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Sample records for md brackish water

  1. Biosorption treatment of brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, M.; Ali, M.; Tariq, M.I.; Rehman, F.U.; Karim, A.; Makshoof, M.; Farooq, R.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorptivity of different agricultural wastes have been evaluated for the treatment of brackish water and a new method, based on the principle of bio-sorption has been described. Wastes of the Saccharum officinarum, Moringa oleifera, Triticum aestivcum and Oryza sativa have been used in raw forms as well as after converting them into ash and activated carbon as biosorbents for treatment of brackish water in this study. Samples of brackish water have been analyzed before and after treatment for quality control parameters of water. A significant Improvement has been observed in quality control parameters of water after treatment. pH of the water samples slightly increased from 7.68 to 7.97 with different treatments. A substantial decrease in conductivity,. TDS, TH, concentrations of cations and anions was observed in the samples of brackish water after treatment with different biosorbents. (author)

  2. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Parts of the Mathura, Agra, Etah and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh have a special problem of brackish water which is the result of the complete destruction of natural vegetation during a period of several centuries. Twenty species of trees and shrubs (listed) were planted during 1981-1982 in plots of 30 x 30 m at a spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 m. A detailed analysis of water from the Forest Research Station, Mathura is presented; pH ranged from 7.00 to 7.85 and electrical conductivity from 4.0 to 6.10. Various salt concentrations were high. At 18 months old the species that were doing well were: Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Terminalia arjuna, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbek, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia auriculata, Adhatoda vasica and Cassia siamea.

  3. Desalination of brackish and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Dilip R.

    2005-01-01

    In Pali, Rajasthan, a population of 4 lacs gets about 6 million liters of water. Only 34 out of 116 municipalities in AP get regular water. Desalination found acceptance because of the decreasing water table leading to high salinity and making conventional treatment methods irrelevant. While choosing amongst the competitive desalination techniques that are available today for conversion of large quantities of saline water, Reverse Osmosis (RO) and distillation techniques stand out. RO rules the brackish water market where feed salinity is over 700 mg/L. Waste heat is nowadays a non-entity in power plants due to the developments of waste heat recovery systems in power plant technology. Most of the large plants tend to choose thermal desalination. Improved RO economics have in turn increased the attractiveness and use of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) technology for many large drinking water projects through out the world. Energy cost is the single largest factor in the cost of Sea Water System (usually 20 to 30% of total cost of water). Nuclear Power Corporation, Kudankulam proposed to build a SW desalination system based on RO technology to meet the water requirement of the Anu Vijay Nagar township and Nuclear Power Station. Energy recovery turbine helps reduce the overall system energy requirement. (author)

  4. Desalting sea water and brackish waters: a cost update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.; Wilson, J.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report, based on first-quarter 1977 dollars, is an update of costs presented in ORNL/TM-5070 (Rev.), which gave cost estimates for desalting seawater and brackish waters based on first-quarter 1975 financial parameters. Cost estimates are given for desalting seawater by distillation and reverse osmosis and for brackish waters using reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Cost data were computed as a function of plant size and energy cost. The cost of generating steam and electrical energy on-site using coal-fired boilers as well as oil-fired boilers and dual-purpose electric/seawater distillation plants is included. While the costs of energy, equipment and labor have continued to rise, they have increased at a relatively modest rate compared with the two years prior to 1975. On an average, the cost of desalting seawater by distillation has increased approximately 15%. Costs for desalting brackish waters by the membrance processes have increased about 7%

  5. Desalting seawater and brackish waters: 1981 cost update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1982-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of desalting cost update reports. Cost data are reported for desalting seawater by various distillation systems and by reverse osmosis. Costs of desalting four brackish waters, representative of those found in the United States by both reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are also given. Cost data are presented parametrically as a function of energy cost and plant size. The cost of desalting seawater by distillation has increased by 40% during the past two years, while desalting by reverse osmosis has increased by about 36% during the same period. Brackish water desalting by reverse osmosis has only increased by about 12%, and brackish water desalting by electrodialysis is up by 40%. Again, the continued increase in energy costs has had a major impact on all desalination systems

  6. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  7. Hepatic pathologies in the brackish water catfish ( Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic histopathology recorded in livers from feral populations of the brackish water catfish Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from locations on the Lagos lagoon complex with significant anthropogenic inputs from denizen populations and industries are presented. Liver sections from sixty specimens from two locations on the ...

  8. In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínez-P., M. E.; Macek, Miroslav; Castro-G., M. T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2004), s. 133-140 ISSN 1360-2276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 296 Grant - others:UNAM/DGAPA/PAPIT(MX) IN216796 Keywords : Vibrio cholerae * protozoan feeding * brackish water Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.969, year: 2004

  9. Concentrations of arsenic in brackish lake water : Application of tristimulus colorimetric determination

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Seike, Yasushi; Okumura, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of a simple and rapid tristimulus colorimetric method for the determination of arsenic in brackish waters and its application to brackish water samples taken from brackish Lake Nakaumi are described. The determinations of arsenic in brackish water samples were made satisfactorily independent of sample salinity. By applying this method to lake water samples, the distributions and behaviors of arsenic in the lake and their controlling factors were clarified, such as seasonal vari...

  10. Desalination of brackish mine waters by reverse osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepinski, J; Lipinski, K; Chlubek, N; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    The situation concerning the pollution, by excessive salinity, of the main rivers in Poland is analyzed. The significant contribution of saline coal mine waters is evaluated, with emphasis on large quantities of brackish water in new coal mines. The results are given of preliminary experiments undertaken in order to elaborate the suitable technology. Pretreatment, concentration by reverse osmosis and disinfection of the permeate are the proposed steps. The concentrate as obtained is suitable for further utilization by evaporation.

  11. Sustainable use of Brackish water for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Iqbal, M.; Subhani, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The good quality surface-water is not sufficient to meet the crop water requirement for potential crop production. To augment the inadequate supplies of good quality water the only alternative is the use of poor quality , ground water. To explore sustainable use of brackish water a study was conducted in Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia South, Bahawalnagar, Punjab during the year 1998-99 to 2000-2001 with the objective to evaluate the impact of different irrigation treatments on physical and chemical properties of soil and crops yield. The experiment was conducted on farmer's field with his collaboration. The initial soil pH was about 8.0 while ECe and SAR ranged between 2.0 to 4.1 dS m/sup -/1 and 7.1 to 15.1 (mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/)1/2, respectively with sandy loam texture. The brackish water used for irrigation had ECiw, SAR and RSC between 5.6 to 6.7 dS m/sup -/1, 15.1 to 16.4 (mmolc L/sup -1/sup 1/2/ and 1.52 to 1.64 (mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/.The crops tested were wheat during Rabi and cotton during Kharif season. The treatments tested were: irrigation with canal water (T/sub 1/), canal water during Rabi and drainage water during Kharif (T/sub 2/), drainage water for two years and canal water for one season(T/sub 3/); and drainage water for three years + application of gypsum at the rate of 25% of CWR and thereafter canal water for one season(T 4). Fertilizers were applied at the rate of 120-60-50 N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K20 kg ha/sup -1/, respectively in the form of urea, diammonium phosphate and sulfate of potash. Crops irrigated with drainage water visualized yield reduction depending upon the share of drainage water in the irrigation delta. Application of gypsum provided reasonable check against salinity build-up with brackish water irrigation besides a nominal boost of 3 and 5% in yield of wheat and cotton, respectively over comparable treatment of year-round brackish water irrigation lacking gypsum application. Drainage water in alternate arrangement of seasonal

  12. Validation of OMA formation in cold brackish and sea waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, A.; Hill, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study addressed the challenge of cleaning oil spilled in cold, ice-infested waters in the St. Lawrence estuary in the winter. The main objective was to develop an environmentally safe and efficient cleansing method. The use of an oil-mineral agglomeration (OMA) process has been proposed to improve dispersion and biodegradation of the spilled oil. This bench-scale study was conducted to validate this proposed remedial method. The theory for this natural attenuation process for oil spills on shores is that oil droplets and suspended sediments disperse in the water column and aggregate into OMAs. OMA formation involves floc break and aggregation by differential settling. This study examined the formation time and the concentration of OMA in a typical turbulent estuarine environment and determined the effect of sediment size and concentration on OMA formation. It also verified if OMA forms in cold brackish water considering 2 types of oils which are commonly transported along the St. Lawrence estuary to Quebec City. OMA formation was validated with Heidrun and IF30 crude oils and 2 types of engineered sediments to determine the best sediment to form OMA and to determine the minimum sediment concentration needed to maximize OMA formation. The minimum agitation time to reach this maximizing condition of OMA formation was also determined. It was concluded that OMAs form readily in cold brackish and seawater when Heidrun or IF30 crude oils are mixed with chalk or bentonite sediment. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  13. In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Elena Martínez; Macek, Miroslav; Galván, María Teresa Castro

    2004-01-01

    In situ elimination of fluorescently labelled Vibrio cholerae (FLB) was measured in two saline water bodies in Mexico: in a brackish water lagoon, Mecoacán (Gulf of Mexico; State of Tabasco) and an athalassohaline lake, Alchichica (State of Puebla). Disappearance rates of fluorescently labelled V. cholera O1 showed that they were eliminated from the environment at an average rate of 32% and 63%/day, respectively (based on the bacterial standing stocks). The indirect immunofluorescence method confirmed the presence of V. cholerae O1 in the lagoon. However, the elimination of FLB was not directly related either to the presence or absence of the bacterium in the water body or to the phytoplankton concentration.

  14. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  15. An integrated fish-plankton aquaculture system in brackish water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, S; Fargier, L; Lazzaro, X; Baras, E; De Wilde, N; Drakidès, C; Amiel, C; Rispal, B; Blancheton, J-P

    2013-02-01

    Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture takes advantage of the mutualism between some detritivorous fish and phytoplankton. The fish recycle nutrients by consuming live (and dead) algae and provide the inorganic carbon to fuel the growth of live algae. In the meanwhile, algae purify the water and generate the oxygen required by fishes. Such mechanism stabilizes the functioning of an artificially recycling ecosystem, as exemplified by combining the euryhaline tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii and the unicellular alga Chlorella sp. Feed addition in this ecosystem results in faster fish growth but also in an increase in phytoplankton biomass, which must be limited. In the prototype described here, the algal population control is exerted by herbivorous zooplankton growing in a separate pond connected in parallel to the fish-algae ecosystem. The zooplankton production is then consumed by tilapia, particularly by the fry and juveniles, when water is returned to the main circuit. Chlorella sp. and Brachionus plicatilis are two planktonic species that have spontaneously colonized the brackish water of the prototype, which was set-up in Senegal along the Atlantic Ocean shoreline. In our system, water was entirely recycled and only evaporation was compensated (1.5% volume/day). Sediment, which accumulated in the zooplankton pond, was the only trophic cul-de-sac. The system was temporarily destabilized following an accidental rotifer invasion in the main circuit. This caused Chlorella disappearance and replacement by opportunist algae, not consumed by Brachionus. Following the entire consumption of the Brachionus population by tilapias, Chlorella predominated again. Our artificial ecosystem combining S. m. heudelotii, Chlorella and B. plicatilis thus appeared to be resilient. This farming system was operated over one year with a fish productivity of 1.85 kg/m2 per year during the cold season (January to April).

  16. Evidence of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry movement between fresh water and a brackish environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, I; Rohtla, M; Saks, L; Svirgsden, R; Kesler, M; Matetski, L; Vetemaa, M

    2017-08-01

    This study reports descent of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry from their natal streams to brackish waters of the Baltic Sea and their use of this environment as an alternative rearing habitat before ascending back to freshwater streams. To the authors' knowledge, residency in a brackish environment has not previously been demonstrated in S. salar fry. Recruitment success and evolutionary significance of this alternative life-history strategy are presently not known. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Evolutionary bottlenecks in brackish water habitats drive the colonization of fresh water by stingrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, K N; Hauffe, T; Stelbrink, B; Albrecht, C; Wilke, T

    2017-08-01

    Species richness in freshwater bony fishes depends on two main processes: the transition into and the diversification within freshwater habitats. In contrast to bony fishes, only few cartilaginous fishes, mostly stingrays (Myliobatoidei), were able to colonize fresh water. Respective transition processes have been mainly assessed from a physiological and morphological perspective, indicating that the freshwater lifestyle is strongly limited by the ability to perform osmoregulatory adaptations. However, the transition history and the effect of physiological constraints on the diversification in stingrays remain poorly understood. Herein, we estimated the geographic pathways of freshwater colonization and inferred the mode of habitat transitions. Further, we assessed habitat-related speciation rates in a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework to understand factors driving the transition of stingrays into and the diversification within fresh water. Using South American and Southeast Asian freshwater taxa as model organisms, we found one independent freshwater colonization event by stingrays in South America and at least three in Southeast Asia. We revealed that vicariant processes most likely caused freshwater transition during the time of major marine incursions. The habitat transition rates indicate that brackish water species switch preferably back into marine than forth into freshwater habitats. Moreover, our results showed significantly lower diversification rates in brackish water lineages, whereas freshwater and marine lineages exhibit similar rates. Thus, brackish water habitats may have functioned as evolutionary bottlenecks for the colonization of fresh water by stingrays, probably because of the higher variability of environmental conditions in brackish water. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  19. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  20. Delineating fresh water and brackish water aquifers by GIS and groundwater quality data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.; Latif, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Mona project area, Bhalwal, district Sargodha to delineate fresh water and brackish water aquifers by GIS (Geographic Information System) and historic groundwater quality data of 138 deep tube wells installed in the study area. The groundwater quality zonations were made by overlapping maps of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) and RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate). Seven zones of groundwater quality consisting of good, marginal, hazardous and their combinations were identified. The results indicated redistribution of salts in the aquifer and rise in water table in some parts of the study area from 1965-1997. (author)

  1. Optimization of Lead Removal via Napier Grass in Synthetic Brackish Water using Response Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongsawat, P.; Suttiarporn, P.; Wutsanthia, K.; Kongsiri, G.

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the lead (Pb) phytoremediation by Napier grass was studied on the plant’s growth and plant’s tolerance on the Pb toxicity in synthetic brackish water. It was found that the plant was high tolerance to high level of Pb concentration (10 mg/l) in synthetic brackish water. Which revealed on the possibilities of plant’s growth under the presence of Pb contaminated condition. According to the Pb removal efficiency, the highest one (88.63±4.9%) was found at 10 ppm Pb concentration, 0.3 g/l NaCl concentration during the period 45 day. However, this study investigated the optimum condition for lead (Pb) removal from synthetic brackish water using phytoremediation treatment with Napier grass through a Box-Behnken Design. Three operational variables, i.e. Pb concentration (1, 5.5, 10 mg/l), NaCl (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 g/l) and period time (7, 26, 45 day), were determined. The results were provided evidence that the highest Pb removal efficiency (93.56%) from synthetic brackish water via Napier grass was Pb and NaCl concentration at 10 mg/l and 0.5 g/l during 45 day.

  2. On brackish water desalination economics and alternative renewable energies in Mena countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Borgi, Anis

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, water management in MENA, no longer exclusive to a sectoral issue pertaining to engineering and technical expertise such as irrigation, water supply and water storage, becomes a shared developmental challenge. In order to face an increasingly growing water crisis, attention on balancing the supply and demand for water given the current constraints, needs analysis of conventional and non conventional water resources from a range of perspectives, including considerations about technological dynamics and alternative renewable energies, which are highly recommended. Thanks to engaged technical progress enabling sensitive desalination cost reduction, water crisis could be of lower impacts. For this region being the world leader in desalination technology investments, we are obliged to rexamine the characteristics of alternative renewable energies. To prevent water shortage from being a constraint to economic development and social stability in MENA, we argue brackish water desalination as one of the most promising and viable options, notably in long term for future generations. This paper contains four sections. brackish water characteristics are clarified in section 1. Then in section 2, we focus on factors affecting both desalination costs and desalination implementation costs. A particular attention is spent in section 3 to electro-dialysis reverse (EDR), subsequent capital and O and M costs approximations. Besides, since there is a pressing need for brackish water desalination, which is energy intensive, alternative renewable energies related to desalination technologies are hightlighted in section 4.

  3. REMOVAL OF NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER USING ELECTROCOAGULATION AS A FIRST STEP FOR DESALINATION OF BRACKISH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasinton Simanjuntak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, electrocoagulation method was employed to remove natural organic matter from brackish water. This study explores the potential of brackish water as a source of potable water. Two electrochemical variables, potential and contact time, were tested to determine their effect on the treatment efficiency defined in terms of the reduction of the absorbance at the wavelength of 254 nm (A254. Both potential and contact time were found to influence the removal efficiency of the method, and the best result was obtained from the experiment using the potential of 8 V and contact time of 60 min, resulting in 69.5% reduction of the absorbance. Very clean treated water was produced with much lower conductivity (12.06 mS/cm as compared to that obtained for the sea water sample from a location near to the sampling site (133.9 mS/cm.

  4. A comparative study of boron and arsenic (III) rejection from brackish water by reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Teychene, Benoî t; Collet, Gaelle; Gallard, Hervé ; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare at lab-scale the rejection efficiency of several reverse osmosis membranes (RO) toward arsenic (III) and boron during the filtration of a synthetic brackish water. The effect of pH and operating conditions on the rejection of each RO membrane was studied. Two types of membrane were investigated: "brackish water" and "sea water" membranes. Our results showed that the metalloid rejection depends on the membrane type, pH and transmembrane pressure applied. Increasing pH above the dissociation constant (pKa) of each specie improves significantly the metalloid rejection by RO membranes, whatever the membrane type. Moreover, at identical operating conditions (pH, transmembrane pressure), results showed that the brackish water membranes have a higher water flux and exhibit lower metalloid rejection. The highest As(III) rejection value for the tested brackish water membranes was 99% obtained at pH = 9.6 and 40 bars, whereas it was found that the sea water RO membranes could highly reject As(III), more than 99%, even at low pH and low pressure (pH = 7.6 and 24 bars).Regarding Boron rejection, similar conclusions could be drawn. The sea water RO membranes exert higher removal, with a high rejection value above 96% over the tested conditions. More generally, this study showed that, whatever the operating conditions or the tested membranes, the boron and As(III) permeate concentrations are below the WHO guidelines. In addition, new data about the boron and arsenic permeability of each tested RO membrane was brought thanks to a theoretical calculation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. A comparative study of boron and arsenic (III) rejection from brackish water by reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Teychene, Benoît

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare at lab-scale the rejection efficiency of several reverse osmosis membranes (RO) toward arsenic (III) and boron during the filtration of a synthetic brackish water. The effect of pH and operating conditions on the rejection of each RO membrane was studied. Two types of membrane were investigated: "brackish water" and "sea water" membranes. Our results showed that the metalloid rejection depends on the membrane type, pH and transmembrane pressure applied. Increasing pH above the dissociation constant (pKa) of each specie improves significantly the metalloid rejection by RO membranes, whatever the membrane type. Moreover, at identical operating conditions (pH, transmembrane pressure), results showed that the brackish water membranes have a higher water flux and exhibit lower metalloid rejection. The highest As(III) rejection value for the tested brackish water membranes was 99% obtained at pH = 9.6 and 40 bars, whereas it was found that the sea water RO membranes could highly reject As(III), more than 99%, even at low pH and low pressure (pH = 7.6 and 24 bars).Regarding Boron rejection, similar conclusions could be drawn. The sea water RO membranes exert higher removal, with a high rejection value above 96% over the tested conditions. More generally, this study showed that, whatever the operating conditions or the tested membranes, the boron and As(III) permeate concentrations are below the WHO guidelines. In addition, new data about the boron and arsenic permeability of each tested RO membrane was brought thanks to a theoretical calculation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Potabilization of brackish water by electrodialysis. Study of natural samples with a laboratory unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz Sastre, J. A.; Alonso-Lopez, J.

    1972-01-01

    Potabilization of brackish waters from Ciguela (Toledo) and Riansares (Toledo) rivers, and from wells 1 and 2 at Torre Pacheco (Murcia), as well as of sea water diluted to 5,000 ppm has been studied in process conditions optimized from experiments with synthetic solutions. The study includes: removal of suspended and organic matter, determination of limit current density, power requirements, ion selectivity and daily maximum output of the unit. (Author) 8 refs

  7. Role of mangroves in brackish water fish culture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, S.

    Mangroves is a specialized marine ecosystem consisting of a group of plants growing in muddy, loose and wet soils in tropical and subtropical areas, comprising of shallow, coastal waters, deltas, estuaries or lagoons. Besides ecological importance...

  8. Radiological study of brackish and fresh water food samples in Lagos and Ondo states, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, T.J.; Ojo, O.C.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of the average radioactivity concentration in brackish and fresh water food samples in Lagos and Ondo States of Nigeria was carried out using a very sensitive gamma spectroscopic system consisting of a 76 mm x 76 mm Nal (TI) scintillation detector coupled to a computerized ACCUSPEC installation. All the radionuclide detected are traceable to the naturally occurring 4 ''0K and ''2''3''2Th. The average concentrations of ''2''3''8U and ''2''3''2Th were found to be higher in brackish water food samples, 50.92±7.04 Bq/kg and 24.60± 6.47 Bq/kg respectively. The average concentration of ''4''0K was found to be higher in food samples got from freshwater, 738.94±84.81Bq/kg

  9. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Research on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems, and our understanding of how plant species diversity and interactions affect processes in marine ecosystems is still limited. To investigate if plant species richness and composition influence...... plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...

  10. Adaptation, growth and survival of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bafgh brackish water

    OpenAIRE

    Sarsangi, A.H.; Mohammadi, M.; Mashaii, N.; Rajabipou, F.; Bitaraf, A.; Askari, H.M.; Moazedi, J.; Nezamabadi, H.; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the possibility of adaptation, growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with 0.3g initial weight and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) with 0.7g initial weight in underground brackish water. Fry of Nile tilapia and red tilapia imported from Indonesia and after passing larviculture (25g) were examined separately in fiber glass tank by two replicate. Fish were fed at a restricted feeding program according to standard table during the light ...

  11. Brackish Water Desalination Coupled With Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new bio-electrochemical system was proposed for simultaneous removal of organic matters and salinity from actual domestic wastewater and synthetically prepared saline water, respectively. The performance of a three-chambered microbial osmotic fuel cell (MOFC provided with forward osmosis (FO membrane and cation exchange membrane (CEM was evaluated with respect to the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from wastewater, electricity generation, and desalination of saline water. The MOFC wasinoculated with activated sludge and fueled with actual domestic wastewater. Results revealed that maximum removal efficiency of COD from wastewater, TDS removal efficiency from saline water, power density, and current density were 96%, 90%, 30.02 mW/m2, and 107.20 mA/m2, respectively.

  12. MINERAL NUTRITION OF CRISPHEAD LETTUCE GROWN IN A HYDROPONIC SYSTEM WITH BRACKISH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMMADY RAMALHO E SOARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water availability in the Brazilian semiarid is restricted and often the only water source available has high salt concentrations. Hydroponics allows using these waters for production of various crops, including vegetables, however, the water salinity can cause nutritional disorders. Thus, two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, to evaluate the effects of salinity on the mineral nutrition of crisphead lettuce, cultivar Taina, in a hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique, using brackish water in the nutrient solution, which was prepared by adding NaCl to the local water (0.2 dS m-1. A randomized blocks experimental design was used in both experiments. The treatments consisted of water of different salinity levels (0.2, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 dS m-1 with four replications, totaling 24 plots for each experiment. The water added to compensate for the water-depth loss due to evapotranspiration (WCET was the brackish water of each treatment in Experiment I and the local water without modifications in Experiment II. The increase in the salinity of the water used for the nutrient solution preparation reduced the foliar phosphorus and potassium contents and increased the chloride and sodium contents, regardless of the WCET. Foliar nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and sulfur contents were not affected by increasing the water salinity used for the nutrient solution preparation.

  13. Brackish groundwater as an alternative source of cooling water for nuclear power plants in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, A.; Olshina, A.

    1984-01-01

    The western Negev is being considered as a potential site for the location of a nuclear powerplant. Since this part of Israel has no surface water, the only alternatives for cooling water are piped-in water, Mediterranean water and local, brackish groundwater. The Judea Group aquifer was examined for its potential to provide the required amount of cooling water over the lifetime of the plant, without causing a drastic lowering of the regional water table. The salinity of the water tends to increase from east to west. Flow within the aquifer is in the direction of Beer Sheva, where the extraction rate is 32 to 35 million cu m/yr. This has resulted in a salinity creep of 5-10 mg Cl per year in the Beer Sheva area, which poses a danger of deterioration of its water supply in the long term. Given the assumed range of aquifer properties, extraction of brackish water for cooling purposes will not result in large changes in the regional water table. Exploitation of the more saline water to the southwest of Beer Sheva could preserve the quality of Beer Sheva's water supply, at the expense of an increase in the depth from which it must be pumped. 2 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  14. Management of Brackish water for crop production under arid and semi-arid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, G.; Ghafoor, A.; Akhtar, S.; Shah, S.H.; Mahmood, N.

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable crop production, changing soil or water chemistry so as to counter the adverse effects of brackish water is a good option. This is normally accomplished by soil or water applied amendments such as gypsum. The other option of blending or cycling brackish and non-brackish water also has merits to reduce the potential hazards. The biological and organic amendments improve soil physical conditions which, otherwise, are expected to be deteriorated by the use of brackish water. Keeping this in view, a field experiment was conducted on a non saline-non sodic sandy loam soil (EC/sub e/ 1.31-1.76 dS m/sup -1/, pH = 8.47-8.61, SAR = 5.50-7.41, infiltration rate 0.6-0.8 cm/h, bulk density = 1.56-1.61 Mg m/sup -3/ for the upper 15 cm soil depth) to evaluate the growth response of cotton crop to different soil and water treatments. Treatments included: T/sub 1/ canal water), T/sub 2/ [tube well water (EC = 3.38 dS m/sup -1/, SAR = 16.43 and RSC = 5.57 mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/)], T3 [cyclic use (alternate irrigations with canal and tube well waters)], T/sub 4/ (tube well water as such + FYM at the rate of 25 Mg ha/sup -1/annually) and T/sub 5/ (tube well water + gypsum at the rate of water gypsum requirement (WRSC to be decreased up to 00). During the first year of experimentation seed cotton yield was not significantly affected by the applied treatments and was in the decreasing order of: T/sub 3/ (2361 kg ha/sup -1/) > T/sub 4/ (2073 kg ha/sup -1/) > T 1 (2015 kg ha/sup -1/) > T/sub 5/ (2001 kg ha.1 and T 2 (1982 ha/sup -1/. Number of bolls picked per plant was in the decreasing order of: T 2 (33) > T/sub 4/ (32) > T/sub 1/ (31) > T/sub 3/ (30) and T/sub 5/ (26) with non-significant treatment differences. The pH, EC/sub e/ and SAR values remained below safe limits by this cotton (first) crop. (author)

  15. High pressure membrane foulants of seawater, brackish water and river water: Origin assessed by sugar and bacteriohopanepolyol signatures

    KAUST Repository

    Mondamert, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the origin of foulant material recovered on membranes used in water treatment. Firstly, sugar signatures were assessed from the monosaccharide composition. As results were not conclusive, a statistical approach using discriminant analysis was applied to the sugar data set in order to predict the origin of the foulant material. Three groups of various origins (algal, microbial, continental dissolved organic matter) were used as sugar references for the prediction. The results of the computation showed that the origin of reverse osmosis (RO) seawater foulant material is influenced by both the location of the water sources and the season. RO brackish water and nanofiltration river water foulant materials had a terrestrial origin. Secondly, bacteriohopanepolyol signatures indicated that RO seawater foulant material had a marine signature, RO brackish water foulant material had both a marine and a terrestrial origin and the nanofiltration river water foulant material contained only a terrestrial signature. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  16. PRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp IRRIGATED WITH BRACKISH WATER UNDER DIFFERENT LEACHING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  17. Impact of increased fuel costs and inflation on the cost of desalting sea water and brackish waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The combined increases in the cost of fuel, equipment, and money during the past four years have had a marked impact on the cost of desalting saline waters. The current costs of desalting seawater by distillation and reverse osmosis and brackish waters by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis as a function of plant size and feedwater chemistry are estimated. Typically, distillation plant capital costs have increased from dollar 1 per daily gallon to dollar 3 per daily gallon for large plants (100 Mgd) and from approximately dollar 1.40 per daily gallon to approximately dollar 5 per daily gallon per plant sizes of 5 Mgd or less. Consequently, water costs are now ranging from dollar 3 to dollar 4 per 1000 gal when oil is used to generate steam. Similarly, the costs of desalting inland brackish waters using reverse osmosis or electrodialysis have increased significantly

  18. Electrodialytic desalination of brackish water: determination of optimal experimental parameters using full factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Soumaya; Helali, Nawel; Boubakri, Ali; Sayadi, Ilhem Ben Salah; Tlili, Mohamed; Amor, Mohamed Ben

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the desalination of brackish water by electrodialysis (ED). A two level-three factor (23) full factorial design methodology was used to investigate the influence of different physicochemical parameters on the demineralization rate (DR) and the specific power consumption (SPC). Statistical design determines factors which have the important effects on ED performance and studies all interactions between the considered parameters. Three significant factors were used including applied potential, salt concentration and flow rate. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that applied potential and salt concentration are the main effect for DR as well as for SPC. The effect of interaction between applied potential and salt concentration was observed for SPC. A maximum value of 82.24% was obtained for DR under optimum conditions and the best value of SPC obtained was 5.64 Wh L-1. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the DR and the SPC profiles with satisfactory results. The process was applied for the treatment of real brackish water using the optimal parameters.

  19. Further investigations of aquaponics using brackish water resources of the Negev desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Appelbaum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor, floating raft aquaponic systems using the brackish waters of the Negev Desert in Israel and a fresh water control are described. 7 m2 of vegetables and herbs were grown in each recirculating system with Tilapia sp. fish. Plant growth was excellent for species such as celery, Swiss chard, spring onions and watercress, and fish health and growth were good. Growth rates for fish were, however, low, with an upper limit of 1.1 g per day and would have increased with ad libitum feeding. Water quality was well controlled, and iron chelate was added to correct chlorosis problems. Leafy growth was very good, but fruiting could be improved with the addition of potassium (K and other micronutrients.

  20. Evaluation of Water Quality Change of Brackish Lake in Snowy Cold Regions Accompanying Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Nakatsugawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study addresses evaluation of water quality change of brackish lake based on the estimation of hydrological quantities resulting from long-term hydrologic process accompanying climate change. For brackish lakes, such as Lake Abashiri in Eastern Hokkaido, there are concerns about water quality deterioration due to increases in water temperature and salinity. For estimating some hydrological quantities in the Abashiri River basin, including Lake Abashiri, we propose the following methods: 1) MRI-NHRCM20, a regional climate model based on the Representative Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC AR5, 2) generalized extreme value distribution for correcting bias, 3) kriging adopted variogram for downscaling and 4) Long term Hydrologic Assessment model considering Snow process (LoHAS). In addition, we calculate the discharge from Abashiri River into Lake Abashiri by using estimated hydrological quantities and a tank model, and simulate impacts on water quality of Lake Abashiri due to climate change by setting necessary conditions, including the initial conditions of water temperature and water quality, the pollution load from the inflow rivers, the duration of ice cover and salt pale boundary. The result of the simulation of water quality indicates that climate change is expected to raise the water temperature of the lake surface by approximately 4°C and increase salinity of surface of the lake by approximately 4psu, also if salt pale boundary in the lake raises by approximately 2-m, the concentration of COD, T-N and T-P in the bottom of the lake might increase. The processes leading to these results are likely to be as follows: increased river water flows in along salt pale boundary in lake, causing dynamic flow of surface water; saline bottom water is entrained upward, where it mixes with surface water; and the shear force acting at salt pale boundary helps to increase the supply of salts from bottom saline water to the surface water. In the future, we will

  1. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coa...

  2. Feasibility study of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, culture in earthen ponds using brackish water of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, S.M.V.; Salehi, A.A.; Pourgholam, R.; Ghanei Tehrani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) post-larvae 12 were obtained from Bushehr province and reared at the Caspian Sea Ecological Research Institute (Mazandaran, Iran) in summer 2012 using brackish water of the Caspian Sea. Prior to start of the experiment, post-larvae were gradually adapted to brackish water. The shrimp was stocked in a 1000 m2 earthen pond with a stocking density of 31 individual/m2. The earthen pond was in quarantine without discharge valve. During the rearing period, there w...

  3. Development of a sensor for the detection of Escherichia coli in brackish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso Monique

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of bacterial pathogens is important for marine environmental protection, because the presence of these microorganisms can be a serious risk for human health. For this reason, a portable sensor implemented as an electronic embedded system featuring disposable measurement cells was used to evaluate the ability and sensitivity of detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli as an indicator of fecal pollution in transitional environments and a water sample added with E. coli (102 CFU/mL was assayed. The first result obtained from the laboratory experiment seems promising for the determination of E. coli in environmental samples, though further improvements will be needed for the field application of this sensor in marine and brackish waters.

  4. COMPOSITIONAL PROPERTIES OF THREE FRESHWATER CARP SPECIES GROWN IN BRACKISH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ismail Chughtai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three freshwater fish species viz. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Gibelion catla, grown in brackish water ponds were analyzed for compositional properties to assess the potential of this habitat to produce nutritionally adequate fish for human consumption. Overall, the unsaturated fatty acids were lower in L. rohita (46.6% than saturated fatty acids; while in C. mrigala and G. catla, the unsaturated fatty acids were 50.4% and 58.2%, respectively. The most abundant saturated fatty acid in examined species was palmitic acid (C16:0, 23.7 to 34.1%; mono-unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1 19.6 to 31.7% and poly-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:2 9.46 to 13.3%. A reasonable amount of essential fatty acids ω-3 (5.80 to 9.26% and ω-6 (9.46 to 13.3% was also found in these species while growing in brackish water on salt tolerant forages like Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica and Kochia indica as supplemental feed. The ω-3/ω-6 ratio was calculated as 0.46, 0.80 and 0.69 in L. rohita, C. mrigala and G. catla, respectively. The maximum EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 was observed in C. mrigala (2.23%, followed by G. catla (1.62% and L. rohita (0.98%. While the DHA (docosahexanenoic acids, C22:6 was found maximum in G. catla (1.97% and minimum in C. mrigala (0.95%. The results of body composition indicated that L. rohita found maximum protein contents (19.2% with minimum total fats (1.28% while C. mrigala found maximum total fats (2.11% but minimum protein contents (18.3%. Overall results indicated that the Indian carps grown in brackish water have comparable chemical composition and nutritive value with the same species grown in freshwater medium.

  5. Hatching success in brackish water of Perca fluviatilis eggs obtained from the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange

    2016-01-01

    tolerance of the eggs in vivo, and the salinities at which some populations spawn in situ (7 vs. 9.6 ‰). In the present study, hatching success of perch was determined in vivo for a Danish, western Baltic, brackish water population at salinities of 4, 7, 10 and 12 ‰. Furthermore, in order to place...... the population genetically among other European perch populations, individual egg samples were sequenced for a 390 base pair fragment of the mtDNA Dloop region. Hatching occurred at all four salinities, with no statistical differences among treatments. Successful hatching at 12 ‰ is well above salinities of 7......‰, which has previously been the highest reported from in vivo studies. This discrepancy is likely to be a result of methodological differences (e.g. different temperature) or perhaps interspecific variability in egg hatching abilities among perch populations. The perch from the present study consisted...

  6. Biofouling on Coated Carbon Steel in Cooling Water Cycles Using Brackish Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Water cooling utilizing natural waters is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities such as power plants. The cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer capacity and enhance corrosion. The performance of two fouling-release coatings combined with hypochlorite treatment were studied in a power plant utilizing brackish sea water from the Baltic Sea for cooling. The effect of hypochlorite as an antifouling biocide on material performance and species composition of microfouling formed on coated surfaces was studied during the summer and autumn. Microfouling on surfaces of the studied fouling-release coatings was intensive in the cooling water cycle during the warm summer months. As in most cases in a natural water environment the fouling consisted of both inorganic fouling and biofouling. Chlorination decreased the bacterial number on the surfaces by 10–1000 fold, but the efficacy depended on the coating. In addition to decreasing the bacterial number, the chlorination also changed the microbial species composition, forming the biofilm on the surfaces of two fouling-release coatings. TeknoTar coating was proven to be more efficient in combination with the hypochlorite treatment against microfouling under these experimental conditions.

  7. Effects of thermal discharges on the seasonal patterns of nutrient concentrations in brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitchals, D.

    1985-05-01

    Massiv quantities of water are used in power plant cooling systems, especially nuclear power plants, and are often returned to the donor ecosystem at significantly elevated temperatures. Few studies of the environmental effects of such a situation have looked extensively at the effects on nutrients in the water. The present study examined the effects of cooling water discharges from a nuclear power plant on the seasonal nutrient patterns within and outside a brackish water, research artificial lake, the 0.9 km 2 Biotest Basin on Sweden's east coast. The lack of ice cover in winter is the most apparent effect. In a portion of the lake with a relatively long water residence time, on the order of a few days, the vernal nutrient depletion of phosphate, nitrate, and nitrite apparently began sooner than outside the lake. Benthic influence on nutrient concentrations in the free water mass may be very significant in coastal areas receiving heat inputs. This study's data apparently support the conclusion by other researchers that phosphorus may be the nutrient limiting algal growth in the spring in this area of the central Baltic Sea. Determination of a nutrient budget for the Basin was unachievable because inlet and outlet nutrient concentrations were insufficiently different to override experimental variation. Implications for management of heat inputs to coastal ecosystems include avoidance of areas with high nutrient content, rich organic sediment, or poor flushing. (author)

  8. Efficient Desalination of Brackish Ground Water via a Novel Capacitive Deionization Cell Using Nanoporous Activated Carbon Cloth Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Laxman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea water intrusion in ground water sources has made brackish water desalination a necessity in Oman. The application of capacitive deionization (CDI for the deionization of ground water samples from wells in Al-Musanaah Wilayat is proposed and demonstrated. A CDI cell is fabricated using nanoporous activated carbon cloth (ACC as the electrodes and is shown to be power efficient for desalting ground water samples with total dissolved solids (TDS of up to 4,000 mg/l. The CDI cell was able to remove up to 73% of the ionic scaling and fouling contaminants from brackish water samples. The power consumption for deionization of brackish water was estimated to be 1 kWh/m3 of desalinated water, which is much lower than the power required to process water with equivalent TDS by the reverse osmosis processes. The CDI process is elaborated, and observations and analysis of the ion adsorption characteristics and electrical properties of the capacitive cell are elucidated.

  9. [Effects of brackish water irrigation on soil enzyme activity, soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Wang, Fei; Liu, Tao; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-09-01

    Brackish water irrigation utilization is an important way to alleviate water resource shortage in arid region. A field-plot experiment was set up to study the impact of the salinity level (0.31, 3.0 or 5.0 g · L(-1) NaCl) of irrigated water on activities of soil catalase, invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase in drip irrigation condition, and the responses of soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition were also determined by soil carbon dioxide flux instrument (LI-8100) and nylon net bag method. The results showed that in contrast with fresh water irrigation treatment (CK), the activities of invertase, β-glucosidase and cellulase in the brackish water (3.0 g · L(-1)) irrigation treatment declined by 31.7%-32.4%, 29.7%-31.6%, 20.8%-24.3%, respectively, while soil polyphenoloxidase activity was obviously enhanced with increasing the salinity level of irrigated water. Compared to CK, polyphenoloxidase activity increased by 2.4% and 20.5%, respectively, in the brackish water and saline water irrigation treatments. Both soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient decreased with increasing the salinity level, whereas, microbial metabolic quotient showed an increasing tendency with increasing the salinity level. Soil CO2 fluxes in the different treatments were in the order of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) ≥ saline water irrigation (5.0 g · L(-1)). Moreover, CO2 flux from plastic film mulched soil was always much higher than that from no plastic film mulched soil, regardless the salinity of irrigated water. Compared with CK, soil CO2 fluxes in the saline water and brackish water treatments decreased by 29.8% and 28.2% respectively in the boll opening period. The decomposition of either cotton straw or alfalfa straw in the different treatments was in the sequence of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) > saline water treatment (5.0 g · L(-1)). The organic matter

  10. Brackish and seawater desalination for process and demineralised water production for large power plants in the North Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Rolf [Hager + Elsaesser GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Brinkmann, Juergen [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Large power plants for power generation from fossil fuels are constantly being optimised in order to improve their efficiency. One element of the overall considerations is once-through cooling with brackish or seawater on sites near the sea. In addition to the higher overall efficiency, such sites - thanks to their connection to ocean shipping - also offer infrastructural advantages regarding fuel supply and residual material disposal compared to inland sites. Because the cooling water intake and discharge structures have to be built anyway, they lend themselves to also producing the process and demineralised water from the brackish or seawater. In this case, the use of fresh or drinking water as resources can be minimised. In the following report, we present a pilot study using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis on a North Sea site with raw water intake from a seaport basin. (orig.)

  11. Uptake and effects of americium-241 on a brackish-water amphipod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppenheit, M.; Murray, C.N.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of experimental work undertaken using the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni duebeni and the transuranium nuclide americium-241. Data on the accumulation of this actinide showed that the larger fraction of the total body burden is associated with the exoskeleton. It was found that the body burden remained constant in the range pH 8.0-6.5 even though the water concentration changed markedly. It would thus appear that the concept of a concentration factor should be re-examined and it is proposed that a factor should be defined in terms of environmental and chemical parameters which represent the bioavailable fraction of the actinide. The effect of americium on survival and moulting was studied at two activity concentrations; the dose rates and absorbed doses under the experimental conditions employed have been estimated. The differences in survival rates between the control and irradiated groups were statistically analyzed and the significant difference at the higher concentration is believed to be due to a synergism between physiological stress and radiotoxicity of americium rather than the chemical toxicity of the element.

  12. Uptake and effects of americium-241 on a brackish-water amphipod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenheit, M.; Murray, C.N.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of experimental work undertaken using the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni duebeni and the transuranium nuclide americium-241. Data on the accumulation of this actinide showed that the larger fraction of the total body burden is associated with the exoskeleton. It was found that the body burden remained constant in the range pH 8.0-6.5 even though the water concentration changed markedly. It would thus appear that the concept of a concentration factor should be re-examined and it is proposed that a factor should be defined in terms of environmental and chemical parameters which represent the bioavailable fraction of the actinide. The effect of americium on survival and moulting was studied at two activity concentrations; the dose rates and absorbed doses under the experimental conditions employed have been estimated. The differences in survival rates between the control and irradiated groups were statistically analyzed and the significant difference at the higher concentration is believed to be due to a synergism between physiological stress and radiotoxicity of americium rather than the chemical toxicity of the element. (orig.) [de

  13. Removal of fouling species from brackish water reverse osmosis reject stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, G M; Korban, L; Al-Hindi, M; Zayyat, R

    2018-03-01

    Brine disposal from reverse osmosis (RO) systems remains a major challenge for the desalination industry especially in inland areas where discharge options are very limited. Solutions will entail the introduction of economic treatment processes that will alleviate the brine's negative impact on the environment and reduce its discharge volume. Such processes could act as an intermediary treatment process for the recycling of the brine through an additional RO stage which, for brackish water (BW) desalination, could lead to saving valuable water while reducing the amount of brine discharge. In this context, the study at hand attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-step chemical process for the treatment of BWRO brine. This study seeks to determine optimal operating conditions relative to type, ratio, and dosage of alkalizing chemicals, pH and temperature, for substantially reducing the concentrations of scaling parameters such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and strontium. The results indicate that precipitation softening at pH = 11.5 using combined chemical dosages of NaOH and Na 2 CO 3 in a ratio of 2:1 leads to substantial removal of calcium and magnesium (>95%) and moderately high removal of strontium and silica (>71%).

  14. Variation in Lateral Plate Quality in Threespine Stickleback from Fresh, Brackish and Marine Water: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wiig

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the drivers leading to adaptive phenotypic diversity within and among species. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus has become a model system for investigating the genetic and phenotypic responses during repeated colonization of fresh waters from the original marine habitat. During the freshwater colonization process there has been a recurrent and parallel reduction in the number of lateral bone plates, making it a suitable system for studying adaptability and parallel evolution.The aim of this study was to investigate an alternative evolutionary path of lateral plate reduction, where lateral plates are reduced in size rather than number.A total of 72 threespine stickleback individuals from freshwater (n = 54, brackish water (n = 27 and marine water (n = 9 were analysed using microcomputed tomography (μCT to determine variation in size, thickness and structure of the lateral plates. Furthermore, whole-body bone volume, and bone volume, bone surface and porosity of lateral plate number 4 were quantified in all specimens from each environment.The results showed a significant difference in plate size (area and volume among populations, where threespine stickleback from polymorphic freshwater and brackish water populations displayed lateral plates reduced in size (area and volume compared to marine stickleback.Reduction of lateral plates in threespine stickleback in fresh and brackish water occurs by both plate loss and reduction in plate size (area and volume.

  15. Tunisian brackish water desalination by Electrodialysis : Opposing scaling and process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleuch, M.; Ben Amor, M.; Sistat, Ph.; Pourcelly, G.

    2009-01-01

    Electrodialysis (ED) did not know a mattering development in the desalination field because of problems usually related to energy consumption, the scaling and/or precipitation phenomenon of certain mineral salts (CaSO 4 , CaCO 3 , etc.). and the importance of investments which they require. So, to mitigate some of these problems and to increase the electrodialysis processes potentialities, we introduced a crystallisation inhibitor (sodium polyacrylate RPI2000) into the concentration compartment during Ed's operations. Then we studied some parameters such as the applied potential or the circulation flow of studied solutions. The inhibitor addition allowed to delay the precipitation in the ED concentration comportment, confining so the brine in a small volume and decrease the frequency of replacement of membranes, which will reduce the cost of the process. Without adding scaling inhibitors, a set of experiment was performed using synthetic water supersaturated on CaCO 3 and CaSO 4 at room temperature. Several flows rates are tested (80, 60, 40 and 30 L/h). We applied 20 V until the conductivity measured in the dilute compartment dropped approximately from 9000 =μS/cm to 1500 μS/cm. We used the same concentrate solution to treat many synthetic water volumes. The results showed us that more the flow is important more the phenomenon of scaling is delayed. In order to increase the performance of the electrodialysis process we applied a pulsed electric field with different duty cycle (Ton = Toff = 1, 3, 10 and 30 seconds). Then, we compare conductivity evolution in the dilute as a function of the pulse mode. The results shows a faster decrease of the concentration in the dilute under pulsed field conditions. Pulsed electric field electrodialysis seems to be very promising for future development in brackish water desalination, to some extent it can remove some well known limitations of electrodialysis. Experiments on desalination of brackish water by pulse field

  16. Selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Capito, Marissa; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2013-09-15

    Concentrate disposal and management is a considerable challenge for the implementation of desalination technologies, especially for inland applications where concentrate disposal options are limited. This study has focused on selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate for beneficial use and safe environmental disposal using in situ and pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides/hydroxides adsorption, and electrodialysis (ED) with monovalent permselective membranes. Coagulation with ferric salts is highly efficient at removing arsenic from RO concentrate to meet a drinking water standard of 10 μg/L. The chemical demand for ferric chloride however is much lower than ferric sulfate as coagulant. An alternative method using ferric sludge from surface water treatment plant is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent to remove arsenic from RO concentrate, providing a promising low cost, "waste treat waste" approach. The monovalent permselective anion exchange membranes exhibit high selectivity in removing monovalent anions over di- and multi-valent anions. The transport of sulfate and phosphate through the anion exchange membranes was negligible over a broad range of electrical current density. However, the transport of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium increases through monovalent permselective cation exchange membranes with increasing current density. Higher overall salt concentration reduction is achieved around limiting current density while higher normalized salt removal rate in terms of mass of salt per membrane area and applied energy is attained at lower current density because the energy unitization efficiency decreases at higher current density. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Larval development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in peri-urban brackish water and its implications for transmission of arboviral diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Ramasamy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, the control of dengue and chikungunya is mainly dependent on reducing freshwater preimaginal development habitats of the two vectors. We show here that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus lay eggs and their larvae survive to emerge as adults in brackish water (water with 30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively. Brackish water with salinity of 2 to 15 ppt in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned fishing boats and unused wells in coastal peri-urban environment were found to contain Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Relatively high incidence of dengue in Jaffna city, Sri Lanka was observed in the vicinity of brackish water habitats containing Ae. aegypti larvae. These observations raise the possibility that brackish water-adapted Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may play a hitherto unrecognized role in transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever in coastal urban areas. National and international health authorities therefore need to take the findings into consideration and extend their vector control efforts, which are presently focused on urban freshwater habitats, to include brackish water larval development habitats.

