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Sample records for meadow fescue mf

  1. Molecular characterisation and interpretation of genetic diversity within globally distributed germplasm collections of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and meadow fescue (F. pratensis Huds.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Melanie L; Cogan, Noel O I; Forster, John W

    2012-04-01

    Allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh.) is an agriculturally important grass cultivated for pasture and turf world-wide. Genetic improvement of tall fescue could benefit from the use of non-domesticated germplasm to diversify breeding populations through the incorporation of novel and superior allele content. However, such potential germplasm must first be characterised, as three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) with varying degrees of hybrid interfertility are commonly described within this species. As hexaploid tall fescue is also a member of a polyploid species complex that contains tetraploid, octoploid and decaploid taxa, it is also possible that germplasm collections may have inadvertently sampled some of these sub-species. In this study, 1,040 accessions from the publicly available United States Department of Agriculture tall fescue and meadow fescue germplasm collections were investigated. Sequence of the chloroplast genome-located matK gene and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) permitted attribution of accessions to the three previously known morphotypes and also revealed the presence of tall fescue sub-species of varying ploidy levels, as well as other closely related species. The majority of accessions were, however, identified as Continental hexaploid tall fescue. Analysis using 34 simple sequence repeat markers was able to further investigate the level of genetic diversity within each hexaploid tall fescue morphotype group. At least two genetically distinct sub-groups of Continental hexaploid tall fescue were identified which are probably associated with palaeogeographic range expansion of this morphotype. This work has comprehensively characterised a large and complex germplasm collection and has identified genetically diverse accessions which may potentially contribute valuable alleles at agronomic loci for tall fescue cultivar

  2. Photosynthesis and Rubisco kinetics in spring wheat and meadow fescue under conditions of simulated climate change with elevated CO2 and increased temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv.Polkkaand meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Hudson cv. Kalevicwere grown in ambient and elevated (700 µl l -1 carbon dioxide concentration both at present ambient temperatures and at temperatures 3°C higher than at present simulating a future climate.The CO2 concentrations were elevated in large (3 m in diameteropen top chambers and the temperatures in a greenhouse built over the experimental field.The photosynthetic rate of both wheat and meadow fescue was 31 –37%higher in elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 than in ambient CO 2 (aCO2 throughout the growing season.The enhancement in wheat photosynthesis in eCO2 declined 10 –13 days before yellow ripeness,at which point the rate of photosynthesis in both CO 2 treatments declined.The stomatal conductance of wheat and meadow fescue was 23–36% lower in eCO2 than in aCO2 .The amount and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco in wheat were lower under conditions of eCO2 ,except at elevated temperatures in 1993 when there was a clear yield increase.There was no clear change in the amount and activity of Rubisco in meadow fescue under eCO2 at either elevated or ambient temperature.This suggests that adaptation to elevated CO2 at biochemical level occurs only when there is insufficient sink for photosynthetic products.While the sink size of wheat can be increased only by introducing new,more productive genotypes,the sink size of meadow fescue can be regulated by fitting the cutting schedule to growth.;

  3. Evaluation of Turf-type Interspecific Hybrids of Meadow Fescue with Perennial Ryegrass for Improved Stress Tolerance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barnes, B.D.; Kopecký, David; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Baird, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2014), s. 355-365 ISSN 0011-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LOLIUM-FESTUCA COMPLEX * TALL FESCUE * INTERGENERIC HYBRIDS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.575, year: 2014

  4. Discussion on the planting patterns of alfalfa and meadow fescue in mixed culture and evaluation for their contribution from N2 fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Zhang Xizhong; Chen Ming

    1996-01-01

    Effects of planting patterns on dry weight, N yield and dinitrogen fixation in alfalfa-meadow fescue pasture are studied by using split plot design in the field for two successive years. The results show that the pattern of row seeding in mixture (RM) is superior to the pattern of broadcasting in mixture (BM) and intercropping (TC), and advantageous to develop the superiority of legume-grass mixed pasture. The annual average of dry weight for RM, BM and TC is 1535.9 g/m 2 , 1208.8 g/m 2 and 1249.3 g/m 2 respectively. The annual average of N yield of them is 50.83 g(N)/m 2 , 36.65 g(N)/m 2 and 36.86 g(N)/m 2 . The annual average Ndfa is 42.37 g(N)/m 2 , 28.21 g(N)/m 2 and 28.42 g(N)/m 2 , and %Ndfa is 83.4%, 77.0% and 77.1% for RM, BM and TC respectively. The comparison of 15 N isotope dilution method, natural 15 N abundance method and total N difference method to measure %Ndfa of herbage for all the treatments are made

  5. The effects of prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on the growth, yield and dry matter partitioning of field-sown meadow fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaija Hakala

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Field-sown meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis, cv. Kalevi stands were exposed to elevated temperatures (+3°C and elevated CO2, (700 ppm levels in two experiments conducted in 1992-1993 (experiment 1 and in 1994-1995 (experiment 2. Total aboveground yield was, on average, 38% higher at elevated than at ambient temperatures. At ambient temperatures elevated CO2 increased the number of tillers by 63% in 1992, 24% in 1993, 90% in 1994 and 14% in 1995. At elevated temperatures, the increase in tiller number in elevated CO2 was seen only in the first growing seasons after sowing. The total yield in a growing season was about 10% higher in elevated CO2 in experiment 1. In experiment 2 the yield was more than 20% higher in elevated CO2 at elevated temperatures, whereas at ambient temperatures the rise in CO2 level had no effect on the yield; the root biomass, however, increased by more than 30%. In elevated CO2 at ambient temperatures the root biomass also increased in experiment I, but at elevated temperatures there was no consistent change. The soluble carbohydrate content of above-ground biomass was 5-48% higher in elevated CO2 at most of the measuring times during the growing season, but the nitrogen content did not show a clear decrease. The reasons for the lack of a marked increase in biomass in elevated CO2 despite a 40-60% increase in photosynthesis are discussed.

  6. Arithmetical meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    An inversive meadow is a commutative ring with identity equipped with a multiplicative inverse operation made total by choosing 0 as its value at 0. Previously, inversive meadows were shortly called meadows. A divisive meadow is an inversive meadows with the multiplicative inverse operation replaced by a division operation. In the spirit of Peacock's arithmetical algebra, we introduce variants of inversive and divisive meadows without an additive identity element and an additive inverse opera...

  7. Flow Sorting and Sequencing Meadow Fescue Chromosome 4F

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Martis, M.; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Hřibová, Eva; Vrána, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Kopecká, Jitka; Cattonaro, F.; Stočes, Štěpán; Novák, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Macas, Jiří; Šimková, Hana; Studer, B.; Asp, T.; Baird, J. H.; Navrátil, Petr; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Kubaláková, Marie; Šafář, Jan; Mayer, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 3 (2013), s. 1323-1337 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/0504; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10037 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : SATELLITE DNA-SEQUENCES * FESTUCA-PRATENSIS * LOLIUM-MULTIFLORUM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  8. Application of biotechnology in genetics and breeding of tall fescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Ye Hongxia; Shu Xiaoli; Wu Dianxing

    2008-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schred.) is an important lawn and pasture grass in agriculture, animal husbandy and lawn industry. The historical and present situations of tall fescue breeding were briefly introduced, and advances in the researches of molecular biology and germplasm enhancement by biotechnology in tall fescue were reviewed in the paper, which would provide the references for tall fescue breeding by biotechnology. (authors)

  9. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  10. Tall fescue ergot alkaloids are vasoactive in equine vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares grazing endophyte-infected (Epichloë coenophiala) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) typically exhibit reproductive dysfunction rather than problems associated with peripheral vasoconstriction as a primary sign of the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Research using Doppler ultrasonography demonstrate...

  11. Linkage Maps of a Mediterranean × Continental Tall Fescue Population and their Comparative Analysis with Other Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dierking

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasses belonging to the complex are important throughout the world in pasture and grassland agriculture. Tall fescue ( Schreb. is the predominant species in the United States, covering approximately 15 million ha. Tall fescue has distinctive morphotypes, two of which are Continental (summer active and Mediterranean (summer semidormant. This is the first report of a linkage map created for Mediterranean tall fescue, while updating the Continental map with additional simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers. Additionally, this is the first time that diversity arrays technology (DArT markers were used in the construction of a tall fescue map. The male parent (Continental, R43-64, map consisted of 594 markers arranged in 22 linkage groups (LGs and covered a total of 1577 cM. The female parent (Mediterranean, 103-2, map was shorter (1258 cM and consisted of only 208 markers arranged in 29 LGs. Marker densities for R43-64 and 103-2 were 2.65 and 6.08 cM per marker, respectively. When compared with the other Poaceae species, meadow fescue ( Huds., annual ryegrass ( Lam., perennial ryegrass ( L., (L. Beauv., and barley ( L., a total of 171 and 98 orthologous or homologous sequences, identified by DArT analysis, were identified in R43-64 and 103-2, respectively. By using genomic in situ hybridization, we aimed to identify potential progenitors of both morphotypes. However, no clear conclusion on genomic constitution was reached. These maps will aid in the search for quantitative trait loci of various traits as well as help define and distinguish genetic differences between the two morphotypes.

  12. Meadow based Fraction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  13. Seedling Performance Associated with Live or Herbicide Treated Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitrogen and enhance the nutritive value of forage for livestock production. Competition from existing tall fescue typically must be controlled to ensure interseeding success. We used a soil-on-agar method to determine if soil from intact, living (L, or an herbicide killed (K tall fescue sward influenced germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of tall fescue (E+, MaxQ, and E− or legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and white clover. After 30 days, seedlings were larger and present in greater numbers when grown in L soil rather than K soil. Root growth of legumes (especially white clover and tall fescue (especially MaxQ were not as vigorous in K soil as L soil. While shoot biomass was similar for all cultivars of tall fescue in L soil, MaxQ produced less herbage when grown in K soil. Our data suggest establishing legumes or fescue cultivars may not be improved by first killing the existing fescue sod and seedling performance can exhibit significant interseasonal variation, related only to soil conditions.

  14. Equations for formally real meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.; Ponse, A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the signatures Σm = (0,1,−,+,⋅,−1)  of meadows and (Σm,s)  of signed meadows. We give two complete axiomatizations of the equational theories of the real numbers with respect to these signatures. In the first case, we extend the axiomatization of zero-totalized fields by a single axiom

  15. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  16. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  17. Radionuclide transfer to meadow plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzharova, N.; Fesenko, S.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, A.; Ivanova, T.; Perepelyatnikov, G.; Tsvetnova, O.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data on 90 Sr and 137 Cs transfer to plants of natural and semi-natural meadows selected in the main CIS region contaminated due to the ChNPP accident are discussed. The highest TF's in grass stand are obtained for peatlands, and minimal ones - for dry meadows. 137 Cs content in plants decreased after the accident, on average, by a factor of 2-4. The dynamics of 137 Cs uptake by plants depends on meadow and soil properties. The first half life of 137 Cs transfer to plants change from 2,0 to 2,2 years and the second (slower) period half life change from 4,0 to 12 years for different meadow types. 90 Sr TF's are higher than those obtained for 137 Cs. The correlation between soil parameters and TP's are shown. 137 Cs TF's in grass stand depend on meadow type and decrease in the following order: peatlands> flood plain and wet (lowland) meadows> dry meadows

  18. Orthology Guided Transcriptome Assembly of Italian Ryegrass and Meadow Fescue for Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stočes, Štěpán; Ruttink, T.; Bartoš, Jan; Studer, B.; Yates, S.; Zwierzykowski, Z.; Abrouk, Michael; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Książczyk, T.; Rey, Elodie; Doležel, Jaroslav; Kopecký, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016) ISSN 1940-3372 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/11/05043; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : festuca-pratensis huds. * dna-sequencing data * lolium-perenne l. * rna-seq data * genome * cultivars * festulolium * multiflorum * hybrid * recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.736, year: 2016

  19. Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in ruminant feeds may be in the form of simple organic compounds or inorganic compounds .... Other researchers (Blaser et al., 1969) have found that cows grazing tall fescue without ... Official methods of analysis (13th edn.). Association of.

  20. Consumption of Endophyte Infected Fescue During Gestation in Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Katherine Rene

    2016-01-01

    Tall fescue is a widely grown, cool season grass prevalent in the eastern United States that is known for its resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. A main reason for tall fescue's resistance to these stresses is attributed to the presence of a fungal endophyte. Unfortunately, this endophyte also adversely affects cattle production. Cows consuming the ergot alkaloids produced by these endophytes can exhibit decreased feed intake, growth performance, organ vasoconstriction, and increased...

  1. Ergonomic assessment of drivers in MF285 and MF399 tractors during clutching using algometer

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    Hossein Fallahi

    2016-03-01

    The results showed that the clutching forces for MF285 and MF399 tractors were 340 N and 290 N, respectively. The knee angle of the drivers of the two tractors was statistically different at the one percent level of significance. The reduction of pain threshold after 30 and 60 s clutching and also 60 s rest after clutching in MF285 tractor, for all three muscles, were more than those of MF399 tractor. The impact of clutching on the average decreases of pain threshold, for all drivers and all clutching periods, during and after clutching, in the Quadratus lumborum muscle was more than the other two muscles, in both tractors. In order to reduce the clutching force for MF285 tractor some modifications is suggested. In this regard the force transfer joint between the pedal and the clutch release linkage may be replaced with one made of cast iron.

  2. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  3. What fescue toxicosis is really doing inside your animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantings of tall fescue were numerous in Kentucky during the 1940s and 1950s after the cultivar, ‘Kentucky 31’, was released. Its hardiness and adaptability resulted in the grass spreading over much of the middle and upper southeastern USA. Cases of severe lameness and sloughing of hoofs, tails, a...

  4. Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue pasture for dairy cows. TJ Dugmore, KP Walsh, Sally J. Morning, CI MacDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  5. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  6. Micrometeorological Observations in a Sierra Nevada Meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, D. A.; Oliphant, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain meadows play important roles on watershed and ecosystem services, including improving water quality, moderating runoff and providing biodiversity hotspots. In the Sierra Nevada, mountain meadows are an integral part of the mountain ecosystem and watersheds that impact more than 20 million people. Grazing, logging and other forms of anthropogenic land use in the Sierra Nevada have degraded the functioning of meadows, by altering the morphology, hydrology and vegetation. Existing meandering stream networks become incised and straightened by increased runoff, which effectively lowers the water table and completely alters the ecosystem from moist meadow sedges, grasses, and herbs to dryland grass and shrubs. Given the large growth cycle in healthy meadows, it is also expected that they sequester a significant amount of carbon and enhance atmospheric humidity through evapotranspiration, but relatively little work has been done on the bio-micrometeorology of meadows. The purpose of this study is to assess the growing season carbon, water and energy budgets of a partly degraded meadow in the northern Sierra Nevada. Loney Meadow, located at nearly 2,000 m in the Tahoe National Forest, has been identified as a degraded meadow and is scheduled to undergo restoration work to raise the water table in 2017. A micrometeorological tower with eddy covariance instruments was deployed at the site for most of the snow-free period from May to October 2016. The measurements include: fluxes of CO2, water vapor, surface radiation and energy budget components; ancillary meteorological and soil data; and an automated camera capturing daily images of the meadow surface. The poster will present diurnal and seasonal CO2 on a daily basis with a very rapid increase at the onset of the growing season.

  7. The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss Kyhn, Maria; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    To establish a method allowing multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) recording with simultaneous fundus monitoring on anaesthetized pigs. In addition we characterize the peaks of the porcine mfERG trace, and compare the visual streak area with the optic nerve head, a known non-response area....... Finally we illustrate the feasibility of the method by performing mfERG after an induced laser burn in the visual streak....

  8. Behaviour of radionuclides in meadows including countermeasures application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Perepelyatnikov, G.P.; Il'yn, M.I.; Belli, M.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Bunzl, K.; Petriaev, E.P.; Sokolik, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Main regularities of the behaviour of ChNPP release radionuclides in components of meadow ecosystems are considered. Developed mathematical model of radionuclide migration in components of meadow ecosystems is discussed. Radioecological classification of meadow ecosystems is proposed. Effectiveness of countermeasures application in meadow ecosystems is estimated

  9. Transformation of fractions into simple fractions in divisive meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    Meadows are alternatives for fields with a purely equational axiomatization. At the basis of meadows lies the decision to make the multiplicative inverse operation total by imposing that the multiplicative inverse of zero is zero. Divisive meadows are meadows with the multiplicative inverse

  10. Seedling Establishment of Tall Fescue Exposed to Long-Term Starvation Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Damiani, C. R.; Stefanini, S.; Vernieri, S.; Reyes, T. H.; Volterrani, M.; Guglielminetti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0166131. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : seedling * Tall fescue * Tall fescue exposed * starvation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  11. Cluster fescue (Festuca paradoxa Desv.): A multipurpose native cool-season grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J.W. Van Sambeek; R.A. Pierce

    2005-01-01

    Native cool-season grasses (NCSG) are adapted to a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions, and cluster fescue (Festuca paradoxa Desv.) is no exception. Cluster fescue can be found in unplowed upland prairies, prairie draws, savannas, forest openings, and glades (Aiken et al. 1996). Although its range includes 23 states in the continental...

  12. Incidence of viruses in fescue (Festuca sp.) seed production fields in the Willamette Valley in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue seed production fields of Western Oregon were sampled and tested for the presence or absence of three viruses, Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) -MAV and -PAV, and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV). There was no BYDV-MAV detected in any of the Fescue seed fields. The BYDV-PAV occurred in ...

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions Differ in Two Contrasting Tall Fescue Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The value of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for C sequestration in addition to forage production and soil conservation is of current interest. However, studies relating to the impacts of endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E-) tall fescue on soil organic matter fractions are few....

  14. Ergonomic assessment of brake and accelerator mechanisms of MF285 and MF399 tractors using electromyography method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikkhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Too many people are working in the agricultural sector and therefore, pay more attention to the safety and health at work in the agricultural sector is important. This issue is more important in developing industrial countries where the level of the ergonomic working condition is less than that of developed countries. Attention to ergonomic condition of agricultural machinery drivers is one of the goals of agricultural mechanization. Therefore, in this study the ergonomic conditions of brake and accelerator mechanisms for MF285 and MF399 tractor's drivers were investigated using a new method. Materials and Methods: 25 people were selected for experiment. The electrical activity of Medialis gastrocnemius, Lateralis gastrocnemius, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Quadratus Lumborum and Trapezius muscles of drivers before and during pressing the pedal and after rest time were recorded using Biovision device. Measurements were performed for each person on each muscle 30 seconds before pressing the pedal, 60 seconds after pressing the pedal and after 60 seconds of rest. For all drivers, the muscles on the right side (brake and accelerator side have been selected and tested. The measurements were performed in compliance with appropriate time intervals between the measurements. Results and Discussion: Ergonomic assessment of brake pedal: The results showed that the RMS electrical activity of muscles of Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius, during 60 seconds braking were 2.47 and 1.97. So, Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius had the highest stress during pressing the MF399 tractor's brake pedal. Moreover, the Medial gastrocnemius and Lateral gastrocnemius with RMS electrical activity ratio of 2.47 and 1.74 had the highest RMS electrical activity ratio respectively, during 60 seconds braking compared to before braking of MF285 tractor. The comparison of results showed that the Vastus medialis and Trapezius had the higher stress

  15. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, G.; Nelson, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14 C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14 CO 2 . Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14 C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14 C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  16. Characterizing meadow vegetation with multitemporal Landsat thematic mapper remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Karen E. Owens

    2004-01-01

    Wet meadows are important biological components in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Many meadows in the Blue Mountains and elsewhere in the Western United States are in a state of change owing to grazing, mining, logging, road development, and other factors. This project evaluated the utility of remotely sensed data to characterize and monitor meadow vegetation...

  17. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  18. Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

  19. Nutrition and In Vitro Digestibility of Tall Fescue for White-Tailed Deer, May Through November

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.E. Probasco; A.J. Bjugstad

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of the nutritive quality and digestibility of ferilized and unfertilized tall fescue in spring, summer, and fall. The grass may be most valuable as food in early spring and late fall, and on unfertilized sites.

  20. A Simple Tall Fescue Seed Extraction and Partial Purification of Ergovaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several substances present in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Lolium arundinaceum /Neotyphodium coenophialum) that have biological activity. These include the pyrrolizidine and ergot alkaloids plus peramine. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids have significant mammalian to...

  1. Edificio de viviendas. Lake Meadows Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore - Owings y Merrill, Arquitectos

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available "Lake Meadows" es una amplia parcela, de cuatrocientos mil metros cuadrados, situada en las afueras de Chicago, con vistas dominantes sobre el lago Michigan. En tan bello emplazamiento se ha construido uno de los más atractivos conjuntos residenciales norteamericanos.

  2. Observations of the Mf ocean tide from Geosat altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, David E.; Ray, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Zonal averages of the 13.66-day Mf tide are derived from one year of Geosat altimetry records. The orbit errors are reduced by 1/revolution corrections taken over long (several day) arcs. The short-period tides are removed using a model previously derived from the same data. The Mf zonal averages indicate definite nonequilibrium character at nearly all latitudes. The imaginary admittances indicate a Q of at least 8; such a value is consistent with a simplified theory of coupled gravitational and vorticity modes and suggests a value for Proudman's 'friction period' about 123 days.

  3. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August...

  4. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti

  5. MF-Swift simulation study using benchmark data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Verhoeff, L.; Cremers, R.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Besselink, I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of tyre models depends to a large extent on the measurement data used to assess model parameters. The MF-Swift tyre model parameters can be identified or estimated from various combinations of experimental data. The amount and required accuracy of the measurement data can be selected

  6. Examining the efficiency and interdependence of US credit and stock markets through MF-DFA and MF-DXA approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Nor, Safwan Mohd; Mensi, Walid; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the power law properties of 11 US credit and stock markets at the industry level. We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) to first investigate the relative efficiency of credit and stock markets and then evaluate the mutual interdependence between CDS-equity market pairs. The scaling exponents of the MF-DFA approach suggest that CDS markets are relatively more inefficient than their equity counterparts. However, Banks and Financial credit markets are relatively more efficient. Basic Materials (both CDS and equity indices) is the most inefficient sector of the US economy. The cross-correlation exponents obtained through MF-DXA also suggest that the relationship of the CDS and equity sectors within and across markets is multifractal for all pairs. Within the CDS market, Basic Materials is the most dependent sector, whereas equity market sectors can be divided into two distinct groups based on interdependence. The pair-wise dependence between Basic Materials sector CDSs and the equity index is also the highest. The degree of cross-correlation shows that the sectoral pairs of CDS and equity markets belong to a persistent cross-correlated series within selected time intervals.

  7. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Habitat characteristics provide insights of carbon storage in seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2018-02-17

    Seagrass meadows provide multiple ecosystem services, yet they are among the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Because of their role as carbon sinks, protection and restoration of seagrass meadows contribute to climate change mitigation. Blue Carbon strategies aim to enhance CO2 sequestration and avoid greenhouse gasses emissions through the management of coastal vegetated ecosystems, including seagrass meadows. The implementation of Blue Carbon strategies requires a good understanding of the habitat characteristics that influence Corg sequestration. Here, we review the existing knowledge on Blue Carbon research in seagrass meadows to identify the key habitat characteristics that influence Corg sequestration in seagrass meadows, those factors that threaten this function and those with unclear effects. We demonstrate that not all seagrass habitats have the same potential, identify research priorities and describe the implications of the results found for the implementation and development of efficient Blue Carbon strategies based on seagrass meadows.

  9. Behaviour of radionuclides in meadows and efficiency of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzharova, N.I.; Fesenko, S.V.; Kotik, V.A.; Spiridonov, S.I.

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides and the efficiency of countermeasures were dependent on meadow type. The migration of 137 Cs proceeds much more slowly in the soil profile on dry meadows than on peatlands and flooded land. The half-life of 137 Cs in the root zone changes from 10 to 25 years. The highest transfer factors in grasslands are obtained for peaty lands and flooded meadows, and minimal ones for dry meadows. The first half-life of 137 Cs transfer to plants changes from 2.0 to 2.2 years and the second (slower) half-life changes from 4.0 to 12 years for different meadow types. The countermeasure efficiency in meadows varied from 1.2 to 10.0. (Author)

  10. Habitat characteristics provide insights of carbon storage in seagrass meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S; Lovelock, Catherine E; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M; Cortés, Jorge

    2018-02-16

    Seagrass meadows provide multiple ecosystem services, yet they are among the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Because of their role as carbon sinks, protection and restoration of seagrass meadows contribute to climate change mitigation. Blue Carbon strategies aim to enhance CO 2 sequestration and avoid greenhouse gasses emissions through the management of coastal vegetated ecosystems, including seagrass meadows. The implementation of Blue Carbon strategies requires a good understanding of the habitat characteristics that influence C org sequestration. Here, we review the existing knowledge on Blue Carbon research in seagrass meadows to identify the key habitat characteristics that influence C org sequestration in seagrass meadows, those factors that threaten this function and those with unclear effects. We demonstrate that not all seagrass habitats have the same potential, identify research priorities and describe the implications of the results found for the implementation and development of efficient Blue Carbon strategies based on seagrass meadows. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary analysis of productivity of fruiting fungi on Strzeleckie meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sadowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis demonstrated that the fresh ahd dry weight as well as the ash content of fungal fruit bodies collected on a forest-surrounded unmown meadow (Stellario-Deschampsietum Freitag 1957 and Caricetum elatae W.Koch 1926 were lower than the same values for a plot of exploited mown meadow and higher than on an exploited unmown meadow (Arrhenatheretum medioeuropaeum (Br.-Bl. Oberd. 1952.

  12. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  13. Relative effectiveness of sewage sludge as a nitrogen fertilizer for tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiemnec, G.L.; Jackson, T.L.; Hemphill, D.D. Jr.; Volk, V.V.

    Sewage sludge application rates on grasses are mainly determined by N availability and concentration of toxic metals in sludge. The exact availability of N in sludge is difficult to predict. A 3-yr study was conducted to determine which sludge rates would give yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb. Alta) comparable to yields obtained from inorganic N application. Sludge and NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ were surface applied at annual rates of 0, 110, 220, 440, and 880 (sludge only) kg N/ha. Dry matter yield of tall fescue from sludge-treated soils was 36, 56, and 50% of that on NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/-treated soils for 1976, 1977, and 1978, respectively. Sludge was 27, 41, and 44% as effective as NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ as a source of available N in 1976, 1977, and 1978, respectively. Ammonium-N in the sewage sludge apparently provided most of the available N for fescue growth. Concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Cu were higher and Mn lower in tall fescue grown on sludge-treated soil with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and usually increased toward the end of the growing season. However, plant concentrations of these heavy metals never reached toxic levels at any time. Sewage sludge was an effective and safe nutrient source for tall fescue.

  14. Effects of selected combinations of tall fescue alkaloids on the vasoconstrictive capacity of fescue-naive bovine lateral saphenous veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Kirch, B H; Aiken, G E; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2008-04-01

    Vasoconstriction is a response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively in mediating the response. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of selected ergot alkaloids, individually or in paired combinations, using bovine lateral saphenous veins biopsied from fescue-naïve cattle. Segments (2 to 3 cm) of vein were surgically biopsied from healthy crossbred yearling heifers (n = 22; 330 +/- 8 kg of BW). Veins were trimmed of excess fat and connective tissue, sliced into 2- to 3-mm sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O(2)/5% CO(2); pH = 7.4; 37 degrees C). Increasing doses of ergovaline, lysergic acid, and N-acetylloline individually or in combination were evaluated. Contractile data were normalized as a percentage of the contractile response induced by a reference dose of norepinephrine (1 x 10(- 4) M). Increasing concentrations of lysergic acid did not result in an appreciable contractile response until the addition of 1 x 10(- 4) M lysergic acid. In contrast, the vascular response to increasing concentrations of ergovaline was apparent at 1 x 10(- 8) M and increased to a maximum of 104.2 +/- 6.0% with the addition of 1 x 10(- 4) M ergovaline. The presence of N-acetylloline did not alter the onset or magnitude of vascular response to either lysergic acid or ergovaline. The presence of 1 x 10(- 5) M lysergic acid with increasing concentrations of N-acetylloline and ergovaline generated an increased contractile response during the initial additions compared with the responses of N-acetylloline and ergovaline alone. In the presence of 1 x 10(- 7) M ergovaline, the contractile response increased with increasing concentrations of N-acetylloline and lysergic acid. Neither N-acetylloline nor lysergic acid elicited an intense contractile response individually

  15. Meadow contraction and extinction debt in meadow plants and moths in the Western Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows in the western Cascades have contracted and fragmented by approximately 50% in the past 60 years. These habitats occupy only about 5% of the landscape of the western Cascades but are important for the preservation of biodiversity and rare species. This habitat loss and ...

  16. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  17. Division by zero in non-involutive meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Meadows have been proposed as alternatives for fields with a purely equational axiomatization. At the basis of meadows lies the decision to make the multiplicative inverse operation total by imposing that the multiplicative inverse of zero is zero. Thus, the multiplicative inverse operation of a

  18. GEOMORPHIC CONTROLS ON MEADOW ECOSYSTEMS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet meadows, riparian corridor phreatophyte assemblages, and high-altitude spring-fed aspen meadows comprise a very small percentage of the total landscape of the mountain ranges in the central Great Basin however, they represent important ecological environments. We have used s...

  19. Hydrology of Dutch Cirsio-Molinietum meadows : Prospects for restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A. J. M.; Grootjans, A. P.; Jalink, M. H.; Bakker, J.P.

    . Fen meadows (Cirsio dissecti-Molinietum) are seriously threatened by desiccation, acidification and eutro-phication. In The Netherlands several projects were launched to restore damaged fen meadows. This review describes how successes and failures of these restoration projects depend on

  20. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Mitchel P. McClaran; Peggy E. Moore; Neil K. McDougald

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer’s reed grass (...

  1. Growth and metabolism of growing beef calves fed tall fescue haylage supplemented with protein and(or) energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W L; Gay, N; Boling, J A; Muntifering, R B

    1987-10-01

    Endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue was fertilized in mid-August, stockpiled, harvested November 4 to 6 and stored in a concrete stave silo. Ninety-six growing calves (189 kg) were assigned to the following treatments (24 calves/treatment): 1) corn silage (CS) plus .4 kg/d of soybean meal (SBM; 2) fescue haylage plus .4 kg/d of SBM; 3) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and 4) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and .4 kg/d of SBM. Daily gains and dry matter (DM) intakes during the 91-d trial were .52, 4.58; .51, 5.22; .59, 6.06; and .63, 6.18 kg for treatments 1 through 4, respectively. Daily gains of calves fed corn silage plus SBM and fescue haylage plus SBM were not different (P greater than .05). However, a difference (P less than .05) existed between treatments 1 and 2 vs 3 and 4. Feed conversion was improved (P less than .05) in calves fed corn silage. Calves in a metabolism trial were fed either 1) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage or 2) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn. Digestibility of DM, N-free extract (NFE) and TDN did not differ (P greater than .05) between treatments. Ether extract digestibility was greater (P less than .05) for the added corn diet, while that of CP was greater (P less than .05) for the fescue haylage diet. Nitrogen retained was higher (P less than .05) for calves fed added corn. A follow-up trial with 96 growing calves (190 kg) compared September- and November-harvested fescue haylages supplemented with either 1.3 or 2.6 kg corn/d.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka

    2017-04-01

    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  3. Historical Meadow Dynamics in Southwest British Columbia: a Multidisciplinary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lepofsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent encroachment of woody species threatening many western North American meadows has been attributed to diverse factors. We used a suite of methods in Chittenden Meadow, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to identify the human, ecological, and physical factors responsible for its historical dynamics and current encroachment by woody vegetation. We evaluated three hypotheses about the origin and processes maintaining the meadow: the meadow is (1 of recent human origin; (2 of ancient human origin, maintained by aboriginal burning; and (3 of ancient non-human origin, not maintained by aboriginal burning. Our data supported the idea that the meadow had ancient non-human origins and its recent history and current status have resulted from complex interactions among landform, climate, and fire. Soil properties (both horizonation and charcoal content indicate that the meadow is of ancient, non-human origin. Tree ages in the meadow and surrounding forest indicate that encroachment is recent, not related to a variety of recent human activities, and is probably a result of increasing spring temperature and decreasing spring snow depth. Although ethnographic surveys and historical documents revealed indigenous use of the general area over millennia, including the use of fire as a management tool, we found little direct evidence of indigenous use of the meadow. However, there was no proxy record of fire frequency in the meadow that we could have used to determine the role of fire in maintaining the meadow in the past, or the role of humans in igniting those fires. Thus, the historical role of humans in the maintenance of the meadow by prescribed fire remains indeterminate. Based on these conclusions, we combined hypotheses (2 and (3 into an a posteriori hypothesis that reflects changing interactions among people, fire, and climate over time. Without management intervention, we expect that tree encroachment will continue. Several general lessons

  4. Effect of management factors on tiller dynamics in tall fescue: tiller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of plant density (row spacing/seeding rate), nitrogen (N) fertilization, cultivar choice and close-down date on tiller initiation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), managed for seed production, was examined over two years. In the first season, tiller studies were conducted on eight individual plants in each ...

  5. Differential effects of citric acid on cadmium uptake and accumulation between tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuTing; Dong, Qin; Wang, ZhaoLong

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids play an important role in cadmium availability, uptake, translocation, and detoxification. A sand culture experiment was designed to investigate the effects of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass. The results showed that two grass species presented different Cd chemical forms, organic acid components and amount in roots. The dormant Cd accumulated in roots of tall fescue was the pectate- and protein- integrated form, which contributed by 84.85%. However, in Kentucky bluegrass, the pectate- and protein- integrated Cd was only contributed by 35.78%, and the higher proportion of Cd form was the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes. In tall fescue, citric acid dramatically enhanced 2.8 fold of Cd uptake, 3 fold of root Cd accumulation, and 2.3 fold of shoot Cd accumulation. In Kentucky bluegrass, citric acid promoted Cd accumulation in roots, but significantly decreased Cd accumulation in shoots. These results suggested that the enhancements of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue was associated with its promotion of organic acids and the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  7. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  8. Modelling of seed yield and its components in tall fescue (Festuca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... number spikelet -1 (Y4), seed weight (Y5), and the seed yield (Z) of tall fescue were determined in field experiments from 2003 to .... the time of fertilisation (X1), the quantity of irrigation (X2), the amount of N applied (X3), the ...... certain agronomical traits in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Afr. J. Biotechnol.

  9. Uptake of 137Cs from coniferous forest soil by sheep's fescue in pot experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawaris, B. H.; Johanson, K. J.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake of Chernobyl fallout radiocaesium ( 137 Cs) from forest soils with low nutrients, high organic matter content, and acidic pH were examined in pot experiments. Results of sheep's fescue (Festuca ovina) two harvests after growing period of 13 weeks each, showed a slight variation in the 137 Cs uptake. Transfer factor (TF) for 137 Cs based upon soil-to-plant relationships calculated, (Bqkg -1 plant DW/Bqkg -1 soil DW). The ranges were from 0.03 to 3.43 with a mean of 0.34 ± 0.31 for first cut and from 0.03 to 2.28 with a mean of 0.36 ± 0.33 for second cut. Variation in the uptake of 137 Cs by sheep's fescue grass might be due to the influence of soil pH and OM % in conjunction with soil moisture. The effect of potassium (K + ), stable caesium (Cs + ), and ammonium (NH 4 + ) that were added as chlorides on 137 Cs uptake by sheep's fescue were also tested in pot experiment under the same conditions of previous set-up. Results from three harvests after growing period of 13 weeks each, demonstrated that K + reduced the uptake of 137 Cs. In contrast the addition of both stable Cs + and NH 4 + found to enhance 137 Cs uptake by sheep's fescue. (author)

  10. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  11. Climate change and Epichloë coenophiala association modify belowground fungal symbioses of tall fescue host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human alteration of symbiont genetics among aboveground endophytic Epichloë coenophiala strains within tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) has led to widespread deployment of novel grass-endophyte combinations, yet little is known about their ecological consequences. In this study, clone pairs (e...

  12. Effects of Tall Fescue Forage Mass on Steer Ingestive Behavior and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] is a well adapted perennial pasture species utilized across the north-south transition zone of the United States and in similar environments worldwide. This 3-yr trial evaluated the influence of three forage masses (FM) on steer and pasture respons...

  13. Analysis and Evaluation of Manoeuvrability Characteristics of Polish Ferries m/f „Polonia” and m/f „Gryf”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szymonski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some specific manner of M/F “Polonia” manoeuvring at the Ystad harbour where she is regarded to be “over maximal ship” and also M/F “Gryf” manoeuvring at Trelleborg, taking part into consideration the effect of wind pressure into the ship’s superstructures and houses.

  14. Fasciola spp: Mapping of the MF6 epitope and antigenic analysis of the MF6p/HDM family of heme-binding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Martínez-Sernández

    Full Text Available MF6p/FhHDM-1 is a small cationic heme-binding protein which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb MF6, and abundantly present in parenchymal cells and secreted antigens of Fasciola hepatica. Orthologs of this protein (MF6p/HDMs also exist in other causal agents of important foodborne trematodiasis, such as Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Paragonimus westermani. Considering that MF6p/FhHDM-1 is relevant for heme homeostasis in Fasciola and was reported to have immunomodulatory properties, this protein is expected to be a useful target for vaccination. Thus, in this study we mapped the epitope recognized by mAb MF6 and evaluated its antigenicity in sheep. The sequence of the MF6p/FhHDM-1 ortholog from F. gigantica (MF6p/FgHDM-1 was also reported. By means of ELISA inhibitions with overlapping synthetic peptides, we determined that the epitope recognized by mAb MF6 is located within the C-terminal moiety of MF6p/FhHDM-1, which is the most conserved region of MF6p/HDMs. By immunoblotting analysis of parasite extracts and ELISA inhibitions with synthetic peptides we also determined that mAb MF6 reacted with the same intensity with F. hepatica and F. gigantica, and in decreasing order of intensity with C. sinensis, O.viverrini and P. westermani orthologs. On the contrary, mAb MF6 showed no reactivity against Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Schistosoma mansoni. The study of the recognition of peptides covering different regions of MF6p/FhHDM-1 by sera from immunized sheep revealed that the C-terminal moiety is the most antigenic, thus being of potential interest for vaccination. We also demonstrated that the production of antibodies to MF6p/FhHDM-1 in sheep infected by F. hepatica occurs relatively early and follows the same pattern as those produced against L-cathepsins.

  15. Photosynthetic activity buffers ocean acidification in seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, I. E.; Olsen, Y. S.; Ramajo, L.; Basso, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Moore, T. S.; Howard, J.; Duarte, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophytes growing in shallow coastal zones characterised by intense metabolic activity have the capacity to modify pH within their canopy and beyond. We observed diel pH changes in shallow (5-12 m) seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows spanning 0.06 pH units in September to 0.24 units in June. The carbonate system (pH, DIC, and aragonite saturation state (ΩAr)) and O2 within the meadows displayed strong diel variability driven by primary productivity, and changes in chemistry were related to structural parameters of the meadow, in particular, the leaf surface area available for photosynthesis (LAI). LAI was positively correlated to mean, max and range pHNBS and max and range ΩAr. In June, vertical mixing (as Turbulent Kinetic Energy) influenced max and min ΩAr, while in September there was no effect of hydrodynamics on the carbonate system within the canopy. Max and range ΩAr within the meadow showed a positive trend with the calcium carbonate load of the leaves, pointing to a possible link between structural parameters, ΩAr and carbonate deposition. Calcifying organisms, e.g. epiphytes with carbonate skeletons, may benefit from the modification of the carbonate system by the meadow. There is, however, concern for the ability of seagrasses to provide modifications of similar importance in the future. The predicted decline of seagrass meadows may alter the scope for alteration of pH within a seagrass meadow and in the water column above the meadow, particularly if shoot density and biomass decline, on which LAI is based. Organisms associated with seagrass communities may therefore suffer from the loss of pH buffering capacity in degraded meadows.

  16. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  17. Sensitivity of permanent meadows areas. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcelot, L.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work proposed in the framework of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project on the permanent meadows areas is to compare the sensitivity of these surfaces and cheese maker sector which are associated with them, and to identify the processes which determine this sensitivity. The realization of this objective will lean on certain data of activities acquired recently by the I.R.S.N. (compartments: soils, herb, milk and cheese), as well as on new measures, on three sites: Saint-Laurent-de-Geris ( West), Beaune-Le-Froid ( center), and Massif of Jura (East). Two scales of transfers observation and sensitivity are retained. In a first time, the sensitivity of meadows areas will studied at the regional scale, from data acquired in the Massif du Jura ( between 300 and 1200 metres up). In a second time, a study will allow to compare the sensitivity of three areas retained (West, Center, East) at the national scale. The expertise will be focused on the factors of sensitivity of the transfer soil-herb and the factors of sensitivity bound to the cheese makers sectors. The data of the already available zones of study create strong variabilities of the rates of 137 Cs transfer in the interfaces soil / herb and herb / milk, letting suppose that the nature of soils, the quantity and the quality of food ingested by the cattle constitutes dominating factors of sensitivity. Besides, the size of the basin of milk collection, extremely variable from a site of study in the other one, has to influence the contamination of cheeses and as such, it establishes an important factor of sensitivity of the cheese makers sector. (N.C.)

  18. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  19. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh

    2017-01-19

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti-fouling layer can include a stimuli responsive layer and a dynamic protective layer applied over the stimuli responsive layer that can be a coating on a surface of the membrane. The stimuli responsive polymer layer can act as an adhesive prior to coating with the dynamic protective layer to aid in adhering the dynamic protective layer to the membrane surface. The dynamic protective layer can be formed by suitable nanoparticles that can prevent adhesion of foulants directly to the membrane surface. The stimuli responsive layer can be responsive to physio- chemical stimuli to cause a release of the stimuli responsive layer and the dynamic protective layer including foulants from the membrane.

  20. Habitat characteristics provide insights of carbon storage in seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Iné s; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Marbà , Nú ria; Duarte, Carlos M.; Corté s, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Carbon strategies aim to enhance CO2 sequestration and avoid greenhouse gasses emissions through the management of coastal vegetated ecosystems, including seagrass meadows. The implementation of Blue Carbon strategies requires a good understanding

  1. Probability functions in the context of signed involutive meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Kolmogorov axioms for probability functions are placed in the context of signed meadows. A completeness theorem is stated and proven for the resulting equational theory of probability calculus. Elementary definitions of probability theory are restated in this framework.

  2. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar

    2016-08-15

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (C-org) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher C-org stocks (averaging 6.3 kg C-org m(-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 gC(org) m(-2) yr(-1) ) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg C-org m(-2) and 3.6 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1) . In shallower meadows, C-org stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88% in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45% on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr(-1) and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr(-1) and 5 %, respectively). The C-org stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg C-org m(-2) and 1.2 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1)were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  3. Flooding tolerance of four floodplain meadow species depends on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Johannes P; Donath, Tobias W; Eckstein, R Lutz; Ludewig, Kristin; Otte, Annette; Harvolk-Schöning, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Numerous restoration campaigns focused on re-establishing species-rich floodplain meadows of Central Europe, whose species composition is essentially controlled by regular flooding. Climate change predictions expect strong alterations on the discharge regime of Europe's large rivers with little-known consequences on floodplain meadow plants. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of flooding on seedlings of different ages of four typical flood meadow species. To this end, we flooded seedlings of two familial pairs of flood meadow species of wetter and dryer microhabitats for 2 weeks each, starting 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after seedling germination, respectively. We show that a 2-week-flooding treatment had a negative effect on performance of seedlings younger than 6 weeks. Summer floods with high floodwater temperatures may have especially detrimental effects on seedlings, which is corroborated by previous findings. As expected, the plants from wet floodplain meadow microhabitats coped better with the flooding treatment than those from dryer microhabitats. In conclusion, our results suggest that restoration measures may perform more successfully if seedlings of restored species are older than the critical age of about 6 weeks before a spring flooding begins. Seasonal flow patterns may influence vegetation dynamics of floodplain meadows and should, therefore, be taken into account when timing future restoration campaigns.

  4. Flooding tolerance of four floodplain meadow species depends on age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes P Gattringer

    Full Text Available Numerous restoration campaigns focused on re-establishing species-rich floodplain meadows of Central Europe, whose species composition is essentially controlled by regular flooding. Climate change predictions expect strong alterations on the discharge regime of Europe's large rivers with little-known consequences on floodplain meadow plants. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of flooding on seedlings of different ages of four typical flood meadow species. To this end, we flooded seedlings of two familial pairs of flood meadow species of wetter and dryer microhabitats for 2 weeks each, starting 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after seedling germination, respectively. We show that a 2-week-flooding treatment had a negative effect on performance of seedlings younger than 6 weeks. Summer floods with high floodwater temperatures may have especially detrimental effects on seedlings, which is corroborated by previous findings. As expected, the plants from wet floodplain meadow microhabitats coped better with the flooding treatment than those from dryer microhabitats. In conclusion, our results suggest that restoration measures may perform more successfully if seedlings of restored species are older than the critical age of about 6 weeks before a spring flooding begins. Seasonal flow patterns may influence vegetation dynamics of floodplain meadows and should, therefore, be taken into account when timing future restoration campaigns.

  5. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C W; Grigsby, K N; Aldrich, C G; Paterson, J A; Lipsey, R J; Kerley, M S; Garner, G B

    1992-05-01

    Two 120-d trials (May to September, 1988 and 1989) determined the effects of grazing tall fescue (two varieties) or orchardgrass on forage intake and performance by beef cows. Each summer, 48 cow-calf pairs grazed endophyte-infected Kentucky-31 tall fescue (KY-31), endophyte-free Mozark tall fescue (MOZARK), or Hallmark orchardgrass (OG) pastures (16 pairs/treatment). Forage OM intakes and digestibilities were determined during June and August each year. Cow and calf BW and milk production were determined every 28 d. During June of both years, OM intakes did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments. During August of 1988, intakes were 18% lower (P less than .05) by KY-31 cows (1.6% of BW) than by MOZARK or OG cows (average 1.95% of BW); however, no differences (P greater than .10) were measured in August of 1989. Estimates of ergovaline consumption during June from KY-31 were between 4.2 (1988) and 6.0 mg/d (1989), whereas August estimates were between 1.1 (1988) and 2.8 mg/d (1989). Ergovaline in MOZARK estrusa was below detection limits, except in August of 1989. Cows that grazed KY-31 lost three times (P less than .01) more BW than cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (42 vs 9 and 13 kg, respectively). Milk production by KY-31 cows was 25% lower (P less than .01) than that by cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (6.0 vs average of 8.0 kg/d). Similarly, slower (P less than .01) calf gains were noted for KY-31 than for MOZARK or OG (.72 vs .89 and .88 kg/d, respectively). Cows grazing KY-31 experienced accelerated BW loss and reduced milk production and weaned lighter calves than did cows grazing MOZARK or OG. Decreased performance was not explained by consistently reduced forage intakes; hence, altered nutrient utilization was suspected.

  6. Agronomic Evaluation and Genetic Variation of Tunisian Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chtourou-Ghorbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine important agronomic traits were used to assess the genetic diversity of Tunisian tall fescue and to investigate the extent of genotype X environment (GE interaction and its implications for breeding programs. These traits were studied for three consecutive years in thirty-five spontaneous populations and three cultivars. Panicle size contributed to seeds production, while the plant height at harvest and dry matter yield were selected for forage performance. Analysis of variance demonstrated that population attitude depended on the year and environmental conditions. Principal component analysis revealed significant similarities among some spontaneous populations and cultivars. The relationship between environmental conditions and agronomic traits revealed the influence of altitude, soil texture and minimum temperature on forage production, seed yield, and the architecture of plants, respectively. In addition, the local adapted ecotypes originating from Bizerte, Sidi Nsir, and Rass Rajel attained greater agronomic potentialities than control cultivars and were of considerable economic interest for the improvement of Tunisian tall fescue.

  7. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  8. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.; Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.

    2004-07-01

    Large mesospheric electric fields can play an essential role in middle atmospheric electrodynamics (see, e.g., Goldberg, R. A., Middle Atmospheric Electrodynamics during MAP, Adv. Space Res. 10 (10) (1990) 209). The V/m electric fields of atmospheric origin can be the possible cause of large variations in the electron collision frequency at mesospheric altitudes, and this provides a unique opportunity to take measurements of electric fields in the lower ionosphere by using remote sensing instruments employing radiowave techniques. A technique has been proposed for making estimates of large mesospheric electric field intensities on the lower edge of the ionosphere by using MF radar data and the inherent effective electron collision frequency. To do this, data collected in Canada and Ukraine were utilized. The developed technique permits the changes in mesospheric electric field intensities to be derived from MF radar data in real time. The statistical analysis of data consistent with large mesospheric electric field intensities in the 60-67km region resulted in the following inferences. There are at least two mechanisms for the generation of large mesospheric electric fields in the mesosphere. The most likely mechanism, with a probability of 60-70%, is the summation of random fields from a large number of elementary small-scale mesospheric generators, which results in a one-parameter Rayleigh distribution of the total large mesospheric electric field intensity E with a mean value of approximately 0.7-0.9V/m in the 60-67km altitude region, or in the corresponding one-parameter exponential distribution of the intensity squared E2 of large mesospheric electric fields. The second mechanism of unknown nature, with 5-15% probability, gives rise to the sporadic appearance of large mesospheric electric field intensities E>2.5V/m with a mean of 4V/m. Statistically significant seasonal differences in the averaged large mesospheric electric field parameters have not been

  9. Pentobarbital Sleep Time in Mouse Lines Selected for Resistance and Susceptibility to Fescue Toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Kimberly Ann

    2002-01-01

    In previous work with mouse lines selected for resistance (R) and susceptibility (S) to fescue toxicosis, R mice had higher activities of Phase II liver enzymes glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl-transferase than S mice. Objectives of this study were: 1. to determine whether selection for toxicosis response had also caused divergence between lines in hepatic Phase I enzyme activity (as assessed by sleep time following sodium pentobarbital anesthesia), 2. to determi...

