteers ate all of their meals and snacks from foods provided by the research unit from Monday to Friday for five consecutive weeks. For the first week, all participants selected their food from a buffet where each food was weighed before and after eating. For the next two weeks, half of the group selected their lunch by choosing one food from a selection of six commercially available portion controlled foods. They could eat as much as they wished at other meals or snacks. For final weeks four and five, the conditions were reversed for the two groups. Consuming the portion controlled lunches resulted in about a 250 kcal reduction in energy intake. More importantly, no sign of caloric compensation was evident across the 10 days of testing, an observation substantiated by a significant loss of body weight. The results suggest that the mere substitution of one smaller portioned meal each day is sufficient to cause reduction in daily energy intake and a significant amount of weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Salehi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed before and after the investigation for fasting blood sugar (FBS, two-hour post-prandial glucose (2hPP, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, and molondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. Results: HbA1c (P=0.00 and body mass index (BMI (P=0.04 values decreased significantly in the 6 isocaloric meal pattern compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in fasting serum glucose (P=0.09, insulin (P=0.65, total cholesterol (P=0.32, LDL-C (P=0.43, HDL-C (P=0.40 cholesterol, triglyceride (P=0.40, MDA (P=0.13 and 2hPP serum glucose (P=0.30 concentrations between the 6 isocaloric meal and tradition meal pattern. Conclusion: Six isocaloric meal pattern in comparison with the current meal pattern led to weight loss and improved glycemic control. Serum lipid profile and MDA did not change significantly. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201205179780N1

  11. A blended- rather than whole-lentil meal with or without α-galactosidase mildly increases healthy adults' appetite but not their glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguah, Katherene O-B; Wonnell, Brittany S; Campbell, Wayne W; McCabe, George P; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-12-01

    Disrupting the physical structure of pulses by blending them or by using a digestive supplement (α-galactosidase) to reduce intestinal discomfort could potentially negate the previously observed beneficial effects of whole pulses of lowering appetitive and glycemic responses because of more rapid digestion. We hypothesized that blended lentils, α-galactosidase, or both increase postprandial appetite and blood glucose responses vs. whole lentils. Men and women [n = 12; means ± SDs body mass index (kg/m(2)): 23.3 ± 3.1; aged 28 ± 10 y] consumed breakfast meals containing whole (W), blended (B), or no lentils [control (C)], each with 3 α-galactosidase or placebo capsules in a randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Between each test day there was a 3- to 5-d washout period. Mixed-model ANOVA showed effects of meal on postprandial appetite and glucose (P = 0.0001-0.031). The B meal resulted in higher postprandial appetite ratings than did the W meal but not the C meal for hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption (Δ = 0.4-0.5 points; P = 0.002-0.044). Postprandial glucose concentration was 4.5 mg/dL lower for the B meal than for the C meal (P meal. There were no main effects of α-galactosidase, but there were meal × α-galactosidase interaction effects, with a greater postprandial desire to eat and lower postprandial fullness with the B meal than with the 2 other meals in the placebo condition but not in the α-galactosidase condition. Blending lentils increased appetite (∼6%), but not glycemic response, compared with whole lentils, whereas α-galactosidase did not. Both B and W meals may be consumed (with or without an α-galactosidase supplement) with little impact on appetite, without increasing glycemic response. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110511. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  13. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  14. Consumer acceptance and appropriateness of meat substitutes in a meal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzerman, J.E.; Hoek, A.C.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    The replacement of meat by meat substitutes could help to reduce the environmental burden of our food production systems. However, the acceptance of most meat substitutes is still low. This study investigated the role of meal context on the acceptance of meat substitutes. In a central location test

  15. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  16. Giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Giuseppe; Biondi, Paolo; Caltabiano, Rosario; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Amico, Paolo; Magro, Gaetano

    2009-06-22

    We herein report a rare case of giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue. A 75-year-old Italian male presented at our department with a large tumor at the tip of the tongue that had been present for over 30 years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 10 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. Histological examination showed an unencapsulated lipomatous tumor composed of mature adipocytes, uniform in size and shape, diffusely infiltrating striated muscle fibers of the tongue. The patient is well with no local recurrence after a 15-month follow-up period.