  18. Autonomous system without batteries for brackish water desalination; Sistema autonomo sem baterias para dessalinizacao de agua salobra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Eduardo Henrique Pereira de; Bezerra, Luiz Daniel Santos; Antunes, Fernando Luiz Marcelo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Pos -Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2008-07-01

    Ones of the goods most precious of the humanity, in the current times, with certainty is the drinking waters. Each scarcer and basic time for survival. In everybody more than 6,000 children die every day victims of some type of illness provoked for contaminated water (WHO, 2003). The underground water for being free of contamination is a good alternative, however its exploration if it becomes each more expensive time, since the water of better quality, is located in deeper sheets. In the state of the Ceara, techniques to explore water of deep well are each more frequent time, however, present a great inconvenience, most of the excavated wells, present brackish water, improper for the human consumption. In the attempt to make possible these wells the water is treated by desalination process. This article presents the practical implementation of a desalination the reverse Osmosis, Pump high-pressure supplied by solar photovoltaic energy system. (author)

  19. Ratio of 210Po and 210Pb in fresh, brackish and saline water in Kuala Selangor river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chin Siang; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Zaharuddin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Sediment cores were carried out from Kuala Selangor river to amine sea water via coastal and brackish water ambient. Sample size fraction with size less than 125 μm was spiked with tracer 209 Po and leached with mix concentrated nitric acid, perchloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and mineralized with 50 ml of 0.5M HCl. The sample solution was used for spontaneously deposit polonium on a silver disk at 80-85 degree Celsius and measured with the Alpha Spectrometry. The distribution of two radionuclides especially 210 Po, 210 Pb and 210 po/ 210 Pb were useful in identifying the origin of 210 Po. Ratio values of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the freshwater, brackish water and saline water were 3.3459, 5.8385 and 2.9831, respectively. From the high ratio of 210 Po/ 210 Pb, the widespread occurrence of excess 210 Po in Kuala Selangor river water may came from the atmosphere sources such as stratospheric aerosols, sea spray of the surface micro layer and bio-volatile 210 Po organism from productive species. (author)

  20. Comparative studies on plasma mineral status of cattle in fluoride toxic brackish water zone of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Chhabra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic fluoride intoxication or fluorosis is a worldwide health problem in humans and animals. The present research work was aimed to assess the status of copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus in blood of fluorotic cattle in brackish water zone of Punjab. Methods: The present study was conducted in villages of district Muktsar, a brackish water zone, of Punjab state. Cattle (n=103 showing signs of dental lesions or lameness, from the villages with water fluoride concentration more than 1 ppm, were selected for the study whereas cattle (n=98 from villages with water fluoride concentration less than 1 ppm and with no clinical signs served as control. Blood samples were collected from both the groups and were analysed for minerals.Results: Significantly (P<0.05 higher plasma F concentrations were observed in animals of fluorotic region in comparison to healthy control animals. Concentrations of plasma Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn were significantly lower in cattle of hydrofluorotic region. Plasma phosphorus, iron and iodine concentrations were higher in animals of hydrofluorotic region whereas Mo and Mn did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions: Present study indicated decrease in certain essential minerals in animals of fluorotic region and such changes may contribute to the toxic effects associated with exposure to excess fluoride and salinity

  1. The Influence of CO2 Enrichment on Net Photosynthesis of Seagrass Zostera marina in a Brackish Water Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pajusalu, Liina; Martin, Georg; Põllumäe, Arno; Paalme, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses are distributed across the globe and their communities may play key roles in the coastal ecosystems. Seagrass meadows are expected to benefit from the increased carbon availability which might be used in photosynthesis in a future high CO2 world. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of elevated pCO2 on the net photosynthesis of seagrass Zostera marina in a brackish water environment. The short-term mesocosm experiments were conducted in Kõiguste Bay (northern part o...

  2. Ongoing niche differentiation under high gene flow in a polymorphic brackish water threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Kjartan; Taugbøl, Annette; Ravinet, Mark; Harrod, Chris; Pettersen, Ruben Alexander; Bernatchez, Louis; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2018-02-05

    Marine threespine sticklebacks colonized and adapted to brackish and freshwater environments since the last Pleistocene glacial. Throughout the Holarctic, three lateral plate morphs are observed; the low, partial and completely plated morph. We test if the three plate morphs in the brackish water Lake Engervann, Norway, differ in body size, trophic morphology (gill raker number and length), niche (stable isotopes; δ 15 N, δ 13 C, and parasites (Theristina gasterostei, Trematoda spp.)), genetic structure (microsatellites) and the lateral-plate encoding Stn382 (Ectodysplasin) gene. We examine differences temporally (autumn 2006/spring 2007) and spatially (upper/lower sections of the lake - reflecting low versus high salinity). All morphs belonged to one gene pool. The complete morph was larger than the low plated, with the partial morph intermediate. The number of lateral plates ranged 8-71, with means of 64.2 for complete, 40.3 for partial, and 14.9 for low plated morph. Stickleback δ 15 N was higher in the lower lake section, while δ 13 C was higher in the upper section. Stickleback isotopic values were greater in autumn. The low plated morph had larger variances in δ 15 N and δ 13 C than the other morphs. Sticklebacks in the upper section had more T. gasterostei than in the lower section which had more Trematoda spp. Sticklebacks had less T. gasterostei, but more Trematoda spp. in autumn than spring. Sticklebacks with few and short rakers had more T. gasterostei, while sticklebacks with longer rakers had more Trematoda. spp. Stickleback with higher δ 15 N values had more T. gasterostei, while sticklebacks with higher δ 15 N and δ 13 C values had more Trematoda spp. The low plated morph had fewer Trematoda spp. than other morphs. Trait-ecology associations may imply that the three lateral plate morphs in the brackish water lagoon of Lake Engervann are experiencing ongoing divergent selection for niche and migratory life history strategies under high gene

  3. Influence of Chlorination and Choice of Materials on Fouling in Cooling Water System under Brackish Seawater Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooling systems remove heat from components and industrial equipment. Water cooling, employing natural waters, is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities, such as power plants, factories or refineries. Due to moderate temperatures, cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling, inorganic fouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer and enhance corrosion. Hypochlorite treatment or antifouling coatings are used to prevent biological fouling in these systems. In this research, we examine biofouling and materials’ degradation in a brackish seawater environment using a range of test materials, both uncoated and coated. The fouling and corrosion resistance of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, super austenitic stainless steel (254SMO and epoxy-coated carbon steel (Intershield Inerta160 were studied in the absence and presence of hypochlorite. Our results demonstrate that biological fouling is intensive in cooling systems using brackish seawater in sub-arctic areas. The microfouling comprised a vast diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae and protozoa. Chlorination was effective against biological fouling: up to a 10–1000-fold decrease in bacterial and archaeal numbers was detected. Chlorination also changed the diversity of the biofilm-forming community. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that chlorination enhances cracking of the epoxy coating.

  4. Influence of Chlorination and Choice of Materials on Fouling in Cooling Water System under Brackish Seawater Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Pauliina; Bomberg, Malin; Huttunen-Saarivirta, Elina; Priha, Outi; Tausa, Mikko; Carpén, Leena

    2016-06-15

    Cooling systems remove heat from components and industrial equipment. Water cooling, employing natural waters, is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities, such as power plants, factories or refineries. Due to moderate temperatures, cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling, inorganic fouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer and enhance corrosion. Hypochlorite treatment or antifouling coatings are used to prevent biological fouling in these systems. In this research, we examine biofouling and materials' degradation in a brackish seawater environment using a range of test materials, both uncoated and coated. The fouling and corrosion resistance of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), super austenitic stainless steel (254SMO) and epoxy-coated carbon steel (Intershield Inerta160) were studied in the absence and presence of hypochlorite. Our results demonstrate that biological fouling is intensive in cooling systems using brackish seawater in sub-arctic areas. The microfouling comprised a vast diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae and protozoa. Chlorination was effective against biological fouling: up to a 10-1000-fold decrease in bacterial and archaeal numbers was detected. Chlorination also changed the diversity of the biofilm-forming community. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that chlorination enhances cracking of the epoxy coating.

  5. Water and bottom sediments quality of brackish water shrimp farms in Kaliganj Upazila, Satkhira, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aktaruzzaman, Mohammed Shakhaoat Hossain, Abu Naieum Muhammad Fakhruddin, Mohammed Jamal Uddin, Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture plays a central part in the fisheries sector of Bangladesh that leads to a significant change in the structure and composition of frozen food export sector. An investigation was carried out to determine physiochemical parameters, nutrients content, bacterial contamination and metal content in shrimp “Gher” (Farms water and sediments. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed in situ by portable meters. Ammonia, phosphate, bacterial counts, and metals contents were analyzed by Nesslerization, colorimetric and standard microbiological methods and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery (AAS, respectively. Except Dissolve oxygen and temperature all other physiochemical parameters were unsuitable for shrimp culture. The concentration of ammonia was 0.384 to 1.5 mg L-1 and the concentration of phosphate ranged from 0.02 to 0.818 mg L-1. In bacteriological analysis, highest levels of coliform were found in the tested samples and total colifom count reached up to 2.04x103 cfu mL-1. Among the tested metals, Cr was highest in water and sediment samples. Concentration of Cr ranged from 0.150 to 0.807 mg L-1 and 1.957 to 3.436 mg kg-1 in water and sediment samples, respectively. A significant difference was observed for the concentration of metals in sediment and water samples. The high concentration of nutrients and metals in shrimp “Gher” water and sediment as well as the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the “Gher” and river water indicated unhygienic environment and the sources of contamination of shrimp “Gher”.

  6. Water at silica/liquid water interfaces investigated by DFT-MD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    This talk is dedicated to probing the microscopic structural organization of water at silica/liquid water interfaces including electrolytes by first principles DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations (DFT-MD). We will present our very recent DFT-MD simulations of electrolytic (KCl, NaCl, NaI) silica/liquid water interfaces in order to unravel the intertwined structural properties of water and electrolytes at the crystalline quartz/liquid water and amorphous silica/liquid water interfaces. DFT-MD simulations provide direct knowledge of the structural organization of water and the H-Bond network formed between the water molecules within the different water layers above the silica surface. One can furthermore extract vibrational signatures of the water molecules within the interfacial layers from the DFT-MD simulations, especially non-linear SFG (Sum Frequency generation) signatures that are active at solid/liquid interfaces. The strength of the simulated spectra is that a detailed analysis of the signatures in terms of the water/water H-Bond networks formed within the interfacial water layers and in terms of the water/silica or water/electrolytes H-Bond networks can be given. Comparisons of SFG spectra between quartz/water/electrolytes and amorphous silica/water/electrolytes interfaces allow us to definitely conclude on how the structural arrangements of liquid water at these electrolytic interfaces modulate the final spectroscopic signatures. Invited speaker.

  7. An investigation of desalination by nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and integrated (hybrid NF/RO) membranes employed in brackish water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaeipour, M; Nouri, J; Hassani, A H; Mahvi, A H

    2017-01-01

    As an appropriate tool, membrane process is used for desalination of brackish water, in the production of drinking water. The present study aims to investigate desalination processes of brackish water of Qom Province in Iran. This study was carried out at the central laboratory of Water and Wastewater Company of the studied area. To this aim, membrane processes, including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), separately and also their hybrid process were applied. Moreover, water physical and chemical parameters, including salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), Na +1 and Cl -1 were also measured. Afterward, the rejection percent of each parameter was investigated and compared using nanofiltration and reverse osmosis separately and also by their hybrid process. The treatment process was performed by Luna domestic desalination device, which its membrane was replaced by two NF90 and TW30 membranes for nanofiltration and reverse osmosis processes, respectively. All collected brackish water samples were fed through membranes NF90-2540, TW30-1821-100(RO) and Hybrid (NF/RO) which were installed on desalination household scale pilot (Luna water 100GPD). Then, to study the effects of pressure on permeable quality of membranes, the simulation software model ROSA was applied. Results showed that percent of the salinity rejection was recorded as 50.21%; 72.82 and 78.56% in NF, RO and hybrid processes, respectively. During the study, in order to simulate the performance of nanofiltartion, reverse osmosis and hybrid by pressure drive, reverse osmosis system analysis (ROSA) model was applied. The experiments were conducted at performance three methods of desalination to remove physic-chemical parameters as percentage of rejections in the pilot plant are: in the NF system the salinity 50.21, TDS 43.41, EC 43.62, Cl 21.1, Na 36.15, and in the RO membrane the salinity 72.02, TDS 60.26, EC 60.33, Cl 43.08, Na 54.41. Also in case of the rejection in

  8. Isolation and evaluation of oil-producing microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Y Lim

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species.

  9. HYDRUS Simulation of Sustainable Brackish Water Irrigation in a Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater resources in the North China Plain (NCP are near depletion due to the unceasing overexploitation of deep groundwater, by far the most significant source of freshwater in the region. To deal with the deepening freshwater crisis, brackish water (rich but largely unused water in agriculture is increasingly being used in irrigation in the region. However, inappropriate irrigation with brackish water could lead to soil salinization and cropland degradation. To evaluate such negative impacts, the HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate soil salt transport and accumulation under 15 years of irrigation with brackish water. The irrigation scenarios included brackish water irrigation during the wintering and jointing stages of winter wheat and then freshwater irrigation just before the sowing of summer maize. Freshwater irrigation was done to leach out soil salts, which is particularly vital in dry years. For the littoral region of the plain, HYDRUS-ID was used to simulate the irrigated cropping system stated above for a total period of 15 years. The results showed that it was feasible to use brackish water twice in one year, provided freshwater irrigation was performed before sowing summer maize. Freshwater irrigation, in conjunction with precipitation, leached out soil salts from the 100 cm root-zone depth. The maximum salt accumulation was in the 160–220 cm soil layer, which ensured that root-zone soil was free of restrictive salinity for crop growth. Precipitation was a critical determinant of the rate and depth leaching of soil salt. Heavy rainfall (>100 mm caused significant leaching of soluble salts in the 0–200 cm soil profile. Salt concentration under brackish water irrigation had no significant effect on the variations in the trend of soil salt transport in the soil profile. The variations of soil salinity were mainly affected by hydrological year type, for which the buried depth of soil salt was higher in wet years than in dry years

  10. Strains of toxic and harmful microalgae, from waste water, marine, brackish and fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palacio, M C; Crisóstomo-Vázquez, L; Alvarez-Hernández, S; Lozano-Ramírez, C

    2012-01-01

    Some microalgae are economically important in Mexico and the world because they can be potentially toxic. Algal explosive population growths are named harmful algal blooms and are frequently recorded in Mexico. The authors set up potentially toxic microalgae cultures from the Gulf of Mexico (Garrapatas tideland, Barberena river, Carpintero lagoon in Tamaulipas State; Chalchoapan and Catemaco lakes in Veracruz State), from the Mexican Pacific Ocean, Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán States, and from interior water bodies such as Vicente Aguirre dam, Chapultepec lake and several waste water treatment plants. This research is about the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton in relation a specific site because of harmful algal bloom events. Microalgae cultures are useful in order to solve taxonomic problems, to know life cycles, molecular studies, for the study of toxic species, and the isolation of useful metabolites. The cultures for this research are clonal, non-axenic, semi-continuous, 12:12 light/dark photoperiod, 20 ± 1 °C temperature and 90.5 µmol m(-2)s(-1) illumination. Four different culture media were used. This collection is open to the worldwide scientific community as a source of organisms in controlled conditions that can be used as a useful tool for microalgae research work.

  11. Cytological comparison of gill chloride cells and blood serum ion concentrations in kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum spawners from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremanzadeh Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The size and number of chloride cells and serum ion concentrations in kutum, Rutillus frisii kutum Nordman, from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments were studied to gain a better understanding of osmoregulation in this species. Twenty mature kutum specimens were collected from the Caspian Sea (Anzali coasts, 8.49 ppt salinity and 12.4°C temperature and 20 specimens from Khoshkrood River (0.18 ppt salinity and 18°C temperature. Gill samples were analyzed histologically and concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions were determined in the blood serum. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions and osmotic pressure in mature kutum from brackish water were significantly higher than in specimens from fresh water. The average size and number of chloride cells in the fish from seawater were considerably larger than those from fresh water. The mean size of chloride cells was 6.89 ± 1.16 μm in brackish water samples and 5.1 ± 0.81 μm in river samples. The average number of chloride cells in brackish and river water samples were 16.92 and 6.57, respectively. The density and size of chloride cells increased with increases in salinity

  12. The Energy-Water Nexus: Spatially-Resolved Analysis of the Potential for Desalinating Brackish Groundwater by Use of Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B. Kjellsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at coupling desalination with renewable energy sources to create a high-value product (treated water from two low value resources (brackish groundwater and intermittent solar energy. Desalination of brackish groundwater is already being considered as a potential new water supply in Texas. This research uses Texas as a testbed for spatially-resolved analysis techniques while considering depth to brackish groundwater, water quality, and solar radiation across Texas to determine the locations with the best potential for integrating solar energy with brackish groundwater desalination. The framework presented herein can be useful for policymakers, regional planners, and project developers as they consider where to site desalination facilities coupled with solar photovoltaics. Results suggest that the northwestern region of Texas—with abundant sunshine and groundwater at relatively shallow depths and low salinity in areas with freshwater scarcity—has the highest potential for solar powered desalination. The range in capacity for solar photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis desalination was found to be 1.56 × 10—6 to 2.93 × 10—5 cubic meters of water per second per square meter of solar panel (m3/s/m2.

  13. 87Sr/86Sr as a quantitative geochemical proxy for 14C reservoir age in dynamic, brackish waters: assessing applicability and quantifying uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Bryan; van der Lubbe, Jeroen; Davies, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    Accurate geochronologies are crucial for reconstructing the sensitivity of brackish and estuarine environments to rapidly changing past external impacts. A common geochronological method used for such studies is radiocarbon (14C) dating, but its application in brackish environments is severely limited by an inability to quantify spatiotemporal variations in 14C reservoir age, or R(t), due to dynamic interplay between river runoff and marine water. Additionally, old carbon effects and species-specific behavioural processes also influence 14C ages. Using the world's largest brackish water body (the estuarine Baltic Sea) as a test-bed, combined with a comprehensive approach that objectively excludes both old carbon and species-specific effects, we demonstrate that it is possible to use 87Sr/86Sr ratios to quantify R(t) in ubiquitous mollusc shell material, leading to almost one order of magnitude increase in Baltic Sea 14C geochronological precision over the current state-of-the-art. We propose that this novel proxy method can be developed for other brackish water bodies worldwide, thereby improving geochronological control in these climate sensitive, near-coastal environments.

  14. Case Study of a Small Scale Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Mixed Brackish Water and STP Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Widiasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A case study on utilizing reverse osmosis (RO technology to fulfill fresh water needs at a mall and a hotel has been done on Bali Island, Indonesia. A mix of brackish water and sewage treatment plant (STP effluent was used as feed water in the RO system. The system used 36 membrane elements (CSM RE 8040 BLN arranged into two stages: 8 pressure vessels (PVs in the first stage and 4 PVs in the second stage, each loaded with 3 membranes. The objectives of this research were to assess the cleaning effectivity in the plant, to evaluate the cleaning of 1 membrane element using a CIP system, and to assess the use of the membrane for filtration in the pre-treatment system. SEM and FTIR analysis indicated that the foulants on the membrane surface were dominated by organic foulants and inorganic deposits. To clean the discarded membrane the proposed method used NaOH solution (pH 12 and pH 13 and citric acid (pH 2 and pH 3. All membranes displayed a dramatic decline in rejection of about 80%. Based on the rejection tests of SO42-, Cl-, turbidity reduction approached 100%. It can be concluded that an RO membrane that has undergone selectivity decline can be re-used as a filtration membrane in the pre-treatment system.

  15. A coupled agronomic-economic model to consider allocation of brackish irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gal, Alon; Weikard, Hans-Peter; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

    2013-05-01

    In arid and semiarid regions, irrigation water is scarce and often contains high concentrations of salts. To reduce negative effects on crop yields, the irrigated amounts must include water for leaching and therefore exceed evapotranspiration. The leachate (drainage) water returns to water sources such as rivers or groundwater aquifers and increases their level of salinity and the leaching requirement for irrigation water of any sequential user. We develop a conceptual sequential (upstream-downstream) model of irrigation that predicts crop yields and water consumption and tracks the water flow and level of salinity along a river dependent on irrigation management decisions. The model incorporates an agro-physical model of plant response to environmental conditions including feedbacks. For a system with limited water resources, the model examines the impacts of water scarcity, salinity and technically inefficient application on yields for specific crop, soil, and climate conditions. Moving beyond the formulation of a conceptual frame, we apply the model to the irrigation of Capsicum annum on Arava Sandy Loam soil. We show for this case how water application could be distributed between upstream and downstream plots or farms. We identify those situations where it is beneficial to trade water from upstream to downstream farms (assuming that the upstream farm holds the water rights). We find that water trade will improve efficiency except when loss levels are low. We compute the marginal value of water, i.e., the price water would command on a market, for different levels of water scarcity, salinity and levels of water loss.

  16. A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, O.; Aquilonius, K.

    1995-12-31

    The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of (e) water, (f) vegetables, (g) cereals, and (h) root vegetables and (i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs.

  17. A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, O.; Aquilonius, K.

    1995-01-01

    The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of e) water, f) vegetables, g) cereals, and h) root vegetables and i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs

  18. A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, O; Aquilonius, K

    1996-12-31

    The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of (e) water, (f) vegetables, (g) cereals, and (h) root vegetables and (i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs.

  19. The brackish-water bivalve Waagenoperna from the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Formation of the Junggar Basin and its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brackish-water bivalve Waagenoperna Tokuyama, 1959 is reported from the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Formation at four localities, along the southern margin and western margin of the Junggar Basin. Taphonomic features recorded in the field indicate that it occurs in autochthonous or parautochthonous assemblages. The autecology of Waagenoperna therefore yields information on the palaeoenvironment of the area. The restriction of Waagenoperna to marine and brackish-water settings suggests that the sea water once reached these areas during the Sinemurian. This paper discusses the palaeogeographic implications and suggests an ingression of the sea water from the west to the western and southern part of the Junggar Basin. Additionally, the two Waagenoperna species collected from the Haojiagou section in the Junggar Basin are taxonomically documented.

  20. Tritium concentration in fresh, brackish and sea-water samples in Rokkasho-Village, Japan, bordered by nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, S.; Kakiuchi, H.; Kondo, K.; Inaba, J.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify the concentration of tritium ( 3 H) in areas of fresh, brackish and sea water, bordered by nuclear fuel facilities at Rokkasho-Village, Aomori, Japan, water samples were collected from 2001 to 2004 at six points in those areas. Concentration ranges of tritium in fresh river water, brackish lake and seawater samples were 0.60 to 1.1 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.79 Bq x l -1 ), 0.20 to 0.87 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.41 Bq x l -1 ), and 0.08 to 0.25 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.15 Bq x l -1 ), respectively. Relationships between tritium concentrations and salinity in the samples showed a clear negative correlation. Moreover, the seasonal variation of tritium in water from Rokkasho-Village was high in spring and low in fall. (author)

  1. Isolation, identification, screening of toxicity and oligopeptides of some marine and brackish cyanobacteria from Norwegian and Pakistani waters, in the search for bioactive natural compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Shaista

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce a number of bioactive compounds, most of them are oligopeptides. Almost all are known from freshwater species. The aim of this study was to search for marine and brackish water species producing bioactive compounds. To reach this goal, new strains were isolated from Norwegian and Pakistani coastal waters. These and additional strains from NIVA, UiO and UiB culture collections (24 in total), belonging to Chroococcales and Oscillatoriales, were identified based on morpholo...

  2. Hepatic pathologies in the brackish water catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from contaminated locations of the Lagos lagoon complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarinmoye, O.; Taiwo, V.; Clarke, E.; Kumolu-Johnson, C.; Aderinola, O.; Adekunbi, F.

    2010-01-01

    Several toxicological studies into the effects of aquatic pollutants on the liver of teleost fish exist in literature. The focus on the liver in these studies is predicated on its central nature in the scheme of biotransformation and excretion of xenobiotics following exposure in polluted water bodies. As a consequence of the latter primary role of the liver in these processes it is regarded as a predilective site for the sub lethal effects of xenobiotics on the organism usually detectable at histological level. Hepatic histopathology recorded in livers from feral populations of the brackish water catfish Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from locations on the Lagos lagoon complex with significant anthropogenic inputs from denizen populations and industries are presented. Liver sections from sixty specimens from two locations on the Lagos lagoon complex (Badagry lagoon: 6??24'N, 2??56'E; and Lagos lagoon: 6??29'N, 3??22'E) were analysed. Observed pathologies included hydropic degeneration (58%), portal / sinusoidal congestion (33%), hepatic necrosis (26%), hemosiderosis (12%) and foci of cellular alterations (FCA's). No obvious oncologic features were observed; the presence of the hydropic Vacuolation lesion was taken as prelude to the development of neoplasms and discussed as such. ?? 2009, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary.

  3. Studies of thermal annealing and dope composition on the enhancement of separation performance cellulose acetate membrane for brackish water treatment from Jepara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Membrane is an alternative technology of water treatment with filtration principle that is being widely developed and used for water treatment. The main objective of this study was to make an asymmetric membrane using cellulose acetate polymer and study the effect of additive and annealing treatment on the morphology structure and performance of cellulose acetate membranes in brackish water treatment. Asymmetric membranes for brackish water treatment were casted using a casting machine process from dope solutions containing cellulose acetates and acetone as a solvent. Membranes was prepared by phase inversion method  with variation of polyethylene glycol (PEG concentration of 1 and 5 wt% and with thermal annealing at 60 oC in 10 seconds and without thermal annealing behavior. Membrane characterization consists of calculation of membrane flux and rejection with brackish water as a feed from Jepara. The research concluded that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion method. The more added concentration of PEG will be resulted the larger pore of membrane. Meanwhile the higher temperature and the longer time of annealing treatment, the skin layer of membrane become denser. Membrane with the composition of 18 wt% cellulose acetate, 5 wt% PEG, 1 wt% distilled water, with heat treatment at temperature of 60 oC for 10 seconds is obtained optimal performance.

  4. Effect of combination dope composition and evaporation time on the separation performance of cellulose acetate membrane for demak brackish water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusworo Tutuk Djoko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastal areas in Indonesia often have a problem of clean water lack, because the water is classified as brackish water. Therefore, this research investigated the fabrication of CA membranes using phase inversion method for brackish water treatment. Investigation was conducted to study the effect of combination dope composition and evaporation time on separation performance and morphology of the memrbane. Membrane was fabricated by dry-wet phase inversion technique with variation of polymer concentration 17, 18 and 20 wt% in the total solid and evaporation time of 5, 10 and 15 seconds, respectively. The asymmetric membranes were characterized by permeability test through rejection and flux measurements using brackish water as feed. The experimental results from SEM images analysis showed that all the membranes have a thin small porous layer and thicker sub-structure of larger porous layer formed asymmetric membrane. Moreover, the greater polymer concentration is resulting smaller pore size and smaller membrane porosity. The longer evaporation time was also resulted in denser membrane active layer. The best membrane performance was observed at the composition of 20 wt% CA polymer, 1 wt % polyethylene glycol with the solvent evaporation time of 15 seconds.

  5. Growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae from fluctuating brackish and sea water locations in South East Queensland – Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thang eDuong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One challenge constraining the use of microalgae in the food and biofuels industry is growth and lipid accumulation. Microalgae with high growth characteristics are more likely to originate from the local environment. However, to be commercially effective, in addition to high growth microalgae must also have high lipid productivities and contain the desired fatty acids for their intended use. We isolated microalgae from intertidal locations in South East Queensland, Australia with adverse or fluctuating conditions, as these may harbor more opportunistic strains with high lipid accumulation potential. Screening was based on a standard protocol using growth rate and lipid accumulation as well as prioritizing fatty acid profiles suitable for biodiesel or nutraceuticals. Using these criteria, an initial selection of over 50 local microalgae strains from brackish and sea water was reduced to 16 strains considered suitable for further investigation. Among these 16 strains, the ones most likely to be effective for biodiesel feedstock were Nitzschia sp. CP3a, Tetraselmis sp. M8, Cymbella sp. CP2b and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c, reaching growth rates of up to 0.53 day-1 and lipid productivities of 5.62 µg mL-1day-1. Omega-3 fatty acids were found in some strains such as Nitzschia sp. CP2a, Nitzschia sp. CP3a and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c. These strains have potential for further research as commercial food supplements.

  6. Assessment of health status of oysters (Crassostreagigas) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of Ag and Cu in brackish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rementeria, Ane; Mikolaczyk, Mathilde; Peña, Ainhize; Lanceleur, Laurent; Blanc, Gérard; Soto, Manu; Schäfer, Jörg; Zaldibar, Beñat

    2017-12-01

    Human activities have altered estuarine environments leading to increased presence of different pollutants including metals. Although the implementation of new environmental policies has caused a considerable decrease in trace metal concentrations in estuaries around the Bay of Biscay, some elements such as copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) are still present in relatively high concentrations. Oysters have been widely used in environmental biomonitoring programs as sentinel organisms. Oysters Crassostrea gigas from an uncontaminated estuary were exposed to sublethal, environmentally relevant concentrations of Cu (2000 ng Cu/L) and Ag (500 ng Ag/L) during 14 days in brackish water (S = 18). A battery of cell and tissue level (exposure) biomarkers at different levels of biological complexity was applied and integrated into the Integrative Biological Response (IBR) index including: metallothionein contents, intralysosomal metal accumulation, digestive gland atrophy and digestive gland tissue integrity. Condition Index (CI) was incorporated into the IBR index as a complementary parameter that reflects the general physiological condition of oysters (organism level). Results indicated an increase in intralysosomal metal accumulation after 7 and 14 days of exposure to Ag together with an increase in the digestive epithelium atrophy and lipofuscin content after 7 days of exposure to Ag. The responses detected with the aid of biomarkers integrated in the IBR index showed higher toxicity in oysters exposed to Ag, inducing the clear onset of detoxification processes which also occurred, to a lower extent, in Cu-exposed oysters.

  7. Hybrid male sterility between the fresh- and brackish-water types of ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius (Pisces, Gasterosteidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Terumi; Goto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Two ecologically distinct forms, fresh- and brackish-water types, of ninespine stickleback co-exist in several freshwater systems on the coast of eastern Hokkaido. Recent genetic analyses of 13 allozyme loci revealed genetic separation between the two types even though their spawning grounds were in close proximity. On the other hand, there is only a small difference in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence between the two types suggesting that they diverged quite recently or that mtDNA introgression occurred between them. To test for postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms and hybrid mediated gene flow, we examined the viability and reproductive performance of reciprocal F1 hybrids. The hybrids grew to the adult size normally and both sexes expressed secondary sexual characters in the reciprocal crosses. The female hybrids were reciprocally fertile, while the male hybrids were reciprocally sterile. Histological and flow-cytometric analyses of the hybrid testis revealed that the sterility pattern was classified as 'gametic sterility,' with gonads of normal size but abnormal spermatogenesis. To our knowledge, the present finding is a novel example of one sex hybrid sterility in the stickleback family (Gasterosteidae).

  8. Sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater via forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sui; Wang, Peng; Fu, Xiuzhu; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-04-01

    This study proposed and investigated a hybrid forward osmosis - membrane distillation (FO-MD) system for sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater by employing lab-fabricated FO and MD hollow fiber membranes. Stable oil-in-water emulsions of different concentrations with small droplet sizes (oil droplets and partial permeation of acetic acid could be achieved. Finally, an integrated FO-MD system was developed to treat the oily wastewater containing petroleum, surfactant, NaCl and acetic acid at 60 °C in the batch mode. The water flux in FO undergoes three-stage decline due to fouling and reduction in osmotic driving force, but is quite stable in MD regardless of salt concentration. Oily wastewater with relatively high salinity could be effectively recovered by the FO-MD hybrid system while maintaining large water flux, at least 90% feed water recovery could be readily attained with only trace amounts of oil and salts, and the draw solution was re-generated for the next rounds of FO-MD run. Interestingly, significant amount of acetic acid was also retained in the permeate for further reuse as a chemical additive during the production of crude oil. The work has demonstrated that not only water but also organic additives in the wastewater could be effectively recovered by FO-MD systems for reuse or other utilizations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Updated numerical model with uncertainty assessment of 1950-56 drought conditions on brackish-water movement within the Edwards aquifer, San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Linzy K.; White, Jeremy T.; Houston, Natalie A.; Thomas, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, began a study to assess the brackish-water movement within the Edwards aquifer (more specifically the potential for brackish-water encroachment into wells near the interface between the freshwater and brackish-water transition zones, referred to in this report as the transition-zone interface) and effects on spring discharge at Comal and San Marcos Springs under drought conditions using a numerical model. The quantitative targets of this study are to predict the effects of higher-than-average groundwater withdrawals from wells and drought-of-record rainfall conditions of 1950–56 on (1) dissolved-solids concentration changes at production wells near the transition-zone interface, (2) total spring discharge at Comal and San Marcos Springs, and (3) the groundwater head (head) at Bexar County index well J-17. The predictions of interest, and the parameters implemented into the model, were evaluated to quantify their uncertainty so the results of the predictions could be presented in terms of a 95-percent credible interval.

  10. The influence of CO2 enrichment on net photosynthesis of seagrass Zostera marina in a brackish water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Pajusalu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seagrasses are distributed across the globe and their communities may play key roles in the coastal ecosystems. Seagrass meadows are expected to benefit from the increased carbon availability which might be used in photosynthesis in a future high CO2 world. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of elevated pCO2 on the net photosynthesis of seagrass Zostera marina in a brackish water environment. The short-term mesocosm experiments were conducted in Kõiguste Bay (northern part of Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea in June-July 2013 and 2014. As the levels of pCO2 naturally range from ca. 150 μatm to well above 1000 μatm under summer conditions in Kõiguste Bay we chose to operate in mesocosms with the pCO2 levels of ca. 2000, ca. 1000 and ca. 200 μatm. Additionally, in 2014 the photosynthesis of Z. marina was measured outside of the mesocosm in the natural conditions. In the shallow coastal Baltic Sea seagrass Z. marina lives in a highly variable environment due to seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. This was demonstrated by the remarkable differences in water temperatures between experimental years of ca. 8°C. Thus, the current study also investigated the effect of elevated pCO2 in combination with short-term natural fluctuations of environmental factors, i.e. temperature and PAR on the photosynthesis of Z. marina. Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone did not enhance the photosynthesis of the seagrass. The photosynthetic response of Z. marina to CO2 enrichment was affected by changes in water temperature and light availability.

  11. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  12. A Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane with MCM-41 Silica Nanoparticles for Brackish Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kadhom

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin film nanocomposite (TFN membranes containing MCM-41 silica nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP process. An m-phenylenediamine (MPD aqueous solution and an organic phase with trimesoyl chloride (TMC dissolved in isooctane were used in the IP reaction, occurring on a nanoporous polysulfone (PSU support layer. Isooctane was introduced as the organic solvent for TMC in this work due to its intermediate boiling point. MCM-41 silica NPs were loaded in MPD and TMC solutions in separate experiments, in a concentration range from 0 to 0.04 wt %, and the membrane performance was assessed and compared based on salt rejection and water flux. The prepared membranes were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, contact angle measurement, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR analysis. The results show that adding MCM-41 silica NPs into an MPD solution yields slightly improved and more stable results than adding them to a TMC solution. With 0.02% MCM-41 silica NPs in the MPD solution, the water flux was increased from 44.0 to 64.1 L/m2·h, while the rejection virtually remained the same at 95% (2000 ppm NaCl saline solution, 25 °C, 2068 kPa (300 psi.

  13. A Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane with MCM-41 Silica Nanoparticles for Brackish Water Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhom, Mohammed; Yin, Jun; Deng, Baolin

    2016-12-06

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes containing MCM-41 silica nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP) process. An m -phenylenediamine (MPD) aqueous solution and an organic phase with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) dissolved in isooctane were used in the IP reaction, occurring on a nanoporous polysulfone (PSU) support layer. Isooctane was introduced as the organic solvent for TMC in this work due to its intermediate boiling point. MCM-41 silica NPs were loaded in MPD and TMC solutions in separate experiments, in a concentration range from 0 to 0.04 wt %, and the membrane performance was assessed and compared based on salt rejection and water flux. The prepared membranes were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurement, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) analysis. The results show that adding MCM-41 silica NPs into an MPD solution yields slightly improved and more stable results than adding them to a TMC solution. With 0.02% MCM-41 silica NPs in the MPD solution, the water flux was increased from 44.0 to 64.1 L/m²·h, while the rejection virtually remained the same at 95% (2000 ppm NaCl saline solution, 25 °C, 2068 kPa (300 psi)).

  14. Brackish water for irrigation: IV. effects on yield of maize (zea mays l.) and saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Anwar-ur-Hassan; Ghafoor, A.

    2003-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of brackish water irrigation on fresh biomass yield of maize variety Agati-72 and saturated hydraulic conductivity (HC) of silty clay loam soil. Total 20 treatment combinations having different EC/sub iw/ (0.65, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 7.35 dS m/sup -1/), SAR/sub iw/ (3.95, 9.65, 18.0, 26.35 and 32.04 (mmol L/sup -1)/sup 1/2/) and RSC (0.65, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 7.35 mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/) were applied to 30 cm x 68 cm undisturbed and disturbed soil columns. Results indicated that biomass yield of maize decreased with an increase in EC/sub iw/ from 0.65 to 7.35 dS m/sup -1/ at coded 0 levels of SAR/sub iw/ and RSC in undisturbed soil. The maize tolerated EC/sub iw/ up to 2.0 dS m/sup-1/ at coded 0 levels of SAR/sub iw/ and RSC in disturbed soil. The SAR/sub iw/ up to 18.0 did not affect the yield of crop at coded 0 levels of EC/sub iw/ for the undisturbed and disturbed soils, respectively. The increase in HC was 48% in undisturbed and 54% in disturbed soils with EC/sub iw/ 7.35 dS m/sup -1/ over EC/sub iw/ 0.65 dS m/sup -1/ coded 0 levels of EC/sub iw/ and RSC. The HC decreased with SAR/sub iw/ and RSC at coded 0 levels of EC/sub iw/ and RSC; EC/sub iw/ and SAR/sub iw/ in both the soil columns. (author)

  15. Effects of vanadium on population growth and Na-K-ATPase activity of the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringelband, U.; Karbe, L. [Institut fuer Hydrobiologie und Fischereiwissenschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Vanadium, a relatively abundant heavy metal, enters the environment naturally through rock weathering. A large fraction of vanadium input is of human origin. The combustion of petroleum- and coal-products, which contain relatively high concentrations of vanadium, is one of the most important sources of the enrichment of vanadium in the environment. As it is used as an alloy, and vanadium rich iron-ores of various origin are used in steel production, the residual slag-stones of the steel industry can contain considerable vanadium concentrations. Wherever slag-stones serve as a cheap and convenient material in riverbank reinforcement, vanadium can leach into the aquatic environment. Vanadium is regarded as an essential trace element for higher animals. Cantley et al. indicated a regulatory function of vanadate in vivo. Although considerable information is available on the toxic effects of vanadium on humans, very little is known about the toxicity of vanadium towards aquatic organisms, especially invertebrates. Bell and Sargent have shown an inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in gills of the eel Anguilla anguilla. Holleland and Towle have demonstrated the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of vanadium towards the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia. Hydroids are known to be particularly sensitive to heavy metals and their asexual reproduction can be used in a well-established population growth test. Furthermore, the effects of vanadium on Na-K-ATPase activity in hydroids were studied in in vivo experiments, wherein the animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of vanadium. In addition, the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase was measured in vitro, by adding vanadium to a microsomal preparation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Redescription of Chironomus salinarius (Diptera: Chironomidae), nuisance midges that emerged in brackish water of Jinhae-man (Bay), Kyongsangnam-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Jin-Hwoa

    2006-01-01

    Huge numbers of non-biting midges emerged from brackish water which were made at the harbor construction field in Jinhae City, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea in late summer in 2005, and caused a serious nuisance to villagers. The midges were collected and identified as Chironomus salinarius (Kieffer, 1921). Although this species was recorded in Korea for the first time in 1998, the morphological descriptions were so brief and simple. A full redescription is made with detailed illustrations for ecological and control workers of this nuisance midge. PMID:16514284

  17. Water withdrawal for brackish and inland aquaculture, and options to produce more fish in ponds with present water use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.; Bosma, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews freshwater use in inland and coastal pond aquaculture, and focuses on options to increase productivity while reducing water use. Total freshwater use depends on system-associated and feed-associated water losses. System-associated water losses depend on total area, evaporation,

  18. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in Na-Cl brackish waters of north-western Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mediterranean area the demand of good quality water is often threatened by salinization, especially in coastal areas. The salinization is the result of concomitant processes due to both marine water intrusion and rock-water interaction, which in some cases are hardly distinguishable. In northwestern Sardinia, in the Nurra area, salinization due to marine water intrusion has been recently evidenced as consequence of bore hole exploitation. However, the geology of the Nurra records a long history from Paleozoic to Quaternary, resulting in relative structural complexity and in a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. To elucidate the origin of the saline component in the Nurra aquifer, may furnish a useful and more general model for the salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activities and recent climatic changes, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, similarly to other Mediterranean islands, surface-water resources can periodically suffer from drastic shortage. With this in mind we report new data, regarding brackish waters of Na-Cl type of the Nurra, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I and Sr) and isotopic data, including δ18O, δD in water, and δ34S and δ18O in dissolved sulphate. To better depict the origin of the salinity we also analyzed a set of Nurra Triassic evaporites for mineralogical and isotopic composition. The brackish waters have Cl contents up to 2025 mg L-1 and the ratios between dissolved ions and chlorine, with the exception of the Br/Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of a simple mixing between rain water and seawater. The δ18O and δD data indicate that most of the waters are within the Regional Meteoric Water Line and the Global Meteoric Water Line supporting the idea that they are meteoric in origin. A relevant consequence of the

  19. Synergistic efficiency of the desilication of brackish underground water in Saudi Arabia by coupling γ-radiation and Fenton process: Membrane scaling prevention in reverse osmosis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Mohammed S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main water resources in arid Saudi Arabia is underground water. However, this brackish water has high silica content which can cause a recalcitrant deposit on the membrane in the reverse osmosis units during its desalination. In this study, we examined the synergistic efficiency of the removal of silica from the Buwaib water sample, when combining two advanced oxidation processes, γ-irradiation and the Fenton process, using hydrogen peroxide and zero valent metal iron as source of Fe3+. This latter adsorbs effectively on silica and co-precipitate. The influence of absorbed dose, iron dosage and pH effect were investigated. This preliminary study showed that these attractive and effective hybrid processes are very efficient in removing silica.

  20. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in the Na-Cl brackish waters of northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the Mediterranean, salinization threatens water quality, especially in coastal areas. This salinization is the result of concomitant processes related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction, which in some cases are virtually indistinguishable. In the Nurra region of northwestern Sardinia, recent salinization related to marine water intrusion has been caused by aquifer exploitation. However, the geology of this region records a long history from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary, and is structurally complex and comprises a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. Determining the origin of the saline component of the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers in the Nurra region may provide a useful and more general model for salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activity and recent climatic change, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, in common with other Mediterranean islands, surface water resources periodically suffer from severe shortages. With this in mind, we report new data regarding brackish and surface waters (outcrop and lake samples) of the Na-Cl type from the Nurra region, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I, and Sr), in addition to isotopic data including δ18O, δD in water, and δ34S and δ18O in dissolved SO4. To identify the origin of the salinity more precisely, we also analysed the mineralogical and isotopic composition of Triassic evaporites. The brackish waters have Cl contents of up to 2025 mg L-1 , and the ratios between dissolved ions and Cl, with the exception of the Br / Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of simple mixing between rainwater and seawater. The δ18O and δD data indicate that most of the waters fall between the regional meteoric water line and the global meteoric water line, supporting the conclusion that they are

  1. Adaptive genomic divergence under high gene flow between freshwater and brackish-water ecotypes of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) revealed by Pool-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennenmoser, Stefan; Vamosi, Steven M; Nolte, Arne W; Rogers, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genomic basis of adaptive divergence in the presence of gene flow remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), an abundant euryhaline fish in northwestern North America, high genetic connectivity among brackish-water (estuarine) and freshwater (tributary) habitats of coastal rivers does not preclude the build-up of neutral genetic differentiation and emergence of different life history strategies. Because these two habitats present different osmotic niches, we predicted high genetic differentiation at known teleost candidate genes underlying salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. We applied whole-genome sequencing of pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) to explore adaptive divergence between two estuarine and two tributary habitats. Paired-end sequence reads were mapped against genomic contigs of European Cottus, and the gene content of candidate regions was explored based on comparisons with the threespine stickleback genome. Genes showing signals of repeated differentiation among brackish-water and freshwater habitats included functions such as ion transport and structural permeability in freshwater gills, which suggests that local adaptation to different osmotic niches might contribute to genomic divergence among habitats. Overall, the presence of both repeated and unique signatures of differentiation across many loci scattered throughout the genome is consistent with polygenic adaptation from standing genetic variation and locally variable selection pressures in the early stages of life history divergence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in the Na-Cl brackish waters of northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mongelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the Mediterranean, salinization threatens water quality, especially in coastal areas. This salinization is the result of concomitant processes related to both seawater intrusion and water–rock interaction, which in some cases are virtually indistinguishable. In the Nurra region of northwestern Sardinia, recent salinization related to marine water intrusion has been caused by aquifer exploitation. However, the geology of this region records a long history from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary, and is structurally complex and comprises a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. Determining the origin of the saline component of the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers in the Nurra region may provide a useful and more general model for salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activity and recent climatic change, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, in common with other Mediterranean islands, surface water resources periodically suffer from severe shortages. With this in mind, we report new data regarding brackish and surface waters (outcrop and lake samples of the Na-Cl type from the Nurra region, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I, and Sr, in addition to isotopic data including δ18O, δD in water, and δ34S and δ18O in dissolved SO4. To identify the origin of the salinity more precisely, we also analysed the mineralogical and isotopic composition of Triassic evaporites. The brackish waters have Cl contents of up to 2025 mg L−1 , and the ratios between dissolved ions and Cl, with the exception of the Br / Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of simple mixing between rainwater and seawater. The δ18O and δD data indicate that most of the waters fall between the regional meteoric water line and the global meteoric water line, supporting the

  3. High pressure membrane foulants of seawater, brackish water and river water: Origin assessed by sugar and bacteriohopanepolyol signatures

    KAUST Repository

    Mondamert, Leslie; Labanowski, Jé rô me; N'Goye, F.; Talbot, Helen M.; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the origin of foulant material recovered on membranes used in water treatment. Firstly, sugar signatures were assessed from the monosaccharide composition. As results were not conclusive, a statistical approach using

  4. A breakthrough low energy desalination process : production of sustainable water from brackish water for the oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, M.; Sparrow, B.; Zoshi, J. [Saltwork Technologies Inc., BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described an innovative desalination system pilot study that is currently being conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). The thermo-ionic proof-tested system has the potential to achieve an electrical energy consumption rate of less than 1 kW per m{sup 3} through the harnessing of low grade heat. The energy transfer is accomplished by manipulating concentration gradients established and maintained through the evaporation of salt water into the atmosphere. The ion exchange mechanism reduced pre-treatment requirements and provided a self-cleaning mechanism to maintain steady production levels. The electrical energy created during the process was used to run low-pressure circulation pumps and process controls. The driving force for evaporation was the vapor pressure difference between the solution and moisture in the air. Discharges from the system can be tuned to various salt water concentrations. Results of the pilot study to date indicate that it is suitable for use in oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  5. Evaluating the piscicide rotenone as an option for eradication of invasive Mozambique tilapia in a Hawaiian brackish-water wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo; Englund, Ronald A.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2015-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were recently discovered in ‘Aimakapā Fishpond, a 12-hectare brackish-water wetland complex in Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, on the Island of Hawai’i. As a possible eradication method, we evaluated rotenone, a natural piscicide used in fish management and the active ingredient in plants traditionally used by indigenous Hawaiians for capturing fish. To assess rotenone’s efficacy in killing tilapia and effects on non-target species, laboratory toxicity tests involved exposing organisms to various concentrations of liquid CFT Legumine (5% rotenone) in static trials of 48-h to 72-h duration. Test organisms included: Mozambique tilapia, non-native guppy Poecilia reticulata, the non-native odonate Rambur’s forktail Ischnura ramburii, native feeble shrimp Palaemon debilis, and native ‘ōpae’ula shrimp Halocaridina rubra. All organisms and water used in tests were obtained from ‘Aimakapā (12.6–12.7 ppt salinity), or, for H. rubra, an anchialine pool (15.0–15.2 ppt salinity). Survival analyses indicated CFT Legumine concentrations >3 ppm (>0.15 mg/L rotenone) achieved 100% mortality of tilapia and 93% of guppies within 24 h, with most tilapia killed by 6 h and most guppies by 2 h. Little or no mortality was observed among invertebrate exposed to 1 to 5 mg/L CFT Legumine: 0% mortality for ‘ōpae’ula shrimp, 4% for feeble shrimp; and 16% for odonate larvae. The 48 h LC50 values for Mozambique tilapia and guppy were 0.06 and 0.11 mg/L rotenone, respectively. Results demonstrate rotenone’s potential for non-native fish eradication in brackish-water habitats, with benefit of low mortality to certain macro-invertebrates. High rotenone tolerance displayed by ‘ōpae’ula shrimp is noteworthy. Invasive fish are common in anchialine pools, threatening existence of shrimp and other invertebrate fauna. Although rotenone’s effects on freshwater organisms have been well studied, our research

  6. Evaluation of hydroacid complex in the forward osmosis–membrane distillation (FO–MD) system for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng; Cui, Yue; Ge, Qingchun; Fern Tew, Tjin; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of membrane distillation (MD) into forward osmosis (FO) provides process sustainability to regenerate the draw solution and to produce clean water simultaneously. However, the reverse salt flux is the major hurdle in the FO-MD system because it not only reduces the effective osmotic driving force across the membrane but also increases the replenishment cost and scaling issue. For the first time, a hydroacid complex with abundant hydrophilic groups and ionic species is evaluated as the draw solutes in the hybrid FO-MD system consisting of multi-bore PVDF MD membranes for seawater/brackish desalination. In order to evaluate the practicality of the hydroacid complex in the FO-MD system, FO and MD experiments were conducted at elevated temperatures and concentrations. The hydroacid complex has displayed desired properties such as high solubility, low viscosity, excellent thermal stability and minimal reverse salt flux suitable for FO and MD operations. FO-MD desalination process was demonstrated with a highest seawater desalination flux of 6/32 LMH (FO/MD). This study may open up the prospective of employing the hydroacid complex as the draw solute in FO-MD hybrid systems for seawater /brackish desalination. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Evaluation of hydroacid complex in the forward osmosis–membrane distillation (FO–MD) system for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The incorporation of membrane distillation (MD) into forward osmosis (FO) provides process sustainability to regenerate the draw solution and to produce clean water simultaneously. However, the reverse salt flux is the major hurdle in the FO-MD system because it not only reduces the effective osmotic driving force across the membrane but also increases the replenishment cost and scaling issue. For the first time, a hydroacid complex with abundant hydrophilic groups and ionic species is evaluated as the draw solutes in the hybrid FO-MD system consisting of multi-bore PVDF MD membranes for seawater/brackish desalination. In order to evaluate the practicality of the hydroacid complex in the FO-MD system, FO and MD experiments were conducted at elevated temperatures and concentrations. The hydroacid complex has displayed desired properties such as high solubility, low viscosity, excellent thermal stability and minimal reverse salt flux suitable for FO and MD operations. FO-MD desalination process was demonstrated with a highest seawater desalination flux of 6/32 LMH (FO/MD). This study may open up the prospective of employing the hydroacid complex as the draw solute in FO-MD hybrid systems for seawater /brackish desalination. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  9. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-05-20

    A novel pressure retarded osmosis−membrane distillation (PRO−MD) hybrid process has been experimentally conceived for sustainable production of renewable osmotic power and clean water from various waters. The proposed PRO−MD system may possess unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic energy from freshwater but also from wastewater. When employing a 2 M NaCl MD concentrate as the draw solution, ultrahigh power densities of 31.0 W/m2 and 9.3 W/m2 have been demonstrated by the PRO subsystem using deionized water and real wastewater brine as the feeds, respectively. Simultaneously, high purity potable water with a flux of 32.5−63.1 L/(m2.h) can be produced by the MD subsystem at 40−60 °C without any detrimental effects of fouling. The energy consumption in the MD subsystem might be further reduced by applying a heat exchanger in the hybrid system and using low-grade heat or solar energy to heat up the feed solution. The newly developed PRO−MD hybrid process would provide insightful guidelines for the exploration of alternative green technologies for renewable osmotic energy and clean water production.