  10. A subsurface model of the beaver meadow complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C.; Grant, G.; Flinchum, B. A.; Lancaster, J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Davis, L. G.; Lewis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wet meadows are a vital component of arid and semi-arid environments. These valley spanning, seasonally inundated wetlands provide critical habitat and refugia for wildlife, and may potentially mediate catchment-scale hydrology in otherwise "water challenged" landscapes. In the last 150 years, these meadows have begun incising rapidly, causing the wetlands to drain and much of the ecological benefit to be lost. The mechanisms driving this incision are poorly understood, with proposed means ranging from cattle grazing to climate change, to the removal of beaver. There is considerable interest in identifying cost-effective strategies to restore the hydrologic and ecological conditions of these meadows at a meaningful scale, but effective process based restoration first requires a thorough understanding of the constructional history of these ubiquitous features. There is emerging evidence to suggest that the North American beaver may have had a considerable role in shaping this landscape through the building of dams. This "beaver meadow complex hypothesis" posits that as beaver dams filled with fine-grained sediments, they became large wet meadows on which new dams, and new complexes, were formed, thereby aggrading valley bottoms. A pioneering study done in Yellowstone indicated that 32-50% of the alluvial sediment was deposited in ponded environments. The observed aggradation rates were highly heterogeneous, suggesting spatial variability in the depositional process - all consistent with the beaver meadow complex hypothesis (Polvi and Wohl, 2012). To expand on this initial work, we have probed deeper into these meadow complexes using a combination of geophysical techniques, coring methods and numerical modeling to create a 3-dimensional representation of the subsurface environments. This imaging has given us a unique view into the patterns and processes responsible for the landforms, and may shed further light on the role of beaver in shaping these landscapes.

  11. Coral Community Structure and Recruitment in Seagrass Meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Lohr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coral communities are increasingly found to populate non-reef habitats prone to high environmental variability. Such sites include seagrass meadows, which are generally not considered optimal habitats for corals as a result of limited suitable substrate for settlement and substantial diel and seasonal fluctuations in physicochemical conditions relative to neighboring reefs. Interest in understanding the ability of corals to persist in non-reef habitats has grown, however little baseline data exists on community structure and recruitment of scleractinian corals in seagrass meadows. To determine how corals populate seagrass meadows, we surveyed the established and recruited coral community over 25 months within seagrass meadows at Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Simultaneous surveys of established and recruited coral communities at neighboring back-reef sites were conducted for comparison. To fully understand the amount of environmental variability to which corals in each habitat were exposed, we conducted complementary surveys of physicochemical conditions in both seagrass meadows and back-reefs. Despite overall higher variability in physicochemical conditions, particularly pH, compared to the back-reef, 14 coral taxa were capable of inhabiting seagrass meadows, and multiple coral families were also found to recruit to these sites. However, coral cover and species diversity, richness, and evenness were lower at sites within seagrass meadows compared to back-reef sites. Although questions remain regarding the processes governing recruitment, these results provide evidence that seagrass beds can serve as functional habitats for corals despite high levels of environmental variability and suboptimal conditions compared to neighboring reefs.

  12. MF Scales: Instruments of Male Chauvinism or Responsible Tools of the Psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Lenore W.

    A study is made of the validity of the use of MF scales. It is pointed out that femininity is often a liability in the psychologist's office. Clients who have MF scores considered to be more appropriate for the opposite sex are threatened by them. If the clinician assumes the client has an abnormal score, the ensuing therapy usually will be…

  13. ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Melissa; Sater, Mohamad R. Abdul; Schmid, Christoph D.; Noreen, Faiza; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Schuermann, David; Schär, Primo

    2017-03-01

    Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as “possibly carcinogenic” to humans on the grounds of an epidemiological association of ELF-MF exposure with an increased risk of childhood leukaemia. Yet, underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Genome instability seems an unlikely reason as the energy transmitted by ELF-MF is too low to damage DNA and induce cancer-promoting mutations. ELF-MF, however, may perturb the epigenetic code of genomes, which is well-known to be sensitive to environmental conditions and generally deranged in cancers, including leukaemia. We examined the potential of ELF-MF to influence key epigenetic modifications in leukaemic Jurkat cells and in human CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells undergoing in vitro differentiation into the neutrophilic lineage. During granulopoiesis, sensitive genome-wide profiling of multiple replicate experiments did not reveal any statistically significant, ELF-MF-dependent alterations in the patterns of active (H3K4me2) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone marks nor in DNA methylation. However, ELF-MF exposure showed consistent effects on the reproducibility of these histone and DNA modification profiles (replicate variability), which appear to be of a stochastic nature but show preferences for the genomic context. The data indicate that ELF-MF exposure stabilizes active chromatin, particularly during the transition from a repressive to an active state during cell differentiation.

  14. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, O.; Ruhon, R.; Lavery, P. S.; Kendrick, G. A.; Hickey, S.; Masqué , P.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Steven, A.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m−2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m−2 yr−1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m−2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  15. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, O.

    2016-03-16

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m−2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m−2 yr−1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m−2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  16. Genome-wide SNP identification in multiple morphotypes of allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hand Melanie L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs provide essential tools for the advancement of research in plant genomics, and the development of SNP resources for many species has been accelerated by the capabilities of second-generation sequencing technologies. The current study aimed to develop and use a novel bioinformatic pipeline to generate a comprehensive collection of SNP markers within the agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue; an outbreeding allopolyploid species displaying three distinct morphotypes: Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous. Results A bioinformatic pipeline was developed that successfully identified SNPs within genotypes from distinct tall fescue morphotypes, following the sequencing of 414 polymerase chain reaction (PCR – generated amplicons using 454 GS FLX technology. Equivalent amplicon sets were derived from representative genotypes of each morphotype, including six Continental, five Mediterranean and one rhizomatous. A total of 8,584 and 2,292 SNPs were identified with high confidence within the Continental and Mediterranean morphotypes respectively. The success of the bioinformatic approach was demonstrated through validation (at a rate of 70% of a subset of 141 SNPs using both SNaPshot™ and GoldenGate™ assay chemistries. Furthermore, the quantitative genotyping capability of the GoldenGate™ assay revealed that approximately 30% of the putative SNPs were accessible to co-dominant scoring, despite the hexaploid genome structure. The sub-genome-specific origin of each SNP validated from Continental tall fescue was predicted using a phylogenetic approach based on comparison with orthologous sequences from predicted progenitor species. Conclusions Using the appropriate bioinformatic approach, amplicon resequencing based on 454 GS FLX technology is an effective method for the identification of polymorphic SNPs within the genomes of Continental and Mediterranean tall fescue. The

  17. Evaluating blood perfusion of the corpus luteum in beef cows during fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, G F; Muth-Spurlock, A M; Voelz, B E; Lemley, C O; Larson, J E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if fescue toxicosis altered blood perfusion in the corpus luteum (CL) and peripheral concentrations of progesterone in cattle. The estrous cycles of 36 nonpregnant Angus or Charolais cows were synchronized in 2 replicates using the CO-Synch+CIDR protocol. Seven days after initiation of the protocol, cows were assigned (d 0) to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: 2.5 kg of 1) Kentucky-31 endophyte-infected (KY31; = 14) or 2) MaxQ novel endophyte (MaxQ; = 12) tall fescue seed. On d 7, ovaries were examined using ultrasonography, and only cows that had 1 CL present remained on the study ( = 26). Images of blood perfusion of CL, blood samples, rectal temperatures, and blood pressure of tails were collected on d 10, 13, 15, and 18. Images of CL blood perfusion were analyzed using ImageJ software for pixel density, and scored visually (0 to 9 with 0 = no perfusion, 9 = complete perfusion) by 2 independent technicians. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used with day as a repeated measure. Least squares means and SEM are reported. Cows receiving KY31 had greater rectal temperatures ( 0.003; 38.76 ± 0.08°C) than those receiving MaxQ (38.44 ± 0.08°C), providing evidence that the cows treated with KY31 were influenced by fescue toxicosis. Pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure were decreased ( cows receiving KY31 (55.26 ± 2.81 and 80.06 ± 2.72 mmHg, respectively) than MaxQ (66.58 ± 3.03 and 91.38 ± 2.93 mmHg, respectively). Concentrations of progesterone were similar ( = 0.54) between cows receiving KY31 (6.04 ± 0.53 ng/mL) or MaxQ (6.36 ± 0.63 ng/mL). Pixel densities ( = 0.14) and visual perfusion scores were similar ( = 0.11) between cows receiving KY31 (1477.20 ± 655.62 pixels and 2.23 ± 0.34, respectively) or MaxQ (2934.70 ± 718.20 pixels and 3.00 ± 0.36, respectively). Mean CL volume was similar ( 0.95) between treatments. In conclusion, blood perfusion of CL or peripheral concentrations of progesterone were not altered at the

  18. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  19. Effects of source and level of dietary energy supplementation on in vitro digestibility and methane production from tall fescue-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of information about the effect of different sources, levels, and the mixtures of energy supplements commonly fed to cattle grazing tall fescue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different common energy sources for beef cattle grazing tall fescue using an in vitr...

  20. Seagrasses under threat: Understanding the resilience of temperate seagrass meadows in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highly valuable ecosystems, seagrass meadows are threatened worldwide, mostly by human activities. In order to preserve seagrass meadows from collapse, we need to better understand their resilience in a changing environment. By means of various

  1. Using digital photography to examine grazing in montane meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Berg, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) numbers on national forests are allocated based on allotment grazing capacity, but spatial patterns of timing and density at smaller scales are difficult to assess. However, it is often in meadows or riparian areas that grazing may affect hydrology, biodiversity, and other important ecosystem characteristics. To explore real-time animal presence in montane meadows we distributed 18 digital cameras across nine sites in the Sierra National Forest, California. Our objectives were to document seasonal and diurnal presence of both cattle and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), identify the effects of three fencing treatments on animal distribution, and test digital photography as a tool for documenting cattle presence. We recorded 409 399 images during daylight hours for two grazing seasons, and we identified 5 084 and 24 482 cattle "marks" (instances of animal occurrence) in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Deer presence was much lower, with 331 marks in 2006 and 598 in 2007. Morning cattle presence was highest before 0800 hours both years (13.7% and 15.4% of total marks for 2006 and 2007, respectively). Marks decreased until 1100 hours and then increased around 1400 hours and remained relatively stable until 1900 hours. Marks then rose precipitously, with >20% of total marks recorded after 1900 hours both years. Deer presence was less than 10% per hour until 1800 hours, when >20% of total marks were recorded after this time both years. Among treatments, cattle marks were highest outside fences at partially fenced meadows, and deer were highest within completely fenced meadows. Our experience suggests that cameras are not viable tools for meadow monitoring due to variation captured within meadows and the time and effort involved in image processing and review.

  2. Watershed-scale modeling of streamflow change in incised montane meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Hill, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Land use practices have caused stream channel incision and water table decline in many montane meadows of the Western United States. Incision changes the magnitude and timing of streamflow in water supply source watersheds, a concern to resource managers and downstream water users. The hydrology of montane meadows under natural and incised conditions was investigated using watershed simulation for a range of hydrologic conditions. The results illustrate the interdependence between: watershed and meadow hydrology; bedrock and meadow aquifers; and surface and groundwater flow through the meadow for the modeled scenarios. During the wet season, stream incision resulted in less overland flow and interflow and more meadow recharge causing a net decrease in streamflow and increase in groundwater storage relative to natural meadow conditions. During the dry season, incision resulted in less meadow evapotranspiration and more groundwater discharge to the stream causing a net increase in streamflow and a decrease in groundwater storage relative to natural meadow conditions. In general, for a given meadow setting, the magnitude of change in summer streamflow and long-term change in watershed groundwater storage due to incision will depend on the combined effect of: reduced evapotranspiration in the eroded meadow; induced groundwater recharge; replenishment of dry season groundwater storage depletion in meadow and bedrock aquifers by precipitation during wet years; and groundwater storage depletion that is not replenished by precipitation during wet years.

  3. Export from Seagrass Meadows Contributes to Marine Carbon Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses export a substantial portion of their primary production, both in particulate and dissolved organic form, but the fate of this export production remains unaccounted for in terms of seagrass carbon sequestration. Here we review available evidence on the fate of seagrass carbon export to conclude that this represents a significant contribution to carbon sequestration, both in sediments outside seagrass meadows and in the deep sea. The evidence presented implies that the contribution of seagrass meadows to carbon sequestration has been underestimated by only including carbon burial within seagrass sediments.

  4. Export from Seagrass Meadows Contributes to Marine Carbon Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-17

    Seagrasses export a substantial portion of their primary production, both in particulate and dissolved organic form, but the fate of this export production remains unaccounted for in terms of seagrass carbon sequestration. Here we review available evidence on the fate of seagrass carbon export to conclude that this represents a significant contribution to carbon sequestration, both in sediments outside seagrass meadows and in the deep sea. The evidence presented implies that the contribution of seagrass meadows to carbon sequestration has been underestimated by only including carbon burial within seagrass sediments.

  5. An Investigation of Reverse Flotation Separation of Sericite from Graphite by Using a Surfactant: MF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangshuai Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a surfactant, atlox4862 (formaldehyde condensate of methyl naphthalene sulfonic sodium salt (MF, was introduced as a depressant for reverse flotation separation of sericite from graphite. Natural flake graphite has a strong hydrophobic property. After interacting with MF, the graphite became moderately hydrophilic. The flotation results showed that MF had a depressing ability for both sericite and graphite and that the flotation separation of sericite from graphite was attributed to the different declining levels of recovery between graphite and sericite with increased MF concentration. For a pulp pH of 8 and a MF concentration of 250 mg/L, the recovery rates of sericite and graphite were 89.7% and 11.3%, respectively. The results of the FTIR spectra and zeta potential measurements demonstrated that the interaction of MF with graphite and sericite is mainly through electrostatic attraction. MF was preferred to adsorb on the surface of graphite, decreasing its zeta potential and improving its hydrophilicity more than that of sericite.

  6. DNA micro array analysis of yeast global genome expression in response to ELF-MF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kyoh, B.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide spread public concern over the possible health risk of ELF-MF. Electromagnetic fields may produce a variety of effects in several biological systems, including the elevation of cancer risk and reduction of cell growth. Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between the exposure to ELF and the incidence of several cancers, but negative studies have also been reported. Moreover, there are some reports that basic biological events such as the cell cycle and DNA replication were affected by exposure to MF. However, to date the molecular mechanism of the MF effect on living organism is not clear. In this study, we used yeast DNA micro array to examine the transcriptional profile of all genes in response to ELF-MF. A few years ago it was difficult to carry out a global gene expression study to identify important genes regarding ELF-MF, however, today DNA micro arrays allow gene regulation in response to high density ELF-MF exposure. Thus we used micro array to analyze changes in mRNA abundance during ELF-MF exposure

  7. Using GIS technology to analyze and understand wet meadow ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy Rosen; Roy Jemison; David Pawelek; Daniel Neary

    1999-01-01

    A Cibola National Forest wet meadow restoration was implemented as part of the Forest Road 49 enhancement near Grants, New Mexico. An Arc/View 3.0 Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to track the recovery of this ecosystem. Layers on topography, hydrology, vegetation, soils and human alterations were compiled using a GPS and commonly available data....

  8. COENOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE IRIS MEADOWS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SALAMON-ALBERT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and vegetation structure by association and local diagnostic, constant and dominant species of Iridetum sibiricae was analysed from Hungary adjusting to the evaluation of European vegetation. Classification, ordination and statistical analyses was carried out to characterize and make distinction to some other wet meadow vegetation types. In the association habitat and management dependent subunits were formed.

  9. Restoration of brook valley meadows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.P.; Bakker, J.P.; Jansen, A.J.M.; Kemmers, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, restoration measures in Dutch brook valley meadows consisted of re-introducing traditional management techniques, such as mowing without fertilisation and low-intensity grazing. In the Netherlands, additional measures, such as rewetting and sod cutting, are now carried out on a large

  10. Effects of phenolic acid structures on meadow hay digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeira, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate effects of phenolic acid content and composition on the digestibility of six meadow hays from Northern Portugal. Digestibility was assessed by gas production, in vitro and in situ degradation methods. Four cows fed diets at energy maintenance were used for in situ

  11. Prospects for fen meadow restoration on severely degraded fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimkowska, Agata; Diggelen, Rudy Van; Grootjans, Ab P.; Kotowski, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    The majority of fens in Europe have been transformed for agricultural purposes and have disappeared or become degraded. Fen meadows that developed under low-intensity management of fens also have become degraded. In this paper, we consider the available restoration methods, biotic constraints for

  12. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  13. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  14. MF-CRA: Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture for Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — EpiSys Science, Inc. and University of Arizona propose to develop, implement, and demonstrate Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture (MF-CRA) for Space...

  15. Functional recovery after experimental RPE debridement, mfERG studies in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Lassota, Nathan; Kyhn, Maria Voss

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The correlation between histologically identified regeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and functional outcome measured by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) following surgical debridement is examined in a porcine model. In humans, visual acuity is reduced in diseases......, and by brushing the Bruch's membrane with a silicone catheter. Immediately following surgery (baseline) and after 2 and 6 weeks respectively, the animals were examined by mfERG, fundus photographs (FPs), fluorescein angiograms (FAs), and histopathology. RESULTS: The mfERG P1 amplitude was decreased 2 weeks (T2....... CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that the histological regeneration of hypopigmented RPE correlates to a return of the retinal function, measured by mfERG....

  16. The history of MF59(®) adjuvant: a phoenix that arose from the ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Derek T; Ott, Gary S; Nest, Gary Van; Rappuoli, Rino; Giudice, Giuseppe Del

    2013-01-01

    The first clinical trial of an MF59(®)-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Novartis) was conducted 20 years ago in 1992. The product that emerged (Fluad(®), Novartis) was licensed first in Italy in 1997 and is now licensed worldwide in 30 countries. US licensure is expected in the coming years. By contrast, many alternative adjuvanted vaccines have failed to progress. The key decisions that allowed MF59 to succeed in such a challenging environment are highlighted here and the lessons that were learned along the way are discussed. MF59 was connected to vaccines that did not succeed and was perceived as a 'failure' before it was a success. Importantly, it never failed for safety reasons and was always well tolerated. Even when safety issues have emerged for alternative adjuvants, careful analysis of the substantial safety database for MF59 have shown that there are no significant concerns with widespread use, even in more 'sensitive' populations.

  17. Experiment and Simulation Analysis on Noise Attenuation of Al/MF Cylindrical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the issue concerning internal noise reduction of Al-made cylindrical shell structure, the noise control method of laying melamine foam (MF layer is adopted for in-shell noise attenuation experiments of Al and Al/MF cylindrical shells and corresponding internal noise response spectrograms are obtained. Based on the Virtual.Lab acoustics software, a finite element model is established for the analysis of noise in the Al/MF cylinder shell and numerical simulation computation is conducted for the acoustic mode and in-shell acoustic response; the correctness of the finite element model is verified via comparison with measured data. On this basis, influence rules of different MF laying rate and different laying thickness on acoustic cavity resonance response within the low and medium frequency range of 100–400 Hz are studied. It is indicated that noise reduction increases with MF laying rate, but the amplification decreases along with the rising of MF laying rate; noise reduction per unit thickness decreases with the increase of laying thickness, while noise reduction per unit area increases.

  18. Hybrid MF and membrane bioreactor process applied towards water and indigo reuse from denim textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Carolina Fonseca; Marques, Larissa Silva; Balmant, Janine; de Oliveira Maia, Andreza Penido; Moravia, Wagner Guadagnin; Santos Amaral, Miriam Cristina

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the application of a microfiltration (MF)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid process for textile dyeing process wastewater reclamation. The indigo blue dye was efficiently retained by the MF membrane (100%), which allows its recovery from the concentrate stream. MF promotes 100% of colour removal, and reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity by about 65% and 25%, respectively, and improves the wastewater biodegradability. MF flux decline was mostly attributed to concentration polarization and the chemical cleaning was efficient enough to recover initial hydraulic resistance. The MBR provides to be a stable process maintaining its COD and ammonia removal efficiency (73% and 100%, respectively) mostly constant throughout and producing a permeate that meets the reuse criteria for some industry activities, such as washing-off and equipment washdown. The use of an MF or ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the MBR does not impact the MBR performance in terms of COD removal. Although the membrane of MBR-UF shows permeability lower than MBR-MF membrane, the UF membrane contributes to a more stable operation in terms of permeability.

  19. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes expressions in tall fescue inoculated with Funneliformis intraradices under Nickel toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Rafiei-Demneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, there are complex network of transport, chelation, and sequestration processes that functions in maintaining concentrations of essential metal ions in different cellular compartments, thus minimizing the damage caused by entry of non-essential metal ions into the cytosol. In the presence of toxic ones, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are able to alleviate metal toxicity in the plant. In this study the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis intraradices on growth, Nickel tolerance, and ABC transporter and metallothionein expression in leaves and roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The fungi infected (M+ and uninfected (M- fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (0, 30, 90 and 180 ppm for 3 months. Results demonstrated the positive effect of fungi colonization on the increase in growth and reduction in Ni uptake (90 and 180 ppm and Ni translocation from roots to shoot of tall fescue under Ni stress. The results also demonstrated that the level of ABC transporterand metallothionein transcripts accumulation in roots was considerably higher for both M- and M+ plants compared to the control. Also, M+ plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the M- plants. These results demonstrated the importance of mycorrhizal colonization of F. intraradices in reduction of Ni transport from root to shoot of tall fescue which alleviates Ni-induced stress.

  1. Insight into the genetic variability analysis and cultivar identification of tall fescue by using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kaixin; Guo, Zhihui; Zhang, Xinquan; Fan, Yan; Wu, Wendan; Li, Daxu; Peng, Yan; Huang, Linkai; Sun, Ming; Bai, Shiqie; Ma, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 19 forage-type and 2 turf-type cultivars of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was revealed using SSR markers in an attempt to explore the genetic relationships among them, and examine potential use of SSR markers to identify cultivars by bulked samples. A total of 227 clear band was scored with 14 SSR primers and out of which 201 (88.6 %) were found polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) per primer pair varied from 62.5 to 100 % with an average of 86.9 %. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.116 to 0.347 with an average of 0.257 and the highest PIC value (0.347) was noticed for primer NFA040 followed by NFA113 (0.346) whereas the highest discriminating power (D) of 1 was shown in NFA037 and LMgSSR02-01C. A Neighbor-joining dendrogram and the principal component analysis identified six major clusters and grouped the cultivars in agreement with their breeding histories. STRUCTURE analysis divided these cultivars into 3 sub-clades which correspond to distance based groupings. These findings indicates that SSR markers by bulking strategy are a useful tool to measure genetic diversity among tall fescue cultivars and could be used to supplement morphological data for plant variety protection.

  2. The Alleviation of Heat Damage to Photosystem II and Enzymatic Antioxidants by Exogenous Spermidine in Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb is a typical cool-season grass that is widely used in turf and pasture. However, high temperature as an abiotic stress seriously affects its utilization. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of spermidine (Spd on heat stress response of tall fescue. The samples were exposed to 22°C (normal condition or 44°C (heat stress for 4 h. The results showed that exogenous Spd partially improved the quality of tall fescue leaves under normal temperature conditions. Nevertheless, after heat stress treatment, exogenous Spd significantly decreased the electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. Spd also profoundly reduced the H2O2 and O2⋅- content and increased antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, PAs can also regulate antioxidant enzymes activities including SOD, POD, and APX which could help to scavenge ROS. Moreover, application of Spd could also remarkably increase the chlorophyll content and had a positive effect on the chlorophyll α fluorescence transients under high temperature. The Spd reagent enhanced the performance of photosystem II (PSII as observed by the JIP-test. Under heat stress, the Spd profoundly improved the partial potentials at the steps of energy bifurcations (PIABS and PItotal and the quantum yields and efficiencies (φP0, δR0, φR0, and γRC. Exogenous Spd could also reduce the specific energy fluxes per QA- reducing PSII reaction center (RC (TP0/RC and ET0/RC. Additionally, exogenous Spd improved the expression level of psbA and psbB, which encoded the proteins of PSII core reaction center complex. We infer that PAs can stabilize the structure of nucleic acids and protect RNA from the degradation of ribonuclease. In brief, our study indicates that exogenous Spd enhances the heat tolerance of tall fescue by maintaining cell membrane stability, increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, improving PSII, and relevant gene expression.

  3. The Alleviation of Heat Damage to Photosystem II and Enzymatic Antioxidants by Exogenous Spermidine in Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Hu, Tao; Amombo, Erick; Wang, Guangyang; Xie, Yan; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a typical cool-season grass that is widely used in turf and pasture. However, high temperature as an abiotic stress seriously affects its utilization. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of spermidine (Spd) on heat stress response of tall fescue. The samples were exposed to 22°C (normal condition) or 44°C (heat stress) for 4 h. The results showed that exogenous Spd partially improved the quality of tall fescue leaves under normal temperature conditions. Nevertheless, after heat stress treatment, exogenous Spd significantly decreased the electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. Spd also profoundly reduced the H 2 O 2 and O 2 ⋅- content and increased antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, PAs can also regulate antioxidant enzymes activities including SOD, POD, and APX which could help to scavenge ROS. Moreover, application of Spd could also remarkably increase the chlorophyll content and had a positive effect on the chlorophyll α fluorescence transients under high temperature. The Spd reagent enhanced the performance of photosystem II (PSII) as observed by the JIP-test. Under heat stress, the Spd profoundly improved the partial potentials at the steps of energy bifurcations (PI ABS and PI total ) and the quantum yields and efficiencies (φP 0 , δR 0 , φR 0 , and γRC). Exogenous Spd could also reduce the specific energy fluxes per Q A - reducing PSII reaction center (RC) (TP 0 /RC and ET 0 /RC). Additionally, exogenous Spd improved the expression level of psbA and psbB , which encoded the proteins of PSII core reaction center complex. We infer that PAs can stabilize the structure of nucleic acids and protect RNA from the degradation of ribonuclease. In brief, our study indicates that exogenous Spd enhances the heat tolerance of tall fescue by maintaining cell membrane stability, increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, improving PSII, and relevant gene expression.

  4. Resource Limitations Influence Growth and Vigor of Idaho Fescue, a Common Understory Species in Pacific Northwest Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Carr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in under-canopy resource availability associated with elevated ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. abundance can negatively influence understory vegetation. Experimental evidence linking under-canopy resource availability and understory vegetation is scarce. Yet this information would be beneficial in developing management strategies to recover desired understory species. We tested the effects of varying nitrogen (N and light availability on Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer, the dominant understory species in ponderosa pine/Idaho fescue plant associations in eastern Oregon. In a greenhouse experiment, two levels of N (50 kg∙N∙ha−1 and 0 kg∙N∙ha−1 and shade (80% shade and 0% shade were applied in a split-plot design to individual potted plants grown in soil collected from high abundance pine stands. Plants grown in unshaded conditions produced greater root (p = 0.0027 and shoot (p = 0.0017 biomass and higher cover values (p = 0.0378 compared to those in the shaded treatments. The addition of N had little effect on plant growth (p = 0.1602, 0.5129, and 0.0853 for shoot biomass, root biomass, and cover, respectively, suggesting that soils in high-density ponderosa pine stands that lack understory vegetation were not N deficient and Idaho fescue plants grown in these soils were not N limited. Management activities that increase under-canopy light availability will promote the conditions necessary for Idaho fescue recovery. However, successful restoration may be constrained by a lack of residual fescue or the invasion of more competitive understory vegetation.

  5. [Relationships between horqin meadow NDVI and meteorological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cui-ping; Guan, De-xin; Wang, An-zhi; Jin, Chang-jie; Wu, Jia-bing; Wang, Ji-jun; Ni, Pan; Yuan, Feng-hui

    2009-01-01

    Based on the 2000-2006 MODIS 8-day composite NDVI and day-by-day meteorological data, the seasonal and inter-annual variations of Horqin meadow NDVI as well as the relationships between the NDVI and relevant meteorological factors were studied. The results showed that as for the seasonal variation, Horqin meadow NDVI was more related to water vapor pressure than to precipitation. Cumulated temperature and cumulated precipitation together affected the inter-annual turning-green period significantly, and the precipitation in growth season (June and July), compared with that in whole year, had more obvious effects on the annual maximal NDVI. The analysis of time lag effect indicated that water vapor pressure had a persistent (about 12 days) prominent effect on the NDVI. The time lag effect of mean air temperature was 11-15 days, and the cumulated dual effect of the temperature and precipitation was 36-52 days.

  6. Effects of disturbance regime on carbohydrate reserves in meadow plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Bartušková, Alena; Bartoš, Michael; Altman, Jan; de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Latzel, Vít; Lanta, V.; Lepš, J.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, plv123 (2015), s. 1-16 ISSN 2041-2851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Carbohydrates * management * meadow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.079, year: 2015

  7. Impacts of urban wastewater discharge on seagrass meadows ( Zostera noltii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaço, Susana; Machás, Raquel; Vieira, Vasco; Santos, Rui

    2008-06-01

    The abiotic disturbance of urban wastewater discharge and its effects in the population structure, plant morphology, leaf nutrient content, epiphyte load and macroalgae abundance of Zostera noltii meadows were investigated in Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, southern Portugal using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Four sites were assessed, on a seasonal basis, along a gradient from a major Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTW) discharge to a main navigation channel. The wastewater discharge caused an evident environmental disturbance through the nutrient enrichment of the water and sediment, particularly of ammonium. Zostera noltii of the sites closest to the nutrient source showed higher leaf N content, clearly reflecting the nitrogen load. The anthropogenic nutrient enrichment resulted in higher biomass, and higher leaf and internode length, except for the meadow closest to the wastewater discharge (270 m). The high ammonium concentration (158-663 μM) in the water at this site resulted in the decrease of biomass, and both the leaf and internode length, suggesting a toxic effect on Z. noltii. The higher abundance of macroalgae and epiphytes found in the meadow closest to the nutrient source may also affect the species negatively. Shoot density was higher at the nutrient-undisturbed site. Two of the three abiotic processes revealed by Principal Component Analysis were clearly related to the WWTW discharge, a contrast between water column salinity and nutrient concentration and a sediment contrast between both porewater nutrients and temperature and redox potential. A multiple regression analysis showed that these abiotic processes had a significant effect on the biomass-density dynamics of meadows and on the overall size of Z. noltii plants, respectively. Results show that the wastewater discharge is an important source of environmental disturbance and nutrients availability in Ria Formosa lagoon affecting the population structure, morphology and N content of Z

  8. Predation risk of artificial ground nests in managed floodplain meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Susanne; Franke, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Nest predation highly determines the reproductive success in birds. In agricultural grasslands, vegetation characteristics and management practices influences the predation risk of ground breeders. Little is known so far on the predation pressure on non-passerine nests in tall swards. Investigations on the interaction of land use with nesting site conditions and the habitat selection of nest predators are crucial to develop effective conservation measures for grassland birds. In this study, we used artificial nests baited with quail and plasticine eggs to identify potential predators of ground nests in floodplain meadows and related predation risk to vegetation structure and grassland management. Mean daily predation rate was 0.01 (±0.012) after an exposure duration of 21 days. 70% of all observed nest predations were caused by mammals (Red Fox and mustelids) and 17.5% by avian predators (corvids). Nest sites close to the meadow edge and those providing low forb cover were faced with a higher daily predation risk. Predation risk also increased later in the season. Land use in the preceding year had a significant effect on predation risk, showing higher predation rates on unmanaged sites than on mown sites. Unused meadows probably attract mammalian predators, because they provide a high abundance of small rodents and a more favourable vegetation structure for foraging, increasing also the risk of incidental nest predations. Although mowing operation is a major threat to ground-nesting birds, our results suggest that an annual removal of vegetation may reduce predation risk in the subsequent year.

  9. Mapping mountain meadow with high resolution and polarimetric SAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Bangsen; Li, Zhen; Xu, Juan; Fu, Sitao; Liu, Jiuli

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to map the large grassland in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau with the high resolution polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) imagery. When PolSAR imagery is used for land cover classification, the brightness of a SAR image is affected by topography due to varying projection between ground and image coordinates. The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) we first extend the theory of SAR terrain correction to the polarimetric case, to utilize the entire available polarimetric signature, where correction is performed explicitly based on a matrix format like covariance matrix. (2) Next, the orthoectified PolSAR is applied to classify mountain meadow and investigate the potential of PolSAR in mapping grassland. In this paper, the gamma naught radiometric correction estimates the local illuminated area at each grid point in the radar geometry. Then, each element of the coherency matrix is divided by the local area to produce a polarimetric product. Secondly, the impact of radiometric correction upon classification accuracy is investigated. A supervised classification is performed on the orthorectified Radarsat-2 PolSAR to map the spatial distribution of meadow and evaluate monitoring capabilities of mountain meadow

  10. Traditional Livelihoods, Conservation and Meadow Ecology in Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgenson, Lauren; Schmidt, Amanda H; Combs, Julie; Harrell, Stevan; Hinckley, Thomas; Yang, Qingxia; Ma, Ziyu; Yongxian, Li; Hongliang, Lü; MacIver, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Jiuzhaigou National Park (JNP) is a site of global conservation significance. Conservation policies in JNP include the implementation of two national reforestation programs to increase forest cover and the exclusion of local land-use. We use archaeological excavation, ethnographic interviews, remote sensing and vegetation surveys to examine the implications of these policies for non-forest, montane meadows. We find that Amdo Tibetan people cultivated the valley for >2,000 years, creating and maintaining meadows through land clearing, burning and grazing. Meadows served as sites for gathering plants and mushrooms and over 40 % of contemporary species are ethnobotanically useful. Remote sensing analyses indicate a substantial (69.6 %) decline in meadow area between 1974 and 2004. Respondents report a loss of their "true history" and connections to the past associated with loss of meadows. Conservation policies intended to preserve biodiversity are unintentionally contributing to the loss of these ecologically and culturally significant meadow habitats.

  11. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue.

  12. Seascape ecology in Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows: Linking structure and ecological processes for management

    OpenAIRE

    Abadie, Arnaud; Pace, Matthew; Gobert, Sylvie; Borg, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass meadows constitute marine habitats in shallow water temperate and tropical coastal areas worldwide that have a high ecological and economic importance. Amongst the 60 or so seagrass species, the endemic Mediterranean species Posidonia oceanica forms meadows that are arguably the most important shallow water coastal habitat in the region but which are subjected to high anthropogenic pressures. Because of the relatively large size of the plant, the meadows formed by this seagrass have ...

  13. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyang; Bi, Aoyue; Amombo, Erick; Li, Huiying; Zhang, Liang; Cheng, Cheng; Hu, Tao; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreber) treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype "TF133" were subjected to the control (CK), salinity (S), salinity + calcium nitrate (SC), and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE). Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size), N (number of [Formula: see text] redox turnovers until F m is reached), ψE 0 , or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from Q A to Q B or PSI acceptors), ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC). All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond [Formula: see text]) and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca 2+ , and K + in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE 0 , δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca 2+ and K + content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role

  14. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall

  15. Lead Accumulation by Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Grown on a Lead-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gilliard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction is gaining acceptance as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly phytoremediation strategy for reducing toxic metal levels from contaminated soils. Cognizant of the potential of this phytoremediation technique as an alternative to expensive engineering-based remediation technologies, experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of some plants as phytoextraction species. From one of our preliminary studies, we found that tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Spirit can tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of lead (Pb in its shoots when grown in Pb-amended sand. To further evaluate the suitability of tall fescue as one of the potential crop rotation species for phytoextraction, a study was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA alone or in combination with acetic acid can further enhance the shoot uptake of Pb. Seeds were planted in 3.8 L plastic pots containing top soil, peat, and sand (4:2:1, v:v:v spiked with various levels (0,1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil of lead. At six weeks after planting, aqueous solutions (0, 5 mmol/kg dry soil of EDTA and acetic acid (5 mmol/kg dry soil were applied to the root zone, and all plants were harvested a week later. Results revealed that tall fescue was relatively tolerant to moderate levels of Pb as shown by non-significant differences in root and shoot biomass among treatments. An exception to this trend however, was the slight reduction in root and shoot biomass of plants exposed to the highest Pb level in combination with the two chelates. Root Pb concentration increased with increasing level of soil-applied Pb. Further increases in root Pb concentrations were attributed to chelate amendments. Translocation index, which is a measure of the partitioning of the metal to the shoots, was significantly enhanced with chelate addition especially when both EDTA and acetic acid were used. Chelate-induced increases in

  16. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (spoil, however the application of 0.5 phosphate was less favourable. Liming, application of amendments and growth of red fescue can stabilize metals in acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil, and by phytostabilization they can reduce the risk of metal contamination of the food chain.

  17. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà , N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  18. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-08-24

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  19. Safety and effectiveness of MF-59 adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven

    2015-06-08

    The squalene oil-in-water emulsion MF-59 adjuvant was developed initially to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations such as children and adults with known suboptimal response. Developed in the 1990s, it was initially licensed in Europe for use in seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly. Since that time, both Avian and p2009H1N1 vaccines have also been developed. Overall, more than 30,000 individuals have participated in clinical trials of MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine and more than 160 million doses of licensed vaccine have been administered. Safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials and observation studies attest to the safety of MF-59 and to its ability to enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in children and the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The microbially mediated soil organic carbon loss under degenerative succession in an alpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Liu, Xiao; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Sheng, Yuyu; Wang, Xiulei; Li, Diqiang; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun; Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye

    2017-07-01

    Land-cover change has long been recognized as having marked effect on the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the microbially mediated processes and mechanisms on SOC are still unclear. In this study, the soil samples in a degenerative succession from alpine meadow to alpine steppe meadow in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were analysed using high-throughput technologies, including Illumina sequencing and geochip functional gene arrays. The soil microbial community structure and diversity were significantly (p carbon degradation genes (e.g., pectin and hemicellulose) was significantly higher in alpine steppe meadow than in alpine meadow, but the relative abundance of soil recalcitrant carbon degradation genes (e.g., chitin and lignin) showed the opposite tendency. The Biolog Ecoplate experiment showed that microbially mediated soil carbon utilization was more active in alpine steppe meadow than in alpine meadow. Consequently, more soil labile carbon might be decomposed in alpine steppe meadow than in alpine meadow. Therefore, the degenerative succession of alpine meadow because of climate change or anthropogenic activities would most likely decrease SOC and nutrients medicated by changing soil microbial community structure and their functional potentials for carbon decomposition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Defect accumulation in welded joints of 12Kh1MF steel steam pipelines during creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhov, A.E.; Alekhova, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technique for investigation of micropore accumulation in 12Kh1MF steel welded joints is proposed. The micropore density in different zones of welded joints in non-uniform. It is shown that failure localization in welded joint in the softening zone during the creep takes place due to the micropore priority accumulation in this zone. It is found out that accumulation of residual deformations in different zones of 12Kh1MF welded joints under creep runs more uniformly as the level of working stresses decreases and test duration increases

  2. The Influence of Brightness on Functional Assessment by mfERG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, A T; Kiilgaard, J F; Smith, M

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of membrane brightness on multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), we implanted poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membranes in the subretinal space of 11 porcine eyes. We compared membranes with their native shiny white color with membranes that were stained with a blue dye...... (Brilliant Blue). Histological and electrophysiological evaluation of the overlying retina was carried out 6 weeks after implantation. Histologically, both white and blue membranes degraded in a spongiform manner leaving a disrupted outer retina with no preserved photoreceptor segments. Multifocal ERG...... when the adjacent photoreceptors are missing. Functional assessment with mfERG in scaffold implant studies should therefore be evaluated with care....

  3. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Alan V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. Darbysh. is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN], the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first

  4. Identification and expression analysis of BoMF25, a novel polygalacturonase gene involved in pollen development of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Meiling; Liang, Ying; Yu, Youjian; Ma, Zhiming; Song, Limin; Yue, Xiaoyan; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-06-01

    BoMF25 acts on pollen wall. Polygalacturonase (PG) is a pectin-digesting enzyme involved in numerous plant developmental processes and is described to be of critical importance for pollen wall development. In the present study, a PG gene, BoMF25, was isolated from Brassica oleracea. BoMF25 is the homologous gene of At4g35670, a PG gene in Arabidopsis thaliana with a high expression level at the tricellular pollen stage. Collinear analysis revealed that the orthologous gene of BoMF25 in Brassica campestris (syn. B. rapa) genome was probably lost because of genome deletion and reshuffling. Sequence analysis indicated that BoMF25 contained four classical conserved domains (I, II, III, and IV) of PG protein. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that BoMF25 was clustered in Clade F. The putative promoter sequence, containing classical cis-acting elements and pollen-specific motifs, could drive green fluorescence protein expression in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggested that BoMF25 was mainly expressed in the anther at the late stage of pollen development. In situ hybridization analysis also indicated that the strong and specific expression signal of BoMF25 existed in pollen grains at the mature pollen stage. Subcellular localization showed that the fluorescence signal was observed in the cell wall of onion epidermal cells, which suggested that BoMF25 may be a secreted protein localized in the pollen wall.

  5. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( rumen pure cultures ( JB1, B159, HD4, B, F, MD1, SR) were evaluated for the ability to degrade ergovaline in vitro. Pure culture cell suspensions were incubated as described above and samples were taken at 0 and 48 h for ergovaline analysis. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA procedure of SAS. All HAB, including the isolates, tested degraded ergovaline (54 to 75%; bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their activity could have ramifications for fescue toxicosis and other forms of ergotism in ruminants.

  6. RADISH CV. MOKHOVSKIY IS A SOURCE OF MS- AND MF-LINES AT BREEDING FOR HETEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on hybrid and inbreed population of radish cv. Mokhovskiy using CMS-ogura nine lines with 100% of male sterility and fertile maintainers were selected. Using the multiplex PCR, the presence of cytoplasm of Ogura type in ms-lines and its absence in mf-lines were confirmed.

  7. On Reduced Amalgamated Free Products of C*-algebras and the MF-Property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Jonas A.

    We establish an isomorphism of the group von Neumann algebra of an amalgamated free product of countable Abelian discrete groups. This result is then used to give some new examples of reduced group $ C^* $-algebras which are MF. Finally, we give a characterization of the amalgamated free products...

  8. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Lou

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia, were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP and spike weight (SW. However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  10. Turbulent mixing and fluid transport within Florida Bay seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jennifer C. R.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2017-10-01

    Seagrasses serve an important function in the ecology of Florida Bay, providing critical nursery habitat and a food source for a variety of organisms. They also create significant benthic structure that induces drag, altering local hydrodynamics that can influence mixing and nutrient dynamics. Thalassia testudinum seagrass meadows were investigated to determine how shoot density and morphometrics alter local wave conditions, the generation of turbulence, and fluid exchange above and within the canopy. Sparsely vegetated and densely vegetated meadows were monitored, with shoot densities of 259 ± 26 and 484 ± 78 shoots m-2, respectively. The temporal and spatial structure of velocity and turbulence were measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeters and an in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) system positioned both above and within the seagrass canopy. The retention of fluid within the canopy was determined by examining e-folding times calculated from the concentration curves of dye plumes released within the seagrass canopy. Results show that a shear layer with an inflection point develops at the top of the seagrass canopy, which generates instabilities that impart turbulence into the seagrass meadow. Compared to the overlying water column, turbulence was enhanced within the sparse canopy due to flow interaction with the seagrass blades, but reduced within the dense canopy. Wave generated oscillatory motion penetrated deeper into the canopy than unidirectional currents, enhancing fluid exchange. Both shoot density and the relative magnitude of wave- versus current-driven flow conditions were found to be important controls on turbulent exchange of water masses across the canopy-water interface.

  11. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Xue, Y; Matthews, J C; Boling, J A; Burris, W R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2012-02-01

    As part of a 2-yr study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and serotonin receptors. Experiment 1 examined vasoconstrictive activities of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), α-methylserotonin (ME5HT; a 5HT(2) receptor agonist), d-lysergic acid (LSA), and ergovaline (ERV) on lateral saphenous veins collected from steers immediately removed from a high-endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE) or a low-endophyte-infected mixed-grass (LE) pasture. Using the same pastures, Exp. 2 evaluated effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue on vasoconstrictive activities of (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), BW 723C86 (BW7), CGS-12066A (CGS), and 5-carboxamidotryptamine hemiethanolate maleate (5CT), agonists for 5HT(2A),( 2B), 5HT(1B), and 5HT(7) receptors, respectively. One-half of the steers in Exp. 2 were slaughtered immediately after removal from pasture, and the other one-half were fed finishing diets for >91 d before slaughter. For Exp. 1, maximal contractile intensities were greater (P 91 d. Experiment 1 demonstrated that grazing of HE pastures for 89 to 105 d induces functional alterations in blood vessels, as evidenced by reduced contractile capacity and altered serotonergic receptor activity. Experiment 2 demonstrated that grazing HE pastures alters vascular responses, which may be mediated through altered serotonin receptor activities, and these alterations may be ameliorated by the removal of ergot alkaloid exposure as demonstrated by the absence of differences in finished steers.

  12. Interoperability challenges for the Sustainable Management of seagrass meadows (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Pastres, R.; Bigagli, L.; Venier, C.; Zucchetta, M.; Santoro, M.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass meadows (marine angiosperm plants) occupy less than 0.2% of the global ocean surface, annually store about 10-18% of the so-called 'Blue Carbon', i.e. the Carbon stored in coastal vegetated areas. Recent literature estimates that the flux to the long-term carbon sink in seagrasses represents 10-20% of seagrasses global average production. Such figures can be translated into economic benefits, taking into account that a ton of carbon dioxide in Europe is paid at around 15 € in the carbon market. This means that the organic carbon retained in seagrass sediments in the Mediterranean is worth 138 - 1128 billion €, which represents 6-23 € per square meter. This is 9-35 times more than one square meter of tropical forest soil (0.66 € per square meter), or 5-17 times when considering both the above and the belowground compartments in tropical forests. According the most conservative estimations, about 10% of the Mediterranean meadows have been lost during the last century. In the framework of the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) initiative, the MEDINA project (funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the University of Ca'Foscari in Venice) prepared a showcase as part of the GEOSS Architecture Interoperability Pilot -phase 6 (AIP-6). This showcase aims at providing a tool for the sustainable management of seagrass meadows along the Mediterranean coastline. The application is based on an interoperability framework providing a set of brokerage services to easily ingest and run a Habitat Suitability model (a model predicting the probability a given site to provide a suitable habitat for the development of seagrass meadow and the average coverage expected). The presentation discusses such a framework explaining how the input data is discovered, accessed and processed to ingest the model (developed in the MEDINA project). Furthermore, the brokerage framework provides the necessary services to run the model and visualize results

  13. The mechanism of action of MF59 - an innately attractive adjuvant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, D T; Ott, G S; De Gregorio, E; Seubert, A

    2012-06-19

    MF59 is a safe and effective vaccine adjuvant which was originally approved to be included in a licensed influenza vaccine to be used in the elderly in Europe in 1997. The MF59 adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Fluad™) is now licensed in more than 20 countries worldwide and more than 85 million doses have been administered. More recently the vaccine adjuvant has also been shown to be safe and effective in young children and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccine efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in Europe. Since the early days of its discovery we have explored the mechanism of action of MF59, using a variety of available techniques. In recent years we have explored more thoroughly the mechanism of action using new and more sophisticated techniques. It is remarkable how consistent the data has been, using a variety of different approaches both in several small animal models and also using human immune cells in vitro. Here we present a summary of all the work performed to date on the mechanism of action of MF59 and we present a unified theory based on the accumulated data of how it exerts its adjuvant effects. A key element of the mechanism of action appears to be the creation of a transient 'immunocompetent' local environment at the injection site, resulting in the recruitment of key immune cells, which are able to take up antigen and adjuvant and transport them to the local lymph nodes, where the immune response is induced. This recruitment appears to be triggered by the induction of a chemokine driven gradient by the impact of MF59 on local cells, which are activated to secrete further chemokines, which are recruitment factors for more immune cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IAS 40 ur ett Nordenperspektiv : Jämförelse av regelverkets efterlevnad 2014 jämfört med 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wigge, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Börsnoterade bolag ska i sin koncernredovisning redovisa enligt IFRS och förvaltningsfastigheter skall redovisas enligt IAS 40 Förvaltningsfastigheter. Detta examensarbete undersöker hur Nordiska börsnoterade bolag tillämpar vissa punkter inom IAS 40 i 2014 års redovisning jämfört med 2009 års redovisning. Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka skillnader mellan de granskade företagens redovisning 2014 och 2009, med utgångspunkten i en tidigare publicerad undersökning (Hedlund & Ersso...