  17. New ergonomic headset for Tongue-Drive System with wireless smartphone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hangue; Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Hwang, In-O; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue-operated assistive technology (AT), developed for people with severe physical disabilities to control their environment using their tongue motion. We have developed a new ergonomic headset for the TDS with a user-friendly smartphone interface, through which users will be able to wirelessly control various devices, access computers, and drive wheelchairs. This headset design is expected to act as a flexible and multifunctional communication interface for the TDS and improve its usability, accessibility, aesthetics, and convenience for the end users.

  18. Mucocele in the Base of the Tongue Mimicking a Thyroglossal Duct Cyst: A Very Rare Location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Joon Ho; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Jae Kyun; Lee, Woong Jae; Lee, Tae Jin; Yang, Hoon Shik

    2016-01-01

    Mucoceles are one of the most common benign soft tissue masses of the oral cavity. When they occur in the tongue, the ventral surface is the usual location. Mucoceles at the base of the tongue are extremely rare and must be differentiated from intralingual thyroglossal duct cysts. We present a case of a mucocele on the base of the tongue, which was incidentally found on a cervical spinal magnetic resonance image. We include a review of the literature on image findings, pathologic type, differential diagnosis, clinical symptoms, and treatment of oral mucoceles

  19. Outsourcing childcare, home cleaning and meal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Antonides, G.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the outsourcing of childcare, home cleaning and meal preparation is analysed by means of a socio-economic model that incorporates household-economic, lifecycle, lifestyle and health variables. The data (n= 700) was collected during a telephone survey in the Netherlands. About 10 per

  20. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    programme consisting of a morning snack and a hot lunch based on fixed seasonal menu plans and with 75 per cent organic content is 37 per cent more expensive in terms of ingredient costs than corresponding packed school meals. This cost differential can be almost halved by introducing more flexible...

  1. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined

  2. Atherogenic potentials of some Nigerian meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyong, E U; Umoh, I B; Ogu, T I; Edet, E E; Eteng, M U; Igiri, A O

    2007-01-01

    The atherogenic potentials of peeled grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa scot) "ekpang nkukwo", pounded yam (Discorea spp) with plain soup "afia efere", and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) "iwuk ukom" meals were investigated. The three meals were fed to three different groups of albino rats of Wistar strain for a period of twenty eight days. A fourth group which served as control was feed with normal rat pellet. The mean total plasma cholesterol level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control and peeled grated cocoyam fed groups. The mean total plasma triglyceride (MTPTG) level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control group. However the MTPTG level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups were comparable to control. The mean HDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain fed groups were comparable control. The mean LDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups was significantly lower [P < 0.05] than the control group. The LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to control. These findings suggest low atherogenic potentials of the pounded yam with plain soup meal compared to the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge meals.

  3. Meal Plans and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of carbs and other nutrients, both for diabetes management and to make meals satisfying. Here are some things to keep in mind: About 10% to 20% of the calories your child eats should come from protein . Try to select lean meats like chicken or beef. Roughly 25% to ...

  4. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1984-09-08

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined.

  5. Making a meal out of wood wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-23

    Researchers at Waterloo University, Canada, have developed a fungal based process for making animal feedstuffs from cellulose wastes. It could solve the severe pollution problems of the pulp and paper mills and save on imported soya meal at the same time.

  6. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... For example, an office employee who is required to eat at his desk or a factory worker who is required to be at his machine is working while eating. (Culkin v. Glenn L. Martin, Nebraska Co., 97 F. Supp... enough for a bona fide meal period. A shorter period may be long enough under special conditions. The...

  7. keeping the quality of ready-to-eat meals by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Daiem, M.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    the possibility of using gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of ready-to-eat meals was studied. the prepared meals(included cooked meat balls, mashed potatoes, baked chicken meat with potato slices, baked fish and cooked rice)were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 1.5,3 and 4.5 kGy followed by cold storage (4±1 c). then the effects of irradiation and cold storage on the microbiological aspects, chemical properties and organoleptic properties of samples were studied. the results showed that irradiation of the prepared meals decreased the counts of total bacteria, total psychrophilic bacteria and total yeasts and molds in all meals, proportionally to the applied dose, and prolonged their refrigerated shelf-life. moreover, irradiation at dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the counts of enterobacteriaceae, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis and bacillus cereus, while 3 kGy dose completely eliminate the present enterobacteriaceae, staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus in all meals, in addition to streptococcus faecalis in samples of baked chicken with potatoes, baked fish and cooked rice