  10. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang; Zuo, Jian; Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic

  11. Potabilization of brackish water by electrodialysis. Study of natural samples with a laboratory unit.; Potabilizacion de aguas salobres por electrodialisis. Estudio de muestras naturales con una unidad de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz Sastre, J A; Alonso-Lopez, J

    1972-07-01

    Potabilization of brackish waters from Ciguela (Toledo) and Riansares (Toledo) rivers, and from wells 1 and 2 at Torre Pacheco (Murcia), as well as of sea water diluted to 5,000 ppm has been studied in process conditions optimized from experiments with synthetic solutions. The study includes: removal of suspended and organic matter, determination of limit current density, power requirements, ion selectivity and daily maximum output of the unit. (Author) 8 refs.

  12. Effects of cadmium and lead upon the indigenous heterotrophic microflora in the aqueous environment of the brackish estuary-water of the river Weser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thormann, D

    1975-01-01

    In agar media (10% salinity) containing Cd or Pb bacterial numbers were progressively reduced at 0.5 to 400 ppM Cd and at 100 to 400 ppM Pb. Only a few bacteria were able to form colonies at the highest concentrations. Lower salinity and low peptone-yeast-extract-concentrations of the medium increased the toxicity of Pb. The appearance of several brown-black pigmented colonies on the plates containing more than 200 ppM Pb was observed, but no dark pigment was noted when the same bacteria were grown in the absence of Pb. Different concentrations of Cd or Pb were added to water samples (as batch cultures) of the Weser Estuary (West Germany). The development of the indigenous microbial population was observed by subsequent counting of the viable heterotrophic bacteria on agar media. Cd was more toxic than Pb; there were differences in the kind of toxicity. The dissolved concentrations of Cd and Pb in the batch cultures were analyzed by atomic absorption. Cd dissolved considerably better than Pb in brackish water. Cd- and Pb-sensitive bacteria were isolated by a replica plating technique to carry out subsequent experiments on the microbial uptake of heavy metals. The most sensitive bacteria were growth-inhibited at 0.1 ppM Cd and Pb. Arthrobacter marinus is mentioned.

  13. Environmental effects of thermal and radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants in the boreal brackish-water conditions of the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.

    2009-08-01

    During recent decades, thermal and radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants into the aquatic environment have become the subject of lively debate as an ecological concern. Recently, an increasing demand for facts has appeared in context with the Environmental Impact Assessment procedures that are being in progress for planned new nuclear power units in Finland. The target of this thesis was to summarize the large quantity of results obtained in extensive monitoring programmes and studies carried out in recipient sea areas off the Finnish nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto during more than four decades. Especially in the conditions specific for the northern Baltic Sea, where biota is poor and adapted to relatively low temperatures and to seasonal variation with a cold ice winter and a temperate summer, an increase in temperature may cause increased environmental stress to the organisms. Furthermore, owing to the brackish-water character of the Baltic Sea, many organisms live there near the limit of their physiological tolerance. On the other hand, the low salinity increases the uptake of certain radionuclides by many organisms in comparison with oceanic conditions. The sea areas surrounding the Finnish nuclear power plants differ from each other in many respects (efficiency of water exchange, levels of nutrients and other water quality parameters, water salinity and consequent differences in species composition, abundance and vitality of biota). In addition, there are differences in the discharge quantities and discharge design of the power plants. In this thesis the environmental effects of the two power plants on the water recipients are compared and their relative significance is assessed

  14. Pilot-scale study of the radiation-induced silica removal from underground brackish water in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljohani, Mohammed S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Silica scaling deposition in industrial water systems is one of the biggest challenges facing the water treatment industry due the low solubility of the scalants in the feed waters. In this preliminary work, we investigated the effectiveness of the ionizing radiation induced removal of silica in water sample from the Salbukh, Saudi Arabia, water treatment plant by using metallic iron as the source of ferric hydroxide to co-precipitate the silica. The influence of several reaction parameters, i.e. iron powder dosage, radiation dose, initial pH and equilibrium pH effect were investigated. In the optimum conditions, up to 75% of silica was removed. This preliminary study showed that this environmentally friendly process is effective in silica removal from underground water.

  15. A direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) study on the benzophenone-water 1 : 1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Iyama, Tetsuji; Kato, Kohichi

    2009-07-28

    Direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method has been applied to a benzophenone-water 1 : 1 complex Bp(H(2)O) and free benzophenone (Bp) to elucidate the effects of zero-point energy (ZPE) vibration and temperature on the absorption spectra of Bp(H(2)O). The n-pi transition of free-Bp (S(1) state) was blue-shifted by the interaction with a water molecule, whereas three pi-pi transitions (S(2), S(3) and S(4)) were red-shifted. The effects of the ZPE vibration and temperature of Bp(H(2)O) increased the intensity of the n-pi transition of Bp(H(2)O) and caused broadening of the pi-pi transitions. In case of the temperature effect, the intensity of n-pi transition increases with increasing temperature. The electronic states of Bp(H(2)O) were discussed on the basis of the theoretical results.

  16. Preliminary design of seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination systems driven by low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycles (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the coupling between the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination units has been carried out. Four substances have been considered as working fluids of the solar cycle (butane, isopentane, R245fa and R245ca). With these four fluids the volumetric flow of fresh water produced per unit of aperture area of stationary solar collector has been calculated. The former has been made with the optimized direct vapour generation (DVG) configuration and heat transfer fluid (HTF) configuration of the solar ORC. In the first one (DVG), working fluid of the ORC is directly heated inside the absorber of the solar collector. In the second one (HTF), a fluid different than the working fluid of the ORC (water in this paper) is heated without phase change inside the absorber of the solar collector. Once this fluid has been heated it is carried towards a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Thermal energy delivered in this cooling process is transferred to the working fluid of the ORC. Influence of condensation temperature of the ORC and regeneration's process effectiveness over productivity of the system has also been analysed. Finally, parameters of several preliminary designs of the low-temperature solar thermal driven RO desalination are supplied. R245fa is chosen as working fluid of the ORC in these preliminary designs. The information of the proposed preliminary designs can also be used, i.e., for the assessment of the use of thermal energy rejected by the solar cycle. Overall analysis of the efficiency of the solar thermal driven RO desalination technology is given with the results presented in this paper and the results obtained with the medium temperature solar thermal RO desalination system presented by the authors in previous papers. This work has been carried out within the framework of the OSMOSOL and POWERSOL projects.

  17. Preliminary design of seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination systems driven by low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycles (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M. [Dpto. Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Civil e Industrial, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n. 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad de Sevilla Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, the coupling between the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination units has been carried out. Four substances have been considered as working fluids of the solar cycle (butane, isopentane, R245fa and R245ca). With these four fluids the volumetric flow of fresh water produced per unit of aperture area of stationary solar collector has been calculated. The former has been made with the optimized direct vapour generation (DVG) configuration and heat transfer fluid (HTF) configuration of the solar ORC. In the first one (DVG), working fluid of the ORC is directly heated inside the absorber of the solar collector. In the second one (HTF), a fluid different than the working fluid of the ORC (water in this paper) is heated without phase change inside the absorber of the solar collector. Once this fluid has been heated it is carried towards a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Thermal energy delivered in this cooling process is transferred to the working fluid of the ORC. Influence of condensation temperature of the ORC and regeneration's process effectiveness over productivity of the system has also been analysed. Finally, parameters of several preliminary designs of the low-temperature solar thermal driven RO desalination are supplied. R245fa is chosen as working fluid of the ORC in these preliminary designs. The information of the proposed preliminary designs can also be used, i.e., for the assessment of the use of thermal energy rejected by the solar cycle. Overall analysis of the efficiency of the solar thermal driven RO desalination technology is given with the results presented in this paper and the results obtained with the medium temperature solar thermal RO desalination system presented by the authors in previous papers. This work has been carried out within the framework of the OSMOSOL and POWERSOL projects. (author)

  18. A simple and rapid in situ preconcentration method for the determination of phosphate in environmental waters by use of solid-phase extraction, and its applications to brackish lake waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, M; Tong, L; Fujinaga, K; Seike, Y

    2001-05-01

    A simple and rapid in situ preconcentration method for the determination of phosphate in environmental waters has been developed for field analysis. This method is based on solid-phase extraction on a zirconium-loaded Sep-Pack Accell CM cartridge (Zr-SP) and is applicable to studies in which sampling is performed by use of a graduated syringe to prevent contamination and to ensure easy operation at sampling sites. The Zr-SP cartridge was prepared by passing 0.1 mol L(-1) zirconium solution through a Sep-Pak Accell CM cartridge, packed with cation exchange sorbent based on a silica matrix. The adsorption of phosphate and its desorption depend only on the pH of the solution. A water sample containing phosphate was adjusted to pH 2 and passed through the Zr-SP cartridge to collect it. The retained phosphate was quantitatively eluted with 0.5 mol L(-1) sodium hydroxide solution. The phosphate retained in the Zr-SP cartridge was stable for at least one month. The established preconcentration method was successfully applied to brackish lake waters to investigate seasonal changes in the distribution and behavior of phosphate in a brackish lake.

  19. Early diagenetic high-magnesium calcite and dolomite indicate that coal balls formed in marine or brackish water: Stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Coal balls are carbonate and pyrite permineralizations of peat that contain three-dimensional plant fossils preserved at the cellular level. Coal balls, which occur in Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian equatorial coals, provide a detailed record of terrestrial ecology and tropical climate during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age; yet their depositional environment remains controversial. The exquisite preservation of some coal-ball fossils, e.g. pollen with pollen tubes and leaves with mesophyll, indicates rapid formation. The presence of abundant, cement-filled, void spaces within and between the plant debris in most coal balls indicates that they formed in uncompacted peat, near the surface of the mire. Botanical, taphonomic and isotopic evidence point to a freshwater origin for coal balls. The nearest living relatives of coal ball plants (modern lycopsids, sphenopsids, marratialean ferns and conifers) grow in fresh water. Coal-ball peat contains a high percentage of aerial debris, similar to modern freshwater peat. The stable oxygen isotopes of coal-ball carbonate (δ18O = 16 to 3 per mil) suggest a freshwater origin. However, the widespread occurrence of marine invertebrates and early diagenetic framboidal pyrite in coal balls suggests that many formed in close proximity to marine water. Indeed, carbonate petrology points to a marine or brackish water origin for the first-formed carbonate cements in coal balls. Petrographic and geochemical (microprobe) analysis of coal-ball carbonates in Pennsylvanian coals from the midcontinent of North America (Western Interior Basin, West Pangaea) and the Ruhr and Donets Basins (East Pangaea) indicate that the first formed carbonate is either radaxial, nonstochiometric dolomite or high magnesium calcite (9 - 17 mol % MgCO3, indicating precipitation in marine or brackish water. Although both primary dolomite and high magnesium calcite can form in lacustrine settings, the lakes in which these minerals form occur in carbonate terranes

  20. Estratégias de uso de água salobra na produção de alface em hidroponia NFT Strategies for use of brackish water in NFT hydroponic lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Alves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa 'Verônica' foram cultivadas em condições hidropônicas, objetivando avaliar três diferentes estratégias de emprego de águas salobras: 1 águas salobras para reposição das perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc e água doce para o preparo da solução nutritiva (SN; 2 águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc; 3 águas salobras para o preparo da SN e reposição da ETc. Os níveis de salinidade da água foram obtidos pela adição de NaCl à água doce (0,27 dS m-1: 1,45; 2,51; 3,6; 5,41 e 7,5 dS m-1. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro blocos aleatorizados, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Uma estrutura de pesquisa foi construída com 72 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. O uso de água salobra apenas para repor a ETc não produziu efeito sobre a produção da alface. Por outro lado, o uso de águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc, reduziu o rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea em 4,99% por (dS m-1. O rendimento foi reduzido em 7% por dS m-1 quando águas salobras foram usadas tanto para o preparo da SN quanto para reposição da ETc. Apesar da redução linear da produção da alface com o aumento da salinidade da água, sintomas depreciativos para a qualidade da alface hidropônica não foram registrados.Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. 'Verônica' were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate three different strategies of brackish waters utilization: 1 brackish waters to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc and fresh water to prepare nutrient solution (NS; 2 brackish waters to prepare NS and fresh water to replace the ETc; 3 brackish waters to prepare NS and replace ETc. The levels of water salinity were obtained by addition of NaCl to fresh water (0.27 dS m-1: 1.45; 2.51; 3.6; 5.41 and 7.5 dS m-1. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four

  1. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Document Technologies Available to Clean Brackish Waters to 50 PPT TBT Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    the extremely toxic tributyltin ( TBT ) into the aquatic environment is primarily due to its use in antifouling paint biocides on ships. Growing concern... Tributyltin (822/R-91-100), 1991. This report outlines the uses of TBT and references numerous studies conducted on the toxicity , chemistry, and environmental...study is to identify practical technology that can be used by shipyards to remove tributyltin ( TBT ) from large volumes of water to levels below 50 parts

  2. Use of brackish ground water resources for regional energy center development, Tularosa Basin, New Mexico: preliminary evaluation. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an impact and suitability profile for the use of the Tularosa Basin in south-central New Mexico as the potential location of an energy center. Underyling the Tularosa Basin is an aquifer system containing perhaps 40 million acre-feet of fresh and slightly saline (1-3 g/l) water that is theoretically recoverable and could be used for cooling and other energy-related or industrial purposes, particularly if energy development projects in other areas of the state and region are delayed, impeded, or cancelled because of uncertain availability or accessibility of water. This preliminary investigation of the Tularosa Basin reveals no outstanding features that would discourage further detailed analysis and planning for an energy complex. A major program of exploratory drilling, well logging, and testing is needed to determine aquifer characteristics and factors affecting well design. Since industrial development in the basin will necessarily involve Federal, state, and private lands, any serious plan will require collaboration of Federal, state, and local authorities

  3. Arsenic removal from contaminated brackish sea water by sorption onto Al hydroxides and Fe phases mobilized by land-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changxun; Peltola, Pasi; Nystrand, Miriam I; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Österholm, Peter; Ojala, Antti E K; Hogmalm, Johan K; Åström, Mats E

    2016-01-15

    This study examines the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of arsenic (As) in solid and aqueous materials along the mixing zone of an estuary, located in the south-eastern part of the Bothnian Bay and fed by a creek running through an acid sulfate (AS) soil landscape. The concentrations of As in solution form (<1 kDa) increase steadily from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, suggesting that inflowing seawater, rather than AS soil, is the major As source in the estuary. In sediments at the outer estuary, As was accumulated and diagenetically cycled in the surficial layers, as throughout much of the Bothnian Bay. In contrast, in sediments in the inner estuary, As concentrations and accumulation rates showed systematical peaks at greater depths. These peaks were overall consistent with the temporal trend of past As discharges from the Rönnskär smelter and the accompanied As concentrations in past sea-water of the Bothnian Bay, pointing to a connection between the historical smelter activities and the sediment-bound As in the inner estuary. However, the concentrations and accumulation rates of As peaked at depths where the smelter activities had already declined, but a large increase in the deposition of Al hydroxides and Fe phases occurred in response to intensified land-use in the mid 1960's and early 1970's. This correspondence suggests that, apart from the inflowing As-contaminated seawater, capture by Al hydroxides, Fe hydroxides and Fe-organic complexes is another important factor for As deposition in the inner estuary. After accumulating in the sediment, the solid-phase As was partly remobilized, as reflected by increased pore-water As concentrations, a process favored by As(V) reduction and high concentrations of dissolved organic matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Species composition and dietary relationships in a brackish shallow water fish assemblage in the Bothnian Sea, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Staffan; Wiederholm, Anne-Marie

    1984-09-01

    A nearshore fish assemblage inhabiting a shallow bay in the southern Bothnian Sea, Sweden, with demanding environmental conditions (c. 5‰; >15°C during 4 months 1980 and 1 month 1981) was studied during a two-year period, in 1980 and 1981. Seasonal distribution patterns, dietary relationships, and growth rates were studied in Pungitius pungitius (L.), Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas.), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and Gobius niger L. The structure of the juvenile populations changed both over seasons and years but the adult populations remained constant. Lower water temperature, fewer individuals, lower and delayed fish growth, and lower interspecific food overlaps were found in 1981 compared to 1980. Few significant correlations were found in both years between the following community parameters: diversity, niche width, food overlap, and the proportion of each species in the fish assemblage. According to these results it is suggested that food competition and resource partitioning were of minor importance for the structuring of the fish community in the present area. Rather, the extreme salinity and the fluctuations in temperature regulated the fish populations. One may conclude that the populations of juveniles were more influenced by short-term changes in the environment than those of the adults.

  5. The role of freshwater habitats for the reproduction of common bream Abramis brama (L.) in a brackish water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafemann, R.; Thiel, R.; Finn, J.E.; Neukamm, R.

    1998-01-01

    Abundance and biomass data for juveniles and adults, length frequency histograms and the electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) of otoliths were used to indicate density, migration and reproduction of common bream Abramis brama in the Kiel Canal drainage, Germany. The reproduction of common bream was primarily restricted to two types of spawning habitats: one in the Haaler Au, a freshwater tributary and another in shallow, oligohaline portion of the main Canal. Both spawning habitats were morphologically characterized as shallow with submerged vegetation. During April to June concentrations of spawners were observed, whereas age-0 common bream dominated from August through December. The distribution of age-0 common bream was primarily restricted to fresh and oligohaline waters. Outside the spawning season, the distribution of common bream was less obvious. Adult fish were more widely distributed within the Canal, indicating a tolerance for higher salinities. During the spawning season common bream seem to show an exceptional mobility between spawning and feeding habitats, which are denoted by different salinities.

  6. Combinação de águas doce e salobra para produção de alface hidropônica Combination of fresh and brackish waters for hydroponic lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales M. Soares

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa cv. Verônica foram cultivadas em condição hidropônica objetivando-se avaliar dois tipos de emprego combinado de águas doce e salobras, quais sejam: usar as águas salobras para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN e a água doce para repor a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc (Experimento I e usar a água doce para preparar a SN e as salobras para a reposição da ETc (Experimento II. Uma estrutura de pesquisa com 40 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT foi construída. Os níveis de salinidade da água testados foram: 0,585; 1,17; 1,755; 2,925 e 4,095 g L-1 de NaCl. A salinidade diminuiu a produtividade da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea em 10,9 e 3,91% para cada acréscimo unitário na salinidade da água (g L-1 de NaCl, considerando-se os Experimentos I e II, respectivamente. De acordo com os resultados obtidos com os dois tipos de combinação de águas doce e salobras, o uso de águas salobras para repor a ETc pode aumentar a produtividade da alface em comparação com o uso dessas águas para preparar a SN.Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. Verônica were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate two types of combination of brackish and fresh waters: using the brackish waters to prepare nutrient solution (NS and fresh water to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc (Experiment I and using the fresh water to prepare NS and the brackish waters to replace the ETc loss (Experiment II. A research structure was built up with 40 experimental units which simulated the nutrient film technique (NFT. The levels of water salinity were 0.585; 1.17; 1.755; 2.925 and 4.095 g L-1 NaCl. The lettuce yield (fresh shoot matter decreased 10.9 and 3.91% for each unit increase in water salinity (g L-1 NaCl in Experiments I and II, respectively. According to results obtained with the two types of combination of fresh and brackish waters, the use of brackish waters to replace

  7. Desalination of brackish groundwater and concentrate disposal by deep well injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthek, N.; Raat, K.; Ruijter, J.A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Oosterhof, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the province of Friesland (in the Northern part of The Netherlands), problems have arisen with the abstraction of fresh groundwater due to salinization of wells by upcoming of brackish water. A solution to this problem is to intercept (abstract) the upcoming brackish water, desalinate it with a

  8. Late rise in hemolymph osmolality in Macrobrachium acanthurus (diadromous freshwater shrimp) exposed to brackish water: Early reduction in branchial Na+/K+ pump activity but stable muscle HSP70 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Maraschi, Anieli C; Lara, Alessandra F; Amado, Enelise M; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2018-02-01

    Some Macrobrachium shrimps (Caridea, Palaemonidae) are diadromous; freshwater adults are truly euryhaline, while larvae need saline water for development. Branchial Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in NaCl absorption in freshwater. This study aimed at verifying the time course of the osmoregulatory response of adult Macrobrachium acanthurus to high salinity brackish water (20‰), from the first 30min to 5days. The goal was to detect possible transition from hyper- to hyporegulation, the putative involvement of branchial NKA and CA, or the induction of muscular HSP70 expression. Hemolymph osmotic and ionic concentrations remained relatively stable and close to control levels until ~9h of exposure, but later increased consistently (~50%). A fast reduction in NKA activity (3-6h) was observed; these shrimps seem to shut off salt absorption already in the first hours. Later on, especially after 24h, hemolymph concentrations rise but HSP70 expression is not induced, possibly because constitutive levels are already sufficient to prevent protein damage. Time-dependent response mechanisms effective in high salinity brackish water, resulting in salt loading avoidance and suggestive of hyporegulation should be further investigated in decapods that evolutionary invaded freshwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brackish groundwater and its potential to augment freshwater supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2017-07-18

    Secure, reliable, and sustainable water resources are fundamental to the Nation’s food production, energy independence, and ecological and human health and well-being. Indications are that at any given time, water resources are under stress in selected parts of the country. The large-scale development of groundwater resources has caused declines in the amount of groundwater in storage and declines in discharges to surface water bodies (Reilly and others, 2008). Water supply in some regions, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought intensifies the stresses affecting water resources (National Drought Mitigation Center, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, 2015). If these drought conditions continue, water shortages could adversely affect the human condition and threaten environmental flows necessary to maintain ecosystem health.In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to provide updated information about brackish groundwater as a potential resource to augment or replace freshwater supplies (Stanton and others, 2017). Study objectives were to consolidate available data into a comprehensive database of brackish groundwater resources in the United States and to produce a summary report highlighting the distribution, physical and chemical characteristics, and use of brackish groundwater resources. This assessment was authorized by section 9507 of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 (42 U.S.C. 10367), passed by Congress in March 2009. Before this assessment, the last national brackish groundwater compilation was completed in the mid-1960s (Feth, 1965). Since that time, substantially more hydrologic and geochemical data have been collected and now can be used to improve the understanding of the Nation’s brackish groundwater resources.

  10. The taming of brackish seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, F.J.C.; Olsthoorn, T.; Smulders, L.; van Wielink, I.

    2016-01-01

    In the area that is managed by the waterboard Amstel, Gooi and Vecht, some deep polders are located. Most of them attract large amounts of brackish seepage. This seepage not only contains salt, but also nutriënts.
    Without hydrological intervention, the waterquality in the area would suffer

  11. Md Naimuddin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. Md Naimuddin. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 79 Issue 5 November 2012 pp 1255-1258 Poster Presentations. Model unspecific search for new physics in collision at s = 7 TeV · Shivali Malhotra Md Naimuddin Thomas Hebbeker Arnd Meyer ...

  12. The Winddrinker. Brackish water desalination in Somalia by means of wind energy; De Winddrinker. Brak water ontzilting in Somaliland door middel van windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generaal, C. [Faculteit Luchtvaart- en Ruimtetechniek, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The Winddrinker turns salt water into clean drinking water utilizing solely wind energy. It is a promising solution to solve water problems in dry coastal areas of developing countries. The Winddrinker combines a windmill and a desalination pump in the most efficient way. A mechanical coupling ensures a cheap, simple and reliable technology. [Dutch] De Winddrinker kan brak water ontzouten en veranderen in drinkwater met behulp van wind energie. Het is een veelbelovende oplossing voor het drinkwaterprobleem in droge kustgebieden in ontwikkelingslanden. De Winddrinker is een zeer efficient systeem bestaande uit een windmolen en een ontziltingspomp. Een mechanische koppeling zorgt voor een goedkope, eenvoudige en betrouwbare technologie.

  13. Exploring the conserved water site and hydration of a coiled-coil trimerisation motif: a MD simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Baron, Riccardo; Missimer, John H; Steinmetz, Michel O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2008-07-21

    The solvent structure and dynamics around ccbeta-p, a 17-residue peptide that forms a parallel three-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil in solution, was analysed through 10 ns explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 278 and 330 K. Comparison with two corresponding simulations of the monomeric form of ccbeta-p was used to investigate the changes of hydration upon coiled-coil formation. Pronounced peaks in the solvent density distribution between residues Arg8 and Glu13 of neighbouring helices show the presence of water bridges between the helices of the ccbeta-p trimer; this is in agreement with the water sites observed in X-ray crystallography experiments. Interestingly, this water site is structurally conserved in many three-stranded coiled coils and, together with the Arg and Glu residues, forms part of a motif that determines three-stranded coiled-coil formation. Our findings show that little direct correlation exists between the solvent density distribution and the temporal ordering of water around the trimeric coiled coil. The MD-calculated effective residence times of up to 40 ps show rapid exchange of surface water molecules with the bulk phase, and indicate that the solvent distribution around biomolecules requires interpretation in terms of continuous density distributions rather than in terms of discrete molecules of water. Together, our study contributes to understanding the principles of three-stranded coiled-coil formation.

  14. The origin of brackish and saline groundwater in the coastal area of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, VEA; Van der Plicht, H; Meijer, HAJ

    An explanation is presented for the origin of brackish to saline groundwater in the coastal area of the Netherlands based on geological, chemical (chlorinity), isotopic and geophysical data. A critical review of all possible salinization mechanisms shows that the origin of the brackish water is

  15. Report on follow-up for joint research of valuable resources recovery techniques from brackish water; Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report describes follow-up for research and development on the recovery of valuable resources, such as magnesium, bromine and boron, contained in the brackish water for manufacture of common salt in the coastal region of Mexico. For the field survey, salt garden, irrigation plant and manufacturing plant of dinning salt were inspected. The optimum site was examined by assuming desalination plant and solar pond. The groundwater in coastal regions is progressively salified. Since the coastal region is a tourist resort with an round-trip area of whales, environmental protection is indispensable. For the joint research with invited researchers, the solar pond system and fresh water generation were studied. As a result, it was found that the solar pond system is an excellent method for keeping thermal energy in a low cost at the salt garden with abundant solar energy, and that the desalination system combined with distilling is the most suitable method. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Produção de girassol ornamental com uso de águas salobras em sistema hidropônico NFT Production of ornamental sunflower with use of brackish waters in NFT hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo P Maciel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de girassol ornamental 'Sol Vermelho' foram cultivadas em hidroponia com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de águas salobras sobre seu rendimento e qualidade da inflorescência. As águas salobras foram usadas para preparar a solução nutritiva e repor as perdas por evapotranspiração. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente aleatorizado com cinco níveis de salinidade da água: 1,51; 2,56; 3,86 e 6,19 dS m-1, obtidos pela adição de NaCl na água doce local (0,47 dS m-1 que também foi usada como testemunha. Cada tratamento foi repetido quatro vezes e cada parcela (com quatro plantas foi construída para simular um sistema independente da técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. Observou-se uma redução linear causada pelo aumento da salinidade da água sobre a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule e a massa da matéria seca da parte aérea. Tanto a altura da planta quanto o diâmetro do caule foram reduzidos em 3,2% e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea foi reduzida em 5,78% (dS m-1-1, para cada acréscimo unitário da salinidade da água (dS m-1. Por outro lado, a salinidade da água não afetou o tamanho do capítulo do girassol e não foram registrados sintomas de toxicidade causados pela salinidade. Esses resultados sustentam a viabilidade técnica do uso de águas salobras para produção hidropônica de girassol ornamental.Plants of ornamental sunflower 'Sol Vermelho' were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate the effects of use of brackish water on its yield and inflorescence (capitulum quality. The brackish waters were utilized to prepare nutrient solution and to replace water due to evapotranspiration loss. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized experimental design with five levels of water salinity: 1.51; 2.56; 3.86 and 6.19 dS m-1, obtained by addition of NaCl to local fresh water; this fresh water (0.47 dS m-1 was also studied as control treatment. Each

  17. Osmotically and thermally isolated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (fo-md) integrated module for water treatment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    An integrated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) module and systems and methods incorporating the module is disclosed providing higher efficiencies and using less energy. The FO-MD module is osmotically and thermally isolated. The isolation can prevent mixing of FO draw solution/FO permeate and MD feed, and minimize dilution of FO draw solution and cooling of MD feed. The module provides MD feed solution and FO draw solution streams that flow in the same module but are separated by an isolation barrier. The osmotically and thermally isolated FO-MD integrated module, systems and methods offer higher driving forces of both FO and MD processes, higher recovery, and wider application than previously proposed hybrid FO- MD systems.

  18. Osmotically and thermally isolated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (fo-md) integrated module for water treatment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Francis, Lijo; Li, Zhenyu; Valladares, Rodrigo; Alsaadi, Ahmad S.; Ghdaib, Muhannad Abu; Amy, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) module and systems and methods incorporating the module is disclosed providing higher efficiencies and using less energy. The FO-MD module is osmotically and thermally isolated. The isolation can prevent mixing of FO draw solution/FO permeate and MD feed, and minimize dilution of FO draw solution and cooling of MD feed. The module provides MD feed solution and FO draw solution streams that flow in the same module but are separated by an isolation barrier. The osmotically and thermally isolated FO-MD integrated module, systems and methods offer higher driving forces of both FO and MD processes, higher recovery, and wider application than previously proposed hybrid FO- MD systems.

  19. An apparatus to measure water optical attenuation length for LHAASO-MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Gang; Feng, Shaohui; Wang, Lingyu; Li, Xiurong; Zuo, Xiong; Cheng, Ning; Wang, Hui; Gao, Bo; Duan, Zhihao; Liu, Jia; He, Huihai; Saeed, Mohsin; Lhaaso Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    The large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) is being constructed at 4400 m a.s.l. in Daocheng, Sichuan Province, aiming to reveal the secrets of cosmic rays origin. And it has the largest surface muon detector array in the world. Due to the needs of calibration and construction of muon detector, we developed a water optical attenuation measurement device using an 8 m long water tank. The results are presented for filtered water at wavelength of 405 nm, which proves this apparatus can reach an accuracy of about 20% at 100 m. This apparatus has not only a high precision measurement of water attenuation length up to 100 m but is also very convenient to be used, which is crucial for water optical properties study during LHAASO detector construction.

  20. Assessment of hydrogen bonding effect on ionization of water from ambient to supercritical region–MD simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatla-Wojcik, D.; Mozumder, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based, strategy to analyze how the degree of hydrogen bonding may influence the ionization and dissociation of water upon heating from ambient to supercritical temperatures. Calculations show a negligible change in the ionization energy up to 200 °C. At higher temperatures the ionization energy increases due to the decreasing degree of hydrogen bonding. The influence of density (pressure) is pronounced in the supercritical region. The ionization is more energy consuming in the less dense fluid. We also show that high temperature and low density may promote dissociation of the electronically excited water molecules. Implications on the initial radiation chemical yields of the hydrated electron, hydrogen atom and hydroxyl radical are discussed. - Highlights: • Up to 200 °C changes in the vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials are negligible. • At higher temperatures ionization is more energy consuming. • Ionization potential increases with decreasing density of supercritical water. • High temperature and low density promote dissociation of the excited molecules

  1. Ecotoxicity studies in Jamaican environment I. Toxicity, bioaccumulation, elimination and tissue partitioning of ethoprophos by the fish Tilapia in brackish water microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.E.; Mansingh, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was conducted on the toxicity of ethoprophos to sexually mature red hybrid Tilapia. The NOEC and LOEC were 1 and 4 mg/L of ethoprophos; the 24-h LC 50 and LC 95 values were 8.41 and 21.00 mg/L. Bioconcentration of the insecticide from NOEC and LOEC in the surrounding water by the fish peaked (3.25'' 0.412 and 12.50'' 1.831 μg/g, respectively) eight to twelve hours after exposure. Bioconcentration from LOEC was 3.8-fold greater than at NOEC. The contaminated fish (after 24-h exposure to LOEC) eliminated 83% of the ethoprophos residues within 12-h exposure to uncontaminated water. The order of partitioning of ethoprophos in the different tissues of the fish was gonads > liver > gut > gills > skin-muscle-bone. (author)

  2. Potency of Gamma ray, Electric Current and Elicitor Application, as a Novel Practical Technique, to Improve Biomass Production and Glycoside Quality for Digitalis purpurea L. Grown in Sandy Soil Irrigated with Brackish Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosila, H.A.; Afifi, L.M.A.; Ahmed, T.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Digitalis purpurea L seeds were treated before sowing with gamma ray (G:0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR, and electric current (E:O, 100, 150, 200 mA) then grown in sandy soil irrigated with brackish water (900 ppm) , in splite-splite plot design for 3 replicat (R) at two subsequent seasons , through surface drip irrigation system. Plants at 4- month old and monthly until before flowering were foliar sprayed with MnSO 4 as abiotic elicitor (M :O, 3 ppm). Biomass/ Feddan, percentage of total glycosides and percentage of bioactive glycosides, digitoxin and gitoxin were quantitated. Statistical analysis for the obtained data revealed that G, E and M achieved significant in biomass yield and its quality traits. Moreover, interactions ; GE, GM, EM and GEM achieved synergistic and significant increment for this traits. At such G dose the trait was increased by increasing E dose and M concentration. Hence, G 2.5, 5,7.5 KR E200 mA M3 ppm achieved significant increment, as percent over that of control, in biomass production / Feddan by 22, 29, 32%, total glycoside by 27, 40, 30%, digitoxin 27, 40, 30% for both first and second seasons, respectively. Whereas, increment for gitoxin were 27, 41, 30% at first season and 26, 38, 30% at second season, respectively. Overall, these finding strongly confirm the reliability of GEM as a novel practical technique for overproduction biomass/Fed. and quality improvement bioactive cardiac glycosides, digitoxin and gitoxin in Digitalis purpurea L.

  3. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra para irrigação da erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia The use of the brine from desalting brackish water to irrigate saltbush (Atriplex nummularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo R. Porto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se reduzir os impactos causados pela dessalinização de água salobra proveniente do cristalino no trópico semi-árido brasileiro, a erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia foi cultivada durante um ano, nos campos da Estação Experimental da Embrapa Semi-Árido. As plantas foram irrigadas com rejeito do processo de dessalinização, com concentração salina média de 11,38 dS m-1, e cada uma recebeu 75 L de água por semana, durante 48 semanas. A salinidade média do perfil de solo, da camada de 0 a 90 cm, era de 0,64 dS m-1 antes de se iniciar a irrigação das plantas; depois da colheita das plantas, a salinidade do mesmo perfil de solo foi de 12,74 dS m-1, enquanto a produtividade da erva-sal foi de 6.537,0 kg ha-1 de matéria seca, com teor de proteína bruta de 18,40% nas folhas. A Atriplex apresentou grande potencial de extração de sais do perfil de solo, mas quando as plantas são irrigadas com rejeito de alta concentração salina, a quantidade de sais extraída desse perfil pela planta, é da ordem de 3,93% do total de sais adicionados ao solo pelas irrigações; isto implica no fato de que, para um manejo de água sustentável, há necessidade de se gerar mais informações sobre as relações de solo e água para a erva-sal, nas condições das zonas áridas do Brasil.Looking forward to reducing environmental impacts resulting from desalting brackish water in the region of the crystalline rocks in the semi-arid tropic of Brazil, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia was cultivated during one year in an experimental field of Embrapa Semi-Arid. The plants were irrigated with the brine from the desalting plant which presented a salt concentration of 11.38 dS m-1. Each plant received 75 L of water per week, during 48 weeks. The soil salinity, at the depth of 0-90 cm, of the cropped area averaged 0.64 dS m-1 before starting the irrigation process. After the plants were harvested, the soil salinity in the same profile averaged 12.74 d

  4. Cryptanalysis of MD2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Mathiassen, John Erik; Muller, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the hash function MD2 which was developed by Ron Rivest in 1989. Despite its age, MD2 has withstood cryptanalytic attacks until recently. This paper contains the state-of-the-art cryptanalytic results on MD2, in particular collision and preimage attacks on the full hash...

  5. Characterizing the Occurrence and Transport of Brackish Groundwater in Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    worland, S.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Bangladesh is host to the largest and the most active delta system in the world. The morphology of the southern part of the country is characterized by low lying deltaic plains partitioned by the distributary networks of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems. Much of the tidal mangrove forest ecosystem of the lower delta has been converted into poldered islands that sustain shrimp farming and rice production. The polder inhabitants depend on shallow groundwater as a primary source for drinking water and sanitation. Understanding the origin and hydrologic controls on the distribution of the brackish water and freshwater on the polder is a necessary step to ensuring a sustainable and potable freshwater source for drinking and irrigation. Preliminary sampling from shallow tube wells on Polder 32 in southwest Bangladesh suggests sporadic lateral apportioning of fresh water in the primarily brackish aquifer. This research characterizes the occurrence, transport and fate of the brackish groundwater through a combination of 3H and 14C dating, geochemical signatures, subsurface mapping using inversions from electromagnetic induction, and a 1D finite difference model and a 2D finite element model. The geochemical analysis and radiometric dating suggest that the salt water originates from paleo-brackish estuarine water deposited ~5000 years ago along with the sediments that compose the shallow aquifer. Inversions of electromagnetic survey data show potential freshwater recharge areas where the clay cap pinches out. The finite difference model demonstrates that recharge from the distributary channels is unlikely due to the low transmissivity of the clay channel beds. The finite element model gives reasonable estimates of the flushing rates of the connate brackish water beneath the polder. Inversion of electromagnetic data from a two hundred meter transect taken on Polder 32 Head gradient and groundwater flow vectors for fixed head boundary conditions across Polder

  6. Brackish to hypersaline lake dolostones of the Mississippian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carys; Kearsey, Timothy; Davies, Sarah; Millward, David; Marshall, John

    2016-04-01

    , and 9% of all dolostone beds in the Norham Core are pedogenically altered. The isotopic composition of dolomite beds is δ18O -3.6‰ to -1.7‰ and δ13C -2.6‰ to 1.6‰ which is consistent with a brackish as opposed to marine origin. The dolostones are categorised by their sedimentary composition: Facies 1: Cemented siltstone and sandstone; Facies 2: Homogeneous micrite to micro-crystaline dolomite, within a clay matrix; Facies 3: Bedded dolomite and siltstone; Facies 4: Mixed calcite and dolomite; Facies 5: Dolomite with gypsum and anhydrite. Formation processes are diverse, and include diagenetic cementation (Facies 1), deposition in saline (brackish) lakes (Facies 2), deposition in saline lakes with clastic sediment input (Facies 3), lagoonal to shallow-marine carbonate deposition (Facies 4), and hypersaline lake to sabkha environments (Facies 5). 60% of the beds are facies 2 or 3 and their sedimentology, fauna, ichnofauna and isotopic composition indicate a brackish-water origin. Other Mississippian dolostones from around the world also contain a fairly restricted fauna and have been interpreted as brackish water deposits. The mechanism of dolomite formation under these conditions is discussed. These dolostones provided extensive coastal lakes that may have been an important habitat for tetrapods and other transitional groups during the Mississippian.

  7. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    Many water scarce regions possess brackish-water resources that can be desalted to provide alternative water supplies. Brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is less expensive than seawater systems because of reduced energy and pretreatment requirements and lesser volumes of concentrate that require disposal. Development of brackish groundwater wellfields include the same hydraulic issues that affect conventional freshwater wellfields. Managing well interference and prevention of adverse impacts such as land subsidence are important concerns. RO systems are designed to treat water whose composition falls within a system-specific envelope of salinities and ion concentrations. A fundamental requirement for the design of brackish groundwater RO systems is prediction of the produced water chemistry at both the start of pumping and after 10-20 years of operation. Density-dependent solute-transport modeling is thus an integral component of the design of brackish groundwater RO systems. The accuracy of groundwater models is dependent upon the quality of the hydrogeological data upon which they are based. Key elements of the aquifer characterization are the determination of the three-dimensional distribution of salinity within the aquifer and the evaluation of aquifer heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic conductivity. It is necessary to know from where in a pumped aquifer (or aquifer zone) water is being produced and the contribution of vertical flow to the produced water. Unexpected, excessive vertical migration (up-coning) of waters that are more saline has adversely impacted some RO systems because the salinity of the water delivered to the system exceeded the system design parameters. Improved aquifer characterization is possible using advanced geophysical techniques, which can, in turn, lead to more accurate solute-transport models. Advanced borehole geophysical logs, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, were run as part of the exploratory test

  8. Experimental analysis of solar thermal integrated MD system for cogeneration of drinking water and hot water for single family villa in dubai using flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asim, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Leung, Michael K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental analysis performed on solar thermal integrated membrane distillation (MD) system using flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. The system will be utilized for cogeneration of drinking water and domestic hot water for single family in Dubai comprising of four...... to five members. Experiments have been performed in Ras Al Khaimah Research and Innovation Centre (RAKRIC) facility. The experimental setup has been installed to achieve the required production of 15–25 L/d of drinking water and 250 L/d of hot water for domestic purposes. Experiments have been performed...

  9. Injector MD Days 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2017-01-01

    The Injector Machine Development (MD) days 2017 were held on 23-24 March, 2017, at CERN with thefollowing main goals:Give a chance to the MD users to present their results and show the relevant progress made in 2016 onseveral fronts.Provide the MD users and the Operation (OP) crews with a general overview on the outcome and theimpact of all ongoing MD activities.Identify the open questions and consequently define - with priorities - a list of machine studies in theinjectors for 2017 (covering the operational beams, LHC Injectors Upgrade, High Luminosity LHC,Physics Beyond Colliders, other projects).Create the opportunity to collect and document the highlights of the 2016 MDs and define the perspectivesfor 2017.Discuss how to make best use of the MD time, in particular let the main MD user express their wishesand see whether/how OP teams can contribute to their fulfilment.

  10. Gaining the necessary geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical understanding for additional brackish groundwater development, coastal San Diego, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, Wesley R.

    2012-01-01

    Local water agencies and the United States Geological Survey are using a combination of techniques to better understand the scant freshwater resources and the much more abundant brackish resources in coastal San Diego, California, USA. Techniques include installation of multiple-depth monitoring well sites; geologic and paleontological analysis of drill cuttings; geophysical logging to identify formations and possible seawater intrusion; sampling of pore-water obtained from cores; analysis of chemical constituents including trace elements and isotopes; and use of scoping models including a three-dimensional geologic framework model, rainfall-runoff model, regional groundwater flow model, and coastal density-dependent groundwater flow model. Results show that most fresh groundwater was recharged during the last glacial period and that the coastal aquifer has had recurring intrusions of fresh and saline water. These intrusions disguise the source, flowpaths, and history of ground water near the coast. The flow system includes a freshwater lens resting on brackish water; a 100-meter-thick flowtube of freshwater discharging under brackish estuarine water and above highly saline water; and broad areas of fine-grained coastal sediment filled with fairly uniform brackish water. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicate the recharged water flows through many kilometers of fractured crystalline rock before entering the narrow coastal aquifer.

  11. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description.

  12. Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity

  13. Reactive transport impacts on recovered freshwater quality during multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW-)ASR in a brackish heterogeneous aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Koen G.; Hartog, Niels; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    The use of multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in brackish aquifers can significantly improve the recovery efficiency (RE) of unmixed injected water. The water quality changes by reactive transport processes in a field MPPW-ASR system and their

  14. Identification of 253Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadkhodayan, B.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kreek, S.A.; Hannink, N.J.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C.; Hall, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the half-life and production cross section of the new isotope 253 Md, produced via the 243 Am( 13 C,3n) reaction. Isolation of Md from other activities was accomplished using elution with ammonium α-hydroxyisobutyrate from a cation exchange resin column. Experiments were performed with different irradiation time intervals, but the chemical separation always began and ended at exactly the same length of time after the end of irradiation. All separations with the same irradation lengths were combined and analyzed for growth and decay of the 3.0-d 253 Fm daughter and 20.47-d 253 Es, granddaugther of 253 Md. The amount of 253 Es in each fraction depends on the length of each irradiation and the 253 Md half-life. An increase in the length of irradiation will cause a corresponding increase in the amount of the new isotope 253 Md and hence, in the amount of 253 Es produced, provided the length of irradiations are not very long compared to the half-life of 253 Md. In this way, the Md half-life was estimated to be about 6 minutes with a production cross section of the order of 50 nb. (orig.)

  15. Muscular Dystrophy (MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients may need assisted ventilation to treat respiratory muscle weakness and a pacemaker for cardiac abnormalities. View Full Treatment Information Definition The muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of more than 30 ...

  16. Modern stromatolite reefs fringing a brackish coastline, Chetumal Bay, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth A.; MacIntyre, Ian G.; Prufert, Leslie

    1993-03-01

    Reef-forming stromatolites have been discovered along the windward shoreline of Chetumal Bay, Belize, just south of the mouth of the Rio Hondo. The reefs and surrounding sediment are formed by the precipitation of submicrocrystalline calcite upon the sheaths of filamentous cyanobacteria, principally Scytonema, under a seasonally fluctuating, generally brackish salinity regime (0‰10‰). Well-cemented, wave-resistant buttresses of coalesced stromatolite heads form arcuate or club-shaped reefs up to 42 m long and 1.5 m in relief that are partially emergent during low tide. Oncolitic rubble fields are present between well-developed reefs along the 1.5 km trend, which parallels the mangrove coastline 40-100 m offshore. The mode of reef growth, as illustrated by surface relief and internal structure, changes with increasing water depth and energy, proximity to bottom sediments, and dominant cyanobacterial taxa. Sediment trapping and binding by cyanobacteria are of limited importance to reef growth, and occur only where stromatolite heads or oncolites are in direct contact with the sandy sea floor. Radiocarbon-dated mangrove peat at the base of the reef suggests that it began to form about 2300 yr B.P., as shoreline encrustations that were stranded offshore following storm-induced retreat of the mangrove coast.

  17. Enhanced performance of PVDF nanocomposite membrane by nanofiber coating: A membrane for sustainable desalination through MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efome, Johnson E; Rana, Dipak; Matsuura, Takeshi; Lan, Christopher Q

    2016-02-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising separation technique capable of being used in the desalination of marine and brackish water. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) flat sheet nano-composite membranes were surface modified by coating with electro-spun PVDF nano-fibres to increase the surface hydrophobicity. For this purpose, the nano-composite membrane containing 7 wt.% superhydrophobic SiO2 nano-particles, which showed the highest flux in our previous work, was first subjected to pore size augmentation by increasing the concentration of the pore forming agent (Di-ionized water). Then, the prepared flat sheet membranes were subjected to nanofibres coating by electro-spinning. The uncoated and coated composite fabricated membranes were characterized using contact angle, liquid entry pressure of water, and scanning electron microscopy. The membranes were further tested for 6 h desalination by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and vacuum membrane distillation (VMD), with a 3.5 wt.% synthetic NaClaq as the feed. In DCMD the feed liquid and permeate side temperature were maintained at 27.5 °C and 15 °C, respectively. For VMD, the feed liquid temperature was 27 °C and a vacuum of 94.8 kPa was applied on the permeate side. The maximum permeate flux achieved was 3.2 kg/m(2).h for VMD and 6.5 kg/m(2).h for DCMD. The salt rejection obtained was higher than 99.98%. The coated membranes showed a more stable flux than the uncoated membranes indicating that the double layered membranes have great potential in solving the pore wetting problem in MD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing the MD Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Philip V.

    1993-04-01

    The MD Explorer is an eight-seat twin-turbine engine helicopter which is being developed using integrated product definition (IPD) team methodology. New techniques include NOTAR antitorque system for directional control, a composite fuselage, an all-composite bearingless main rotor, and digital cockpit displays. Three-dimensional CAD models are the basis of the entire Explorer design. Solid models provide vendor with design clarification, removing much of the normal drawing interpretation errors.

  19. Annual net ecosystem exchanges of carbon dioxide and methane from a temperate brackish marsh: should the focus of marsh restoration be on brackish environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Anderson, F. E.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Ferner, M. C.; Schile, L. M.; Spinelli, G.