  15. A constructed wet meadow model for forested lands in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Pawelek; Roy Jemison; Daniel Neary

    1999-01-01

    Improving primary roads in the Zuni Mountains of New Mexico must take into consideration the wet meadows and upland areas. This study looks at spring flow rates, erosion, channels and changes in plant cover and composition. The goal is to help planners design environmentally sensitive roadways for wet meadow areas.

  16. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  17. Plant biomass and species composition along an environmental gradient in montane riparian meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; E. N. Jack Brookshire; John E. Baham

    2004-01-01

    In riparian meadows, narrow zonation of the dominant vegetation frequently occurs along the elevational gradient from the stream edge to the floodplain terrace. We measured plant species composition and above- and belowground biomass in three riparian plant communities - a priori defined as wet, moist, and dry meadow - along short streamside topographic gradients in...

  18. Foraging site choice and diet selection of Meadow Pipits Anthus pratensis breeding on grazed salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, Roel; Mandema, Freek S.; Bakker, Jan P.; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2014-01-01

    Capsule Breeding Meadow Pipits foraged for caterpillars and large spiders in vegetation that was less heterogeneous than vegetation at random locations.Aims To gain a better understanding of the foraging ecology of breeding Meadow Pipits on grazed coastal salt marshes, we tested three hypotheses:

  19. Hydrological landscape settings of base-rich fen mires and fen meadows : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.P.; Adema, E.B.; Bleuten, W.; Joosten, H.; Madaras, M.; Janáková, M.; Middleton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Why do similar fen meadow communities occur in different landscapes? How does the hydrological system sustain base-rich fen mires and fen meadows? Location: Interdunal wetlands and heathland pools in The Netherlands, percolation mires in Germany, Poland, and Siberia, and calcareous spring

  20. Divergent Impacts of Two Cattle Types on Vegetation in Coastal Meadows: Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Marika; Huuskonen, Arto; Pesonen, Maiju; Kaseva, Janne; Joki-Tokola, Erkki; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of beef cattle in relation to the total number of cattle has increased in Europe, which has led to a higher contribution of beef cattle in the management of semi-natural grasslands. Changes in vegetation caused by this change in grazers are virtually unexplored so far. In the present study, the impacts of beef and dairy cattle on vegetation structure and composition were compared on Bothnian Bay coastal meadows. Vegetation parameters were measured in seven beef cattle, six dairy heifer pastures, and in six unmanaged meadows. Compared to unmanaged meadows, vegetation in grazed meadows was significantly lower in height and more frequently colonized by low-growth species. As expected, vegetation grazed by beef cattle was more open than that on dairy heifer pastures where litter cover and proportion of bare ground were in the same level as in the unmanaged meadows. However, the observed differences may have in part arisen from the higher cattle densities in coastal meadows grazed by beef cattle than by dairy heifers. The frequencies of different species groups and the species richness values of vegetation did not differ between the coastal meadows grazed by the two cattle types. One reason for this may be the relatively short management history of the studied pastures. The potential differences in grazing impacts of the two cattle types on vegetation structure can be utilized in the management of coastal meadows for species with divergent habitat requirements.

  1. Seed germination ecology of meadow knapweed (Centaurea x moncktonii) populations in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduced meadow knapweed (Centaurea x moncktonii), a hybrid of black (C. nigra) and brown (C. jacea) knapweeds, appears to be common and expanding in New York agricultural lands, including pastures, meadows and waste areas. The biology and ecology of the hybrid is mostly unstudied, such as its...

  2. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggy E. Moore; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Julie L. Yee; Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole; Neil K. McDougald; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate....

  3. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  4. Improved forage digestibility of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by transgenic down-regulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Dowling, Paul; Bell, Jeremey; Chen, Fang; Hopkins, Andrew; Dixon, Richard A; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2003-11-01

    Lignification of cell walls during plant development has been identified as the major factor limiting forage digestibility and concomitantly animal productivity. cDNA sequences encoding a key lignin biosynthetic enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), were cloned from the widely grown monocotyledonous forage species tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Recombinant tall fescue CAD expressed in E. coli exhibited the highest V(max)/K(m) values when coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde were used as substrates. Transgenic tall fescue plants carrying either sense or antisense CAD gene constructs were obtained by microprojectile bombardment of single genotype-derived embryogenic suspension cells. Severely reduced levels of mRNA transcripts and significantly reduced CAD enzymatic activities were found in two transgenic plants carrying sense and antisense CAD transgenes, respectively. These CAD down-regulated transgenic lines had significantly decreased lignin content and altered ratios of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G), G to p-hydroxyphenyl (H) and S to H units. No significant changes in cellulose, hemicellulose, neutral sugar composition, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid levels were observed in the transgenic plants. Increases of in vitro dry matter digestibility of 7.2-9.5% were achieved in the CAD down-regulated lines, thus providing a novel germplasm to be used for the development of grass cultivars with improved forage quality.

  5. Continuous 1985-2012 Landsat monitoring to assess fire effects on meadows in Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Albano, Christine M.; Villarreal, Miguel; Walker, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    To assess how montane meadow vegetation recovered after a wildfire that occurred in Yosemite National Park, CA in 1996, Google Earth Engine image processing was applied to leverage the entire Landsat Thematic Mapper archive from 1985 to 2012. Vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]) was summarized every 16 days across the 28-year Landsat time series for 26 meadows. Disturbance event detection was hindered by the subtle influence of low-severity fire on meadow vegetation. A hard break (August 1996) was identified corresponding to the Ackerson Fire, and monthly composites were used to compare NDVI values and NDVI trends within burned and unburned meadows before, immediately after, and continuously for more than a decade following the fire date. Results indicate that NDVI values were significantly lower at 95% confidence level for burned meadows following the fire date, yet not significantly lower at 95% confidence level in the unburned meadows. Burned meadows continued to exhibit lower monthly NDVI in the dormant season through 2012. Over the entire monitoring period, the negative-trending, dormant season NDVI slopes in the burned meadows were also significantly lower than unburned meadows at 90% confidence level. Lower than average NDVI values and slopes in the dormant season compared to unburned meadows, coupled with photographic evidence, strongly suggest that evergreen vegetation was removed from the periphery of some meadows after the fire. These analyses provide insight into how satellite imagery can be used to monitor low-severity fire effects on meadow vegetation.

  6. PetIGA-MF: a multi-field high-performance toolbox for structure-preserving B-splines spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel; Cô rtes, A.M.A.; Garcia, D.A.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Collier, N.; Calo, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a high-performance solution framework for isogeometric discrete differential forms based on B-splines: PetIGA-MF. Built on top of PetIGA, an open-source library we have built and developed over the last decade, PetIGA-MF is a general

  7. Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular

  8. Bifunctional properties of hydrothermal synthesized BaMF4 (M = Co, Ni and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen N. Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BaMF4 (M = Co, Ni and Zn samples having orthorhombic structure have been synthesized by a mild hydrothermal method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic and electrical measurements. Single phase formation of these compounds has been found to be dependent on various factors like reaction time, pH, temperature etc. All the samples showed ferroelectricity, which decreases with increase in temperature. BaMF4 (M = Co, Ni samples show 10-15 times more leakage current compared to that of BaZnF4 at higher applied field. Absence of multivalent ions in BaZnF4 can be the reason for its minimum leakage current. All the samples except, BaZnF4, exhibit weak room temperature ferromagnetism also.

  9. Chandra reveals a black hole X-ray binary within the ultraluminous supernova remnant MF 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. P.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-06-01

    We present evidence, based on Chandra ACIS-S observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, that the extraordinary X-ray luminosity of the MF 16 supernova remnant actually arises in a black hole X-ray binary. This conclusion is drawn from the point-like nature of the X-ray source, its X-ray spectrum closely resembling the spectrum of other ultraluminous X-ray sources thought to be black hole X-ray binary systems, and the detection of rapid hard X-ray variability from the source. We briefly discuss the nature of the hard X-ray variability, and the origin of the extreme radio and optical luminosity of MF 16 in light of this identification.

  10. The Kinetics of Bainitic Transformation of Roll Steel 75Kh3MF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsova, O. A.; Krylova, S. E.; Priymak, E. Yu.; Gryzunov, V. I.; Kamantsev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The critical points of steel 75Kh3MF and the temperature of the start of martensitic transformation are determined by a dilatometric method. The thermokinetic and isothermal diagrams of decomposition of supercooled austenite are plotted. The microstructure and microhardness of steel specimens cooled at different rates are studied. The kinetics of the occurrence of bainitic transformation in the steel is calculated using the Austin-Ricket equation.

  11. Automatic epileptic seizure detection in EEGs using MF-DFA, SVM based on cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongnan; Wen, Tingxi; Huang, Wei; Wang, Meihong; Li, Chunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease with transient brain dysfunction that results from the sudden abnormal discharge of neurons in the brain. Since electroencephalogram (EEG) is a harmless and noninvasive detection method, it plays an important role in the detection of neurological diseases. However, the process of analyzing EEG to detect neurological diseases is often difficult because the brain electrical signals are random, non-stationary and nonlinear. In order to overcome such difficulty, this study aims to develop a new computer-aided scheme for automatic epileptic seizure detection in EEGs based on multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and support vector machine (SVM). New scheme first extracts features from EEG by MF-DFA during the first stage. Then, the scheme applies a genetic algorithm (GA) to calculate parameters used in SVM and classify the training data according to the selected features using SVM. Finally, the trained SVM classifier is exploited to detect neurological diseases. The algorithm utilizes MLlib from library of SPARK and runs on cloud platform. Applying to a public dataset for experiment, the study results show that the new feature extraction method and scheme can detect signals with less features and the accuracy of the classification reached up to 99%. MF-DFA is a promising approach to extract features for analyzing EEG, because of its simple algorithm procedure and less parameters. The features obtained by MF-DFA can represent samples as well as traditional wavelet transform and Lyapunov exponents. GA can always find useful parameters for SVM with enough execution time. The results illustrate that the classification model can achieve comparable accuracy, which means that it is effective in epileptic seizure detection.

  12. Effect of the isothermal transformation temperature on the fine structure of steel-12Kh1MF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, I.I.; Berezina, T.G.; Lanskaya, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    For detailed analysis of bainite and pearlite in steel 12Kh1MF, homogeneous structures were obtained by isothermal annealing at 350, 450, 500, and 650 0 for 1 h. Isothermal transformation of austenite leads to the formation of bainite at 350-500 0 and pearlite at 650 0 . The austenitizing temperature was 980 0 for both types of samples, with holding for 20 min. For comparison, the plates were quenched from 980 0 and 1050 0 in ice-cold brine. The investigation was conducted with use of light and electron microscopes and x-ray analysis. The long-term strength was also determined. Isothermal treatment of steel 12Kh1MF at 350-500 0 C leads to the formation of a structure consisting of upper and lower bainite. At 500 0 the structure consists primarily of upper bainite, and at 350 0 of lower bainite. With tempering of the steel with a structure of upper and lower bainite at 730 0 for 3 h the dislocations undergo redistribution of the polygonization type within ferrite needles, with development of a cellular substructure. The acicular structure of the matrix is retained in this case. The density and evenness of the distribution of carbides is higher in upper bainite than in lower bainite. Steel 12Kh1MF with a structure of upper bainite is more susceptible to recrystallization as compared with a structure of lower bainite, which is responsible for the higher heat resistance of the latter

  13. Wet meadow ecosystems and the longevity of biologically-mediated geomorphic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C.; Grant, G.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Upland meadows represent a ubiquitous feature of montane landscapes in the U.S. West and beyond. Characterized by flat valley floors flanked by higher-gradient hillslopes, these meadows are important features, both for the diverse ecosystems they support but also because they represent depositional features in what is primarily an erosional environment. As such, they serve as long-term chronometers of both geological and ecological processes in a portion of the landscape where such records are rare, and provide a useful microcosm for exploring many of the questions motivating critical zone science. Specifically, meadows can offer insights into questions regarding the longevity of theses biologically-mediated landscapes, and the geomorphic thresholds associated with transitions between metastable landscape states. Though categorically depositional, wet meadows have been shown to rapidly shift into erosional landscapes characterized by deep arroyos, declining water tables, and sparse, semi-arid ecosystems. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed explaining this shift: intensive ungulate usage, removal of beaver, climatic shifts, and intrinsic geomorphic evolution. Even less is known about the mechanisms controlling the construction of these meadow features. Evidence seems to suggest these channels oscillate between two metastable conditions: deeply incised, single-threaded channels and sheet-flow dominated valley-spanning wetlands. We present new evidence exploring the subsurface architecture of wet meadows and the bidirectional process cascades potentially responsible for their temporal evolution. Using a combination of near surface geophysical techniques and detailed stratigraphic descriptions of incised and un-incised meadows throughout the Silvies River Basin, OR, we examine mechanisms responsible both for the construction of these features and their apparently rapid transition from depositional to erosional. Our investigation focuses specifically on potential

  14. Cloning and expression analysis of a new anther-specific gene CaMF4 in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuefeng; Chen, Changming; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun

    2017-03-01

    Our previous study on the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum indicated a diversity of differentially expressed cDNA fragments in fertile and sterile lines. In this study, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF), male fertile 4 (CaMF4) was chosen for further investigation to observe that this specific fragment accumulates in the flower buds of the fertile line. The full genomic DNA sequence of CaMF4 was 894 bp in length, containing two exons and one intron, and the complete coding sequence encoded a putative 11.53 kDa protein of 109 amino acids. The derived protein of CaMF4 shared similarity with the members of PGPS/D3 protein family. The expression of CaMF4 was detected in both the flower buds at stage 8 and open flowers of the male fertile line. In contrast to this observation, expression of CaMF4 was not detected in any organs of the male sterile line. Further analysis revealed that CaMF4 was expressed particularly in anthers of the fertile line. Our results suggest that CaMF4 is an anther-specific gene and might be indispensable for anther or pollen development in C. annuum.

  15. Groundwater, springs, and stream flow generation in an alpine meadow of a tropical glacierized catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R.; Lautz, L. K.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Chavez, D.

    2013-12-01

    Melting tropical glaciers supply approximately half of dry season stream discharge in glacierized valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The remainder of streamflow originates as groundwater stored in alpine meadows, moraines and talus slopes. A better understanding of the dynamics of alpine groundwater, including sources and contributions to streamflow, is important for making accurate estimates of glacial inputs to the hydrologic budget, and for our ability to make predictions about future water resources as glaciers retreat. Our field study, conducted during the dry season in the Llanganuco valley, focused on a 0.5-km2 alpine meadow complex at 4400 m elevation, which includes talus slopes, terminal moraines, and a debris fan. Two glacial lakes and springs throughout the complex feed a network of stream channels that flow across the meadow (~2 km total length). We combined tracer measurements of stream and spring discharge and groundwater-surface water exchange with synoptic sampling of water isotopic and geochemical composition, in order to characterize and quantify contributions to streamflow from different geomorphic features. Surface water inputs to the stream channels totaled 58 l/s, while the stream gained an additional 57 l/s from groundwater inputs. Water chemistry is primarily controlled by flowpath type (surface/subsurface) and length, as well as bedrock lithology, while stable water isotopic composition appears to be controlled by water source (glacial lake, meadow or deep groundwater). Stream water chemistry is most similar to meadow groundwater springs, but isotopic composition suggests that the majority of stream water, which issues from springs at the meadow/fan interface, is from the same glacial source as the up-gradient lake. Groundwater sampled from piezometers in confined meadow aquifers is unique in both chemistry and isotopic composition, but does not contribute a large percentage of stream water exiting this small meadow, as quantified by

  16. Does vivianite control phosphate solubility in anoxic meadow soils?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walpersdorf, Eva Christine; Bender Koch, Christian; Heiberg, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O) may precipitate in anoxic wetland soils where it may control orthophosphate (Pi) equilibrium solution concentrations at micromolar levels, and thus be of key importance in reducing excessive P from agricultural sources and eutrophication. However, vivianite equilibria...... and kinetics under in situ conditions are not fully understood and the occurrence of vivianite in wetland soils is rarely documented. In the present investigation we have monitored the temporal (November to June) variation in the pore water chemistry of a wet meadow soil (Sapric Medihemist) including...... restored. Even after 120 days following perturbation the supersaturation was still high (SIviv~6). It seems that vivianite does contribute to Pi immobilization in anoxic soil horizons, but due to slow precipitation kinetics such soils cannot maintain Pi concentrations at levels below critical thresholds...

  17. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; Hinder, Stephanie L; Bodger, Owen G; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C

    2014-01-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security. (letter)

  18. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  19. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  20. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxing eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool‐season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum, and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2 and 20 mM and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5 ̊C, day/night treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL and malonaldehyde (MDA content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD. External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  1. Bacterial biomass and DNA diversity in an alluvial meadow soil upon long-term fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naumova, N.B.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis of bacterial DNA fragments and the assessment of bacterial biomass revealed changes in the diversity of the bacterial community in a meadow alluvial soil upon long-term fertilization.

  2. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG GEOMORPHOLOGY, HYDROLOGY, AND VEGETATION IN RIPARIAN MEADOWS: RESTORATION IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation patterns and dynamics within riparian corridors are controlled largely by geomorphic position, substrate characteristics and hydrologic regimes. Understanding management and restoration options for riparian meadow complexes exhibiting stream incision requires knowledge...

  3. Screening level contaminant survey of the Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 9,337-acre Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Town of Milford, Maine. Along the refuge’s southern boundary is the former Town of Milford...

  4. Financial liberalization and stock market cross-correlation: MF-DCCA analysis based on Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Zhang, Shuhua; Lv, Dayong; Lu, Xinsheng

    2018-02-01

    Based on the implementation of Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect in China, this paper examines the effects of financial liberalization on stock market comovement using both multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) methods. Results based on MF-DFA confirm the multifractality of Shanghai and Hong Kong stock markets, and the market efficiency of Shanghai stock market increased after the implementation of this connect program. Besides, analysis based on MF-DCCA has verified the existence of persistent cross-correlation between Shanghai and Hong Kong stock markets, and the cross-correlation gets stronger after the launch of this liberalization program. Finally, we find that fat-tail distribution is the main source of multifractality in the cross-correlations before the stock connect program, while long-range correlation contributes to the multifractality after this program.

  5. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (C-org) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher C-org stocks (averaging 6.3 kg C-org m(-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 gC(org) m(-2) yr(-1) ) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg C-org m(-2) and 3.6 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1) . In shallower meadows, C-org stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88% in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45% on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr(-1) and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr(-1) and 5 %, respectively). The C-org stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg C-org m(-2) and 1.2 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1)were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  6. Climate and landscape drive the pace and pattern of conifer encroachment into subalpine meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetkin, Kaitlin C; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Kueppers, Lara M

    2017-09-01

    Mountain meadows have high biodiversity and help regulate stream water release following the snowmelt pulse. However, many meadows are experiencing woody plant encroachment, threatening these ecosystem services. While there have been field surveys of individual meadows and remote sensing-based landscape-scale studies of encroachment, what is missing is a broad-scale, ground-based study to understand common regional drivers, especially at high elevations, where land management has often played a less direct role. With this study, we ask: What are the climate and landscape conditions conducive to woody plant encroachment at the landscape scale, and how has historical climate variation affected tree recruitment in subalpine meadows over time? We measured density of encroaching trees across 340 subalpine meadows in the central Sierra Nevada, California, USA, and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to determine the relationship between landscape-scale patterns of encroachment and meadow environmental properties. We determined ages of trees in 30 survey meadows, used observed climate and GAMs to model the relationship between timing of recruitment and climate since the early 1900s, and extrapolated recruitment patterns into the future using downscaled climate scenarios. Encroachment was high among meadows with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf.) Engelm.) in the immediate vicinity, at lower elevations, with physical conditions favoring strong soil drying, and with maximum temperatures above or below average. Climatic conditions during the year of germination were unimportant, with tree recruitment instead depending on a 3-yr seed production period prior to germination and a 6-yr seedling establishment period following germination. Recruitment was high when the seed production period had high snowpack, and when the seedling establishment period had warm summer maximum temperatures, high summer precipitation, and high snowpack

  7. Optimum distribution between autumn-applied and spring-applied nitrogen in seed production of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different autumn and spring nitrogen (N) application rates on plant establishment, plant development, and seed yield were tested in a field experiment using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Results clearly showed that the optimum distribution of N between autumn and spring...... to achieve the highest seed yield and economical benefit was dependent on the choice of cover crops and location. The economically optimum N application rate was in the range from 44 to 73 kg ha−1 in autumn and 94 to 157 kg ha−1 in spring. The results are discussed in relation to Danish N regulations...... and plant establishment and development....

  8. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western ...

  9. Developing trading strategies based on fractal finance: An application of MF-DFA in the context of Islamic equities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Rumi; Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath; Masih, A. Mansur. M.

    2015-11-01

    We provide a new contribution to trading strategies by using multi-fractal de-trended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), imported from econophysics, to complement various momentum strategies. The method provides a single measure that can capture both persistency and anti-persistency in stock prices, accounting for multifractality. This study uses a sample of Islamic stocks listed in the U.S. Dow Jones Islamic market for a sample period covering 16 years starting in 1996. The findings show that the MF-DFA strategy produces monthly excess returns of 6.12%, outperforming other various momentum strategies. Even though the risk of the MF-DFA strategy may be relatively higher, it can still produce a Sharpe ratio of 0.164, which is substantially higher than that of the other strategies. When we control for the MF-DFA factor with the other factors, its pure factor return is still able to yield a monthly excess return of 1.35%. Finally, we combine the momentum and MF-DFA strategies, with the proportions of 90/10, 80/20, and 70/30 and by doing so we demonstrate that the MF-DFA measure can boost the total monthly excess returns as well as Sharpe ratio. The value added is non-linear which implies that the additional returns are associated with lower incremental risk.

  10. The impact of dredge-fill on Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows: regression and patterns of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Fabio; Alagna, Adriana; D'Anna, Giovanni; Terlizzi, Antonio; Di Carlo, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Posidonia oceanica meadows can be severely damaged by dredge-fill operations. We report on the construction of gas pipelines that occurred between 1981 and 1993 in SW Sicily, Italy. A large portion of the meadow was mechanically removed, and the excavated trench was filled with a mosaic of substrates, ranging from sand to consolidated rock debris. Meadow loss and recovery were quantified over 7 years after the end of operations. We recorded an overall loss of 81.20 ha of meadow. Substrate strongly affected recovery as the percent cover by P. oceanica consistently increased on calcareous rubble, reaching values of 44.37 ± 3.05% in shallow sites after 7 years, whereas no significant increase occurred on other substrates. As in the Mediterranean Sea exploitation of coastal areas continues to grow with consequent impacts on P. oceanica meadows, this case study illustrates how artificial rubble-like materials could be employed to support the restoration of damaged meadows. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant parvovirus B19 vaccine formulated with MF59C.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, W Ripley; Reed, Jennifer L; Noble, William; Young, Neal S; Koenig, Scott

    2003-02-15

    A recombinant human parvovirus B19 vaccine (MEDI-491; MedImmune) composed of the VP1 and VP2 capsid proteins and formulated with MF59C.1 adjuvant was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, phase 1 trial. Parvovirus B19-seronegative adults (n=24) received either 2.5 or 25 microg MEDI-491 at 0, 1, and 6 months. MEDI-491 was safe and immunogenic. All volunteers developed neutralizing antibody titers that peaked after the third immunization and were sustained through study day 364.

  12. Geospace ionosphere research with a MF/HF radio instrument on a cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, E. J.; Aikio, A. T.; Alho, M.; Fontell, M.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Kauristie, K.; Kestilä, A.; Koskimaa, P.; Makela, J. S.; Mäkelä, M.; Turunen, E.; Vanhamäki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Modern technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and its ionosphere, using spacecraft and and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We present computational simulation results and measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). We have modelled the propagation of the radio waves, both ground generated man-made waves and space formed space weather related waves, through the 3D

  13. Supplemental protein and energy for beef cows consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcherio, J C; Catlett, G E; Paterson, J A; Kerley, M S; Ellersieck, M R

    1995-11-01

    Effects of energy and protein supplementation of endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected (E+) and noninfected (E-) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on forage intake, digestibility, N flow to the small intestine, and cow-calf productivity was evaluated in two experiments. In Exp. 1, 10 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers were fed either E- or E+ hay with four supplements or E- or E+ hay unsupplemented. Four supplements formulated with either cracked corn or soybean hulls with 100 or 200 g/d of ruminally undegraded intake protein (UIP) were compared. Levels of UIP were varied by adding soybean meal or blood meal. Hay OM intake was not affected (P > .20) by source of energy of level of UIP; however, intake of E- was greater (P .20) microbial efficiencies. In Exp. 2, 30 cows (average initial BW 459 +/- 26 kg) and their calves (average initial BW 74 +/- 5 kg and 74 +/- 5 d of age) grazed an 8.1-ha E+ pasture from late May to late July. Cows were individually fed supplements used in Exp. 1 each day. Cows that received cracked corn lost .10 kg/d when fed 100 g/d of UIP but gained .33 kg/d when fed 200 g/d. Cows fed soybean hulls and 100 g/d of UIP gained .07 kg/d, whereas cows provided 200 g/d lost .10 kg/d. Calves nursing cows supplemented with 100 g/d of UIP gained more (P milk consumption and slightly greater (P forage intake than calves nursing cows supplemented with 200 g/d of UIP.

  14. Vaccine adjuvant MF59 promotes the intranodal differentiation of antigen-loaded and activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cioncada

    Full Text Available MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant approved for human influenza vaccination in European Union. The mode of action of MF59 is not fully elucidated yet, but results from several years of investigation indicate that MF59 establishes an immunocompetent environment at injection site which promotes recruitment of immune cells, including antigen presenting cells (APCs, that are facilitated to engulf antigen and transport it to draining lymph node (dLN where the antigen is accumulated. In vitro studies showed that MF59 promotes the differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells (Mo-DCs. Since after immunization with MF59, monocytes are rapidly recruited both at the injection site and in dLN and appear to have a morphological change toward a DC-like phenotype, we asked whether MF59 could play a role in inducing differentiation of Mo-DC in vivo. To address this question we immunized mice with the auto-fluorescent protein Phycoerythrin (PE as model antigen, in presence or absence of MF59. We measured the APC phenotype and their antigen uptake within dLNs, the antigen distribution within the dLN compartments and the humoral response to PE. In addition, using Ovalbumin as model antigen, we measured the capacity of dLN APCs to induce antigen-specific CD4 T cell proliferation. Here, we show, for the first time, that MF59 promotes differentiation of Mo-DCs within dLNs from intranodal recruited monocytes and we suggest that this differentiation could take place in the medullary compartment of the LN. In addition we show that the Mo-DC subset represents the major source of antigen-loaded and activated APCs within the dLN when immunizing with MF59. Interestingly, this finding correlates with the enhanced triggering of antigen-specific CD4 T cell response induced by LN APCs. This study therefore demonstrates that MF59 is able to promote an immunocompetent environment also directly within the dLN, offering a novel insight on the mechanism of action of

  15. Influence of harvest managements on biomass nutrient concentrations and removal rates of festulolium and tall fescue from a poorly drained nutrient-rich fen peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to show the effects of harvest time and frequency on biomass nutrient concentrations (total ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) as well as total nutrient removal potential by festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a nutrient-rich fen peatland. The harvest managemen...

  16. The Physiological, Morphological and Bio-Chemical Comparison of the Current Grass Shiraz City’s Green Space withTall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zadehbagheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of Shiraz city’s green space is the change of color and visual quality of turf during cold months. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate tall fescue in order to find if it is suitable for replacement. This experiment was in the form of complete random blocks and it was done during two consecutive years. Each treatment had 4 repetitions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.0, and the means were compared using t or LSD tests at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that tall fescue was superior to normal sport grass in cold months with respect to its chlorophyll, catalase, protein, prolin, and soluble sugar content, as well as its visual quality and root depth. Prolin fluctuations in tall fescue were very high which showed that these types of grass can increase the plant’s prolin content under stress. Therefore, there is a fivefold increase in the prolin content of the grass in cold months (cold tension compared to the beginning of spring (best condition for growth. However, this change does not exist in sport grass. Based on the obtained results we can conclude that tall fescue can resist environmental tension, especially coldness, using different mechanisms, and is a good substitute for normal sport grass.

  17. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated ruminal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in VFA absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extr...

  18. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  19. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  20. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  1. Infestation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. with Neotyphodium coenophialum and its influence on growth of chosen microorganisms in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Pańka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue cultivars cultivated in Poland and determination an endophyte inhibition effect on mycelium growth of chosen microorganisms in vitro were investigated. Seventeen seed lots of 11 cultivars of tall fescue were examined. The endophyte mycelium was dyed with bengal rose and microscopically examined to detect N. coenophialum. Occurrence of endophyte was checked with PCR method. Influence of endophyte on growth of 15 microorganisms was established in the laboratory conditions on Petri dishes with PDA medium at 10, 20 and 30°C. Neotyphodium coenophialum occurred only in two seed lots, 'Barrocco' - 42% and Terros - 2%. Living mycelium of endophyte was isolated only from 'Barrocco'. The highest mycelium growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium avenaceum, F. equiseti, Microdochium nivale and Gaeumannomyces graminis by endophyte at 30°C was recorded. The highest width of growth inhibition zone (4mm was detected for the last pathogen. Mycelium growth of B. sorokiniana and M. nivale was not inhibited at 10°C, and for F. avenaceum at 10 and 20°C.

  2. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  3. Carbon storage in the seagrass meadows of Gazi Bay, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Githaiga

    Full Text Available Vegetated marine habitats are globally important carbon sinks, making a significant contribution towards mitigating climate change, and they provide a wide range of other ecosystem services. However, large gaps in knowledge remain, particularly for seagrass meadows in Africa. The present study estimated biomass and sediment organic carbon (Corg stocks of four dominant seagrass species in Gazi Bay, Kenya. It compared sediment Corg between seagrass areas in vegetated and un-vegetated 'controls', using the naturally patchy occurence of seagrass at this site to test the impacts of seagrass growth on sediment Corg. It also explored relationships between the sediment and above-ground Corg, as well as between the total biomass and above-ground parameters. Sediment Corg was significantly different between species, range: 160.7-233.8 Mg C ha-1 (compared to the global range of 115.3 to 829.2 Mg C ha-1. Vegetated areas in all species had significantly higher sediment Corg compared with un-vegetated controls; the presence of seagrass increased Corg by 4-6 times. Biomass carbon differed significantly between species with means ranging between 4.8-7.1 Mg C ha-1 compared to the global range of 2.5-7.3 Mg C ha-1. To our knowledge, these are among the first results on seagrass sediment Corg to be reported from African seagrass beds; and contribute towards our understanding of the role of seagrass in global carbon dynamics.

  4. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows....... The C-org stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m(-2) in Finland, while in Denmark the average C-org stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g Cm-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha(-1). Our results...... in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (C-org stock) and carbon accumulation rates (C-org accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation...

  5. MF-101, an estrogen receptor beta agonist for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Dale W; Pinkerton, Joann V

    2009-04-01

    During peri- and postmenopausal stages, the majority of women experience moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats, that interfere with sleep and reduce quality of life. Estrogen alone or in combination with a progestagen has been the standard therapy for such vasomotor symptoms; however, this therapeutic regimen is associated with severe side effects, such as breast cancer or cardiovascular events. To provide a better treatment option for menopausal women, Bionovo Inc is developing the estrogen receptor (ER)beta-selective agonist MF-101. Selective ER agonists can stimulate either ERalpha or ERbeta and induce tissue-specific estrogen-like effects, thus providing a safer alternative to conventional hormone therapy. MF-101 is derived from 22 herbs that are traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. MF-101 did not promote the growth of breast cancer cells or stimulate uterine growth in preclinical studies and, in a phase II trial, was demonstrated to be safe and more effective in reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes in postmenopausal women compared with placebo. To confirm the safety and efficacy of MF-101, larger phase III trials were planned for 2009. Although MF-101 appears to be a promising therapeutic, the herbal composition of the drug may be a disadvantage, because of the increased risk of causing allergic reactions in the general population. Studies with the MF-101-isolated active compounds liquiritigen and chalcone demonstrated selectivity for ERbeta, with no induction of proliferative events. If these isolates were demonstrated to be as effective and safe in clinical trials as preliminary data suggest regarding MF-101, these compounds could change the way clinicians treat menopause-associated symptoms.

  6. Patterns and Drivers of Scattered Tree Loss in Agricultural Landscapes: Orchard Meadows in Germany (1968-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin; Costa, Augusta; Schaich, Harald; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts. PMID:25932914

  7. THE FERTILIZATION EFFECT OF PERMANENT MEADOWS WITH SPENT MUSHROM SUBSTRATE ON THE UPTAKING OF MANGANESE, COPPER AND ZINC BY THE MEADOW SWARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Wiśniewska-Kadżajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the years 1999–2001 in a meadow with the following fertilizer combinations: control object (without fertilizer, NPK mineral fertilization, fertilizing with manure, manure with NPK fertilization, fertilizing with spent mushroom substrate; spent mushroom substrate with NPK fertilization. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of permanent grassland fertilization both with spent mushroom substrate and the one supplemented with NPK on the uptaking of manganese, copper and zinc by the meadow sward. After the cultivation of mushrooms, in comparison to the standard manure, the substrate used in the experiment was characterized by more than twice higher amount of manganese and zinc. However, the amount of copper in the organic materials was similar. In spite of having supplied lager amount of manganese, zinc and similar amount of copper to the mushrooms substrate, it caused the reduction of the uptake of the elements in the meadow sward. In spite of supplying larger amounts of manganese, zinc and copper the reduction of their uptaking by meadow sward was observed in comparison to manure mushroom substrate. This may be connected with a slightly alkaline reaction of the soil environment, thus limiting the uptake of the studied micronutrients.

  8. Restoration of floodplain meadows: Effects on the re-establishment of mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Grzegorz J.; Harnisch, Matthias; Otte, Annette; Bomanowska, Anna; Donath, Tobias W.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular plants serve as target species for the evaluation of restoration success as they account for most of the plant species diversity and vegetation cover. Although bryophytes contribute considerably to the species diversity of meadows, they are rarely addressed in restoration projects. This project is a first step toward making recommendations for including mosses in alluvial floodplain restoration projects. The opportunity to assess the diversity and ecological requirements of mosses on floodplain meadows presented itself within the framework of a vegetation monitoring that took place in 2014 on meadows located along the northern Upper Rhine. In this area, large-scale meadow restoration projects have taken place since 1997 in both the functional and fossil floodplains. Other studies have shown that bryophytes are generally present in green hay used in restoration, providing inadvertent bryophyte introduction. We compared bryophyte communities in donor and restored communities and correlated these communities with environmental variables—taking into account that the mosses on the restoration sites possibly developed from green hay. This analysis provided insights as to which species of bryophytes should be included in future restoration projects, what diaspores should be used, and how they should be transferred. Data on bryophyte occurrence were gathered from old meadows, and from restoration sites. We found distinct differences in bryophyte composition (based on frequency) in restored communities in functional flood plains compared to donor communities. Generally, restoration sites are still characterized by a lower species-richness, with a significantly lower occurrence of rare and red listed species and a lower species-heterogeneity. In conclusion, our research establishes what mosses predominate in donor and restored alluvial meadows along the northern Upper River, and what microsite conditions favour particular species. This points the way to deliberate

  9. Adsorption studies of a water soluble dye, Reactive Red MF-3B, using sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianhua; Liu Yuanfa; Jin Qingzhe; Wang Xingguo; Yang Jun

    2007-01-01

    The removal of water-soluble Reactive Red MF-3B from aqueous media by sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay was studied in a batch system. The surfactant used was octodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (OTMAC). Adsorbent characterizations were investigated using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and surface area analysis. The effects of pH, contact time, initial solute concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption of Reactive Red MF-3B onto modified clay were investigated. On the basis of kinetic studies, specific rate constants involved in the processes were calculated and second-order adsorption kinetics was observed in the case. Film diffusion was found to be the rate-limiting step. Reactive Red MF-3B adsorption was found to increase with increase temperature. The Reactive Red MF-3B equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, the former being found to provide the better fit of the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. From the results it can be concluded that the surfactant-modified clay could be a good adsorbent for treating Reactive Red MF-3B-contaminated waters

  10. Man-induced transformation of mountain meadow soils of Aragats mountain massif (Armenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers issues of degradation of mountain meadow soils of the Aragats mountain massif of the Republic of Armenia and provides the averaged research results obtained for 2013 and 2014. The present research was initiated in the frames of long-term complex investigations of agroecosystems of Armenia’s mountain massifs and covered sod soils of high mountain meadow pasturelands and meadow steppe grasslands lying on southern slope of Mt. Aragats. With a purpose of studying the peculiarities of migration and transformation of flows of major nutrients namely carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus in study mountain meadow and meadow steppe belts of the Aragats massif we investigated water migration of chemical elements and regularities of their leaching depending on different belts. Field measurement data have indicated that organic carbon and humus in a heavily grazed plot are almost twice as low as on a control site. Lysimetric data analysis has demonstrated that heavy grazing and illegal deforestation have brought to an increase in intrasoil water acidity. The results generated from this research support a conclusion that a man’s intervention has brought to disturbance of structure and nutrient and water regimes of soils and loss of significant amounts of soil nutrients throughout the studied region.

  11. Decadal changes in the structure of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows: Natural vs. human influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuya, Fernando; Ribeiro-Leite, Luís; Arto-Cuesta, Noelia; Coca, Josep; Haroun, Ricardo; Espino, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are deteriorating worldwide. However, numerous declines are still unreported, which avoid accurate evaluations of seagrass global trends. This is particularly relevant for the western African coast and nearby oceanic archipelagos in the eastern Atlantic. The seagrass Cymodocea nodosa is an 'ecological engineer' on shallow soft bottoms of the Canary Islands. A comparative decadal study was conducted in 21 C. nodosa seagrass meadows at Gran Canaria Island to compare the structure (shoot density, leaf length and cover) between 2003 and 2012. Overall, 11 meadows exhibited a severe regression, while 10 remained relatively stable. During this period, natural influences (sea surface temperature, Chlorophyll-a concentration and PAR light, as well as the number of storm episodes detaching seagrasses) had a low predictive power on temporal patterns in seagrass structure. In contrast, proximity from a range of human-mediated influences (e.g. the number of outfalls and ports) seem to be related to the loss of seagrass; the rate of seagrass erosion between 2003 and 2012 was significantly predicted by the number of human-mediated impacts around each meadow. This result highlights promoting management actions to conserve meadows of C. nodosa at the study region through efficient management of local impacts.

  12. The estimation of some wild flowers seed material from the natural-valuable meadow habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicka Maria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of the species composition of the meadow habitats is often linked to the introduction of the typical species’ seeds. The effectiveness of that treatment requires getting the acquired detailed knowledge of the germination biology of peculiar species. Eight typical plant species of four non-forest habitats of the river valleys, representing the following types: Cnidion dubii (6440, Molinion (6410, Arrhenatherion (6510 and Festuco-Brometea (6210 were investigated. The diasporas were collected in the years 2014–2015 on the meadows of PLH 140016 protection area near Mniszew (Kozienice county, Mazovian voivodeship. The ability of seeds’ germination in the laboratory conditions was studied. It was stated that Cnidion and Molinion meadows’ species require pre-chilling to break the seeds’ dormancy, while the Arrhenatherion meadows and xerotermophilous swards do not require such treatment. The Allium angulosum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium and Eryngium planum were characterized by high vigour and germination capability as well as the low share of dead seeds. The extremely drought in 2015 caused the decreasing in germination capability and increasing in the dead seeds’ share. The preliminary studies, presented in this paper, show that Cnidion and Molinion meadows may be most difficult to restore because of the necessity of breaking the seeds’ dormancy and higher sensitiveness for the unfavourable weather conditions during the seed ripening stage. The studies have practical significance for the works connected with the floristic diversity’ increasing of threatened communities and the restoration of the destroyed meadow habitats.

  13. Towards Detection of Cutting in Hay Meadows by Using of NDVI and EVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Halabuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main requirement for preserving European hay meadows in good condition is through prerequisite cut management. However, monitoring these practices on a larger scale is very difficult. Our study analyses the use of MODIS vegetation indices products, namely EVI and NDVI, to discriminate cut and uncut meadows in Slovakia. We tested the added value of simple transformations of raw data series (seasonal statistics, first difference series, compared EVI and NDVI, and analyzed optimal periods, the number of scenes and the effect of smoothing on classification performance. The first difference series transformation saw substantial improvement in classification results. The best case NDVI series classification yielded overall accuracy of 85% with balanced rates of producer’s and user’s accuracies for both classes. EVI yielded slightly lower values, though not significantly different, although user accuracy of cut meadows achieved only 67%. Optimal periods for discriminating cut and uncut meadows lay between 16 May and 4 August, meaning only seven consecutive images are enough to accurately detect cutting in hay meadows. More importantly, the 16-day compositing period seemed to be enough for detection of cutting, which would be the time span that might be hopefully achieved by upcoming on-board HR sensors (e.g., Sentinel-2.

  14. Performance study of mullite and mullite-alumina ceramic MF membranes for oily wastewaters treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Mohsen; Mirfendereski, Mojtaba; Fini, Mahdi Nikbakht

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, results of an experimental study on separation of oil from actual and synthetic oily wastewaters with mullite and mullite-alumina tubular ceramic membranes are presented. Mullite and mullite-alumina microfiltration (MF) symmetric membranes were synthesized from kaolin clay and α......-alumina membranes for treatment of synthetic wastewaters were investigated. In order to determine the best operating conditions, 250-3000ppm condensate gas in water emulsions was employed as synthetic oily wastewaters using mullite membrane. At the best operating conditions (3bar pressure, 1.5m/s cross flow...... velocity and 35°C temperature), performance of mullite and mullite-alumina membranes for treatment of real and synthetic wastewaters were also compared. The results for treatment of emulsions showed that the mullite ceramic membrane has the highest R (93.8%) and the lowest FR (28.97%). Also, the mullite...

  15. Investigation of 12Kh1MF steel resistance to brittle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologov, G.A.; Rushchits, T.Yu.

    1977-01-01

    The metal of hot-rolled steam pipe made of 12Kh1MF steel, which has been subjected to thermal treatment under laboratory conditions, and metal samples from acting steam pipes after different exploitation periods at 510-565 deg C have been investigated. The dependence of impact viscosity and its constituents on conditions of thermal treatment has been established. The energy consumed by the developing crack has been used as an impact viscosity criterion. Appropriate thermal treatment is capable of rehabilitating the impact viscosity of embrittled metal. Cold plastic deformation increases crack propagation rate in the initial metal and promotes embrittlement during exploitation. Ageing of the working metal reduces its capacity of stopping the developing crack and shifts the temperature threshold of brittleness towards positive temperature

  16. Corrosion failure of a bolt made of the 25Kh1MF material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, V.; Cechova, D.; Velkoborsky, J.

    1989-01-01

    M36x4 bolts, of which there are 222 at each nuclear power plant unit, are made of the 25Kh1MF or 38KhN3MFA steel. They are located in an environment with elevated temperature, with damp air and with boric acid. Corrosion of these bolts is due to the rather poor metallurgical quality of the steel. No inadmissible inhomogeneities of the type of lines of inclusions occur in the bolt material produced by cold rolling but defects of the type of laps were found on the threads. It is suggested that if the cold rolling technology were obviated, corrosion failure of the bolts might not occur. (M.D.). 7 figs., 3 refs

  17. Ultrasonic Reflectometry for Monitoring the Effect of Pressure on Sludge Fouling of MF Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Kujundzic, Elmira; Greenberg, Alan

    Membrane fouling remains the key limitation for the widespread use of membrane bioreactors (MBR) for wastewater treatment. This constraint has led to an increasing number of studies that examine the influence of various operational parameters and physicochemical properties on fouling layer...... formation and characteristics. In other membrane applications real-time monitoring has proven to be useful by providing a more quantitative characterization of fouling layer formation [1]. One such technique, ultrasonic reflectometry (UR), has been successfully used to detect fouling formed by a wide range...... of the effect of pressure on the fouling layer structure. The ability of UR to detect and monitor sludge fouling was studied in a series of replicated experiments of 15, 30 and 60-min duration that used commercial microfiltration (MF) membranes at a transmembrane pressure of 15 kPa. By analyzing the peak...

  18. Implementation of Anti-Collision System on M/F ‘Wawel’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołejsza Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The known navigational systems in use and methods of navigational decision support perform information functions and as such are helpful in the process of safe conduct of a vessel. However, none of these known systems provides a navigator with ready solutions of collision situations taking account of all the vessels in the proximity of own ship, where the Collision Regulations apply. This paper presents verification results of NAVDEC — new Navigational Decision Supporting System created by research team from Szczecin Maritime University both for ocean going ships and pleasure crafts. Verification was carried out in real condition on board Motor Ferry ‘Wawel’ (m/f ‘Wawel’, which belongs to shipowner Polferries (PŻB. During the journey to/from Nynashamn system was tested from customer perspective. Few suggestions for improvements were issued, which were discussed in this article.

  19. Cellulose and cutisin decomposition in soil of Alopecuretum meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hrevušová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant litter decomposition is a fundamental process to ecosystem functioning regulated by both abiotic and biotic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the decomposition of cellulose and protein (cutisin substrates on permanent Alopecuretum meadow under different methods of management. The treatments were following: 2 × cut, 2 × cut + NPK, 2 × mulch, 1 × cut, 1 × mulch (frequency of mowing per year and no-treated plots. Cutting or mulching was carried out in October, under the 2 × cut management also in May. In 2007–2009, cellulose and cutisin in mesh bags were placed in the soil and kept from April to October. Total mean ratios of decomposed cellulose and cutisin were 83 % and 40 % of primal substrate weight, respectively. The cellulose decomposition was affected by weather conditions, but not by applied management. The highest mean ratio of decomposed cellulose was found in 2009 (with increased amount of precipitation in May and July, the lowest in 2007. Coefficients of variation within a year and over the years were up to 22 % and 20 %, respectively. The cutisin decomposition was significantly affected by applied management in all three years. Higher rates of decomposition were noted in two times mowed treatments compared to one or not mowed treatments. Significant differences were found between years in 2× cut and 2 × cut + NPK treatments. Coefficients of variation within the year and over the years were both higher by cutisin than by cellulose samples (up to 50 and 42 %, respectively.

  20. ImWalkMF: Joint matrix factorization and implicit walk integrative learning for recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu

    2018-01-15

    Data sparsity and cold-start problems are prevalent in recommender systems. To address such problems, both the observable explicit social information (e.g., user-user trust connections) and the inferable implicit correlations (e.g., implicit neighbors computed by similarity measurement) have been introduced to complement user-item ratings data for improving the performances of traditional model-based recommendation algorithms such as matrix factorization. Although effective, (1) the utilization of the explicit user-user social relationships suffers from the weakness of unavailability in real systems such as Netflix or the issue of sparse observable content like 0.03% trust density in Epinions, thus there is no or little explicit social information that can be employed to improve baseline model in real applications; (2) the current similarity measurement approaches focus on inferring implicit correlations between a user (item) and their direct neighbors or top-k similar neighbors based on user-item ratings bipartite network, so that they fail to comprehensively unfold the indirect potential relationships among users and items. To solve these issues regarding both explicit/implicit social recommendation algorithms, we design a joint model of matrix factorization and implicit walk integrative learning, i.e., ImWalkMF, which only uses explicit ratings information yet models both direct rating feedbacks and multiple direct/indirect implicit correlations among users and items from a random walk perspective. We further propose a combined strategy for training two independent components in the proposed model based on sampling. The experimental results on two real-world sparse datasets demonstrate that ImWalkMF outperforms the traditional regularized/probabilistic matrix factorization models as well as other competitive baselines that utilize explicit/implicit social information.

  1. Characterization of newly isolated Lactobacillus delbrueckii-like strain MF-07 isolated from chicken and its role in isoflavone biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2009-02-01

    Cecal microbiota of chicken was screened for bacteria involved in the biotransformation of isoflavones. A new facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of deglycosylation of the isoflavone genistin, was isolated and identified as a Lactobacillus delbrueckii-like strain. The isolate MF-07 was Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, catalase negative, non-spore-forming, nonmotile and a straight rod. The polyphasic taxonomic data, along with 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, demonstrated that the isolate MF-07 was most closely related to L. delbrueckii group of the Lactobacillus genus. Considerable amounts of genistein were accumulated with genistin as a substrate within the first 12 h of fermentation. Formononetin and daidzein were not metabolized. The influence of several carbon sources on the growth of the isolate MF-07 and biotransformation of genistin was also investigated. This is the first study in which an anaerobic Lactobacillus bacterium from the chicken intestinal tract that metabolizes genistin to produce its bioactive metabolite was identified and characterized.