  8. Alteration of postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations with meal frequency and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2014-11-14

    A frequent eating pattern may alter glycaemic control and augment postprandial insulin concentrations in some individuals due to the truncation of the previous postprandial period by a subsequent meal. The present study examined glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) responses in obese individuals when meals were ingested in a high-frequency pattern (every 2 h, 6M) or in a low-frequency pattern (every 4 h, 3M) over 12 h. It also examined these postprandial responses to high-frequency, high-protein meals (6MHP). In total, thirteen obese subjects completed three 12 h study days during which they consumed 6276 kJ (1500 kcal): (1) 3M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (2) 6M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (3) 6MHP - 45 % protein and 35 % carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and analysed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP. Insulin total AUC (tAUC) and peak insulin concentrations (Pmeal frequency or composition. In obese subjects, ingestion of meals in a low-frequency pattern does not alter glucose tAUC, but increases postprandial insulin responses. The substitution of carbohydrates with protein in a frequent meal pattern results in tighter glycaemic control and reduced postprandial insulin responses.

  9. Determination of Tongue and Groove parameters for multileaf collimators; Determinaco de parametros de Tongue and Groove de colimadores de multilaminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Aluisio; Almeida, Carlos E. de, E-mail: alu_neto@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas; Nguyen, Bihn [Prowess Inc., Concord, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The Tongue and Groove effect (TandG) is characterized by an additional attenuation between adjacent and opposing leaves on multileaf collimators (MLCs) in adjacent or complementary fields. This is a typical situation in of intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatments. The aim of this study was to measure the width and transmission of TandG effect for two commercial MLCs: Varian Millennium 120 (6 MV and 16 MV beams) and BrainLab m3 (only for 6 MV). The methodology used was based on the creation of MLC shapes that emphasizes TandG effect, the irradiation of these fields on radiochromic film and the sensitometric evaluation of the films in order to determine the TandG width and transmission. The results for TandG width for studied MLCs were 2.5, 1.8 and 2 mm, respectively, whit transmission TandG values of 87, 90 and 85%. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth...

  11. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  12. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The material was milled using a hammer mill to produce the leaf meal. Microdesmis puberula leaf meal contain 17.32% crude protein, 6.52% ether extract, 12.25% total ash, 24.84% crude fibre, 24.06% NFE and an appreciable percent of minerals. Three broiler starter diets were formulated to contain the meal at dietary ...

  13. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-09-01

    The absorption of iron from tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  14. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, L; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  15. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., respectively) for the meal pattern requirements contained in this section. (p) Family-style meal service. Meals may be served in a family-style setting. (q) Offer versus serve. (1) Each adult day care center shall..., 1983] Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 226.20, see the List of CFR Sections...

  17. Cafeteria staff perceptions of the new USDA school meal standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of...

  18. Company and meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janhonen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    an effect on the frequency of family meals. Meals echoing or fully meeting the structural definition of a ‘proper meal’ were most common when describing meals for the family. The difference between the two social situations was most apparent for those who mentioned ‘Fast food dishes’ for themselves. Gender...

  19. Tongue anato-histology of the oceanodromous adult Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1851 with a note on the comparison with the tongue structure of adult R. kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Kettratad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and histological structures of the tongue tissue of Rastrelliger brachysoma and R. kanagurta were investigated. Anatomical structure of the tongue in R. brachysoma was poorly developed and was of triangular shape. The histological and histochemical technique showed the tissue to be principally composed of three layers: tunica mucosa, tunica submucosa and osteocartilagionous skeleton. Stratified epithelium of its mucosal surface was interrupted with several cell types including goblet cells and taste buds. Numerous teeth with elongated shape were also found centrally on the anterior tip of the tongue. They are found among a few dermal papillae of the tongue. Tunica submucosa consisted of connective tissue, blood vessels and pigment cells. When compared anatomically and histologically with that of R. kanagurta, the overall morphological was quite similar. However, some histological structures including taste buds and teeth of R. kanagurta were rarely seen. Rastrelliger kanagurta also tended to have more goblet cell than R. brachysoma. Rastrelliger kanagurta tended to possess less overall histological structures of the tongue. This difference could potentially cause by different feeding adaptation between the two species. Regardless of the differences found between the two species, both are still considered as herbivores.

  20. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Ataguba, Gabriel Arome; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly ( p meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.