    2015-12-01

    The exchange and transport of carbon in tidally driven, saline marsh ecosystems provide habitat and trophic support for coastal wildlife and fisheries, while potentially accumulating and storing carbon at some of the highest rates compared to other ecosystems. However, due to the predicted rise in sea level over the next century, the preservation and restoration of estuarine habitats is necessary to compensate for their expected decline. In addition, restoration of these marsh systems can also reduce the impacts of global climate change as they assimilate as much carbon as their freshwater counterparts, while emitting less methane due to the higher concentrations of sulfate in seawater. Unfortunately, in brackish marshes, with salinity concentrations less than 18 parts per thousand (ppt), simple relationships between methane production, salinity and sulfate concentrations are not well known. Here we present the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide and methane, as calculated by the eddy covariance method, from a brackish marsh ecosystem in the San Francisco Estuary where salinity ranges from oligohaline (0.5-5 ppt) to mesohaline (5-18 ppt) conditions. Daily rates of carbon dioxide and methane NEE ranged from approximately 10 gC-CO2 m-2 d-1 and 0 mgC-CH4 m-2 d-1, during the winter to -15 gC-CO2 m-2 d-1 and 30 mgC-CH4 m-2 d-1, in the summer growing season. A comparison between similar measurements made from freshwater wetlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta found that the daily rates of carbon dioxide NEE were similar, but daily rates of methane NEE were just a small fraction (0-15%). Our research also shows that the daily fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane at the brackish marsh were highly variable and may be influenced by the tidal exchanges of seawater. Furthermore, the observed decline in methane production from summer to fall may have resulted from a rise in salinity and/or a seasonal decline in water and air temperatures. Our research goals are

  20. A weight-of-evidence approach to assessing the ecological impact of organotin pollution in Dutch marine brackish waters; combining risk prognosis and field monitoring using common periwinkles (Littorina littorea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, R.; Smit, M.G.D.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study an integrated ecological risk assessment based on multiple lines of evidence (LOEs) was evaluated in order to better assess the risk from TBT in Dutch harbours and open coastal waters. On the basis of spatial distributions of measured tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in

  1. High salinity tolerance in eggs and fry of a brackish Esox lucius population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.T.; Hansen, B.W.; Vismann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on the biology and physiology of pike, Esox lucius L., populations inhabiting saline environments is scarce. An experimental setup was used to examine egg development and fry behaviour and growth under varying salinity levels in a brackish-water pike population from the western Baltic Sea....... Eggs and fry developed at 8.5 psu, which is higher than hitherto reported for other populations. Fry exhibited stress behaviour and reduced growth when subjected to salinities above 13 psu. This indicates that early life stages of E. lucius tolerate ambient salinity conditions equivalent to the natural...

  2. Oil-soluble and water-soluble BTPhens and their europium complexes in octanol/water solutions: interface crossing studied by MD and PMF simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benay, G; Wipff, G

    2013-01-31

    Bistriazinyl-phenantroline "BTPhen" ligands L display the remarkable feature to complex trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions, with a marked selectivity for the latter. We report on molecular dynamics studies of tetrasubstituted X(4)BTPhens: L(4+) (X = (+)Et(3)NCH(2)-), L(4-) (X = (-)SO(3)Ph-), and L(0) (X = CyMe(4)) and their complexes with Eu(III) in binary octanol/water solutions. Changes in free energies upon interface crossing are also calculated for typical solutes by potential of mean force PMF simulations. The ligands and their complexes partition, as expected, to either the aqueous or the oil phase, depending on the "solubilizing" group X. Furthermore, most of them are found to be surface active. The water-soluble L(4+) and L(4-) ligands and their (L)Eu(NO(3))(3) complexes adsorb at the aqueous side of the interface, more with L(4-) than with L(4+). The oil soluble ligand L(0) is not surface active in its endo-endo form but adsorbs on the oil side of the interface in its most polar endo-exo form, as well as in its protonated L(0)H(+) and complexed (L(0))Eu(NO(3))(3) states. Furthermore, comparing PMFs of the Eu(III) complexes with and without nitric acid shows that acidifying the aqueous phase has different effects, depending on the ligand charge. In particular, acid promotes the Eu(III) extraction by L(0) via the (L(0))(2)Eu(NO(3))(2+) complex, as observed experimentally. Overall, the results point to the importance of interfacial adsorption for the liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations by BTPhens and analogues.

  3. Fuzzy logic: applications to the pretreatment of brackish feed water in reverse osmosis treatment plants; Logica difusa: aplicaciones al pretratamiento del agua salobre de elimentacion de plantas desalladoras por osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluss Contino, J.; Simon Ruiz, J. L.; Hernandez, A.; Menendez Martinez, A.; Yaglian Steiner, E.; Menendez Fernandez, A.; Marcelo Cano, F.

    2004-07-01

    Frequently physical and chemical alteration that can suffer feed water composition and membranes behaviour of reverse osmosis desalination plants (RODP), define a vague nature system from the point of view of decision make process. In this work, we proposes the utilization of the approximate reasoning associated with the fuzzy logic, as an alternative to approach this problem and to make possible early corrective actions, that is, to do a proactive maintenance with Condition-based maintenance (CBM) technology. (Author) 21 refs.

  4. A weight-of-evidence approach to assessing the ecological impact of organotin pollution in Dutch marine and brackish waters; combining risk prognosis and field monitoring using common periwinkles (Littorina littorea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Cor A; Smit, Mathijs G D; Kaag, Nicholas H B M; Dick Vethaak, A

    2008-08-01

    In the present study an integrated ecological risk assessment based on multiple lines of evidence (LOEs) was evaluated in order to better assess the risk from TBT in Dutch harbours and open coastal waters. On the basis of spatial distributions of measured tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in sediments and suspended matter, predictions of the intersex index (ISI) in Littorina littorea and the ecological risk expressed as the Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) of species were made. The results were compared to actual ISI measurements and presence of L. littorea in the field. The PAF calculated on the basis of TBT levels for open coastal waters ranged from 4.2% to 15.3%; for harbours it ranged from 3.5% to 26.9%. Significant intersex levels were observed only in waters where the risk was calculated above 10% PAF. This study suggests that the absence of L. littorea from some harbours with high ecological risk values can be explained by high TBT concentrations. A call is made for the use of integrated approaches like weight-of-evidence (WOE) to help practitioners improve ecological risk assessment.

  5. Bioaccumulation of gasoline in brackish green algae and popular clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan A. El-Shoubaky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha clathrata and the clams (Tapes decussates and Venerupis aurea grow together in Timsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt. Our ultimate goal is to validate the bioaccumulation of gasoline in the marine organisms and their behavior after exposure to the pollutant, experimentally. These species were treated with a serial treatment of gasoline (1000, 4000, 16,000 and 64,000 μl in aquaria with brackish sea-water for 72 h. The tested green algae and clams were taken for an analysis of total hydrocarbon accumulation daily. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between the four species and also between the duration of exposure. The accumulation of gasoline in U. lactuca and E. clathrata reached their maximum after 48 h at 1000 and 4000 μl. The highest absorption was registered after 24 h only at 16,000 and at 64,000 μl. U. lactuca recorded complete mortality in 64,000 μl at 72 h whereas E. clathrata registered death at 48 h and 72 h in the same treatment. V. aurea was more sensitive than T. decussates. The accumulation of gasoline reached its maximum in V. aurea after only 24 h in the first treatment while it retarded to 48 h in T. decussates with a lesser accumulation. However, both clam species accumulated the highest amount of petroleum hydrocarbons during the first hour of exposure at the first treatment. In the third and fourth treatments, clams did not accumulate gasoline but began to dispose it from their tissues till it became less than that in the control. Mortality gradually increased with time in each treatment except the last one (64,000 μl in which 100% death of the specimens was observed. In general, the bioaccumulation of gasoline level was in a descending order as follows: U. lactuca > E. clathrata > V. aurea > T. decussates. Their behavior changed from accumulation to detoxification with time and with the increase in pollutant concentration. Generally, these

  6. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Brackish Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_brackish_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) brackish marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  7. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system.

  8. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  9. Verina Morton Jones, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishworth, Susan K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this historical article is to demonstrate, as the biography of Verina Morton Jones, MD, is uncovered, the difficulties inherent in researching original source material on the lives of 19th- and early 20th-century African American physicians as well as the great benefits derived from doing this research. The procedures used include basic archival research and close examination of published materials about her in the past, in conjunction with oral history. Original correspondence from Dr Morton Jones to her niece and nephew is used to illustrate events in her life and the thoughts and attitudes she expressed. Some of these thoughts and attitudes reflect those current situations in which African Americans found themselves, and others are quite unique, no doubt owing to her privileged position in the African American community. The principle conclusions reached include the great benefits derived from doing this kind of research, as difficult and time-consuming as that may be, with the enhanced knowledge and appreciation of the heritage of African American physicians, and insights into American social history during this period.

  10. Harold E. Varmus, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmus, H E

    1995-06-01

    On November 19, 1993, the Senate approved the nomination of Harold E. Varmus, MD, as Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Varmus, who received the 1989 Nobel Prize in Medicine, brought unquestioned credentials as a scientist to the NIH. Despite his limited background as an administrator, Varmus has received high marks from most observers for improving the morale of NIH staffers and implementing streamlined procedures in the grant review process. His tenure has not been free of controversy, however. Many clinical researchers have long felt there is a bias in NIH study sections against patient-oriented research. A recent study sponsored by the Division of Research Grants confirmed the lower success rate of patient-oriented research proposals, but the outcome of these findings remains unclear. Faced with mounting political pressure for a balanced budget, and the resultant reduction of funding to many branches of government, Varmus has been a strong voice for non-targeted investigator initiated research. Interviewed in his office in Building One on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland, Varmus discussed the state of patient oriented research, the evolving role of the NIH in supporting science, and just where the money to pay for it should be found.

  11. ADT fast losses MD

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua Ferrando, BM; Sapinski, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Valuch, D

    2013-01-01

    The fast beam losses in the order of 1 ms are expected to be a potential major luminosity limitation for higher beam energies after the LHC long shutdown (LS1). Therefore a Quench Test is planned in the winter 2013 to estimate the quench limit in this timescale and revise the current models. This experiment was devoted to determination the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) as a system for fast losses induction. A non-standard operation of the ADT was used to develop the beam oscillation instead of suppressing them. The sign flip method had allowed us to create the fast losses within several LHC turns at 450 GeV during the previous test (26th March 2012). Thus, the ADT could be potentially used for the studies of the UFO ("Unidentied Falling Object") impact on the cold magnets. Verification of the system capability and investigations of the disturbed beam properties were the main objectives of this MD. During the experiment, the pilot bunches of proton beam were excited independently in the horizontal and vertical ...

  12. DNA barcoding identifies Argentine fishes from marine and brackish waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mabragaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species, and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org. Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125 examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide robust support for most morphologically based taxon concepts and also highlight key areas of taxonomic uncertainty worthy of reappraisal.

  13. Aspects of the biodiversity of brackish water foraminifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Rao, K.K.

    of the area; however, levels were high during the premonsoon season (March and May) due to prevalence of marine conditions in the lake. Furthermore, the evaluation of different sectors in the study area showed somewhat poor diversity within the lagoon and rich...

  14. Desalination of brackish waters by electrodialysis. I. Process variable studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Lopez, J.; Sainz Sastre, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    This study was carried out with solutions of 5000, 3000 and 1000 ppm of NaCl, and 3000 and 1000 ppm of NaSO 4 . A stack-pack of 20 pairs membranes, Nepton lonics 61 AZL 183 -cationic- and 111 BZL 183 -anionic- with 220 cm 2 /membrane was used. For the above mentioned Solutions the following values were determined: Limiting current density; the values of n and K in the expression which relates the L.C.D. with flow rate; dependence of spent energy on flow rate; spent energy and time of operation versus initial current and concentration of the solution, and finally the influence of the concentration potential on the electrodialytic process. A discussion of the results obtained is included. (Author) 18 refs

  15. Comparative study of mercury accumulation in some brackish water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    As a result of high level of urbanization and industrialize- tion of Lagos and its surroundings, there is an inevitable generation of domestic wastes and industrial effluents. (Ajao and Fagade 1990; Nwankwo 2004) which find their way into coastal ecosystems. These inputs have ecolo- gical consequences on the array of ...

  16. Microfossils in surface sediments of brackish waters on the west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A faunistic survey covering 25 sites in estuaries, coastal lakes and ponds along the west coast of South Africa between the Cape of Good Hope in the south and the Olifants River in the north was carried out in May 2014. The study aimed to establish a dataset with ecological and distribution data of ostracods and ...

  17. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-06-15

    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rendimento da Atriplex nummularia irrigada com efluentes da criação de tilápia em rejeito da dessalinização de água Behavior of saltbush (Atriplex nummularia irrigated with effluents from tilapia raised in brackish water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo R. Porto

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência no rendimento da erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia e em algumas características do solo, quando irrigada com efluentes da criação de tilápia (Oreochromis sp. em rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no semi-árido brasileiro, a erva-sal foi irrigada durante um ano com quatro volumes de efluentes na Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina, PE, cuja salinidade média foi, de 8,29 dS m-1. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4 correspondem, respectivamente, aos volumes de efluentes aplicados semanalmente, de 75, 150, 225 e 300 L planta-1 . A salinidade média do solo na profundidade 0 - 90 cm foi de 0,40 dS m-1, antes de serem iniciadas as irrigações. Após a colheita, respectivamente para os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4, as salinidades médias dos perfis de solo na mesma profundidade (0 - 90 cm foram de 8,02, 6,09, 4,97 e 4,60 dS m-1 e os rendimentos de matéria seca da erva-sal, de 9,75, 12,26, 14,49 e 13,81 t ha-1. O maior rendimento de matéria seca por litro de efluente aplicado foi para o tratamento T1, com 4,84 g L-1 que apresentou, também, a melhor relação entrada/saída de sal, removendo 13,84% do total de sal incorporado ao solo.Looking forward to reduce environmental impacts resulting from desalinization of brackish water in the region of the crystalline rocks in the semi-arid Brazil, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia was cultivated during one year with four different volumes of aquiculture effluent generated from an intensive tilapia (Oreochromis sp raising system, with a mean salinity of 8.29 dS m-1, in an experimental field of Embrapa Semi-Arid. A completely randomized block design, with four treatments and three replications was used. The treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 corresponded, respectively, to the weekly volumes of irrigation of 75, 150, 225 and 300 L of water per plant. The mean soil salinity of the

  19. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  20. Decontamination and functional reclamation of dredged brackish sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Iannelli, R; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

    2013-07-01

    The continuous stream of sediments, dredged from harbors and waterways for keeping shipping traffic efficiency, is a considerable ongoing problem recognized worldwide. This problem gets worse as most of the sediments dredged from commercial ports and waterways turn out to be polluted by a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. In this study, phytoremediation was explored as a sustainable reclamation technology for turning slightly-polluted brackish dredged sediments into a matrix feasible for productive use. To test this possibility, a phytoremediation experimentation was carried out in containers of about 0.7 m(3) each, filled with brackish dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The sediments were pre-conditioned by adding an agronomic soil (30 % v/v) to improve their clayey granulometric composition, and by topping the mixture with high quality compost (4 kg m(-2)) to favour the initial adaptation of the selected vegetal species. The following plant treatments were tested: (1) Paspalum vaginatum, (2) Phragmites australis, (3) Spartium junceum + P. vaginatum, (4) Nerium oleander + P. vaginatum, (5) Tamarix gallica + P. vaginatum, and (6) unplanted control. Eighteen months after the beginning of the experimentation, all the plant species were found in healthy condition and well developed. Throughout the whole experiment, the monitored biological parameters (total microbial population and dehydrogenase activity) were generally observed as constantly increasing in all the planted sediments more than in the control, pointing out an improvement of the chemico-physical conditions of both microorganisms and plants. The concentration decrease of organic and inorganic contaminants (>35 and 20 %, respectively) in the treatments with plants, particularly in the T. gallica + P. vaginatum, confirmed the importance of the root-microorganism interaction in activating the decontamination processes. Finally, the healthy state of

  1. Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Lagarde, Laura; Boston, Penelope J.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Hose, Louise D.; Axen, Gary; Stafford, Kevin W.

    2014-09-01

    Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1,500 m are estimated from the spring-water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2,000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2,000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.

  2. 33 CFR 110.70a - Northeast River, North East, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast River, North East, Md. 110.70a Section 110.70a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70a Northeast River, North East, Md. The water...

  3. Elucidating adsorption mechanisms of phthalate esters upon carbon nanotubes/graphene and natural organic acid competitive effects in water by DFT and MD calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Se; Chen, Min Dong; Xu, Defu [Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Jiangsu KeyLaboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control (AEMPC), School ofEnvironmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Tang, Lili [Jiangsu Environmental Monitoring Centre, Nanjing (China); Wang, Degao [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China)

    2015-06-15

    Simulations at multiple levels were performed to investigate the aqueous adsorption of phthalate esters (PAEs) on carbon nanoparticles and to find the competitive effect of a low molecular weight natural organic acid (benzoic acid) on the adsorption process. Six PAEs of varying alkyl side chain lengths and three carbon-based nanomaterials including a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT), and graphene (G) were studied. Results showed that the adsorption energies calculated using density functional theory increase with increasing length of the PAE alkyl chain. G exhibits higher adsorption capacity for the PAEs than SWNT and DWNT. The absolute adsorption energies of these systems also display a positive linear correlation with the hydrophobicity of the PAE molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the presence of neutral/anionic benzoic acid in water alleviates the PAE adsorption. Furthermore, anionic benzoic acid exerts more impact on the PAE adsorption than the neutral form.

  4. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    and pretreatment requirements and lesser volumes of concentrate that require disposal. Development of brackish groundwater wellfields include the same hydraulic issues that affect conventional freshwater wellfields. Managing well interference and prevention

  5. Absolute proton hydration free energy, surface potential of water, and redox potential of the hydrogen electrode from first principles: QM/MM MD free-energy simulations of sodium and potassium hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2018-06-01

    The absolute intrinsic hydration free energy GH+,w a t ◦ of the proton, the surface electric potential jump χwa t ◦ upon entering bulk water, and the absolute redox potential VH+,w a t ◦ of the reference hydrogen electrode are cornerstone quantities for formulating single-ion thermodynamics on absolute scales. They can be easily calculated from each other but remain fundamentally elusive, i.e., they cannot be determined experimentally without invoking some extra-thermodynamic assumption (ETA). The Born model provides a natural framework to formulate such an assumption (Born ETA), as it automatically factors out the contribution of crossing the water surface from the hydration free energy. However, this model describes the short-range solvation inaccurately and relies on the choice of arbitrary ion-size parameters. In the present study, both shortcomings are alleviated by performing first-principle calculations of the hydration free energies of the sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. The calculations rely on thermodynamic integration based on quantum-mechanical molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations involving the ion and 2000 water molecules. The ion and its first hydration shell are described using a correlated ab initio method, namely resolution-of-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (RIMP2). The next hydration shells are described using the extended simple point charge water model (SPC/E). The hydration free energy is first calculated at the MM level and subsequently increased by a quantization term accounting for the transformation to a QM/MM description. It is also corrected for finite-size, approximate-electrostatics, and potential-summation errors, as well as standard-state definition. These computationally intensive simulations provide accurate first-principle estimates for GH+,w a t ◦, χwa t ◦, and VH+,w a t ◦, reported with statistical errors based on a confidence interval of 99%. The values obtained

  6. First report of endosymbionts in Dreissena polymorpha from the brackish Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Chuševė

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first results of a parasitological study ofDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels from the brackishCuronian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea. Zebra mussels were collected monthlyfrom May to October 2011 from a site near the mouth of the River Nemunas.Three types of endosymbionts were found in the mantle cavity andvisceral mass of the molluscs during dissections, i.e. thecommensal ciliate Conchophthirus acuminatus and parasitic ciliateOphryoglena sp., and rarely encountered, unidentified nematodes.The abundances of C. cuminatus and Ophryoglena sp.were positively associated with host shell length and watertemperature, but no effect of water salinity was detected.As the endosymbionts are either highly host-specific to zebra mussels(C. acuminatus and Ophryoglena sp. or are probablyfree-living organisms that inadvertently infect the molluscs (nematodes,we conclude that the presence of D. polymorpha in theCuronian Lagoon does not pose any serious parasitologicalrisk to native biota. We emphasize, however, that this conclusionshould be treated with caution as it is based on a study conductedonly at a single location. Our work extends the currentlyscarce records of D. polymorpha parasites and commensals frombrackish waters, and adds to a better understanding of the ecologicalimpact this highly invasive mollusc causes in the areas it has invaded.

  7. Minimum energy requirements for desalination of brackish groundwater in the United States with comparison to international datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdab, Yvana D.; Thiel, Gregory P.; Böhlke, John Karl; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Lienhard, John H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses chemical and physical data from a large 2017 U.S. Geological Surveygroundwater dataset with wells in the U.S. and three smaller international groundwater datasets with wells primarily in Australia and Spain to carry out a comprehensive investigation of brackish groundwater composition in relation to minimum desalinationenergy costs. First, we compute the site-specific least work required for groundwater desalination. Least work of separation represents a baseline for specific energy consumptionof desalination systems. We develop simplified equations based on the U.S. data for least work as a function of water recovery ratio and a proxy variable for composition, either total dissolved solids, specific conductance, molality or ionic strength. We show that the U.S. correlations for total dissolved solids and molality may be applied to the international datasets. We find that total molality can be used to calculate the least work of dilute solutions with very high accuracy. Then, we examine the effects of groundwater solute composition on minimum energy requirements, showing that separation requirements increase from calcium to sodium for cations and from sulfate to bicarbonate to chloride for anions, for any given TDS concentration. We study the geographic distribution of least work, total dissolved solids, and major ions concentration across the U.S. We determine areas with both low least work and high water stress in order to highlight regions holding potential for desalination to decrease the disparity between high water demand and low water supply. Finally, we discuss the implications of the USGS results on water resource planning, by comparing least work to the specific energy consumption of brackish water reverse osmosisplants and showing the scaling propensity of major electrolytes and silica in the U.S. groundwater samples.

  8. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River... held over certain waters of the Patuxent River adjacent to Patuxent River, Maryland from September 1...

  9. Management of Brackish Groundwater Extraction, San Diego-Tijuana area, USA and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Management of brackish groundwater extraction from coastal sediment in the transboundary San Diego-Tijuana area, USA and Mexico, involves monitoring storage depletion, seawater intrusion, and land subsidence. In 2017, five additional extraction wells were installed, doubling capacity of the Reynolds Groundwater Desalination Facility. Environmental permits to expand capacity of the facility, and the recently-enacted Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) by the State of California require monitoring the possible adverse effects of the additional extraction. Fortuitously, over the past 14 years, 12 deep multiple-depth, monitoring-well sites were installed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to aid in mapping the coastal geology and groundwater conditions. Now these sites are being used for groundwater management. Storage depletion is monitored daily via water levels measured using transducers installed permanently in each of the 4-6 piezometers at each site and transmitted automatically to the Internet. Seawater intrusion is tracked annually via electromagnetic geophysical logging in the deepest piezometer at each site, 500-800 meters below land surface, about twice the depth of the extraction wells. Land subsidence is determined annually from surveys of reference points installed at the well sites and from Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (InSAR) satellite data. Management also involves use of a regional hydrologic model to simulate the likely location and timing of future storage depletion, seawater intrusion, and land subsidence.

  10. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  11. 77 FR 6708 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... River, Charles County, MD. (a) Regulated area. The following location is a regulated area: All waters of... local regulations during the ``Potomac River Sharkfest Swim'' amateur swim, a marine event to be held on...

  12. The anthropogenic change of sedimentary system recored to short core in brackish Lake Ogawara, North Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, A.; Seto, K.; yamada, K.; Yonenobu, H.

    2013-12-01

    The sedimentary environment of brackish lake is fluctuated by the effect of sediment flux from rivers, tidal, climate change, and human activities. Each brackish lake has a specific character. The Lake Ogawara is located in east part of Aomori Prefecture, is connected to the Pacific Ocean through Takase River. In this study, we performed the investigation in the Lake Ogawara at 2011, to clarify a characteristic of recent sedimentary environments. In addition, the short coring at 2012 is performed to show a changes of sedimentary environments. The investigation is made up of 110 detailed sampling localities in grid and 100 water quality measurement sites in a traverse line through the lake system. In addition, the short cores were sampled at sites of Og20, 33, 64, 84, 95 and 97. The water column of Lake Ogawara divided into 3 water masses, as an epilimnion (0-10m), a metalimnion (10-18m), and a hypolimnion (deeper than 18m). The environments in metalimnion and hypolimnion show the anoxic to euxinic condition. The upper part of the metalimnion shows pycnocline dependent on water temperature and salinity, and the lower part shows pycnocline dependent on mainly salinity. Surface sediments are observed well-sorted sand shallower than 10m, and black organic mud with lamination deeper than it depth. As a result of CNS element anaysis of surface sediments, the total organic carbon (TOC) contens increase toward deep, and show very high value (around 8%) in metalimnion and hypolimnion. Total sulfur (TS) content shows 1-2% of values deeper than metalimnion. In spite of euxinic condition, TOC/TS ratio is high in comparison with the normal marine. This suggests the exhaustion of metal ions such as iron or undersupply of sulfate ion. In Og84, 97 cores, the upper part shows the black (L*=6). But lower part shows relative high lightness (L*=15 to 20). The mean grain size of the upper part (black layer) is 6.5φ, the lower part shows the 8.0φ. TOC contents shows the around 7% in

  13. The discovery of 260Md and the decay properties of 258Fm, 258m,gMd and 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lougheed, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.; Dougan, R.J.; Wild, J.F.; Dupzyk, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hahn, R.L.; Suemmerer, K.; Bethune, G.

    1986-01-01

    We have discovered a new neutron-rich isotope, 260 Md, from 18 O and 22 Ne bombardments of 254 Es. We observed a spontaneous-fission (SF) activity with a half-life of 32 days in electromagnetically separated fractions with mass number 260 from these bombardments and we measured the mass and kinetic energy distributions of this SF activity. The mass distribution was symmetric with the principal energy peak at a total kinetic energy (TKE) of 234 MeV, similar to previous observations for heavy fermium isotopes. Surprisingly, we also observed a smaller symmetric component with a TKE of 195 MeV. We interpret these two peaks in the TKE distribution as arising from two types of fission in the same nucleus, or bimodal fission. The observed fission activity may be either from the SF decay of 260 Md or from 260 Fm which would arise from electron-capture (EC) decay of 260 Md. We have eliminated the possible β - decay of 260 Md by measuring β - -SF time correlations for the decay of 260 Md and we plan to determine whether 260 Md decays by EC by measuring time correlations between fermium X-rays and SF events. We also measured various properties of the heavy fermium and mendelevium isotopes and obtained 1. more accurate cross-sections for the neutron-rich mendelevium isotopes which we use to predict the production rates of yet undiscovered nuclides, 2. improved half-life measurements for 258m,g Md and 259 Md, 3. confirmation of the EC decay of 258m Md by measurement of the fermium X-rays preceding the SF decay of 258 Fm and 4. very substantially improved mass and TKE distributions for the SF decay of 258 Fm and 259 Md. (orig.)

  14. Development and application of an eco-hydrodynamic model for radionuclides in a brackish lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shinji; Kondo, Kunio; Inaba, Jiro; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    This study was intended to develop a computer code of an eco-hydrodynamic model for radionuclides in Lake Obuchi, which is a brackish lake in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture and adjacent to nuclear fuel cycle facilities including the first commercial spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant in Japan. Radionuclides introduced into the lake are transferred not only by physical advection an diffusion, but also by bio-chemical activities. The model was planned to include the effects of the low trophic level ecosystem on the transfer of radionuclides as well as the hydraulic movements in the lake. Various parameters necessary for the model description were collected from the lake during 2001 to 2005. Water flow in the lake, including input from the Futamata River and tidal flow from the Pacific Ocean, was simulated by a 3D-hydrodynamic model, and an ecosystem model including phytoplankton and zooplankton was incorporated into the water flow model. Calculations of water movement were carried out using climatic, physicochemical and ecological data collected during January 2001 to December 2002. The numerical simulation results of water current and salinity agreed well with field measurement data. The ecosystem model simulated well the mass fluxes of P, N and observed in the field. The estimated 3 He and 137 Cs concentrations in lake water were in good agreement with the measured data, because the concentrations of both radionuclides were controlled by the mixture of seawater as the higher side member and fresh water as the lower side member. Material balance calculations of both radionuclides in the lake ecosystem showed that they were mainly in the form of dissolved inorganic matter (DIM). However, the fallout 137 Cs deposition pattern in the lake sediment predicted by a long-term simulation did not agree with the measured one. Although input of 137 Cs from the watershed was included in the simulation, its residence time in the watershed was not considered. This meant that

  15. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. in brackish groundwater supplemented with municipal wastewater as a nutrient source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lins de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study growth potential of the green microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. using brackish groundwater from a well in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil as culture medium. The medium was supplemented with (% 19.4, 22.0, 44.0 and 50.0% of municipal wastewater after UASB treatment as a low-cost nutrient source. The results showed that the culture tested was capable of growing in the brackish groundwater even at salinity levels as low as 2 ppt. Furthermore it was shown that municipal wastewater could be used as a sole nutrient source for Nannochloropsis sp.

  16. Harvesting graphics power for MD simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meel, J.A.; Arnold, A.; Frenkel, D.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.; Belleman, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss an implementation of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a graphic processing unit (GPU) in the NVIDIA CUDA language. We tested our code on a modern GPU, the NVIDIA GeForce 8800 GTX. Results for two MD algorithms suitable for short-ranged and long-ranged interactions, and a

  17. Harvesting graphics power for MD simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, J.A. van; Arnold, A.; Frenkel, D.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.; Belleman, R.G.

    We discuss an implementation of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a graphic processing unit (GPU) in the NVIDIA CUDA language. We tested our code on a modern GPU, the NVIDIA GeForce 8800 GTX. Results for two MD algorithms suitable for short-ranged and long-ranged interactions, and a

  18. First thoughts on MD priorities for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Assmann, R

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 22 days of beam time will be allocated for LHC MDs. In this paper, after recalling the 2011 LHC MD experience, the MD rrequests for 2012 are reviewed. Three primary MD themes for 2012 can be identified: 1)pushing performance in 2012, 2)preparing for 2014/15, and 3)towards maximum luminosity. Example topics include emittance growth in collision or enhanced satellites for theme 1), 25 ns operation for 2), and ATS optics for 3). Structures lists of MD requests and topics for each theme as well as some initial thoughts on the MD priorities are presented. For certain topics, "start-of-fill MDs" are proposed in order to most efficiently use of the available beam time.

  19. Industry water use : innovations, changes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents work conducted by Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. (CNRL) in developing the McMurray Formation as an alternate water source in the Cold Lake Beaver River (CLBR) basin. Industry relies on both fresh water and brackish water to produce oil from thermal oil sands projects. A long-term sustainable supply of water is critical to the development of such projects. Although historically water has been considered as a renewable resource, it is currently viewed in a wider context. Technical advancements have made it possible to use recycled water for thermal recovery. Many heavy thermal oil expansions use brackish water. Capital costs are higher but heating costs are lower because brackish water is already warm. The use of brackish water allows companies to survive within their licenses while increasing production. Other possibilities include the use of depleted reservoir sections to store water to increase the use of recycled water. It was noted that brackish water resources need to be mapped and understood in greater detail. The objective is to use brackish water at a cost equal to, or less than fresh water. tabs., figs

  20. Development of radionuclide transport model in the ecosystem of brackish lake Obuchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shinji; Kondo, Kunio; Chikuchi, Yuki; Inaba, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a computer code for a radionuclide transport model in Lake Obuchi which is adjacent to nuclear fuel cycle facilities including a nuclear spent-fuel reprocessing plant under construction in Rokkasho-mura. The lake is brackish and this fact makes the entry mode of radionuclides into the lake and its ecosystem very characteristic. For the construction of the code, it is important to incorporate the characteristics of the ecosystem as well as the hydraulic movements into the model. In the present study we report the biological parameters related to the transport model obtained from field observations and a laboratory experiment. We also give results from development of an advective-diffusion model. Monthly field observations revealed that 18 to 47 species of phytoplankton, 9 to 20 species of zooplankton and 0 to 21 species of benthos were present in the lake. A marked seasonal change was observed in the dominant species for both planktons. Mean carbon masses of DOC, POC, phytoplankton and zooplankton in the lake were 16 x 10 4 , 5.9 x 10 4 , 3.7 x 10 4 and 0.20 x 10 4 kg-C, respectively. Phytoplanktons of 10 species in 8 genera were isolated and maintained in a bacteria-free medium in the laboratory. Some physiological and metabolic characteristics of the planktons were studied under those conditions. An advective-diffusion model was developed for particles in the lake. Field observations showed that the model could simulate formation and elimination of the water current. (author)

  1. Metal uptake by young trees from dredged brackish sediment : Limitations and possibilities for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Vervaeke, Pieter; de Schrijver, A.; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2004-01-01

    Five tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Fraxinus excelsior L., Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were planted on a mound constructed of dredged sediment. The sediment originated from a brackish river mouth and was slightly polluted with heavy metals. This

  2. Origin of brackish groundwater in a sandstone aquifer on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A multi-isotope approach in combination with hydrochemical data and borehole logging is applied to identify the source of brackish groundwater in a borehole in the well field of Neksø Municipal Waterworks in Bornholm, Denmark. The aquifer lithology consists of fractured Lower Cambrian sandstones...

  3. Aspects of numerical and representational methods related to the finite-difference simulation of advective and dispersive transport of freshwater in a thin brackish aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The simulation of the transport of injected freshwater in a thin brackish aquifer, overlain and underlain by confining layers containing more saline water, is shown to be influenced by the choice of the finite-difference approximation method, the algorithm for representing vertical advective and dispersive fluxes, and the values assigned to parametric coefficients that specify the degree of vertical dispersion and molecular diffusion that occurs. Computed potable water recovery efficiencies will differ depending upon the choice of algorithm and approximation method, as will dispersion coefficients estimated based on the calibration of simulations to match measured data. A comparison of centered and backward finite-difference approximation methods shows that substantially different transition zones between injected and native waters are depicted by the different methods, and computed recovery efficiencies vary greatly. Standard and experimental algorithms and a variety of values for molecular diffusivity, transverse dispersivity, and vertical scaling factor were compared in simulations of freshwater storage in a thin brackish aquifer. Computed recovery efficiencies vary considerably, and appreciable differences are observed in the distribution of injected freshwater in the various cases tested. The results demonstrate both a qualitatively different description of transport using the experimental algorithms and the interrelated influences of molecular diffusion and transverse dispersion on simulated recovery efficiency. When simulating natural aquifer flow in cross-section, flushing of the aquifer occurred for all tested coefficient choices using both standard and experimental algorithms. ?? 1993.

  4. Reducing organic contamination of shallow areas in brackish lagoons during rearing fish in cages in polyculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shekk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the technology of the controlled rearing of marine fish remains one of the priority strategic trends of development of national mariculture. A study of the possibility of using polyculture for cage culture has a particular interest. Joint cultivation of several species of fish in the same cage, as practice of fish farming has demonstrated, does not have a tangible positive effect. At the same time, the use of cages of special design can provide significant additional fish products through the use of additional aquaculture objects. The ecological state of water areas, where the cages are located, is of great importance. High fish stocking density and the use of artificial feeds can serve as a source of powerful biogenic and organic pollution, which is especially important for shallow water areas with weak water exchange. The purpose of the study is to develop the methods for joint fish production in cage mariculture capable to provide high fish production and to weaken organic pollution of shallow water areas where cage farms are located. Methodology. The studies were conducted in 1999 and 2004. Cages of special design (internal 10 m3 and external 18.75 m3 installed in the brackish Shabolat Lagoon were used for rearing, steelhead trout, haarder, grass goby and round goby in polyculture. The standard aquaculture research methods were used. For express-analysis of environment hydrochemical parameters in cage location area the following devices were used: "ECOTEST-2000 T" (О2, NO2, NO3, NH4, CO2, phosphates, pH; termooksimetr "АJА-101М" (Т; О2; "pH meter-150 M; Refractometer "ATAGO-100" (salinity and water density. Findings. The results of marine fish cultivation in cages in polyculture in the shallow Shabolat lagoon are presented. It has been shown that joint cultivation of salmon, mullet and gobies in specially designed cages in shallow marine lagoons allows using artificial and natural feeds more fully and

  5. BRACKISH MARSH BENTHIC MICROFAUNA AND PALEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES DURING THE LAST 6000 YEARS AT THE COASTAL PLAIN OF MARATHON (SE GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA V.TRIANTAPHYLLOU

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study, based mainly on the analysis of foraminifers and ostracodes, provides evidence of paleoenvironmental changes on the coastal plain of Marathon (E. Greece during the last 6.000 yrs. Three sedimentary units -lagoonal formations - were recognized and identified as A, B and C. They range in time between before 5500BP-3500BP, 3500BP-2500BP and 2500BP-recent, respectively. The study of the brackish marsh microfauna of the Marathon plain Holocene sediments reveals the presence, during the last 5500 yrs., of three distinct biofacies in the sedimentary units already established. Alternating mesohaline - oligohaline (MO, oligohaline - fresh water (OFW and mesohaline - oligohaline to oligohaline - fresh water (MO-OFW biofacies in the framework of the sedimentary units indicate a general trend landward along the plain suggesting a slowing of sea-level rise probably correlated with a relevant tectonic uplift. One prominent feature of this study is the clarification of the ecological preference of the species Trichohya1us aguayoi (Bermudez, 1935, which is dominant in oligohaline conditions under an influence of fresh water input (salinity less than 15 ‰. 

  6. Sulfur and carbon isotope biogeochemistry of a rewetted brackish fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Franziska; Gehre, Matthias; Winkel, Matthias; Koehler, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Spitzy, Alejandro; Liebner, Susanne; Sachs, Torsten; Schmiedinger, Iris; Kretzschmann, Lisett; Saborowski, Anke; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are at the interface between terrestrial freshwater and marine and exhibit very specific biogeochemical conditions. Intermittent sea water intrusion affects metabolic pathways, i. e. anaerobic carbon metabolism is progressively dominated by sulfate reduction with lower contribution of methanogenesis whilst methane production is increasingly shifted from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic. Due to expanding anthropogenic impact a large proportion of coastal ecosystems is degraded with severe implications for the biogeochemical processes. We use concentration patterns and stable isotope signatures of water, sulfate, dissolved carbonate, and methane (δ2H, δ13C, δ18O, δ34S) to investigate the S and C metabolic cycle in a rewetted fen close to the southern Baltic Sea border. Such studies are crucial to better predict dynamic ecosystem feedback to global change like organic matter (OM) decomposition or greenhouse gas emissions. Yet, little is known about the metabolic pathways in such environments. The study site is part of the TERENO Observatory "Northeastern German Lowlands' and measurements of methane emissions have run since 2009. High methane fluxes up to 800 mg m-2 hr-1 indicate that methanogenesis is the dominant C metabolism pathway despite of high sulfate concentrations (up to 37 mM). The presented data are part of a comprehensive biogeochemical investigation that we conducted in autumn 2014 and that comprises 4 pore water profiles and sediment samples within a transect of 300-1500 m distance to the Baltic Sea. Depth of organic layers ranged from 25 to 140 cm with high OM contents (up to 90 dwt.%). Sulfate/chloride ratios in the pore waters were lower than in the Baltic Sea for most sites and sediment depths indicated a substantial net sulfate loss. Sulfide concentrations were negligible at the top and increased parallel to the sulfate concentrations with depth to values of up to 0.3 mM. One pore water profiles situated 1150 m from the Baltic

  7. Relevance and diversity of Nitrospira populations in biofilters of brackish RAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Kruse

    Full Text Available Lithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacterial populations from moving-bed biofilters of brackish recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS; shrimp and barramundi were tested for their metabolic activity and phylogenetic diversity. Samples from the biofilters were labeled with (13C-bicarbonate and supplemented with nitrite at concentrations of 0.3, 3 and 10 mM, and incubated at 17 and 28°C, respectively. The biofilm material was analyzed by fatty acid methyl ester - stable isotope probing (FAME-SIP. High portions of up to 45% of Nitrospira-related labeled lipid markers were found confirming that Nitrospira is the major autotrophic nitrite oxidizer in these brackish systems with high nitrogen loads. Other nitrite-oxidizing bacteria such as Nitrobacter or Nitrotoga were functionally not relevant in the investigated biofilters. Nitrospira-related 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from the samples with 10 mM nitrite and analyzed by a cloning approach. Sequence studies revealed four different phylogenetic clusters within the marine sublineage IV of Nitrospira, though most sequences clustered with the type strain of Nitrospira marina and with a strain isolated from a marine RAS. Three lipids dominated the whole fatty acid profiles of nitrite-oxidizing marine and brackish enrichments of Nitrospira sublineage IV organisms. The membranes included two marker lipids (16∶1 cis7 and 16∶1 cis11 combined with the non-specific acid 16∶0 as major compounds and confirmed these marker lipids as characteristic for sublineage IV species. The predominant labeling of these characteristic fatty acids and the phylogenetic sequence analyses of the marine Nitrospira sublineage IV identified organisms of this sublineage as main autotrophic nitrite-oxidizers in the investigated brackish biofilter systems.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from a created brackish marsh in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Burchell, Michael R.; Krauss, Ken W.; Birgand, François; Broome, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Tidal marsh creation helps remediate global warming because tidal wetlands are especially proficient at sequestering carbon (C) in soils. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) losses can offset the climatic benefits gained from C storage depending on how these tidal marshes are constructed and managed. This study attempts to determine the GHG emissions from a 4–6 year old created brackish marsh, what environmental factors governed these emissions, and how the magnitude of the fluxes relates to other wetland ecosystems. The static flux chamber method was used to measure GHG fluxes across three distinct plant zones segregated by elevation. The major of soil GHG fluxes from the marsh were from CO2 (−48–192 mg C m-2 h-1), although it was near the lower end of values reported from other wetland types having lower salinities, and would mostly be offset by photosynthetic uptake in this created brackish marsh. Methane flux was also low (−0.33–0.86 mg C m-2 h-1), likely inhibited by the high soil SO42−and soil redox potentials poised above −150 mV in this in this created brackish marsh environment. Low N2O flux (−0.11–0.10 mg N m-2 h-1) was due to low soil NO3− and soil redox conditions favoring complete denitrification. GHG fluxes from this created brackish marsh were generally lower than those recorded from natural marshes, suggesting that C sequestration may not be offset by the radiative forcing from soil GHG emissions if projects are designed properly.

  9. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  10. Effect of salinity and temperature on treatment of concentrated wastewater from RO by FO-MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingru; Huang, Manhong; Deng, Qian

    2018-02-01

    In this study the appropriate temperature of the membrane distillation (MD) hot side (the permeation flux of MD was controlled by adjusting the hot side temperature) was selected according to the water flux of FO process so that the water transfer rate on both sides of FO and MD was consistent and the FO-MD process could be stable operation. When the salt concentration of feed solution was 30, 55, 80 and 100 g/L, the desalination rates changed little, which were 99.1%, 98.4%, 98.9% and 98.7%, respectively. The removal rate of COD was 93.8%, 94.2%, 91.6% and 92.7% which also changed little like the desalination rates. The removal rate of chromaticity increased with the increase of salinity, which attained 96.6%, 97.0%, 97.2% and 97.9%, respectively. This study proved that salinity of the feed solution affected little on the removal rate of contaminants but great on the water flux, with the increase of salinity from 30 to 100 g/L, the water flux was 6.05, 4.81, 4.33 and 3.87 LMH with the appropriate temperature (67.5±0.5, 64.5±0.5, 62.5±0.5 and 60.5±0.5 °C) of MD hot side. In a word, FO-MD was first used to treat the high salinity RO water with over 30 g/L total dissolved solids (TDS), FO-MD was a promising new process for high salinity wastewater treatment, and the hybrid system can solve the problem of lower draw solution concentration, and the high-quality production water will be obtained directly by this hybrid system with low membrane fouling tendency.

  11. 75 FR 47203 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F Airplanes Equipped...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD- 11 and MD-11F Airplanes Equipped With General... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-16-03 McDonnell Douglas Corporation: Amendment 39... applies to McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F airplanes, certified in any category...

  12. MD2190: Q" Stabilization during injection

    CERN Document Server

    Schenk, Michael; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Malina, Lukas; Metral, Elias; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    This MD is a follow-up study of MD1831, where single bunches were stabilized against impedance-driven instabilities at 6.5 TeV in the LHC with Q''. The goals are (i) to explore whether an amplitude detuning free Q'' knob can be implemented at injection energy, and (ii) whether Q'' can provide beam stability at injection, where the beams suffer mostly from electron cloud effects. Ideally, this would relax the use of the Landau octupoles and may help in preserving the beam quality by reducing dynamic aperture limitations originating from the octupoles. The MD has been split into two parts: First, optics corrections were put in place to minimize beta-beating and linear coupling introduced by the knobs. The corrections were achieved by means of orbit bumps and skew quadrupole knobs. Machine safety was then validated with loss maps. While the betatron loss maps were approved, the off-momentum maps showed a priori unexpected losses in several arcs and the MD was stopped at this point for reasons of machine protecti...

  13. MD2725: 16L2 aperture measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mirarchi, Daniele; Rossi, Roberto; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    Dumps induced by sudden increase of losses in the half-cell 16L2 have been a serious machine limitation during the 2017 run. The aim of this MD was to perform local aperture measurements in order to assess differences after the beam screen regeneration, compared to first measurements in 2017.

  14. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    On Aug. 30, 1995, a the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft landed equipped with a computer-assisted engine control system that has the potential to increase flight safety. In landings at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on August 29 and 30, the aircraft demonstrated software used in the aircraft's flight control computer that essentially landed the MD-11 without a need for the pilot to manipulate the flight controls significantly. In partnership with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), with Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell helping to design the software, NASA developed this propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system following a series of incidents in which hydraulic failures resulted in the loss of flight controls. This new system enables a pilot to operate and land the aircraft safely when its normal, hydraulically-activated control surfaces are disabled. This August 29, 1995, photo shows the MD-11 team. Back row, left to right: Tim Dingen, MDA pilot; John Miller, MD-11 Chief pilot (MDA); Wayne Anselmo, MD-11 Flight Test Engineer (MDA); Gordon Fullerton, PCA Project pilot; Bill Burcham, PCA Chief Engineer; Rudey Duran, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); John Feather, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); Daryl Townsend, Crew Chief; Henry Hernandez, aircraft mechanic; Bob Baron, PCA Project Manager; Don Hermann, aircraft mechanic; Jerry Cousins, aircraft mechanic; Eric Petersen, PCA Manager (Honeywell); Trindel Maine, PCA Data Engineer; Jeff Kahler, PCA Software Engineer (Honeywell); Steve Goldthorpe, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA). Front row, left to right: Teresa Hass, Senior Project Management Analyst; Hollie Allingham (Aguilera), Senior Project Management Analyst; Taher Zeglum, PCA Data Engineer (MDA); Drew Pappas, PCA Project Manager (MDA); John Burken, PCA Control Engineer.

  15. Plant distribution and stand characteristics in brackish marshes: Unravelling the roles of abiotic factors and interspecific competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Jana; Heuner, Maike; Paul, Maike; Schröder, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Due to increasing pressure on estuarine marshes from sea level rise and river training, there is a growing need to understand how species-environment relationships influence the zonation and growth of tidal marsh vegetation. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and stand characteristics of the two key brackish marsh species Bolboschoenus maritimus and Phragmites australis in the Elbe estuary together with several abiotic habitat factors. We then tested the effect of these habitat factors on plant growth and zonation with generalised linear models (GLMs). Our study provides detailed information on the importance of single habitat factors and their interactions for controlling the distribution patterns and stand characteristics of two key marsh species. Our results suggest that flow velocity is the main factor influencing species distribution and stand characteristics and together with soil-water salinity even affects the inundation tolerance of the two specie investigated here. Additionally, inundation height and duration as well as interspecific competition helped explain the distribution patterns and stand characteristics. By identifying the drivers of marsh zonation and stand characteristics and quantifying their effects, this study provides useful information for evaluating a future contribution of tidal marsh vegetation to ecosystem-based shore protection.

  16. Exploring intentions of physician-scientist trainees: factors influencing MD and MD/PhD interest in research careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jennifer M; Daye, Dania; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Conlon, Claudia Morrissey; Kim, Hajwa; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Payne, Aimee S; Riddle, Megan; Madera, Sharline; Adami, Alexander J; Winter, Kate Quinn

    2017-07-11

    Prior studies have described the career paths of physician-scientist candidates after graduation, but the factors that influence career choices at the candidate stage remain unclear. Additionally, previous work has focused on MD/PhDs, despite many physician-scientists being MDs. This study sought to identify career sector intentions, important factors in career selection, and experienced and predicted obstacles to career success that influence the career choices of MD candidates, MD candidates with research-intense career intentions (MD-RI), and MD/PhD candidates. A 70-question survey was administered to students at 5 academic medical centers with Medical Scientist Training Programs (MSTPs) and Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) from the NIH. Data were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. More MD/PhD and MD-RI candidates anticipated or had experienced obstacles related to balancing academic and family responsibilities and to balancing clinical, research, and education responsibilities, whereas more MD candidates indicated experienced and predicted obstacles related to loan repayment. MD/PhD candidates expressed higher interest in basic and translational research compared to MD-RI candidates, who indicated more interest in clinical research. Overall, MD-RI candidates displayed a profile distinct from both MD/PhD and MD candidates. MD/PhD and MD-RI candidates experience obstacles that influence their intentions to pursue academic medical careers from the earliest training stage, obstacles which differ from those of their MD peers. The differences between the aspirations of and challenges facing MD, MD-RI and MD/PhD candidates present opportunities for training programs to target curricula and support services to ensure the career development of successful physician-scientists.