  2. Asymmetric MF-DCCA method based on risk conduction and its application in the Chinese and foreign stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangxi; Han, Yan; Li, Qingchen; Xu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The acceleration of economic globalization gradually shows the linkage of the stock markets in various counties and produces a risk conduction effect. An asymmetric MF-DCCA method is conducted based on the different directions of risk conduction (DMF-ADCCA) and by using the traditional MF-DCCA. To ensure that the empirical results are more objective and robust, this study selects the stock index data of China, the US, Germany, India, and Brazil from January 2011 to September 2014 using the asymmetric MF-DCCA method based on different risk conduction effects and nonlinear Granger causality tests to study the asymmetric cross-correlation between domestic and foreign stock markets. Empirical results indicate the existence of a bidirectional conduction effect between domestic and foreign stock markets, and the greater influence degree from foreign countries to domestic market compared with that from the domestic market to foreign countries.

  3. INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICS, GEOLOGY, AND HYDROLOGY TO DETERMINE BEDROCK GEOMETRY CONTROLS ON THE ORIGIN OF ISOLATED MEADOW COMPLEXES WITHIN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  4. PetIGA-MF: a multi-field high-performance toolbox for structure-preserving B-splines spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2016-10-01

    We describe a high-performance solution framework for isogeometric discrete differential forms based on B-splines: PetIGA-MF. Built on top of PetIGA, an open-source library we have built and developed over the last decade, PetIGA-MF is a general multi-field discretization tool. To test the capabilities of our implementation, we solve different viscous flow problems such as Darcy, Stokes, Brinkman, and Navier-Stokes equations. Several convergence benchmarks based on manufactured solutions are presented assuring optimal convergence rates of the approximations, showing the accuracy and robustness of our solver.

  5. Hydrogen degradation of the 26H2MF alloy steel in H2SO4 and hydrocarbon environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, A.; Swieczko-Zurek, B.; Michaliak, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Polish 26H2M alloy steel has been subjected to different heat treatment resulting in different microstructure and fracture appearance. The slow strain rate tests have been made on smooth round specimens in diluted sulphuric acid, boiler fuel and used mineral machine oil. The 26H2MF steel has become relatively immune in neutral boiler fuel and mineral oil and been heavily suffered from hydrogen degradation in acidic environment. The results demonstrate that the 26H2MF steel is highly susceptible to hydrogen degradation but in absence of stress raisers the increased hydrogen absorption in hydrocarbons can cause only small loss of its plasticity. (author) >>>

  6. Dugong dugon feeding in tropical Australian seagrass meadows: implications for conservation planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Tol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dugongs (Dugong dugon are listed as vulnerable to extinction due to rapid population reductions caused in part by loss of seagrass feeding meadows. Understanding dugong feeding behaviour in tropical Australia, where the majority of dugongs live, will assist conservation strategies. We examined whether feeding patterns in intertidal seagrass meadows in tropical north-eastern Australia were related to seagrass biomass, species composition and/or nitrogen content. The total biomass of each seagrass species removed by feeding dugongs was measured and compared to its relative availability. Nitrogen concentrations were also determined for each seagrass species present at the sites. Dugongs consumed seagrass species in proportion to their availability, with biomass being the primary determining factor. Species composition and/or nitrogen content influenced consumption to a lesser degree. Conservation plans focused on protecting high biomass intertidal seagrass meadows are likely to be most effective at ensuring the survival of dugong in tropical north-eastern Australia.

  7. Expositions of the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University: "Рagan Meadow"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglacheva Arina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available "Pagan Meadow" - one of the business cards of Botanic Garden of PSU filled deep sense of creation and originality. Pyramidal junipers were rescued and brought to the mining sites shungit in 1999. The unique expedition was attended by students and graduate students of the Ecology-Biological Faculty. Stone maze and seids appeared in 2011 as a result of the competition landscape projects "Northern motives." Despite the initial dissociation of the two projects lined up a complete picture of the veneration of wood and stone in the history of Karelia. Consideration "Pagan Meadow" by studying upland meadows with a treelike junipers and diversity of the maze of boulders lets discuss the issues of ecology and geology.

  8. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy......This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity...

  9. Herbicide contamination and the potential impact to seagrass meadows in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; Bengtson Nash, Susan; Eaglesham, Geoff; Müller, Jochen F; Duke, Norman C; Winderlich, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Low concentrations of herbicides (up to 70 ng l(-1)), chiefly diuron (up to 50 ng l(-1)) were detected in surface waters associated with inter-tidal seagrass meadows of Zostera muelleri in Hervey Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia. Diuron and atrazine (up to 1.1 ng g(-1) dry weight of sediment) were detected in the sediments of these seagrass meadows. Concentration of the herbicides diuron, simazine and atrazine increased in surface waters associated with seagrass meadows during moderate river flow events indicating herbicides were washed from the catchment to the marine environment. Maximum herbicide concentration (sum of eight herbicides) in the Mary River during a moderate river flow event was 4260 ng l(-1). No photosynthetic stress was detected in seagrass in this study during low river flow. However, with moderate river flow events, nearshore seagrasses are at risk of being exposed to concentrations of herbicides that are known to inhibit photosynthesis.

  10. Effects of Spring Drought on Carbon Sequestration, Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in the Songnen Meadow Steppe in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang Dong; Jixun Guo; Jiquan Chen; Ge Sun; Song Gao; et al

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change projections suggest an increasing frequency of droughts and extreme rain events in the steppes of the Eurasian region. Using the eddy covariance method, we measured carbon and water balances of a meadow steppe ecosystem in Northeast China during 2 years which had contrasting precipitation patterns in spring seasons in 2007 and 2008. The meadow...

  11. Spatio-temporal patterns of tree establishment are indicative of biotic interactions during early invasion of a montane meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Rice; C.B. Halpern; J.A. Antos; J.A. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Tree invasions of grasslands are occurring globally, with profound consequences for ecosystem structure and function. We explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of tree invasion of a montane meadow in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, where meadow loss is a conservation concern. We examine the early stages of invasion, where extrinsic and intrinsic processes can be clearly...

  12. Effectiveness of turf stripping as a measure for restoring species-rich fen meadows in suboptimal hydrological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der D.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.

    2007-01-01

    Most species-rich fen meadows in nature reserves in The Netherlands are acidified due to weaker upwelling of base-rich groundwater. The present study investigated whether and why turf stripping combined with superficial drainage might promote the long-term recovery of such meadows and restore the

  13. Vole-driven restoration of a parariparian meadow complex on the Colorado Plateau (south-central Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis M. Bramble; Jean C. Bramble

    2008-01-01

    Rapid and substantial reductions in the local density of invasive rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) have been achieved on a shrub-infested meadow complex solely by manipulating grazing so as to benefit the native meadow vole, Microtus montanus. The key adjustment has been a shift from spring-summer to late season grazing...

  14. Savonarola at the stake: the rise and fall of Roy Meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the role of prominent paediatrician Professor Sir Roy Meadow in the controversy surrounding the diagnosis of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) in mothers accused of murdering their children. The MSBP saga is a further chapter of an era of moral panic that started several decades ago with repressed memory therapy, satanic ritual abuse and multiple personalities. The fall of medieval sage Savonarola is an apt analogy for the fate of Roy Meadow. The history of medicine is rife with figures who become their own authority and rule by force of personality.

  15. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Matthews, Kathleen R.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two “resting” meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita). In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey), leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw), which have been in a “resting” state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change. PMID:26565706

  16. Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and

  17. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans

  18. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Assessment of the MF59-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Systematic review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aragón, J; Grande Tejada, A M; Márquez-Peláez, S; Molina Linde, J M; Yang, R

    2013-10-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of MF59-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine in children. A systematic review of the literature was performed after searching the MedLine and Embase electronic databases, and manual search in specialties journals, with MeSH terms and and free terms. Inclusion criteria were clinical trials with children vaccinated with MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, compared with other vaccines doses with/without MF59-adjuvanted. The immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine was recorded. The quality of the studies included was assessed by CASPe checklist. Four clinical trials with moderate quality were selected. The local and systemic adverse effects were rare and mild, with no differences between groups. Seroconversion and seroprotection levels were higher with MF59-adjuvanted vaccines. Antibody titres were also higher with the adjuvant vaccines. The adjuvant vaccine has a good efficacy and safety profile. The adverse effects that may occur are common and appear similarly in both vaccination groups. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  1. Exploiting LF/MF signals of opportunity for lower ionospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson-Rollins, Marc A.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a method to diagnose and track the D region ionosphere (60-100 km). This region is important for long-distance terrestrial communication and is impacted by a variety of geophysical phenomena, but it is traditionally very difficult to detect. Modern remote sensing methods used to study the D region are predominately near the very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) band, with some work also done in the high-frequency and very high frequency bands (HF/VHF, 3-300 MHz). However, the frequency band between VLF and HF has been largely ignored as a diagnostic tool for the ionosphere. In this paper, we evaluate the use of 300 kHz radio reflections as a diagnostic tool for characterizing the D region of the ionosphere. We present radio receiver data, analyze diurnal trends in the signal from these transmitters, and identify ionospheric disturbances impacting LF/MF propagation. We find that 300 kHz remote sensing may allow a unique method for D region diagnostics compared to both the VLF and HF/VHF frequency bands, due to a more direct ionospheric reflection coefficient calculation method with high temporal resolution without the use of forward modeling.

  2. New Tools to Identify the Location of Seagrass Meadows: Marine Grazers as Habitat Indicators

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Alcoverro, Teresa; Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hamann, Mark; Macreadie, Peter I.; Marsh, Helene D.; Rasheed, Michael A.; Thums, Michele; Unsworth, Richard K. F.; York, Paul H.; Esteban, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    and there has been a call from 122 scientists across 28 countries for more work to manage, protect and monitor seagrass meadows (http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-37606827). Emerging from the 12th International Seagrass Biology Workshop, held

  3. The effects of drainage on groundwater quality and plant species distribution in stream valley meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.P.; Diggelen, R. van; Wassen, M.J.; Wiersinga, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Conditions in fen meadows in Dutch stream valleys are influenced by both deep (Ca2+-rich) and shallow (Ca2+-poor) groundwater flows. The distribution patterns of phreatophytic (groundwater-influenced) plant species showed distinct relationships with the distribution of different groundwater types.

  4. Stream channel designs for riparian and wet meadow rangelands in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Jemison; Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    Inappropriate land uses have degraded wetland and riparian ecosystems throughout the Southwestern United States. In 1996, the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico implemented a channel relocation project, as part of a road improvement project, to determine the feasibility of restoring wet meadow and riparian ecosystems degraded by inappropriately located roads and...

  5. Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, Vojtěch; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2010), s. 243-251 ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : carbohydrates * meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2010

  6. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  7. Effects of grazing intensity on small mammal population ecology in wet meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Bildsøe, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Livestock grazing is common management practice in wet grasslands. However, knowledge of its effects on small mammals is limited. We studied the influence of grazing intensity on small mammals in general and field voles Microtus agrestis in particular in two Danish wet meadows, 1998-2000. General...

  8. Soil CO2 efflux in three wet meadow ecosystems with different C and N status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, K.; Čížková, Hana; Šantrůčková, H.

    Suppl.S, č. 9 (2008), s. 49-55 ISSN 1585-8553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : wet meadow * soil CO2 efflux * eutrophication Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.898, year: 2008

  9. Invertebrates of Meadow Creek, Union County, Oregon, and their use as food by trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. McLemore; William R. Meehan

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1980, invertebrates were collected three times each year from several reaches of Meadow Creek in eastern Oregon. Five sampling methods were used: benthos, drift, sticky traps, water traps, and fish stomachs. A total of 372 taxa were identified, of which 239 were used as food by rainbow trout (steelhead; Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Of...

  10. Pyrenean meadows in Natura 2000 network: grass production and plant biodiversity conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reine, R.; Barrantes, O.; Chocarro, C.; Juarez, A.; Broca, A.; Maestro, M.; Ferrer, C.

    2014-06-01

    In semi-natural mountain meadows, yield and forage quality must be reconciled with plant biodiversity conservation. This study was performed to analyze the relationships between these three parameters. To quantify plant biodiversity and pastoral value (PV), phyto sociological inventories were performed in 104 semi-natural meadows in the Central Spanish Pyrenees included in the Natura 2000 network. Forage yields were calculated and forage samples were analyzed for relative feed value (RFV). We identified two main types of meadows: (i) those that had more intensive management, relatively close to farm buildings, with little or no slope, dominated by grasses, with low plant biodiversity, high PV and yield, but low forage quality and (ii) those that had less intensive management, distant from farm buildings, on slopes, richer in other forbs, with high plant biodiversity and forage quality, but low PV and yield. Conservation policies should emphasize less intensive management practices to maintain plant diversity in the semi-natural meadows in the Pyrenees. The widespread view that other forbs have low nutritional value should be revised in future research. These species often are undervalued by the PV method, because their nutritional quality, digestibility and intake are poorly understood. (Author)

  11. Pyrenean meadows in Natura 2000 network: grass production and plant biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Reiné

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In semi-natural mountain meadows, yield and forage quality must be reconciled with plant biodiversity conservation. This study was performed to analyze the relationships between these three parameters. To quantify plant biodiversity and pastoral value (PV, phytosociological inventories were performed in 104 semi-natural meadows in the Central Spanish Pyrenees included in the Natura 2000 network. Forage yields were calculated and forage samples were analyzed for relative feed value (RFV. We identified two main types of meadows: (i those that had “more intensive management,” relatively close to farm buildings, with little or no slope, dominated by grasses, with low plant biodiversity, high PV and yield, but low forage quality and (ii those that had “less intensive management,” distant from farm buildings, on slopes, richer in “other forbs”, with high plant biodiversity and forage quality, but low PV and yield. Conservation policies should emphasize less intensive management practices to maintain plant diversity in the semi-natural meadows in the Pyrenees. The widespread view that “other forbs” have low nutritional value should be revised in future research. These species often are undervalued by the PV method, because their nutritional quality, digestibility and intake are poorly understood.

  12. Meadow fragmentation and reproductive output of the S.E. Asian seagrass Enhalus acoroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, J.E.; Rollon, R.N.; Lacap, C.D.A.; Billot, C.; Alberto, F.; Nacorda, H.M.E.; Wiegman, F.; Terrados, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Flower and fruit production of the abundant, tall, long-lived, dioecious, surface-pollinating seagrass species Enhalus acoroides (L.) Royle were estimated at seven sites in the reef flats off Bolinao (NW Luzon, The Philippines) featuring different fragmentation of the seagrass meadows. Fragmentation

  13. Extent and reasons for meadows in South Bohemia becoming unsuitable for orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štípková, Z.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2015), s. 142-147 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : extinction * meadows * terrestrial orchids * South Bohemia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. At home on foreign meadows: the reintroduction of two Maculineae butterfly species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynhoff, I.

    2001-01-01

    Maculinea butterflies live as obligate parasites of specific Myrmica host ants in meadow and heathland habitat maintained by low intensity landuse. Changes in agriculture caused the decline and extinction of many populations. In The Netherlands,

  15. Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social-ecological system: implications for human wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C; Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Paddock, Jessica; Baker, Susan; McKenzie, Len J; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass ecosystems are diminishing worldwide and repeated studies confirm a lack of appreciation for the value of these systems. In order to highlight their value we provide the first discussion of seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system on a global scale. We consider the impact of a declining resource on people, including those for whom seagrass meadows are utilised for income generation and a source of food security through fisheries support. Case studies from across the globe are used to demonstrate the intricate relationship between seagrass meadows and people that highlight the multi-functional role of seagrasses in human wellbeing. While each case underscores unique issues, these examples simultaneously reveal social-ecological coupling that transcends cultural and geographical boundaries. We conclude that understanding seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system is crucial in carving pathways for social and ecological resilience in light of current patterns of local to global environmental change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil nematodes in alpine meadows of the Tatra National Park (Slovak Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2017), s. 48-67 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09231S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil nematodes * diversity * maturity * soil food web * alpine meadow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2016

  17. Changes in biomass allocation in species rich meadow after abandonment: Ecological strategy or allometry?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušková, Alena; Doležal, Jiří; Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, V.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2015), s. 379-387 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Biomass allocation * species-rich meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.578, year: 2015

  18. Vegetation changes in a wet meadow complex during the past half century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2008), s. 119-130 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050702; GA ČR GA526/00/1442 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : wet meadows * degradation * succession Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2008

  19. The effects of matrix structure on movement decisions of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin E. Russell; Robert K. Swihart; Bruce A. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The composition of the landscape between patches (the matrix) can have important effects on movement rates that potentially outweigh the effects of patch size and isolation. We conducted a small-scale experiment with radiocollared meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) to quantify the effects of matrix habitat on movement behavior of voles. Habitat...

  20. GEOMORPHIC AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF WET MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Basin is an arid landscape dominated by dryland vegetation such as big sage and xeric grasses. Meadow complexes occur in mountain drainages and consist of discrete parcels of land up to several hectares in area that are characterized by high water tables and that primar...

  1. Geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology of Great Basin meadow complexes - implications for management and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jerry R. Miller

    2011-01-01

    This report contains the results of a 6-year project conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development on stream incision and meadow ecosystem degradation in the central Great Basin. The project included a coarse-scale assessment of 56 different...

  2. New Tools to Identify the Location of Seagrass Meadows: Marine Grazers as Habitat Indicators

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2018-02-21

    Seagrasses are hugely valuable to human life, but the global extent of seagrass meadows remains unclear. As evidence of their value, a United Nations program exists (http://data.unep-wcmc.org/datasets/7) to try and assess their distribution and there has been a call from 122 scientists across 28 countries for more work to manage, protect and monitor seagrass meadows (http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-37606827). Emerging from the 12th International Seagrass Biology Workshop, held in October 2016, has been the view that grazing marine megafauna may play a useful role in helping to identify previously unknown seagrass habitats. Here we describe this concept, showing how detailed information on the distribution of both dugongs (Dugong dugon) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) obtained, for example, by aerial surveys and satellite tracking, can reveal new information on the location of seagrass meadows. We show examples of how marine megaherbivores have been effective habitat indicators, revealing major, new, deep-water seagrass meadows and offering the potential for more informed estimates of seagrass extent in tropical and sub-tropical regions where current information is often lacking.

  3. 76 FR 14984 - Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Penobscot, Kennebec, and Waldo Counties, ME, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ..., wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and... Sunkhaze Meadows NWR and Carlton Pond WPA. We will conduct the environmental review of this project and..., including American woodcock, red-winged blackbird, and bobolink. The Sandy Stream Unit is mainly comprised...

  4. 78 FR 37363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Determination for the New Mexico Meadow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... species is an endangered or threatened species based on whether we find that it is in danger of extinction...), threats, and limiting factors in the context of determining viability and risk of extinction for the... future threats (causes and effects) facing the New Mexico meadow jumping mouse. Because data in these...

  5. Restoration potential of sedge meadows in hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Middleton, Beth; Jiang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Sedge meadows can be difficult to restore from farmed fields if key structural dominants are missing from propagule banks. In hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China, we asked if tussock-forming Carex and other wetland species were present as seed or asexual propagules. In the Sanjiang Plain, China, we compared the seed banks, vegetative propagules (below-ground) and standing vegetation of natural and restored sedge meadows, and hand-cultivated soybean fields in drained and flooded conditions. We found that important wetland species survived cultivation as seeds for some time (e.g. Calamogrostis angustifolia and Potamogeton crispus) and as field weeds (e.g. C. angustifolia and Phragmites australis). Key structural species were missing in these fields, for example, Carex meyeriana. We also observed that sedge meadows restored without planting or seeding lacked tussock-forming sedges. The structure of the seed bank was related to experimental water regime, and field environments of tussock height, thatch depth, and presence of burning as based on Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling analysis. To re-establish the structure imposed by tussock sedges, specific technologies might be developed to encourage the development of tussocks in restored sedge meadows.

  6. Charcterization of meadow ecosystems based on watershed and valley segment/reach scale characteristics [chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy Trowbridge; Jeanne C. Chambers; Dru Germanoski; Mark L. Lord; Jerry R. Miller; David G. Jewett

    2011-01-01

    Great Basin riparian meadows are highly sensitive to both natural and anthropogenic disturbance. As detailed in earlier chapters, streams in the central Great Basin have a natural tendency to incise due to their geomorphic history (Miller and others 2001, 2004). Anthropogenic disturbances, including overgrazing by livestock, mining activities, and roads in the valley...

  7. Habitat edges affect patterns of artificial nest predation along a wetland-meadow boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suvorov, P.; Svobodová, J.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2014), s. 91-96 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0851 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Artificial nest * Ecotonal effect * Habitat fragmentation * Nest predation * Wetland meadow Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2014

  8. Carbon stores from a tropical seagrass meadow in the midst of anthropogenic disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaimi, Mohammad; Fairoz, Mohammad; Hakimi, Tuan Mohamad; Hamdan, Nur Hidayah; Omar, Ramlan; Ali, Masni Mohd; Tahirin, Siti Aishah

    2017-06-30

    Seagrass meadows provide important carbon sequestration services but anthropogenic activities modify the natural ecosystem and inevitably lower carbon storage capacity. The tropical mixed-species meadows in the Sungai Pulai Estuary (Johor, Malaysia) are impacted by such activities. In this study, we provide baseline estimates for carbon stores analysed from sediment cores. In sediment depths up to 100cm, organic (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) stores were 43-101MgCha -1 and 46-83MgCha -1 , respectively, and are in the lower end of global average values. The bulk of OC (53-98%) originated from seston suggesting that the meadows had low capacity to retain seagrass-derived organic matter. The species factor resulted in some variability in OC stores but did not appear to influence IC values. The low carbon stores in the meadow may be a direct result of sediment disturbances but natural biogeochemical processes are not discounted as possible causal factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision, due to natural and anth...

  10. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Damage from Heat Stress in the Photosystem II of Tall Fescue in Both the Photochemical and Thermal Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available L-Ascorbate (Asc plays important roles in plant development, hormone signaling, the cell cycle and cellular redox system, etc. The higher content of Asc in plant chloroplasts indicates its important role in the photosystem. The objective of this study was to study the roles of Asc in tall fescue leaves against heat stress. After a heat stress treatment, we observed a lower value of the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (φPo, which reflects the inhibited activity of the photochemical phase of photosystem II (PSII. Moreover, we observed a higher value of efficiency of electron transfer from QB to photosystem I acceptors (δR0, which reflects elevated activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem of the tall fescue. The addition of Asc facilitate the behavior of the photochemical phase of the PSII by lowering the ROS content as well as that of the alternative electron donor to provide electron to the tyrosine residue of the D1 protein. Additionally, exogenous Asc reduces the activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem, which could contribute to the limitation of energy input into the photosystem in tall fescue against heat stress. Synthesis of the Asc increased under heat stress treatment. However, under heat stress this regulation does not occur at the transcription level and requires further study.

  11. Food for Pollinators: Quantifying the Nectar and Pollen Resources of Urban Flower Meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Damien M; Ouvrard, Pierre; Baldock, Katherine C R; Baude, Mathilde; Goddard, Mark A; Kunin, William E; Mitschunas, Nadine; Memmott, Jane; Morse, Helen; Nikolitsi, Maria; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Potts, Simon G; Robertson, Kirsty M; Scott, Anna V; Sinclair, Frazer; Westbury, Duncan B; Stone, Graham N

    2016-01-01

    Planted meadows are increasingly used to improve the biodiversity and aesthetic amenity value of urban areas. Although many 'pollinator-friendly' seed mixes are available, the floral resources these provide to flower-visiting insects, and how these change through time, are largely unknown. Such data are necessary to compare the resources provided by alternative meadow seed mixes to each other and to other flowering habitats. We used quantitative surveys of over 2 million flowers to estimate the nectar and pollen resources offered by two exemplar commercial seed mixes (one annual, one perennial) and associated weeds grown as 300m2 meadows across four UK cities, sampled at six time points between May and September 2013. Nectar sugar and pollen rewards per flower varied widely across 65 species surveyed, with native British weed species (including dandelion, Taraxacum agg.) contributing the top five nectar producers and two of the top ten pollen producers. Seed mix species yielding the highest rewards per flower included Leontodon hispidus, Centaurea cyanus and C. nigra for nectar, and Papaver rhoeas, Eschscholzia californica and Malva moschata for pollen. Perennial meadows produced up to 20x more nectar and up to 6x more pollen than annual meadows, which in turn produced far more than amenity grassland controls. Perennial meadows produced resources earlier in the year than annual meadows, but both seed mixes delivered very low resource levels early in the year and these were provided almost entirely by native weeds. Pollen volume per flower is well predicted statistically by floral morphology, and nectar sugar mass and pollen volume per unit area are correlated with flower counts, raising the possibility that resource levels can be estimated for species or habitats where they cannot be measured directly. Our approach does not incorporate resource quality information (for example, pollen protein or essential amino acid content), but can easily do so when suitable data

  12. Cattle grazing and its long-term effects on sedge meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that wetlands are temporary, that they fill in by natural processes, and eventually become dry land. Some of these outdated ideas have come from the way that this subject has been covered in introductory textbooks in schools (Gibson, 1996). From these texts, we learned incorrectly that over time a lake fills with sediment or organic matter to become a wetland, which dries out to support shrubs and trees, and eventually it is no longer a wetland (Middleton, 1999; Middleton and others, 2004). These old ideas of how vegetation changes (succession) are no longer accepted. Wetland succession should be thought of as a cycle, with natural disturbance driving the changes, depending on the needs of the species. Succession is not something that changes a wetland into something that is not a wetland (Egler, 1978; van der Valk, 1981; Middleton and others, 1991; Klinger, 1996; Middleton, 1999).As an example of how disturbance changes wetlands, I have studied sedge meadows that have become invaded by shrubs after cattle (Bos sp.) have grazed them, in the Lodi Marsh State Natural Area, Wisconsin. Cattle disturbances allowed shrubs to invade sedge meadows, but the cattle also grazed on the shrubs, which kept them small. After the cows were removed, the plant species changed in the sedge meadow from the original sedges (fig. 1), to sedges mixed with growing small shrubs, and eventually to tall shrubs with very small amounts of sedge, called “shrub carr” (Middleton, 2002a). Even though there has been a succession of plant types, the meadows, which began as wetlands, have remained wetlands. The settlers originally found the sedge meadows to be open “sedge” lands and not shrubby. The settlers cut the sedges by hand to feed the cattle. Whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), though probably not bison (Bison bison), grazed these sedge meadows (Middleton 2002a).Subsequent studies have explored methods to control invasive shrubs to restore the biodiversity of

  13. English Water Meadows: historic relics or focus for environmental management and inter-disciplinary research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Hadrian

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated water meadows are found across Europe, from southern Scandinavia to Spain and in the Alpine regions and Italy. While the practice of engineering 'floated' meadow land for deliberate irrigation on hillsides and floodplains is widespread and ancient, since about 1600 AD the practice was widely adopted on floodplains in southern England where they improved the timing and productivity of grazing land and produced hay crops. They also became a part of English consciousness through art and literature. To some, water meadows are a relic of an agrarian past, to others they are the object of a range of foci for conservation, education, sustainable grass production, community engagement and recent research suggests water returned from meadow irrigation is beneficial to river water quality. Historically floodplain 'bedwork' water meadows grew from, and were integral in, the farming system of 'Wessex' involving sheep which produced dung for arable land and later supporting dairy and beef production, as well as hay. Where systems remain, this is largely due to the whim of individuals, the outcome of agri-environmental schemes. Water meadows may be managed by public, voluntary or private sector bodies. What is needed is a fresh look at how land owners, or communities, might micro-target them for heritage, habitat and grassland management. There are therefore interesting questions concerning their future: Who might invest in their restoration and maintenance? How might they be integrated into commercial farming? Are they of sufficient interest to restore en masse to become (once more) a major feature of the English chalk stream valleys? Do they provide a way into academic and public perception, combining environmental science, history, cultural heritage and environmental management? How might restoration and management become vehicles for public engagement? While each of these questions represents a major topic for discussion, this paper is an attempt to consolidate

  14. Hydroclimatic alteration increases vulnerability of montane meadows in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, J. H.; Peek, R.; Purdy, S. E.; Emmons, J. D.; Yarnell, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Meadow ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada (California, USA) have been maintained by the interplay of biotic and abiotic forces, where hydrological functions bridge aquatic and terrestrial realms. Meadows are not only key habitat for fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals alike, but also provide enumerable ecosystem services to humans, not limited to regulating services (eg, water filtration), provisioning services (eg, grazing), and aesthetics. Using hydroclimatic models and spatial distribution models of indicator species, a range wide assessment was conducted to assess and synthesize the vulnerability of meadow ecosystems to hydroclimatic alteration, a result of regional climate change. Atmospheric warming is expected to result in a greater fraction of total precipitation falling as winter rain (rather than snow) and earlier snowmelt. These predicted changes will likely cause more precipitation-driven runoff in winter and reduced snowmelt runoff in spring, leading to reduced annual runoff and a general shift in runoff timing to earlier in the year. These profound effects have consequences for hydrological cycling and meadow functioning, though such changes will not occur steadily through time or uniformly across the range, and each individual meadow will respond as a function of its composition and land use history. Most vulnerable is groundwater recharge, a fundamental component of meadow hydrology. As a result of shortened snow melt period and absence of diel snowmelt fluxes that would otherwise gradually refill meadow aquifers, recharge is expected to decline due to less infiltration. Diminished water tables will likely stress hydric and mesic vegetation, promoting more xeric conditions. Coupled with greater magnitude stream flows, these conditions promote channel incision and ultimate state shift to non-meadow conditions. The biological effects of hydroclimatic alteration, such as lower mean annual flow and earlier timing, will result in an overall decrease in

  15. Effects of tourism and topography on vegetation diversity in the subalpine meadows of the Dongling Mountains of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tun; Xiang, ChunLing; Li, Min

    2012-02-01

    Subalpine meadows in the Dongling Mountains (located at E115º26'-115º40', N40º00'-40º05') of Beijing, China are important for tourism and the provision of ecosystem services. However, because of poor management serious degradation has occurred on these subalpine meadows. The aim of this paper is to present a quantitative analysis of effects of tourism disturbance and topography on the status and diversity of montane meadow communities and to provide direction for improved management. Sixty quadrats of 2 × 2 m(2) along 10 transects were set up to collect data on site characteristics and vegetation status. The relationships between community composition and structure, species diversity, and tourism disturbance and topographic variables were analyzed by multivariate methods (TWINSPAN and CCA). The results showed that eight meadow communities were identified by TWINSPAN. Most of them were seriously degraded. The first CCA axis identified an elevation and tourism disturbance intensity gradient, which illustrated that tourism disturbance and elevation were most important factors influencing meadow types, composition and structure. Some resistant species and response species to tourism disturbance were identified and can be used as indicator species of tourism disturbance. Species richness, heterogeneity and evenness were closely related to tourism disturbance and elevation. It is concluded that tourism disturbance must be controlled to enable grassland rehabilitation to occur in the meadows. Measures of effective management of the meadows were discussed.

  16. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-11-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow.

  17. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-01-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow

  18. A physical framework for evaluating net effects of wet meadow restoration on late summer streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G.; Nash, C.; Selker, J. S.; Lewis, S.; Noël, P.

    2017-12-01

    Restoration of degraded wet meadows that develop on upland valley floors is intended to achieve a range of ecological benefits. A widely cited benefit is the potential for meadow restoration to augment late-season streamflow; however, there has been little field data demonstrating increased summer flows following restoration. Instead, the hydrologic consequences of restoration have typically been explored using coupled groundwater and surface water flow models at instrumented sites. The expected magnitude and direction of change provided by models has, however, been inconclusive. Here, we assess the streamflow benefit that can be obtained by wet meadow restoration using a parsimonious, physically-based approach. We use a one-dimensional linearized Boussinesq equation with a superimposed solution for changes in storage due to groundwater upwelling and and explicitly calculate evapotranspiration using the White Method. The model accurately predicts water table elevations from field data in the Middle Fork John Day watershed in Oregon, USA. The full solution shows that while raising channel beds can increase total water storage via increases in water table elevation in upland valley bottoms, the contributions of both lateral and longitudinal drainage from restored floodplains to late summer streamflow are undetectably small, while losses in streamflow due to greater transpiration, lower hydraulic gradients, and less drainable pore volume are substantial. Although late-summer streamflow increases should not be expected as a direct result of wet meadow restoration, these approaches offer benefits for improving the quality and health of riparian and meadow vegetation that would warrant considering such measures, even at the cost of increased water demand and reduced streamflow.

  19. Shrimp burrow in tropical seagrass meadows: An important sink for litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jan Arie; Kneer, Dominik; Stapel, Johan; Asmus, Harald

    2008-08-01

    The abundance, burrow characteristics, and in situ behaviour of the burrowing shrimps Neaxius acanthus (Decapoda: Strahlaxiidae) and Alpheus macellarius (Decapoda: Alpheidae) were studied to quantify the collection of seagrass material, to identify the fate of this collected material, and to determine the importance of these burrowing crustaceans in the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) cycling of two tropical seagrass meadows on Bone Batang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Alpheus macellarius harvested 0.70 g dry weight (DW) burrow -1 d -1 seagrass material, dominantly by active cutting of fresh seagrass leaves. Neaxius acanthus collected 1.66 g DW burrow -1 d -1, mainly detached leaves which floated past the burrow opening. The A. macellarius and N. acanthus communities together collected in their burrows an amount of seagrass leaf material corresponding to more than 50% of the leaf production in the meadows studied. The crustacean species studied might therefore fulfil an important function in the nutrient cycling of tropical meadows. In the burrow most of the collected material is shredded into pieces. The burrows of both species had special chambers which serve as a storage for seagrass leaf material. Neaxius acanthus incorporated most of the material into the burrow wall lining, which is made of small sediment particles and macerated seagrass leaves. Phosphate concentrations measured in N. acanthus burrows compared with pore-water and water-column concentrations suggests that a substantial amount of the seagrass material undergoes decomposition in the burrows. Oxygen levels measured in these water bodies are indicative for a possible exchange of water between the burrow and its surroundings, most likely supported by the shrimps irrigating their burrows. By collecting leaf material in their burrows, nutrients that are otherwise lost from the seagrass meadow associated with detached leaves and leaf fragments carried away in the water column, are maintained in the

  20. Cuticular waxes in alpine meadow plants: climate effect inferred from latitude gradient in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Guo, Na; He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Alpine meadow ecosystems are susceptible to climate changes. Still, climate impact on cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants is poorly understood. Assessing the variations of cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants across different latitudes might be useful for predicting how they may respond to climate change. We studied nine alpine meadows in a climate gradient in the east side of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, with mean annual temperature ranging from -7.7 to 3.2°C. In total, 42 plant species were analyzed for cuticular wax, averaged 16 plant species in each meadow. Only four plant species could be observed in all sampling meadows, including Kobresia humilis,Potentilla nivea,Anaphalis lacteal, and Leontopodium nanum. The amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax in the four plant species varied among sampling meadows, but no significant correlation could be observed between them and temperature, precipitation, and aridity index based on plant species level. To analyze the variations of cuticular wax on community level, we averaged the amounts of n-alkanes, aliphatic acids, primary alcohols, and total cuticular wax across all investigated plant species in each sampling site. The mean annual temperature, mean temperature in July, and aridity index were significantly correlated with the averaged amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax. The average chain length of n-alkanes in both plant and soil linearly increased with increased temperature, whereas reduced with increased aridity index. No significant correlation could be observed between mean annual precipitation and mean precipitation from June to August and the cuticular wax amounts and average chain length. Our results suggest that the survival of some alpine plants in specific environments might be depended on their abilities in adjusting wax deposition on plant leaves, and the alpine meadow plants as a whole respond to climate change, benefiting the stability of alpine meadow ecosystem.

  1. Seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in an alpine wetland meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpine wetland meadow could functions as a carbon sink due to it high soil organic content and low decomposition. However, the magnitude and dynamics of carbon stock in alpine wetland ecosystems are not well quantified. Therefore, understanding how environmental variables affect the processes that regulate carbon fluxes in alpine wetland meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is critical. To address this issue, Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were examined in an alpine wetland meadow using the eddy covariance method from October 2003 to December 2006 at the Haibei Research Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Seasonal patterns of GPP and Reco were closely associated with leaf area index (LAI. The Reco showed a positive exponential to soil temperature and relatively low Reco occurred during the non-growing season after a rain event. This result is inconsistent with the result observed in alpine shrubland meadow. In total, annual GPP were estimated at 575.7, 682.9, and 630.97 g C m−2 in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. Meanwhile, the Reco were equal to 676.8, 726.4, 808.2 g C m−2, and thus the NEE were 101.1, 44.0 and 173.2 g C m−2. These results indicated that the alpine wetland meadow was a moderately source of carbon dioxide (CO2. The observed carbon dioxide fluxes in the alpine wetland meadow were higher than other alpine meadow such as Kobresia humilis meadow and shrubland meadow.

  2. Effects of supplementing endophyte-infected tall fescue with sainfoin and polyethylene glycol on the physiology and ingestive behavior of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Villalba, J J

    2014-02-01

    Tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue [E+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and attenuate toxicosis. If so, supplementing E+ with sainfoin will increase use of E+ by sheep, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-a polymer that selectively binds to tannins-will reduce such response. To test these predictions, thirty-six 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (12 lambs/treatment). During exposure, all lambs were individually penned and fed E+ supplemented with beet pulp (CTRL), fresh-cut sainfoin and beet pulp (SAIN), or fresh-cut sainfoin plus PEG mixed in beet pulp (SAIN+PEG). Feed intake was measured daily. Rectal temperatures and jugular blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of exposure. After exposure, all lambs were offered choices between endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) and orchardgrass, and preference for E- was assessed. Then, all lambs were allowed to graze a choice of E+ and sainfoin or a monoculture of E+. The foraging behavior of lambs was recorded. When sainfoin was in mid-vegetative stage, lambs in SAIN ingested more E+ than lambs in CTRL (P = 0.05), but no differences were detected between lambs in SAIN+PEG and CTRL (P = 0.12). Sainfoin supplementation improved some physiological parameters indicative of fescue toxicosis. Lambs in SAIN had lower rectal temperatures (P = 0.02), greater numbers of leukocytes (P 0.05). On the other hand, when they grazed on a monoculture of E+, lambs in SAIN+PEG showed greater acceptance of E+ than lambs in SAIN or in CTRL (P < 0.05). In summary, sainfoin supplementation alleviated several of the classic signs of fescue toxicosis and increased intake of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tannins in sainfoin partially accounted for this benefit since feeding a polymer that selectively binds to tannins (PEG) attenuated some these responses. However, sainfoin supplementation during initial exposure to E+ did not lead to an increased

  3. Comparison of simulations of land-use specific water demand and irrigation water supply by MF-FMP and IWFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Dogural, Emin; Hanson, Randall T.; Kadir, Tariq; Chung, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Two hydrologic models, MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) and the Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), are compared with respect to each model’s capabilities of simulating land-use hydrologic processes, surface-water routing, and groundwater flow. Of major concern among the land-use processes was the consumption of water through evaporation and transpiration by plants. The comparison of MF-FMP and IWFM was conducted and completed using a realistic hypothetical case study. Both models simulate the water demand for water-accounting units resulting from evapotranspiration and inefficiency losses and, for irrigated units, the supply from surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumpage. The MF-FMP simulates reductions in evapotranspiration owing to anoxia and wilting, and separately considers land-use-related evaporation and transpiration; IWFM simulates reductions in evapotranspiration related to the depletion of soil moisture. The models simulate inefficiency losses from precipitation and irrigation water applications to runoff and deep percolation differently. MF-FMP calculates the crop irrigation requirement and total farm delivery requirement, and then subtracts inefficiency losses from runoff and deep percolation. In IWFM, inefficiency losses to surface runoff from irrigation and precipitation are computed and subtracted from the total irrigation and precipitation before the crop irrigation requirement is estimated. Inefficiency losses in terms of deep percolation are computed simultaneously with the crop irrigation requirement. The seepage from streamflow routing also is computed differently and can affect certain hydrologic settings and magnitudes ofstreamflow infiltration. MF-FMP assumes steady-state conditions in the root zone; therefore, changes in soil moisture within the root zone are not calculated. IWFM simulates changes in the root zone in both irrigated and non-irrigated natural vegetation. Changes in soil moisture are more significant for non

  4. Interaction between Posidonia oceanica meadows upper limit and hydrodynamics of four Mediterranean beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Ruju, Andrea; Buosi, Carla; Porta, Marco; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    Posidonia oceanica meadow is considered to play an important role in the coastal geomorphology of Mediterranean beach systems. In particular, the importance of the meadow in protecting the coastline from erosion is well-recognized. Waves are attenuated by greater friction across seagrass meadows, which have the capacity to reduce water flow and therefore increase sediment deposition and accumulation as well as beach stability. The P. oceanica meadow upper limit usually occurs within the most dynamic zone of the beach system. Considering the great attention paid in the literature to the connection between the growth of P. oceanica and coastal hydrodynamics (Infantes et al., 2009; Vacchi et al., 2014; De Muro et al., 2016, 2017), this study aims at extending the previous work by investigating the combined influence of hydrodynamic parameters (e.g., wave-induced main currents and wave orbital velocity at the bottom) and different types of sea bottom (e.g., soft sediment, rocky substrates) on the position of the upper limit of the P. oceanica meadow. We applied this approach to 4 Mediterranean beach systems located on the Sardinian coastline (3 on the South and 1 on the North) and characterized by a wide range of orientations and incoming wave conditions. On these beaches, the extension of the P. oceanica meadows and the bathymetry have been obtained through detailed surveying campaigns and aerial photo analysis. In addition, high spatial resolution wave hydrodynamics have been reconstructed by running numerical simulations with Delft 3D. Offshore wave climate has been reconstructed by using measured datasets for those beaches that have a nearby buoy whose dataset is representative of the incoming wave conditions for that particular stretch of coast. Whereas, for those beaches with no availability of a representative measured dataset, wave climate has been analyzed from the NOAA hindcast dataset. From the whole range of incoming wave directions in deep waters, we

  5. Increased immunogenicity of the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine compared to a conventional subunit vaccine in elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, R.; Pozzi, T.; Montomoli, E.; Fragapane, E.; Senatore, F.; Minutello, M.; Podda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Three-hundred and eight outpatient elderly subjects (≥ 65 years) were randomly assigned to receive the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (FLUAD; n = 204) or a conventional subunit influenza vaccine (AGRIPPAL S1; n = 104) in order to compare the safety and immunogenicity of the two vaccines. Although mild pain at the injection site was reported more frequently by subjects immunised with the adjuvanted vaccine, both vaccines were shown to be safe and well tolerated. The adjuvanted vaccine was more immunogenic as indicated by higher post-immunisation geometric mean titres (GMTs) and by higher proportions of subjects with post-immunisation ≥ four fold increases of antibody titres or subjects with ≥ 1/160 post-immunisation HI titres. These differences, statistically significant for all three strains after immunisation, indicated that, by addition of the MF59 adjuvant emulsion, conventional subunit influenza antigens acquire an enhanced immunogenicity without any clinically significant increase of their reactogenicity

  6. Determination of carbohydrates in medicinal plants--comparison between TLC, mf-MELDI-MS and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Sultana, Tahira; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Bonn, Guenther K

    2011-01-01

    Quality control in the pharmaceutical and phytopharmaceutical industries requires fast and reliable methods for the analysis of raw materials and final products. This study evaluates different analytical approaches in order to recognise the most suitable technique for the analysis of carbohydrates in herbal drug preparations. The specific focus of the study is on thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), and a newly developed mass spectrometric method, i.e. matrix free material enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS). Samples employed in the study were standards and microwave-assisted water extracts from Quercus. TLC analysis proved the presence of mono-, di- and trisaccharides within the biological sample and hinted at the existence of an unknown carbohydrate of higher oligomerisation degree. After evaluation of different derivatisation techniques, GC-MS confirmed data obtained via TLC for mono- to trisaccharides, delivering additionally quantified values under a considerable amount of time. A carbohydrate of higher oligomerisation degree could not be found. The application of mf-MELDI-MS further confirmed the presence of carbohydrates up to trisaccharides, also hinting at the presence of a form of tetrasaccharide. Besides this information, mf-MELDI-MS delivered further data about other substances present in the extract. Quantitative determination resulted in 1.750, 1.736 and 0.336 mg/mL for glucose, sucrose and raffinose respectively. Evaluation of all three techniques employed, clearly proved the heightened performance of mf-MELDI-MS for the qualitative analysis of complex mixtures, as targets do not need modification and analysis requires only a few minutes. In addition, GC-MS is suitable for quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Grazing exclusion increases soil CO2 emission during the growing season in alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Wang, Aidong; Allan Degen, A.; Deng, Bin; Shang, Zhanhuan; Ding, Luming; Long, Ruijun

    2018-02-01

    Soil CO2 emission is a key part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Grazing exclusion by fencing is often considered a beneficial grassland management option to restore degraded grassland, but its effect on soil CO2 emission on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau is equivocal and is the subject of this study. Using a closed static chamber, we measured diurnal soil CO2 flux weekly from July, 2008, to April, 2009, in response to grazing and grazing exclusion in the alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow. Concomitantly, soil temperature was measured at depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm with digital temperature sensors. It emerged that: 1) non-grazed grasslands emitted more soil CO2 than grazed grasslands over the growing season; 2) the alpine shrub meadow emitted more soil CO2 than the alpine meadow; the annual cumulative soil CO2 emissions of alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow were 241.5-326.5 g C/m2 and 429.0-512.5 g C/m2, respectively; 3) seasonal patterns were evident with more soil CO2 flux in the growing than in the non-growing season; and 4) the diurnal soil CO2 flux exhibited a single peak across all sampling sites. In addition, soil CO2 flux was correlated positively with soil temperature at 5 cm, but not at the other depths. We concluded that grazing exclusion enhanced soil CO2 emission over the growing season, and decreased carbon sequestration of alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Since an increase in soil temperature increased soil CO2 flux, global warming could have an effect on soil CO2 emission in the future.

  8. Resilience and stability of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows over the last four decades in a Mediterranean lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marie; Lafabrie, Céline; Torre, Franck; Fernandez, Catherine; Pasqualini, Vanina

    2013-09-01

    Understanding what controls the capacity of a coastal lagoon ecosystem to recover following climatic and anthropogenic perturbations and how these perturbations can alter this capacity is critical to efficient environmental management. The goal of this study was to examine the resilience and stability of Cymodocea nodosa-dominated seagrass meadows in Urbino lagoon (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) by characterizing the spatio-temporal dynamics of seagrass meadows over a 40-year period and comparing (anthropogenic and climatic) environmental fluctuations. The spatio-temporal evolution of seagrass meadows was investigated using previous maps (1973, 1979, 1990, 1994, 1996, 1999) and a 2011 map realized by aerial photography-remote sensing combined with GIS technology. Environmental fluctuation was investigated via physical-chemical parameters (rainfall, water temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen) and human-impact changes (aquaculture, artificial channel). The results showed a severe decline (estimated at -49%) in seagrass meadows between 1973 and 1994 followed by a period of strong recovery (estimated to +42%) between 1994 and 2011. Increased turbidity, induced either by rainfall events, dredging or phytoplankton growth, emerged as the most important driver of the spatio-temporal evolution of Cymodocea nodosa-dominated meadows in Urbino lagoon over the last four decades. Climate events associated to increased turbidity and reduced salinity and temperature could heavily impact seagrass dynamics. This study shows that Urbino lagoon, a system relatively untouched by human impact, shelters seagrass meadows that exhibit high resilience and stability.

  9. Organic Farming Favours Insect-Pollinated over Non-Insect Pollinated Forbs in Meadows and Wheat Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batáry, Péter; Sutcliffe, Laura; Dormann, Carsten F.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of landscape-scale management intensity, local management intensity and edge effect on diversity patterns of insect-pollinated vs. non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields. Nine landscapes were selected differing in percent intensively used agricultural area (IAA), each with a pair of organic and conventional winter wheat fields and a pair of organic and conventional meadows. Within fields, forbs were surveyed at the edge and in the interior. Both diversity and cover of forbs were positively affected by organic management in meadows and wheat fields. This effect, however, differed significantly between pollination types for species richness in both agroecosystem types (i.e. wheat fields and meadows) and for cover in meadows. Thus, we show for the first time in a comprehensive analysis that insect-pollinated plants benefit more from organic management than non-insect pollinated plants regardless of agroecosystem type and landscape complexity. These benefits were more pronounced in meadows than wheat fields. Finally, the community composition of insect-pollinated and non-insect-pollinated forbs differed considerably between management types. In summary, our findings in both agroecosystem types indicate that organic management generally supports a higher species richness and cover of insect-pollinated plants, which is likely to be favourable for the density and diversity of bees and other pollinators. PMID:23382979

  10. Organic farming favours insect-pollinated over non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batáry, Péter; Sutcliffe, Laura; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of landscape-scale management intensity, local management intensity and edge effect on diversity patterns of insect-pollinated vs. non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields. Nine landscapes were selected differing in percent intensively used agricultural area (IAA), each with a pair of organic and conventional winter wheat fields and a pair of organic and conventional meadows. Within fields, forbs were surveyed at the edge and in the interior. Both diversity and cover of forbs were positively affected by organic management in meadows and wheat fields. This effect, however, differed significantly between pollination types for species richness in both agroecosystem types (i.e. wheat fields and meadows) and for cover in meadows. Thus, we show for the first time in a comprehensive analysis that insect-pollinated plants benefit more from organic management than non-insect pollinated plants regardless of agroecosystem type and landscape complexity. These benefits were more pronounced in meadows than wheat fields. Finally, the community composition of insect-pollinated and non-insect-pollinated forbs differed considerably between management types. In summary, our findings in both agroecosystem types indicate that organic management generally supports a higher species richness and cover of insect-pollinated plants, which is likely to be favourable for the density and diversity of bees and other pollinators.

  11. Real-Time Classification of Seagrass Meadows on Flat Bottom with Bathymetric Data Measured by a Narrow Multibeam Sonar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Hamana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows, one of the most important habitats for many marine species, provide essential ecological services. Thus, society must conserve seagrass beds as part of their sustainable development efforts. Conserving these ecosystems requires information on seagrass distribution and relative abundance, and an efficient, accurate monitoring system. Although narrow multibeam sonar systems (NMBSs are highly effective in resolving seagrass beds, post-processing methods are required to extract key data. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method capable of detecting seagrass meadows and estimating their relative abundance in real time using an NMBS. Because most seagrass meadows grow on sandy seafloors, we proposed a way of discriminating seagrass meadows from the sand bed. We classify meadows into three categories of relative seagrass abundance using the 95% confidence level of beam depths and the depth range of the beam depth. These are respectively two times the standard deviation of beam depths, and the difference between the shallowest and the deepest depths in a 0.5 × 0.5 m grid cell sampled with several narrow beams. We examined Zostera caulescens Miki, but this simple NMBS method of seagrass classification can potentially be used to map seagrass meadows with longer shoots of other species, such as Posidonia, as both have gas filled cavities.

  12. Extractable trace elements and sodium in Illinois coal-cleaning wastes: correlation with concentrations in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.G.

    1983-07-01

    Trace element concentrations in shoots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were correlated with extractable element concentrations in five southern Illinois coal-cleaning wastes limed to pH 6.5, in a greenhouse study to determine applicability of soil tests to coal-waste evaluation. There was little or no correlation between shoot concentrations of Fe, and Fe extracted from the wastes by dilute acid (r equals 0.60), DTPA at pH 6.4 (r equals 0.47) or DTPA at pH 8.4 (r equals -0.17). The corresponding r values for Mn were 0.94, 0.97, and 0.96; for Zn, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.88; and for Cu, 0.67, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively. Shoot B correlated well with hot water-soluble B(r equals 0.96) and acid-soluble B(r equals 0.91). Correlations for shoot Na were also good with water-soluble Na and acid-soluble Na (r equals 0.96 in both cases). Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Se in the shoots were well below reported upper critical levels, and similar to concentrations in the grass grown on a silt loam under the same greenhouse conditions. 21 references.

  13. Simulations of dredged sediment spreading on a Posidonia oceanica meadow off the Ligurian coast, Northwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, M; Cutroneo, L; Ferranti, M P; Budillon, G; Bertolotto, R M; Ciappa, A; Cotroneo, Y; Castellano, M; Povero, P; Tucci, S

    2014-02-15

    The sandy deposits from dredging can have negative effects on the environment such as increase in suspended solids in the water column and their consequent transport. An experimental study was conducted to characterize water masses, dynamics, and sedimentation rates on the Ligurian continental shelf (Italy), where both a sand deposit, that could be used for beach nourishment, and a nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow coexist. The environmental plan provides a mathematical simulation of the sediment-dispersion to evaluate the possible impact on the meadow. It has been calculated that the dredging could double the concentration of suspended particles, but its scheduling will preclude a sediment accumulation. All the information obtained from this work will be used to study the environmental feasibility of the sand deposit exploitation and as starting point for drawing up the monitoring plan in case of dredging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pedological Studies of Subaqueous Soils as a Contribution to the Protection of Seagrass Meadows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nuto Nóbrega

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Seagrass meadows are considered one of the most important and valuable ecosystems on the planet, but also one of the most threatened. Missing knowledge about their existence and their subtidal nature are the main reasons for the lack of information about seagrass soils, especially in Brazil and other tropical areas. This study discussed the paradoxical lack of information about subaqueous soils, with a view to stimulate research on soil properties of seagrass meadows. This short communication provides information about the ecosystem and first descriptions of seagrass soils along the Brazilian Coast, marked by gleyzation, sulfidization, salinization, paludization, solonization, and classified as Gleissolos tiomórficos. Pedological studies on these ecosystems provide useful tools for their management, protection, and restoration. Thus, it is fundamental that soil scientists increase their knowledge about subaqueous soils, not only as a contribution to the Brazilian Soil Classification System, but for the conservation of these ecosystems.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN THE MEADOW OF BORCEA ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the factors leading to water pollution by nitrates in the Meadow of Borcea arm, mainly derived from agricultural sources. mIn oder to model the amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil, which can be partially used by plants or leached into the ground water, research was made on alluvial soil in the Meadow of Borcea arm. I tried to study in the laboratory the influence of three factors of nitrate nitrogen pollution of ground water: soil type, environmental conditions (temperature and humidity and the amount of mineral fertilizers incorporated. The resulting amount of nitrate nitrogen resulted with nitrogen fertilizer dose, and the temperature and it was affected by humidity especially 40-80% of field capacity.

  16. Anaerobic Mono- and Co-digestion of Mechanically Pretreated Meadow Grass for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    ), was investigated. The grass silage was mechanically pretreated with different methods to increase its biodegradability. It was found that the early cut of non-treated meadow grass silage led to higher methane production [294 mL of CH4/g of volatile solids (VS)] compared to the corresponding non-treated meadow...... grass silage from the late cut (282 mL of CH4/g of VS). Moreover, it was found that the application of two mesh grating plates, as the pretreatment method, greatly enhanced the methane production in early and late cut silage in a range of 15 and 17%, respectively, compared to the non-treated grass...... ratios in terms of organic matter. The results showed that the optimum silage concentration in the co-digestion mixture with manure, for the highest methane yield, was strongly dependent upon the chemical composition of the manure. More specifically, the ammonia concentration of manure and the C/N ratio...

  17. Natural Radionuclides in Meadow and Pasture land in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Klas; Villanueva, José - Luis Gutiérrez; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information...... for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture...... grass –cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural...

  18. Stream characteristics and their implications for the protection of riparian fens and meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Larsen, S.E.; Andersen, Peter Mejlhede

    2011-01-01

    the influence of stream size, morphology and chemical water characteristics for the distribution of water-dependent terrestrial habitat types, i.e. alkaline fens, periodically inundated meadows and meadows in riparian areas in Denmark using an extensive data set covering a total of 254 stream reaches. A species......1. Running waters, including associated riparian areas, are embraced by international legal frameworks outlining targets for the preservation, protection and improvement of the quality of the environment. Interactions between stream and river processes and riparian habitats have not received much...... attention in the management of stream ecosystems, and integrated measures that consider both the ecological status of streams and rivers (sensu EU Water Framework Directive, WFD) and the conservation status of riparian habitats and species (sensu EU Habitats Directive, HD) are rare. 2. Here, we analysed...

  19. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  20. Contents of trace elements in meadow mushrooms as results of PIXE, NAA and AAS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, J.; Sieniawski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Contents of heavy elements in mushrooms from the Dresden area and from some parts of Poland, by use of three methods of measurement (PIXE, AAS and NAA) were determined, with the special interest focused on wild growing and cultivated meadow mushrooms. The ability for accumulation of Se, Cu, Ag and Cu was established. In some wild growing mushrooms the values of Cd, Hg, As and Pb exceeded allowed limits for human nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Expositions of the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University: "Рagan Meadow"

    OpenAIRE

    Eglacheva Arina

    2015-01-01

    "Pagan Meadow" - one of the business cards of Botanic Garden of PSU filled deep sense of creation and originality. Pyramidal junipers were rescued and brought to the mining sites shungit in 1999. The unique expedition was attended by students and graduate students of the Ecology-Biological Faculty. Stone maze and seids appeared in 2011 as a result of the competition landscape projects "Northern motives." Despite the initial dissociation of the two projects lined up a complete picture of the ...

  2. Patch types in Posidonia oceanica meadows around Corsica. How can we use them in seascape ecology?

    OpenAIRE

    Abadie, Arnaud; Bonacorsi, Marina; Gobert, Sylvie; Lejeune, Pierre; Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The meadows formed by the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica are subjected to various natural (e.g., water movement, light availability, sedimentation) and anthropogenic (e.g., anchoring, trawling, fish farms, explosives) phenomena that erode them and create diverse types of patches. The assemblage of the P. oceanica matrix and these patches creates particular seascapes. On the basis of this assessment, we aimed to investigate the importance of the patch type in structuring P. oceanica...

  3. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, R.B.; King, D.I.; DeStefano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most scrub-shrub bird species are declining in the northeastern United States, and these declines are largely attributed to regional declines in habitat availability. American Beaver (Castor canadensis; hereafter “beaver”) populations have been increasing in the Northeast in recent decades, and beavers create scrub-shrub habitat through their dam-building and foraging activities. Few systematic studies have been conducted on the value of beaver-modified habitats for scrub-shrub birds, and these data are important for understanding habitat selection of scrub-shrub birds as well as for assessing regional habitat availability for these species. We conducted surveys in 37 beaver meadows in a 2,800-km2 study area in western Massachusetts during 2005 and 2006 to determine the extent to which these beaver-modified habitats are used by scrub-shrub birds, as well as the characteristics of beaver meadows most closely related to bird use. We modeled bird abundance in relation to microhabitat-, patch-, and landscape-context variables while adjusting for survey-specific covariates affecting detectability using N-mixture models. We found that scrub-shrub birds of regional conservation concern occupied these sites and that birds responded differently to microhabitat, patch, and landscape characteristics of beaver meadows. Generally, scrub-shrub birds increased in abundance along a gradient of increasing vegetation complexity, and three species were positively related to patch size. We conclude that these habitats can potentially play an important role in regional conservation of scrub-shrub birds and recommend that conservation priority be given to larger beaver meadows with diverse vegetation structure and composition.

  4. [Soil seed bank in Keerqin meadow grassland under grazing and harvesting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deming; Li, Rongping; Liu, Zhimin; Yan, Qiaoling

    2004-10-01

    This study on the size and composition of seed bank and its relationship with vegetation showed in Keerqin meadow grassland, the density of soil seed bank was 6158 +/- 1647 grains x m(-2) under grazing and 8312 +/- 2540 grains m(-2) under harvesting. Under grazing, the seed bank was mainly composed of some dwarf and short-life annuals. The seeds of the annuals and biennials accounted for 81.66% of the seeds in seed bank. The four species with largest proportion of seed bank were Chloris virgata, Chenopodium glaucum, Digitaria cilliaris and Setaria viridis, and the proportions were 38.55%, 15.42%, 14.95%, and 9.83%, respectively. The density of perennials in soil seed bank was 1129 +/- 302 grains x m(-2). Under harvesting, the seeds of annuals and biennials accounted for 68.08% of the seed in seed bank, and the proportion of Setaria viridis was 52.7%. In the harvesting meadow grassland, the seed density of perennials was 2653 +/- 811 grains x m(-2). There was no significant correlation between the seed density in soil and the vegetation under grazing, but a significant correlation between the seed density in soil and the species abundance of vegetation under harvesting (r = 0.76, P < 0.01). The index of Shannon-Wiener and richness of grazing meadow grassland were 2.96 and 2.98, respectively, distinctly smaller than 3.10 and 5.09 of harvesting meadow, which showed that free grazing made the diversity of seed bank decrease easily.

  5. Solar radiation and tidal exposure as environmental drivers of Enhalus acoroides dominated seagrass meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K F Unsworth

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence of a global long-term decline in seagrass meadows that is widely attributed to anthropogenic activity. Yet in many regions, attributing these changes to actual activities is difficult, as there exists limited understanding of the natural processes that can influence these valuable ecosystem service providers. Being able to separate natural from anthropogenic causes of seagrass change is important for developing strategies that effectively mitigate and manage anthropogenic impacts on seagrass, and promote coastal ecosystems resilient to future environmental change. The present study investigated the influence of environmental and climate related factors on seagrass biomass in a large ≈250 ha meadow in tropical north east Australia. Annual monitoring of the intertidal Enhalus acoroides (L.f. Royle seagrass meadow over eleven years revealed a declining trend in above-ground biomass (54% significant overall reduction from 2000 to 2010. Partial Least Squares Regression found this reduction to be significantly and negatively correlated with tidal exposure, and significantly and negatively correlated with the amount of solar radiation. This study documents how natural long-term tidal variability can influence long-term seagrass dynamics. Exposure to desiccation, high UV, and daytime temperature regimes are discussed as the likely mechanisms for the action of these factors in causing this decline. The results emphasise the importance of understanding and assessing natural environmentally-driven change when interpreting the results of seagrass monitoring programs.

  6. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool. PMID:19152713

  7. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus in two meadows in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool.

  8. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  9. Long-Term Hydrological Reconstruction From a Beaver Meadow Using Testate Amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Ness, K.; Loisel, J.; Karran, D. J.; Westbrook, C.; Kohlmeyer, C.

    2016-12-01

    Beaver ponds contribute up to 0.8 Tg/yr of atmospheric methane (CH4) globally (Whitfield et al., 2014) and were found to be the largest CH4 emitters among all the wetland types in boreal environments (Roulet et al., 1992). However, the sources and underlying mechanisms of carbon emission and sequestration in beaver ponds requires further elucidation. Here we present the historical development of a beaver meadow located in the Sibbald Research Wetland in the Rocky Mountains of Kananaskis Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. We use a combination of testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, and other geochemical proxies to provide high-resolution reconstructions along three peat cores extracted in hydrologically distinct portions of the meadow. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at reconstructing long-term hydrological conditions in these systems. Testate amoebae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda) are single-celled organisms that inhabit moist substrates and produce a decay-resistant test. As each taxon generally occupies a discrete ecological niche related to soil moisture and pH, testate amoebae are good indicators of past and ongoing hydrological change. Preliminary analysis of testate amoebae assemblages downcore suggests that this proxy is suitable to reconstruct hydrological changes in meadows, with wetter and drier communities being in good agreement with wetter and drier plant macrofossil assemblages. The nitrogen isotopic signature of peat samples (ongoing) will be used as a proxy for changes in nutrient input; it could become a proxy for past beaver activity.

  10. Stress memory induced rearrangements of HSP transcription, photosystem II photochemistry and metabolism of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. in response to high-temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eHu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When plants are pre-exposed to stress, they can produce some stable signals and physiological reactions that may be carried forward as ‘stress memory’. However, there is insufficient information about is known about plants’ stress memory responses mechanisms. Here, two tall fescue genotypes, heat-tolerant PI 574522 and heat-sensitive PI 512315, were subjected to recurring high-temperature pre-acclimation treatment. Two heat shock protein (HSP genes, LMW-HSP and HMW-HSP, exhibited transcriptional memory for their higher transcript abundance during one or more subsequent stresses (S2, S3, S4 relative to the first stress (S1, and basal transcript levels during the recovery states (R1, R2 and R3. Activated transcriptional memory from two trainable genes could persist up to 4 days, and induce higher thermotolerance in tall fescue. This was confirmed by greater turf quality and lower electrolyte leakage. Pre-acclimation treatment inhibited the decline at steps of O-J-I-P and energy transport fluxes in active Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC for both tall fescue genotypes. The heat stress memory was associated with major shifts in leaf metabolite profiles. Furthermore, there was an exclusive increase in leaf organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, tris phosphoric acid, threonic acid, sugars (sucrose, glucose, idose, allose, talose, glucoheptose, tagatose, psicose, amino acids (serine, proline, pyroglutamic acid, glycine, alanine and one fatty acid (butanoic acid in pre-acclimated plants. These discoveries involved in transcriptional memory, PSII RC energy transport and metabolite profiles could provide new insights into the plant high–temperature response process.

  11. Genotype x environment interactions in preweaning traits of purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman calves on common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Tharel, L M; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1993-02-01

    Preweaning data on 486 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross calves (AB, BA) managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interactions of forage type and sex of calf with direct effects, individual heterosis, and maternal effects. Calves were spring-born in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 to five sires of each breed. Male calves were castrated at birth, and calves were not creep-fed. Average values of heterosis for birth weight, 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (WT/HT) were important (P < .01) and consistent across forage environment. Heterosis for birth weight was larger in bull calves than in heifer calves (P < .05), whereas heterosis for other preweaning traits were consistent across sex of calf. Average maternal effects for WT/HT (P < .10) were important and consistent across forage environment. Maternal effects for birth weight were larger with bull calves than with heifer calves (P < .01). Maternal effects for weaning hip height favored the Angus dam managed on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not managed on fescue. A similar but nonsignificant trend occurred in maternal effects for 205-d weight. Direct effects for birth weight were larger in bull calves than in heifer calves (P < .01). Direct effects for weaning height were larger in calves managed on bermudagrass than in calves managed on tall fescue (P < .07). A similar but nonsignificant trend was evident in direct effects for 205-d weight. Direct effects for WT/HT were relatively small and unimportant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Utilization of old meadow by reindeer in spring in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein M. Eilertsen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of abandoned coastal meadows in northern Norway by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus were investigated for 25 days in spring 1996 (« = 12, 40-57 kg body mass (BM and 24 days in 1997 (» = 12, 39-61 kg BM. Grass production on grazed and ungrazed meadow was measured both years. Faecal dry matter (DM production and ruminai in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD of selected plants were measured in the reindeer 15-22 days after the grazing experiment started each year. During the grazing period mean, standard deviation (s, temperature was 8.7, s = 2.8, °C in 1996 and 11.0, s = 3.0, °C in 1997, while temperature the first week was significantly higher in 1997 (P < 0.05. Mean herbage mass, on ungrazed meadow (control, after one week of plant growth in 1996 (408, J" = 166, kg DM ha"1 was significantly different (P < 0.05 from 1997 (576, s = 110, kg DM ha'. We believe the low temperature the first week in 1996 affected the plant production, and was the main reason for the significant (P < 0.05 difference in mean daily plant DM production on the grazed meadow between 1996 (57, s = 16, kg DM ha' and 1997 (81, s = 16, kg DM ha"1. Mean ruminai IVDMD of a mixture of meadow plants, differed (P<0.05 between 1996 (72.4, s = 1.0, % and 1997 (83.9, s = 1.3, %, and mean daily food intake in 1996 (82, s = 13.5, g DM/kg0 75 was significantly lower than the intake in 1997 (131, s = 15.8, g DM/kg0 75. Daily digestible energy intake in reindeer was estimated to 0.96 Ml/kg07"5 X d 1 in 1996 and 1.85 Ml/kg""5 X d"1 in 1997, which was 1.3 and 2.5 times the resting metabolic rate in reindeer, respectively. We therefore assume the difference in food intake could be due to the initial difference in herbage mass.

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of cell-derived MF59®-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans; Rivera, Luis; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Lattanzi, Maria; Kieninger, Dorothee; Cioppa, Giovanni Della

    2015-01-01

    Mass immunization of children has the potential to decrease infection rates and prevent the transmission of influenza. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of different formulations of cell-derived MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in children and adolescents. This was a randomized, single-blind, multicenter study with a total of 666 healthy subjects aged 6 months–17 y in one of 3 vaccination groups, each receiving formulations containing different amounts of influenza A/H1N1 antigen with or without MF59. A booster trivalent seasonal MF59 vaccine was administered one year after primary vaccinations. Antibody titers were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays obtained on days 1, 22, 43, 366, and 387 (3 weeks post booster). Safety was monitored throughout the study. One vaccination with 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 50% MF59 (3.75_halfMF59) or 7.5 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 100% MF59 (7.5_fullMF59) induced an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% of children in the 1–vaccinations with nonadjuvanted 15 μg A/H1N1 antigen were needed to achieve this response in the 1–children aged 6–11 months, 1 dose of 7.5_fullMF59 resulted in an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% while 2 doses of 3.75_halfMF59 were required to achieve this result. All vaccines were well tolerated. Our findings support the immunogenicity and safety of the 3.75_halfMF59 (2 doses for children vaccine formulations for use in children and adolescents aged 6 months to 17 y The use of the 3.75_halfMF59 could have the benefit of antigen and adjuvant sparing, increasing the available vaccine doses allowing vaccination of more people. PMID:25621884

  14. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Penner, G B; Walpole, M E; Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Harmon, D L

    2014-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (G t ). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and G t (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that

  15. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  16. Study of Ionospheric Indexes T and MF2 related to R12 for Solar Cycles 19-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Lucia

    2013-04-01

    Modern worldwide communications are mainly based on satellite systems, remote communication networks, and advanced technologies. The most important space weather "meteorological" events produce negative effects on signal transmissions. Magnetic storm conditions that follow coronal mass ejections are particularly of great importance for radio communication at HF frequencies (3-30 MHz range), because the Ionization increase (or decrease), significantly over (or below), the Average Values. Nowadays new technologies make possible to establish Geophysical Observatories and monitor the sun almost in real time giving information about geomagnetic indices. Space Weather programs have interesting software predictions of foF2 producing maps and plots, every some minutes. The Average Values of the ionospheric parameters mainly depend on the position, hour, season and the phase of the 11-year cycle of the solar activity. Around 1990´s several ionospheric indexes were suggested to better predict the state of the foF2 monthly media, as: IF2, G, T and MF2, based on foF2 data from different latitude ionospheric observatories. They really show better seasonal changes than monthly solar indexes of solar flux F10.7 or the international sunspot numbers Ri. The main purpose of this paper is to present an analogic model for the ionospheric index MF2, to establish the average long term predictions of this index. Changes of phase from one cycle to the other of one component of the model is found to fit the data. The usefulness of this model could be the prediction of the ionospheric normal conditions for one entire solar cycle having just the prediction of the maximum of the next smooth sunspot number R12. In this presentation, comparisons of the Australian T index and and the Mikhailov MF2 index show an hysteresis variation with the solar monthly index Ri, such dependence is quite well represented by a polynomial fit of degree 6 for rising and decaying fases for solar cycles 19, 20 and

  17. Global financial crisis and weak-form efficiency of Islamic sectoral stock markets: An MF-DFA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Walid; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-04-01

    This paper estimates the weak-form efficiency of Islamic stock markets using 10 sectoral stock indices (basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, energy, financials, health care, industrials, technology, telecommunication, and utilities). The results based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) approach show time-varying efficiency for the sectoral stock markets. Moreover, we find that they tend to show high efficiency in the long term but moderate efficiency in the short term, and that these markets become less efficient after the onset of the global financial crisis. These results have several significant implications in terms of asset allocation for investors dealing with Islamic markets.

  18. Effect of melting technique on grain size and heat resistance of the 12Kh1MF steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanskaya, K.A.; Kulikova, L.V.; Butneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated are the 12Kh1MF steel melted in open-hearth and arc furnaces (deoxidation by aluminium in 1.0 kg/t quantity) and then subjected to electroslag melting. The size of an austenitic grain depends on the residual contents of nitrogen and aluminium in steel. The open-hearth metal subjected to electroslag melting and containing a small quantity of nitrogen (0.006%) and aluminium (0.013%) has coarse austenitic grains and higher heat resistance compared to the steel melted in an arc furnace and also sub ected to electroslag melting. The nitride analysis of steel is carried out

  19. Study of compoisiton of saturated vapor of MF-CuF2 systems, where M=K, Rb, Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I.V.; Korenev, Yu.M.

    1993-01-01

    Investigation into composition of saturated vapor of MF-CuF 2 systems where M=K, Rb, Cs is conducted using high-temperature mass-spectrometry. Existence of MCuF 3 molecules in gas phase is determined. MCuF 3(r) dissociation enthalpies are calculated using the first law-of thermodynamics and are compared with theoretically determined values. Value Δ D G 0 944 (CsCuF 3(r) =105.6±6.3 kj/mol is determined

  20. Experimental Warming Aggravates Degradation-Induced Topsoil Drought in Alpine Meadows of The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic warming is presumed to cause topsoil drought by increasing evapotranspiration and water infiltration, and by progressively inducing land degradation in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, how soil moisture and temperature patterns of degraded alpine meadows respond to climate warming remains unclear. A six-year continuous warming experiment was carried out in both degraded and undegraded alpine meadows in the source region of the Yangtze River. The goal was to identify the effects of climatic warming and land degradation on soil moisture (θ), soil surface temperature (Tsfc), and soil temperature (Ts). In the present study, land degradation significantly reduced θ by 4.5-6.1% at a depth of 0-100 cm (P soil surface. Experimental warming aggravated topsoil drought caused by land degradation, intensified the magnitude of degradation, and caused a positive feedback in the degraded alpine meadow ecosystem. Therefore, an immediate need exists to restore degraded alpine meadow grasslands in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in anticipation of a warmer future.

  1. Factors causing PAC cake fouling in PAC-MF (powdered activated carbon-microfiltration) water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P; Takizawa, S; Katayama, H; Ohgaki, S

    2005-01-01

    Two pilot-scale powdered activated carbon-microfiltration (PAC-MF) reactors were operated using river water pretreated by a biofilter. A high permeate flux (4 m/d) was maintained in two reactors with different particle sizes of PAC. High concentration (20 g/L) in the PAC adsorption zone demonstrated 60-80% of organic removal rates. Analysis on the PAC cake fouling demonstrated that attached metal ions play more important role than organic matter attached on PAC to the increase of PAC cake resistance. Effects of factors which may cause PAC cake fouling in PAC-MF process were investigated and evaluated by batch experiments, further revealing that small particulates and metal ions in raw water impose prominent influence on the PAC cake layer formation. Fe (II) precipitates after being oxidized to Fe (III) during PAC adsorption and thus Fe(ll) colloids display more significant effect than other metal ions. At a high flux, PAC cake layer demonstrated a higher resistance with larger PAC due to association among colloids, metals and PAC particles, and easy migration of small particles in raw water into the void space in the PAC cake layer. Larger PAC possesses much more non-uniform particle size distribution and larger void space, making it easier for small colloids to migrate into the voids and for metal ions to associate with PAC particles by bridge effect, hence speeding up and intensifying the of PAC cake fouling on membrane surface.

  2. Information to support to monitoring and habitat restoration on Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary

    2013-01-01

    The Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge staff focuses on improving habitat for the highest incidence of endemic species for an area of its size in the continental United States. Attempts are being made to restore habitat to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition, and to provide habitat conditions to which native plant and animal species have evolved. Unfortunately, restoring the Ash Meadows’ Oases to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition is almost impossible. First, there are constraints on water manipulation because there are private holdings within the refuge boundary; second, there has been at least one species extinction—the Ash Meadows pool fish (Empetrichthys merriami). It is also quite possible that thermal endemic invertebrate species were lost before ever being described. Perhaps the primary obstacle to restoring Ash Meadows to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed conditions is the presence of invasive species. However, invasive species, such as red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarki) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), are a primary driving force in restoring Ash Meadows’ spring systems, because under certain habitat conditions they can all but replace native species. Returning Ash Meadows’ physical landscape to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition through natural processes may take decades. Meanwhile, the natural dissolution of concrete and earthen irrigation channels threatens to allow cattail marshes to flourish instead of spring-brooks immediately downstream of spring discharge. This successional stage favors non-native crayfish and mosquitofish over the native Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis). Thus, restoration is needed to control non-natives and to promote native species, and without such intervention the probability of native fish reduction or loss, is anticipated. The four studies in this report are intended to provide information for restoring native fish habitat and

  3. Soil Fauna Affects Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen in Foliar Litter in Alpine Forest and Alpine Meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Yu; Peng, Yan; Li, Jun; Tan, Bo; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) are generally considered important active biogeochemical pools of total carbon and nitrogen. Many studies have documented the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition, but the effects of the soil fauna on labile substances (i.e., DOC and TDN) in litter during early decomposition are not completely clear. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was carried out from 13th November 2013 to 23rd October 2014 in an alpine forest and an alpine meadow located on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Litterbags with different mesh sizes were used to provide access to or prohibit the access of the soil fauna, and the concentrations of DOC and TDN in the foliar litter were measured during the winter (the onset of freezing, deep freezing and thawing stage) and the growing season (early and late). After one year of field incubation, the concentration of DOC in the litter significantly decreased, whereas the TDN concentration in the litter increased. Similar dynamic patterns were detected under the effects of the soil fauna on both DOC and TDN in the litter between the alpine forest and the alpine meadow. The soil fauna showed greater positive effects on decreasing DOC concentration in the litter in the winter than in the growing season. In contrast, the dynamics of TND in the litter were related to seasonal changes in environmental factors, rather than the soil fauna. In addition, the soil fauna promoted a decrease in litter DOC/TDN ratio in both the alpine forest and the alpine meadow throughout the first year of decomposition, except for in the late growing season. These results suggest that the soil fauna can promote decreases in DOC and TDN concentrations in litter, contributing to early litter decomposition in these cold biomes.

  4. Tropical seagrass meadows modify seawater carbon chemistry: implications for coral reefs impacted by ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; Collier, Catherine J; Henderson, Gideon M; McKenzie, Len J

    2012-01-01

    Highly productive tropical seagrasses often live adjacent to or among coral reefs and utilize large amounts of inorganic carbon. In this study, the effect of seagrass productivity on seawater carbonate chemistry and coral calcification was modelled on the basis of an analysis of published data. Published data (11 studies, 64 records) reveal that seagrass meadows in the Indo-Pacific have an 83% chance of being net autotrophic, resulting in an average net sink of 155 gC m −2 yr −1 . The capacities for seagrass productivity were analysed using an empirical model to examine the effect on seawater carbonate chemistry. Our analyses indicate that increases in pH of up to 0.38 units, and Ω arag increases of 2.9 are possible in the presence of seagrass meadows (compared to their absence) with the precise values of these increases dependent on water residence time (tidal flushing) and water depth. In shallow water reef environments, Scleractinian coral calcification downstream of seagrass has the potential to be ≈18% greater than in an environment without seagrass. If this potential benefit to reef calcifiers is supported by further study it offers a potential tool in marine park management at a local scale. The applicability of this will depend upon local physical conditions as well as the spatial configuration of habitats, and the factors that influence their productivity. This novel study suggests that, in addition to their importance to fisheries, sediment stabilization and primary production, seagrass meadows may enhance coral reef resilience to future ocean acidification. (letter)

  5. The responses to supplementary of UV radiation of some temperate meadow species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The growth and development of various meadow species was monitored while growing under enhanced UV-radiation in the natural light environment. Growth responses to supplementary ultraviolet-B (UV-B+A) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) were compared to the ambient daylight treatment for Bellis perennis, Cardamine pratensis, Cynosurus critatus and Ranunculus ficaria. When the response of ultraviolet A (UV-A) treated plants were compared with those of the UV-B+A, differences were found which varied according to the species and parameter investigated. To further understand the growth responses of the UV-A treatment and their relationship to the UV-B responses polychromatic action spectra in the natural environment was employed B perennis had an action maximum in the UV B (280-315 nm) while C cristatus demonstrates no action in the UV-B but action in the UV-A region (315-400 nm.). To enable further explanation of the effects of elevated UV radiation on the meadow plants Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and mutants were investigated. A thaliana ecotypes dry weight accumulation was found to respond differently to the UV treatments. UV B+A treatment was found to inhibit dry weight accumulation in most ecotypes. When UV B+A induced inhibition was expressed in terms of ambient growth rate for each ecotype a linear relationship could be derived. The higher the growth rate the more susceptible the ecotype was to UV-B+A inhibition. The pertinence of the UV-A treatment and UV protocol is discussed. It is suggested that UV responses could alter the diversity of the meadow equilibrium

  6. A modified MOD16 algorithm to estimate evapotranspiration over alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaping; Qin, Dahe; Ding, Yongjian; Zhao, Qiudong; Zhang, Shiqiang

    2018-06-01

    The long-term change of evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for managing water resources in areas with extreme climates, such as the Tibetan Plateau (TP). This study proposed a modified algorithm for estimating ET based on the MOD16 algorithm on a global scale over alpine meadow on the TP in China. Wind speed and vegetation height were integrated to estimate aerodynamic resistance, while the temperature and moisture constraints for stomatal conductance were revised based on the technique proposed by Fisher et al. (2008). Moreover, Fisher's method for soil evaporation was adopted to reduce the uncertainty in soil evaporation estimation. Five representative alpine meadow sites on the TP were selected to investigate the performance of the modified algorithm. Comparisons were made between the ET observed using the Eddy Covariance (EC) and estimated using both the original and modified algorithms. The results revealed that the modified algorithm performed better than the original MOD16 algorithm with the coefficient of determination (R2) increasing from 0.26 to 0.68, and root mean square error (RMSE) decreasing from 1.56 to 0.78 mm d-1. The modified algorithm performed slightly better with a higher R2 (0.70) and lower RMSE (0.61 mm d-1) for after-precipitation days than for non-precipitation days at Suli site. Contrarily, better results were obtained for non-precipitation days than for after-precipitation days at Arou, Tanggula, and Hulugou sites, indicating that the modified algorithm may be more suitable for estimating ET for non-precipitation days with higher accuracy than for after-precipitation days, which had large observation errors. The comparisons between the modified algorithm and two mainstream methods suggested that the modified algorithm could produce high accuracy ET over the alpine meadow sites on the TP.

  7. Spatial assessment of intertidal seagrass meadows using optical imaging systems and a lightweight drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James P.; Pratt, Laura; Anderson, Karen; Land, Peter E.; Shutler, Jamie D.

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems are highly sensitive to environmental change. They are also in global decline and under threat from a variety of anthropogenic factors. There is now an urgency to establish robust monitoring methodologies so that changes in seagrass abundance and distribution in these sensitive coastal environments can be understood. Typical monitoring approaches have included remote sensing from satellites and airborne platforms, ground based ecological surveys and snorkel/scuba surveys. These techniques can suffer from temporal and spatial inconsistency, or are very localised making it hard to assess seagrass meadows in a structured manner. Here we present a novel technique using a lightweight (sub 7 kg) drone and consumer grade cameras to produce very high spatial resolution (∼4 mm pixel-1) mosaics of two intertidal sites in Wales, UK. We present a full data collection methodology followed by a selection of classification techniques to produce coverage estimates at each site. We trialled three classification approaches of varying complexity to investigate and illustrate the differing performance and capabilities of each. Our results show that unsupervised classifications perform better than object-based methods in classifying seagrass cover. We also found that the more sparsely vegetated of the two meadows studied was more accurately classified - it had lower root mean squared deviation (RMSD) between observed and classified coverage (9-9.5%) compared to a more densely vegetated meadow (RMSD 16-22%). Furthermore, we examine the potential to detect other biotic features, finding that lugworm mounds can be detected visually at coarser resolutions such as 43 mm pixel-1, whereas smaller features such as cockle shells within seagrass require finer grained data (<17 mm pixel-1).

  8. X-Ray fluorescence determination of the mobile forms of toxic elements in meadow chernozems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, K.N.; Blank, A.B.; Shevtsov, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method for determining mobile forms of Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and Pb in meadow chernozems was developed. It is based on the extraction of analytes with an acetate-ammonia buffer solution and the evaporation of the obtained filtrate with carbon powder followed by the X-ray fluorescence analysis of the dry residue. The effect of concomitants on the analytical signals of elements under determination was examined. It was suggested to spike samples with barium in order to decrease analytical errors. (author)

  9. Diversification of mowing regime increases arthropods diversity in species-poor cultural hay meadows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, O.; Zámečník, J.; Tropek, Robert; Kočárek, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 215-226 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Grant - others:Czech Agency for Nature Conservation(CZ) PPK-35a/62/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : hay meadows * arthropods conservation * mowing regimes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.muzeumhk.cz/files/jaroslav_zamecnik/2012_cizek_zamecnik.pdf

  10. Is forage productivity of meadows influenced by the afforestation of upstream hillsides? A study in NW Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigandt, M.; Gyenge, J.; Fernandez, M. E.; Varela, S.; Schlichter, T.

    2011-07-01

    Meadows are important reserves of water, with a key role in the maintenance of the biodiversity and productivity of ecosystems. In Patagonia, Argentina, afforestation with fast-growing exotic conifers has slowly but continuously increased over recent decades; though unfortunately, knowledge of the effects of afforestation on water resources remains scarce, with no information at all related to its impact on water dynamics and productivity of meadows located down slope to it. The effects of Pinus ponderosa afforestation on water dynamics (soil moisture contents and groundwater level) and productivity (aboveground forage productivity) of Northwest Patagonia meadows under xeric and humid conditions were analyzed. In the humid meadow, gravimetric soil water content, groundwater level and forage productivity were similar down slope of forested and non-forested slopes, with a trend towards higher forage productivity on the forested slope. In the xeric meadow, gravimetric soil water content was always higher down slope of the non-forested slope, with no difference in groundwater level between treatments. Forage productivity was statistically similar between situations (down slope of forested and non-forested slopes), with a trend towards higher productivity in the zone with higher soil water content. The main difference in the latter was related to differences in soil texture between zones. These results suggest that coniferous plantations located upstream of this type of meadow do not produce a direct effect on its aboveground forage productivity. These systems have high complexity linked to precipitation, geomorphology and previous history of land use, which determine primarily soil water dynamics and consequently, forage productivity. (Author) 42 refs.

  11. Streamflow and water-quality data for Meadow Run Basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open file report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Witt, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Meadow Run basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, from December 7, 1987 through November 15, 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Meadow Run provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions, and suspended-sediment concentrations

  12. Characterization of a Highly Biodiverse Floodplain Meadow Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing within a Plant Functional Trait Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna Punalekar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the potential for using optical functional types as effective markers to monitor changes in vegetation in floodplain meadows associated with changes in their local environment. Floodplain meadows are challenging ecosystems for monitoring and conservation because of their highly biodiverse nature. Our aim was to understand and explain spectral differences among key members of floodplain meadows and also characterize differences with respect to functional traits. The study was conducted on a typical floodplain meadow in UK (MG4-type, mesotrophic grassland type 4, according to British National Vegetation Classification. We compared two approaches to characterize floodplain communities using field spectroscopy. The first approach was sub-community based, in which we collected spectral signatures for species groupings indicating two distinct eco-hydrological conditions (dry and wet soil indicator species. The other approach was “species-specific”, in which we focused on the spectral reflectance of three key species found on the meadow. One herb species is a typical member of the MG4 floodplain meadow community, while the other two species, sedge and rush, represent wetland vegetation. We also monitored vegetation biophysical and functional properties as well as soil nutrients and ground water levels. We found that the vegetation classes representing meadow sub-communities could not be spectrally distinguished from each other, whereas the individual herb species was found to have a distinctly different spectral signature from the sedge and rush species. The spectral differences between these three species could be explained by their observed differences in plant biophysical parameters, as corroborated through radiative transfer model simulations. These parameters, such as leaf area index, leaf dry matter content, leaf water content, and specific leaf area, along with other functional parameters, such as maximum carboxylation capacity

  13. Using MODIS data for understanding changes in seagrass meadow health: a case study in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petus, Caroline; Collier, Catherine; Devlin, Michelle; Rasheed, Michael; McKenna, Skye

    2014-07-01

    Stretching more than 2000 km along the Queensland coast, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBR) shelters over 43,000 square km of seagrass meadows. Despite the status of marine protected area and World Heritage listing of the GBR, local seagrass meadows are under stress from reduced water quality levels; with reduction in the amount of light available for seagrass photosynthesis defined as the primary cause of seagrass loss throughout the GBR. Methods have been developed to map GBR plume water types by using MODIS quasi-true colour (hereafter true colour) images reclassified in function of their dominant colour. These data can be used as an interpretative tool for understanding changes in seagrass meadow health (as defined in this study by the seagrass area and abundance) at different spatial and temporal scales. We tested this method in Cleveland Bay, in the northern GBR, where substantial loss in seagrass area and biomass was detected by annual monitoring from 2007 to 2011. A strong correlation was found between bay-wide seagrass meadow area and biomass and exposure to turbid Primary (sediment-dominated) water type. There was also a strong correlation between the changes of biomass and area of individual meadows and exposure of seagrass ecosystems to Primary water type over the 5-year period. Seagrass meadows were also grouped according to the dominant species within each meadow, irrespective of location within Cleveland Bay. These consolidated community types did not correlate well with the exposure to Primary water type, and this is likely to be due to local environmental conditions with the individual meadows that comprise these groupings. This study proved that remote sensing data provide the synoptic window and repetitivity required to investigate changes in water quality conditions over time. Remote sensing data provide an opportunity to investigate the risk of marine-coastal ecosystems to light limitation due to increased water turbidity when in situ

  14. Disentangling the role of management, vegetation structure, and plant quality for Orthoptera in lowland meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Gerlach, Rebekka; Buhk, Constanze

    2017-08-17

    Seminatural grasslands provide habitats for various species and are important for biodiversity conservation. The understanding of the diverse responses of species and traits to different grassland management methods is therefore urgently needed. We disentangled the role of grassland management (fertilization and irrigation), vegetation structure (biomass, sward height) and plant quality (protein and fiber content) for Orthoptera communities in lowland hay meadows in Germany. We found vegetation structure to be the most important environmental category in explaining community structure of Orthoptera (species richness, total individuals, functional diversity and species composition). Intensively used meadows (fertilized, irrigated, high plant biomass) were characterized by assemblages with few species, low functional diversity, and low conservation value. Thereby, the relatively moderate fertilizer inputs in our study system of up to ∼75 kg N/ha/year reduced functional diversity of Orthoptera, while this negative effect of fertilization was not detectable when solely considering taxonomic aspects. We found strong support for a prominent role of plant quality in shaping Orthoptera communities and especially the trait composition. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of considering both taxonomic and functional components (functional diversity) in biodiversity research and we suggest a stronger involvement of plant quality measures in Orthoptera studies. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Genetic variation and correlation of agronomic traits in meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehm clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Marcelo Renato Alves de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehm. is a recently introduced pasture grass in western Canada. Its leafy production and rapid regrowth have made it a major grass species for pasturing beef animals in this region. As relatively little breeding work has been done on this species, there is little information on its breeding behaviour. The main objective of this study was to estimate total genetic variability, broad-sense heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlations. Forty-four meadow bromegrass clones were evaluated for agronomic characters. Genetic variation for dry matter yield, seed yield, fertility index, harvest index, plant height, plant spread, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, was significant. Broad-sense heritability estimates exceeded 50% for all characters. Heritability estimates were at least 3.5 times greater than their standard errors. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between all possible characters were measured. There was general agreement in both sign and magnitude between genetic and phenotypic correlations. Correlations between the different characters demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously improve seed and forage yield. Based on the results, it appears that the development of higher yielding cultivars with higher crude protein, and lower acid and neutral detergent fibers concentration should be possible.

  16. Nutrient Enrichment Mediates the Relationships of Soil Microbial Respiration with Climatic Factors in an Alpine Meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of nutrient additions on soil microbial respiration (Rm and its contribution to soil respiration (Rs are of great importance for accurate assessment ecosystem carbon (C flux. Nitrogen (N addition either alone (coded as LN and HN or in combination with phosphorus (P (coded as LN + P and HN + P were manipulated in a semiarid alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau since 2008. Either LN or HN did not affect Rm, while LN + P enhanced Rm during peak growing periods, but HN + P did not affect Rm. Nutrient addition also significantly affected Rm/Rs, and the correlations of Rm/Rs with climatic factors varied with years. Soil water content (Sw was the main factor controlling the variations of Rm/Rs. During the years with large rainfall variations, Rm/Rs was negatively correlated with Sw, while, in years with even rainfall, Rm/Rs was positively correlated with Sw. Meanwhile, in N + P treatments the controlling effects of climatic factors on Rm/Rs were more significant than those in CK. Our results indicate that the sensitivity of soil microbes to climatic factors is regulated by nutrient enrichment. The divergent effects of Sw on Rm/Rs suggest that precipitation distribution patterns are key factors controlling soil microbial activities and ecosystem C fluxes in semiarid alpine meadow ecosystems.

  17. The size structure of ramets in Dianthus superbus L. in mosaic meadow vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigations were carried out in the years 2010–2012 in Kraków-Opatkowice (Southern Poland. The observations were conducted in patches of abandoned Molinietum caeruleae meadows with different dominant species. Patch LM was dominated by low meadow species, forming small procumbent shoots and delicate belowground organs; patch TM was occupied by tall-growing taxa creating large tussocks or robust rhizomes; patch SH was overgrown by shrubs and trees with wide spreading roots. In all patches, the number of ramet clusters of Dianthus superbus was low and constant during the whole study period. All populations showed signs of advanced senility due to the absence of individuals in pre-reproductive stages and the occurrence of generative ramet clusters only. The total number of aboveground units per ramet cluster declined, while the leaf length, height of vegetative and generative stems as well as the size of inflorescences and flowers increased from patch LM to patch TM to patch SH. The presented results provide valuable data concerning the state of ramet clusters studied and their prospects for survival in inhabited sites.

  18. Dominance of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis in an undisturbed wild meadow ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Bélanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years after its arrival in Quebec (Canada, the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae has become one of the dominant coccinellid species in agricultural, forested and urban areas. Several studies conducted in North American agricultural ecosystems show that the arrival of H. axyridis and other exotic coccinellid species was followed by decreases in the populations of native coccinellid species. In this study, the abundances of H. axyridis and other native and exotic species were determined in an undisturbed wild meadow located in a protected area. In 2009 and 2010, mainly Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae and Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae infested with aphids were surveyed. A total of 1522 individuals, belonging to seven different species, were recorded. In 2009, on all the plants monitored, H. axyridis was clearly the dominant species (69% of the coccinellid assemblage. In addition, this exotic species constituted 84% of the coccinellid assemblage, including Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L. and Coccinella septempunctata (L. It is likely the dominance of the eurytopic Asian lady beetle in agricultural, forested, urban and undisturbed open ecosystems, poses a threat to native lady beetles. These results also provide evidence that undisturbed wild meadow ecosystems will not constitute a natural refuge from Harmonia axyridis for native species of lady beetles.

  19. A test of the herbivore optimization hypothesis using muskoxen and a graminoid meadow plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Smith

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A prediction from the herbivore optimization hypothesis is that grazing by herbivores at moderate intensities will increase net above-ground primary productivity more than at lower or higher intensities. I tested this hypothesis in an area of high muskox {Ovibos moschatus density on north-central Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada (73°50'N, 119°53'W. Plots (1 m2 in graminoid meadows dominated by cottongrass (Eriophorum triste were either clipped, exposed to muskoxen, protected for part of one growing season, or permanently protected. This resulted in the removal of 22-44%, 10-39%, 0-39% or 0%, respectively, of shoot tissue during each growing season. Contrary to the predictions of the herbivore optimization hypothesis, productivity did not increase across this range of tissue removal. Productivity of plants clipped at 1.5 cm above ground once or twice per growing season, declined by 60+/-5% in 64% of the tests. The productivity of plants grazed by muskoxen declined by 56+/-7% in 25% of the tests. No significant change in productivity was observed in 36% and 75% of the tests in clipped and grazed treatments, respecrively. Clipping and grazing reduced below-ground standing crop except where removals were small. Grazing and clipping did not stimulate productivity of north-central Banks Island graminoid meadows.

  20. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  1. Changes in vegetation and soil seed bank of meadow after waterlogging caused by Castor fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Franczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging is among abiotic stresses that influence species composition and productivity in numerous plant communities. The aim of the study was to find answer to the question of how waterlogging caused by beavers’ activity induces quantitative and qualitative changes of vegetation and soil seed bank levels of variable-moist meadows. An immediate effect of the waterlogging at the level of vegetation was the decline in species richness and a decrease in the values of the biodiversity index. Water stress inhibited growth and development of plants already present and, primarily, impeded recruitment of new individuals of species characteristic of variable-moist meadows, e.g. Cirsium rivulare, Filipendula ulmaria and Lythrum salicaria, which were replaced by Carex acutiformis. Prolonged waterlogging did not induce equally substantial changes in the soil seed bank as in the vegetation. Both in the waterlogged and control patches, slightly decreased species richness and biodiversity index were recorded. After waterlogging withdrawal, the reserves of the soil seed bank were slightly higher than the initial values. The differences were not statistically significant. In the waterlogged patch, the qualitative floristic similarity between taxa identified in the soil seed bank and vegetation cover declined, which was evidenced by the value of Jaccard’s index decreasing from 0.46 to 0.36. A reverse relationship was found in control patch, where the value of the similarity index slightly increased from 0.41 to 0.48.