  17. Evolução da salinidade e pH de solo sob cultivo de melão irrigado com água salina Evolution of salinity and pH of soil cultivated with melon irrigated with brackish water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Q. Porto Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se estudar os efeitos da irrigação com águas salinas em um solo cultivado com melão a evolução da salinidade e reação do solo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Santa Júlia, município de Mossoró, RN, em dois plantios consecutivos, no período de 2001 a 2002. As plantas de melão (Cucumis melo L. cv. AF646 foram irrigadas com água de salinidade 0,6 (testemunha; 1,9; 3,2 e 4,5 dS m-1 durante todo o ciclo (70 dias e de forma incremental, em três fases de desenvolvimento do meloeiro (1-30, 31-50, 51-70 dias após a semeadura - DAS. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com 15 tratamentos e quatro repetições. A salinidade e o pH do solo foram medidos no início e aos 30, 50 e 70 DAS, em amostras de solo coletadas nas camadas de 0-15, 15-30 e 30-45 cm. Observou-se maior acúmulo de sais no solo na camada superficial (até 15 cm em todos os níveis de salinidade e que a utilização de águas de maior salinidade aumentou a salinidade média no perfil do solo. Os valores médios de pH estiveram dentro da faixa ótima de absorção de nutrientes requerida para a cultura do melão, com pequena variação entre os tratamentos estudados.This work aimed to study the effects of irrigation with saline waters in an area cultivated with melon on soil salinity and pH. The experiment was conducted in the Santa Julia Farm, Mossoró city, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, during the years 2001 to 2002. Water with different salinity levels (0.6; 1.9; 3.2 and 4.5 dS m-1 was used throughout the cycle and in incremental way in three periods of melon development, forming 15 treatments, arranged in randomized blocks with four replications. The salinity was measured at 0, 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing in soil samples collected in layers of 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm. There was greater accumulation of salts in the surface layer (up to 15 cm in all salinity levels and the use of more saline water

  18. Apple fruit acidity is genetically diversified by natural variations in three hierarchical epistatic genes MdSAUR37, MdPP2CH and MdALMTII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongjie; Shen, Fei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Xu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai

    2018-05-11

    Many efforts have been made to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to facilitate practical marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plants. In the present study, we identified four genome-wide major QTLs responsible for apple fruit acidity by MapQTL and BSA-seq analyses using two independent pedigree-based populations. Candidate genes were screened in major QTL regions, and three functional gene markers, including a non-synonymous A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the coding region of MdPP2CH, a 36-bp insertion in the promoter of MdSAUR37, and a previously reported SNP in MdALMTII, were validated to influence the malate content of apple fruits. In addition, MdPP2CH inactivated three vacuolar H + -ATPases (MdVHA-A3, MdVHA-B2 and MdVHA-D2) and one aluminium-activated malate transporter (MdALMTII) via dephosphorylation and negatively influenced fruit malate accumulation. The dephosphotase activity of MdPP2CH was suppressed by MdSAUR37, which implied a higher hierarchy of genetic interaction. Therefore, the MdSAUR37/MdPP2CH/MdALMTII chain cascaded hierarchical epistatic genetic effects to precisely determine apple fruit malate content. An A/G SNP (-1010) on MdMYB44 promoter region from a major QTL (qtl08.1) was closely associated with fruit malate content. The predicted phenotype values (PPVs) were estimated using the tentative genotype values of the gene markers, and the PPVs were significantly correlated with the observed phenotype values. Our findings provide an insight into plant genome-based selection in apples and will aid in conducting research to understand the physiological fundamentals of quantitative genetics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. MD on UFOs at MKIs and MKQs

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Dehning, B; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, M; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    UFOs ("Unidentified Falling Objects") are expected to be one of the major known performance limitation of the LHC. In this MD, the production mechanism and the dynamics of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) and the tune kicker magnets (MKQs) were studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs and MKQs on a gap in the partly filled machine. During the MD, in total 58 UFO-type beam loss patterns were observed directly after pulsing the MKIs. None were observed after pulsing the MKQs, which provides important input for possible mitigation strategies. The temporal and spatial distribution of the UFO events could be determined by using a dedicated BLM Study Buffer, the implications for the UFO dynamics are discussed.

  20. Applicability of effective fragment potential version 2 - Molecular dynamics (EFP2-MD) simulations for predicting excess properties of mixed solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Nahoko; Mori, Hirotoshi

    2018-02-01

    Effective fragment potential version 2 - molecular dynamics (EFP2-MD) simulations, where the EFP2 is a polarizable force field based on ab initio electronic structure calculations were applied to water-methanol binary mixture. Comparing EFP2s defined with (aug-)cc-pVXZ (X = D,T) basis sets, it was found that large sets are necessary to generate sufficiently accurate EFP2 for predicting mixture properties. It was shown that EFP2-MD could predict the excess molar volume. Since the computational cost of EFP2-MD are far less than ab initio MD, the results presented herein demonstrate that EFP2-MD is promising for predicting physicochemical properties of novel mixed solvents.

  1. mdFoam+: Advanced molecular dynamics in OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshaw, S. M.; Borg, M. K.; Ramisetti, S. B.; Zhang, J.; Lockerby, D. A.; Emerson, D. R.; Reese, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces mdFoam+, which is an MPI parallelised molecular dynamics (MD) solver implemented entirely within the OpenFOAM software framework. It is open-source and released under the same GNU General Public License (GPL) as OpenFOAM. The source code is released as a publicly open software repository that includes detailed documentation and tutorial cases. Since mdFoam+ is designed entirely within the OpenFOAM C++ object-oriented framework, it inherits a number of key features. The code is designed for extensibility and flexibility, so it is aimed first and foremost as an MD research tool, in which new models and test cases can be developed and tested rapidly. Implementing mdFoam+ in OpenFOAM also enables easier development of hybrid methods that couple MD with continuum-based solvers. Setting up MD cases follows the standard OpenFOAM format, as mdFoam+ also relies upon the OpenFOAM dictionary-based directory structure. This ensures that useful pre- and post-processing capabilities provided by OpenFOAM remain available even though the fully Lagrangian nature of an MD simulation is not typical of most OpenFOAM applications. Results show that mdFoam+ compares well to another well-known MD code (e.g. LAMMPS) in terms of benchmark problems, although it also has additional functionality that does not exist in other open-source MD codes.

  2. MD Test of a Ballistic Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Wenninger, Jorg; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The ballistic optics is designed to improve the understanding of optical errors and BPM systematic effects in the critical triplet region. The particularity of that optics is that the triplet is switched off, effectively transforming the triplets on both sides of IR1 and IR5 into drift spaces. Advantage can be taken from that fact to localize better errors in the Q4-Q5-triplet region. During this MD this new optics was tested for the first time at injection with beam 2.

  3. A revision of the genus Aphalloides (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae), parasites of European brackish water fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Bryjová, A.; Sasal, P.; Winkler, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 7 (2017), s. 1973-1980 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aphalloides * Taxonomic revision * Zoogeography * Molecular study Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  4. A revision of the genus Aphalloides (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae), parasites of European brackish water fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Bryjová, Anna; Sasal, P.; Winkler, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 7 (2017), s. 1973-1980 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aphalloides * Taxonomic revision * Zoogeography * Molecular study Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  5. Do protozoa control the elimination of Vibrio cholerae in brackish water?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínez-P., M. E.; Macek, Miroslav; Castro-G., M. T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2004), s. 215-227 ISSN 1434-2944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 296 Grant - others:UNAM/DGAPA/PAPIT(MX) IN216796 Keywords : ciliate feeding * selectivity * toxin producing bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2004

  6. Echinicola shivajiensis sp. nov., a novel bacterium of the family "Cyclobacteriaceae" isolated from brackish water pond

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, T.N.R.; Tryambak, B.K.; AnilKumar, P.

    Strain AK12 sup(T), an orange pigmented Gramnegative, rod shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated fromamud sample collected froma brackishwater pond at Rampur of West Bengal, India. The strain was positive for oxidase, catalase and phosphatase...

  7. Effects of predicted climatic changes on distribution of organic contaminants in brackish water mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripszam, M., E-mail: matyas.ripszam@chem.umu.se [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Gallampois, C.M.J. [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Berglund, Å. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Larsson, H. [Umeå Marine Sciences Centre, Umeå University, Norrbyn, 905 71 Hörnefors (Sweden); Andersson, A. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Tysklind, M.; Haglund, P. [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, 901 87 Umeå (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Predicted consequences of future climate change in the northern Baltic Sea include increases in sea surface temperatures and terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff. These changes are expected to alter environmental distribution of anthropogenic organic contaminants (OCs). To assess likely shifts in their distributions, outdoor mesocosms were employed to mimic pelagic ecosystems at two temperatures and two DOC concentrations, current: 15 °C and 4 mg DOC L{sup −1} and, within ranges of predicted increases, 18 °C and 6 mg DOC L{sup −1}, respectively. Selected organic contaminants were added to the mesocosms to monitor changes in their distribution induced by the treatments. OC partitioning to particulate matter and sedimentation were enhanced at the higher DOC concentration, at both temperatures, while higher losses and lower partitioning of OCs to DOC were observed at the higher temperature. No combined effects of higher temperature and DOC on partitioning were observed, possibly because of the balancing nature of these processes. Therefore, changes in OCs' fates may largely depend on whether they are most sensitive to temperature or DOC concentration rises. Bromoanilines, phenanthrene, biphenyl and naphthalene were sensitive to the rise in DOC concentration, whereas organophosphates, chlorobenzenes (PCBz) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more sensitive to temperature. Mitotane and diflufenican were sensitive to both temperature and DOC concentration rises individually, but not in combination. - Highlights: • More contaminants remained in the ecosystem at higher organic carbon levels. • More contaminants were lost in the higher temperature treatments. • The combined effects are competitive with respect to contaminant cycling. • The individual properties of each contaminant determine their respective fate.

  8. On D’Arcythompsonia neglecta, a new Harpacticid Copepod from brackish water in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeke, H.C.

    1953-01-01

    Among the notes and collections that came to the Zoological Museum, Amsterdam, after Dr H. C. REDEKE’s death in 1945, I found an entirely completed manuscript, dealing with a new D’Arcythompsonia found in a canal at Den Helder (Netherlands). This is the species cited as nomen nudum by KARL LANG

  9. Effects of predicted climatic changes on distribution of organic contaminants in brackish water mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripszam, M; Gallampois, C M J; Berglund, Å; Larsson, H; Andersson, A; Tysklind, M; Haglund, P

    2015-06-01

    Predicted consequences of future climate change in the northern Baltic Sea include increases in sea surface temperatures and terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff. These changes are expected to alter environmental distribution of anthropogenic organic contaminants (OCs). To assess likely shifts in their distributions, outdoor mesocosms were employed to mimic pelagic ecosystems at two temperatures and two DOC concentrations, current: 15°C and 4 mg DOCL(-1) and, within ranges of predicted increases, 18°C and 6 mg DOCL(-1), respectively. Selected organic contaminants were added to the mesocosms to monitor changes in their distribution induced by the treatments. OC partitioning to particulate matter and sedimentation were enhanced at the higher DOC concentration, at both temperatures, while higher losses and lower partitioning of OCs to DOC were observed at the higher temperature. No combined effects of higher temperature and DOC on partitioning were observed, possibly because of the balancing nature of these processes. Therefore, changes in OCs' fates may largely depend on whether they are most sensitive to temperature or DOC concentration rises. Bromoanilines, phenanthrene, biphenyl and naphthalene were sensitive to the rise in DOC concentration, whereas organophosphates, chlorobenzenes (PCBz) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more sensitive to temperature. Mitotane and diflufenican were sensitive to both temperature and DOC concentration rises individually, but not in combination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The food and feeding habits of five freshwater and brackish-water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % nematodes, 14% diatoms and 8% crustaceans, while adults were planktotrophic, consuming 23% diatoms, 33% Chlorophyceae and 22% crustaceans. Synodontis nigrita juveniles fed almost exclusively (91%) on nematodes, while adults ...

  11. Effects of predicted climatic changes on distribution of organic contaminants in brackish water mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripszam, M.; Gallampois, C.M.J.; Berglund, Å.; Larsson, H.; Andersson, A.; Tysklind, M.; Haglund, P.

    2015-01-01

    Predicted consequences of future climate change in the northern Baltic Sea include increases in sea surface temperatures and terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff. These changes are expected to alter environmental distribution of anthropogenic organic contaminants (OCs). To assess likely shifts in their distributions, outdoor mesocosms were employed to mimic pelagic ecosystems at two temperatures and two DOC concentrations, current: 15 °C and 4 mg DOC L −1 and, within ranges of predicted increases, 18 °C and 6 mg DOC L −1 , respectively. Selected organic contaminants were added to the mesocosms to monitor changes in their distribution induced by the treatments. OC partitioning to particulate matter and sedimentation were enhanced at the higher DOC concentration, at both temperatures, while higher losses and lower partitioning of OCs to DOC were observed at the higher temperature. No combined effects of higher temperature and DOC on partitioning were observed, possibly because of the balancing nature of these processes. Therefore, changes in OCs' fates may largely depend on whether they are most sensitive to temperature or DOC concentration rises. Bromoanilines, phenanthrene, biphenyl and naphthalene were sensitive to the rise in DOC concentration, whereas organophosphates, chlorobenzenes (PCBz) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more sensitive to temperature. Mitotane and diflufenican were sensitive to both temperature and DOC concentration rises individually, but not in combination. - Highlights: • More contaminants remained in the ecosystem at higher organic carbon levels. • More contaminants were lost in the higher temperature treatments. • The combined effects are competitive with respect to contaminant cycling. • The individual properties of each contaminant determine their respective fate

  12. Successful water management for the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, B.

    2003-01-01

    Water is a key requirement to produce oil from thermal oil sands projects. Historically, water was considered as a renewable resource that could be used when necessary. Water use is currently examined in a wider context. Canadian Natural Resources Limited has used fresh water for thermal projects in the past, including its thermal operations at Primrose and Wolf Lake. However, technical advancements have made it possible to use recycled water. This allows companies to survive within their licenses while increasing production. Other advances include the use of brackish water, and innovations such as using depleted reservoir sections to store water to increase the use of recycled water. It was noted that brackish water resources need to be mapped and understood in greater detail. The objective is to use brackish water at a cost equal to, or less, than fresh water

  13. 75 FR 53574 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Displays, Potomac River, National Harbor, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Displays, Potomac River, National Harbor, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... safety of life on navigable waters during five fireworks displays launched from a discharge barge located... necessary to protect persons and vessels against the hazards associated with a fireworks display on...

  14. 78 FR 68002 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Baltimore Harbor, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Baltimore Harbor, Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... safety of life on navigable waters during a fireworks display launched from a barge located in Baltimore... rule involves a fireworks display associated with a New Year's Eve event that will take place in...

  15. ProtoMD: A prototyping toolkit for multiscale molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Mansour, Andrew Abi; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    ProtoMD is a toolkit that facilitates the development of algorithms for multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It is designed for multiscale methods which capture the dynamic transfer of information across multiple spatial scales, such as the atomic to the mesoscopic scale, via coevolving microscopic and coarse-grained (CG) variables. ProtoMD can be also be used to calibrate parameters needed in traditional CG-MD methods. The toolkit integrates 'GROMACS wrapper' to initiate MD simulations, and 'MDAnalysis' to analyze and manipulate trajectory files. It facilitates experimentation with a spectrum of coarse-grained variables, prototyping rare events (such as chemical reactions), or simulating nanocharacterization experiments such as terahertz spectroscopy, AFM, nanopore, and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. ProtoMD is written in python and is freely available under the GNU General Public License from github.com/CTCNano/proto_md.

  16. Combining Rosetta with molecular dynamics (MD): A benchmark of the MD-based ensemble protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwiczak, Jan; Jarmula, Adam; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw

    2018-07-01

    Computational protein design is a set of procedures for computing amino acid sequences that will fold into a specified structure. Rosetta Design, a commonly used software for protein design, allows for the effective identification of sequences compatible with a given backbone structure, while molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thoroughly sample near-native conformations. We benchmarked a procedure in which Rosetta design is started on MD-derived structural ensembles and showed that such a combined approach generates 20-30% more diverse sequences than currently available methods with only a slight increase in computation time. Importantly, the increase in diversity is achieved without a loss in the quality of the designed sequences assessed by their resemblance to natural sequences. We demonstrate that the MD-based procedure is also applicable to de novo design tasks started from backbone structures without any sequence information. In addition, we implemented a protocol that can be used to assess the stability of designed models and to select the best candidates for experimental validation. In sum our results demonstrate that the MD ensemble-based flexible backbone design can be a viable method for protein design, especially for tasks that require a large pool of diverse sequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Sivash, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Yvonne I.; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding

  18. Moderate livestock grazing of salt, and brackish marshes benefits breeding birds along the mainland coast of the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Koffijberg, Kees; Dijkema, Kees S.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Our study investigated how bird species richness and abundance was related to livestock grazing on salt, and brackish marshes, with an emphasis on songbirds, and shorebirds. Survey areas with a high percentage cover of tall vegetation were assumed to have experienced lower livestock grazing

  19. Moderate livestock grazing of salt, and brackish marshes benefits breeding birds along the mainland coast of the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, F.S.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Ens, B.J.; Koffijberg, K.; Dijkema, K.S.; Bakker, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated how bird species richness and abundance was related to livestock grazing on salt, and brackish marshes, with an emphasis on songbirds, and shorebirds. Survey areas with a high percentage cover of tall vegetation were assumed to have experienced lower livestock grazing

  20. PuReMD-GPU: A reactive molecular dynamics simulation package for GPUs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylasa, S.B.; Aktulga, H.M.; Grama, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present an efficient and highly accurate GP-GPU implementation of our community code, PuReMD, for reactive molecular dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF force field. PuReMD and its incorporation into LAMMPS (Reax/C) is used by a large number of research groups worldwide for simulating diverse systems ranging from biomembranes to explosives (RDX) at atomistic level of detail. The sub-femtosecond time-steps associated with ReaxFF strongly motivate significant improvements to per-timestep simulation time through effective use of GPUs. This paper presents, in detail, the design and implementation of PuReMD-GPU, which enables ReaxFF simulations on GPUs, as well as various performance optimization techniques we developed to obtain high performance on state-of-the-art hardware. Comprehensive experiments on model systems (bulk water and amorphous silica) are presented to quantify the performance improvements achieved by PuReMD-GPU and to verify its accuracy. In particular, our experiments show up to 16× improvement in runtime compared to our highly optimized CPU-only single-core ReaxFF implementation. PuReMD-GPU is a unique production code, and is currently available on request from the authors

  1. PuReMD-GPU: A reactive molecular dynamics simulation package for GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylasa, S.B., E-mail: skylasa@purdue.edu [Department of Elec. and Comp. Eng., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Aktulga, H.M., E-mail: hmaktulga@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50F-1650, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grama, A.Y., E-mail: ayg@cs.purdue.edu [Department of Computer Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present an efficient and highly accurate GP-GPU implementation of our community code, PuReMD, for reactive molecular dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF force field. PuReMD and its incorporation into LAMMPS (Reax/C) is used by a large number of research groups worldwide for simulating diverse systems ranging from biomembranes to explosives (RDX) at atomistic level of detail. The sub-femtosecond time-steps associated with ReaxFF strongly motivate significant improvements to per-timestep simulation time through effective use of GPUs. This paper presents, in detail, the design and implementation of PuReMD-GPU, which enables ReaxFF simulations on GPUs, as well as various performance optimization techniques we developed to obtain high performance on state-of-the-art hardware. Comprehensive experiments on model systems (bulk water and amorphous silica) are presented to quantify the performance improvements achieved by PuReMD-GPU and to verify its accuracy. In particular, our experiments show up to 16× improvement in runtime compared to our highly optimized CPU-only single-core ReaxFF implementation. PuReMD-GPU is a unique production code, and is currently available on request from the authors.

  2. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Thyroid Disease Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about one ...

  3. MD-11 PCA - First Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 approaches the first landing ever of a transport aircraft under engine power only on Aug. 29, 1995, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The milestone flight, flown by NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when it normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple--for pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  4. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 has parked on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. Coming down the steps from the aircraft are Gordon Fullerton (in front), followed by Bill Burcham, Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) project engineer at Dryden; NASA Dryden controls engineer John Burken; John Feather of McDonnell Douglas; and Drew Pappas, McDonnell Douglas' project manager for PCA.

  5. MD simulation of cluster formation during sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramoto, T.; Okai, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Yorizane, K.; Yamamura, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The cluster ejection due to cluster impact on a solid surface is studied through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations are performed for Cu cluster impacts on the Cu(1 1 1) surface for cluster energy 100 eV/atom, and for clusters of 6, 13, 28 and 55 atoms. Interatomic interactions are described by the AMLJ-EAM potential. The vibration energy spectrum is independent of the incident cluster size and energy. This comes from the fact that sputtered clusters become stable through the successive fragmentation of nascent large sputtered clusters. The vibration energy spectra for large sputtered clusters have a peak, whose energy corresponds to the melting temperature of Cu. The exponent of the power-law fit of the abundance distribution and the total sputtering yield for the cluster impacts are higher than that for the monatomic ion impacts with the same total energy, where the exponent δ is given by Y n ∝n δ and Y n is the yield of sputtered n-atom cluster. The exponent δ follows a unified function of the total sputtering yield, which is a monotonic increase function, and it is nearly equal to δ ∼ -3 for larger yield

  6. Orbit Feedback Operation with RCBX (MD 1209)

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Jorg; Nisbet, David; Ponce, Laurette; Louro Alves, Diogo Miguel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The LHC Orbit Feedback (OFB) is able to drive any orbit corrector circuit (COD) to steer the LHC orbit. But during the first feedback tests in 2010, all attempts to use the common triplet orbit correctors (MCBX) failed because the QPS system installed to protect those magnets triggered power aborts as soon as the OFB steered the beam with those CODs. The reason was most likely the violation of the RCBX circuit acceleration limits. For this reason the MCBX orbit correctors were never driven by the OFB in regular operation. Although the performance of the OFB is generally excellent, the quality of the beam steering around IRs could be improved if the OFB could correct the orbit with the MCBX to counteract locally triplet quadrupole movements. The aim of this MD was to make a new attempt to use the MCBX in the OFB. The test was successful at injection (no circuit trip) and failed during the ramp (QPS power abort). The PC voltages and QPS Ures signals revealed the presence of voltage spikes with a period of 10~s...

  7. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... operation of the Baltimore County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  8. MD290: Q4 IP6 Quench Level

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, Mateusz Jakub; Lechner, Anton; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The detailed program proposed for the LHC Machine Development concerning a quench induced by fast losses on the MQY.4L6 quadrupole is presented. The merit of the MD, the necessary modifications of the machine protection systems are presented together with a preliminary analysis of the MD results.

  9. Chosen-Prefix Collisions for MD5 and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); A.K. Lenstra (Arjen); B. de Weger (Benne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe present a novel, automated way to find differential paths for MD5. Its main application is in the construction of \\emph{chosen-prefix collisions}. We have shown how, at an approximate expected cost of $2^{39}$ calls to the MD5 compression function, for any two chosen

  10. Waiting time distribution in M/D/1 queueing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; Staalhagen, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The well-known formula for the waiting time distribution of M/D/1 queueing systems is numerically unsuitable when the load is close to 1.0 and/or the results for a large waiting time are required. An algorithm for any load and waiting time is presented, based on the state probabilities of M/D/1...

  11. Morphologic, Phylogenetic and Chemical Characterization of a Brackish Colonial Picocyanobacterium (Coelosphaeriaceae with Bioactive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Häggqvist

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite their cosmopolitan distribution, knowledge on cyanobacteria in the family Coelosphaeriaceae is limited. In this study, a single species culture of a coelosphaeran cyanobacterium isolated from a brackish rock pool in the Baltic Sea was established. The strain was characterized by morphological features, partial 16S rRNA sequence and nonribosomal oligopeptide profile. The bioactivity of fractionated extracts against several serine proteases, as well as protein-serine/threonine phosphatases was studied. Phylogenetic analyses of the strain suggested a close relationship with Snowella litoralis, but its morphology resembled Woronichinia compacta. The controversial morphologic and phylogenetic results demonstrated remaining uncertainties regarding species division in this cyanobacteria family. Chemical analyses of the strain indicated production of nonribosomal oligopeptides. In fractionated extracts, masses and ion fragmentation spectra of seven possible anabaenopeptins were identified. Additionally, fragmentation spectra of cyanopeptolin-like peptides were collected in several of the fractions. The nonribosomal oligopeptide profile adds another potential identification criterion in future inter- and intraspecies comparisons of coelosphaeran cyanobacteria. The fractionated extracts showed significant activity against carboxypeptidase A and trypsin. Inhibition of these important metabolic enzymes might have impacts at the ecosystem level in aquatic habitats with high cyanobacteria densities.

  12. Behavior of radionuclides and stable elements in the ecosystem in brackish Lake Obuchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kunio; Ueda, Shinji; Kawabata, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    1998-01-01

    The behaviors and movements of radionuclides in a brackish environment, Lake Obuchi and its ecosystem were investigated with an aim to evaluate the safety of radioactive materials discharged into the lake. the organic materials in the sediment samples taken from Lake Obuchi were mainly composed of plant planktons and contained various radionuclides; 0.12-1.08 μg/g of 232 Th, 1.69-2.44 μg/g of 238 U, 0.0112-0.0176 Bq/g dry weight. The concentration of stable element was 145.6-357.3 μg/g for Mn, 82.5-128.2 μg/g for Sr, 0.81-1.65 μg/g for Cs and 11.2-16.5 μg/g dry weight for Pb. Plant planktons were found to mediate the accumulation of elements into lake sediments. Therefore, the species composition, distribution and ecological positioning of those planktons were important factors for the behaviors and movements of such elements. Then, the relationship between the concentrations of 137 Cs and Cs was studied with phytoplankton and a positive correlation (r=0.95) was found at both concentrations, suggesting that the adsorptions of the two elements onto the lake sediments were similar. (M.N.)

  13. Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Rasigraf, Olivia; Sapart, Célia J; Jilbert, Tom; Jetten, Mike S M; Röckmann, Thomas; van der Veen, Carina; Bândă, Narcisa; Kartal, Boran; Ettwig, Katharina F; Slomp, Caroline P

    2015-01-06

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its biological conversion in marine sediments, largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), is a crucial part of the global carbon cycle. However, little is known about the role of iron oxides as an oxidant for AOM. Here we provide the first field evidence for iron-dependent AOM in brackish coastal surface sediments and show that methane produced in Bothnian Sea sediments is oxidized in distinct zones of iron- and sulfate-dependent AOM. At our study site, anthropogenic eutrophication over recent decades has led to an upward migration of the sulfate/methane transition zone in the sediment. Abundant iron oxides and high dissolved ferrous iron indicate iron reduction in the methanogenic sediments below the newly established sulfate/methane transition. Laboratory incubation studies of these sediments strongly suggest that the in situ microbial community is capable of linking methane oxidation to iron oxide reduction. Eutrophication of coastal environments may therefore create geochemical conditions favorable for iron-mediated AOM and thus increase the relevance of iron-dependent methane oxidation in the future. Besides its role in mitigating methane emissions, iron-dependent AOM strongly impacts sedimentary iron cycling and related biogeochemical processes through the reduction of large quantities of iron oxides.

  14. Growth of common brackish marsh macrophytes under altered hydrology and salinity regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Biagas, Janelda M.; Allain, Larry K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal marsh plants are increasingly subject to physicochemical stressors under rising sea levels, and the maintenance of marsh ecological functions can depend on the ability of individual species and communities to tolerate or adapt to altered conditions. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to identify hydrology and salinity effects on growth of three common brackish marsh macrophytes of coastal Florida, USA: Distichlis spicata, Juncus roemerianus, and Spartina bakeri. The species were potted as monocultures and exposed to three salinities (0, 15, or 28 psu) and two hydrologic conditions (saturated, tidal) over 22 months. Final stem density of J. roemerianus and S. bakeri did not differ among treatments. In D. spicata, however, stem density was lowest at 28 psu and lower in tidal compared to saturated conditions. Mean stem height of all species was lowest at 28 psu. Aboveground biomass of J. roemerianus was not affected by the treatments, but in D. spicata andS. bakeri it was lowest at 28 psu. Results indicated that J. roemerianus was the most adaptable species and may, therefore, be more resilient to climate-change driven stressors. However, plant-plant interactions such as interspecific competition and facilitation can alter the response of individual species to environmental factors.

  15. The influence of permanently submerged macrophytes on sediment mercury distribution, mobility and methylation potential in a brackish Norwegian fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Marianne; Schaanning, Morten Thorne; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Eek, Espen; Moy, Frithjof E; Lydersen, Espen

    2018-01-01

    Macrophytes are shown to affect the microbial activity in different aqueous environments, with an altering of the sediment cycling of mercury (Hg) as a potential effect. Here, we investigated how a meadow with permanently submerged macrophytes in a contaminated brackish fjord in southern Norway influenced the conditions for sulfate reducing microbial activity, the methyl-Hg (MeHg) production and the availability of MeHg. Historically discharged Hg from a chlor-alkali plant (60-80tons, 1947-1987) was evident through high Hg concentrations (491mgTot-Hgkg -1 , 268μgMeHgkg -1 ) in intermediate sediment depths (10-20cm) outside of the meadow, with reduced concentrations within the meadow. Natural recovery of the fjord was revealed by lower sediment surface concentrations (1.9-15.5mgTot-Hgkg -1 , 1.3-3.2μgMeHgkg -1 ). Within the meadow, vertical gradients of sediment hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) E h and pH suggested microbial sulfate reduction in 2-5cm depths, coinciding with peak values of relative MeHg levels (0.5% MeHg). We assume that MeHg production rates was stimulated by the supply and availability of organic carbon, microbial activity and a sulfide oxidizing agent (e.g. O 2 ) within the rhizosphere. Following this, % MeHg in sediment (0-5cm) within the meadow was approximately 10× higher compared to outside the meadow. Further, enhanced availability of MeHg within the meadow was demonstrated by significantly higher fluxes (p<0.01) from sediment to overlying water (0.1-0.6ngm -2 d -1 ) compared to sediment without macrophytes (0.02-0.2ngm -2 d -1 ). Considering the productivity and species richness typical for such habitats, submerged macrophyte meadows located within legacy Hg contaminated sediment sites may constitute important entry points for MeHg into food webs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature dependence of gafchromic MD-55 dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, Norman V.; Zwan, Len van der; Cygler, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Gafchromic MD-55 is a fairly new, thin film dosimeter that develops a blue color (λ max = 676 nm) when irradiated with ionizing radiation. The increase in absorbance is nearly proportional to the absorbed dose. MD-55 can be used for high precision dosimetry if care is taken to assure reproducible film orientation in the spectrophotometer as well as temperature control during both irradiation and reading. In order to achieve the maximum sensitivity of this dosimeter the readings of the optical density should be taken at λ max . It was reported for another type of Gafchromic film (DM-1260), that both λ max and ε max decrease with an increase in the temperature of the spectrophotometer. The purpose of this study was to characterize the reading temperature dependence of the new type of Gafchromic film available on the market and to find optimal conditions for using it for high precision dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Irradiations were carried out using 60 Co gamma rays from an Eldorado irradiator. The dosimeters were sandwiched in a lucite phantom with 4.4 mm build-up and irradiated in the center of a 10 cm x 10 cm field at 1 meter from the source. The temperature during irradiations was 22 deg. C. The dose rate was about 0.68 Gy/min. Measurements of optical density were made using a Cary 210 spectrophotometer. A bandpass of 3.5 nm was used. The temperature of the baseplate of the sample holder was regulated to +/-0.05 deg. C and measured by a probe lying on the baseplate. In all cases, values of OD were only recorded after they had come to a constant value, which was reached within 5 minutes of inserting the dosimeter into the sample chamber of the spectrophotometer. Results: The temperature dependence of the OD at 676 nm was measured in 2 studies using 6 dosimeters that had received 0, 1.0, 3.5, 6.2, 14.5 Gy. Readings were taken at 7 temperatures between 18.8 and 28.1 deg. C. By returning to the initial temperature several hours later, it was found

  17. Full spectrum water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannock, Matthew; Fergus, Ian; Griffiths, David

    2011-01-01

    Coal Seam Gas water (CSG) in Australia is typically brackish with high alkalinity and pH, and if not managed correctly may adversely affect the whole environment. To achieve a sustainable and holistic outcome for CSG associated water, an integrated approach is required where CSG producers working in close cooperation with all stakeholders, including the state and federal governments, regulators, community and land owners.

  18. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Meade, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aooessloo For NTIS GRA61 DTIC TAB 0 Unannounced Justiricatlon Dy Distribution/ Availabilit !Y Code$ Avail ad/or M-t Spool 2 CONTENTS Page ’SF 298 1...26 History/Geography 26 Tenants 26 Environmental Programs 26 Air Pollution Control 27 Water Pollution Control 27 Radiation...Solvmt-lausd Faints. Product Substitution - Powder Coatings 86 Solvemt.lassd Paints - Product Substitution • Water -Baud Formulations 87 Solvent-Bad

  19. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal from brackish aquaculture wastewater using effective microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, K. A.; Mohd, S. Y.; Sarah, R. S.; Mohd, H. Z.; Rasyidah, A.

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture is one of dominant food based industry in the world with 8.3% annual growth rate and its development had led to adverse effect on the environment. High nutrient production in form of nitrogenous compound and phosphorus contributed to environmental deterioration such as eutrophication and toxicity to the industry. Usage of Effective Microorganism (EM), one of the biological approaches to remove Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) in aquaculture pond was proposed. Samples were obtained from the Sea Bass intensive brackish aquaculture wastewater (AW) from fish farm at Juru, Penang and the parameters used to measure the removal of nitrogenous compounds include, pH, EM dosage, shaking, contact time and optimum variable conditions. From the study, for effective contact time, day 6 is the optimum contact time for both TN and TP with 99.74% and 62.78% removal respectively while in terms of optimum pH, the highest TN removal was at pH 7 with 66.89 %. The optimum dosage of EM is 1.5 ml with ratio 1:166 for 81.5 % TN removal was also found appropriate during the experiment. At varied optimum conditions of EM, the removal efficiency of TN and TP were 81.53% and 38.94% respectively while the removal mechanism of TN was highly dependent on the decomposition rate of specific bacteria such as Nitrobacter bacteria, Yeast and Bacillus Subtilis sp. The study has established the efficacy of EM's ability to treat excessive nutrient of TN and TP from AW.

  20. Preparing MD-PhD students for clinical rotations: navigating the interface between PhD and MD training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Charles; Insel, Paul A

    2013-06-01

    Many aspects of MD-PhD training are not optimally designed to prepare students for their future roles as translational clinician-scientists. The transition between PhD research efforts and clinical rotations is one hurdle that must be overcome. MD-PhD students have deficits in clinical skills compared with those of their MD-only colleagues at the time of this transition. Reimmersion programs (RPs) targeted to MD-PhD students have the potential to help them navigate this transition.The authors draw on their experience creating and implementing an RP that incorporates multiple types of activities (clinical exam review, objective structured clinical examination, and supervised practice in patient care settings) designed to enhance the participants' skills and readiness for clinical efforts. On the basis of this experience, they note that MD-PhD students' time away from the clinical environment negatively affects their clinical skills, causing them to feel underprepared for clinical rotations. The authors argue that participation in an RP can help students feel more comfortable speaking with and examining patients and decrease their anxiety regarding clinical encounters. The authors propose that RPs can have positive outcomes for improving the transition from PhD to clinical MD training in dual-degree programs. Identifying and addressing this and other transitions need to be considered to improve the educational experience of MD-PhD students.

  1. 75 FR 80744 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...-1203; Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-168-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): McDonnell Douglas Corporation... Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87) and MD-88...

  2. Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 Target WRKY Transcription Factors to Influence Apple Resistance to Leaf Spot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiulei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Chuanbao; Wang, Shengnan; Hao, Li; Wang, Shengyuan; Li, Tianzhong

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression that post-transcriptionally regulate transcription factors involved in plant physiological activities. Little is known about the effects of miRNAs in disease resistance in apple ( Malus × domestica ). We globally profiled miRNAs in the apple cultivar Golden Delicious (GD) infected or not with the apple leaf spot fungus Alternaria alternaria f. sp. mali (ALT1), and identified 58 miRNAs that exhibited more than a 2-fold upregulation upon ALT1 infection. We identified a pair of miRNAs that target protein-coding genes involved in the defense response against fungal pathogens; Md-miR156ab targets a novel WRKY transcription factor, MdWRKYN1, which harbors a TIR and a WRKY domain. Md-miR395 targets another transcription factor, MdWRKY26, which contains two WRKY domains. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 levels increased, while MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression decreased in ALT1-inoculated GD leaves; furthermore, the overexpression of Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 resulted in a significant reduction in MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression. To investigate whether these miRNAs and their targets play a crucial role in plant defense, we overexpressed MdWRKYN1 or knocked down Md-miR156ab activity, which in both cases enhanced the disease resistance of the plants by upregulating the expression of the WRKY-regulated pathogenesis-related (PR) protein-encoding genes MdPR3-1, MdPR3-2, MdPR4, MdPR5, MdPR10-1 , and MdPR10-2 . In a similar analysis, we overexpressed MdWRKY26 or suppressed Md-miR395 activity, and found that many PR protein-encoding genes were also regulated by MdWRKY26 . In GD, ALT-induced Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 suppress MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression, thereby decreasing the expression of some PR genes, and resulting in susceptibility to ALT1.

  3. 75 FR 30296 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... safety of life on navigable waters during the event. DATES: This rule is effective from 5:30 a.m. to 2:30...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily changing...

  4. Checklist of the benthic marine and brackish Galician algae (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara, Ignacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated checklist of the benthic marine and brackish algae of the Galician coasts (Spain based on literature records and new collections. This checklist includes 618 species: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta, and 77 Chlorophyta. The number of specific, infraspecific taxa, and stages is 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta, and 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum, and Sphacelaria tribuloides are new records for Galicia, and there are also some new provincial records. We state the presence of each species for Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co, and Pontevedra (Po provinces. The number of species found in Galicia is high, since 85% of the species recorded for the warm-temperate NE Atlantic Ocean grow in Galicia. Biogeographical comments comparing the Galician data with the neighboring areas of Britain and Ireland, Basque coast, Portugal, southern Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands and Atlantic coast of Morocco are given. Finally, we present lists of cold-temperate, warm-temperate, Lusitanic Province endemics, and alien species growing in Galicia.Se presenta una lista comentada de las especies de algas bentónicas marinas y salobres de la costa de Galicia (España basada en citas bibliográficas y nuevos datos de los autores. La lista contiene 618 especies: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta y 77 Chlorophyta. El número de taxa específicos e infraespecíficos asciende a 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta y 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum y Sphacelaria tribuloides son nuevas citas para Galicia, y algunas nuevas citas provinciales. Para cada especie se especifica su presencia en las provincias de Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co y Pontevedra (Po. El número de especies encontradas en Galicia es elevado, ya que se conocen el 85% de las

  5. Wettability of graphitic-carbon and silicon surfaces: MD modeling and theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The wettability of graphitic carbon and silicon surfaces was numerically and theoretically investigated. A multi-response method has been developed for the analysis of conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of droplets wettability. The contact angle and indicators of the quality of the computations are tracked as a function of the data sets analyzed over time. This method of analysis allows accurate calculations of the contact angle obtained from the MD simulations. Analytical models were also developed for the calculation of the work of adhesion using the mean-field theory, accounting for the interfacial entropy changes. A calibration method is proposed to provide better predictions of the respective contact angles under different solid-liquid interaction potentials. Estimations of the binding energy between a water monomer and graphite match those previously reported. In addition, a breakdown in the relationship between the binding energy and the contact angle was observed. The macroscopic contact angles obtained from the MD simulations were found to match those predicted by the mean-field model for graphite under different wettability conditions, as well as the contact angles of Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces. Finally, an assessment of the effect of the Lennard-Jones cutoff radius was conducted to provide guidelines for future comparisons between numerical simulations and analytical models of wettability

  6. 3MdB: the Mexican Million Models database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.

    2014-10-01

    The 3MdB is an original effort to construct a large multipurpose database of photoionization models. This is a more modern version of a previous attempt based on Cloudy3D and IDL tools. It is accessed by MySQL requests. The models are obtained using the well known and widely used Cloudy photoionization code (Ferland et al, 2013). The database is aimed to host grids of models with different references to identify each project and to facilitate the extraction of the desired data. We present here a description of the way the database is managed and some of the projects that use 3MdB. Anybody can ask for a grid to be run and stored in 3MdB, to increase the visibility of the grid and the potential side applications of it.

  7. Influence of nutrient input on the trophic state of a tropical brackish ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water lagoon (Chilika, India), an examination of different dissolved nutrients ... toplankton biomass, was conducted through seasonal water quality monitoring in the year 2011. The ...... mortality during hypo-salinity events: A stress-induced.

  8. Swiss national MD-PhD-program: an outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Katrin; Winkler, David T; Meier-Abt, Peter J

    2009-09-19

    This study aims at a first evaluation of the outcome of the Swiss national MD-PhD program during the last 16 years. One hundred and twenty six former and current students in the Swiss national MD-PhD program were surveyed via a Web-based questionnaire in September 2007. Twenty-four questions assessed information regarding participant demographics, information on the PhD thesis and publication activity, current positions and research activity, as well as participant's opinions, attitudes and career goals. Eighty questionnaires were received from 126 MD-PhD students and graduates (63.5% response rate). The responders consisted of present students (36%), former graduates (56%), and dropouts (8%). The percentage of women in the program was 23%, and the average duration of the program was 4.2 +/- 1.4 years. Research interests were predominantly in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, molecular biology and cancer research. A considerable portion of the MD-PhD graduates had an excellent publication record stemming from their PhD research work, and 89% were planning to continue a research-orientated career. Over 50% of those MD-PhD graduates completing their thesis before 2002 had already reached an assistant or full professor position at the time of the survey. Nearly all participants considered the MD-PhD training helpful to their career and high quality standards were assigned to the acquired practical and intellectual skills. However, criticism was expressed concerning the general mentoring and the career related mentoring. Moreover, general mentoring and career related mentoring were significantly less well perceived in research groups employing more than seven PhD students at the same time. The MD-PhD students and graduates surveyed were satisfied with their education and most of them continued a research-orientated career. Regarding the overall positive evaluation, this study supports the view that MD-PhD graduates are well qualified for a successful career in

  9. MD 2179: Scraping of off-momentum halo after injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Patecki, Marcin; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In this MD, a beam scraping was performed using the momentum primary collimator in IR3 where dispersion is high. A second scraping was performed using a TCSG in IR7 where dispersion is almost negligible. In such a way, we aim to disentangle the contribution of off-momentum particles to halo population. These scrapings will provide useful information to better understand the usual off-momentum losses we see at the start of the ramp. The MD results would also be used to benchmark simulations of off-momentum beam losses in order to gain confidence in simulation models.

  10. BayesMD: flexible biological modeling for motif discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Man-Hung Eric; Krogh, Anders; Winther, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present BayesMD, a Bayesian Motif Discovery model with several new features. Three different types of biological a priori knowledge are built into the framework in a modular fashion. A mixture of Dirichlets is used as prior over nucleotide probabilities in binding sites. It is trained on trans......We present BayesMD, a Bayesian Motif Discovery model with several new features. Three different types of biological a priori knowledge are built into the framework in a modular fashion. A mixture of Dirichlets is used as prior over nucleotide probabilities in binding sites. It is trained...

  11. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Apple (Malus domestica) MdERF2 negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening by suppressing MdACS1 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Jiang, Zhongyu; Zhang, Lichao; Tan, Dongmei; Wei, Yun; Yuan, Hui; Li, Tianlai; Wang, Aide

    2016-12-01

    Ripening in climacteric fruit requires the gaseous phytohormone ethylene. Although ethylene signaling has been well studied, knowledge of the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis is still limited. Here we show that an apple (Malus domestica) ethylene response factor, MdERF2, negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening by suppressing the transcription of MdACS1, a gene that is critical for biosynthesis of ripening-related ethylene. Expression of MdERF2 was suppressed by ethylene during ripening of apple fruit, and we observed that MdERF2 bound to the promoter of MdACS1 and directly suppressed its transcription. Moreover, MdERF2 suppressed the activity of the promoter of MdERF3, a transcription factor that we found to bind to the MdACS1 promoter, thereby increasing MdACS1 transcription. We determined that the MdERF2 and MdERF3 proteins directly interact, and this interaction suppresses the binding of MdERF3 to the MdACS1 promoter. Moreover, apple fruit with transiently downregulated MdERF2 expression showed higher ethylene production and faster ripening. Our results indicate that MdERF2 negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening in apple by suppressing the transcription of MdACS1 via multiple mechanisms, thereby acting as an antagonist of positive ripening regulators. Our findings offer a deep understanding of the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis during climacteric fruit ripening. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Control of fjordic deep water renewal by runoff modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, A; Edelsten, D J

    1976-09-01

    Loch Etive is a Scottish fjord subject to fresh-water run off which renders it markedly brackish. This paper considers the frequency of deep water renewal, developing a model which relates the timing of all such renewals to runoff records. Using the model one can examine the effect of changes caused by interference with the natural runoff pattern.

  14. Water Desalination Using Capacitive Deionization with Microporous Carbon Electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Weinstein, L.; Dash, R.; Wal, van der A.F.; Bryjak, M.; Gogotsi, Y.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a water desalination technology in which salt ions are removed from brackish water by flowing through a spacer channel with porous electrodes on each side. Upon applying a voltage difference between the two electrodes, cations move to and are accumulated in

  15. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  16. Thomas Secker M.D.: Archbishop and man-midwife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Guy, John

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a biographical outline of the career of Thomas Secker, MD, who from 1758-68 was Archbishop of Canterbury. Although much has been written on Secker, this study seeks to highlight his training in medicine, which has been largely overlooked hitherto by historians.

  17. A pilot study of MD (psychiatry) theses-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shrikant; Agarwal, Vivek; Subramanyam, Alka; Srivastava, Mona; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Rao, G Prasad; Khurana, Hitesh; Singh, Archana

    2018-01-01

    Undertaking a research project is mandatory for MD Psychiatry trainees. The present study was undertaken to assess the type of research activity being undertaken as part of MD Psychiatry dissertation, and its contribution to national and international literature. Three medical colleges supplied the data about the topic, names of the supervisor and the candidate, collaboration, funding accrued, and publication details of MD-based research carried out between years 2000 and 2010 inclusive; 95 records were collected for the final analysis. The details of the publications provided were cross-checked on the internet, which would have taken care of missed publications as well. Most studies were single-point assessment clinical studies. Only 2 studies had been funded, 11 had collaboration with other departments within the same institute, and 5 had inter-institute collaborations. Majority of the studies were not published. Only 30 were published as full paper and 9 as abstracts. Of these 30 full publications, only 3 were published in journals having JCI impact factor values (1.4, 1.3, and 1.4, respectively). The main finding of this pilot study was that MD-based research has low contribution to the national and international literature, and those articles which are published are in low impact journals. Suggestions for modifying this state of affairs are discussed.

  18. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find a Foot & Ankle Orthopaedic Surgeon Page Content Who ... your prescribed treatment (surgical and/or non-surgical) ​ Find a Surgeon ​ Click here to find a foot ...

  19. Produção de alface em NFT e Floating aproveitando água salobra e o rejeito da dessalinização Lettuce production under NFT and Floating using brackish groundwater and the reject from its desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface cv. Elba foram cultivadas em dois sistemas hidropônicos, Floating e NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar três tipos de água: a água salobra natural (2,47 dS m-1 obtida a partir de um poço profundo; água doce (0,11 dS m-1 produzido por dessalinização por osmose inversa, e o rejeito salino (5,15 dS m-1, um efluente do processo de dessalinização. Estas águas foram combinadas em seis tratamentos resultantes da sua utilização alternada para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN e/ou substituir as perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na região semiárida de Pernambuco, utilizando 48 unidades experimentais em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x2 com quatro repetições. O rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca foi maior nas condições do Floating. O uso exclusivo da água do poço profundo e do rejeito de dessalinizadores diminuiu 22,7 e 39,6% a produção de alface, respectivamente. Para uma melhor combinação de águas doces e salobras, o uso de água salobra para repor a perda por ETc pode aumentar a produção de alface em relação ao uso dessas águas para preparar a SN, estes resultados foram registrados para a água do poço profundo e o rejeito.Plants of lettuce cv. Elba were grown under two hydroponic systems, Floating and NFT, aiming to evaluate three water resources: natural brackish water (2,47 dS m-1 obtained from a deep well; fresh water (0,11 dS m-1 produced by reverse osmosis desalination; and reject brine (5,15 dS m-1, a wastewater from desalination process. These waters were combined in six treatments resulted from their alternated use to prepare nutrient solution (NS and/or replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc. The experiment was carried out under a greenhouse condition in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil; 48 experimental units were used for both hydroponic systems. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter was higher under

  20. Developing improved MD codes for understanding processive cellulases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, M F; Nimlos, M R; Himmel, M E; Uberbacher, E C; Iii, C L Brooks; Walker, R C

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cellulose-degrading enzymes is illuminated through a multidisciplinary collaboration that uses molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and expands the capabilities of MD codes to allow simulations of enzymes and substrates on petascale computational facilities. There is a class of glycoside hydrolase enzymes called cellulases that are thought to decrystallize and processively depolymerize cellulose using biochemical processes that are largely not understood. Understanding the mechanisms involved and improving the efficiency of this hydrolysis process through computational models and protein engineering presents a compelling grand challenge. A detailed understanding of cellulose structure, dynamics and enzyme function at the molecular level is required to direct protein engineers to the right modifications or to understand if natural thermodynamic or kinetic limits are in play. Much can be learned about processivity by conducting carefully designed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the binding and catalytic domains of cellulases with various substrate configurations, solvation models and thermodynamic protocols. Most of these numerical experiments, however, will require significant modification of existing code and algorithms in order to efficiently use current (terascale) and future (petascale) hardware to the degree of parallelism necessary to simulate a system of the size proposed here. This work will develop MD codes that can efficiently use terascale and petascale systems, not just for simple classical MD simulations, but also for more advanced methods, including umbrella sampling with complex restraints and reaction coordinates, transition path sampling, steered molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of systems the size of cellulose degrading enzymes acting on cellulose

  1. Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in a brackish northern pike population ( Esox lucius L.), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, brackish northern pike populations in Denmark have been subject to stocking programmes, using nonindigenous pike from freshwater lakes, in order to compensate for drastic population declines. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic impact of stocking fres...