  2. Spatially characterizing visitor use and its association with informal trails in Yosemite Valley meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2013-07-01

    Ecological impacts associated with nature-based recreation and tourism can compromise park and protected area goals if left unrestricted. Protected area agencies are increasingly incorporating indicator-based management frameworks into their management plans to address visitor impacts. Development of indicators requires empirical evaluation of indicator measures and examining their ecological and social relevance. This study addresses the development of the informal trail indicator in Yosemite National Park by spatially characterizing visitor use in open landscapes and integrating use patterns with informal trail condition data to examine their spatial association. Informal trail and visitor use data were collected concurrently during July and August of 2011 in three, high-use meadows of Yosemite Valley. Visitor use was clustered at statistically significant levels in all three study meadows. Spatial data integration found no statistically significant differences between use patterns and trail condition class. However, statistically significant differences were found between the distance visitors were observed from informal trails and visitor activity type with active activities occurring closer to trail corridors. Gender was also found to be significant with male visitors observed further from trail corridors. Results highlight the utility of integrated spatial analysis in supporting indicator-based monitoring and informing management of open landscapes. Additional variables for future analysis and methodological improvements are discussed.

  3. Influence of high doses gamma radiation on group of meadow plants and water organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodek, St.; Wasilewski, A.; Indeka, L.; Kobuszewska, B.; Krzysztofik, B.; Ossowska-Cypryk, K.; Slomczynski, T.

    1979-01-01

    The plot of 100 square meters area has been irradiated for 526 days by gamma radiation which simulated the external radiation of the local fall-out. This field experiment has been performed in specially preserved conditions. The organisms of land and water complexes present in this area have received the total of 50 000 R in the center and 600 R on periphery. It has been shown that: changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of bacteria and soil and water fungi were generally little: among the physiological groups the greatest disfunctions have been observed for the bacteria of the nitric cycle; Lemna minor appeared to be the most radiosensitive water plant which perished completely in the zone around the center of the plot what in turn resulted in secondary changes in the composition of water microflora and micro- and macrofauna; the growth of 14 species of meadow plants present around the center of the plot has been reduced about 25% of biomass in comparison with the control plots; on the other hand, the stimulation of growth of meadow plants, mostly weeds, has been observed on the periphery of the plot. (author)

  4. Influence of high doses gamma radiation on group of meadow plants and water organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodek, St; Wasilewski, A; Indeka, L; Kobuszewska, B; Krzysztofik, B; Ossowska-Cypryk, K; Slomczynski, T

    1979-01-01

    The plot of 100 square meters area has been irradiated for 526 days by gamma radiation which simulated the external radiation of the local fall-out. This field experiment has been performed in specially preserved conditions. The organisms of land and water complexes present in this area have received the total of 50 000 R in the center and 600 R on periphery. It has been shown that: changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of bacteria and soil and water fungi were generally little: among the physiological groups the greatest disfunctions have been observed for the bacteria of the nitric cycle; Lemna minor appeared to be the most radiosensitive water plant which perished completely in the zone around the center of the plot what in turn resulted in secondary changes in the composition of water microflora and micro- and macrofauna; the growth of 14 species of meadow plants present around the center of the plot has been reduced about 25% of biomass in comparison with the control plots; on the other hand, the stimulation of growth of meadow plants, mostly weeds, has been observed on the periphery of the plot.

  5. Seasonal and annual variation in activity in wild male meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.N.; Iverson, S.L.; Severson, K.L.

    1980-10-01

    Project ZEUS was designed to characterize the effects of long-term gamma irradiation on free-ranging meadow voles, and to determine the lowest level of radiation at which biological effects are discernible in the population. Behavioural tests are considered important since recent testing has shown that behavioural effects occur at lower levels of a given toxicant than do pathological ones, and radiation effects may be similar. Overnight activity of wild male voles was investigated to see whether sufficient variability exists in this activity to suggest its retention as a routine test of these irradiated animals. Variables determined included number of activity periods, total amount of activity, and statistical measures derived from these. Results from nearly 2500 activity tests recorded during a seven-year period indicated the annual pattern of activity is more closely associated with the photo-period than to reproductive maturity. There was little variability in activity among years, limiting the usefulness of this test in the context of Project ZEUS, and further suggesting behaviour may have little relationship to the population density fluctuations occurring in meadow voles. Consequently, the recording of this behaviour has been terminated in favour of emphasizing aggression and open-field tests as the behavioural component of the Project ZEUS. (auth)

  6. Application of queuing theory to a fast food outfit: a study of blue meadows restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigha Gumus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the queuing system in Blue Meadows restaurant with a view to determining its operating characteristics and to improve customers’ satisfaction during waiting time using the lens of queuing theory. Data was obtained from a fast food restaurant in the University of Benin. The data collected was tested to show if it follows a Poisson and exponential distribution of arrival and service rate using chi square goodness of fit. A 95% confidence interval level was used to show the range of customers that come into the system at an hour time frame and the range of customers served at an hour time frame. Using the M/M/s model, the arrival rate, service rate, utilization rate, waiting time in the queue and the probability of customers likely balking from the restaurant was derived. The arrival rate (λ at Blue Meadows restaurant was about 40 customers per hour, while the service rate was about 22 customers per hour per server. The number of servers present in the system was two. The average number of customers in the system in an hour window was 40 customers with a utilization rate of 0.909. The paper concludes with a discussion on the benefits of performing queuing analysis to a restaurant.

  7. Spatially Characterizing Visitor Use and Its Association with Informal Trails in Yosemite Valley Meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2013-07-01

    Ecological impacts associated with nature-based recreation and tourism can compromise park and protected area goals if left unrestricted. Protected area agencies are increasingly incorporating indicator-based management frameworks into their management plans to address visitor impacts. Development of indicators requires empirical evaluation of indicator measures and examining their ecological and social relevance. This study addresses the development of the informal trail indicator in Yosemite National Park by spatially characterizing visitor use in open landscapes and integrating use patterns with informal trail condition data to examine their spatial association. Informal trail and visitor use data were collected concurrently during July and August of 2011 in three, high-use meadows of Yosemite Valley. Visitor use was clustered at statistically significant levels in all three study meadows. Spatial data integration found no statistically significant differences between use patterns and trail condition class. However, statistically significant differences were found between the distance visitors were observed from informal trails and visitor activity type with active activities occurring closer to trail corridors. Gender was also found to be significant with male visitors observed further from trail corridors. Results highlight the utility of integrated spatial analysis in supporting indicator-based monitoring and informing management of open landscapes. Additional variables for future analysis and methodological improvements are discussed.

  8. Herbivory more limiting than competition on early and established native plants in an invaded meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Emily K; Arcese, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The dominance of nonnative plants coupled with declines of native plants suggests that competitive displacement drives extinctions, yet empirical examples are rare. Herbivores, however, can alter vegetation structure and reduce diversity when abundant. Herbivores may act on mature, reproductive life stages whereas some of the strongest competitive effects might occur at early life stages that are difficult to observe. For example, competition by perennial nonnative grasses can interfere with the establishment of native seeds. We contrasted the effects of ungulate herbivory and competition by neighboring plants on the performance of native plant species at early and established life stages in invaded oak meadows. We recorded growth, survival, and flowering in two native species transplanted as established plants, six native species grown from seed, and five extant lily species as part of two 2 x 2 factorial experiments that manipulated herbivory and competition. Herbivory reduced the performance of nearly all focal native species at early and established life stages, whereas competition had few measurable effects. Our results suggest that herbivory has a greater local influence on native plant species than competition and that reducing herbivore impacts will be required to successfully restore endangered oak meadows where ungulates are now abundant.

  9. Rupture of the steel-12KH1MF under creep at temperatures close to 0,5 Tsub(melt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezina, T.G.; Ashikhmina, L.A.; Karasev, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and transmission microscopy and fractography techniques have been employed in studying the peculiarities of nucleation and growth of micropores in steel 12Kh1MF at creep. The nucleation of micropores occurs at the initial stages of creep at stress concentration points, predominantly following the retarded shear mechanism. Micropores grow by the way of diffusion, as well as following the deslocation mechanism. An important role in the process of micropore growth is played by pore opening through grain-boundary slip. Pores of 1 to 5 microns in size can be formed along grain boundaries both due to the growth of individual micropores and by coalescence of micropores at points of their concentration. Transition of the creep to the critical phase coincides with the process of the pores blending together to

  10. Patientstråldosjämförelse vid konventionell urografi och lågdos CT-urografi

    OpenAIRE

    Gohil, Jignasa; Bertell, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Röntgensjuksköterskans huvudområde är radiografi som innefattar bland annat användning av joniserande strålning. CT undersökningar av urinvägssystemen och dess funktion ökar. CT ger en högre stråldos till patienter, jämfört med konventionell röntgen, vilket kan medföra olika sorters skador hos den som bestrålats. ALARAprincipen skall användas för att minska joniserande strålning så mycket som möjligt. Studien är utförd på Höglandsjukhuset i Eksjö där de har implementerat lågdosprotokoll på CT...

  11. Reaction of xenon difluoride with certain rare earth fluorocomplexes of Cs/sub 3/MF/sub 6/ composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Yu.M.; Goryachenkov, S.A.; Martynenko, L.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1983-05-01

    By thermographic method in a specially manufactured nickel cell for thermal analysis the reaction of XeF/sub 2/ with Cs/sub 3/M/sup 3/F/sub 6/ (M=Ce, Pr, Tb, Nd, Dy, Er) is studied. Temperatures of thermal effects (Ts) corresponding to Cs/sub 3/M/sup 4/F/sub 7/ formation regularly increase in the series Ce-Tb-Pr-Dy-Nd (115-382 deg C). Cs/sub 3/M/sup 4/F/sub 7/ compounds are characterized by the methods of chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and oscillating spectroscopy (IR and CS spectroscopy). Experimental data are best of all interpreted on assumption of the presence in Cs/sub 3/M/sup 4/F/sub 7/ crystals statistically oriented MF/sub 7/ fragments of the Dsub(5h) symmetry.

  12. Multifractal property of Chinese stock market in the CSI 800 index based on MF-DFA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huijian; Zhang, Weiguo

    2018-01-01

    CSI 800 index consists of CSI 500 index and CSI 300 index, aiming to reflect the performance of stocks with large, mid and small size of China A share market. In this paper we analyze the multifractal structure of Chinese stock market in the CSI 800 index based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method. We find that the fluctuation of the closing logarithmic returns have multifractal properties, the shape and width of multifractal spectrum are depended on the weighing order q. More interestingly, we observe a bigger market crash in June-August 2015 than the one in 2008 based on the local Hurst exponents. The result provides important information for further study on dynamic mechanism of return fluctuation and whether it would trigger a new financial crisis.

  13. Reliability and durability of the 12Kh1MF steel tubes of electroslag remelting and their welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanskaya, K.A.; Kulikova, L.V.; Mazel', R.E.; Khromchenko, F.A.; Strizhenova, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Results of investigating the positive effect of electrolag remelting (ESR) on the properties of the base metal and welded joint of the 12Kh1MF steel steam pipes with the aim of increasing their durability up to 20,000 hrs, are presented. To estimate the quality and properties of tube billet metal, microstructure, content and nature of nonmetallic inclusions, content of gases, austenite grain size, austenite transformations during continuous cooling, metal ductility, mechanical properties at different temperatures and heat resisting properties, have been investigated. It is established, that the base metal in tubes of electroslag remelting possess higher heat resistance, while welded joints besides, have high deformability and resistance to brittle fracture

  14. Politisk TV-reklam : En jämförelse mellan partiernas valfilmer inför riksdagsvalet 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ålbrink, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Politisk TV-reklam är ett relativt nytt fenomen i Sverige. Mot bakgrund av att partierna i reklamen helt kan styra över meddelandet och att det finns en begränsad mängd svensk forskning på området, är det intressant att undersöka vilka strategier som används. Syftet med uppsatsen är att jämföra partiernas valfilmer inför riksdagsvalet 2014 och ta reda på vilka strategier som används för att övertyga väljarna i bild och text. Vilka är de centrala budskapen och använder partierna liknande eller...

  15. Ecohydrology of an Embanked Lowland UK River Meadow and the Effects of Embankment Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clilverd, H.; Thompson, J.; Sayer, C.; Heppell, K.; Axmacher, J.

    2012-12-01

    Pristine riparian and floodplain ecosystems are in a state of dynamic balance due to the regular floods that continuously reshape river channels and their banks, and transport water, sediment and nutrients onto the floodplain. However, the natural flow regime of many rivers has been altered by channelization and artificial embankments designed to protect agricultural and urban developments from flooding. This has had a lasting impact on the hydrological characteristics of floodplain ecosystems and the biological communities that inhabit them. Floodplain restoration, through embankment removal and the reconfiguration of river channels, is now being increasingly employed to re-establish river-floodplain connections and assist the recovery of lost or declining species. In order to manage a river restoration site for plant biodiversity, it is necessary to understand the physical and nutritional status of the root environment. We conducted fine scale (10 × 10 m) botanical and chemical sampling on a 3 ha embanked grassland meadow in Norfolk (Eastern England) and assessed the spatial pattern of plant communities in relation to soil physicochemical conditions. Continuous measurements of groundwater depth and river stage were collectively used to determine changes in the hydrological regime following embankment-removal. Prior to the restoration the meadow plant community was dominated by Holcus lanatus, Ranunculus repens and Agrostis stolonifera. Species richness was fairly low (mean: 8 spp. per m2), and indices of alpha-diversity suggest low heterogeneity of the plant assemblages (mean values for Shannon's Diversity and 1/Simpson's Diversity = 1.4 and 3.4, respectively). Top soils were moderately fertile, with mean respective Olsen P and plant available potassium concentrations of 9.1 mg P kg-1and 1.6 mg K+g-1. Plant available ammonium and nitrate concentrations were on average 31.7 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 2.8 mg NO3--N kg-1, respectively. River water was enriched in nitrate

  16. Diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of mean winds in the MLT region observed over Kolhapur using MF radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Gaikwad, H. P.; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Gurav, O. B.; Ramanjaneyulu, L.; Chavan, G. A.; Sathishkumar, S.

    2018-04-01

    Medium Frequency (MF) radar located at Kolhapur (16.8°N, 74.2°E) has been upgraded in August 2013. Since then continuous measurements of zonal and meridional winds are obtained covering larger altitudes from the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. Diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of these mean winds is presented in this study using four years (2013-2017) of observations. The percentage occurrence of radar echoes show maximum between 80 and 105 km. The mean meridional wind shows Annual Oscillation (AO) between 80 and 90 km altitudes with pole-ward motion during December solstice and equatorial motion during June solstice. Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) with weaker amplitudes are also observed between 90 and 104 km. Zonal winds show semi-annual oscillation (SAO) with westward winds during equinoxes and eastward winds during solstices between 80 and 90 km. AO with eastward winds during December solstice and westward wind in the June solstice is also observed in the mean zonal wind between 100 and 110 km. These results match well with that reported from other latitudes within Indian region between 80 and 90 km. However, above 90 km the results presented here provide true mean background winds for the first time over Indian low latitude region as the present station is away from equatorial electro-jet and are not contaminated by ionospheric processes. Further, the results presented earlier with an old version of this radar are found contaminated due to unknown reasons and are corrected in the present work. This upgraded MF radar together with other MLT radars in the Indian region forms unique network to investigate the vertical and lateral coupling.

  17. Evaluation of the MF/UF Performance for the Reuse of Sand Filter Backwash Water from Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Shirzadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the application of micro-filtration and ultra-filtration membrane systems in order to improve the physical and microbial quality and the reuse of backwash water from the sand filter units in water treatment plants. The backwash water from filters makes up for 3 to 5 percent of the total water treated, which is disposed in most WTPs. However, the treatment and reuse of the backwash water is more admissible from technical and economic viewpoints, especially in view of the present water scarcity. For the purposes of this study, use was made of membrane modules of micro- and ultra-filters on a pilot scale. The micro-filter employed consisted of a polypropylene membrane module with a porosity of 1 micron in size and a fiberglass module with a porosity of 5 microns. The ultra-filter was made of PVC hollow fiber with a molecular weight of 100,000 Dalton. In order to feed the two pilots, backwash water from a sand filter was collected from one of the WTPs in Tehran. After samples were taken from the backwash water, the physical and microbial removal efficiency was periodically evaluated based on the standard method and the micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, and combined MF/UF processes were compared with respect to their performance. The results indicate that the combined MF/UF process is able to decrease turbidity, MPN, COD, TSS, and Fe with efficiency values of 99.9, 100, 61.5, 99.9 and 98.8 percent, respectively. Overall, the findings confirmed the technical capabilities of this method for the recovery and reuse of the effluent produced in the backwashing mechanism of sand filters in WTPs.

  18. IFRS: Kokbok eller principer : -en studie om utvecklingen av jämförbarhet mellan företags koncernredovisning i enlighet med IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffers, Linda; Sjökvist, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Sedan år 2005 är noterade företag skyldiga att följa internationella redovisningsstandarder, IFRS. IFRS är ett principbaserat system vilket medför att standarderna tillämpas olika. Därmed försvåras jämförbarheten mellan företags koncernredovisning. Jämförbarhet är en av de kvalitativa egenskaper som redovisningen bör uppfylla enligt IASB, organisationen som tar fram IFRS. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att utreda vilka förväntningar redovisningsexperter har på utvecklingen av jämförbarheten ...

  19. The Role of mf-ERG in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Electrophysiological Features of AMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, Marilita M; Nitoda, Eirini

    2018-01-01

    Age-related macular cegeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual dysfunction worldwide, affecting 9-25% of individuals between 65 and 75 years old. We have reviewed the published articles investigating the role of multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG) in the diagnosis and treatment of AMD. Visual evoked potentials have revealed decreased amplitudes and higher latencies in patients with AMD, while the degeneration of photoreceptors and abnormalities of retinal pigment epithelium can be identified by electro-oculogram recordings. Moreover, ERG can detect the functional abnormalities observed in AMD and evaluate each therapeutic approach. The record of local electrophysiological responses coming from different retinal areas can be accurately performed by mfERG. The accuracy of mfERG in detecting the degeneration of photoreceptors, as well the disturbances of macular function, could be useful both in the early diagnosis of AMD and the assessment of treatment efficacy.

  20. Electrical properties and structure of glasses in the Ba(PO3)2-MF2 systems, where M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, I.A.; Tarlakov, Yu.P.; Murin, I.V.; Pronkin, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the methods of conductometry and IR spectroscopy the concentrational dependences of electric conductivity are studied, the nature of current carriers is determined, the concentrational dependence of transfer numbers is ascertained and structural changes in glasses of the system Ba(PO 3 ) 2 -MF 2 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), depending on MF 2 content, are considered. It is shown that F - ions take part in electric current transfer. Influence of crystallochemical nature of alkaline-earth cations on physicochemical properties and structure of the glasses studied is analyzed [ru

  1. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 from Medicago falcata promotes cold tolerance and growth under NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-06-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), which belong to aquaporins (AQPs) superfamily, are subdivided into two groups, PIP1 and PIP2, based on sequence similarity. Several PIP2s function as water channels, while PIP1s have low or no water channel activity, but have a role in water permeability through interacting with PIP2. A cold responsive PIP2 named as MfPIP2-7 was isolated from Medicago falcata (hereafter falcata), a forage legume with great cold tolerance, and transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfPIP2-7 were analyzed in tolerance to multiple stresses including freezing, chilling, and nitrate reduction in this study. MfPIP2-7 transcript was induced by 4 to 12 h of cold treatment and 2 h of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Pretreatment with inhibitor of ABA synthesis blocked the cold induced MfPIP2-7 transcript, indicating that ABA was involved in cold induced transcription of MfPIP2-7 in falcata. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 resulted in enhanced tolerance to freezing, chilling and NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants as compared with the wild type. Moreover, MfPIP2-7 was demonstrated to facilitate H2O2 diffusion in yeast. Higher transcript levels of several stress responsive genes, such as NtERD10B, NtERD10C, NtDREB1, and 2, and nitrate reductase (NR) encoding genes (NtNIA1, and NtNIA2) were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type with dependence upon H2O2. In addition, NR activity was increased in transgenic plants, which led to alterations in free amino acid components and concentrations. The results suggest that MfPIP2-7 plays an important role in plant tolerance to freezing, chilling, and NO3 (-) deficiency by promoted H2O2 diffusion that in turn up-regulates expression of NIAs and multiple stress responsive genes.

  2. Plant species distribution in relation to water-table depth and soil redox potential in montane riparian meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; John E. Baham

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of riparian plant species is largely driven by hydrologic and soil variables, and riparian plant communities frequently occur in relatively distinct zones along streamside elevational and soil textural gradients. In two montane meadows in northeast Oregon, USA, we examined plant species distribution in three riparian plant communities¡ªdefined as wet,...

  3. Alluvial Mountain Meadow Source-Sink Dynamics: Land-Cover Effects on Water and Fluvial Carbon Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, T.; Covino, T. P.; Wohl, E.; Rhoades, C.; Fegel, T.; Clow, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial networks of historically glaciated mountain landscapes alternate between confined and unconfined valley segments. In low-gradient unconfined reaches, river-connected wet meadows commonly establish, and have been recognized as important locations of long-term water, carbon, and nutrient storage. Among connected meadow floodplains, sink-source behavior shifts as a function of flow state; storing water at high flows (snowmelt) and contributing toward higher late-season baseflows. Despite these benefits, historical and contemporary land-use practices often result in the simplification of wet meadow systems, leading to reduced river-floodplain connectivity, lower water-tables and reductions in hydrologic buffering capacity. In this study, we are exploring hydrologic-carbon relationships across a gradient of valley confinement and river-floodplain connectivity (connected, n=3; disconnected, n=4) within the Colorado Rockies. Our approach includes hydrologic analysis, fluorometric assays, water chemistry, instream metabolic measures, and land-cover assessment to examine patterns between land-form, carbon quantity and quality, and stream ecosystem productivity. Between different meadow types, preliminary results suggest differences between instream productivity, carbon qualities, and hydrologic-carbon sink-source dynamics across the season. These data and analyses will provide insight into water, carbon and nutrient flux dynamics as a function of land-cover in mountain headwaters.

  4. Can differences in soil community composition after peat meadow restoration lead to different decomposition and mineralization rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Didden, W.A.M.; Kuenen, F.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Verhoef, H.A.; Aerts, R.

    2009-01-01

    Reducing decomposition and mineralization of organic matter by increasing groundwater levels is a common approach to reduce plant nutrient availability in many peat meadow restoration projects. The soil community is the main driver of these processes, but how community composition is affected by

  5. Contributions of gopher mound and casting disturbances to plant community structure in a Cascade Range meadow complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Case; C.B. Halpern; S.A. Levin

    2013-01-01

    Pocket gophers (Geomyidae) are major agents of disturbance in North American grasslands. Gopher mounds bury existing plants and influence community structure through various mechanisms. However, in mountain meadows that experience winter snowpack, gophers also create winter castings, smaller tube-shaped deposits, previously ignored in studies of plant–gopher...

  6. Altered precipitation patterns and simulated nitrogen deposition effects on phenology of common plant species in a Tibetan Plateau alpine meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of five seasonal precipitation distribution patterns and two levels of N deposition (ambient and doubled) on phenological traits of six dominant plant species were studied in an alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau for two consecutive years. Seasonal precipitation patterns i...

  7. Mediating water temperature increases due to livestock and global change in high elevation meadow streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastien Nussle; Kathleen R. Matthews; Stephanie M. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout...

  8. Climatic, landform, microtopographic, and overstory canopy controls of tree invasion in a subalpine meadow landscape, Oregon Cascades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold S.J. Zald; Thomas A. Spies; Manuela Huso; Demetrios. Gatziolis

    2012-01-01

    Tree invasions have been documented throughout Northern Hemisphere high elevation meadows, as well as globally in many grass and forb-dominated ecosystems. Tree invasions are often associated with large-scale changes in climate or disturbance regimes, but are fundamentally driven by regeneration processes influenced by interactions between climatic, topographic, and...

  9. Reparation for a Violent Boyhood: Pedagogies of Mourning in Shane Meadow's "This Is England"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    This article turns to Shane Meadow's film "This is England" (2006) to describe the impact that losing a parent can have on a child's development. In doing so it also, more broadly, makes a case for creative fiction as a resource for teaching about children's mourning. The film's protagonist is a boy named Shaun Fields whose father has…

  10. Microclimate changes in a spruce stand and meadow ecosystem during a solar eclipse in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezval, O.; Pavelka, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2017), s. 67-72 ISSN 0043-1656 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:86652079 Keywords : Species Index: Picea * meadow ecosystem * Czech Republic * microclima Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.961, year: 2016

  11. The effects of mountain meadows management on soil fauna communities (on example of earthworms and oribatid mites)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2001), s. 87-96 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * oribatid mites * mountain meadows Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Diversity of Calthion wet meadows in the western part of flysch Carpathians: regional classification based on national formal definitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Hájek, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 85-116 ISSN 1210-0420 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : meadows * classification * ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. AN INTEGRATED, SCIENCE-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE GREAT BASIN OF CENTRAL NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian corridor and meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision is a major ...

  14. Phytomining Perspectives in Rehabilitation of Mining and Industrial Areas of South Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    The ability of midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poir)), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), red elder (Sambucus racemosa), cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens), crested wheat grass (Agropyron cristatum), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and meadow grass (Poa pratensis) for phytoextraction of heavy metals from technogenic soil is proved in the article. The possibility of effective phytoextraction with the use of hawthorn and elder is shown. Maximum accumulation of zinc takes place in the surface mass of couch grass and meadow fescue. In regard to the conditions of South Ural, planting of elder and hawthorn with seeding of couch grass and meadow fescue is recommended for phytomining purposes.

  15. A modified MOD16 algorithm to estimate evapotranspiration over alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.; Ding, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for managing water resources in areas with extreme climates affected by climate change, such as the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The MOD16 ET product has also been validated and applied in many countries with various climates, however, its performance varies under different climates and regions. Several have studied ET based on satellite-based models on the TP. However, only a few studies on the performance of MOD16 in the TP with heterogeneous land cover have been reported. This study proposes an improved algorithm for estimating ET based on a proposed modified MOD16 method over alpine meadow on the TP in China. Wind speed and vegetation height were integrated to estimate aerodynamic resistance, while the temperature and moisture constraint for stomatal conductance were revised based on the technique proposed by Fisher et al. (2008). Moreover, Fisher's method for soil evaporation was introduced to decrease the uncertainty of soil evaporation estimation. Five representative alpine meadow sites on the TP were selected to investigate the performance of the modified algorithm. Comparisons between ET observed using Eddy Covariance (EC) and estimated using both the original method and modified method suggest that the modified algorithm had better performance than the original MOD16 method. This result was achieved considering that the coefficient of determination (R2) increased from 0.28 to 0.70, and the root mean square error (RMSE) decreased from 1.31 to 0.77 mm d-1. The modified algorithm also outperformed on precipitation days compared to non-precipitation days at Suli and Hulugou sites, while it performed well for both non-precipitation and precipitation days at Tanggula site. Comparisons of the 8-day ET estimation using the MOD16 product, original MOD16 method, and modified MOD16 method with observed ET suggest that MOD16 product underestimated ET over the alpine meadow of the TP during the growing season

  16. Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyke, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.— Morphologically similar fescues occur across the study area (Mediterranean area of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula at low and middle elevations. With the exception of the high mountain or alpine species, these populations are reviewed here, with particular attention being paid to the Festuca inops (F. gracilior group, as well as to some other species, in particular F. lemanii, which are not easily understood and can complicate identification, especially where the taxa occur sympatrically. The application of the binomen F. inops De Not. to some of the Iberian populations constituting the F. inops group is discussed. New records for F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis and F. heteroidea amplify the distribution range of these little-known taxa within the Iberian Peninsula.Diferentes especies de Festuca morfológicamente afines crecen en gran parte del territorio objeto de esta reseña (tierras mediterráneas del nordeste de la Península Ibérica, a baja y mediana altitud. Excluyendo las especies de alta montaña, estas poblaciones se han estudiado aquí haciendo hincapié en Festuca grupo inops (F. gracilior, y se han tratado otras especies (F. lemanii en especial que a veces complican la identificación de los miembros de dicho grupo, sobre todo cuando solapan sus distribuciones. Se comenta la aplicación del binomen F. inops De Not. a algunas poblaciones ibéricas del grupo F. inops. Nuevas citas de F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis y F. heteroidea amplían la distribución de estos taxones dentro de la Península Ibérica.

  17. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41 was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.

  18. Differential acclimation of enzymatic antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II photochemistry in tall fescue under drought and heat and the combined stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyue eBi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718 with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature and a combination of both stresses.

  19. Effect of environmental factors (wave exposure and depth) and anthropogenic pressure in the C sink capacity of Posidonia oceanica meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Iné s; Marbà , Nú ria; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass are among the most important natural carbon sinks on Earth with Posidonia oceanica (Mediterranean Sea) considered as the most relevant species. Yet, the number of direct measurements of organic carbon burial rates in P. oceanica is still scarce and the effect of local environmental factors remains largely unexplored. In addition, P. oceanica meadows are declining due to the increase in anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas during the last century. The aim of this study is to assess the recent carbon sink capacity of P. oceanica and particularly the effect of human pressure and two environmental factors, water depth and exposure to wave energy (based on a fetch index), on the carbon burial rate since 1900. We conducted an extensive survey of sediment cores in meadows distributed across a gradient of depth, fetch, and human pressure around The Balearic Islands. Sediment and carbon accumulation rates were obtained from 210Pb concentrations profiles. Top-30 centimeters carbon stocks (6.1 ± 1.4 kg C m−2) and burial rates (26 ± 6 g C m−2 yr1) varied up to fivefold across meadows. No significant effect of water depth in carbon burial rates was observed. Although fetch was significantly correlated with sediment mean grain size, confirming the effect of wave exposure in the patterns of sedimentation, fetch alone could not explain the differences in carbon burial rates among the meadows examined. Human pressure affected carbon burial rates, leading to increased rates since the onset of the rise in anthropogenic pressure, particularly so in sheltered meadows supporting high human pressure.

  20. Effect of environmental factors (wave exposure and depth) and anthropogenic pressure in the C sink capacity of Posidonia oceanica meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-20

    Seagrass are among the most important natural carbon sinks on Earth with Posidonia oceanica (Mediterranean Sea) considered as the most relevant species. Yet, the number of direct measurements of organic carbon burial rates in P. oceanica is still scarce and the effect of local environmental factors remains largely unexplored. In addition, P. oceanica meadows are declining due to the increase in anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas during the last century. The aim of this study is to assess the recent carbon sink capacity of P. oceanica and particularly the effect of human pressure and two environmental factors, water depth and exposure to wave energy (based on a fetch index), on the carbon burial rate since 1900. We conducted an extensive survey of sediment cores in meadows distributed across a gradient of depth, fetch, and human pressure around The Balearic Islands. Sediment and carbon accumulation rates were obtained from 210Pb concentrations profiles. Top-30 centimeters carbon stocks (6.1 ± 1.4 kg C m−2) and burial rates (26 ± 6 g C m−2 yr1) varied up to fivefold across meadows. No significant effect of water depth in carbon burial rates was observed. Although fetch was significantly correlated with sediment mean grain size, confirming the effect of wave exposure in the patterns of sedimentation, fetch alone could not explain the differences in carbon burial rates among the meadows examined. Human pressure affected carbon burial rates, leading to increased rates since the onset of the rise in anthropogenic pressure, particularly so in sheltered meadows supporting high human pressure.

  1. Effects of Reduced Summer Precipitation on Productivity and Forage Quality of Floodplain Meadows at the Elbe and the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, Kristin; Donath, Tobias W.; Zelle, Bianka; Eckstein, R. Lutz; Mosner, Eva; Otte, Annette; Jensen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background Floodplain meadows along rivers are semi-natural habitats and depend on regular land use. When used non-intensively, they offer suitable habitats for many plant species including rare ones. Floodplains are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems with both periods of flooding and of dry conditions. In German floodplains, dry periods may increase due to reduced summer precipitation as projected by climate change scenarios. Against this background, the question arises, how the forage quantity and quality of these meadows might change in future. Methods We report results of two field trials that investigated effects of experimentally reduced summer precipitation on hay quantity and quality of floodplain meadows at the Rhine River (2011-2012) and at two Elbe tributaries (2009-2011). We measured annual yield, the amount of hay biomass, and contents of crude protein, crude fibre, energy, fructan, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Results The annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. This was due to reduced productivity in the second cut hay at the Rhine River in which, interestingly, the contents of nitrogen and crude protein increased. The first cut at the Rhine River was unaffected by the treatments. At the Elbe tributaries, the annual yield and the hay quantity and quality of both cuts were only marginally affected by the treatments. Conclusion We conclude that the yield of floodplain meadows may become less reliable in future since the annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. However, the first and agriculturally more important cut was almost unaffected by the precipitation reduction, which is probably due to sufficient soil moisture from winter/spring. As long as future water levels of the rivers will not decrease during spring, at least the use of the hay from the first cut of floodplain meadows appears reliable under climate change. PMID:25950730

  2. Global warming and soil microclimate: results from a meadow-warming experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harte, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA. (United States); Torn, M. S.; Chang, F. R.; Feifarek, B.; Kinzig, A. P.; Shaw, R.; Shen, K.

    1995-02-15

    We used overhead infrared radiators to add a constant increment of â15 W/m², over 2 yr, to the downward heat flux on five 30-m² montane meadow plots in Gunnison County, Colorado, USA. Heating advanced snowmelt by â1 wk, increased summer soil temperatures by up to 3°C, and reduced summer soil moisture levels by up to 25% compared to control plots. Soil microclimate response to heating varied with season, time of day, weather conditions, and location along the microclimate and vegetation gradient within each plot, with the largest temperature increase observed in daytime and in the drier, more sparsely vegetated zone of each plot. Day-to-day variation in the daily-averaged temperature response to heating in the drier zone was negatively correlated with that in the wetter zone. Our experimental manipulation provides a novel and effective method for investigating feedback processes linking climate, soil, and vegetation. (author)

  3. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  4. Sulfur cycling and sulfide intrusion in mixed Southeast Asian tropical seagrass meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Pedersen, Ole; Ikejima, Kou

    2006-01-01

    Seagrass distribution and sediment biogeochemical conditions were measured around Libong Island in the Andaman Sea, Thailand. Seagrass diversity was moderate for a tropical site (four species found: Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii......), with the diminutive species H. ovalis particularly abundant and perhaps serving as important food for dugongs present in the area. Although the sediment organic matter content was low in the seagrass meadows, the sulfate reduction rates were high (48-138 mmol m-2 d-1). A significant positive relationship between...... belowground biomass and sulfate reduction rates across the seagrass species examined indicates that stimulation of microbial activity in the rhizosphere sediments is controlled by the biomass of roots and rhizomes, rather than by specific seagrass characteristics (e.g., morphology, plant activity). The low...

  5. Threatened plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, central-southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-04-01

    This report is a companion one to Endangered Plant Species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada (COO-2307-11) and deals with the threatened plant species of the same area. The species are those cited in the Federal Register, July 1, 1975, and include certain ones listed as occurring only in California or Arizona, but which occur also in central-southern Nevada. As with the earlier report, the purpose of this one is to record in detail the location of the past plant collections which constitute the sole or principal basis for defining the species' distributions and frequency of occurrence in southern Nye County, Nevada, and to recommend the area of the critical habitat where this is appropriate. Many of the species occur also in southern California, and for these the central-southern Nevada records are presented for consideration of the overall status of the species throughout its range.

  6. Quantifying and modelling the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrass meadows--a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macreadie, P I; Baird, M E; Trevathan-Tackett, S M; Larkum, A W D; Ralph, P J

    2014-06-30

    Seagrasses are among the planet's most effective natural ecosystems for sequestering (capturing and storing) carbon (C); but if degraded, they could leak stored C into the atmosphere and accelerate global warming. Quantifying and modelling the C sequestration capacity is therefore critical for successfully managing seagrass ecosystems to maintain their substantial abatement potential. At present, there is no mechanism to support carbon financing linked to seagrass. For seagrasses to be recognised by the IPCC and the voluntary C market, standard stock assessment methodologies and inventories of seagrass C stocks are required. Developing accurate C budgets for seagrass meadows is indeed complex; we discuss these complexities, and, in addition, we review techniques and methodologies that will aid development of C budgets. We also consider a simple process-based data assimilation model for predicting how seagrasses will respond to future change, accompanied by a practical list of research priorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High performance a-IGZO thin-film transistors with mf-PVD SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Bhoolokam, A.; Chasin, A.; Rockele, M.; Myny, K.; Maas, J.; Fritz, T.; Trube, J.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report on high-performance bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC) amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer (ESL) deposited by medium frequency physical vapor deposition (mf-PVD). The TFTs show field-effect mobility (μFE) of

  8. Functional and Morphological Evaluation of Traumatized Eyes With Berlin's Edema Affecting the Macula Using mfERG, Microperimetry, and SD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Joseph Daniel; Tosi, Joaquin; Glybina, Inna; Tewari, Asheesh; Abrams, Gary W

    2017-02-01

    To describe the structural and functional changes that occur in traumatic Berlin's edema involving the macula through assessment with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), microperimetry, fundus photography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Retrospective case series of five eyes from four patients with macular traumatic Berlin's edema. Patients underwent baseline mfERG (three eyes), MP1 microperimetry (three eyes), fundus photography (five eyes), and SD-OCT (five eyes). All eyes with Berlin's edema showed abnormal findings on baseline SD-OCT, including disruption and fragmentation of the inner segment/ outer segment layer. In two patients with unilateral blunt ocular trauma who underwent mfERG, there was complete loss of the foveal peak in affected eyes. All three eyes that underwent microperimetry showed depressed retinal sensitivity in the area of Berlin's edema. SD-OCT, microperimetry, and mfERG can be used to help diagnose, stratify traumatic severity, and follow structural and functional progression over time in patients with Berlin's edema. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:114-121.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. [Relation between species distribution of plant community and soil factors under grazing in alpine meadow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yu Jie; Yang, Si Wei; Wang, Gui Zhen; Liu, Li; Du, Guo Zhen; Hua, Li Min

    2017-12-01

    The research selected the alpine meadow located in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to study the changes of vegetation community and soil properties under different grazing intensities, as well as the quantitative relation between the distribution patterns of plant species and the physical and chemical properties of soil. The results showed that the grazing caused the differentiation of the initial vegetation community with the dominant plants, Elymus nutans and Stipa grandis. In the plots with high and low grazing intensities, the dominant plants had changed to Kobresia humilis and Melissitus ruthenica, and E. nutans and Poa crymophila, respectively. With the increase of grazing intensity, the plant richness, importance value and biomass were significantly decreased. The sequence of plant species importance value in each plot against grazing intensity could be fitted by a logarithmic model. The number of required plant species was reduced while the importance value of the remaining plant species accounted for 50% of the importance value in the whole vegetation community. The available P, available K, soil compaction, soil water content, stable infiltration rate and large aggregate index were significantly changed with grazing intensity, however, the changes were different. The CCA ordination showed that the soil compaction was the key factor affecting the distribution pattern of the plant species under grazing. The variance decomposition indicated that the soil factors together explained 30.5% of the distribution of the plant species, in particular the soil physical properties alone explained 22.8% of the distribution of the plant species, which had the highest rate of contribution to the plant species distribution. The soil physical properties affected the distribution pattern of plant species on grazed alpine meadow.

  10. Potential environmental effects of pack stock on meadow ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Moore, Peggy E.; Berlow, Eric L.; Robert Blank,; Roche, Jim; Chase, Jennifer T.; Sylvia Haultain,

    2014-01-01

    Pack and saddle stock, including, but not limited to domesticated horses, mules, and burros, are used to support commercial, private and administrative activities in the Sierra Nevada. The use of pack stock has become a contentious and litigious issue for land management agencies in the region inter alia due to concerns over effects on the environment. The potential environmental effects of pack stock on Sierra Nevada meadow ecosystems are reviewed and it is concluded that the use of pack stock has the potential to influence the following: (1) water nutrient dynamics, sedimentation, temperature, and microbial pathogen content; (2) soil chemistry, nutrient cycling, soil compaction and hydrology; (3) plant individuals, populations and community dynamics, non-native invasive species, and encroachment of woody species; and (4) wildlife individuals, populations and communities. It is considered from currently available information that management objectives of pack stock should include the following: minimise bare ground, maximise plant cover, maintain species composition of native plants, minimise trampling, especially on wet soils and stream banks, and minimise direct urination and defecation by pack stock into water. However, incomplete documentation of patterns of pack stock use and limited past research limits current understanding of the effects of pack stock, especially their effects on water, soils and wildlife. To improve management of pack stock in this region, research is needed on linking measurable monitoring variables (e.g. plant cover) with environmental relevancy (e.g. soil erosion processes, wildlife habitat use), and identifying specific environmental thresholds of degradation along gradients of pack stock use in Sierra Nevada meadows.

  11. Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

    2003-07-01

    The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

  12. Sensitivity of permanent meadows areas. Preliminary report; Sensibilite des zones de prairies permanentes. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourcelot, L

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work proposed in the framework of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project on the permanent meadows areas is to compare the sensitivity of these surfaces and cheese maker sector which are associated with them, and to identify the processes which determine this sensitivity. The realization of this objective will lean on certain data of activities acquired recently by the I.R.S.N. (compartments: soils, herb, milk and cheese), as well as on new measures, on three sites: Saint-Laurent-de-Geris ( West), Beaune-Le-Froid ( center), and Massif of Jura (East). Two scales of transfers observation and sensitivity are retained. In a first time, the sensitivity of meadows areas will studied at the regional scale, from data acquired in the Massif du Jura ( between 300 and 1200 metres up). In a second time, a study will allow to compare the sensitivity of three areas retained (West, Center, East) at the national scale. The expertise will be focused on the factors of sensitivity of the transfer soil-herb and the factors of sensitivity bound to the cheese makers sectors. The data of the already available zones of study create strong variabilities of the rates of {sup 137}Cs transfer in the interfaces soil / herb and herb / milk, letting suppose that the nature of soils, the quantity and the quality of food ingested by the cattle constitutes dominating factors of sensitivity. Besides, the size of the basin of milk collection, extremely variable from a site of study in the other one, has to influence the contamination of cheeses and as such, it establishes an important factor of sensitivity of the cheese makers sector. (N.C.)

  13. Climate change and Mediterranean seagrass meadows: a synopsis for environmental managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PERGENT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This synopsis focuses on the effects of climate change on Mediterranean seagrasses, and associated communities, and on the contribution of the main species, Posidonia oceanica, to the mitigation of climate change effects through its role of sequestering carbon dioxide. Whilst the regression of seagrass meadows is well documented, generally linked to anthropogenic pressures, global warming could be a cause of new significant regressions, notably linked to the introduction of exotic species, the rise of Sea-Surface Temperature (SST, and relative sea level. Seagrass communities could also be affected by climate change through the replacement of seagrass species having high structural complexity by species of lower complexity and even by opportunistic introduced species. Although it is currently very difficult to predict the consequences of these alterations and their cascade effects, two main conflicting trends in the functioning of seagrass ecosystems that could occur are acceleration of the herbivore pathway or of the detritivore pathway. The mean net primary production of the dominant species, Posidonia oceanica, is relatively high and can be estimated to range between 92.5 to 144.7 g C m-2 a-1. Around 27% of the total carbon fixed by this species enters the sedimentary pathway leading to formation, over millennia, of highly organic deposits rich in refractory carbon. At the Mediterranean scale, the sequestration rate might reach 1.09 Tg C a-1. The amount of this stored carbon is estimated to range from 71 to 273 kg C m-2, which when considered at the Mediterranean scale would represent 11 to 42% of the CO2 emissions produced by Mediterranean countries since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The greatest value of the P. oceanica ecosystem, in the context of mitigation of global climate change, is linked to this vast long-term carbon stock accumulated over the millennia, and therefore, efforts should be focused on preserving the

  14. Biodegradable plastic bags on the seafloor: A future threat for seagrass meadows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Menicagli, Virginia; Vallerini, Flavia; Lardicci, Claudio

    2017-12-15

    Marine plastic litter is a global concern. Carrier bags manufactured from non-biodegradable polymers constitute a large component of this litter. Because of their adverse impact on marine life, non-biodegradable bags have recently been replaced by biodegradable ones. However, growing evidence shows that these latter are not readily degradable in marine sediments and can alter benthic assemblages. The potential impact of biodegradable bags on seagrasses inhabiting sandy bottoms, which are the most widespread and productive ecosystems of the coastal zones, has been ignored. Mesocosm experiments were conducted to assess the effect of a commercialized biodegradable bag on a common seagrass species of the Mediterranean, Cymodocea nodosa, both at the level of individual plant (clonal growth) and of plant community (plant-plant relationships), under three culture regimes (plant alone, in combination with a neighbour of the same species or of the co-existing seagrass Zostera noltei) simulating different natural conditions (bare substrate, monospecific meadows or mixed meadows). The bag behaviour in marine sediment and sediment physical/chemical variables were also examined. After six months of sediment exposure, the bag retained considerable mass (85% initial weight) and reduced sediment pore-water oxygen concentration and pH. In the presence of bag, C. nodosa root spread and vegetative recruitment increased compared to controls, both intra- and interspecific interactions shifted from neutral to competitive, and the growth form changed from guerrilla (loosely arranged group of widely spaced ramets) to phalanx form (compact structure of closed spaced ramets) but only with Z. noltei. These findings suggest that biodegradable bags altering sediment geochemistry could promote the spatial segregation of seagrass clones and influence species coexistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling responses of the meadow steppe dominated by Leymus chinensis to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuhui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yonghe

    2007-01-01

    Grassland is one of the most widespread vegetation types worldwide and plays a significant role in regional climate and global carbon cycling. Understanding the sensitivity of Chinese grassland ecosystems to climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 and the effect of these changes on the grassland ecosystems is a key issue in global carbon cycling. China encompasses vast grassland areas of 354 million ha of 17 major grassland types, according to a national grassland survey. In this study, a process-based terrestrial model the CENTURY model was used to simulate potential changes in net primary productivity (NPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC) of the Leymus chinensis meadow steppe (LCMS) under different scenarios of climatic change and elevated atmospheric CO2. The LCMS sensitivities, its potential responses to climate change, and the change in capacity of carbon stock and sequestration in the future are evaluated. The results showed that the LCMS NPP and SOC are sensitive to climatic change and elevated CO2. In the next 100 years, with doubled CO2 concentration, if temperature increases from 2.7-3.9C and precipitation increases by 10% NPP and SOC will increase by 7-21% and 5-6% respectively. However, if temperature increases by 7.5-7.8C and precipitation increases by only 10% NPP and SOC would decrease by 24% and 8% respectively. Therefore, changes in the NPP and SOC of the meadow steppe are attributed mainly to the amount of temperature and precipitation change and the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the future

  16. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) movement and demography at Dilman Meadow: Implications for future monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2005, we studied the demography and seasonal movement of Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) translocated into created ponds in Dilman Meadow in central Oregon. Our objectives were to inform future monitoring and management at the site, and to elucidate poorly known aspects of the species’ population ecology. Movement rates revealed complementary use of sites seasonally, with one small spring being preferred during winter that was rarely used during the rest of the year. Growth rates were significantly higher in ponds that were not used for breeding, and larger size resulted in significantly higher survival. When variation in survival by size was accounted for there was little variation among ponds in survival. Seasonal estimates of survival were lowest for males during the breeding/post-breeding redistribution period, suggesting a high cost of breeding for males. Overwintering survival for both genders was relatively high. Our study supports others in suggesting Oregon spotted frogs are specific in their overwintering habitat requirements, and that predator-free springs may be of particular value. We suggest that any future monitoring include measures of the rate of pond succession. Demographic monitoring should include metrics of both frog reproduction and survival: counts of egg masses at all ponds during spring, and capture-recapture study of survival in mid and late summer when capture rates are highest. Additional study of early life stages would be particularly useful to broaden our understanding of the species’ ecology. Specifically, adding intensive capture and marking effort after larval transformation in fall would enable a full understanding of the annual life cycle. Complete study of the annual life cycle is needed to isolate the life stages and mechanisms through which Oregon spotted frogs are affected by stressors such as nonnative predators. Dilman Meadow, which lacks many hypothesized stressors, is an important reference for

  17. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Matsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model.

  18. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF) Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuho; Matsumoto, Kanji

    2013-01-01

    Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model. PMID:24958621

  19. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran

    2015-05-06

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  20. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran; Vuong, Francois; Hu, Jingyi; Li, Sheng; Kemperman, Antoine J.B.; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Cornelissen, Emile R.; Heijman, Sebastiaan G.J.; Rietveld, Luuk C.

    2015-01-01

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  1. Characterization, production, and purification of leucocin H, a two-peptide bacteriocin from Leuconostoc MF215B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, H; Katla, T; Holck, A; Sletten, K; Axelsson, L; Holo, H

    1999-07-01

    Leuconostoc MF215B was found to produce a two-peptide bacteriocin referred to as leucocin H. The two peptides were termed leucocin Halpha and leucocin Hbeta. When acting together, they inhibit, among others, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium perfringens. Production of leucocin H in growth medium takes place at temperatures down to 6 degrees C and at pH below 7. The highest activity of leucocin H in growth medium was demonstrated in the late exponential growth phase. The bacteriocin was purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, ion-exchange (SP Sepharose) and reverse phase chromatography. Upon purification, specific activity increased 10(5)-fold, and the final specific activity was 2 x 10(7) BU/OD280. Amino acid composition analyses of leucocin Halpha and leucocin Hbeta indicated that both peptides consisted of around 40 amino acid residues. Their N-termini were blocked for Edman degradation, and the methionin residues of leucocin Hbeta did not respond to Cyanogen Bromide (CNBr) cleavage. Absorbance at 280 nm indicated the presence of tryptophan residues and tryptophan-fracturing opened for partial sequencing by Edman degradation. From leucocin Halpha, the sequence of 20 amino acids was obtained; from leucocin Hbeta the sequence of 28 amino acid residues was obtained. No sequence homology to other known bacteriocins could be demonstrated. It also appeared that the two peptides themselves shared little or no sequence homology. The presence of soy oil did not affect the activity of leucocin H in agar.

  2. Dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety: A new perspective based on MF-DCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Sun, Xinxin; Ge, Jintian

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety during the period from January 5, 1998 to April 18, 2016. A quantitative technique of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) is used to explore the multifractal features of the cross-correlations between USD/JPY, AUD/JPY exchange rates and the market anxiety gauge VIX. The investigation shows that the causal relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are bidirectional in general, and the cross-correlations between the two sets of time series are multifractal. Strong evidence suggests that the cross-correlation exponents tend to exhibit different volatility patterns in response to diverse external shocks such as financial distress and widening in interest rate spread, suggesting that the cross-correlated behavior between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are susceptible to economic uncertainties and risks. In addition, the performances of two market anxiety gauges, the VIX and the TED spread, are compared and the sources of multifractality are also traced. Thus, this paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the unique driving forces of the Yen exchange rate fluctuations in the international foreign exchange market.

  3. A Simulation Model on the Competition for Light of Meadow-forming and Canopy-forming Aquatic Macrophytes at High and Low Nutrient Availability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly

    2004-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed that focuses on the ability of two competing submersed macrophytes, meadow-forming and canopy-forming, to maintain their biomass under different environmental conditions...

  4. HYDROGEOMORPHIC SETTING, CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESPONSE TO STREAM INCISION OF MONTANA RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN--IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wet meadow complexes in the mountains of the central Great Basin are scarce, ecologically important systems that are threatened by stream incision. An interdisciplinary group has investigated 1) the origin, characteristics, and controls on the evolution of these riparian...

  5. Legal protection is not enough: Posidonia oceanica meadows in marine protected areas are not healthier than those in unprotected areas of the northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Morri, Carla; Parravicini, Valeriano; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2009-04-01

    Using the Conservation Index, which measures the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live Posidonia oceanica, we assessed the health of 15 P. oceanica meadows at a regional scale along the coast of Liguria (NW Mediterranean). These areas were characterized by different degrees of anthropization, from highly urbanized sites to marine protected areas. Two different scenarios were identified according to depth: in shallow zones, the health of P. oceanica meadows was related to the degree of anthropization along the coastline. In contrast, in deep zones, most meadows exhibited poor health, independent of both the degree of disturbance and the legal measures protecting the area. Working synergistically with the regional impact of increased water turbidity, local impacts from the coast were recognized as the main causes of the severe regression of most Ligurian P. oceanica meadows. We conclude that marine protected areas alone are not sufficient to guarantee the protection of P. oceanica meadows. We emphasize the need for a management network involving the Sites of Community Interest (SCIs) containing P. oceanica meadows.

  6. Cumulative impacts from multiple human activities on seagrass meadows in eastern Mediterranean waters: the case of Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Maren Myrto; Pantazi, Maria; Kokkali, Athina; Panayotidis, Panayotis; Gerakaris, Vasilis; Maina, Irida; Kavadas, Stefanos; Kaberi, Helen; Vassilopoulou, Vassiliki

    2017-12-05

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) addresses the fundamental need to account for cumulative impacts of human activities with the aim of sustainably delivering ecosystem services. The Saronikos Gulf, a large embayment of the Aegean Sea, provides a wide range of ecosystem services that are impacted by multiple human activities, deriving from the metropolitan area of Athens (situated at the northeast part of the Gulf). The anthropogenic impacts affect the status of several marine ecosystem components, e.g., seagrass meadows. Cymodocea nodosa meadows are only present at the most confined western part of the Gulf, whereas Posidonia oceanica meadows are mainly distributed in the inner and outer part of the Gulf. The aim of this study is to assess the cumulative impacts from multiple human activities on the seagrass meadows in the Gulf. The main results indicated that most impacted meadows are P. oceanica in the inner part of the Gulf, adjacent to the most urbanized coastal areas, and near port infrastructures. Land-based pollution, as well as physical damage and loss seem to be the main pressures exerted on the meadows. Understanding cumulative impacts is crucial for informing policy decisions under an EBM approach.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine in children from three to seventeen years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans C; Abarca, Katia; Rivera, Luis; Lattanzi, Maria; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani; Kieninger-Baum, Dorothee; Della Cioppa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the optimal dose of an MF59-adjuvanted, monovalent, A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy paediatric subjects. Subjects aged 3-8 years (n=194) and 9-17 years (n=160) were randomized to receive two primary doses of A/H1N1 vaccine containing either 3.75 μg antigen with half a standard dose of MF59 adjuvant, 7.5 μg antigen with a full dose of MF59, or (children 3-8 years only), a non-adjuvanted 15 μg formulation. A booster dose of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine including homologous A/H1N1 strain was given one year after priming. Immunogenicity was assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays. Vaccine safety was assessed throughout the study (up to 18 months). A single priming dose of either MF59-adjuvanted formulation was sufficient to meet the European licensure criteria for pandemic influenza vaccines (HI titres ≥1:40>70%; seroconversion>40%; and GMR>2.5). Two non-adjuvanted vaccine doses were required to meet the same licensure criteria. After first and second doses, percentage of subjects with HI titres ≥1:40 were between 97% and 100% in the adjuvanted vaccine groups compared with 68% and 91% in the non-adjuvanted group, respectively. Postvaccination seroconversion rates ranged from 91% to 98% in adjuvanted groups and were 68% (first dose) and 98% (second dose) in the non-adjuvanted group. HI titres ≥1:330 after primary doses were achieved in 69% to 90% in adjuvanted groups compared with 41% in the non-adjuvanted group. Long-term antibody persistence after priming and a robust antibody response to booster immunization were observed in all vaccination groups. All A/H1N1 vaccine formulations were generally well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred, and no subjects were withdrawn from the study due to an adverse event. An MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine containing 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen was well tolerated and sufficiently immunogenic to meet all the

  8. Effects of fish farm waste on Posidonia oceanica meadows: Synthesis and provision of monitoring and management tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmer, Marianne [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)], E-mail: holmer@biology.sdu.dk; Argyrou, Marina [Marine Environment Division, Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, 101 Bethleem Street, 1416 Nicosia (Cyprus); Dalsgaard, Tage [Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Danovaro, Roberto [Department of Marine Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Diaz-Almela, Elena; Duarte, Carlos M. [IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Illes Balears) (Spain); Frederiksen, Morten [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Grau, Antoni [Direccio General de Pesca, Conselleria d' Agricultura i Pesca, Govern de les Illes Balears, Foners 10, 07006 Palma de Mallorca (Illes Balears) (Spain); Karakassis, Ioannis [Marine Ecology Laboratory, Biology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion, 71409 Crete (Greece); Marba, Nuria [IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Illes Balears) (Spain); Mirto, Simone [Institute for the Marine Coastal Environment, National Council of Research, Spianata S. Raineri, 86, 98122 Messina (Italy); Perez, Marta [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pusceddu, Antonio [Department of Marine Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Tsapakis, Manolis [Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. Box 2214, GR 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    This paper provides a synthesis of the EU project MedVeg addressing the fate of nutrients released from fish farming in the Mediterranean with particular focus on the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica habitat. The objectives were to identify the main drivers of seagrass decline linked to fish farming and to provide sensitive indicators of environmental change, which can be used for monitoring purposes. The sedimentation of waste particles in the farm vicinities emerges as the main driver of benthic deterioration, such as accumulation of organic matter, sediment anoxia as well as seagrass decline. The effects of fish farming on P. oceanica meadows are diverse and complex and detected through various metrics and indicators. A safety distance of 400 m is suggested for management of P. oceanica near fish farms followed by establishment of permanent seagrass plots revisited annually for monitoring the health of the meadows.

  9. Cultivation-dependent analysis of the microbial diversity associated with the seagrass meadows in Xincun Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Ling, Juan; Wang, You-Shao; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Microbial communities have largely existed in the seagrass meadows. A total of 496 strains of the bacteria in the seagrass meadows, which belonged to 50 genera, were obtained by the plate cultivation method from three sites of Xincun Bay, South China Sea. The results showed that Bacillales and Vibrionales accounted for the highest proportions of organisms in all communities. The diversity of the bacteria in the sediment was higher than that associated with seagrass. Thalassia hemperichii possessed the highest abundance of bacteria, followed by Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata. Robust seasonal dynamics in microbial community composition were also observed. It was found that microbial activities were closely tied to the growth stage of the seagrass. The microbial distribution was the lowest in site 3. The abundance of the bacteria was linked to the interactions between bacteria and plants, the condition of plant and even the coastal water quality and the nutrition level in the sediment.

  10. Post-harvest treatments in smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.) - effect on carbohydrates and tiller development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte

    2007-01-01

    Temperate grass species require a period of short days/low temperature to respond to flower induction stimuli. The same environmental conditions stimulate the increase in carbohydrate concentration in aboveground biomass and the accumulation of reserve carbohydrates in the basal plant parts....... The present investigation was initiated to investigate the effect of post-harvest treatments on dry matter production in autumn, carbohydrate content, the number of reproductive tillers and seed yield in a turf-type cultivar ‘Conni' of smooth-stalked meadow grass. The results show that post-harvest treatments...... harvest and all residues removed. The results from plant samples in autumn indicate that decreasing aboveground biomass production leads to a higher carbohydrate concentration which may stimulate the reproductive development in smooth-stalked meadow grass....

  11. Effects of fish farm waste on Posidonia oceanica meadows: Synthesis and provision of monitoring and management tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmer, Marianne; Argyrou, Marina; Dalsgaard, Tage; Danovaro, Roberto; Diaz-Almela, Elena; Duarte, Carlos M.; Frederiksen, Morten; Grau, Antoni; Karakassis, Ioannis; Marba, Nuria; Mirto, Simone; Perez, Marta; Pusceddu, Antonio; Tsapakis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of the EU project MedVeg addressing the fate of nutrients released from fish farming in the Mediterranean with particular focus on the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica habitat. The objectives were to identify the main drivers of seagrass decline linked to fish farming and to provide sensitive indicators of environmental change, which can be used for monitoring purposes. The sedimentation of waste particles in the farm vicinities emerges as the main driver of benthic deterioration, such as accumulation of organic matter, sediment anoxia as well as seagrass decline. The effects of fish farming on P. oceanica meadows are diverse and complex and detected through various metrics and indicators. A safety distance of 400 m is suggested for management of P. oceanica near fish farms followed by establishment of permanent seagrass plots revisited annually for monitoring the health of the meadows

  12. Accumulation of selenium and assessment of the microelements contents in rape spring on meadow-black soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermokhin, Yu.I.; Sindireva, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative correlation was installed as a result of work between arrival of the selenium on meadow-black soil and contents of this element in green mass of the rape spring. Correlation between the contents of Se and Cd, Ni, Zn in green mass at the rape spring was studied. In this article the assessment of the microelements contents depending on doses and methods of using selenium is offered

  13. Geochip-based analysis of microbial communities in alpine meadow soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Lu, Zhenmei; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Ren, Zuohua; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2013-03-29

    GeoChip 3.0, a microbial functional gene array, containing ~28,000 oligonucleotide probes and targeting ~57,000 sequences from 292 functional gene families, provided a powerful tool for researching microbial community structure in natural environments. The alpine meadow is a dominant plant community in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, hence it is important to profile the unique geographical flora and assess the response of the microbial communities to environmental variables. In this study, Geochip 3.0 was employed to understand the microbial functional gene diversity and structure, and metabolic potential and the major environmental factors in shaping microbial communities structure of alpine meadow soil in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. A total of 6143 microbial functional genes involved in carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane oxidation and production, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulphur cycling, organic remediation, metal resistance, energy process and other category were detected in six soil samples and high diversity was observed. Interestingly, most of the detected genes associated with carbon degradation were derived from cultivated organisms. To identify major environmental factors in shaping microbial communities, Mantel test and CCA Statistical analyses were performed. The results indicated that altitude, C/N, pH and soil organic carbon were significantly (P the microbial functional structure and a total of 80.97% of the variation was significantly explained by altitude, C/N and pH. The C/N contributed 38.2% to microbial functional gene variation, which is in accordance with the hierarchical clustering of overall microbial functional genes. High overall functional genes and phylogenetic diversity of the alpine meadow soil microbial communities existed in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most of the genes involved in carbon degradation were derived from characterized microbial groups. Microbial composition and structures variation were

  14. Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Zhang, J.T.; Bai, X.; Shedayi, A.A.; Tariq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Gentiana macrophylla, native to mountainous areas of Central and Southern Asia, is most popular remedy for rheumatism and pains in Traditional Chinese Medicine with an extensive demand in local market. Our study aimed to classify G. macrophylla communities and to find out the impact of topographic and soil factors on their diversity and distribution in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China. Seventy five samples in 15 transects separated by 50m distance in altitude along an elevation gradient (1592-2298m) were established by quadrate method. TWINSAPN and CCA were used for classification and ordination, respectively. Six diversity indices (Species richness, Shannon-Weiner heterogeneity, Simpson’s index, Hill’s index, Pielou evenness and McIntosh evenness) were used to analyze the pattern of species diversity and polynomial regression analysis was used to establish their relationship with environmental variables. TWINSPAN classified G. macrophylla communities into 8 types and CCA indicated that soil pH, soil temperature, soil type, disturbance, total N, total K, Mg and Zn were significantly related to these communities. Elevation was the most significant factor that affecting the diversity and distribution of G. macrophylla communities. Significant effect of environment, topography and disturbance to meadow communities of G. macrophylla highly suggests some important measures such as uprooting restriction, tourism limitation in meadow area, monitoring of functional diversity, fertilization, irrigation, cloning and cultivation to protect and conserve it and its communities to be used in medicine industry. (author)

  15. Physiognomy and distribution of mountain meadows in an alpine valley over 150 years of spontaneous forest expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitzia T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the classification of current and historical aerial photosbetween 1973 and 2006, we analysed the evolution of size, shape and connectivity of 59 mountain meadows (maggenghi of the Pejo district (Trentino, Northern Italy. The maggenghi are scattered patches within a forested matrix. We conducted the same analysis on an Austro-Hungarian cadastral map of 1859. The total surface covered by maggenghi was 137.4 ha in 1973, and decreased to 78.3 ha (57% in 2006. The mean shape and connectivity index in 1973 are significantly lower than those of 2006. Within a 1-km radius around the studied patches, woodlands increased by 7% in the same time range. Among the 25 maggenghi present in 1958, 12 has been subdivided into 39 smaller fragments and 13 has been reduced in their size without any fragmentation. A general process of meadow patches evolution which included area and connectivity reduction and shape simplification has been noticed. This process is common to many other alpine landscapes. The study of these processes is fundamental for policies aimed to conservation of mountain meadows, as well as to identify the single patches deserving conservation for their current and historical landscape structure, as many studies report their significant effects on local floristic diversity.

  16. In-situ injection of potassium hydroxide into briquetted wheat straw and meadow grass - Effect on biomethane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lu; Moset, Veronica; Li, Wanwu; Chen, Chang; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2017-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been intensively investigated but heavy water usage and environmental pollution from wastewater limits its industrial application. This study presents a pretreatment technique by in-situ injection of potassium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 10% (w/w) into the briquetting process of wheat straw and meadow grass. Results show that the biomethane yield and hydrolysis rate was improved significantly with a higher impact on wheat straw compared to meadow grass. The highest biomethane yield from wheat straw briquettes of 353mL.g -1 VS was obtained with 6.27% (w/w) potassium hydroxide injection, which was 14% higher than from untreated wheat straw. The hydrolysis rates of wheat straw and meadow grass increased from 4.27×10 -2 to 5.32×10 -2 d -1 and 4.19×10 -2 to 6.00×10 -2 d -1 , respectively. The low water usage and no wastewater production make this a promising technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A.; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes. PMID:26284618

  18. Effect of Polonite used for phosphorus removal from wastewater on soil properties and fertility of a mountain meadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucarella, Victor; Mazurek, Ryszard; Zaleski, Tomasz; Kopec, Michal; Renman, Gunno

    2009-01-01

    Reactive filter materials used for phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater can be disposed of as soil amendments after treatment, thus recycling P and other macro- and micro-nutrients to plants. In addition, materials with a high pH and Ca content, such as Polonite, are potential soil conditioners, which can be particularly beneficial for acid soils. Polonite previously used for on-site wastewater treatment was applied as a soil amendment to a mountain meadow. The amendment significantly increased soil pH and decreased the hydrolytic acidity, thus reducing Al toxicity risks. The effects were comparable to those of liming. No difference in yield and P uptake by meadow plants was observed. The uptake of metals was lower for amended soils, especially the uptake of Mn. Using Polonite after wastewater treatment as a soil amendment is thus a viable disposal alternative that can replace liming, when necessary, being capable of recycling P and other nutrients to meadow plants. - Filter substrate Polonite can benefit acid soils after wastewater treatment.

  19. Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to warming and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.

  20. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m-2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m-2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher density

  1. Evaluation of Above Ground Biomass Estimation Accuracy for Alpine Meadow Based on MODIS Vegetation Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Bao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal husbandry is the main agricultural type over the Tibetan Plateau, above ground biomass (AGB is very important to monitor the productivity for administration of grassland resources and grazing balance. The MODIS vegetation indices have been successfully used in numerous studies on grassland AGB estimation in the Tibetan Plateau area. However, there are considerable differences of AGB estimation models both in the form of the models and the accuracy of estimation. In this study, field measurements of AGB data at Sangke Town, Gansu Province, China in four years (2013-2016 and MODIS indices (NDVI and EVI are combined to construct AGB estimation models of alpine meadow grassland. The field measured AGB are also used to evaluate feasibility of models developed for large scale in applying to small area. The results show that (1 the differences in biomass were relatively large among the 5 sample areas of alpine meadow grassland in the study area during 2013-2016, with the maximum and minimum biomass values of 3,963 kg DW/ha and 745.5 kg DW/ha, respectively, and mean value of 1,907.7 kg DW/ha; the mean of EVI value range (0.42-0.60 are slightly smaller than the NDVI’s (0.59-0.75; (2 the optimum estimation model of grassland AGB in the study area is the exponential model based on MODIS EVI, with root mean square error of 656.6 kg DW/ha and relative estimation errors (REE of 36.3%; (3 the estimation errors of grassland AGB models previously constructed at different spatial scales (the Tibetan Plateau, the Gannan Prefecture, and Xiahe County are higher than those directly constructed based on the small area of this study by 9.5%–31.7%, with the increase of the modeling study area scales, the REE increasing as well. This study presents an improved monitoring algorithm of alpine natural grassland AGB estimation and provides a clear direction for future improvement of the grassland AGB estimation and grassland productivity from remote sensing

  2. A Model of Beaver Meadow Complex Evolution in the Silvies River Basin, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C.; Grant, G.; Campbell, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the pervasive incision seen in the American West is due, in part, to the removal of beaver (Castor canadensis) in the first half of the 19th century. New restoration strategies for these systems focus on the reintroduction of beaver and construction of beaver dam analogs. Such dams locally raise streams beds and water tables, reconnect incised channels to their former floodplains, trap sediment, increase hydraulic diversity, and promote riparian vegetation. However, the geomorphic and hydrologic impacts of both the original beaver dams and their analogs are poorly understood. Observations in the Silvies River basin in Oregon, USA - an upland, semi-arid catchment with extremely high historic beaver populations and a presently recovering population, inform a conceptual model for valley floor evolution with beaver dams. The evolution of the beaver dam complex is characterized by eight stages of morphologic adjustment: water impoundment, sediment deposition, pond filling, multi-thread meadow creation, dam breaching, channel incision, channel widening, and floodplain development. Well-constructed beaver dams, given sufficient time and sediment flux, will evolve from a series of ponds to a multi-threaded channel flowing through a wet meadow complex. If a dam in the system fails, due to overtopping, undercutting, lack of maintenance, or abandonment, the upstream channel will concentrate into a single channel and incise, followed over time by widening once critical bank heights are exceeded. From stratigraphic, dendrochronologic, and geomorphic measurements, we are constraining average timescales associated with each stage's duration and transitional period. Measured sedimentation rates behind modern beaver dam analogs on five stream systems permit calculation of sediment flux over recent time periods, and aid in developing regional rates of sediment deposition over a range of drainage areas and gradients. Stratigraphic and

  3. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Gutierrez Villanueva, J.-L.; Sundell-Bergman, S.

    2012-06-01

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  4. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.; Gutierrez Villanueva, J.-L.; Sundell-Bergman, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) (Sweden)] [and others

    2012-06-15

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  5. Transport Asymmetry of Novel Bi-Layer Hybrid Perfluorinated Membranes on the Base of MF-4SC Modified by Halloysite Nanotubes with Platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Filippov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three types of bi-layer hybrid nanocomposites on the base of perfluorinated cation-exchange membrane MF-4SC (Russian analogue of Nafion®-117 were synthesized and characterized. It was found that two membranes possess the noticeable asymmetry of the current–voltage curve (CVC under changing their orientation towards the applied electric field, despite the absence of asymmetry of diffusion permeability. These phenomena were explained in the frame of the “fine-porous model” expanded for bi-layer membranes. A special procedure to calculate the real values of the diffusion layers thickness and the limiting current density was proposed. Due to asymmetry effects of the current voltage curves of bi-layer hybrid membranes on the base of MF-4SC, halloysite nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles, it is prospective to assemble membrane switches (membrane relays or diodes with predictable transport properties, founded upon the theory developed here.

  6. Enhancement of fructosyltransferase and fructooligosaccharides production by A. oryzae DIA-MF in Solid-State Fermentation using aguamiel as culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Márquez, Diana B; Contreras, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Mussatto, Solange I; Teixeira, José A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the production of fructosyltransferase (FTase) by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) using aguamiel (agave sap) as culture medium and Aspergillus oryzae DIA-MF as producer strain. SSF was carried out evaluating the following parameters: inoculum rate, incubation temperature, initial pH and packing density to determine the most significant factors through Box-Hunter and Hunter design. The significant factors were then further optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The maximum FTase activity (1347U/L) was obtained at 32°C, using packing density of 0.7g/cm(3). Inoculum rate and initial pH had no significant influence on the response. FOS synthesis applying the enzyme produced by A. oryzae DIA-MF was also studied using aguamiel as substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intake, digestion, and digestive characteristics of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected and uninfected fescue by heifers offered hay diets supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract or laidlomycin propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, J B; Coffey, K P; Moyert, J L; Brazle, F K; Lomas, L W

    2002-01-01

    Tarentaise heifers fitted with a rumen cannula (539 +/- 7.5 and 487 +/- 15.7 kg avg initial BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were used in two Latin square metabolism experiments having 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangements to determine the effects of supplementation with Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (AO) or laidlomycin propionate (LP) on intake, digestion, and digestive characteristics of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected (IF) or uninfected (FF) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) hay diets consumed ad libitum. Heifers were housed in individual stanchions in a metabolism facility with ambient temperatures controlled to range between 26.7 and 32.2 degrees C daily. Total feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 21-d dietary adaptation period. In situ DM and NDF disappearance and ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. In Exp. 1, DMI was 24% greater (P or = 0.42). In Exp. 2, DMI was 18.9% greater (P < 0.01) by heifers offered FF than by those offered IF (6.6 vs 5.5 kg/d). Heifers fed LP (50 mg/d) consumed 10.6% less (P < 0.05) DM than those not fed LP (5.7 vs 6/5 kg/d). Digestibility of NDF tended to be greater (P = 0.08) and digestibility of ADF was greater (P < 0.05) from FF than from IF. Conversely, apparent N absorption (%) was greater (P < 0.05) from IF than from FF. Heifers fed LP had lower (P < 0.05) ADF digestibility than those not fed LP. In situ degradable DM and NDF fractions were greater (P < 0.01) from IF than from FF. Diets supplemented with LP had higher (P < 0.01) indigestible DM and NDF fractions than those without LP. Propionic acid and total VFA concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) from heifers offered FF than from those offered IF and from heifers fed LP than from those not fed LP. Therefore, it appears the major effect of N. coenophialum was a reduction in forage intake and total-tract fiber digestibility in certain situations. Response to the feed additives was similar whether heifers were offered IF or

  8. The analysis of ion nitriding and nitrogen ion implantation on tribological properties of steels 33H3MF and 36H3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandecki, R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface properties of two kinds of steel 33H3MF and 36H3M have been investigated. Three different methods of steel surface treatment have been used: ion nitriding, nitrogen ion implantation and mixing method being the sum of the first and second ones. The microstructure, microhardness distribution, fatigue strength, friction coefficient and other tribological properties have been measured and compared. 60 refs, 74 figs, 19 tabs

  9. Rational construction of a 3D hierarchical NiCo2O4/PANI/MF composite foam as a high-performance electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fen; Huang, Yunpeng; Xu, Le; Zhao, Yan; Lian, Jiabiao; Bao, Jian; Li, Huaming

    2018-04-19

    A 3D hierarchical NiCo2O4/PANI/MF composite foam with a macroporous 3D skeleton, a conductive PANI coating and highly electrochemically active NiCo2O4 nanosheets is synthesized as a lightweight and low-cost electrode material. Due to the collaborative contribution of all the components, the prepared composite foam exhibits excellent capacitive performances when incorporated into an asymmetric supercapacitor.

  10. 杉木地板基材表面的浸渍抗菌%Antibacterial Treatment on Surface of China Fir Floor Substrate with MF Impregnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔举庆; 张洋; 贾翀; 韩书广; 张岩; 曹轩

    2013-01-01

    研究了杉木地板基材表面经过三聚氰胺抗菌树脂浸渍处理后抗菌性能.结果表明:未经处理杉木基材不具备抗菌性能,经过三聚氰胺浸渍处理后具备一定的抗菌性能,可能因为甲醛释放或三聚氰胺自身对细菌起到抑制作用;添加载银抗菌剂后,杉木表面的抗菌性能不断增强,当三聚氰胺中抗菌剂质量分数达1%时,抗菌率达99.9%,符合抗菌产品的要求,但抗菌剂的加入对浸渍树脂的渗透性有一定的延迟作用.%China fir floor substrate impregnated with antibacterial MF resin was investigated. The results demonstrated that China fir has no antibacterial performance, while the one impregnated with pristine MF resin could kill some bacterium on its surface because of the formaldehyde emission or MF resin. The antibacterial performance can be continually improved with the increase of antibacterial agent. It will meet the requirements of antibacterial products, when the antibacterial rate is 99.9% with 1% of silver antimicrobial agent. However, the permeability of MF resin will be retarded in the presence of antimicrobial agent.

  11. A caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ protects against vaginal infection and interferes with the establishment of latency in goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Marinaro

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats.

  12. A Caprine Herpesvirus 1 Vaccine Adjuvanted with MF59™ Protects against Vaginal Infection and Interferes with the Establishment of Latency in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Rezza, Giovanni; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Colao, Valeriana; Tarsitano, Elvira; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN) titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats. PMID:22511971

  13. The Influence of Brightness on Functional Assessment by mfERG: A Study on Scaffolds Used in Retinal Cell Transplantation in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Christiansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of membrane brightness on multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs, we implanted poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA membranes in the subretinal space of 11 porcine eyes. We compared membranes with their native shiny white color with membranes that were stained with a blue dye (Brilliant Blue. Histological and electrophysiological evaluation of the overlying retina was carried out 6 weeks after implantation. Histologically, both white and blue membranes degraded in a spongiform manner leaving a disrupted outer retina with no preserved photoreceptor segments. Multifocal ERG revealed the white membranes to have a significantly higher P1-amplitude ratio than the blue (P=0.027, and a correlation between brightness ratio and P1-amplitude ratio was found (r=0.762. Based on our findings, we conclude that bright subretinal objects can produce normal mfERG amplitude ratios even when the adjacent photoreceptors are missing. Functional assessment with mfERG in scaffold implant studies should therefore be evaluated with care.

  14. Role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein in α1-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in DDT1 MF-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornett, L.E.; Norris, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the mechanisms involved in α 1 -adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca 2+ mobilization at the level of the plasma membrane were investigated. Stimulation of 45 Ca 2+ efflux from saponin-permeabilized DDT 1 MF-2 cells was observed with the addition of either the α 1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and guanosine-5'-triphosphate or the nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide guanylyl-imidodiphosphate. In the presence of [ 32 P] NAD, pertussis toxin was found to catalyze ADP-ribosylation of a M/sub r/ = 40,500 (n = 8) peptide in membranes prepared from DDT 1 , MF-2 cells, possibly the α-subunit of N/sub i/. However, stimulation of unidirectional 45 Ca 2+ efflux by phenylephrine was not affected by previous treatment of cells with 100 ng/ml pertussis toxin. These data suggest that the putative guanine nucleotide-binding protein which couples the α 1 -adrenergic receptor to Ca 2+ mobilization in DDT 1 MF-2 cells is not a pertussis toxin substrate and may possibly be an additional member of guanine nucleotide binding protein family

  15. Highly diverse molluscan assemblages of Posidonia oceanica meadows in northwestern Alboran Sea (W Mediterranean): Seasonal dynamics and environmental drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Javier; Mateo Ramírez, Ángel; Marina, Pablo; Salas, Carmen; Gofas, Serge; Rueda, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of the molluscan fauna associated with the westernmost populations of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, has been studied throughout an annual cycle in the northwestern coasts of the Alboran Sea. Samples were collected seasonally (5 replicated per season) using a non-destructive sampling technique (airlift sampler) on quadrats of 50 × 50 cm at 2 sites located 7 km apart. Several environmental variables from the water column (temperature, chlorophyll a), the sediment (percentage of organic matter) and the seagrass meadows (shoot density, leaf height and width, number of leaves per shoot) were also measured in order to elucidate their relationships with the dynamics of the molluscan assemblages. In these meadows, a total of 17,416 individuals of molluscs were collected, belonging to 71 families and 171 species, being Rissoidae, Pyramidellidae and Trochidae the best-represented families, and Mytilidae, Nassaridae and Trochidae the dominant ones in terms of abundance. The assemblages were dominated by micro-algal grazers, filter feeders and ectoparasites (including those feeding on sessile preys). The species richness and the abundance displayed significant maximum values in summer, whereas evenness and diversity displayed maximum values in spring, being significant for the evenness. Both abundance and species richness values were positively correlated to seawater temperature and percentage organic matter, only for the latter, and negatively to leaf width. Significant seasonal groupings were obtained with multivariate analyses (MDS, Cluster, ANOSIM) using qualitative and quantitative data that could be mainly related to biological aspects (i.e. recruitment) of single species. The molluscan assemblages are influenced by the biogeographical location of the area (Alboran Sea), reflected in the absence or scarcity of most Mediterranean species strictly associated with P. oceanica (e.g. Tricolia speciosa, Rissoa ventricosa) and by the

  16. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988–1990 and 2009–2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:25878552

  17. Light availability and temperature, not increased CO2, will structure future meadows of Posidonia oceanica

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.

    2017-02-15

    We evaluated the photosynthetic performance of Posidonia oceanica during short-term laboratory exposures to ambient and elevated temperatures (24–25°C and 29–30°C) warming and pCO2 (380, 750 and 1000ppm pCO2) under normal and low light conditions (200 and 40μmol photons m−2s−1 respectively). Plant growth was measured at the low light regime and showed a negative response to warming. Light was a critical factor for photosynthetic performance, although we found no evidence of compensation of photosynthetic quantum efficiency in high light. Relative Electron Rate Transport (rETRmax) was higher in plants incubated in high light, but not affected by pCO2 or temperature. The saturation irradiance (Ik) was negatively affected by temperature. We conclude that elevated CO2 does not enhance photosynthetic activity and growth, in the short term for P. oceanica, while temperature has a direct negative effect on growth. Low light availability also negatively affected photosynthetic performance during the short experimental period examined here. Therefore increasing concentrations of CO2 may not compensate for predicted future conditions of warmer water and higher turbidity for seagrass meadows.

  18. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988-1990 and 2009-2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  19. Oceanographic Multisensor Buoy Based on Low Cost Sensors for Posidonia Meadows Monitoring in Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sendra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some underwater areas with high ecological interest that should be monitored. Posidonia and seagrasses exert considerable work in protecting the coastline from erosion. In these areas, many animals and organisms live and find the grassland food and the protection against predators. It is considered a bioindicator of the quality of coastal marine waters. It is important to monitor them and maintain these ecological communities as clean as possible. In this paper, we present an oceanographic buoy for Posidonia meadows monitoring. It is based on a set of low cost sensors which are able to collect data from water such as salinity, temperature, and turbidity and from the weather as temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall, among others. The system is mounted in a buoy which keeps it isolated to possible oxidation problems. Data gathered are processed using a microcontroller. Finally the buoy is connected with a base station placed on the mainland through a wireless connection using a FlyPort module. The network performance is checked in order to ensure that no delays will be generated on the data transmission. This proposal could be used to monitor other areas with special ecological interest and for monitoring and supervising aquaculture activities.

  20. Contribution of seagrass plants to CO2 capture in a tropical seagrass meadow under experimental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyanova, Diana; Gullström, Martin; Lyimo, Liberatus D; Dahl, Martin; Hamisi, Mariam I; Mtolera, Matern S P; Björk, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Coastal vegetative habitats are known to be highly productive environments with a high ability to capture and store carbon. During disturbance this important function could be compromised as plant photosynthetic capacity, biomass, and/or growth are reduced. To evaluate effects of disturbance on CO2 capture in plants we performed a five-month manipulative experiment in a tropical seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii) meadow exposed to two intensity levels of shading and simulated grazing. We assessed CO2 capture potential (as net CO2 fixation) using areal productivity calculated from continuous measurements of diel photosynthetic rates, and estimates of plant morphology, biomass and productivity/respiration (P/R) ratios (from the literature). To better understand the plant capacity to coping with level of disturbance we also measured plant growth and resource allocation. We observed substantial reductions in seagrass areal productivity, biomass, and leaf area that together resulted in a negative daily carbon balance in the two shading treatments as well as in the high-intensity simulated grazing treatment. Additionally, based on the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and starch in the rhizomes, we found that the main reserve sources for plant growth were reduced in all treatments except for the low-intensity simulated grazing treatment. If permanent, these combined adverse effects will reduce the plants' resilience and capacity to recover after disturbance. This might in turn have long-lasting and devastating effects on important ecosystem functions, including the carbon sequestration capacity of the seagrass system.

  1. Palaeoclimatic conditions in the Mediterranean explain genetic diversity of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Chefaoui, Rosa M.

    2017-05-26

    Past environmental conditions in the Mediterranean Sea have been proposed as main drivers of the current patterns of distribution of genetic structure of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, the foundation species of one of the most important ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea. Yet, the location of cold climate refugia (persistence regions) for this species during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is not clear, precluding the understanding of its biogeographical history. We used Ecological Niche Modelling together with existing phylogeographic data to locate Pleistocene refugia in the Mediterranean Sea and to develop a hypothetical past biogeographical distribution able to explain the genetic diversity presently found in P. oceanica meadows. To do that, we used an ensemble approach of six predictive algorithms and two Ocean General Circulation Models. The minimum SST in winter and the maximum SST in summer allowed us to hindcast the species range during the LGM. We found separate glacial refugia in each Mediterranean basin and in the Central region. Altogether, the results suggest that the Central region of the Mediterranean Sea was the most relevant cold climate refugium, supporting the hypothesis that long-term persistence there allowed the region to develop and retain its presently high proportion of the global genetic diversity of P. oceanica.

  2. Light availability and temperature, not increased CO2, will structure future meadows of Posidonia oceanica

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.; Olsen, Ylva S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the photosynthetic performance of Posidonia oceanica during short-term laboratory exposures to ambient and elevated temperatures (24–25°C and 29–30°C) warming and pCO2 (380, 750 and 1000ppm pCO2) under normal and low light conditions (200 and 40μmol photons m−2s−1 respectively). Plant growth was measured at the low light regime and showed a negative response to warming. Light was a critical factor for photosynthetic performance, although we found no evidence of compensation of photosynthetic quantum efficiency in high light. Relative Electron Rate Transport (rETRmax) was higher in plants incubated in high light, but not affected by pCO2 or temperature. The saturation irradiance (Ik) was negatively affected by temperature. We conclude that elevated CO2 does not enhance photosynthetic activity and growth, in the short term for P. oceanica, while temperature has a direct negative effect on growth. Low light availability also negatively affected photosynthetic performance during the short experimental period examined here. Therefore increasing concentrations of CO2 may not compensate for predicted future conditions of warmer water and higher turbidity for seagrass meadows.

  3. Net primary productivity and its partitioning in response to precipitation gradient in an alpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangyue; Quan, Quan; Song, Bing; Sun, Jian; Chen, Youjun; Zhou, Qingping; Niu, Shuli

    2017-11-09

    The dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) and its partitioning to the aboveground versus belowground are of fundamental importance to understand carbon cycling and its feedback to climate change. However, the responses of NPP and its partitioning to precipitation gradient are poorly understood. We conducted a manipulative field experiment with six precipitation treatments (1/12 P, 1/4 P, 1/2 P, 3/4 P, P, and 5/4 P, P is annual precipitation) in an alpine meadow to examine aboveground and belowground NPP (ANPP and BNPP) in response to precipitation gradient in 2015 and 2016. We found that changes in precipitation had no significant impact on ANPP or belowground biomass in 2015. Compared with control, only the extremely drought treatment (1/12 P) significantly reduced ANPP by 37.68% and increased BNPP at the depth of 20-40 cm by 80.59% in 2016. Across the gradient, ANPP showed a nonlinear response to precipitation amount in 2016. Neither BNPP nor NPP had significant relationship with precipitation changes. The variance in ANPP were mostly due to forbs production, which was ultimately caused by altering soil water content and soil inorganic nitrogen concentration. The nonlinear precipitation-ANPP relationship indicates that future precipitation changes especially extreme drought will dramatically decrease ANPP and push this ecosystem beyond threshold.

  4. Palaeoclimatic conditions in the Mediterranean explain genetic diversity of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Chefaoui, Rosa M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrã o, Ester A.

    2017-01-01

    Past environmental conditions in the Mediterranean Sea have been proposed as main drivers of the current patterns of distribution of genetic structure of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, the foundation species of one of the most important ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea. Yet, the location of cold climate refugia (persistence regions) for this species during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is not clear, precluding the understanding of its biogeographical history. We used Ecological Niche Modelling together with existing phylogeographic data to locate Pleistocene refugia in the Mediterranean Sea and to develop a hypothetical past biogeographical distribution able to explain the genetic diversity presently found in P. oceanica meadows. To do that, we used an ensemble approach of six predictive algorithms and two Ocean General Circulation Models. The minimum SST in winter and the maximum SST in summer allowed us to hindcast the species range during the LGM. We found separate glacial refugia in each Mediterranean basin and in the Central region. Altogether, the results suggest that the Central region of the Mediterranean Sea was the most relevant cold climate refugium, supporting the hypothesis that long-term persistence there allowed the region to develop and retain its presently high proportion of the global genetic diversity of P. oceanica.

  5. Invasive species in the flora of the Starobilsk grass-meadow steppe (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucher Oksana O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of the invasive species in the flora of the Starobilsk grass-meadow steppe are presented. Check-list of alien plant has over 386 species of vascular plants of which 28 species are invasive. We have identified 6 transformer species from the invasive plants. We aggregate data on the entry, distribution history, ecology, occurrence in different plant communities, degree of their naturalization and the habitats where they occur. The leading families of invasive species are: Asteraceae. The basis for this group is presented by origin from the North America and the Mediterranean. With respect to the time of immigration, most of them are kenophytes. By the method of introduction, ksenophytes are dominated; according to the degree of naturalization epoecophytes and agriophytes dominate in this group. With regard to the characteristics of life forms, half of invasive species are terophytes. The vast majority of plants are heliophytes and xeromesophytes. Most species are found in biotopes group I: Cultivated agricultural biotopes; least of all species found in biotopes group F: Biotopes dominated by chamephytes and nanophanerophytes. Only 3 species found in biotopes group F: Biotopes dominated by chamephytesand nanophanerophytes. The maps of distribution of 28 invasive species are provided. Most of the species marked dispersed in more than 30 squares.

  6. Influence of harvest time and frequency on light interception and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2016-01-01

    managements,which contributed to similar IPAR (908–919 MJ m−2), total biomass yield (16.4–18.8 Mg DM ha−1yr−1)and RUE (1.80–2.07 g MJ−1) for all managements. Whereas both crops were highly productive under both3C management and 2C management with first harvest after flowering (i.e., 2C-late), the 2C......tIn this study, we report efficiencies of light capture and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cul-tivated on a riparian fen in Denmark under different harvesting managements. Green biomass targetedfor biogas production was harvested either as two cuts (2C) or three cuts (3C) in a year....... Three differenttimings of the first cut in the 2C systems were included as early (2C-early), middle (2C-mid) and late (2C-late) cuts corresponding to pre-heading, inflorescence emergence and flowering stages, respectively. Thefraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) was derived...

  7. Investigating the engine vibration in MF285 tractor effected by different blends of biodiesel fuel using statistical methods and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Safrangian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vibrations include a wide range of engineering sciences and discuss from different aspects. One of the aspects is related to various types of engines vibrations, which are often used as power sources in agriculture. The created vibrations can cause lack of comfort and reduce effective work and have bad influence on the health and safety. One of the important parameters of the diesel engine that has the ability to create vibration and knocking is the type of fuel. In this study, the effects of different blends of biodiesel, bioethanol and diesel on the engine vibration were investigated. As a result, a blend of fuels such as synthetic fuel that creates less vibration engine can be identified and introduced. Materials and Methods In this study, canola oil and methanol alcohol with purity of 99.99% and the molar ratio of 6:1 and sodium hydroxide catalyst with 1% by weight of oil were used for biodiesel production. Reactor configurations include: maintaining the temperature at 50 ° C, the reaction time of 5 minutes and the intensity of mixing (8000 rpm, and pump flow, 0.83 liters per minute. A Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor with single differential (2WD, built in 2012 at Tractor factory of Iran was used for the experiment. To measure the engine vibration signals, an oscillator with model of VM120 British MONITRAN was used. Vibration signals were measured at three levels of engine speed (2000, 1600, 1000 rpm in three directions (X, Y, Z. The analysis performed by two methods in this study: statistical data analysis and data analysis using Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Statistical analysis of data: a factorial experiment of 10×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications was used in each direction of X, Y and Z that conducted separately. Data were compiled and analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Ten levels of fuel were including of biodiesel (5, 15 and 25% and bioethanol (2, 4 and 6%, and diesel fuel. Data

  8. Distribution patterns of Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from seagrass (Zostera marina and Z. noltei meadows in the Ensenada de O Grove (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Quintas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the distribution and composition of the syllid fauna inhabiting seagrass meadows in the Ensenada de O Grove (NW Spain. Samples were collected on muddy sediments colonized by either Zostera marina L., Zostera noltei Hornemann or by a mixed meadow with both species. Syllids were dominant (13340 individuals; 37% of total polychaete abundance, including 22 species (12 genera. The mixed meadows housed the highest number of species and the Z. noltei meadow had practically no syllids. The dominant species were Exogone naidina, Parapionosyllis elegans, Parexogone hebes and Prosphaerosyllis campoyi ( > 80% of total abundance. Carnivores (mainly species of Parapionosyllis, Amblyosyllis, and Streptosyllis were dominant, especially in muddy sand with either Z. marina or Z. noltei and sandy mud with a mixed meadow. The most important abiotic variables for explaining the composition and distribution of the syllid fauna were bottom water salinity, sorting coefficient and carbonate content. The highest number of species was recorded at sites with a high salinity and carbonate content and the lowest at sites with a high sorting coefficient.

  9. Mapping of Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile Meadows Using Geographic Information Systems: A case study in Ufakdere - Kaş (Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Demir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile 1813 is an endemic and the most widespread seagrass species of the Mediterranean Sea. Seagrass meadows are one of the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing habitat to numerous organisms. Therefore, mapping of seagrass meadows is of crucial importance for conservation and coastal management purposes. Here we present an integrated geographic information system approach with SCUBA diving, providing a cost effective method to monitor seagrass beds at shallow coastal habitats. In this case study P. oceanica meadows were mapped in Ufakdere region of Kaş (Antalya coastal area between April – September 2015. A total of 25000 m2 are were screened to create seagrass coverage maps. Results indicate that P. oceanica meadows cover 21200 m2 and we estimated that 520 m2 of this area is highly damaged. This integrated approach provided one of the most detailed small-scale Posidonia mapping in Turkey and this time and cost effective methodology can be applied to any seagrass meadow with great ease to increase our knowledge on this important habitat.

  10. Comparison of hay and haylage from permanent Alpine meadows in winter dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Giaccone, D; Mimosi, A; Tabacco, E

    2007-12-01

    In an Alpine environment, diets based on local forage resources are needed to maintain the link with the territory and confer special characteristics to typical cheeses. Harvesting at a late stage of maturity, high mechanical losses, and frequent rainfall often make the hay that is harvested of a poor quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 different conservation methods (late hay, LH, vs. early haylage, ES) of natural permanent meadows on milk production in dairy cows, on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the milk, and on the quality of the cheese over the winter period. Haylage and hay were harvested from the same permanent meadow at the Vittorino Vezzani experimental farm in Sauze d'Oulx (45 degrees 02'N, 6 degrees 53'E, Italy). The ES forage was cut 4 wk earlier than traditional hay, wilted for 30 h, baled at a dry matter (DM) content of about 50%, wrapped with 6 layers of stretch film, and stored in a protected area. The LH forage was harvested later, when the weather conditions were favorable and, after a 3-d wilting, it was baled and stored indoors. After an 8-mo storage period, the ES had a greater crude protein concentration, organic matter digestibility, and net energy for lactation than LH and a lower neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Forty multiparous lactating Aosta Red Pied cows were used in a 19-d period crossover design to assess the nutritional value of the stored forages. The diets included ES fed ad libitum and 3.5 kg of DM per cow of concentrate or LH fed ad libitum and 5.1 kg of DM per cow of concentrate. The dietary DM was 90.1% for the LH and 59.9% for the ES. The diets contained 12.6 and 13.0% crude protein and 48.6 and 48.0% neutral detergent fiber, for the LH and ES, respectively. The forage intake was greater in the ES treatment than in the LH treatment. The ES treatment produced more milk (1.7 kg/d) and more 3.5% fat-corrected milk (1.5 kg/d) than the cows on the LH treatment. The

  11. Estimating above-ground biomass on mountain meadows and pastures through remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, M.; Cristóbal, J.; Tulla, A. F.

    2015-06-01

    Extensive stock-breeding systems developed in mountain areas like the Pyrenees are crucial for local farming economies and depend largely on above-ground biomass (AGB) in the form of grass produced on meadows and pastureland. In this study, a multiple linear regression analysis technique based on in-situ biomass collection and vegetation and wetness indices derived from Landsat-5 TM data is successfully applied in a mountainous Pyrenees area to model AGB. Temporal thoroughness of the data is ensured by using a large series of images. Results of on-site AGB collection show the importance for AGB models to capture the high interannual and intraseasonal variability that results from both meteorological conditions and farming practices. AGB models yield best results at midsummer and end of summer before mowing operations by farmers, with a mean R2, RMSE and PE for 2008 and 2009 midsummer of 0.76, 95 g m-2 and 27%, respectively; and with a mean R2, RMSE and PE for 2008 and 2009 end of summer of 0.74, 128 g m-2 and 36%, respectively. Although vegetation indices are a priori more related with biomass production, wetness indices play an important role in modeling AGB, being statistically selected more frequently (more than 50%) than other traditional vegetation indexes (around 27%) such as NDVI. This suggests that middle infrared bands are crucial descriptors of AGB. The methodology applied in this work compares favorably with other works in the literature, yielding better results than those works in mountain areas, owing to the ability of the proposed methodology to capture natural and anthropogenic variations in AGB which are the key to increasing AGB modeling accuracy.

  12. Provenance of radioactive placers, Big Meadow area, Valley and Boise Counties, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdell, D.; Wegrzyn, R.; Dixon, M.