  2. Expression Profiles of Branchial FXYD Proteins in the Brackish Medaka Oryzias dancena: A Potential Saltwater Fish Model for Studies of Osmoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Kai; Kang, Chao-Kai; Chang, Chia-Hao; Hsu, An-Di; Lee, Tsung-Han; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2013-01-01

    FXYD proteins are novel regulators of Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA). In fish subjected to salinity challenges, NKA activity in osmoregulatory organs (e.g., gills) is a primary driving force for the many ion transport systems that act in concert to maintain a stable internal environment. Although teleostean FXYD proteins have been identified and investigated, previous studies focused on only a limited group of species. The purposes of the present study were to establish the brackish medaka (Oryzias dancena) as a potential saltwater fish model for osmoregulatory studies and to investigate the diversity of teleostean FXYD expression profiles by comparing two closely related euryhaline model teleosts, brackish medaka and Japanese medaka (O. latipes), upon exposure to salinity changes. Seven members of the FXYD protein family were identified in each medaka species, and the expression of most branchial fxyd genes was salinity-dependent. Among the cloned genes, fxyd11 was expressed specifically in the gills and at a significantly higher level than the other fxyd genes. In the brackish medaka, branchial fxyd11 expression was localized to the NKA-immunoreactive cells in gill epithelia. Furthermore, the FXYD11 protein interacted with the NKA α-subunit and was expressed at a higher level in freshwater-acclimated individuals relative to fish in other salinity groups. The protein sequences and tissue distributions of the FXYD proteins were very similar between the two medaka species, but different expression profiles were observed upon salinity challenge for most branchial fxyd genes. Salinity changes produced different effects on the FXYD11 and NKA α-subunit expression patterns in the gills of the brackish medaka. To our knowledge, this report is the first to focus on FXYD expression in the gills of closely related euryhaline teleosts. Given the advantages conferred by the well-developed Japanese medaka system, we propose the brackish medaka as a saltwater fish model for

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Anaerobic Bacterial Communities Associated with Roots of Submerged Macrophytes Growing in Marine or Brackish Water Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment microbial communities are important for seagrass growth and carbon cycling, however relatively few studies have addressed the composition of prokaryotic communities in seagrass bed sediments. Selective media were used enumerate culturable anaerobic bacteria associated ...

  4. Flexible 3D Nanoporous Graphene for Desalination and Bio-decontamination of Brackish Water via Asymmetric Capacitive Deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Deen, Ahmed G.; Boom, Remko M.; Kim, Hak Yong; Duan, Hongwei; Chan-Park, Mary B.; Choi, Jae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous graphene based materials are a promising nanostructured carbon for energy storage and electrosorption applications. We present a novel and facile strategy for fabrication of asymmetrically functionalized microporous activated graphene electrodes for high performance capacitive

  5. Novel in situ multiharmonic EQCM-D approach to characterize complex carbon pore architectures for capacitive deionization of brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpigel, Netanel; Levi, Mikhael D; Sigalov, Sergey; Aurbach, Doron; Daikhin, Leonid; Presser, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Multiharmonic analysis by electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (EQCM-D) is introduced as an excellent tool for quantitative studying electrosorption of ions from aqueous solution in mesoporous (BP-880) or mixed micro-mesoporous (BP-2000) carbon electrodes. Finding the optimal conditions for gravimetric analysis of the ionic content in the charged carbon electrodes, we propose a novel approach to modeling the charge-dependent gravimetric characteristics by incorporation of Gouy-Chapman-Stern electric double layer model for ions electrosorption into meso- and micro-mesoporous carbon electrodes. All three parameters of the gravimetric equation evaluated by fitting it to the experimental mass changes curves were validated using supplementary nitrogen gas sorption analysis and complementing atomic force microscopy. Important overlap between gravimetric EQCM-D analysis of the ionic content of porous carbon electrodes and the classical capacitive deionization models has been established. The necessity and usefulness of non-gravimetric EQCM-D characterizations of complex carbon architectures, providing insight into their unique viscoelastic behavior and porous structure changes, have been discussed in detail. (paper)

  6. MD210 Note: Creation of Hollow Bunches in the PSB

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Findlay, Alan James; Hancock, Steven; Rumolo, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD210 aims for the creation of longitudinally hollow bunches in the CERN PS Booster. The first three sessions have been carried out using the radial loop feedback system in order to drive the beam on a dipolar parametric resonance (instead of the phase loop). It has been found that the damping by the phase loop inhibits the excitation of the resonance to a major extent. The hollow distributions generated under these circumstances fail to reach a satisfying bunching factor. Nonetheless, proving the principally successful application of this technique to the PS Booster promises good results once the phase loop system supports trim functions. The approach, actions and detailed results of the first three MD sessions are presented in this paper.

  7. Postgraduate research training: the PhD and MD thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, I; Corner, J

    1996-04-01

    Higher research degrees, such as the PhD, MPhil and MD, have existed within universities for 80 years or more, although the differences between the MD and PhD remain confused. A higher research degree training provides individuals with greater research knowledge and skills, and benefits the specialty. Concern exists about the levels of supervision sometimes provided, failure to complete degrees, and the variable levels of research knowledge and skills attained. We propose that higher research degrees in palliative care have four functions: extending personal scholarship, generating knowledge, training for the individual and contributing to the growth of the specialty. Such an approach may include: a formalised first year with taught components such as in research MSc programmes, formal supervision and progress assessment. In palliative care, clinical and academic approaches need greater integration. Multiprofessional learning is essential. To allow individuals to undertake higher research degree programmes, fellowships or specific funding are needed.

  8. Towards automatic coupling corrections with DOROS BPMs (MD750)

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Langner, Andy Sven; Lefevre, Thibaut; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Malina, Lukas; Olexa, Jakub; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    BPMs close to IP1 and IP5 have been equipped with the new DOROS (Diode ORbit OScillation) system which provides precise orbit and turn-by-turn data [1]. In this MD-note we report on the rst measurements with the DOROS system to measure the transverse coupling. Furthermore, we compare the results and the performance of the system to the normal BPMs.

  9. MD 349: Impedance Localization with AC-dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Biancacci, Nicolo; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Papotti, Giulia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this MD is to measure the distribution of the transverse impedance of the LHC by observing the phase advance variation with intensity between the machine BPMs. Four injected bunches with different intensities are excited with an AC dipole and the turn by turn data is acquired from the BPM system. Through post-processing analysis the phase variation along the machine is depicted and, from this information, first conclusions of the impedance distribution can be drawn.

  10. MD 1691: Active halo control using tune ripple at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Fitterer, Miriam; Fiascaris, Maria; Nisbet, David; Thiesen, Hugues; Valentino, Gianluca; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In this MD we performed halo excitation through tune ripple. This consists in an excitation that introduces new resonance sidebands around the existing resonance lines. In presence of sufficient detuning with amplitude, these sidebands can in principle affect only the dynamics of the halo particles at large amplitudes. Tune ripple was induced through a current modulation of the warm trim quadrupoles in IR7. This is the first time this method is experimentally tested at the LHC.

  11. Review of 40-year MD theses in Medical Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeneldin, A.; Diyaa, A.; Elgammal, M.; Buhoush, W.; Manar Moneer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: It is almost 40 years since the foundation of the Medical Oncology (MO) Department. We aimed to appraise the clinical research to fulfill the Medical Doctorate (MD) degree in MO at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University (NCI, CU). Methods: This review included 62 MD theses containing 66 studies. They were reviewed regarding aims, type of study, clinical trial phase, design and methodology, statistical tests, results, limitations, consent and IRB approval. Theses were grouped into 3 periods: 1970-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000- 2008. Results: Almost 76% of the studies were interventional and 24% were observational. Informed consent and Institutional Review Board approval were mentioned in 18 and 2 studies, respectively. While all studies mentioned the aims, none, clearly mentioned the research question. Outcomes were mainly efficacy followed by safety. Study design was inadequately considered, especially in 70’s–80’s period (p = 0.038). Median sample size and study duration were almost stable through the three periods (p = 0.441, 0.354, respectively). Most of the studies used both descriptive and analytical statistical methods. In a descending order, researched cancers were lymphoma, breast, leukemia, liver, urinary bladder, lung and colorectal. The commonest stages researched were IV and III. The number of studies focused on assessing biomarkers, biomarkers plus drugs/procedures, drugs and procedures are 20, 20, 16 and 6, respectively. Conclusion: With time, research within MD theses in MO increased quantitatively and qualitatively. Improvements were noticeable in documentation of study design.

  12. MD Anderson's Population Health Approaches to Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxhall, Lewis; Moreno, Mark; Hawk, Ernest

    2018-02-01

    Texas's size and unique population demographics present challenges to addressing the state's cancer burden. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is one of 69 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers across the United States. While these centers traditionally have focused on research, education and training, and providing research-driven patient care, they are in a unique position to collaboratively advance population health through cancer control. Unlike the traditional academic model of a three-legged stool representing research, education, and patient care, MD Anderson's mission includes a fourth leg that incorporates population health approaches. MD Anderson has leveraged state- and national-level data and freely available resources to develop population-health priorities and a set of evidence-based actions across policy, public and professional education, and community-based clinical service domains to address these priorities. Population health approaches complement dissemination and implementation research and treatment, and will be increasingly needed to address the growing cancer burden in Texas and the nation.

  13. MD2036: UFO Dynamics Studies and UFO Fast Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger, Philippe; Valette, Matthieu; Lindstrom, Bjorn Hans Filip; Grob, Laura Katharina; Schmidt, Rudiger; Wollmann, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    UFOs are one of the remaining unknown related to LHC operation. Therefore, improving the understanding of UFO dynamics and validating the developed models against direct beam measurements is of fundamental importance in view of LHC operation at 7 TeV and with HL-LHC beam intensities. If not understood, UFOs could also be a showstopper for future machines such as FCC. This MD demonstrates new methods to study the dynamic behaviour of a calibrated UFO, simulated by the interaction of wire scanners with the beam. The events created during the MD were monitored using diamond BLMs in IR7, providing bunch-by-bunch resolution measurements. The analysis presented herein shows that blown-up bunches can be used to identify the plane of movement of UFOs, that bunch profiles and bunch sizes can be measured with dBLMs with good precision, that simulation of expected losses are in good agreement with measurements for oscillating bunches and that the space resolution of the acquisition system used during the MD is about 10 ...

  14. The hydration enthalpies of Md3+ and Lr3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruechle, W.; Schaedel, M.; Scherer, U.W.; Kratz, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Lawrencium (3-min 260 Lr) and lighter actinides were produced in the bombardement of a 249 Bk target with 18 O ions and loaded onto a cation exchange column in 0.05 M α-hydroxy-isobutyrate solution at pH = 4.85 together with the radioactive lanthanide tracers 166 Ho, 171 Er, and 171 Tm. In elutions with 0.12 M α-hydroxy-isobutyrate solution (pH = 4.85) trivalent Lr was eluted exactly together with the Er tracer and Md close to Ho. Lr elutes much later than expected based on the known elution positions of the lighter actinides and the expected analogy to the elution positions of the homologous lanthanides. From the measured elution positions, ionic radii were calculated for Lr 3+ and Md 3+ . Semiempirical models allow the calculation of the heat of hydration from the ionic radii, resulting in ΔH hyd ≅ - 3654 kJ/mol for Md 3+ and ΔH hyd ≅ - 3689 kJ/mol for Lr 3+ . (orig.)

  15. MD study of pyrimidine base damage on DNA and its recognition by repair enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, M.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used on the study of two specific damages of pyrimidine bases of DNA. Pyrimidine bases are major targets either of free radicals induced by ionizing radiation in DNA surrounding environment or UV radiation. Thymine dimer (TD) is UV induced damage, in which two neighboring thymines in one strand are joined by covalent bonds of C(5)-C(5) and C(6)-C(6) atoms of thymines. Thymine glycol (TG) is ionizing radiation induced damage in which the free water radical adds to unsaturated bond C(5)-C(6) of thymine. Both damages are experimentally suggested to be mutagenetic and carcinogenic unless properly repaired by repair enzymes. In the case of MD of TD, there is detected strong kink around the TD site that is not observed in native DNA. In addition there is observed the different value of electrostatic energy at the TD site - negative '-10 kcal/mol', in contrary to nearly neutral value of native thymine site. Structural changes and specific electrostatic energy - seems to be important for proper recognition of TD damaged site, formation of DNA-enzyme complex and thus for subsequent repair of DNA. In the case of TG damaged DNA there is major structural distortion at the TG site, mainly the increased distance between TG and the C5' of adjacent nucleotide. This enlarged gap between the neighboring nucleotides may prevent the insertion of complementary base during replication causing the replication process to stop. In which extend this structural feature together with energy properties of TG contributes to the proper recognition of TG by repair enzyme Endonuclease III is subject of further computational MD study. (author)

  16. Multi-Device to Multi-Device (MD2MD Content-Centric Networking Based on Multi-RAT Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolhoon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method whereby a device can transmit and receive information using a beacon, and also describes application scenarios for the proposed method. In a multi-device to multi-device (MD2MD content-centric networking (CCN environment, the main issue involves searching for and connecting to nearby devices. However, if a device can’t find another device that satisfies its requirements, the connection is delayed due to the repetition of processes. It is possible to rapidly connect to a device without repetition through the selection of the optimal device using the proposed method. Consequently, the proposed method and scenarios are advantageous in that they enable efficient content identification and delivery in a content-centric Internet of Things (IoT environment, in which multiple mobile devices coexist.

  17. Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 produces hypoacetylated PEFA compounds with increased surface activity compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Leif, Roald; Mulcahy, Heather; Dugan, Lawrence; Souza, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants have several desirable characteristics in the industrial sector: detergency, antimicrobial effects, skin hydration, and emulsibility. Several yeast glycolipids are currently being utilized in these capacities: sophorolipids, ustilagic acid, and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs). An emerging class of glycolipids, termed polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), have recently been reported for Rhodotorula babjevae, a basidiomycetous yeast species that secretes hyperacetylated congeners of PEFA (typically with 3–6 acetylation modifications). While screening Rhodotorula species for surfactant production, we identified a new environmental isolate identified as Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 that dropped the surface tension of the liquid medium, indicating that it produced a potent biosurfactant. Acid depolymerization of the purified biosurfactants, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the biosurfactants were composed of PEFA compounds composed mainly of mannitol and arabitol esters of 3-hydroxy fatty acid, 3-methoxy fatty acid, and fatty acids with a single double bond; chain lengths were mainly C16 and C18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the predicted accurate mass of these compounds. Interestingly, PEFA compounds produced by Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 were more surface active due to their hypoacetylation profile (0–4 acetylation modifications) compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169. These disparate surface active properties, based on acetylation, change the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of these compounds, and their potential utility within industrial applications. PMID:29293588

  18. Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 produces hypoacetylated PEFA compounds with increased surface activity compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Mathew; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Leif, Roald; Mulcahy, Heather; Dugan, Lawrence; Souza, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants have several desirable characteristics in the industrial sector: detergency, antimicrobial effects, skin hydration, and emulsibility. Several yeast glycolipids are currently being utilized in these capacities: sophorolipids, ustilagic acid, and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs). An emerging class of glycolipids, termed polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), have recently been reported for Rhodotorula babjevae, a basidiomycetous yeast species that secretes hyperacetylated congeners of PEFA (typically with 3-6 acetylation modifications). While screening Rhodotorula species for surfactant production, we identified a new environmental isolate identified as Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 that dropped the surface tension of the liquid medium, indicating that it produced a potent biosurfactant. Acid depolymerization of the purified biosurfactants, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the biosurfactants were composed of PEFA compounds composed mainly of mannitol and arabitol esters of 3-hydroxy fatty acid, 3-methoxy fatty acid, and fatty acids with a single double bond; chain lengths were mainly C16 and C18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the predicted accurate mass of these compounds. Interestingly, PEFA compounds produced by Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 were more surface active due to their hypoacetylation profile (0-4 acetylation modifications) compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169. These disparate surface active properties, based on acetylation, change the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of these compounds, and their potential utility within industrial applications.

  19. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Interannual variability in CO2 and CH4 exchange in a brackish tidal marsh in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S. H.; Windham-Myers, L.; Anderson, F. E.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon (C) cycling in coastal wetlands is difficult to measure and model due to extremely dynamic atmospheric and hydrologic fluxes, as well as sensitivities to dynamic land- and ocean-based drivers. To date, few studies have begun continuous measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in these systems, and as such our understanding of the key drivers of NEE in coastal wetlands remain poorly understood. Recent eddy covariance measurements of NEE in these environments show considerable variability both within and across sites, with daily CO2 uptake and annual net CO2 budgets varying by nearly an order of magnitude between years and across locations. Furthermore, measurements of CH4 fluxes in these systems are even more limited, despite the potential for CH4 emissions from brackish and freshwater coastal wetlands. Here we present 3 years of near-continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from a brackish tidal marsh in Northern California and explore the drivers of interannual variability in CO2 and CH4 exchange. CO2 fluxes showed significant interannual variability; net CO2 uptake was near-zero in 2014 (6 ± 26 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1), while much greater uptake was observed in 2015 and 2016 (209 ± 27 g C- CO2 m-2 yr-1 and 243 ± 26 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1, respectively). Conversely, annual CH4 emissions were small and consistent across years, with the wetland emitting on average 1 ± 0.1 g C-CH4 m-2 yr-1. With respect to the net atmospheric GHG budget (assuming a sustained global warming potential (SGWP) of 45, expressed in units of CO2 equivalents), the wetland was near neutral in 2014, but a net GHG sink of 706 ± 105 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 and 836 ± 83 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The large interannual variability in CO2 exchange was driven by notable year-to-year differences in temperature and precipitation as California experienced a severe drought and record high temperatures from 2012 to 2015. The large interannual variability in

  1. 76 FR 5686 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Pocomoke City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Pocomoke City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... River, mile 15.6, at Pocomoke City, MD. The deviation restricts the operation of the draw span to.... The Route 675 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 15.6 at Pocomoke City MD, has a vertical clearance in...

  2. 75 FR 49992 - Peter W.S. Grigg, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Peter W.S. Grigg, M.D.; Revocation of... Order to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Peter W.S. Grigg, M.D. (Respondent), of... Registration, BG2107856, issued to Peter W.S. Grigg, M.D., be, and it hereby is, revoked. This Order is...

  3. 77 FR 7182 - Scott W. Houghton, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 12-09] Scott W. Houghton, M.D... CFR 0.100(b), I order that DEA Certificate of Registration BH8796077, issued to Scott W. Houghton, M.D., be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Scott W. Houghton, M.D...

  4. 76 FR 48898 - Robert Leigh Kale, M.D., Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Robert Leigh Kale, M.D., Decision and Order... Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to Robert Leigh Kale, M.D. (Registrant), of Fort... Certificate of Registration, BK9514375, issued to Robert Leigh Kale, M.D., be, and it hereby is, revoked. I...

  5. 76 FR 20032 - Thomas E. Mitchell, M.D.; Dismissal of Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 10-7] Thomas E. Mitchell, M.D... Control, Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to Thomas E. Mitchell, M.D....100(b) and 0.104, I hereby order that the Order to Show Cause issued to Thomas E. Mitchell, M.D., be...

  6. Dynamics of biopolymers on nanomaterials studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and MD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Gurpreet K.

    Neutron scattering has been proved to be a powerful tool to study the dynamics of biological systems under various conditions. This thesis intends to utilize neutron scattering techniques, combining with MD simulations, to develop fundamental understanding of several biologically interesting systems. Our systems include a drug delivery system containing Nanodiamonds with nucleic acid (RNA), and two specific model proteins, beta-Casein and Inorganic Pyrophosphatase (IPPase). RNA and nanodiamond (ND) both are suitable for drug-delivery applications in nano-biotechnology. The architecturally flexible RNA with catalytic functionality forms nanocomposites that can treat life-threatening diseases. The non-toxic ND has excellent mechanical and optical properties and functionalizable high surface area, and thus actively considered for biomedical applications. In this thesis, we utilized two tools, quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations to probe the effect of ND on RNA dynamics. Our work provides fundamental understanding of how hydrated RNA motions are affected in the RNA-ND nanocomposites. From the experimental and Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MD), we found that hydrated RNA motion is faster on ND surface than a freestanding one. MD Simulation results showed that the failure of Stokes Einstein relation results the presence of dynamic heterogeneities in the biomacromolecules. Radial pair distribution function from MD Simulation confirmed that the hydrophilic nature of ND attracts more water than RNA results the de-confinement of RNA on ND. Therefore, RNA exhibits faster motion in the presence of ND than freestanding RNA. In the second project, we studied the dynamics of a natively disordered protein beta-Casein which lacks secondary structures. In this study, the temperature and hydration effects on the dynamics of beta-Casein are explored by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering (QENS). We investigated the mean square displacement (MSD) of

  7. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  8. A bubble column evaporator with basic flat-plate condenser for brackish and seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Mario; Ho, Goen; Anda, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and experimental evaluation of a novel bubble column-based humidification-dehumidification system, for small-scale desalination of saline groundwater or seawater in remote regions. A bubble evaporator prototype was built and matched with a simple flat-plate type condenser for concept assessment. Consistent bubble evaporation rates of between 80 and 88 ml per hour were demonstrated. Particular focus was on the performance of the simple condenser prototype, manufactured from rectangular polyvinylchlorid plastic pipe and copper sheet, a material with a high thermal conductivity that quickly allows for conduction of the heat energy. Under laboratory conditions, a long narrow condenser model of 1500 mm length and 100 mm width achieved condensate recovery rates of around 73%, without the need for external cooling. The condenser prototype was assessed under a range of different physical conditions, that is, external water cooling, partial insulation and aspects of air circulation, via implementing an internal honeycomb screen structure. Estimated by extrapolation, an up-scaled bubble desalination system with a 1 m2 condenser may produce around 19 l of distilled water per day. Sodium chloride salt removal was found to be highly effective with condensate salt concentrations between 70 and 135 µS. Based on findings and with the intent to reduce material cost of the system, a shorter condenser length of 750 mm for the non-cooled (passive) condenser and of 500 mm for the water-cooled condenser was considered to be equally efficient as the experimentally evaluated prototype of 1500 mm length.

  9. Epiphytic algae and fauna associated with the roots of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and chemical environments showed monthly variations linked with rainfall distribution and (brackish) water inflow from the adjoining Epe lagoon. A total of 42 organisms were identified. Thirty-three attached algal taxa and nine faunal forms especially zooplankton. The highest percentage diversity belonged to ...

  10. StandsSIM-MD: a Management Driven forest SIMulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Rua, J.; Tomé, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The existing stand level forest simulators available in Portugal were not developed with the aim of including up-to-date model versions and were limited in terms of accounting for forest management. The simulators’ platform, sIMfLOR was recently created to implement different growth models with a common philosophy. The objective was developing one easily-updatable, user-friendly, forest management and climate change sensitive simulator capable of projecting growth for the main tree species in Portugal. Area of the study: Portugal. Material and methods: The new simulator was programmed in a modular form consisting of several modules. The growth module integrates different forest growth and yield models (empirical and process-based) for the main wood production tree species in Portugal (eucalypt, umbrella and maritime pines); whereas the management module drives the growth projections along the planning horizon according to a range of forest management approaches and climate (at present only available for eucalypt). Main results: The main result is the StandsSIM-MD Management Driven simulator that overcomes the limitations of the existing stand level simulators. It is a step forward when compared to the models currently available in the sIMfLOR platform covering more tree species, stand structures and stand compositions. It is focused on end-users and it is based on similar concepts regarding the generation of required inputs and generated outputs. Research highlights: Forest Management Driven simulations approach. Multiple Prescriptions-Per-Stand functionality. StandsSIM-MD can be used to support landowners decisions on stand forest management. StandsSIM-MD simulations at regional level can be combined with optimization routines. (Author)

  11. Review of 40-year MD theses in medical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed; Diyaa, Amira; Moneer, Manar; Elgammal, Mosaad; Buhoush, Wafa

    2014-09-01

    It is almost 40 years since the foundation of the Medical Oncology (MO) Department. We aimed to appraise the clinical research to fulfill the Medical Doctorate (MD) degree in MO at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University (NCI, CU). This review included 62 MD theses containing 66 studies. They were reviewed regarding aims, type of study, clinical trial phase, design and methodology, statistical tests, results, limitations, consent and IRB approval. Theses were grouped into 3 periods: 1970-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2008. Almost 76% of the studies were interventional and 24% were observational. Informed consent and Institutional Review Board approval were mentioned in 18 and 2 studies, respectively. While all studies mentioned the aims, none, clearly mentioned the research question. Outcomes were mainly efficacy followed by safety. Study design was inadequately considered, especially in 70's-80's period (p=0.038). Median sample size and study duration were almost stable through the three periods (p=0.441, 0.354, respectively). Most of the studies used both descriptive and analytical statistical methods. In a descending order, researched cancers were lymphoma, breast, leukemia, liver, urinary bladder, lung and colorectal. The commonest stages researched were IV and III. The number of studies focused on assessing biomarkers, biomarkers plus drugs/procedures, drugs and procedures are 20, 20, 16 and 6, respectively. With time, research within MD theses in MO increased quantitatively and qualitatively. Improvements were noticeable in documentation of study design. Copyright © 2014. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Obtaining drinking water using solar electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Silveira Jucá

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the main worldwide experiments in PV powered electrodialysis plants and analyses possible applications of such systems in the Brazilian Northeast region. The use of PV arrays to power electrodialysis plants for desalination of brackish water from deep wells makes sense in arid and semiarid regions. In such areas there is often an inadequate water and energy supply infrastructure along with favorable levels of solar radiation for electric generation, as is the case of the Brazilian Northeast region.

  13. A molecular dynamics (MD simulation on tire-aggregate friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The friction between tire and road surface is fundamentally depending on the molecular forces. In this paper, the nanoscale 3D contact model is employed to investigate the tire-aggregate friction mechanism. The tire and aggregate micro-structure are both constructed to evaluate the microscopic performance of tire-aggregate friction influence. Simulation results show for a high velocity, the energy dissipation of sliding on crystal structure is small, which results in a small friction coefficient; temperature will have influences on the friction coefficient, and with the increasing of velocity, the effect will gradually reduce. Keywords: Tire, Aggregate, Friction coefficient, Microscopic mechanism, MD simulation

  14. StandsSIM-MD: a Management Driven forest SIMulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Barreiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The existing stand level forest simulators available in Portugal were not developed with the aim of including up-to-date model versions and were limited in terms of accounting for forest management. The simulators’ platform, sIMfLOR was recently created to implement different growth models with a common philosophy. The objective was developing one easily-updatable, user-friendly, forest management and climate change sensitive simulator capable of projecting growth for the main tree species in Portugal. Area of the study: Portugal. Material and methods: The new simulator was programmed in a modular form consisting of several modules. The growth module integrates different forest growth and yield models (empirical and process-based for the main wood production tree species in Portugal (eucalypt, umbrella and maritime pines; whereas the management module drives the growth projections along the planning horizon according to a range of forest management approaches and climate (at present only available for eucalypt. Main results: The main result is the StandsSIM-MD Management Driven simulator that overcomes the limitations of the existing stand level simulators. It is a step forward when compared to the models currently available in the sIMfLOR platform covering more tree species, stand structures and stand compositions. It is focused on end-users and it is based on similar concepts regarding the generation of required inputs and generated outputs. Research highlights: -          Forest Management Driven simulations approach -          Multiple Prescriptions-Per-Stand functionality -          StandsSIM-MD can be used to support landowners decisions on stand forest management -          StandsSIM-MD simulations at regional level can be combined with optimization routines Keywords: Forest simulator, Forest Management Approaches; StandsSIM-MD; forest management.

  15. Radioprotective and radiotherapeutic properties of biotechnological agent MD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol, C.V.; Komar, V.E.; Sobol, Y.T.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years as the result of nuclear testing and accidents at nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl, etc. radiation exposure has become a major issue in various parts of the world. Experience of recent nuclear accidents has shown there is no effective treatment for patients expose to doses of radiation that result in fatal hematopoietic failure and /or secondary infections. Therefore, agents that are effective when administered after irradiation, are of great interest. In this study, the possibility of using biotechnological agent MD2 after lethal total body irradiation (TBI) and radiotherapy has been demonstrated. In addition, the considerable radioprotection without toxic effect can be obtained. (author)

  16. Brackish marsh zones as a waterfowl habitat resource in submerged aquatic vegetation beds in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Kristin; Hillmann, Eva R.; Brasher, Michael G.; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds are shallow coastal habitats that are increasingly exposed to the effects of sea-level rise (SLR). In the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM), an area especially vulnerable to SLR, the abundance and distribution of SAV food resources (seeds, rhizomes, and tissue) can influence the carrying capacity of coastal marshes to support wintering waterfowl. Despite the known importance of SAV little is known about their distribution across coastal landscapes and salinity zones or how they may be impacted by SLR. We estimated SAV cover and seed biomass in coastal marshes from Texas to Alabama from 1 June – 15 September 2013 to assess variation in SAV and seed resource distribution and abundance across the salinity gradient. Percent cover of SAV was similar among salinity zones (10%–20%) although patterns of distribution differed. Specifically, SAV occurred less frequently in saline zones, but when present the percent coverage was greater than in fresh, intermediate and brackish. Mean seed biomass varied greatly and did not differ significantly among salinity zones. However, when considering only seed species identified as waterfowl foods, the mean seed biomass was lower in saline zones (1.2 g m–2). Alteration of nGoM marshes due to SLR will likely shift the distribution and abundance of SAV resources, and these shifts may affect carrying capacity of coastal marshes for waterfowl and other associated species.

  17. Ecosystem level methane fluxes from tidal freshwater and brackish marshes of the Mississippi River Delta: Implications for coastal wetland carbon projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Johnson, Darren J.; Raynie, Richard C.; Killebrew, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate from seawater inhibits methane production in tidal wetlands, and by extension, salinity has been used as a general predictor of methane emissions. With the need to reduce methane flux uncertainties from tidal wetlands, eddy covariance (EC) techniques provide an integrated methane budget. The goals of this study were to: 1) establish methane emissions from natural, freshwater and brackish wetlands in Louisiana based on EC; and 2) determine if EC estimates conform to a methane-salinity relationship derived from temperate tidal wetlands with chamber sampling. Annual estimates of methane emissions from this study were 62.3 g CH4/m2/yr and 13.8 g CH4/m2/yr for the freshwater and brackish (8–10 psu) sites, respectively. If it is assumed that long-term, annual soil carbon sequestration rates of natural marshes are ~200 g C/m2/yr (7.3 tCO2e/ha/yr), healthy brackish marshes could be expected to act as a net radiative sink, equivalent to less than one-half the soil carbon accumulation rate after subtracting methane emissions (4.1 tCO2e/ha/yr). Carbon sequestration rates would need case-by-case assessment, but the EC methane emissions estimates in this study conformed well to an existing salinity-methane model that should serve as a basis for establishing emission factors for wetland carbon offset projects.

  18. Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Zhao, R.; Wal, van der A.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon electrodes have significant potential for energy-efficient water desalination using a promising technology called Capacitive Deionization (CDI). In CDI, salt ions are removed from brackish water upon applying an electrical voltage difference between two porous electrodes, in which the

  19. Full-Scale Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale crash test was successfully conducted in March 2010 of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley Research Center s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The reasons for conducting this test were threefold: 1 To generate data to be used with finite element computer modeling efforts, 2 To study the crashworthiness features typically associated with a small representative helicopter, and 3 To compare aircraft response to data collected from a previously conducted MD-500 crash test, which included an externally deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept. Instrumentation on the airframe included accelerometers on various structural components of the airframe; and strain gages on keel beams, skid gear and portions of the skin. Three Anthropomorphic Test Devices and a specialized Human Surrogate Torso Model were also onboard to collect occupant loads for evaluation with common injury risk criteria. This paper presents background and results from this crash test conducted without the DEA concept. These results showed accelerations of approximately 30 to 50 g on the airframe at various locations, little energy attenuation through the airframe, and moderate to high probability of occupant injury for a variety of injury criteria.

  20. MD1878: Operation with primary collimators at tighter settings

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078850; Amorim, David; Biancacci, Nicolo; Bruce, Roderik; Buffat, Xavier; Carver, Lee Robert; Fiascaris, Maria; Mereghetti, Alessio; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Roberto; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Soderen, Martin; Trad, Georges; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Primary (TCP) collimators of the betatron cleaning insertion determine the betatron cut of the LHC beam. During the 2016 they were set at 5.5 nominal beam sigmas at 6.5 TeV (i.e. by using a normalized emittance ε* = 3:5 μm is used). Reducing their settings is a possible way to push the ß* at the LHC, which depends on the collimation hierarchy. This study aims at understanding possible limitations of operating the LHC with tighter settings of the primary collimators. This is a crucial input to the choice of operational configuration in terms of ß* at the LHC as well as at the HL-LHC. This study follows a successful MD done in block 3 to understand limitations from TCP impedance [1]. The outcome of this MD can also have an impact for the design of the FCC collimation system, which is currently based on the present TCP gaps. Studies of beam stability as a function of octupole current, transverse feedback gain (ADT) and transverse separation at the IPs were also carried out.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2014-07-01

    Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 μg L(-1)), barium (157.5 μg L(-1)), chromium (84.7 μg L(-1)), mercury (45.5 μg L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 μg L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies

  2. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  3. Transport and characterization of ambient biological aerosol near Laurel, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, J. L.; Cunningham, D.; Gilberry, J.; Kim, S.; Smith, E. E.; Ratnesar-Shumate, S.; Quizon, J.

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial aerosol have been observed and studied in the ambient environment since the mid nineteenth century. These studies have sought to provide a better understanding of the diversity, variability and factors that control the biological aerosol population. In this study, we show comparisons between diversity of culturable bacteria and fungi, using culture and clinical biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA diversity using Affymetrix PhyloChips. Comparing the culturable fraction and surveying the total 16S rRNA of each sample provides a comprehensive look at the bacterial population studied and allows comparison with previous studies. Thirty-six hour back-trajectories of the air parcels sampled, over the two day period beginning 4 November 2008, provide information on the sources of aerosol sampled on the campus of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD. This study indicates that back-trajectory modeling of air parcels may provide insights into the observed diversity of biological aerosol.

  4. A workshop on leadership for MD/PhD students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Cannon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Success in academic medicine requires scientific and clinical aptitude and the ability to lead a team effectively. Although combined MD/PhD training programs invest considerably in the former, they often do not provide structured educational opportunities in leadership, especially as applied to investigative medicine. To fill a critical knowledge gap in physician-scientist training, the Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP developed a biennial two-day workshop in investigative leadership. MSTP students worked in partnership with content experts to develop a case-based curriculum and deliver the material. In its initial three offerings in 2006, 2008, and 2010, the workshop was judged by MSTP student attendees to be highly effective. The Vanderbilt MSTP Leadership Workshop offers a blueprint for collaborative student-faculty interactions in curriculum design and a new educational modality for physician-scientist training.

  5. Jules Stein, MD: Ophthalmologist, Entertainment Magnate, and Advocate for Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Bradley R; Weeks, David F

    2016-04-01

    To report the lifetime activities and accomplishments of Jules Stein, MD. Retrospective review. Assessment of published and unpublished biographical material. Jules Stein combined his love of music and medicine with organizational skills to achieve successive careers as a musician, an ophthalmologist, an entertainment magnate, and an advocate for vision. To preserve vision, he founded Research to Prevent Blindness, founded the Jules Stein Eye Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles, and led a multiyear campaign to establish the National Eye Institute. With successive careers and extraordinary achievements, Jules Stein created an enduring legacy of benefits to ophthalmology, vision research, and the prevention of blindness. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Medicinal Cannabis in California: An Interview with Igor Grant, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, Daniele; Grant, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Igor Grant, MD, is distinguished professor and chair of psychiatry and director of the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program and the Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Grant is a neuropsychiatrist who graduated from the University of British Columbia School of Medicine (1966), and received specialty training in psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania (1967-1971), and additional training in neurology at the Institute of Neurology (1980-1981), London, U.K. Dr. Grant's academic interests focus on the effects of various diseases on brain and behavior, with an emphasis on translational studies in HIV, and drugs of abuse. He has contributed to ∼700 scholarly publications and is principal investigator of several NIH studies, including an NIDA P50 (Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center-TMARC), and is codirector of the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC).

  7. LHC β*-reach MD: aperture measurements at small β*

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, Nuria; Redaelli, Stefano; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    During this MD, performed on the 25th of July 2017, we measured the LHC aperture at top energy for β*=30 cm using the Transverse Damper (ADT) blow-up method. These measurements are part of the standard commissioning of an optics and have been performed in order to provide early on inputs for a possible change of β* later in 2017, as envisaged previously to fully profit from the additional margins introduced by the rematched phase advance between dump kickers and the TCTs (Target Collimator Tertiary). In addition to the aperture measurements, two other commissioning important tests were performed: loss maps for the nominal TCTs settings and an asynchronous dump validation with tighter TCT gaps.

  8. Luminosity Anti-leveling with Crossing Angle (MD 1669)

    CERN Document Server

    Gorzawski, Arkadiusz; Ponce, Laurette; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the LHC luminosity ($\\sim$30\\% in 2016) is lost due to the presence (and necessity) of the crossing angles at the IPs. At the LHC the crossing angle is typically set to a value that provides sufficient separation of the beams at the start of fills for the peak bunch intensities. As the bunch intensity decays during a fill, it is possible to reduce the crossing angle and recover some luminosity. A smooth crossing angle reduction procedure must be developed to take advantage of this option during stable beam operation. During this MD a smooth procedure for luminosity leveling with crossing angle was tested. It was demonstrated that the orbit was well controlled, beam losses were low and the offset leveled experiments ALICE and LHCb were not affected by crossing angle leveling in ATLAS and CMS.

  9. Report from LHC MD 2158: IR-nonlinear studies

    CERN Document Server

    Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Dalena, Barbara; Dilly, Joschua Werner; Fol, Elena; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hofer, Michael; Malina, Lukas; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Wegscheider, Andreas; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    For the first time the LHC is running for luminosity-production with local corrections for nonlinear errors in the ATLAS and CMS insertions. While a major step forward in LHC optics commissioning strategy (and one which has yielded clear operational benefits) considerable challenges remain to be overcome, both in regard to the optimization of LHC optics and in order to ensure successful commissioning of the High-Luminosity LHC. MD 2158 sought to follow up several aspects of the 2017 nonlinear optics commissioning which are not yet understood, and by enhancing sextupole and dodecapole sources in the ATLAS and CMS insertions explore the prospects for linear and nonlinear optics commissioning in the HL-LHC.

  10. MD 979: Beta-beating measurements on colliding beams

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves Jorge, Patrik; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Carlier, Felix Simon; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Fol, Elena; Langner, Andy Sven; Medina Medrano, Luis Eduardo; Olexa, Jakub; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Valuch, Daniel; Wegscheider, Andreas; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The HL-LHC high brightness beams will give a large β-beating due to the head-on and long-range interactions since a beam-beam parameter of 0.01 per Interaction Point (IP) is expected. The β-heating induced by two head-on collision reaches 15%. A third IP, i.e. IP8, could bring the β-heating up to 24%. The aim of the Machine Development (MD) study was to test optics measurements with AC dipole and ADT on colliding beams at injection and to implement a correction of the β-heating due to to head-on collision in the two experiments IP1&5. Int his note, we summarize the first results of this test performed in the LHC.

  11. Leonard F. Peltier, MD, PhD, 1920-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckling, Frederick W; Lo Vecchio, Janolyn G; Reckling, JoAnn B

    2004-05-01

    Leonard F. Peltier, MD, PhD, was an orthopaedic surgeon, academician, administrator, laboratory investigator, historian, and mentor. His career spanned nearly six decades, beginning with graduate education at the University of Minnesota (UM) under the auspices of Owen H. Wangensteen, MD, PhD. In addition to obtaining a PhD in physiology in the UM Graduate School, he completed general and orthopaedic surgery residencies and attained board certification in each specialty. He served in the US Army Occupation Force Medical Corps in Germany just after World War II. In 1957, at 37 years old, he assumed the chairmanship of the orthopaedic training program at the University of Kansas. In 1971, he couldn't resist the opportunity to become one of the founding members of the "start-up" University of Arizona College of Medicine, accepting an appointment as chair of the new orthopaedic training program, where he remained until his retirement in 1990. He took clinical problems to the laboratory, and made important scientific contributions, particularly in the area of fat embolism and in using calcium sulfate (plaster of Paris) to fill bone defects. He served on governing boards of national professional organizations and presided over the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma from 1980-1981. Throughout his career, he was fascinated by, and published extensively in, the history of medicine arena. Known fondly as "the professor" to many of his residents and colleagues, he had a pragmatic, honest, upbeat, and often humorous approach to life's challenges, valuing personal integrity above other virtues. He explored various eclectic interests far beyond his professional contributions while maintaining his family as a central priority. With his exemplary productivity and interests in the surgical and laboratory sciences, history of medicine, appreciation of fine arts, and perceptive and effective interactions with family, friends, patients, and colleagues, the memory of Leonard

  12. Proteomics and SSH analyses of ALA-promoted fruit coloration and evidence for the involvement of a MADS-box gene, MdMADS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-freeseparation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related gene. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1, a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX and MdUFGT in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1-silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  13. Flashed-feed VMD configuration as a novel method for eliminating temperature polarization effect and enhancing water vapor flux

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Alpatova, Alla; Lee, Jung Gil; Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2018-01-01

    The coupling of heat and mass transfer in membrane distillation (MD) process makes enhancing water vapor flux and determining MD membrane mass transfer coefficient (MTC) fairly challenging due to the development of temperature gradient near

  14. Water quality in okara and its suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.; Imtiaz, N.; Athar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water samples (70), collected from Okara and its sburbs were studied. Thirty samples were collected from municipal supply of urban areas while forty from deep water pumps of non-urban areas. The samples were investigated for various physiochemical parameters. Outcome of the study is that ground water of municipal supply area is suitable for human consumption while the water quality of non supply area is slightly brackish to saline and nitrate content is high above the acceptable levels of drinking water quality. (author)

  15. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zemlick, Katie M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  16. Trends in MD/PhD Graduates Entering Psychiatry: Assessing the Physician-Scientist Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Melissa R; Luo, Sean X; Pincus, Harold Alan; Gordon, Joshua A; Chung, Joyce Y; Chavez, Mark; Oquendo, Maria A

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify trends in MD/PhD graduates entering psychiatry, to compare these trends with other specialties, and to review strategies for enhancing the physician-scientist pipeline. Data on 226,588 medical students graduating from Liaison Committee on Medical Education accredited programs between 1999 and 2012 (6626 MD/PhDs) were used to evaluate the number, percentage, and proportion of MD/PhDs entering psychiatry in comparison with other specialties (neurology, neurosurgery, internal medicine, family medicine, and radiation oncology). Linear regression and multiple linear regression determined whether these values increased over time and varied by sex. Over 14 years, an average of 18 MD/PhDs (range 13-29) enrolled in psychiatry each year. The number of MD/PhDs going into psychiatry significantly increased, although these gains were modest (less than one additional MD/PhD per year). The proportion of students entering psychiatry who were MD/PhDs varied between 2.9 and 5.9 per 100 residents, with no significant change over time. There was also no change in the percentage of MD/PhDs entering psychiatry from among all MD/PhD graduates. The rate of increase in the number of MD/PhDs going into psychiatry did not differ significantly from other specialties except for family medicine, which is decreasing. The rate of MD/PhDs going into psychiatry was higher for women, suggesting closure of the sex gap in 17 years. Despite the increase in the number of MD/PhDs entering psychiatry, these numbers remain low. Expanding the cohort of physician-scientists dedicated to translational research in psychiatry will require a multipronged approach.

  17. Analysis of MD5 authentication in various routing protocols using simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, M.; Darshan, K. N.; Patel, Harsh

    2017-11-01

    Authentication being an important paradigm of security and Computer Networks require secure paths to make the flow of the data even more secure through some security protocols. So MD-5(Message Digest 5) helps in providing data integrity to the data being sent through it and authentication to the network devices. This paper gives a brief introduction to the MD-5, simulation of the networks by including MD-5 authentication using various routing protocols like OSPF, EIGRP and RIPv2. GNS3 is being used to simulate the scenarios. Analysis of the MD-5 authentication is done in the later sections of the paper.

  18. Cultivo hidropônico de alface com água salobra subterrânea e rejeito da dessalinização em Ibimirim, PE Hydroponic lettuce production with brackish groundwater and desalination waste in Ibimirim, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Ibimirim, em Pernambuco, está localizado no Semiárido e muitos de seus poços fornecem águas salobras, cujo uso tem sido evitado, em virtude de ensejar doenças humanas (como hipertensão e cálculos renais e a redução da produtividade agrícola (com depreciação do solo. Propôs-se, no trabalho, avaliar o aproveitamento da água salobra subterrânea e do rejeito da sua dessalinização no cultivo hidropônico de duas variedades de alface (Vera e AF-1743. Avaliaram-se seis níveis de salinidade da água (CEa: 0.2; 1.2; 2.2; 3.2; 4.2 e 5.2 dS m-1. As águas foram usadas em todo o processo produtivo (preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição do consumo hídrico. O aumento da salinidade levou à redução linear do crescimento das plantas de alface. As plantas apresentaram clorose generalizada no início do ciclo mas este sintoma não foi detectado na colheita. A variedade 'Vera' teve menor crescimento e rendimento absoluto que a 'AF-1743'. Por outro lado, para ambas as variedades a redução percentual em função da salinidade foi equivalente: o acúmulo de massa fresca da parte aérea foi reduzido à razão de 17,06 e 15,74% (dS m-1-1 para 'Vera' e 'AF-1743', respectivamente.Ibimirim in Pernambuco is a municipal district located in the Brazilian semiarid region and most of its wells produce brackish water. The use of this water has been avoided since it may cause human diseases (such as hypertension and kidney stones and crop yield reduction (with soil degradation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of brackish groundwater and the waste from its desalination for hydroponic production of two lettuce varieties (Vera and AF-1743. Six levels of water salinity (CEa: 0.2, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 dS m-1 were analyzed. The waters were used in overall production process (to prepare the nutrient solution and to restore the water consumed. The salinity increase caused a linear reduction in the growth

  19. What's new in management discussion and analysis (MD and A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosure obligations under the management and discussion analysis (MD and A) with respect to uncertainties regarding the millennium bug were discussed from a legal perspective. The year 2000 problem stems from the use of only two digits to represent the year in the date field throughout most computer programs, rendering computers unable to differentiate between the year 1900 and the year 2000. Companies should be aware that specific requirements have been imposed by securities regulators in Canada and the United States over and above the general continuous disclosure requirements. These new requirements are designed to assist companies to minimize their liability, and at the same time to motivate them to make progress in their Y2K efforts. Details of CSA Staff Notice 41-301 and 51-302 entitled 'The year 2000 challenge - Disclosure issues' and similar U.S. Securities and Stock Exchange requirements are reviewed. Specific examples of Y2K disclosure issues in the Canadian petroleum industry are described. 23 refs

  20. MD-11 PCA - View of aircraft on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is taxiing to a position on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple. For pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  1. MD-11 PCA - Closeup view of aircraft on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 has taxied to a position on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple. For pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  2. MD#1182: Calibration of diamond particle detectors in IP6

    CERN Document Server

    Valette, Matthieu; Lindstrom, Bjorn Hans Filip; Wiesner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In case of an asynchronous beam dump with a fully filled LHC machine it is expected that all standard ionisation chamber Beam Loss Monitors (IC BLM) around the LHC dumping region in IP6 will be saturated. Diamond Beam Loss Monitors (dBLM) were therefore installed next to the movable dump protection absorber (TCDQ) downstream of the extraction kickers. These detectors allow resolving losses at a nanosecond timescale and with an dynamic range of several orders of magnitude; thus, allowing to know the number of nominal bunches impacting the TCDQ. After a first series of calibrations using asynchronous beam dump tests, an experiment was conducted during MD#1182 to demonstrate the possibility of resolving a nominal bunch hitting the TCDQ. The impact parameter of the bunches on the TCDQ was first scanned using probe bunches with lower intensity then tests were done with nominal bunches (1.1e11 p/bunch) at injection energy. High energy calibration of the losses was also attempted unsuccessfully. Due to different beh...

  3. Shallow boron dopant on silicon An MD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, A. Mari Carmen; Jimenez-Rodriguez, Jose J.; Jimenez-Saez, Jose Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Low energy boron bombardment of silicon has been simulated at room temperature by molecular dynamics (MD). Tersoff potential T3 was used in the simulation smoothly linked up with the universal potential. The boron-silicon (B-Si) interaction was simulated according to Tersoff potential for SiC but modified to account for the B-Si interaction. The algorithm can distinguish a B from a Si neighbour. Si-c, with (2 x 1) surface reconstruction, was bombarded with boron at 200 and 500 eV. These energies were initially chosen as good representative values of the low energy range. Reliable results require of a reasonable good statistic so that 1000-impact points were chosen uniformly distributed over a representative area of a 2 x 1 surface. The distribution of mean projected range for B is given. All kinds of point defect were looked for in a Si damaged target after bombardment. Energetically stable substitutional and interstitial configurations are presented and the relative appearances of the different types of interstitials, for both Si and B, are given. It is also determined the mean length of the distance to the first neighbours of defects

  4. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  5. 76 FR 81826 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Pocomoke City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Pocomoke City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... River, mile 15.6, at Pocomoke City, MD. The deviation restricts the operation of the draw span to... five hours advance notice is given. The Route 675 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 15.6 at Pocomoke...

  6. Possibilities of production of neutron-rich Md isotopes in multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possibilities of production of yet unknown neutron-rich isotopes of Md are explored in several multi-nucleon transfer reactions with actinide targets and stable and radioactive beams. The projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies are suggested to produce new neutron-rich isotopes of Md in future experiments. (orig.)

  7. 77 FR 29692 - Segun M. Rasaki, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... CFR 1316.67. Dated: May 4, 2012. Michele M. Leonhart, Administrator. Paul E. Soeffing, Esq., for the... reinstatement.'' Stuart A. Bergman, M.D., 70 Fed. Reg. 33,193 (DEA 2005); Roger A. Rodriguez, M.D., 70 Fed. Reg...

  8. 78 FR 47412 - Tyson D. Quy, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Green, Jr., M.D., 59 FR 51,453 (DEA 1994); David E. Trawick, D.D.S., 53 FR 5,326 (DEA 1988). Here, the...) (ten years); Norman Alpert, M.D., 58 FR 67,420, 67,421 (DEA 1993) (seven years). Here, the conditions...