    1977-02-01

    For many years, radioactive black-sand placers have been known to be present in the Bear Valley area of west-central Idaho. The largest of these is in Big Meadow, near the head of Bear Valley Creek. Presence of these placers suggests that low-grade uranium deposits might occur in rocks of the Idaho Batholith, adjacent to Bear Valley. This study was undertaken to locate the provenance of the radioactive minerals and to identify problems that need to be solved before undertaking further investigations. The principal radioactive minerals in these placers are monazite and euxenite. Other minerals include columbite, samarskite, fergusonite, xenotime, zircon, allanite, sphene, and brannerite. Only brannerite is a uranium mineral; the others contain uranium as an impurity in crystal lattices. Radiometric determinations of the concentration of uranium in stream sediments strongly indicate that the radioactive materials originate in an area drained by Casner and Howard Creeks. Equivalent uranium levels in bedrock are highest on the divide between Casner and Howard Creeks. However, this area is not known to contain low-grade uranium occurrences. Euxenite, brannerite, columbite-tantalite, samarskite, and allanite are the principal radioactive minerals that were identified in rock samples. These minerals were found in granite pegmatites, granites, and quartz monzonites. Appreciably higher equivalent uranium concentrations were also found within these rock types. The major problem encountered in this study was the difficulty in mapping bedrock because of extensive soil and glacial mantle. A partial solution to this problem might be the application of radon emanometry so that radiometric measurements would not be limited to the sparse bedrock samples

  13. The influence of hydrologic connectivity on ecosystem metabolism and nitrate uptake in an active beaver meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, P.; Covino, T. P.; Wohl, E.; Kampf, S. K.; Lacy, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands have been widely demonstrated to provide important watershed services, such as the sequestration of carbon (C) and removal of nitrate (NO3-) from through-flowing water. Hydrologic connectivity (degree of water and associated material exchange) between floodplain water bodies (e.g., side channels, ponds) and the main channel influence rates of C accumulation and NO3- uptake, and the degree to which wetlands contribute to enhanced water quality at the catchment scale. However, environmental engineers have largely ignored the role of hydrologic connectivity in providing essential ecosystem services, and constructed wetlands are commonly built using compacted clay and berms that result in less groundwater and surface water exchange than observed in natural wetlands. In a study of an active beaver meadow (multithreaded, riparian wetland) in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, we show how shifts in hydrology (connectivity, residence times, flow paths) from late spring snowmelt (high connectivity) to autumn/winter baseflow (low connectivity) influence ecosystem metabolism metrics (e.g., gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem productivity) and NO3- uptake rates. We use a combination of mixing analyses, tracer tests, and hydrometric methods to evaluate shifts in surface and subsurface hydrologic connections between floodplain water bodies from snowmelt to baseflow. In the main channel and three floodplain water bodies, we quantify metabolism metrics and NO3- uptake kinetics across shifting flow regimes. Results from our research indicate that NO3- uptake and metabolism dynamics respond to changing levels of hydrologic connectivity to the main channel, emphasizing the importance of incorporating connectivity in wetland mitigation practices that seek to enhance water quality at the catchment scale.

  14. Grazing intensity on the plant diversity of alpine meadow in the eastern Tibetan plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ning

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Because ofthe remoteness and harsh conditions of the high-altitude rangelands on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, the relationship between yak grazing and plant diversity has not been so clear although livestock increase was thought as the main issue leading to the degradation of rangeland. In the debate of rangeland degradation, biodiversity loss has been assumed as one of the indicators in the last two decades. In this paper authors measured the effects of different grazing intensities on the plant diversity and the structure of Kobresia pygmaea community in the case-study area, northwestern Sichuan. The results indicated that plant diversity of alpine meadow has different changing trends respectively with the change of grazing intensity and seasons. In June the highest plant diversity occurred in the intensively grazed (HG plots, but in July and September species biodiversity index of slightly grazed (LG plots is higher than other experimental treatments. In August the intermediate grazed (IG plots has the highest biodiversity index. Moreover, it was found that intensively grazing always leads to the increase of plant density, but meanwhile the decrease of community height, coverage and biomass. Over-grazing can change the community structure and lead to the succession from Kobresia pygmaea dominated community to Poa pratensis dominated. Analyzing results comprehensively, it can be suggested that the relationship between grazing intensity and plant diversity is not linear, i.e. diversity index is not as good as other characteristics of community structure to evaluate rangeland degradation on the high altitude situation. The change of biodiversity is so complicated that it can not be explained with the simple corresponding causality.

  15. Morphological and colour morph clines along an altitudinal gradient in the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Günter; Samietz, Jörg; Schielzeth, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Many animals show altitudinal clines in size, shape and body colour. Increases in body size and reduction in the length of body appendices in colder habitats are usually attributed to improved heat conservation at lower surface-to-volume ratios (known as Bergmann's and Allen's rule, respectively). However, the patterns are more variable and sometimes reversed in small ectotherms that are affected by shortened growing seasons. Altitude can also affect colouration. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts darker colours under cooler conditions because of a thermoregulatory advantage. Darker colours may also be favoured at high altitudes for reasons of UV protection or habitat-dependent crypsis. We studied altitudinal variation in morphology and colour in the colour-polymorphic meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus based on 563 individuals from 17 populations sampled between 450 and 2,500 m asl. Pronotum length did not change with altitude, while postfemur length decreased significantly in both sexes. Tegmen (forewing) length decreased in males, but not in females. The results indicate that while body size, as best quantified by pronotum length, was remarkably constant, extended appendices were reduced at high altitudes. The pattern thus follows Allen's rule, but neither Bergmann's nor converse Bergmann's rule. These results indicate that inference of converse Bergmann's rule based on measurements from appendices should be treated with some caution. Colour morph ratios showed significant changes in both sexes from lowland populations dominated by green individuals to high-altitude populations dominated by brown ones. The increase of brown morphs was particularly steep between 1,500 and 2,000 m asl. The results suggest shared control of colour in males and females and local adaptation along the altitudinal gradient following the predictions of the thermal melanism hypothesis. Interestingly, both patterns, the reduction of body appendices and the higher

  16. Morphological and colour morph clines along an altitudinal gradient in the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Köhler

    Full Text Available Many animals show altitudinal clines in size, shape and body colour. Increases in body size and reduction in the length of body appendices in colder habitats are usually attributed to improved heat conservation at lower surface-to-volume ratios (known as Bergmann's and Allen's rule, respectively. However, the patterns are more variable and sometimes reversed in small ectotherms that are affected by shortened growing seasons. Altitude can also affect colouration. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts darker colours under cooler conditions because of a thermoregulatory advantage. Darker colours may also be favoured at high altitudes for reasons of UV protection or habitat-dependent crypsis. We studied altitudinal variation in morphology and colour in the colour-polymorphic meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus based on 563 individuals from 17 populations sampled between 450 and 2,500 m asl. Pronotum length did not change with altitude, while postfemur length decreased significantly in both sexes. Tegmen (forewing length decreased in males, but not in females. The results indicate that while body size, as best quantified by pronotum length, was remarkably constant, extended appendices were reduced at high altitudes. The pattern thus follows Allen's rule, but neither Bergmann's nor converse Bergmann's rule. These results indicate that inference of converse Bergmann's rule based on measurements from appendices should be treated with some caution. Colour morph ratios showed significant changes in both sexes from lowland populations dominated by green individuals to high-altitude populations dominated by brown ones. The increase of brown morphs was particularly steep between 1,500 and 2,000 m asl. The results suggest shared control of colour in males and females and local adaptation along the altitudinal gradient following the predictions of the thermal melanism hypothesis. Interestingly, both patterns, the reduction of body appendices and

  17. Effect of fertilization and harvest frequency on floristic composition and yields of meadow stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Raus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fertilization and the harvest frequency on production and floristic characteristics of a meadow stand were assessed in a small plot trial established in 2003 in Vatín, Vysočina Region, the Czech Republic. Four levels of fertilization (none; N0 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1; N90 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1; N180 + P30 + K60 kg∙ha−1 were combined with four treatments of exploitation intensity (4 cuts per year, first cut on 15th May, every next after 45 days; 3 cuts per year, first cut on 30th May, every next after 60 days; 2 cuts per year, first cut on 15th June, next after 90 days; 2 cuts per year, first cut on 30th June, next after 90 days. Production of dry matter and proportions of guilds (grasses, legumes, and other species were evaluated. Data from 2009–2011 were used in this paper. Yields of the dry matter increased along with increasing amounts of nutrients supplied and ranged from 3.8 t∙ha−1 (non-fertilized to 9.1 t∙ha−1 (N180PK. The nutrition level had a significant effect on spread of grasses, which reached maximal proportion of 52.3 % under N180PK fertilization compared to 42.1% on non-fertilized plots. On the contrary, legumes flourished well in treatments without N-supply, attaining proportion of 6.8 % and 5.1 % on PK-fertilized and non-fertilized plot, respectively. With regard to the exploitation intensity grasses profited from extensive management by contrast to the group of other species which reached its maximum in swards harvested four times a year. Proportions of legumes did not show significant dependence on the cutting frequency.

  18. Spatially explicit feedbacks between seagrass meadow structure, sediment and light: Habitat suitability for seagrass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joel; D'Odorico, Paul; McGlathery, Karen; Wiberg, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    In shallow coastal bays where nutrient loading and riverine inputs are low, turbidity, and the consequent light environment are controlled by resuspension of bed sediments due to wind-waves and tidal currents. High sediment resuspension and low light environments can limit benthic primary productivity; however, both currents and waves are affected by the presence of benthic plants such as seagrass. This feedback between the presence of benthic primary producers such as seagrass and the consequent light environment has been predicted to induce bistable dynamics locally. However, these vegetated areas influence a larger area than they footprint, including a barren adjacent downstream area which exhibits reduced shear stresses. Here we explore through modeling how the patchy structure of seagrass meadows on a landscape may affect sediment resuspension and the consequent light environment due to the presence of this sheltered region. Heterogeneous vegetation covers comprising a mosaic of randomly distributed patches were generated to investigate the effect of patch modified hydrodynamics. Actual cover of vegetation on the landscape was used to facilitate comparisons across landscape realizations. Hourly wave and current shear stresses on the landscape along with suspended sediment concentration and light attenuation characteristics were then calculated and spatially averaged to examine how actual cover and mean water depth affect the bulk sediment and light environment. The results indicate that an effective cover, which incorporates the sheltering area, has important controls on the distributions of shear stress, suspended sediment, light environment, and consequent seagrass habitat suitability. Interestingly, an optimal habitat occurs within a depth range where, if actual cover is reduced past some threshold, the bulk light environment would no longer favor seagrass growth.

  19. Antennal olfactory responses of adult meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, to volatile organic compounds (VOCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacinto Salvatore Germinara

    Full Text Available The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae is a commonly found vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (1987 strain subspecies pauca associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome" in Italy. To contribute to the knowledge of the adult P. spumarius chemoreceptivity, electroantennographic (EAG responses of both sexes to 50 volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and ketones, terpenoids, and aromatics were recorded. Measurable EAG responses were elicited by all compounds tested. In both sexes, octanal, 2-octanol, 2-decanone, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, and vanillin elicited the strongest antennal amplitude within the chemical groups of aliphatic saturated aldehydes, aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic acetates and aromatics, respectively. Male and female EAG responses to sulcatol, (±linalool, and sulcatone were higher than those to other terpenoinds. In both sexes, the weakest antennal stimulants were phenethyl alcohol and 2-pentanone. Sexual differences in the EAG amplitude were found only for four of test compounds suggesting a general similarity between males and females in antennal sensitivity. The olfactory system of both sexes proved to be sensitive to changes in stimulus concentration, carbon chain length, and compound structure. Compounds with short carbon chain length (C5-C6 elicited lower EAG amplitudes than compounds with higher carbon chain length (C9-C10 in all classes of aliphatic hydrocarbons with different functional groups. The elucidation of the sensitivity profile of P. spumarius to a variety of VOCs provides a basis for future identification of behaviorally-active compounds useful for developing semiochemical-based control strategies of this pest.

  20. Initial shifts in nitrogen impact on ecosystem carbon fluxes in an alpine meadow: patterns and causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Qingping; Zong, Ning; Li, Linghao; Niu, Shuli

    2017-09-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) deposition can greatly stimulate ecosystem net carbon (C) sequestration through positive N-induced effects on plant productivity. However, how net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components respond to different N addition rates remains unclear. Using an N addition gradient experiment (six levels: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 gN m-2 yr-1) in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we explored the responses of different ecosystem C fluxes to an N addition gradient and revealed mechanisms underlying the dynamic responses. Results showed that NEE, ecosystem respiration (ER), and gross ecosystem production (GEP) all increased linearly with N addition rates in the first year of treatment but shifted to N saturation responses in the second year with the highest NEE (-7.77 ± 0.48 µmol m-2 s-1) occurring under an N addition rate of 8 gN m-2 yr-1. The saturation responses of NEE and GEP were caused by N-induced accumulation of standing litter, which limited light availability for plant growth under high N addition. The saturation response of ER was mainly due to an N-induced saturation response of aboveground plant respiration and decreasing soil microbial respiration along the N addition gradient, while decreases in soil microbial respiration under high N addition were caused by N-induced reductions in soil pH. We also found that various components of ER, including aboveground plant respiration, soil respiration, root respiration, and microbial respiration, responded differentially to the N addition gradient. These results reveal temporal dynamics of N impacts and the rapid shift in ecosystem C fluxes from N limitation to N saturation. Our findings bring evidence of short-term initial shifts in responses of ecosystem C fluxes to increases in N deposition, which should be considered when predicting long-term changes in ecosystem net C sequestration.

  1. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  2. Windturbines and meadow birds in Germany - results of a 7 years BACI-study and a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Marc; Steinborn, Hanjo

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In many parts of Germany meadow birds - either breeding or staging - are the species most affected by wind farms planned in open agricultural areas. A 7 year BACI-study (before-after-control-impact) in the south of East Frisia, Lower Saxony, investigated the influence of wind turbines on several meadow bird species. The parameters analysed comprised population trends, spatial distribution and behaviour in relation to turbine distance, breeding success as well as the influence of certain habitat parameters like type of agricultural use and the distance to woods and hedges. The results show, that breeding birds are generally less sensitive to wind turbines than staging birds. Significant reductions of breeding lapwing density occurred only up to a distance of 100 m. Curlews however showed a reduction of resting and grooming behaviour up to a distance of 250 m. Other species like meadow pipit, skylark and stonechat showed no indications of displacement. An impact of wind turbines on breeding success could not be detected. Breeding lapwings showed a strong preference for certain types of crops, which led to spatial aggregations irrespective of turbine proximity. In staging birds a much more obvious displacement up to about 400 m could be detected. The results are consistent with a number of other German studies on possible displacement effects in different bird species. Lapwing and skylark are among the best studied species whereas staging geese tend to be the most sensitive ones. In conclusion the siting of wind farms must not only be guided by occurrence of endangered species named on national or regional Red Lists but also by the species-specific sensitivity against the disturbance effects of wind turbines. (Author)

  3. Evapotranspiration partitioning in the highest alpine meadow zones through in-situ chamber and dual stable water isotope approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Tian, L.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding plant functionality within the water cycles of grassland ecosystems is crucial for obtaining both regional water balance and plant adaptability in the context of ongoing climate change. The transpiration to evapotranspiration ratio (T/ET) is an indicator of plant's contribution to ecosystem water cycle. In this study, we used high-frequency laser spectroscopy (L2130-i), three custom-built chambers, and eddy covariance techniques, to constrain the role played by plants in evapotranspiration over an alpine meadow ecosystem in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP). Three different sizes of chambers are used to direct measure the isotopic compositions in evapotranspiration (δET), evaporation (δE) and transpiration (δT). The consistent T/ET between δ18O and δD manifests that chamber and dual isotope tracers are robust methods to estimate T/ET in alpine meadow zone. Sensitivity analysis shows that the isotopic composition of evapotranspiration is the main contributor to, and the uncertainty source for, the T/ET estimate. The influence of meteorological and biotic factors on T/ET is also discussed. The results from this study indicate that plants play an important role in the water cycles of alpine meadow ecosystems despite the sparse distribution of plant cover. We also synthesized the published T/ET data over the entire TP region, and found a good relation between T/ET and leaf area index (LAI). Moreover, soil water content played some role in controlling T/ET beyond the LAI in arid/semiarid regions such as the TP. More than half of the TP is covered by grassland, but its low biomass and shallow rooting depth make it very vulnerable to climate change variables such as air temperature warming and variations in precipitation. Given the crucial role played by plants in an ecosystem's water cycle, any variations in grassland cover are likely to exert a critical impact on the regional hydrological cycle, and even the regional climate.

  4. The discovery of deep-water seagrass meadows in a pristine Indian Ocean wilderness revealed by tracking green turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, N; Unsworth, R K F; Gourlay, J B Q; Hays, G C

    2018-03-21

    Our understanding of global seagrass ecosystems comes largely from regions characterized by human impacts with limited data from habitats defined as notionally pristine. Seagrass assessments also largely focus on shallow-water coastal habitats with comparatively few studies on offshore deep-water seagrasses. We satellite tracked green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to forage on seagrasses, to a remote, pristine deep-water environment in the Western Indian Ocean, the Great Chagos Bank, which lies in the heart of one of the world's largest marine protected areas (MPAs). Subsequently we used in-situ SCUBA and baited video surveys to survey the day-time sites occupied by turtles and discovered extensive monospecific seagrass meadows of Thalassodendron ciliatum. At three sites that extended over 128 km, mean seagrass cover was 74% (mean range 67-88% across the 3 sites at depths to 29 m. The mean species richness of fish in seagrass meadows was 11 species per site (mean range 8-14 across the 3 sites). High fish abundance (e.g. Siganus sutor: mean MaxN.site -1  = 38.0, SD = 53.7, n = 5) and large predatory shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) (mean MaxN.site -1  = 1.5, SD = 0.4, n = 5) were recorded at all sites. Such observations of seagrass meadows with large top predators, are limited in the literature. Given that the Great Chagos Bank extends over approximately 12,500 km 2 and many other large deep submerged banks exist across the world's oceans, our results suggest that deep-water seagrass may be far more abundant than previously suspected. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results: High grazing...... as well as in most other European countries, the amount of land covered by semi-natural grassland has decreased dramatically during the 20th century concurrent with the general intensification of the agricultural production. To reverse this trend, actions are being taken in many places to either maintain...

  6. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested

  7. Temporal changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation in the landscape of a small-scale river valley in Central Roztocze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Szum is a right-side tributary of the Tanew River crossing the southern escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze region (SE Poland. Downstream of the strict river break in a section between the 10th and 12th km of the river course in the Szum valley, meadow and peatbog complexes have developed, associated with semi-hydrogenic and marshy soils. In an area of approx. 13 ha of the most valuable non-forest habitats, a variety of plant communities have been identified, including habitats of the Natura 2000 network and habitats that are protected under the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment (2001. These are, for instance, meadow associations Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, Lythro-Filipenduletum, Filipendulo ulmariae-Menthetum longifoliae, Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei, and Cirsietum rivularis. The moss–sedge and sphagnum bog communities comprise noteworthy associations Caricetum limosae, Rhynchosporetum albae, Caricetum lasiocarpae, Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae, Caricetum davallianae, and Sphagnetum magellanici. These communities are composed of ca. 160 vascular plant species and 40 moss and liverwort species. In 1999–2014, the greatest changes occurred within macroforb meadows, i.e. small Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei and Cirsietum rivularis patches have been transformed into Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, while some patches of the latter association have been transformed into a Caricetum acutiformis rush. Several patches of bog-spring associations Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae and Carici canescentis-Agrostietum caninae have been irretrievably destroyed. Sphagnetum magellanici appears to be the least stable community among the preserved peatbogs. The changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation observed for the last 15 years are a consequence of natural processes that take place in the river valley and to a large extent human activity connected with the so-called small-scale water retention as well as the presence of a beaver

  8. Distribution and movement of Big Spring spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis) in Condor Canyon, Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Big Spring spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis) is a cyprinid whose entire population occurs within a section of Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada. Other spinedace species have suffered population and range declines (one species is extinct). Managers, concerned about the vulnerability of Big Spring spinedace, have considered habitat restoration actions or translocation, but they have lacked data on distribution or habitat use. Our study occurred in an 8.2-km section of Meadow Valley Wash, including about 7.2 km in Condor Canyon and 0.8 km upstream of the canyon. Big Spring spinedace were present upstream of the currently listed critical habitat, including in the tributary Kill Wash. We found no Big Spring spinedace in the lower 3.3 km of Condor Canyon. We tagged Big Spring spinedace ≥70 mm fork length (range 70–103 mm) with passive integrated transponder tags during October 2008 (n = 100) and March 2009 (n = 103) to document movement. At least 47 of these individuals moved from their release location (up to 2 km). Thirty-nine individuals moved to Kill Wash or the confluence area with Meadow Valley Wash. Ninety-three percent of movement occurred in spring 2009. Fish moved both upstream and downstream. We found no movement downstream over a small waterfall at river km 7.9 and recorded only one fish that moved downstream over Delmue Falls (a 12-m drop) at river km 6.1. At the time of tagging, there was no significant difference in fork length or condition between Big Spring Spinedace that were later detected moving and those not detected moving. We found no significant difference in fork length or condition at time of tagging of Big Spring spinedace ≥70 mm fork length that were detected moving and those not detected moving. Kill Wash and its confluence area appeared important to Big Spring spinedace; connectivity with these areas may be key to species persistence. These areas may provide a habitat template for restoration or translocation. The lower 3.3 km of

  9. Evaluating 90Sr and 137Cs accumulation by structural elements of exclusion zone's vegetative communities of meadow and lea land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskevich, S.A.; Petrov, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic carry-over of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by structural elements of exclusion zone's meadows and lea land phytocenosis is considered. Quantitative parameters of radionuclide accumulation are evaluated in substrate and live biomass of communities growing under various ecological conditions. It was stated that accumulation levels for ground biomass of communities depends, at a significant rate, on landscape growing conditions. These values fluctuate within the range of around 100 times. For 90 Sr, significantly lower difference in carry-over values was observed totaling up to 5 times, although for single community, this radionuclide carry-over exceeds essentially 137 Cs carry-over

  10. Validation of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) system KHU Mark1: impedance spectroscopy and time-difference imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tong In; Koo, Hwan; Lee, Kyung Heon; Kim, Sang Min; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Jeehyun; Kim, Sung Wan; Seo, Jin Keun

    2008-01-01

    Validation and interpretation of reconstructed images using a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) requires a conductivity phantom including imaging objects with known complex conductivity (σ + iωε) spectra. We describe imaging experiments using the recently developed mfEIT system called the KHU Mark1 with the frequency range of 10 Hz to 500 kHz. Using a bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) system, we first measured complex conductivity spectra of different imaging objects including saline, agar, polyacrylamide, TX151, animal hide gelatin, banana and cucumber. Based on an analysis of how conductivity and permittivity affect measured complex boundary voltages, we suggested a new complex version of a multi-frequency time-difference image reconstruction algorithm. Imaging experiments were conducted to produce time-difference images of the objects at multiple frequencies using the proposed algorithm. Images of a conductor (stainless steel) and an insulator (acrylic plastic) were used to set a common scale bar to display all images. Comparing reconstructed time-difference images at multiple frequencies with measured complex conductivity spectra, we found that they showed an overall similarity in terms of changes in complex conductivity values with respect to frequency. However, primarily due to the limitation of the difference imaging algorithm, we suggest that multi-frequency time-difference images must be interpreted in terms of relative contrast changes with respect to frequency. We propose further imaging studies using biological tissues of known complex conductivity spectra and using human subjects to find clinical applications of the mfEIT system

  11. Simulation of Microdamage and Evaluation of Remaining Life of Steam Conduit Components from New-Generation Refractory Steel 10Kh9MF-Sh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshtein, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of microdamage on the remaining life of high-temperature components of steam conduits from high-chromium steel 10Kh9MF-Sh and low-alloy steel 12Kh1M1F are compared. To simulate the microdamage, specimens with a circular notch and different relative diameters are fabricated. Specimens with a notch simulating the highest degree of microdamage and smooth specimens are tested for long-term strength. The coefficient of the remaining life of a conduit is computed for the range of relative damage presenting practical interest.

  12. Effects of species diversity on seasonal variation in herbage yield and nutritive value of seven binary grass-legume mixtures and pure grass under cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Intensively managed sown temperate grasslands are generally of low species diversity, although swards based on grass-legume mixtures may have superior productivity and herbage quality than grass-only swards. We conducted a cutting experiment over two years to test the effect of species composition...... and diversity on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne) was sown alone and with each of four forage legumes: red clover (RC, Trifolium pratense), lucerne (LU, Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (BT......, Lotus corniculatus) and white clover (WC, Trifolium repens); WC was also sown with hybrid ryegrass (HR, Lolium × boucheanum), meadow fescue (MF, Festuca pratensis) and timothy (TI, Phleum pratense). Herbage productivity was lowest in pure PR followed by PR/BT, and highest in PR/RC; this mixture had...

  13. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P < .05), whereas maternal effects were larger on BG than on ROT (P < .10). Maternal heterosis for birth weight was negative on BG (P < .11) but positive on E+ and ROT (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects were evident on BG (P < .10) and E+ (P < .01) but not on ROT. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, calf weaning hip height, and calf weaning weight:height ratio; BG was highest, ROT was intermediate, and E+ was lowest. Maternal heterosis for these traits was generally greater on E+ than on BG (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio were not important on any forage. Heterosis for weaning weight per cow exposed was substantial on all forages (P < .01) and was significantly greater on E+ (P < .01) than on BG or ROT, but maternal effects were not significant. Thus, we observed more advantage to Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows.

  14. Initial shifts in nitrogen impact on ecosystem carbon fluxes in an alpine meadow: patterns and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increases in nitrogen (N deposition can greatly stimulate ecosystem net carbon (C sequestration through positive N-induced effects on plant productivity. However, how net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE and its components respond to different N addition rates remains unclear. Using an N addition gradient experiment (six levels: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 gN m−2 yr−1 in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, we explored the responses of different ecosystem C fluxes to an N addition gradient and revealed mechanisms underlying the dynamic responses. Results showed that NEE, ecosystem respiration (ER, and gross ecosystem production (GEP all increased linearly with N addition rates in the first year of treatment but shifted to N saturation responses in the second year with the highest NEE (−7.77 ± 0.48 µmol m−2 s−1 occurring under an N addition rate of 8 gN m−2 yr−1. The saturation responses of NEE and GEP were caused by N-induced accumulation of standing litter, which limited light availability for plant growth under high N addition. The saturation response of ER was mainly due to an N-induced saturation response of aboveground plant respiration and decreasing soil microbial respiration along the N addition gradient, while decreases in soil microbial respiration under high N addition were caused by N-induced reductions in soil pH. We also found that various components of ER, including aboveground plant respiration, soil respiration, root respiration, and microbial respiration, responded differentially to the N addition gradient. These results reveal temporal dynamics of N impacts and the rapid shift in ecosystem C fluxes from N limitation to N saturation. Our findings bring evidence of short-term initial shifts in responses of ecosystem C fluxes to increases in N deposition, which should be considered when predicting long-term changes in ecosystem net C sequestration.

  15. Cascading effects of predator-detritivore interactions depend on environmental context in a Tibetan alpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinwei; Griffin, John N; Sun, Shucun

    2014-05-01

    Studies of grazing food webs show that species traits can interact with environmental factors to determine the strength of trophic cascades, but analogous context dependencies in detrital food webs remain poorly understood. In predator-detritivore-plant interaction chains, predators are expected to indirectly suppress plant biomass by reducing the density of plant-facilitating detritivores. However, this outcome can be reversed where above-ground predators drive burrowing detritivores to lower soil levels, strengthening their plant-facilitating effects. Here, we show that these trait-mediated indirect interactions further depend on environmental context in a Tibetan alpine meadow. In our study system, undulating topography generates higher (dry soil) patches interspersed with lower (wet soil) patches. Because the ability of detritivores to form deep burrows is likely to be limited by oxygen availability in low patches (wet soil), we hypothesized that (i) burrowing detritivores would undergo a vertical habitat shift, allowing them to more effectively avoid predation, in high - but not low - patches, and (ii) this shift would transmit positive effects of predators to plants in high patches by improving conditions in the lower soil layer. We tested these hypotheses using complementary field and glasshouse experiments examining whether the cascading effects of above-ground predatory beetles (presence/absence) on the density and behaviour of tunnel-forming detritivorous beetles, soil properties, and plant growth varied with patch type (low/high). Results revealed that predatory beetles did not reduce the density of detritivores in either patch type but had context-dependent trait-mediated effects, increasing the tunnelling depth of detritivores, improving soil conditions and ultimately increasing plant biomass in the high but not low patches. This study adds to an emerging predictive framework linking predators to plants in detritus food webs, demonstrating that these

  16. Differential response of microbial respiration to supplied nitrogen forms in 3 contrasting alpine meadow soils on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zeng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An incubation experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrogen (N applications in different forms (NH4NO3, NH4Cl, and KNO3 on microbial respiration considering 3 different alpine meadow soils (C poor soil, pH = 8.1, 1.6% C; C moderate soil, pH = 6.0, 5.0% C; C rich soil, pH = 7.1, 7.4% C in the Tibetan Plateau. The addition of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl increased the microbial respiration in C poor soil, but KNO3 had no effect. The inorganic N forms had no effects on C rich soil, but decreased microbial respiration in C moderate soil. Soil microbial respiration levels across the different types were ordered as follows: C poor soil < C rich soil < C moderate soil, regardless of N addition. These results suggest that the effect of N on microbial respiration in alpine meadow soils is more dependent on the initial soil pH than on soil C availability.

  17. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based evaluation of biological tissue phantoms to study multifrequency electrical impedance tomography (Mf-EIT) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-03-18

    Abstract: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) phantoms are essential for the calibration, comparison and evaluation of the EIT systems. In EIT, the practical phantoms are typically developed based on inhomogeneities surrounded by a homogeneous background to simulate a suitable conductivity contrast. In multifrequency EIT (Mf-EIT) evaluation, the phantoms must be developed with the materials which have recognizable or distinguishable impedance variations over a wide range of frequencies. In this direction the impedance responses of the saline solution (background) and a number vegetable and fruit tissues (inhomogeneities) are studied with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the frequency responses of bioelectrical impedance and conductivity are analyzed. A number of practical phantoms with different tissue inhomogeneities and different inhomogeneity configurations are developed and the multifrequency impedance imaging is studied with the Mf-EIT system to evaluate the phantoms. The conductivity of the vegetable inhomogeneities reconstructed from the EIT imaging is compared with the conductivity values obtained from the EIS studies. Experimental results obtained from multifrequency EIT reconstruction demonstrate that the electrical impedance of all the biological tissues inhomogenity decreases with frequency. The potato tissue phantom produces better impedance image in high frequency ranges compared to the cucumber phantom, because the cucumber impedance at high frequency becomes lesser than that of the potato at the same frequency range. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 The Visualization Society of Japan

  18. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) treatment for adult unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in the ankle: correlations with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Hongyue; Lu, Rong; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuang; Shang, Xiliang; Li, Hong; Hua, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) for ankle osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) using MRI and analyse correlations between MRI and clinical outcome. Forty-eight patients were recruited and underwent MR imaging, including 3D-DESS, T2-mapping and T2-STIR sequences, and completed American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring. Thickness index, T2 index of repair tissue (RT) and volume of subchondral bone marrow oedema (BME) were calculated. Subjects were divided into two groups: group A (3-12 months post-op), and group B (12-24 months post-op). Student's t test was used to compare the MRI and AOFAS score between two groups and Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyse correlations between them. Thickness index and AOFAS score of group B were higher than group A (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). T2 index and BME of group B were lower than group A (P < 0.001, P = 0.012). Thickness index, T2 index and BME were all correlated with AOFAS score (r = 0.416, r = -0.475, r = -0.353), but BME was correlated with neither thickness index nor T2 index. Significant improvement from MF can be expected on the basis of the outcomes of quantitative MRI and AOFAS score. MRI was correlated with AOFAS score. BME is insufficient as an independent predictor to evaluate repair quality, but reduction of BME can improve the patient's clinical outcome. (orig.)

  19. Effect of combined N applied at low level on the nitrogen fixation by grasses and contribution to nitrogen fertility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Chen Ming; Ma Changlin

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the study on the effect of combined N applied at low level on teh nitrogen fixation by alfalfa in monoculture and mixed culture with meadow fescue, and the effect on the absorption and utilization of indigenous soil nitrogen and nitrogen fertilizer. Amount of nitrogen fixed by alfalfa could be raised and duration of high peak of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity could be extended when nitrogen fertilizer was applied reasonably. It was especially important for the early pastures or pastures with low supporting nitrogen capacity. Transfer of nitrogen fixed by alfalfa to meadow fescue occured in mixed culture. Nitrogen fixed from alfalfa was uptaken more easily than indigenous nitrogen in soil. Planting alfalfa could raise soil fertility significantly. Meadow fescue may be able to fix nitrogen from the air in some way. When combined N was appropriately applied to soil, on which alfalfa and meadow fescue had been planted, it could promote increasing nitrogen fertility in soil

  20. Mapping Spatial Patterns of Posidonia oceanica Meadows by Means of Daedalus ATM Airborne Sensor in the Coastal Area of Civitavecchia (Central Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marcelli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of sea bed covers and seagrass in coastal waters is of key importance in monitoring and managing Mediterranean shallow water environments often subject to both increasing anthropogenic impacts and climate change effects. In this context we present a methodology for effective monitoring and mapping of Posidonia oceanica (PO meadows in turbid waters using remote sensing techniques tested by means of LAI (Leaf Area Index point sea truth measurements. Preliminary results using Daedalus airborne sensor are reported referring to the PO meadows at Civitavecchia site (central Tyrrhenian sea where vessel traffic due to presence of important harbors and huge power plant represent strong impact factors. This coastal area, 100 km far from Rome (Central Italy, is characterized also by significant hydrodynamic variations and other anthropogenic factors that affect the health of seagrass meadows with frequent turbidity and suspended sediments in the water column. During 2011–2012 years point measurements of several parameters related to PO meadows phenology were acquired on various stations distributed along 20 km of coast between the Civitavecchia and S. Marinella sites. The Daedalus airborne sensor multispectral data were preprocessed with the support of satellite (MERIS derived water quality parameters to obtain here improved thematic maps of the local PO distribution. Their thematic accuracy was then evaluated as agreement (R2 with the point sea truth measurements and regressive modeling using an on purpose developd method.

  1. Habitat selection of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in an estuary in southern Brazil: influence of salinity and submerged seagrass meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mendes Ruas

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two estuarine inlets (Saco da Mangueira and Saco do Arraial at the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The changes in relative abundance and size of post-larvae and juvenile shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and juvenile blue crab Callinectes sapidus were compared, considering the influence of salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows. The analyses were performed using generalized linear models (GLM for abundance variations and ANOVA for variations on the size of individuals. The pink shrimp was more abundant at Saco da Mangueira, in seagrass meadows and areas of higher salinity. The blue crab was more abundant at Saco do Arraial and in lower levels of salinity. The importance of submerged vegetation for the blue crab lies in a preference of smaller crabs of the species for the seagrass meadows. It has been shown that these species choose different habitats in the estuary, and both the salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows influence the selection of habitat.

  2. The effect of cellulose crystallinity on the in vitro digestibility and fermentation, kinetics of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Fonseca, A.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeria, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cellulose crystallinity on in vitro digestibility (IVD) and fermentation kinetics was investigated in samples of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws. A saturated solution of potassium permanganate was used to isolate the celluloses, and their crystallinity was evaluated in a

  3. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SOUTH TRUCKEE MEADOWS GENERAL IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (STMIG), NV. INTERIM EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first 32 weeks of operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology currently being demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. ...

  4. Seed dispersal in agricultural habitats and the restoration of species-rich meadows = Dispersie van zaden in cultuurlandschappen en het herstel van soortenrijke graslanden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van D.

    1996-01-01


    The restoration of species-rich meadows on former agricultural land in the Netherlands has a high priority, because these ecosystems have been disappearing rapidly due to eutrophication and acidification and falling water tables. In order to be able to restore such ecosystems on wet

  5. How a regional aquifer, a local aquifer and an oxbow lake impact on hydrological and biogeochemical processes in ariparian fen-meadow ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Rasmussen, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater flow pattern through a riparian fen-meadow was investigated by use of piezometer transects, soil survey, measurements of piezometric heads and measurements of hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater was sampled from piezometers and analysed for nitrate-N. Water balances and nitrate-N ...

  6. Phosphate Release Upon Long- and Short -Term Flooding of Fen Meadows Depends on Land Use History and Soil pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, B.; Van Der Ven, P. J. M.; Verhoeven, J. T. A.; Sarneel, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding of acidified and desiccated fen meadows is a management approach for mitigating loss of plant species as well as a short-term measure to prevent flooding in urban areas. Studies have shown that flooding events can cause extreme P release from soils. We questioned whether the occurrence of

  7. Phosphate release upon short- and long-term flooding of fen meadows depends on land use history and pH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, Boudewijn; van der Ven, P.J.M.; Verhoeven, Jos; Sarneel, J

    2014-01-01

    Flooding of acidified and desiccated fen meadows is a management approach for mitigating loss of plant species as well as a short-term measure to prevent flooding in urban areas. Studies have shown that flooding events can cause extreme P release from soils. We questioned whether the occurrence of

  8. Promoting Pollinating Insects in Intensive Agricultural Matrices: Field-Scale Experimental Manipulation of Hay-Meadow Mowing Regimes and Its Effects on Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services. PMID:24416434

  9. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  10. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Buri

    Full Text Available Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES. We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1 first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES; 2 first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3 first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing. Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year and cumulative (from one year to the following positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  11. Study of fluorine ion structural role in Al(PO3)3-MF glass by the 19F nuclear magnetic resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurova, N.N.; Vopilov, V.A.; Buznik, V.M.; Urusovskaya, L.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results of investigation into Al(PO 3 ) 3 -xMF glasses (M=Li, Na, K) by the 19 F NMR method are presented. Investigation supported the structural identity of glasses, containing NaF and KF. One structural position, related to fluorine atoms, coordinating lithium and aluminium ions, is observed in glasses, containing lithium fluoride. The highest mobility of fluorine atoms was revealed in glasses with lithium fluoride. Mobility of fluorine atoms is lower in glasses, containing potassium and sodium fluoride modifications. Dynamic heterogeneity in these glasses is conditioned both by distribution of frequencies of atom motion in the glass and by structural nonequivalence of positions. Fluorine atoms, coordinating cations of alkaline metals, appear to be more mobile

  12. ADO.NET och Entity Framework : En jämförelse av prestanda mellan en objektorienterad databas och en relationsdatabas

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Emelie; Andreasen, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Denna uppsats mäter och jämför prestanda mellan en objektorienterad databas och en relationsdatabas. Uppsatsen bygger på en utredande karaktär utifrån vår hypotes och vårt intresse att testa den.Hypotesen bygger på problematiken omkring mängden kod utvecklaren måste skriva för att kunna koppla ihop applikation med databas. En större mängd skriven kod som utvecklaren måste skriva borde göra att prestanda och svarstider blir långsammare. Därför ville vi undersöka om verktyg som medför en mindre...

  13. Intranasal Immunization Using Mannatide as a Novel Adjuvant for an Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Its Adjuvant Effect Compared with MF59.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Ren

    Full Text Available Intranasal vaccination is more potent than parenteral injection for the prevention of influenza. However, because the poor efficiency of antigen uptake across the nasal mucosa is a key issue, immunostimulatory adjuvants are essential for intranasal vaccines. The immunomodulator mannatide or polyactin (PA has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China, but its adjuvant effect on an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (ITIV via intranasal vaccination is unclear. To explore the adjuvant effect of PA, an inactivated trivalent influenza virus with or without PA or MF59 was instilled intranasally once a week in BALB/c mice. Humoral immunity was assessed by both the ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI methods using antigen-specific antibodies. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the IFN-γ level were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. The post-vaccination serum HI antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs for the H1N1 and H3N2 strains, antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA GMTs, mucosal SIgA GMT, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the high-dose PA-adjuvanted vaccine group. The seroconversion rate and the mucosal response for the H3N2 strain were significantly elevated after high-dose PA administration. These adjuvant effects of high-dose PA for the influenza vaccine were comparable with those of the MF59 adjuvant, and abnormal signs or pathological changes were not found in the evaluated organs. In conclusion, PA is a novel mucosal adjuvant for intranasal vaccination with the ITIV that has safe and effective mucosal adjuvanticity in mice and successfully induces both serum and mucosal antibody responses and a cell-mediated response.

  14. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) treatment for adult unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in the ankle: correlations with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Hongyue; Lu, Rong; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuang [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shang, Xiliang; Li, Hong; Hua, Yinghui [Fudan University, Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2014-08-15

    To quantitatively evaluate cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) for ankle osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) using MRI and analyse correlations between MRI and clinical outcome. Forty-eight patients were recruited and underwent MR imaging, including 3D-DESS, T2-mapping and T2-STIR sequences, and completed American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring. Thickness index, T2 index of repair tissue (RT) and volume of subchondral bone marrow oedema (BME) were calculated. Subjects were divided into two groups: group A (3-12 months post-op), and group B (12-24 months post-op). Student's t test was used to compare the MRI and AOFAS score between two groups and Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyse correlations between them. Thickness index and AOFAS score of group B were higher than group A (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). T2 index and BME of group B were lower than group A (P < 0.001, P = 0.012). Thickness index, T2 index and BME were all correlated with AOFAS score (r = 0.416, r = -0.475, r = -0.353), but BME was correlated with neither thickness index nor T2 index. Significant improvement from MF can be expected on the basis of the outcomes of quantitative MRI and AOFAS score. MRI was correlated with AOFAS score. BME is insufficient as an independent predictor to evaluate repair quality, but reduction of BME can improve the patient's clinical outcome. (orig.)

  15. Methylobacillus pratensis sp. nov., a novel non-pigmented, aerobic, obligately methylotrophic bacterium isolated from meadow grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Nina V; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Tourova, Tatjana P; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2004-09-01

    Strain F31T was isolated from meadow grass (Poa trivialis L.) sampled from the city park in Helsinki. Analysis of phenotypic and genotypic properties showed the strain to be related to the group of obligately methylotrophic non-methane utilizing bacteria (methylobacteria) with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of formaldehyde assimilation. Phylogenetic analysis showed the strain to be closely related to the genus Methylobacillus, and analysis of fatty acid composition confirmed this association. Thus, on the basis of its genotypic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed as a novel species of the genus Methylobacillus, Methylobacillus pratensis sp. nov., with F31T as the type strain (= VKM B-2247T = NCIMB 13994T).

  16. Micrometeorological measurements at Ash Meadows and Corn Creek Springs, Nye and Clark counties, Nevada, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.J.; Pupacko, Alex

    1992-01-01

    Micrometeorological data were collected at Ash Meadows and Corn Creek Springs, Nye and Clark Counties, Nevada, from October 1, 1986 through September 30, 1987. The data include accumulated measurements recorded hourly or every 30 minutes, at each site, for the following climatic variables: air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, net radiation, and soil-heat flux. Periodic sampling of sensible-heat flux and latent-heat flux were also recorded using 5-minute intervals of accumulated data. Evapotranspiration was calculated by both the eddy-correlation method and the Penman combination method. The data collected and the computer programs used to process the data are available separately on three magnetic diskettes in card-image format. (USGS)

  17. Insect emergence in relation to floods in wet meadows and swamps in the River Dalälven floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Östman, Ö; Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O

    2014-08-01

    Annual variation in flood frequency and hydroperiod during the vegetation season has ecological impacts on the floodplain biota. Although many insect groups may have a lower emergence during a flood event, it is poorly known how annual emergence of insects in temporary wetlands is related to the variation in hydrology. Between May and September, we studied the weekly emergence of 18 insect taxa over six consecutive years, 2002-2007, in six temporary flooded wetlands (four wet meadows and two forest swamps) in the River Dalälven floodplains, Central Sweden. We used emergence traps to collect emerging insects from terrestrial and aquatic parts of wet meadows and swamp forests. In all wetlands, the insect fauna was numerically dominated by the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Homoptera. On a weekly basis, 9 out of the 18 insect taxa had lower emergence in weeks with flood than in weeks with no flood, whereas no taxon had a higher emergence in weeks with flood. Over the seasons, we related insect emergence to seasonal flood frequency and length of hydroperiod. The emergence of most studied taxa decreased with increasing hydroperiod, which suggests that emergence after floods do not compensate for the reduced emergence during floods. Only Culicidae and the aquatic Chironomidae sub-families Tanypodinae and Chironominae showed an increase in emergence with increasing hydroperiod, whereas Staphylinidae peaked at intermediate hydroperiod. We conclude that a hydroperiod covering up to 40% of the vegetation season has a significant negative effect on the emergence of most taxa and that only a few taxa occurring in the temporary wetlands are actually favoured by a flood regime with recurrent and unpredictable floods.

  18. Using Seismic Refraction and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to Characterize the Valley Fill in Beaver Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, N.; Harry, D. L.; Wohl, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    This study is one of the first to use near surface geophysical techniques to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy in a high alpine, low gradient valley with a past glacial history and to obtain a preliminary grasp on the impact of Holocene beaver activity. Approximately 1 km of seismic refraction data and 5 km of GPR data were collected in Beaver Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park. An asymmetric wedge of sediment ranging in depth from 0-20 m transverse to the valley profile was identified using seismic refraction. Complementary analysis of the GPR data suggests that the valley fill can be subdivided into till deposited during the Pleistocene glaciations and alluvium deposited during the Holocene. Two main facies were identified in the GPR profiles through pattern recognition. Facie Fd, which consists of chaotic discontinuous reflectors with an abundance of diffractions, is interpreted to be glacial till. Facie Fc, which is a combination of packages of complex slightly continuous reflectors interfingered with continuous horizontal to subhorizontal reflectors, is interpreted to be post-glacial alluvium and includes overbank, pond and in-channel deposits. Fc consistently overlies Fd throughout the study area and is no more than 7 m thick in the middle of the valley. The thickness of Holocene sedimentation (beaver dams, a high abundance of fine sediment including silts and clays, historical records of beavers, and the name "Beaver Meadows" all suggest that Holocene beaver activity played a large role in sediment accumulation at this site, despite the lack of surficial relict beaver dams containing wood.

  19. Wetland and floodplain habitats management and solutions in Lower Meadow of Prut Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin VARTOLOMEI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pressure of economic development from the last 50 years in the area of Prut river, the protection measures against floods by building dams in the major river bed and the building of the hydrotechnical knot Stânca-Costeşti have been the causes of the transformation of the typical habitats in the humid areas at the border of Prut river, thus of the flood area favouring the breeding of fish and birds, endangering the ecological integrity of the area eco-system complex.In the past, Romanian Waters National Company the main manager of the water resources from Romania has started the preparation at the request of the Ministry of Water Forest and Environment Protection the inventory of the wetland and floodplains at national level, including the potential for restoration according with the particular case from Romania, where the process of land restitution to the previous owners is one important problem even in present time.In Prut catchment area is presented a large number of existing wetlands with a large restoration potential (about 200 wetlands recorded for whole Prut basin, many of them are less than 1 sqkm surface.It has to be mentioned that several wetlands which in present are in natural stage are included or will be included in the List of Protected Areas under the legislation preservation. In this regard the planning of wetlands and floodplains rehabilitation is underdevelopment and will depend by the finalization of the land restitution action.For all the types of existing habitats housing a large variety of fauna (especially avifauna, sedentary as well as migrating or passing fauna, the Maţa – Rădeanu humid area, with a surface of 386 ha, is similar to the special preservation areas from the Danube Delta.Among the protected areas within lower Prut basin, according to the criteria of habitat identification, three of them (Ostrovul Prut, Lower Prut river meadow and Vlascuta swamp have been indicated to include some wetlands as well

  20. Twenty-three years of vegetation change in a fly-ash leachate impacted meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Wilcox, Douglas; Hiebert, Ron; Murphy, Marilyn K.; Mason, Daniel; Frohnapple, Krystal

    2009-01-01

    because this transect had the deepest surface water. 5. Typical late successional vegetation associations developed since 1991 include blue joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis) and buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), but large areas consist of disturbance-dependent mosaics of rush (Juncus effusus) and other species. The large expanses of woolly sedge (Scirpus cyperinus) that dominated in the 1980’s was replaced by rush. 6. Late-successional associations (Glyceria canadensis and Calamagrostis canadensis) were closer to the wetland edge compared to the other associations after the dewatering. This pattern occurred because wet meadow vegetation persisted at the wetland edge during the period of industrial flooding, but since then these associations expanded greatly into the north half of Blag Slough. 7. Richness, diversity, and floristic quality index (FQI) increased with time at the plot, association, association trajectories, and wetland levels; whereas mean conservatism scores (mean C), the basis of FQI calculation, decreased in time. The high C values, assigned to coastal plain disjunct species and shrubs by judgment of botanists based on their empirical xii experience including regional or state level plant conservation designations are largely responsible for the contradicted trend between FQI and C. Such contradiction highlights a problem with the subjective assignment of C values, and thus the inadequacy of application of FQI in these wetland systems. 8. Occurrence of interveinal clearing in winged sumac (Rhus copallina), late boneset (Eupatorium serotinum), and black dewberry (Rubus occidentalis) suggest a potential phytotoxicity by heavy metals. However, cause-effect relationship between the metals and the plants are yet to be investigated. Nevertheless, boron and zinc accumulation ratios in leaves of woody plants (Betula populifolia, Populus tremuloides, Rhus copallina, and Rubus sp.) in 1984 suggest that boron and zinc were bioaccumulating in those