  9. 75 FR 76688 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Isle of Wight (Sinepuxent) Bay, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., mile 0.5, at Ocean City, with a vertical clearance of 13 feet above mean high tide in the closed...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Isle of Wight (Sinepuxent) Bay, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast... Ocean City, MD. This proposed rule will require any mariner requesting an opening in the evening hours...

  10. 76 FR 17673 - Bienvenido Tan, M.D.; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... (alprazolam) to help him sleep. Id. at 64. R.E. opted to buy the drugs from Respondent's dispensary and... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 09-12] Bienvenido Tan, M.D... Control, Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to Bienvenido Tan, M.D...

  11. 76 FR 15214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 1381). We... follows: Sec. 100.35-T05-1113 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County...

  12. 76 FR 1381 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, Charles County, MD. (a) Regulated area. The following location... local regulations during the ``Potomac River Sharkfest Swim'' amateur swim, a marine event to be held on...

  13. Functional Characterization of the Apple RING E3 Ligase MdMIEL1 in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping AN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available E3 ubiquitin ligases are involved in various physiological processes, and they play pivotal roles in growth and development. In this study, we identified a previously unknown gene in the apple fruit (Malus × domestica and named it MdMIEL1. The MdMIEL1 gene encoded a protein that contained a zinc-finger domain at its N-terminus and a RING-finger motif at its C-terminus. To investigate MdMIEL1 functions, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing the MdMIEL1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Interestingly, ectopic expression of MdMIEL1 in Arabidopsis produced multiple phenotypes, including early germination, early flowering and a lateral root number increase relative to wild-type plants. Further analysis indicated that MdMIEL1 regulated lateral root initiation by increasing auxin accumulation in the roots. In a word, these results suggest that, MdMIEL1 as a novel RING-finger ubiquitin ligase influences plant growth and development, and highlight that MdMIEL1 regulates lateral root growth.

  14. 77 FR 35021 - Kwan Bo Jin, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...] DEA registration is not appropriate.'' Anibal P. Herrera, M.D., 61 FR 65,075, 65,078 (DEA 1996); see... ``there were serious questions as to the integrity of the registrant.'' Anibal P. Herrera, M.D., 61 FR 65...

  15. Desalination - A solution to water shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries are faced with critical water shortage for the last few decades. The demand for water has outstripped its supply making the availability of safe water sources an issue Also conflicts over water sharing are expected in many regions of the world. Thus, because of this looming crisis water problems are getting increasing attention all over the world. With the advancement of desalination technology many countries had resorted removal of salts from brackish and sea water as an alternative water supply and they are now viewing desalination as a future solution to problems of lack of water. Today, over 100 countries use desalting requirement. A total of 12,451 desalting units (of a unit size of 100 m/sup 3//d or more) with a total capacity of 22,735,000 m /d had been installed or contracted worldwide. Brackish water desalination plants contribute with 9,400,000 m3/d, whereas the capacity of the sea water plants had reached up to 13,300,000 m3/d. This paper will discuss the use of desalination to produce potable water from saline water for domestic or municipal purposes and also the available desalination techniques that have been developed over the years and have achieved commercial success. (author)

  16. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  17. William Bradley Coley, MD, and the phenomenon of spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon LF

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leonard F Vernon Sherman College of Chiropractic, Spartanburg, SC, USA Abstract: The standard definition of spontaneous regression (SR of cancer is as follows, “…when a malignant tumor partially or completely disappears without treatment or in the presence of therapy which is considered inadequate to exert a significant influence on neoplastic disease.” SR is also known as Saint Peregrine tumor, the name taken from a young priest, Peregrine Laziosi (1260 [5]–1345, exact date is unknown, who had been diagnosed with a tumor of the tibia. The mass eventually grew so large that it broke through the skin and became severely infected. The available treatment for this condition was limited to amputation. Historical records report that on the day of surgery, physicians found that the tumor had disappeared and reportedly never returned. To date, the medical literature consists only of individual case studies and overviews of this phenomenon. The most cited work on the subject was done by surgeons Tilden Everson and Warren Cole who reviewed 176 published cases of SR from 1900 to 1960. While a percentage of these were found not to be cases of SR, there remained a number of unexplained cases. A frequent theme in many cases of SR is the co-occurrence of infection. Given the current interest in immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer, this article discusses one of the very early pioneers of this theory, William Bradley Coley, MD, a surgeon who was clearly ahead of his time. Ostracized by colleagues for his belief that stimulation of the immune system could in fact produce a regression of cancer, Coley remained convinced that his theory was right and, while he was not familiar with cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interferons, and streptokinase, he knew instinctively that an innate immune response was taking place. Keywords: autoimmunity, cancer, fever, infection, immunotherapy, tumor, cytokines

  18. Milestone report on MD potential development for uranium silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason Dean

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on the interatomic potential development of triuranium-disilicide (U 3 Si 2 ) for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The development is based on the Tersoff type potentials for single element U and Si. The Si potential is taken from the literature and a Tersoff type U potential is developed in this project. With the primary focus on the U 3 Si 2 phase, some other U-Si systems such as U 3 Si are also included as a test of the transferability of the potentials for binary U-Si phases. Based on the potentials for unary U and Si, two sets of parameters for the binary U-Si system are developed using the Tersoff mixing rules and the cross-term fitting, respectively. The cross-term potential is found to give better results on the enthalpy of formation, lattice constants and elastic constants than those produced by the Tersoff mixing potential, with the reference data taken from either experiments or density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In particular, the results on the formation enthalpy and lattice constants for the U 3 Si 2 phase and lattice constants for the high temperature U 3 Si (h-U 3 Si) phase generated by the cross-term potential agree well with experimental data. Reasonable agreements are also reached on the elastic constants of U 3 Si 2 , on the formation enthalpy for the low temperature U 3 Si (m-U 3 Si) and h-U 3 Si phases, and on the lattice constants of m-U 3 Si phase. All these phases are predicted to be mechanically stable. The unary U potential is tested for three metallic U phases (α, β, γ). The potential is found capable to predict the cohesive energies well against experimental data for all three phases. It matches reasonably with previous experiments on the lattice constants and elastic constants of αU.

  19. Gymnodinium corollarium sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) - a new cold-water dinoflagellate responsible for cyst sedimentation events in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, Annica; Kremp, Anke; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    revealed a preference of G. corollarium for low salinities and temperatures, confirming it to be a cold-water species well adapted to the brackish water conditions in the Baltic Sea. At nitrogen-deplete conditions, G. corollarium cultures produced small, slightly oval cysts resembling a previously...

  20. Infrared microspectroscopy of live cells in microfluidic devices (MD-IRMS): toward a powerful label-free cell-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, L; Birarda, G; Businaro, L; Pacor, S; Grenci, G

    2012-06-05

    Until nowadays most infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) experiments on biological specimens (i.e., tissues or cells) have been routinely carried out on fixed or dried samples in order to circumvent water absorption problems. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to widen the range of in-vitro IRMS experiments to vibrational analysis of live cellular samples, thanks to the development of novel biocompatible IR-visible transparent microfluidic devices (MD). In order to highlight the biological relevance of IRMS in MD (MD-IRMS), we performed a systematic exploration of the biochemical alterations induced by different fixation protocols, ethanol 70% and formaldehyde solution 4%, as well as air-drying on U937 leukemic monocytes by comparing their IR vibrational features with the live U937 counterpart. Both fixation and air-drying procedures affected lipid composition and order as well as protein structure at a different extent while they both induced structural alterations in nucleic acids. Therefore, only IRMS of live cells can provide reliable information on both DNA and RNA structure and on their cellular dynamic. In summary, we show that MD-IRMS of live cells is feasible, reliable, and biologically relevant to be recognized as a label-free cell-based assay.

  1. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  2. Millennial-Scale Planktic Foraminifer Faunal Variability in the East China Sea during the Past 40000 Years (IMAGES MD012404 from the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pin Chang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution planktic foraminifer fauna assemblage data are used to reconstruct the millennial-scale sea surface temperature (SST variability of the past 40000 years at an IMAGES core site (MD012404 in the Okinawa Trough in the East China Sea (ECS. The fauna assemblages in core MD012404 are dominated by five species - Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, and Globigerinita glutinata, which account for > 70% in relative abundance. Our Q-mode factor analysis decomposed the fauna abundance data into three factors, which indicate cold water mass, warm water mass, and possibly coastal water flow with low salinity in the ECS. The MD012404 fauna data show abrupt changes at ~16 kya, suggesting a return to a warmer climate or warm water intrusion of the Kuroshio into the Okinawa Trough since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. SST estimates based on the fauna assemblages of planktic foraminifers indicate a LGM cooling of 1 - 2°C. Amaximum cooling by 3 - 4°C is observed in episodic, millennial-scale events in the glacial stages of the record. The SST record displays variability that closely tracks the structure of oxygen isotopes of stalagmites from Hulu Cave and ice cores from GISP 2 Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles and Heinrich events. Low salinity in the ECS is inferred based on MD012404 fauna SST and planktic foraminifer oxygen isotope records for the cold millennial-scale intervals, pointing to the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and/or East Asian monsoon as important factors driving SST and salinity in the subtropical western Pacific, both on orbital and suborbital time scales.

  3. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  4. Apple F-box Protein MdMAX2 Regulates Plant Photomorphogenesis and Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping An

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MAX2 (MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 is involved in diverse physiological processes, including photomorphogenesis, the abiotic stress response, as well as karrikin and strigolactone signaling-mediated shoot branching. In this study, MdMAX2, an F-box protein that is a homolog of Arabidopsis MAX2, was identified and characterized. Overexpression of MdMAX2 in apple calli enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. Ectopic expression of MdMAX2 in Arabidopsis exhibited photomorphogenesis phenotypes, including increased anthocyanin content and decreased hypocotyl length. Further study indicated that MdMAX2 might promote plant photomorphogenesis by affecting the auxin signaling as well as other plant hormones. Transcripts of MdMAX2 were noticeably up-regulated in response to NaCl and Mannitol treatments. Moreover, compared with the wild type, the MdMAX2-overexpressing apple calli and Arabidopsis exhibited increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Taken together, these results suggest that MdMAX2 plays a positive regulatory role in plant photomorphogenesis and stress response.

  5. Characterization of an Autophagy-related Gene MdATG8i from apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient deficiencies restrict apple (Malus sp. tree growth and productivity in Northwest China. The process of autophagy, a conserved degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells, has important roles in nutrient-recycling and helps improve plant performance during periods of nutrient-starvation. Little is known about the functioning of autophagy-related genes (ATGs in apple. In this study, one of the ATG8 gene family members MdATG8i was isolated from M. domestica. MdATG8i has conserved putative tubulin binding sites and ATG7 interaction domains. A 1865-bp promoter region cloned from apple genome DNA was predicated to have cis-regulatory elements responsive to light, environmental stresses and hormones. MdATG8i transcriptions were induced in response to leaf senescence, nitrogen depletion, and oxidative stress. At cellular level, MdATG8i protein was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Yeast two-hybrid tests showed that MdATG8i could interact with MdATG7a and MdATG7b. In Arabidopsis, its heterologous expression was associated with enhanced vegetative growth, leaf senescence, and tolerance to nitrogen- and carbon-starvation. MdATG8i-overexpressing ‘Orin’ apple callus lines also displayed improved tolerance to nutrient-limited conditions. Our results demonstrate that MdATG8i protein could function in autophagy in a conserved way, as a positive regulator in the response to nutrient-starvation.

  6. Milestone report on MD potential development for uranium silicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jianguo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation Dept.; Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation Dept.; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation Dept.

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress on the interatomic potential development of triuranium-disilicide (U3Si2) for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The development is based on the Tersoff type potentials for single element U and Si. The Si potential is taken from the literature and a Tersoff type U potential is developed in this project. With the primary focus on the U3Si2 phase, some other U-Si systems such as U3Si are also included as a test of the transferability of the potentials for binary U-Si phases. Based on the potentials for unary U and Si, two sets of parameters for the binary U-Si system are developed using the Tersoff mixing rules and the cross-term fitting, respectively. The cross-term potential is found to give better results on the enthalpy of formation, lattice constants and elastic constants than those produced by the Tersoff mixing potential, with the reference data taken from either experiments or density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In particular, the results on the formation enthalpy and lattice constants for the U3Si2 phase and lattice constants for the high temperature U3Si (h-U3Si) phase generated by the cross-term potential agree well with experimental data. Reasonable agreements are also reached on the elastic constants of U3Si2, on the formation enthalpy for the low temperature U3Si (m-U3Si) and h-U3Si phases, and on the lattice constants of m-U3Si phase. All these phases are predicted to be mechanically stable. The unary U potential is tested for three metallic U phases (α, β, γ). The potential is found capable to predict the cohesive energies well against experimental data for all three phases. It matches reasonably with previous experiments on the lattice constants and elastic constants of αU.

  7. The core competencies of James Marion Sims, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, J Michael; Gandy, Roy E; Rodning, Charles B

    2012-07-01

    The concept of core competencies in graduate medical education was introduced by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education of the American Medical Association to semiquantitatively assess the professional performance of students, residents, practitioners, and faculty. Many aspects of the career of J. Marion Sims, MD, are exemplary of those core competencies: MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE: Author of the first American textbook related to gynecology. MEDICAL CARE: Innovator of the Sims' Vaginal Speculum, Sims' Position, Sims' Test, and vesico-/rectovaginal fistulorrhaphy; advocated abdominal exploration for penetrating wounds; performed the first cholecystostomy. PROFESSIONALISM: Served as President of the New York Academy of Medicine, the American Medical Association, and the American Gynecologic Society. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS/COMMUNICATION: Cared for the indigent, hearthless, indentured, disenfranchised; served as consulting surgeon to the Empress Eugénie (France), the Duchess of Hamilton (Scotland), the Empress of Austria, and other royalty of the aristocratic Houses of Europe; accorded the National Order of the Legion of Honor. PRACTICE-BASED LEARNING: Introduction of silver wire sutures; adoption of the principles of asepsis/antisepsis; adoption of the principles of general anesthesia. SYSTEMS-BASED PRACTICE: Established the Woman's Hospital, New York City, New York, the predecessor of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases; organized the Anglo-American Ambulance Corps under the patronage of Napoleon III. What led him to a life of clinical and humanitarian service? First, he was determined to succeed. His formal medical/surgical education was perhaps the best available to North Americans during that era. Second, he was courageous in experimentation and innovation, applying new developments in operative technique, asepsis/antisepsis, and general anesthesia. Third, his curiosity was not burdened by rigid

  8. Solar photovoltaic power for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J. R.; Crutcher, J. L.; Norbedo, A. J.; Cummings, A. B.

    1980-07-01

    There is a considerable global need for systems which can meet the drinking water requirements of small communities (7000 people or less) from brackish water or from seawater. Solar photovoltaic panels are an ideal source of power for the purpose, primarily because they produce electricity, which can be used to power a membrane type desalting unit, i.e., either a reverse osmosis plant or an electrodialysis unit. In addition, electricity is most convenient for feedwater pumping. This paper addresses considerations which arise in the design and construction of a complete solar powered water desalination system which requires no supply of fuel nor any form of backup power (grid connection or engine generator).

  9. MD 2485: Active halo control using narrowband and colored noise excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Kotzian, Gerd; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Redaelli, Stefano; Valuch, Daniel; Wagner, Joschka; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    This MD note summarizes the actions carried out during the MD 2485 on Active halo control using narrowband and colored noise excitations. The goal of the MD was to repeat some promising cases already tested in the past and introduce a new excitation type based on applying a colored noise. Although we were able to repeat some cases using a narrowband excitation, due to a problem with the waveform generator, the colored noise excitation could not be accomplished as expected. In any case, we provide some results that may be useful for future MDs.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Hexokinase Gene, MdHXK1 in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A hexokinase gene named MdHXK1 (MDP0000309677 was cloned from ‘Gala’ apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. Sequence analysis showed that the MdHXK1 gene was 1 497 bp long and encoded 499 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass of this protein was 54.05 kD, and the pI was 5.76. A phylogenetic tree indicated apple MdHXK1 exhibited the highest sequence similarity to Pyrus bretschneideri PbHXK1. Analysis of the functional domain showed that the MdHXK1 protein included two conserved kinase domains. The prediction of subcellular localization suggested that the MdHXK1 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. There was an indication that MdHXK1 existed as one copy in the apple genome by Southern blotting. Silico analysis suggested that the promoter sequence contained several typical cis-acting elements, including defense, sugar signaling and phytohormone responsive elements. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the MdHXK1 gene was mainly expressed in stem and flower tissues. During the development of apple fruits, the expression of the MdHXK1 gene initially increased and then decreased. The changes on Glc phosphorylation relative activity and glucose concentration showed the same trend. In addition, the expression of this gene was induced by salt stress, low temperature, and abscisic acid (ABA. Finally, we obtained and purified the fused MdHXK1 protein by recombinant prokaryotic expression. Studies have demonstrated that MdHXK1 may participate in sugar metabolism in apple fruits. Enzyme encoded by MdHXK1 is a key factor in the mediation of sugar accumulation. Recently, researchers on hexokinase at home and abroad mainly focused on model plants, such as Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice, but orchard fruit like apple were underresearched. Our research established the foundation for the further study of the functions of MdHXK1.

  11. Interaction and dynamics of homologous pairing protein 2 (HOP2) and DNA studied by MD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moktan, Hem; Pezza, Roberto; Zhou, Donghua

    2015-03-01

    The homologous pairing protein 2 (Hop2) plays an important role in meiosis and DNA repair. Together with protein Mnd1, Hop2 enhances the strand invasion activity of recombinase Dmc1 by over 30 times, facilitating proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes. We recently determined the NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of Hop2 and proposed a model of Protein-DNA complex based on NMR chemical shift perturbations and mutagenesis studies (Moktan, J Biol Chem 2014 10.1074/jbc.M114.548180). However structure and dynamics of the complex have not been studied at the atomic level yet. Here, we used classical MD simulations to study the interactions between the N-terminal HOP2 and DNA. The simulated results indicate that helix3 (H3) interacts with DNA in major groove and wing1 (W1) interacts mostly in minor groove mainly via direct hydrogen bonds. Also it is found that binding leads to reduced fluctuations in both protein and DNA. Several water bridge interactions have been identified. The residue-wise contributions to the interaction energy were evaluated. Also the functional motion of the protein is analyzed using principal component analysis. The results confirmed the importance of H3 and W1 for the stability of the complex, which is consistent with our previous experimental studies.

  12. Combined spectroscopic, DFT, TD-DFT and MD study of newly synthesized thiourea derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vidya V.; Sheena Mary, Y.; Shyma Mary, Y.; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Bielenica, Anna; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Van Alsenoy, Christian

    2018-03-01

    A novel thiourea derivative, 1-(3-bromophenyl)-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]thiourea (ANF-22) is synthesized and characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman and NMR spectroscopy experimentally and theoretically. A detailed conformational analysis of the title molecule has been conducted in order to locate the lowest energy geometry, which was further subjected to the detailed investigation of spectroscopic, reactive, degradation and docking studies by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations have been used also in order to simulate UV spectra and investigate charge transfer within molecule. Natural bond orbital analysis has been performed analyzing the charge delocalization and using HOMO and LUMO energies the electronic properties are analyzed. Molecular electrostatic potential map is used for the quantitative measurement of active sites in the molecule. In order to determine the locations possibly prone to electrophilic attacks we have calculated average local ionization energies and mapped them to the electron density surface. Further insight into the local reactivity properties have been obtained by calculation of Fukui functions, also mapped to the electron density surface. Possible degradation properties by the autoxidation mechanism have been assessed by calculations of bond dissociation energies for hydrogen abstraction. Atoms of title molecule with significant interactions with water molecules have been determined by calculations of radial distribution functions. The title compound can be a lead compound for developing new analgesic drug.

  13. Process for the treatment of salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, R J

    1966-06-12

    A procedure is described for the treatment of salty or brackish water for the production of steam, which is directly utilized afterward, either in a condensed form as sweet water or deoxidized for injection into oil formations for raising the temperature thereof and other uses. The water-purification treatment is continuous, and is of the type in which the salty or brackish water is passed in direct heat exchange relationship with the steam produced for preheating the water up to a temperature where some of the dissolved ions of calcium and magnesium are precipitated in the form of insoluble salts. In the passage of the preheated water being purified, a zone is created for the completion of the reaction. A part of the water is retained in this reaction zone while the other part is being passed in indirect heat exchange relationship with a heating means, for converting this part of the water into steam. All of the steam obtained in the latter described heat exchange is utilized in the water purification, and/or added to the produced steam, as first noted.

  14. Energy consumption in membrane capacitive deionization for different water recoveries and flow rates, and comparison with reverse osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, R.; Porada, S.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a non-faradaic, capacitive technique for desalinating brackish water by adsorbing ions in charged porous electrodes. To compete with reverse osmosis, the specific energy consumption of MCDI needs to be reduced to less than 1 kWh per m3 of freshwater

  15. In-situ Air Temperature and Relative Humidity in Greenbelt, MD, 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set describes the temperature and relative humidity at 12 locations around Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt MD at 15 minute intervals between...

  16. 75 FR 8193 - Jeri Hassman, M.D.; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... is buying drugs on the street. Id. at 1006. With respect to requests for early refills, Dr. Hare... Part II Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration Jeri Hassman, M.D.; Denial of...; [[Page 8194

  17. Metabolic engineering of apple by overexpression of the MdMyb10 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A.L. Rihani

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, the flavonoid pathway was successfully modified in apple by overexpressing the MdMyb10 transcription factor to validate the hypothesis of increased effect on plant disease resistance.

  18. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and planes...

  19. The advanced EctoSys electrolysis as an integral part of a ballast water treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echardt, J; Kornmueller, A

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale 500 m(3)/h ballast water treatment system was tested according to the landbased type approval procedure of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The system consists of disc filters followed by the advanced EctoSys electrolysis as an integral part for disinfection. The test water quality exceeded by far the minimum requirements for type approval testing. Due to the properties of the special electrodes used together with the striking disinfection effect, the disinfectants assumed to be produced inline by the EctoSys cell in river water were hydroxyl radicals, while in brackish water additionally chlorine and consequently the more stable bromine were formed. In river water, no residual oxidants could be detected in accordance with the assumed production of not responding, highly-reactive and short-living hydroxyl radicals. Accordingly, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation was very low and close to the limit of quantification in river water. While in brackish water, initial residual oxidant concentrations were maximum 2 mg/L as chlorine and mostly brominated DBP (especially bromoform and bromate) were found. Overall considering this worst case test approach, the DBP concentrations of the treated effluents were below or in the range of the WHO Drinking Water Guideline values and therefore evaluated as acceptable for discharge to the environment. The stringent discharge standard by IMO concerning viable organisms was fully met in river and brackish water, proving the disinfection efficiency of the EctoSys electrolysis against smaller plankton and bacteria.

  20. Ozone Disinfection of Vibrio vulnificus in Shrimp Pond Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Cahya Julyta Putri, Echa; Wulansarie, Ria; Suryanto, Agus

    2018-03-01

    One variety of shrimp, L.Vanamei, often uses brackish water during the operation in the shrimp pond. Chlorination and ultraviolet are usually used for disinfection of brackish water. However, it is ineffective and forms sediment in the water distribution. It can be a negative impact on the water quality cause a contamination on the shrimp, so the farmers might have loss of profit because Vibrio vulnificus causes infection and dead on the shrimp. It affects the safety of consumers and should be minimized. The purpose of this study is to reduce the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the pond water. The water was put in the storage tanks then pumped to filter out the impurities of the water. Furthermore, the water set the flow rate in 1 LPM, 2 LPM, and 3 LPM. After that, the ozone was injected to the water flow to sterilize the V. vulnificus bacteria. Finally, the water was returned to the original tank. The water from the tank was taken through a valve and analyzed in 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24, 30 minutes. The sample was analyzed immediately using a Total Plate Count method to determine the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the shrimp pond water. The flow rate shows that the longer time of ozone made a lower amount of Vibrio v. bacteria. In 2 LPM water, it shows the optimum results of V. vulnificus. bacteria reduction for 88.1% compared to the flow rate of 1 LPM and 3 LPM with the bacteria reduction of 68,8% and 70.6%. This study shows that the ozone with a flow rate of 2 LPM circulation is the most effective method to help reducing the number of V. vulnificus in brackish water distribution system in the shrimp environment and potentially as a disinfectant.

  1. Image fusion in craniofacial virtual reality modeling based on CT and 3dMD photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Pengfei; Yu, Hongbo; Cheng, Huanchong; Shen, Shunyao; Shen, Steve G F

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of building a craniofacial virtual reality model by image fusion of 3-dimensional (3D) CT models and 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface. A CT scan and stereophotography were performed. The 3D CT models were reconstructed by Materialise Mimics software, and the stereophotogrammetric facial surface was reconstructed by 3 dMD patient software. All 3D CT models were exported as Stereo Lithography file format, and the 3 dMD model was exported as Virtual Reality Modeling Language file format. Image registration and fusion were performed in Mimics software. Genetic algorithm was used for precise image fusion alignment with minimum error. The 3D CT models and the 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface were finally merged into a single file and displayed using Deep Exploration software. Errors between the CT soft tissue model and 3 dMD facial surface were also analyzed. Virtual model based on CT-3 dMD image fusion clearly showed the photorealistic face and bone structures. Image registration errors in virtual face are mainly located in bilateral cheeks and eyeballs, and the errors are more than 1.5 mm. However, the image fusion of whole point cloud sets of CT and 3 dMD is acceptable with a minimum error that is less than 1 mm. The ease of use and high reliability of CT-3 dMD image fusion allows the 3D virtual head to be an accurate, realistic, and widespread tool, and has a great benefit to virtual face model.

  2. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PUBLIC RELATIONS MD ENTERTAINMENT PADA PEMASARAN FILM HABIBIE & AINUN

    OpenAIRE

    Trisna Adi Permana; Lilis Puspitasari

    2015-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perencanaan, implementasi serta evaluasi dari strategi Marketing Public Relations yang ditetapkan PR MD Entertainment pada film Habibie & Ainun pada tahun 2012-2013. Metode yang dilakukan adalah metode deskriptif yang bertujuan melukiskan secara sistematis fakta atau karakteristik populasi tertentu atau bidang tertentu secara faktual dan cermat. Hasil penelitian menunjukan PR MD Entertainment telah melakukan tahapan-tahapan atau Teknik...

  3. Strategi Pemasaran Public Relations Md Entertainment Pada Pemasaran Film Habibie & Ainun

    OpenAIRE

    Permana, Trisna Adi; Puspitasari, Lilis

    2015-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perencanaan, implementasi serta evaluasi dari strategiMarketing Public Relations yang ditetapkan PR MD Entertainment pada film Habibie & Ainun pada tahun2012-2013. Metode yang dilakukan adalah metode deskriptif yang bertujuan melukiskan secara sistematisfakta atau karakteristik populasi tertentu atau bidang tertentu secara faktual dan cermat. Hasil penelitianmenunjukan PR MD Entertainment telah melakukan tahapan-tahapan atau Teknik PR pada film Ha...

  4. Summary of LHC MD 369: DOROS vs WBTN in IR Stripline BPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Draskovic, Drasko; Calvo Giraldo, Eva; Olexa, Jakub; Gasior, Marek; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this MD is to quantify the impact of the stripline beam position monitor (BPM) directivity with two acquisition chain electronics systems, WBTN (Wide Band Time Normalizer) and DOROS (Diode ORbit and Oscillation System). This impact depends on the relative position and intensity of the two beams at the location of the monitor. This note explains all the procedures of the LHC MD 369, which took place on 20/07/2015 and presents the obtained results.

  5. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Brown, J.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Saxen, R.; Outola, I.

    2012-01-01

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  6. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R; Brown, J; Holm, E; Roos, P; Saxen, R; Outola, I

    2012-01-15

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  7. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  8. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  9. MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

  10. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  12. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...... households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. RESULTS: Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained....... The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water...

  13. Ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3, an aquaporin gene, increased fruit size and enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Qing-Tian; Lei, Qiong; Feng, Chao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Fangfang; Li, Lingzi; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Zhi; Kong, Jin

    2017-12-19

    Water deficit severely reduces apple growth and production, is detrimental to fruit quality and size. This problem is exacerbated as global warming is implicated in producing more severe drought stress. Thus water-efficiency has becomes the major target for apple breeding. A desired apple tree can absorb and transport water efficiently, which not only confers improved drought tolerance, but also guarantees fruit size for higher income returns. Aquaporins, as water channels, control water transportation across membranes and can regulate water flow by changing their amount and activity. The exploration of molecular mechanism of water efficiency and the gene wealth will pave a way for molecular breeding of drought tolerant apple tree. In the current study, we screened out a drought inducible aquaporin gene MdPIP1;3, which specifically enhanced its expression during fruit expansion in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji). It localized on plasma membranes and belonged to PIP1 subfamily. The tolerance to drought stress enhanced in transgenic tomato plants ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3, showing that the rate of losing water in isolated transgenic leaves was slower than wild type, and stomata of transgenic plants closed sensitively to respond to drought compared with wild type. Besides, length and diameter of transgenic tomato fruits increased faster than wild type, and in final, fruit sizes and fresh weights of transgenic tomatoes were bigger than wild type. Specially, in cell levels, fruit cell size from transgenic tomatoes was larger than wild type, showing that cell number per mm 2 in transgenic fruits was less than wild type. Altogether, ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3 enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic tomatoes partially via reduced water loss controlled by stomata closure in leaves. In addition, the transgenic tomato fruits are larger and heavier with larger cells via more efficient water transportation across membranes. Our research will

  14. Pengaruh Brand Ambassador Terhadap Minat Beli Konsumen MD Clinic By Lazeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurvita Septya Ningrum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research at MD Clinic by Lazeta which is in the beauty services that offer health care and facial, under of PT. Medina Global Care. MD Cilinic by Lazeta use the brand ambassador of introducing their products. The selection of brand ambassador motivated by positive image brought by the celebrities. Brand ambassadors chosen by the company as a symbol or a marker to represent the wishes and needs of prospective customers. MD Clinic by Lazeta choose Syahnaz as a brand ambassador for their products which is expected to to represent the product of MD Clinic by Lazeta, so the message can be understood by the consumer, who eventually would to lead the purchase intention. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of brand ambassadors on consumer purchase intention MD Clinic by Lazeta, Study on Business Administration Students year in 2103 Telkom University. Researchers used quantitative research methods. This research is population research, because all population is being respondent in this research. Populations of this research are 137 respondents. Collecting data in this research is conducted by using questionnaire distributed to all respondents, which all Students on Business Administration Telkom University who knows the MD Clinic by Lazeta. Data were analyzed using simple regression analysis and descriptive analysis.The results showed that the Brand Ambassador impact of consumer purchase intention on MD Clinic by Lazeta at the Students on Business Administration Telkom University years in 2013. Based on the calculation of the coefficient of determination (R2 can be seen the influence of brand ambassador variable (X on purchase intention (Y is 42.9%. While the remaining 57.1% is influenced by other factors which not examined in this research such as, pricing, marketing strategy and others.

  15. Structure and dynamics of solvated Ba(II) in dilute aqueous solution - an ab initio QM/MM MD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Thomas S.; Rode, Bernd M.; Randolf, Bernhard R.

    2005-01-01

    Structural properties of the hydrated Ba(II) ion have been investigated by ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at double zeta HF quantum mechanical level. The first shell coordination number was found to be 9.3, and several other structural parameters such as angular distribution functions, radial distribution functions and tilt- and θ-angle distributions allowed the full characterization of the hydration structure of the Ba(II) ion in dilute aqueous solution. Velocity autocorrelation functions were used to calculate librational and vibrational motions, ion-ligand motions as well as reorientation times. Different dynamical parameters such as water reorientation, mean ligand residence time, the number of ligand exchange processes and rate constants were also analyzed and the ligand exchange rate constant for the first shell was determined as k = 5.3 x 10 10 s -1

  16. The small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase MdSIZ1 promotes anthocyanin accumulation by sumoylating MdMYB1 under low-temperature conditions in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jie; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Chun-Ling; Xie, Xing-Bin; Zhao, Cheng; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-10-01

    MdMYB1 acts as a crucial component of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-skinned apples (Malus domestica), but little is known about its post-translational regulation. Here, a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase MdSIZ1 was screened out as an MdMYB1-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybridization approach. The interaction between MdSIZ1 and MdMYB1 was further verified with pull-down and CoIP assays. Furthermore, it was found that MdSIZ1 directly sumoylated MdMYB1 proteins in vivo and in vitro, especially under moderately low temperature (17 °C) conditions, and that this sumoylation was required for MdMYB1 protein stability. Moreover, the transcription level of MdSIZ1 gene was remarkably induced by low temperature and phosphorus deficiency, and MdSIZ1 overexpression exerted a large positive influence on anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration, suggesting its important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis under stress conditions. Our findings reveal an important role for a small ubiquitin-like modifier modification of MYB transcription factors in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fluorescence of PRODAN in water: A computational QM/MM MD study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pederzoli, Marek; Sobek, Lukáš; Brabec, Jiří; Kowalski, K.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Pittner, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 597, MAR 2014 (2014), s. 57-62 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/0559 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Emission spectroscopy * Excited states * Molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2014

  18. Monitoring Urban Stream Restoration Efforts in Relation to Flood Behavior Along Minebank Run, Towson, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stream restoration efforts are commonly undertaken to combat channel degradation and restore natural stream hydrology. We examine changes in flood patterns along an approximately 1.5-mile reach of Minebank Run, located in Towson, MD, by comparing pre-restoration morphology from surveys conducted in 2001, post-restoration morphology in 2007, and current conditions in 2017 following damage to the restoration project from persistent flooding. Hydraulic modeling was conducted in HEC-RAS 2D using three alternative scenarios: 1) topographic contours from a 2001 survey of pre-restoration topography combined with 2005 LiDAR, 2) 2007 survey combined with 2005 LiDAR data representing the post-restoration channel morphology, and 3) a March 2017 DEM of current channel conditions. The 2017 DEM was created using Structure from Motion (SfM) from high resolution 4K video collected via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flights at a resolution of 0.05 meters. Flood hydrographs from a USGS stream gage located within the study reach as well as a simulated hydrograph of the 100-year storm event were routed through the pre-restoration, post-restoration, and current modeled terrain and analyzed for changes in water-surface elevation and depth, inundation extent, 2-d velocity fields, and translation vs. attenuation of the flood wave to assess the net impact on potential flood hazards. In addition, our study demonstrates that SfM is a quick and inexpensive method for collecting topographic data for hydrologic modeling, assessing stream characteristics including channel bed roughness, and for examining short term changes of channel morphology at a very fine scale.

  19. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O' Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Karnik, R; Wang, E N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T, E-mail: tlaoui@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: karnik@mit.edu, E-mail: enwang@mit.edu [Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering and Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-22

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. (topical review)

  20. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O'Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Karnik, R; Wang, E N; Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T

    2011-01-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. (topical review)

  1. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, T.; Lee, J.; O'Hern, S. C.; Fellman, B. A.; Baig, M. A.; Hassan, S. F.; Atieh, M. A.; Rahman, F.; Laoui, T.; Karnik, R.; Wang, E. N.

    2011-07-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity.

  2. Phenology of cryptomonads and the CRY1 lineage in a coastal brackish lagoon (Vistula Lagoon, Baltic Sea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piwosz, Kasia; Kownacka, J.; Ameryk, A.; Zalewski, M.; Pernthalter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2016), s. 626-637 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11281S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Baltic Sea * chromalveolate hypothesis * coastal waters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  3. Water desalting schemes when using heat gas-vapor mixture in front of contact condenser

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Svitlana A.

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is a country with low quality of fresh water; there are regions with its deficiency. One of the possible solutions to this problem is the desalination of the brackish water from surface and groundwater sources by using heat of the mixture before the contact condenser in gas-steam turbine plants. The plants produce electricity and heat energy for the needs of the industrial, agricultural complexes and the population of Kherson, Nikolaev and Odessa regions. The studies were carried out ...

  4. The molecular mechanism underlying anthocyanin metabolism in apple using the MdMYB16 and MdbHLH33 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Wang, Nan; Liu, Jingxuan; Qu, Changzhi; Wang, Yicheng; Jiang, Shenghui; Lu, Ninglin; Wang, Deyun; Zhang, Zongying; Chen, Xuesen

    2017-05-01

    MdMYB16 forms homodimers and directly inhibits anthocyanin synthesis via its C-terminal EAR repressor. It weakened the inhibitory effect of MdMYB16 on anthocyanin synthesis when overexpressing MdbHLH33 in callus overexpressing MdMYB16. MdMYB16 could interact with MdbHLH33. Anthocyanins are strong antioxidants that play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The germplasm of Malus sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana is important for the study of anthocyanin metabolism. To date, only limited studies have examined the negative regulatory mechanisms underlying anthocyanin synthesis in apple. Here, we analyzed the relationship between anthocyanin levels and MdMYB16 expression in mature Red Crisp 1-5 apple (M. domestica) fruit, generated an evolutionary tree, and identified an EAR suppression sequence and a bHLH binding motif of the MdMYB16 protein using protein sequence analyses. Overexpression of MdMYB16 or MdMYB16 without bHLH binding sequence (LBSMdMYB16) in red-fleshed callus inhibited MdUFGT and MdANS expression and anthocyanin synthesis. However, overexpression of MdMYB16 without the EAR sequence (LESMdMYB16) in red-fleshed callus had no inhibitory effect on anthocyanin. The yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdMYB16 and LESMdMYB16 interacted the promoters of MdANS and MdUFGT, respectively. Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that MdMYB16 formed homodimers and interacted with MdbHLH33, however, the LBSMdMYB16 could not interact with MdbHLH33. We overexpressed MdbHLH33 in callus overexpressing MdMYB16 and found that it weakened the inhibitory effect of MdMYB16 on anthocyanin synthesis. Together, these results suggested that MdMYB16 and MdbHLH33 may be important part of the regulatory network controlling the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

  5. [MD PhD programs: Providing basic science education for ophthalmologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, K; Geerling, G

    2015-06-01

    Enrollment in MD PhD programs offers the opportunity of a basic science education for medical students and doctors. These programs originated in the USA where structured programs have been offered for many years, but now German universities also run MD PhD programs. The MD PhD programs provided by German universities were investigated regarding entrance requirements, structure and financing modalities. An internet and telephone-based search was carried out. Out of 34 German universities 22 offered MD PhD programs. At 15 of the 22 universities a successfully completed course of studies in medicine was required for enrollment, 7 programs admitted medical students in training and 7 programs required a medical doctoral thesis, which had to be completed with at least a grade of magna cum laude in 3 cases. Financing required scholarships in many cases. Several German universities currently offer MD PhD programs; however, these differ considerably regarding entrance requirements, structure and financing. A detailed analysis investigating the success rates of these programs (e.g. successful completion and career paths of graduates) would be of benefit.

  6. Opinion of stakeholders on existing curriculum for postgraduate (MD) course in Pharmacology: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Daniel, Sujit R

    2016-10-01

    To survey the opinion about various curricular components of Doctor of Medicine (MD) pharmacology curriculum in India by stakeholders, including faculty and students. An online survey was done to evaluate the various curricular components of MD pharmacology curriculum being used in India. A total of 393 respondents including faculty, MD students, and other stakeholders completed the survey. The survey was developed using SurveyMonkey platform and link to survey was E-mailed to stakeholders. The results were expressed as percentages. There was a balanced representation of respondents from various designations, teaching experience, regions, and age groups. Most of the respondents (83%) were aware of the MD pharmacology curriculum. However, they reported that it is more inclined to knowledge domain. About half of respondents (53%) said that animal experiments are being used. The most common teaching methods mentioned are seminars (98.5%), journal clubs (95%), and practical exercises by postgraduates (73%), but there is less use of newer methods (25%) in theory and less of clinical pharmacology exercise (39%) in practical classes. The log books are maintained but not assessed regularly. Internal assessment is sparingly used. The MD pharmacology curriculum needs to be made uniform at the national level and updated to include the newer methods in teaching-learning and assessment. There should be sharing of newer methods at a common platform implemented at the national level.

  7. An unusual dimeric structure and assembly for TLR4 regulator RP105-MD-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-il; Hong, Minsun; Wilson, Ian A [Scripps

    2011-11-16

    RP105-MD-1 modulates the TLR4-MD-2-mediated, innate immune response against bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The crystal structure of the bovine 1:1 RP105-MD-1 complex bound to a putative endogenous lipid at 2.9 Å resolution shares a similar overall architecture to its homolog TLR4-MD-2 but assembles into an unusual 2:2 homodimer that differs from any other known TLR-ligand assembly. The homodimer is assembled in a head-to-head orientation that juxtaposes the N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) of the two RP105 chains, rather than the usual tail-to-tail configuration of C-terminal LRRs in ligand-activated TLR dimers, such as TLR1-TRL2, TLR2-TLR6, TLR3-TLR3 and TLR4-TLR4. Another unusual interaction is mediated by an RP105-specific asparagine-linked glycan, which wedges MD-1 into the co-receptor binding concavity on RP105. This unique mode of assembly represents a new paradigm for TLR complexes and suggests a molecular mechanism for regulating LPS responses.

  8. Crystal twinning of human MD-2 recognizing endotoxin cores of lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohto, Umeharu; Satow, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Twinned crystals of humaan MD-2 are transformed into single crystals with cryoprotectant optimization. Twinning of crystals causes overlapping of two or more reciprocal lattice points, and hence structure amplitudes for a single crystalline domain are hardly obtained from X-ray diffraction intensities. MD-2 protein forms a stable complex with Toll-like receptor 4 and recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Excessive immune responses activated by LPS cause septic shocks. Saccharide-trimmed human MD-2 crystallizes in the tetragonal form with apparent Laue symmetry of 4/mmm, and diffraction intensities from these crystals indicate crystal twinning. The crystal consists of two different domains, A and B. The c A axis of domain A coincides with the c B axis of domain B with a smaller lattice, and the a A axis corresponds to the (a B + b B ) axis. This twinning severely imposes difficulty in structure determination. Through optimization of cryoprotectant, domain A was thoroughly transformed into domain B. The crystal containing only domain B is in space group P4 1 2 1 2 with one MD-2 molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure of this form of MD-2 as well as its complex with antiendotoxic lipid IVa was successfully determined using the multiple isomorphous replacement method

  9. MD and BCA simulations of He and H bombardment of fuzz in bcc elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, T. P. C.; Zhang, S.; Nordlund, K.

    2017-08-01

    We present results of MD simulations of low energy He ion bombardment of low density fuzz in bcc elements. He ions can penetrate several micrometers into sparse fuzz, which allows for a sufficient He flux through it to grow the fuzz further. He kinetic energy falls off exponentially with penetration depth. A BCA code was used to carry out the same ion bombardment on the same fuzz structures as in MD simulations, but with simpler, 10 million times faster calculations. Despite the poor theoretical basis of the BCA at low ion energies, and the use of somewhat different potentials in MD and BCA calculations, the ion penetration depths predicted by BCA are only ∼12% less than those predicted by MD. The MD-BCA differences are highly systematic and trends in the results of the two methods are very similar. We have carried out more than 200 BCA calculation runs of ion bombardment of fuzz, in which parameters in the ion bombardment process were varied. For most parameters, the results show that the ion bombardment process is quite generic. The ion species (He or H), ion mass, fuzz element (W, Ta, Mo, Fe) and fuzz element lattice parameter turned out to have a modest influence on ion penetration depths at most. An off-normal angle of incidence strongly reduces the ion penetration depth. Increasing the ion energy increases the ion penetration, but the rate by which ion energy drops off at high ion energies follows the same exponential pattern as at lower energies.

  10. Center of excellence for mobile sensor data-to-knowledge (MD2K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Abowd, Gregory D; Abraham, William T; al'Absi, Mustafa; Beck, J Gayle; Chau, Duen Horng; Condie, Tyson; Conroy, David E; Ertin, Emre; Estrin, Deborah; Ganesan, Deepak; Lam, Cho; Marlin, Benjamin; Marsh, Clay B; Murphy, Susan A; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Patrick, Kevin; Rehg, James M; Sharmin, Moushumi; Shetty, Vivek; Sim, Ida; Spring, Bonnie; Srivastava, Mani; Wetter, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mobile sensor data-to-knowledge (MD2K) was chosen as one of 11 Big Data Centers of Excellence by the National Institutes of Health, as part of its Big Data-to-Knowledge initiative. MD2K is developing innovative tools to streamline the collection, integration, management, visualization, analysis, and interpretation of health data generated by mobile and wearable sensors. The goal of the big data solutions being developed by MD2K is to reliably quantify physical, biological, behavioral, social, and environmental factors that contribute to health and disease risk. The research conducted by MD2K is targeted at improving health through early detection of adverse health events and by facilitating prevention. MD2K will make its tools, software, and training materials widely available and will also organize workshops and seminars to encourage their use by researchers and clinicians. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Angiotensin II induces kidney inflammatory injury and fibrosis through binding to myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Li, Weixin; Han, Jibo; Zou, Chunpeng; Huang, Weijian; Yu, Weihui; Shan, Xiaoou; Lum, Hazel; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2017-03-21

    Growing evidence indicates that angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent biologically active product of RAS, is a key regulator of renal inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II induces renal inflammatory injury and fibrosis through interaction with myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), the accessory protein of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of the immune system. Results indicated that in MD2 -/- mice, the Ang II-induced renal fibrosis, inflammation and kidney dysfunction were significantly reduced compared to control Ang II-infused wild-type mice. Similarly, in the presence of small molecule MD2 specific inhibitor L6H21 or siRNA-MD2, the Ang II-induced increases of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory molecules were prevented in tubular NRK-52E cells. MD2 blockade also inhibited activation of NF-κB and ERK. Moreover, MD2 blockade prevented the Ang II-stimulated formation of the MD2/TLR4/MyD88 signaling complex, as well as the increased surface binding of Ang II in NRK-52E cells. In addition, Ang II directly bound recombinant MD2 protein, rather than TLR4 protein. We conclude that MD2 is a significant contributor in the Ang II-induced kidney inflammatory injury in chronic renal diseases. Furthermore, MD2 inhibition could be a new and important therapeutic strategy for preventing progression of chronic renal diseases.

  12. MdHB1 down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white-fleshed apple cultivar 'Granny Smith'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghua; Liu, Cuihua; Yan, Dan; Wen, Xiaohong; Liu, Yanli; Wang, Haojie; Dai, Jieyu; Zhang, Yujie; Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Ren, Xiaolin

    2017-02-01

    Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple). Moreover, flowers of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC89') overexpressing MdHB1 showed a remarkable reduction in pigmentation. Transient promoter activation assays and yeast one-hybrid results indicated that MdHB1 indirectly inhibited expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT). Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation determined that MdHB1 acted as a homodimer and could interact with MYB, bHLH, and WD40 in the cytoplasm, consistent with its cytoplasmic localization by green fluorescent protein fluorescence observations. Together, these results suggest that MdHB1 constrains MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, and MdTTG1 to the cytoplasm, and then represses the transcription of MdDFR and MdUFGT indirectly. When MdHB1 is silenced, these TFs are released to activate the expression of MdDFR and MdUFGT and also anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulting in red flesh in 'Granny Smith'. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  14. Desalination and Water Recycling by Air Gap Membrane Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  15. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad baghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any research done on the use of saline and brackish waters is statistically significant. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of different water salinity and water management on some of the agronomic traits of late summer melon with drip irrigation, an experiment with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions was conducted in a randomized complete block design, in Torogh station, Mashhad. The irrigation treatments were: 1- fresh water from planting to harvesting, 2- water (3 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 3- water (6 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 4- water (6 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 5-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting, 6-water (3 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 7-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting. Row spacing and plant spacing were 3 m and 60 cm, respectively and the pipe type had 6 liters per hour per unit of meters in the drip irrigation system. Finally, the amount of salinity water, number of male and female flowers, number of seed germination, dry leaves' weight, leaf area, chlorophyll (with SPAD etc. were measured and all data were analyzed by using MSTAT-C software and all averages of data, were compared by using the Duncan test. Results and Discussion The results of analysis of data showed the following: Number of seeds germination: Salinity in water irrigation had no significant effects on the number of seed germination. However, there was the most number of seed

  16. A green process for recovery of 1-propanol/2-propanol from their aqueous solutions: Experimental and MD simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Bhupender S.; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A green conceptual design for separating propanols from their aqueous solutions is proposed. • TRIS is biocompatible and non-volatile and can be used as an auxiliary agent for the separation. • Isobaric VLE data for 1-propanol/2-propanol + water + TRIS were measured at 101.3 kPa. • The azeotropic compositions are significantly shifted in the presence of TRIS. • Intermolecular interactions were studied with fluorescence, COSMO-RS, and MD simulation. - Abstract: In the present study, we have found that a common and relatively inexpensive biological buffer tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) is potentially applicable to shift the azeotrope compositions of aqueous solutions of 1-propanol and 2-propanol. By taking the advantage of our findings, we are proposing a green process for the recovery of these organics from their respective aqueous solutions. In order to confirm the effect of TRIS buffer on vapor–liquid equilibrium behavior of the aqueous propanol systems, we measured the isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data at 101.3 kPa for the 1-proponol + water + TRIS and 2-propanol + water + TRIS systems over the azeotropic range with various concentrations of TRIS (0.02, 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 in mole fraction). The binary interaction parameters were obtained for TRIS with water, TRIS with 1-propanol, and TRIS with 2-propanol by correlating the new VLE data with the NRTL model. The isobaric VLE properties for the investigated propanol + water mixtures in the presence of various concentrations of TRIS were also predicted with the conductor-like screening model COSMO-RS. Based on the predicted excess molar enthalpies (H E m ) from the COSMO-RS, the interactions between all constituent pairs of molecules were estimated. To explore the mechanism of TRIS-based separation of 1-propanol/2-propanol from their aqueous solutions, the interactions between different pairs of molecules were also investigated by using fluorescence analysis and

  17. Electroreduction Property and MD Simulation of Nitrobenzene in Ionic Liquid [BMim][Tf2N]/[BMim][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Jianping; Zhang, Yinxu; Sun, Ruyao; Chen, Song

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The two different common accessible ionic liquids are mixed in a simple and economic way. • In some compound ratios, the dynamic performance of nitrobenzene is superior to either of ionic liquids. • Modification and functionalization of ionic liquids in electrochemical field is feasible. • The mass transfer of diffusion of nitrobenzene in ionic liquids can be simulated with molecular dynamics. • Molecular dynamics explains the improvement of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids. - Abstract: The two different common accessible ionic liquids [BMim][BF 4 ] and [BMim][Tf 2 N] were mixed each other in a simple and economic way. In some compound ratios, the dynamic performance of nitrobenzene in electric reduction was superior to that of any single kind of ionic liquid has been appeared. The interaction and mass transfer of diffusion of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids with different volume ratios were studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The improvement of the electroreduction performance of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids was verified and was tried to explain. This provides a new idea for the modification and functionalization of ionic liquids in electrochemical field. The experimental results showed that kinematic viscosity and electroconductibility of different ionic liquid systems display a regular change. And the change law has been basically unchanged after adding water. The two different functional ionic liquids were complemented each other in a simple and economic way, which has compensated for the disadvantage of mono-component ionic liquids. At 25 °C, electroreduction property of V [BMim][BF4] :V [BMim][Tf2N] = 1:1 is the best in cyclic voltammetry experiments of nitrobenzene in different composite ionic liquids. Its electrochemical behavior is significantly affected by scan rate, temperature, concentration of nitrobenzene and concentration of water. The MD simulation results showed most of interaction

  18. Spatiotemporal characterization of dissolved carbon for inland waters in semi-humid/semiarid region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K. S.; Zang, S. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Du, J.; Li, L.; Zhang, N. N.; Wang, X. D.; Shao, T. T.; Guan, Y.; Liu, L.

    2013-05-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), inorganic carbon (DIC) in 26 waters across the semi-humid/semi-arid Songnen Plain, China were examined with data collected during 2008-2011. Fresh (n = 14) and brackish (n = 12) waters were grouped according to electrical conductivity (threshold = 1000 μS cm-1). Significant differences in the mean DOC/DIC concentrations were observed between fresh (5.63 mg L-1, 37.39 mg L-1) and brackish waters (15.33 mg L-1, 142.93 mg L-1). Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations were mainly controlled by climatic-hydrologic conditions. The observation indicated that the outflow conditions in the semi-endorheic region had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity vs. DOC (R2 = 0.66), and vs. DIC (R2 = 0.94). Independent data set collected in May 2012 also confirmed this finding (DOC: R2 = 0.79), (DIC: R2 = 0.91), highlighting the potential of quantifying DOC/DIC via salinity measurements for waters dispersed in the plain. Indices based on CDOM absorption spectra, e.g. DOC specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254), absorption ratio a250 : a365 (E250:365) and spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400), were applied to characterize DOM composition and quality. Our results indicate high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in fresh waters than brackish waters.

  19. Combination of advanced encryption standard 256 bits with md5 to secure documents on android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, Hendra; Sitanggang, Delima; Rizki Damanik, Rudolfo; Rudianto Sitompul, Alex Chandra

    2018-04-01

    File transfer by using a smartphone has some security issues like data theft by irresponsible parties. To improve the quality of data security systems on smartphones, in this research the integration of AES 256 bit algorithm by using MD5 hashing is proposed. The use of MD5 aims to increase the key strength of the encryption and decryption process of document files. The test results show that the proposed method can increase the key strength of the encryption and decryption process in the document file. Encryption and decryption time by using AES and MD5 combination is faster than using AES only on *.txt file type and reverse results for *.docx, *.xlsx, *.pptx and *.pdf file files.

  20. MD1271: Effect of low frequency noise on the evolution of the emittance and halo population

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, Miriam; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Hofle, Wolfgang; Hostettler, Michi; Papadopoulou, Parthena Stefania; Papotti, Giulia; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pellegrini, Dario; Trad, Georges; Valuch, Daniel; Valentino, Gianluca; Wagner, Joschka; Cai, Xu; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    For the High Luminosity upgrade the β* in IR1 and IR5 will be further reduced compared to the current LHC. As the β* decreases the β-functions in the inner triplet (IT) increase resulting in a higher sensitivity of the HL-LHC to ground motion in the IT region or to increases of the low frequency noise. Noise can in general lead to emittance growth and higher halo population and diffusion rate. However, it is usually assumed in the literature that only frequencies close to the betatron frequencies and sidebands have an effect on the emittance and tail population. To test this theory, an MD was carried out to observe if also low frequency noise can lead to emittance growth and stronger halo population and diffusion. This MD conducted on 24.08.2016 follows a previous MD on 05.11.2015/06.11.2015

  1. MD/MBA programs in the United States: evidence of a change in health care leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Chandler, Maria; Forman, Howard P

    2003-03-01

    Managerial sciences are playing an increasingly prominent role in the organization and delivery of health care. Despite popular media reports that a rising number of physicians are acquiring a background in this discipline through MD/MBA (medical and master of business administration) programs, no recent study has verified this. This study measured changes in the number and nature of the affiliations between management and medicine in the form of MD/MBA programs in the United States. Surveys of admission officers of 125 U.S. allopathic medical schools and of the overseers of each joint MD/MBA degree program were administered in May-October 2001. Main outcome measures included program growth, curriculum and degree requirements, application and admission requirements, and program leadership and organization. The number of MD/MBA programs grew from six to 33 between 1993 and 2001, and 17 more medical schools were considering establishing the joint-degree program. Ten, 15, and 20 programs produced 27, 42, and 61 graduates in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively, and over 100 students were expected to graduate per year when all 33 programs matured. Program structures and oversight indicate a spectrum of philosophies regarding the appropriate level of integration of the two degrees. MD/MBA programs apparently attempt to complement medical education with management education rather than the converse. The growth in the numbers of MD/MBA programs and participants indicates rising cooperation between medical and business schools and increasing interest in management education early in the careers of graduating physicians.

  2. The AINTEGUMENTA genes, MdANT1 and MdANT2, are associated with the regulation of cell production during fruit growth in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Madhumita; Malladi, Anish

    2012-06-25

    Fruit growth in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is mediated by cell production and expansion. Genes involved in regulating these processes and thereby fruit growth, are not well characterized. We hypothesized that the apple homolog(s) of AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), an APETALA2-repeat containing transcription factor, regulates cell production during fruit growth in apple. Two ANT genes, MdANT1 and MdANT2, were isolated from apple and their expression was studied during multiple stages of fruit development. MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression was high during early fruit growth coincident with the period of cell production, rapidly declined during exit from cell production, and remained low during the rest of fruit development. The effects of increase in carbohydrate availability during fruit growth were characterized. Increase in carbohydrate availability enhanced fruit growth largely through an increase in cell production. Expression of MdANT1 and MdANT2 increased sharply by up to around 5-fold in response to an increase in carbohydrate availability. Expression of the ANT genes was compared across two apple genotypes, 'Gala' and 'Golden Delicious Smoothee' (GS), which differ in the extent of fruit growth, largely due to differences in cell production. In comparison to 'Gala', the larger fruit-size genotype, GS, displayed higher levels and a longer duration of MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression. Expression of the ANTs and cell cycle genes in the fruit core and cortex tissues isolated using laser capture microdissection was studied. During early fruit growth, expression of the MdANTs was higher within the cortex, the tissue that constitutes the majority of the fruit. Additionally, MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression was positively correlated with that of A- and B-type CYCLINS, B-type CYCLIN-DEPENDENT-KINASES (CDKBs) and MdDEL1. Multiple lines of evidence from this study suggest that MdANT1 and MdANT2 regulate cell production during fruit growth in apple. ANTs may coordinate the expression of

  3. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a blue light receptor gene MdCRY2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-04-01

    MdCRY2 was isolated from apple fruit skin, and its function was analyzed in MdCRY2 transgenic Arabidopsis. The interaction between MdCRY2 and AtCOP1 was found by yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays. Cryptochromes are blue/ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light receptors involved in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. Investigations of the structure and functions of cryptochromes in plants have largely focused on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pea (Pisum sativum), and rice (Oryza sativa). However, no data on the function of CRY2 are available in woody plants. In this study, we isolated a cryptochrome gene, MdCRY2, from apple (Malus domestica). The deduced amino acid sequences of MdCRY2 contain the conserved N-terminal photolyase-related domain and the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain, as well as the C-terminal DQXVP-acidic-STAES (DAS) domain. Relationship analysis indicates that MdCRY2 shows the highest similarity to the strawberry FvCRY protein. The expression of MdCRY2 is induced by blue/UV-A light, which represents a 48-h circadian rhythm. To investigate the function of MdCRY2, we overexpressed the MdCRY2 gene in a cry2 mutant and wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, assessed the phenotypes of the resulting transgenic plants, and found that MdCRY2 functions to regulate hypocotyl elongation, root growth, flower initiation, and anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between MdCRY2 and AtCOP1 using a yeast two-hybrid assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. These data provide functional evidence for a role of blue/UV-A light-induced MdCRY2 in controlling photomorphogenesis in apple.

  4. Multiscale Treatment for the Molecular Mechanism of a Diels-Alder Reaction in Solution: A QM/MM-MD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Tapia, Ricardo A; Torras, Juan

    2016-10-11

    Thermodynamics and the solvent role in the acceleration of the Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene (CPD) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) have been revisited. In this work we use an ab initio hybrid QM/MM-MD scheme combined with multiple steered molecular dynamics to extract the free energy pofile in water and methanol using the bidirectional Minh-Adib estimator. We obtain 18.7 kcal mol -1 and 20.8 kcal mol -1 free energy barrier for the reaction in water and methanol, respectively. This methodology reproduces experimental values with an absolute error of about 0.8 kcal mol -1 . The experimental difference between the activation free-energy barriers of water and methanol is also reproduced with an absolute error of about 0.1 kcal mol -1 . We explore the charge transfer evolution along reaction coordinates to characterize the electronic behavior for this reaction. It is shown that the solvent molecules around the reaction system produce a global polarization along the reaction coordinate which is consistent with the solvent polarity. The results highlight the role of hydrogen bonding formed in the transition state to stabilize the system charge reorganization in the reaction process.

  5. Hybrid classical/quantum simulation for infrared spectroscopy of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yuki; Sasaoka, Kenji; Ube, Takuji; Ishiguro, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a hybrid classical/quantum simulation method to calculate the infrared (IR) spectrum of water. The proposed method achieves much higher accuracy than conventional classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at a much lower computational cost than ab initio MD simulations. The IR spectrum of water is obtained as an ensemble average of the eigenvalues of the dynamical matrix constructed by ab initio calculations, using the positions of oxygen atoms that constitute water molecules obtained from the classical MD simulation. The calculated IR spectrum is in excellent agreement with the experimental IR spectrum.

  6. Brackish groundwater membrane system design for sustainable irrigation: Optimal configuration selection using analytic hierarchy process and multi-dimension scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni eLew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent high demands for reuse of salty water for irrigation affected membrane producers to assess new potential technologies for undesirable physical, chemical and biological contaminants removal. This paper studies the assembly options by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP model and the multi-dimension scaling (MDS techniques. A specialized form of MDS (CoPlot software enables presentation of the AHP outcomes in a two dimensional space and the optimal model can be visualized clearly. Four types of 8 membranes were selected: (i Nanofiltration low rejection and high flux (ESNA1-LF-LD, 86% rejection, 10,500gpd; (ii Nanofiltration medium rejection and medium flux (ESNA1-LF2-LD, 91% rejection, 8,200gpd; (iii Reverse Osmosis high rejection and high flux (CPA5-MAX, 99.7 rejection, 12,000gpd ; and (iv Reverse Osmosis medium rejection and extreme high flux (ESPA4-MAX, 99.2 rejection, 13,200gpd. The results indicate that: (i Nanofiltration membrane (High flux and Low rejection can produce water for irrigation with valuable levels of nutrient ions and a reduction in the sodium absorption ratio (SAR, minimizing soil salinity; this is an attractive option for agricultural irrigation and is the optimal solution; and (ii implementing the MDS approach with reference to the variables is consequently useful to characterize membrane system design.

  7. Overexpression of a repressor MdMYB15L negatively regulates anthocyanin and cold tolerance in red-fleshed callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Yang, Guanxian; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yicheng; Zhang, Tianliang; Wang, Nan; Jiang, Shenghui; Zhang, Zongying; Chen, Xuesen

    2018-04-14

    The cold-induced metabolic pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis play important roles in plant growth. In this study, we identified a bHLH binding motif in the MdMYB15L protein using protein sequence analyses. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays showed that MdMYB15L could interact with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus inhibited the expression of MdCBF2 and resulted in reduced cold tolerance but did not affect anthocyanin levels. Chip-PCR and EMSA analysis showed that MdMYB15L could bind the type II cis-acting element found in the MdCBF2 promoter. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Knocking out the bHLH binding sequence of MdMYB15L (LBSMdMYB15L) prevented LBSMdMYB15L from interacting with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing LBSMdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Together, these results suggested that an apple repressor MdMYB15L might play a key role in the cold signaling and anthocyanin metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Humanized TLR4/MD-2 mice reveal LPS recognition differentially impacts susceptibility to Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline M Hajjar

    Full Text Available Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4/MD-2 receptor complex activates host defense against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, how species-specific differences in LPS recognition impact host defense remains undefined. Herein, we establish how temperature dependent shifts in the lipid A of Yersinia pestis LPS that differentially impact recognition by mouse versus human TLR4/MD-2 dictate infection susceptibility. When grown at 37°C, Y. pestis LPS is hypo-acylated and less stimulatory to human compared with murine TLR4/MD-2. By contrast, when grown at reduced temperatures, Y. pestis LPS is more acylated, and stimulates cells equally via human and mouse TLR4/MD-2. To investigate how these temperature dependent shifts in LPS impact infection susceptibility, transgenic mice expressing human rather than mouse TLR4/MD-2 were generated. We found the increased susceptibility to Y. pestis for "humanized" TLR4/MD-2 mice directly paralleled blunted inflammatory cytokine production in response to stimulation with purified LPS. By contrast, for other Gram-negative pathogens with highly acylated lipid A including Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli, infection susceptibility and the response after stimulation with LPS were indistinguishable between mice expressing human or mouse TLR4/MD-2. Thus, Y. pestis exploits temperature-dependent shifts in LPS acylation to selectively evade recognition by human TLR4/MD-2 uncovered with "humanized" TLR4/MD-2 transgenic mice.

  9. Humanized TLR4/MD-2 mice reveal LPS recognition differentially impacts susceptibility to Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Adeline M; Ernst, Robert K; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Brasfield, Alicia S; Yam, Cathy S; Newlon, Lindsay A; Kollmann, Tobias R; Miller, Samuel I; Wilson, Christopher B

    2012-01-01

    Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation through the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/MD-2 receptor complex activates host defense against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, how species-specific differences in LPS recognition impact host defense remains undefined. Herein, we establish how temperature dependent shifts in the lipid A of Yersinia pestis LPS that differentially impact recognition by mouse versus human TLR4/MD-2 dictate infection susceptibility. When grown at 37°C, Y. pestis LPS is hypo-acylated and less stimulatory to human compared with murine TLR4/MD-2. By contrast, when grown at reduced temperatures, Y. pestis LPS is more acylated, and stimulates cells equally via human and mouse TLR4/MD-2. To investigate how these temperature dependent shifts in LPS impact infection susceptibility, transgenic mice expressing human rather than mouse TLR4/MD-2 were generated. We found the increased susceptibility to Y. pestis for "humanized" TLR4/MD-2 mice directly paralleled blunted inflammatory cytokine production in response to stimulation with purified LPS. By contrast, for other Gram-negative pathogens with highly acylated lipid A including Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli, infection susceptibility and the response after stimulation with LPS were indistinguishable between mice expressing human or mouse TLR4/MD-2. Thus, Y. pestis exploits temperature-dependent shifts in LPS acylation to selectively evade recognition by human TLR4/MD-2 uncovered with "humanized" TLR4/MD-2 transgenic mice.

  10. Inventories of 239+240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb in sediment cores from brackish Lake Obuchi, Rokkasho Village, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, S.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Kondo, K.

    2004-01-01

    Distribution and inventories of 239+240 Pu, 137 Cs, and excess 210 Pb ( 210 Pb excess ) in sediment core samples from brackish Lake Obuchi, which is in the vicinity of nuclear fuel facilities in Rokkasho Village, Japan. The inventory of the 239+240 Pu activity in the sediment samples from the estuary of a freshwater river, the central point of the lake, and the deepest point in the lake were 0.18, 0.29, and 0.24 kBq x m -2 , respectively. The inventories of 137 Cs and 210 Pb excess in sediments were 0.83-1.2 kBq x m -2 and 25-30 kBq x m -2 , respectively. The mean 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs and 210 Pb excess / 137 Cs activity ratios were 0.23 and 28, respectively. The 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios were approximately 13-24 times the ratio expected from global fallout. The inventories of 239+240 Pu and 210 Pb in sediments were higher than the inventory expected from atmospheric fallout, but the 137 Cs inventory was significantly lower than expected. (author)

  11. Seasonal variations of nitrous oxide fluxes and soil denitrification rates in subtropical freshwater and brackish tidal marshes of the Min River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuming; Hu, Minjie; Ren, Hongchang; Li, Jiabing; Tong, Chuan; Musenze, Ronald S

    2018-03-01

    Estuarine tidal marshes provide favorable conditions for nitrous oxide (N 2 O) production. Saltwater intrusion caused by sea-level rise would exert complex effects on the production and emission of N 2 O in estuarine tidal marshes; however, few studies have been conducted on its effects on N 2 O emissions. Salinity gradients are a common occurrence in estuarine tidal marshes. Studies on production and emission of N 2 O in tidal marshes with different salinities may elucidate the impact of saltwater intrusion on the emission of greenhouse gases. This study explores the seasonal variations of N 2 O fluxes and soil denitrification rates in freshwater (Daoqingzhou wetland) and brackish (Shanyutan wetland) tidal marshes dominated by Cyperus malaccensis var. brevifolius (shichito matgrass) in the Min River estuary, southeastern China. N 2 O fluxes in both marshes showed strong temporal variability. The highest N 2 O fluxes were observed in the hot and wet summer months, whereas the lowest fluxes were observed in the cold winter and autumn months. N 2 O fluxes from the freshwater marsh (48.81±9.01μgm -2 h -1 ) were significantly higher (ptidal wetlands and exert a negative feedback on the climate system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical features of Haff disease and myositis after the consumption of boiled brackish water crayfish: a retrospective study of 96 cases at a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Ni, Jun; Huang, Jun-Ai; Liu, Yao; Wu, Chao; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-08

    The present study describes the difference in clinical features between the patients with Haff disease and crayfish-related myositis (CRM) after crayfish consumption. This was a single-centre, retrospective analysis at the Emergency Department of the Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University School of Medicine from July to August of 2016. The baseline information came from the Electronic Medical Record System at the institution. Totally 96 patients were included, of whom 52 patients were confirmed to have Haff disease and 44 patients were CRM. The illness predominately occurs in summer and most of them (55/96) are female. The primary clinical features are myalgia, muscle allodynia and back and body pain. Statistical differences in the baseline CK, CK-MB, myoglobin, and the WBC count exist between the Haff disease and CRM groups (P < 0.05). The serum levels of CK and CK-MB increase in the second (a median time 29.2 ± 7.4 h) or third day (a median time 54.8 ± 9.3 h) of disease course, and then rapidly decreased to normal levels, while the levels of myoglobin peak at the admission (a median time 7.7 ± 6.4 h) and became normal after admission. There were no fatalities or complications during this study. All 96 patients recovered in a week. Of them, 75 were followed-up within 1 month and none had recurrence. The Haff disease and CRM after boiled crayfish consumption reflect a different severity of muscle injury, and reveal similar clinical characteristics and most of the laboratory values. The overall prognosis of both is good.

  13. Desalination of brackish waters by electrodialysis. I. Process variable studies; Desalacion de aguas salobres por electrodialisis. I. Estudio de las variables del proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Lopez, J; Sainz Sastre, J A

    1972-07-01

    This study was carried out with solutions of 5000, 3000 and 1000 ppm of NaCl, and 3000 and 1000 ppm of NaSO{sub 4}. A stack-pack of 20 pairs membranes, Nepton lonics 61 AZL 183 -cationic- and 111 BZL 183 -anionic- with 220 cm{sup 2}/membrane was used. For the above mentioned Solutions the following values were determined: Limiting current density; the values of n and K in the expression which relates the L.C.D. with flow rate; dependence of spent energy on flow rate; spent energy and time of operation versus initial current and concentration of the solution, and finally the influence of the concentration potential on the electrodialytic process. A discussion of the results obtained is included. (Author) 18 refs.

  14. Environmental effects of thermal and radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants in the boreal brackish-water conditions of the northern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ilus, Erkki

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, thermal and radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants into the aquatic environment have become the subject of lively debate as an ecological concern. The target of this thesis was to summarize the large quantity of results obtained in extensive monitoring programmes and studies carried out in recipient sea areas off the Finnish nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto during more than four decades. The Loviisa NPP is located on the coast of the Gulf of Finla...

  15. MdATG18a overexpression improves tolerance to nitrogen deficiency and regulates anthocyanin accumulation through increased autophagy in transgenic apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Jia, Xin; Huo, Liuqing; Che, Runmin; Gong, Xiaoqing; Wang, Ping; Ma, Fengwang

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is an essential factor for plant growth. Recycling and remobilization of N have strong impacts on crop yield and quality under N deficiency. Autophagy is a critical nutrient-recycling process that facilitates remobilization under starvation. We previously showed that an important AuTophaGy (ATG) protein from apple, MdATG18a, has a positive role in drought tolerance. In this study, we explored its biological role in response to low-N. Overexpression of MdATG18a in both Arabidopsis and apple improved tolerance to N-depletion and caused a greater accumulation of anthocyanin. The increased anthocyanin concentration in transgenic apple was possibly due to up-regulating flavonoid biosynthetic and regulatory genes (MdCHI, MdCHS, MdANS, MdPAL, MdUFGT, and MdMYB1) and higher soluble sugars concentration. MdATG18a overexpression enhanced starch degradation with up-regulating amylase gene (MdAM1) and up-regulated sugar metabolism related genes (MdSS1, MdHXKs, MdFK1, and MdNINVs). Furthermore, MdATG18a functioned in nitrate uptake and assimilation by up-regulating nitrate reductase MdNIA2 and 3 high-affinity nitrate transporters MdNRT2.1/2.4/2.5. MdATG18a overexpression also elevated other important MdATG genes expression and autophagosomes formation under N-depletion, which play key contributions to above changes. Together, these results demonstrate that overexpression of MdATG18a enhances tolerance to N-deficiencies and plays positive roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis through greater autophagic activity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sea water desalination using nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper first underlines the water shortage problem today and in the years to come when, around the time horizon 2020, two-thirds of the total world population would be without access to potable water. Desalination of sea-water (and, to a limited extent, that of brackish water) is shown to be an attractive solution. In this context, sea-water desalination by nuclear energy appears to be not only technically feasible and safe but also economically very attractive and a sustainable solution. Thus, compared to conventional fossil energy based sources, desalination costs by nuclear options could be 30 to 60% lower. The nuclear options are therefore expected to satisfy the fundamental water needs and electricity demands of human beings without in any way producing large amounts of greenhouse gases which any desalination strategy, based on the employment of fossil fuels, cannot fail to avoid. (author)

  17. 76 FR 20008 - Notice of Temporary Concession Contract for Assateague Island National Seashore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... pre-packaged food and beverage. This action is necessary to avoid interruption of visitor services... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0111-6544; 2410-OYC] Notice of Temporary Concession Contract for Assateague Island National Seashore, MD AGENCY: National Park Service...

  18. Property values, parks, and crime: a hedonic analysis in Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove

    2008-01-01

    While urban parks are generally considered to be a positive amenity, past research suggests that some parks are perceived as a neighborhood liability. Using hedonic analysis of property data in Baltimore, MD, we attempted to determine whether crime rate mediates how parks are valued by the housing market. Transacted price was regressed against park proximity, area-...

  19. 77 FR 42179 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Potomac River, Charles County, Newburg, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...]30[sec] W, located at Newburg in Charles County, Maryland (NAD 1983). The temporary safety zone will... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Potomac River, Charles County, Newburg, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will establish a safety zone upon...

  20. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  1. 75 FR 50878 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD- 90-30 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... McDonnell Douglas Corporation: Amendment 39-16388. Docket No. FAA-2010-0433; Directorate Identifier 2009-NM..., 2010. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model...

  2. 75 FR 68245 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ...-1043; Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-200-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas... McDonnell Douglas Model MD-90-30 airplanes. This proposed AD would require installing new fire handle... airworthiness directive (AD): McDonnell Douglas Corporation: Docket No. FAA-2010-1043; Directorate Identifier...

  3. 75 FR 38056 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-0645; Directorate Identifier 2009-NM-200-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas..., September 9, 2008), for certain McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 airplanes. That AD requires a... fasteners in the aft mount support fitting of the left and right engines on 29 McDonnell Douglas Corporation...

  4. 75 FR 21528 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...-0433; Directorate Identifier 2009-NM-117-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas... main landing gear (MLG) during gear extension, damaging the hydraulic system on McDonnell Douglas.... The retract cylinder support fittings for the MLG on McDonnell Douglas Model MD-80 series airplanes...

  5. 75 FR 36577 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD- 90-30 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Douglas Corporation: Docket No. FAA-2010-0554; Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-082-AD. Comments Due Date (a... supersedes AD 2009-07-04, Amendment 39-15863. Applicability (c) This AD applies to McDonnell Douglas...

  6. 75 FR 80742 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...-1202; Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-167-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): McDonnell Douglas Corporation... Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 airplanes, certificated in any category. Subject (d) Joint Aircraft...

  7. 75 FR 66653 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-90-30 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD- 90-30 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...-15667 (73 FR 52203, September 9, 2008), and adding the following new AD: 2010-22-04 McDonnell Douglas... supersedes AD 2008-18-10, Amendment 39-15667. Applicability (c) This AD applies to McDonnell Douglas...

  8. 75 FR 51333 - Madison Square Federal Savings Bank, Baltimore, MD; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-49: OTS Nos. 08156 and H4736] Madison Square Federal Savings Bank, Baltimore, MD; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on August 12, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Madison Square...

  9. 75 FR 24774 - Fairmount Bank, Baltimore, MD; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-36 OTS Nos. 08193 and H4677] Fairmount Bank, Baltimore, MD; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on April 15, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Fairmount Bank, Baltimore, Maryland, to...

  10. 75 FR 31511 - Ideal Federal Savings Bank, Baltimore, MD; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-46: OTS No. 08283] Ideal Federal Savings Bank, Baltimore, MD; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 24, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Ideal Federal Savings Bank...

  11. 77 FR 68149 - Karen Paul Holley, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 12-51] Karen Paul Holley, M.D... revoke the DEA Certificate of Registration (COR), Number BH8988339, of Karen Paul Holley, M.D....D., 74 FR 17528, 174529 (2009); John B. Freitas, D.O., 74 FR 17524, 17525 (2009); Roger A. Rodriguez...

  12. 76 FR 20034 - Calvin Ramsey, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 10-25] Calvin Ramsey, M.D.; Revocation of Registration On December 18, 2009, the Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Diversion... constitutional right to appointed counsel in a proceeding under 21 U.S.C. 824(a). See Goldberg v. Kelly, 397 U.S...

  13. 76 FR 9407 - Fraternity Federal Savings & Loan Association, Baltimore, MD; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-58 OTS No. 01292 and H 4762] Fraternity Federal Savings & Loan Association, Baltimore, MD; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on February 10, 2011, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of...

  14. 75 FR 49956 - Dewey C. Mackay, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 09-28] Dewey C. Mackay, M.D.; Revocation of Registration On February 26, 2009, I, the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), issued an Order to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Dewey C. MacKay...

  15. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulation. The Baltimore County Revenue Authority (Dundalk Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek... applicable or necessary. Basis and Purpose The drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and...

  16. Going Concern Opinions and Management's Forward Looking Disclosures: Evidence from the MD&A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enev, M.; Geiger, Marshall; Gold, A.H.; Wallage, P.

    In this study we examine the relationship between the auditor’s going concern opinion and management’s forward-looking disclosures in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) section of 10-K filings. The research objective is two-fold and addresses whether the presence of a going concern

  17. 77 FR 35054 - Donald Brooks Reece II, M.D.; Dismissal of Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ..., M.D. (Respondent), of Morehead City, N.C. The Order proposed the revocation of Respondent's DEA... pleading entitled: ``Notice To The Administrator Regarding State Authority,'' with attachments. Therein..., at 3. This Order was effective on December 8, 2011. Id., Attachment 5, at 6. Upon review of the...

  18. 75 FR 18056 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons Island Harbor, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... the event, and enhancing public and maritime safety. Basis and Purpose Fireworks displays are... promote public and maritime safety during a fireworks display, and to protect mariners transiting the area...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons Island Harbor, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  19. MD#2183: Calibration of the IR6 B2 diamond BLMs

    CERN Document Server

    Valette, Matthieu; Lindstrom, Bjorn Hans Filip

    2018-01-01

    In case of an asynchronous beam dump with a fully filled LHC machine, causing ~40 bunches to impact on the movable dump protection absorber (TCDQ), it is expected that all standard ionisation chamber Beam Loss Monitors (IC BLM) around the LHC dumping region in IR6 will be saturated. Diamond Beam Loss Monitors (dBLM) were therefore installed next to the TCDQ downstream of the extraction kickers. These detectors allow resolving losses at a nanosecond timescale and with a dynamic range of several orders of magnitude; thus, allowing to derive the number of nominal bunches impacting the TCDQ. After a first series of calibrations using asynchronous beam dump tests, an experiment was conducted during MD#1182 to demonstrate the possibility of resolving a nominal bunch hitting the TCDQ. During this first MD only the Beam 1 dBLM was calibrated appropriately, a second calibration MD was therefore performed in 2017 for the B2 system. Results from this MD and conclusions regarding dBLM saturation with a top energy nominal...

  20. 76 FR 71369 - Robert G. Crummie, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... agencies to perform meaningless tasks. See Layfe Robert Anthony, M.D., 67 FR 35582 (DEA 2002); Michael G.... Kirk v. Mullen, 749 F.2d 297 (6th Cir. 1984); Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Auth. v. EPA, 35 F.3d 600...

  1. The draft genome of MD-2 pineapple using hybrid error correction of long reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Raimi M.; Saidin, Akzam; Kumar, S. Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the elite pineapple variety, MD-2, has caused a significant market shift in the pineapple industry. Better productivity, overall increased in fruit quality and taste, resilience to chilled storage and resistance to internal browning are among the key advantages of the MD-2 as compared with its previous predecessor, the Smooth Cayenne. Here, we present the genome sequence of the MD-2 pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) by using the hybrid sequencing technology from two highly reputable platforms, i.e. the PacBio long sequencing reads and the accurate Illumina short reads. Our draft genome achieved 99.6% genome coverage with 27,017 predicted protein-coding genes while 45.21% of the genome was identified as repetitive elements. Furthermore, differential expression of ripening RNASeq library of pineapple fruits revealed ethylene-related transcripts, believed to be involved in regulating the process of non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. The MD-2 pineapple draft genome serves as an example of how a complex heterozygous genome is amenable to whole genome sequencing by using a hybrid technology that is both economical and accurate. The genome will make genomic applications more feasible as a medium to understand complex biological processes specific to pineapple. PMID:27374615

  2. 78 FR 11142 - Connor Hayden Kraegel, 19917 Spurrier Avenue, Poolesville, MD 20837; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Connor Hayden Kraegel, 19917 Spurrier... Court, District of Maryland, Connor Hayden Kraegel (``Kraegel'') was convicted of violating Section 38... Hayden Kraegel, with a last known address at: 19917 Spurrier Avenue, Poolesville, MD 20837, and when...

  3. 75 FR 51945 - Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... of the St. Mary's River, a tributary of the Potomac River. This action is necessary to provide for.... Navy helicopter located near St. Inigoes, Maryland. This safety zone is intended to protect the...

  4. Heat Flow Data Cruise MD72 RV Marion Dufresne over the Mascarene Ridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data were gathered by the R/V Marion Dufresne in May and June of 1992 over the Mascarene Ridge in the Indian Ocean on cruise MD72/MASCAFLUX. Heat flow measurements...

  5. 77 FR 11434 - Safety Zone; Patapsco River, Northwest and Inner Harbors, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Patapsco River, Northwest and Inner Harbors, Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... intended route immediately prior to, during, and following the scheduled towing evolution, vessel traffic... made to the maritime community via marine information broadcasts so mariners may adjust their plans...

  6. InforMD: a new initiative to raise public awareness about breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Honor J; Zysk, Aneta; Dasari, Pallave; Britt, Kara; Hopper, John L; Stone, Jennifer; Thompson, Erik W; Ingman, Wendy V

    2018-01-01

    On a mammogram, breast density (also known as mammographic density) is shown as white and bright regions and is associated with reduced sensitivity in cancer detection and increased breast cancer risk. However, many Australian women are unaware of the significance of breast density as it is not routinely reported or discussed. In order to address this lack of knowledge, Australian breast cancer researchers with expertise in mammographic density formed the InforMD alliance (INformation FORum on Mammographic Density) in 2016. The alliance is working to raise awareness of breast density with the goal of improving breast cancer diagnosis and health outcomes for women. The InforMD website (www.InforMD.org.au) was launched in October 2016, coinciding with a major nationwide public awareness campaign by the alliance during breast cancer awareness month. The website contains unbiased, accurate, updated information on breast density. The website also provides summaries of major research articles in layperson language, recent news items related to breast density, links to relevant information for health professionals, events, and feature articles. Members of the public and health professionals can also subscribe for news updates. The interactive online Forum section facilitates discussion between health professionals, scientists and members of the public. To increase online traffic to the website, Facebook (www.facebook.com/BeInforMD) and Twitter (https://twitter.com/BeInforMD_) pages were launched in December 2016. Since its launch, InforMD has generated considerable interest. The public awareness campaign reached over 7 million Australians through a combination of newspaper, TV, radio, and online news. The website has attracted 13,058 unique visitors and 30,353 page views (data as of 19/12/2017). Breast cancer researchers have a significant role to play in disseminating information to the public on breast density. A combination of mainstream and social media, together with

  7. Spatial patterns of littoral zooplankton assemblages along a salinity gradient in a brackish sea: A functional diversity perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Laura K.; Leskinen, Elina; Lehtonen, Hannu; Nurminen, Leena

    2017-11-01

    The distribution patterns and diversity of littoral zooplankton are both key baseline information for understanding the functioning of coastal ecosystems, and for identifying the mechanisms by which the impacts of recently increased eutrophication are transferred through littoral food webs. In this study, zooplankton community structure and diversity along a shallow coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea were determined in terms of horizontal environmental gradients. Spatial heterogeneity of the zooplankton community was examined along the gradient. Altogether 31 sites in shallow sandy bays on the coast of southwest Finland were sampled in the summer periods of 2009 and 2010 for zooplankton and environmental variables (surface water temperature, salinity, turbidity, wave exposure, macrophyte coverage, chlorophyll a and nutrients). Zooplankton diversity was measured as both taxonomic as well as functional diversity, using trait-based classification of planktonic crustaceans. Salinity, and to a lesser extent turbidity and temperature, were found to be the main predictors of the spatial patterns and functional diversity of the zooplankton community. Occurrence of cyclopoid copepods, as well as abundances of the calanoid copepod genus Acartia and the rotifer genus Keratella were found to be key factors in differentiating sites along the gradient. As far as we know, this is the first extensive study of functional diversity in Baltic Sea coastal zooplankton communities.

  8. Ground water chemistry and water-rock interaction at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Front, K.

    1992-02-01

    Bedrock investigations for the final repository for low- and intermediate level wastes (VLJ repository) generated at the Olkiluoto (TVO-I and TVO-II) nuclear power plant, stareted in 1980. Since 1988 the area has been investigated for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the report the geochemistry at the nuclear waste investigation site, Olkiluoto, is evaluated. The hydrogeological data are collected from boreholes drilled down to 1000-m depth into Proterozoic crystalline bedrock. The interpretation is based on groundwater chemistry and isotope data, mineralogical data, and the structure and hydrology of the bedrock, using correlation diagrams and thermodynamic calculations (PHREEQE). The hydrogeochemistry and major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are discussed. The groundwater types are characterized by water-rock interaction but they also show features of other origins. The fresh and brackish waters are contaminated by varying amounts of young meteoric water and brackish seawater. The saline water contains residues of possibly ancient hydrothermal waters, imprints of which are occasionally seen in the rock itself. Different mixing phenomenas are indicated by the isotope contents (O-l8/H-2, H-3) and the Ca/Cl, Na/Cl, HCO 3 /Cl, SO 4 /Cl, Br/Cl, SI(calcite)/SI(dolomite) ratios. The interaction between bedrock and groundwater is reflected by the behaviour of pH, Eh, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, HCO 3 and S0 4 . Dissolution and precipitation of calcite and pyrite, and aluminosilicate hydrolysis play the major role in defining the groundwater composition of the above components

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Md [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Md 名詞 一般 * * * * メンデレビウム メンデレビウム メンデレビューム Thesaurus2015 200906022783221535 C CA03 UNKNOWN_1 Md

  10. DMPD: Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15051069 Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. Miy...ake K. Trends Microbiol. 2004 Apr;12(4):186-92. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Innate recognition of lip...opolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. PubmedID 15051069 Title Innate recognition of lipopolysacchari

  11. Usefulness of multidetector-row computed tomography (MD-CT) for diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Hiroyuki; Narabayashi, Isamu; Tanikake, Masato; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Uesugi, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of multidetector-row CT (MD-CT) in the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies in infants. MD-CT was performed 34 times on 21 patients with cardiovascular anomalies. We performed three evaluations: 1) The assessment of the specificity of MD-CT in detecting the morphological features of cardiovascular anomalies. 2) The diameters of aortae with coronary artery (CoA), and the diameters of pulmonary artery, measured by using MD-CT were compared with those by angiography. 3) The amount of exposure to radiation was measured. 1) MD-CT can detect CoA, pulmonary arteriovenous anomalies among extracardiac anomalies in all the patients. The diagnostic accuracy for intracardiac anomalies was poor as only six of the 15 anomalies could be accurately diagnosed. 2) The diameters of aortae and pulmonary artery obtained using MD-CT showed a good correlation with those obtained using arteriography (r=0.97, 0.95). 3) The average dose-length product was 269.2 mGy·cm. And the average effective dose was 5.1 mSv. MD-CT is not suitable for the evaluation of intracardiac anomalies, but is extremely effective in the evaluation of extracardiac major vascular anomalies. On the basis of the amount of information and noninvasive nature, MD-CT should be used first before angiography. (author)

  12. The Convergence of Business and Medicine: A Study of MD/MBA Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Timothy J.; Martin, William Marty

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the convergence of business and medical education and describe the curricula of MD/MBA (Medical Doctor/Master of Business Administration) programs in the US. The focus of this study is to provide a guide to dual MD/MBA programs for physicians, aspiring physicians, policy makers and healthcare organizations.…

  13. Conserved water-mediated H-bonding dynamics of catalytic Asn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Extensive energy minimization and molecular dynamics simulation studies up to 2 ns ... Conserved water in molecular recognition; MD simulation; plant cysteine protease ..... Mustata G and Briggs J M 2004 Cluster analysis of water molecules.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Study of Water Molecules in Interlayer of 14 ^|^Aring; Tobermorite

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular structure and dynamics of interlayer water of 14 Å tobermorite are investigated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Calculated structural parameters of the interlayer water configuration are in good agreement with current

  15. The assessment of a water budget of North Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiran, G.; Ergil, M.

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity in North Cyprus (NC) began in the 1960s and is still tremendously increasing. Thus far no serious measurements have been taken to address this problem. Increased water demands led to extraction of water from unrestricted groundwater resources. Extreme water extractions caused the salinization of coastal aquifers up to brackish waters and the consequent depletion of interior aquifers. Such a situation requires precise control of water resources through an integrated water resources management (IWRM). Although the situation has reached an alarming state, no detailed research has been performed to establish the present demands of water in order to anticipate the future demands. Hence, this study, based on the IWRM approach, examines water budget of the country. (author)

  16. Will water scarcity in semiarid regions limit hydraulic fracturing of shale plays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Philippe Nicot, Jean

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about water constraints limiting oil and gas production using hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale plays, particularly in semiarid regions and during droughts. Here we evaluate HF vulnerability by comparing HF water demand with supply in the semiarid Texas Eagle Ford play, the largest shale oil producer globally. Current HF water demand (18 billion gallons, bgal; 68 billion liters, bL in 2013) equates to ∼16% of total water consumption in the play area. Projected HF water demand of ∼330 bgal with ∼62 000 additional wells over the next 20 years equates to ∼10% of historic groundwater depletion from regional irrigation. Estimated potential freshwater supplies include ∼1000 bgal over 20 yr from recharge and ∼10 000 bgal from aquifer storage, with land-owner lease agreements often stipulating purchase of freshwater. However, pumpage has resulted in excessive drawdown locally with estimated declines of ∼100–200 ft in ∼6% of the western play area since HF began in 2009–2013. Non-freshwater sources include initial flowback water, which is ≤5% of HF water demand, limiting reuse/recycling. Operators report shifting to brackish groundwater with estimated groundwater storage of 80 000 bgal. Comparison with other semiarid plays indicates increasing brackish groundwater and produced water use in the Permian Basin and large surface water inputs from the Missouri River in the Bakken play. The variety of water sources in semiarid regions, with projected HF water demand representing ∼3% of fresh and ∼1% of brackish water storage in the Eagle Ford footprint indicates that, with appropriate management, water availability should not physically limit future shale energy production. (letter)

  17. Mapping Water Use and Drought with Satellite Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Mapping water use and drought with satellite remote sensing. Martha C. Anderson, Bill Kustas, Feng Gao, Kate Semmens. USDA-Agricultural Research Service Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. Chris Hain NOAA-NESDIS

  18. Assessing the allelotypic effect of two aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase-encoding genes MdACS1 and MdACS3a on fruit ethylene production and softening in Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Laura; Zhu, Yuandi; Xu, Kenong

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene largely determines apple fruit shelf life and storability. Previous studies demonstrated that MdACS1 and MdACS3a, which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACS), are crucial in apple fruit ethylene production. MdACS1 is well-known to be intimately involved in the climacteric ethylene burst in fruit ripening, while MdACS3a has been regarded a main regulator for ethylene production transition from system 1 (during fruit development) to system 2 (during fruit ripening). However, MdACS3a was also shown to have limited roles in initiating the ripening process lately. To better assess their roles, fruit ethylene production and softening were evaluated at five time points during a 20-day post-harvest period in 97 Malus accessions and in 34 progeny from 2 controlled crosses. Allelotyping was accomplished using an existing marker (ACS1) for MdACS1 and two markers (CAPS866 and CAPS870) developed here to specifically detect the two null alleles (ACS3a-G289V and Mdacs3a) of MdACS3a. In total, 952 Malus accessions were allelotyped with the three markers. The major findings included: The effect of MdACS1 was significant on fruit ethylene production and softening while that of MdACS3a was less detectable; allele MdACS1–2 was significantly associated with low ethylene and slow softening; under the same background of the MdACS1 allelotypes, null allele Mdacs3a (not ACS3a-G289V) could confer a significant delay of ethylene peak; alleles MdACS1–2 and Mdacs3a (excluding ACS3a-G289V) were highly enriched in M. domestica and M. hybrid when compared with those in M. sieversii. These findings are of practical implications in developing apples of low and delayed ethylene profiles by utilizing the beneficial alleles MdACS1-2 and Mdacs3a. PMID:27231553

  19. Distinct solvent- and temperature-dependent packing arrangements of anti-parallel β-sheet polyalanines studied with solid-state 13C NMR and MD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kametani, Shunsuke; Tasei, Yugo; Nishimura, Akio; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2017-08-09

    Polyalanine (polyA) sequences are well known as the simplest sequence that naturally forms anti-parallel β-sheets and constitute a key element in the structure of spider and wild silkworm silk fibers. We have carried out a systematic analysis of the packing of anti-parallel β-sheets for (Ala) n , n = 5, 6, 7 and 12, using primarily 13 C solid-state NMR and MD simulation. HFIP and TFA are frequently used as the dope solvents for recombinant silks, and polyA was solidified from both HFIP and TFA solutions by drying. An analysis of Ala Cβ peaks in the 13 C CP/MAS NMR spectra indicated that polyA from HFIP was mainly rectangular but polyA from TFA was mainly staggered. The transition from the rectangular to the staggered arrangement in (Ala) 6 was observed for the first time from the change in the Ala Cβ peak through heat treatment at 200 °C for 4 h. The removal of the bound water was confirmed by thermal analysis. This transition could be reproduced by MD simulation of (Ala) 6 molecules at 200 °C after removal of the bound water molecules. In this way, the origin of the stability of the different packing arrangements of polyA was clarified.

  20. Assesing the suitability of water for irrigation theoretical and practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, A.; Javad, M.A.; Arif, M.; Rashid, A.

    2006-01-01

    Forced by the surface water shortage and prevalent drought like conditions in the country the farmers have started exploiting groundwater resource. On the other hand, seventy percent of the groundwater being marginal to unfit is a threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The judicious groundwater exploitation and application has also become imperative in context of ever increasing demographic pressure on soil, crop and water resources. Different classes of irrigation waters established by various research scientists / organizations within the country or abroad are not ultimate under all conditions but these serve as general guidelines. In some cases brackish water requires only minor modification under existing irrigation and ogronomic practices, while in most of the cases it requires major changes regarding type of crops grown, method of water application and the use of soil and water amendments. Therefore, before recommending water for irrigation. Soil characteristics, water management practices, drainage condition of the filed and climatic events must be taken into account as waters generally classified unsuitable for irrigation can be used successfully to grow crops without long term hazardous consequences to crops or soils. This can be attempted simply with the use of improved farming and management practices. Use of brackish water for irrigation may increase the resource base for irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. This article reviews various water classification schemes, salinity-crop yield interrelation with detailed discussion on brackish water application and associated problems. The article also covers a number of management options so as to mitigate the problem and sustain food security in the country. (author)

  1. Wetting and Diffusion of Water on Pristine and Strained Phosphorene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Chao; Bi, Lin; Yang, Zaixing; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene, a newly fabricated two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, have exhibited promising application prospect in biology. Nonetheless, the wetting and diffusive properties of bio-fluids on phosphorene are still elusive. In this study, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigated the structural and dynamic properties of water on pristine and strained phosphorene. The MD simulations illustrated that the diffusion of water molecules on the phosphorene surface is anisotropic, whi...

  2. MD and FFM Electron Broadening for Warm and Dense Hydrogen Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, S.; Calisti, A.; Mosse, C.; Talin, B.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Gigosos, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Direct integration of the semi-classical evolution equation based on Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) and the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM) have long been used to synthesize spectra accounting for ion dynamics. Cross comparisons of these approaches generally show results in good agreement. Recently, interest in low temperature (Te ∼ 1eV) and high density (Ne ∼ 1018 cm-3) hydrogen plasma spectroscopy has motivated extended applications of FFM. Arising discrepancies were found to originate in electron collision operators suggesting an improper use of impact approximations for warm and dense plasma conditions. In order to clarify this point, new useful cross comparisons between MD and FFM have been carried out for electron broadening

  3. MD1831: Single Bunch Instabilities with Q" and Non-Linear Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; De Maria, Riccardo; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Amorim, David; Biancacci, Nicolo; Buffat, Xavier; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Metral, Elias; Lasocha, Kacper; Lefevre, Thibaut; Levens, Tom; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    During MD1751, it was observed that both a full single beam and 964 non-colliding bunches in Beam 1 (B1) and Beam 2 (B2) were both stable at the End of Squeeze (EOS) for 0A in the Landau Octupoles. At ß* = 40cm there is also a significant Q" arising from the lattice, as well as uncorrected non-linearities in the Insertion Regions (IRs). Each of these effects could be capable of fully stabilising the beam. This MD made first use of a Q" knob through variation of the Main Sextupoles (MS) by stabilising a single bunch at Flat Top, before showing at EOS that the non-linearities were the main contributors to the beam stability.

  4. Microsecond MD Simulations of Nano-patterned Polymer Brushes on Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Creighton; Qiu, Liming; Cheng, Kwan; Park, Soyeun

    2010-03-01

    Nano-patterned polymer brushes end-grafted onto self-assembled monolayers have gained increasing research interests due to their unique thermodynamic properties and their chemical and biomedical applications in colloids, biosensing and tissue engineering. So far, the interactions between the polymer brushes with the surrounding environments such as the floor and solvent at the nanometer length scale and microsecond time scale are still difficult to obtained experimentally and computationally. Using a Coarse-Grained MD approach, polymer brushes of different monomeric lengths, grafting density and hydrophobicity of the monomers grafted on self-assembled monolayers and in explicit solvent were studied. Molecular level information, such as lateral diffusion, transverse height and volume contour of the brushes, were calculated from our microsecond-MD simulations. Our results demonstrated the significance of the hydration of the polymer in controlling the conformational arrangement of the polymer brushes.

  5. MD-portal: Highly Effective Website for Nuclear Materials Information Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil, Soyeon; Lee, Gyeonggeun; Kwon, Junhyun

    2014-01-01

    A web-based system is widespread in not only everyday activities but also business fields. In past years, the systematic information of various properties of materials usually has been provided as tabulated documents; however it recently has been provided as web-based DB. There are many websites providing material properties information, representative examples include MatWeb from the United States, Granta MI from England and MatNavi from Japan. In 2003, the nuclear materials division in KAERI established a website about nuclear materials property DB, called MatDB. To inherit it, a website called MD-portal has been recently set up to release degradation information and various properties of nuclear materials. In this presentation, the structure and characteristics of MD-portal will be mentioned, and comments on its application will be given

  6. Discovering and Developing Successful Cardiovascular Therapeutics: A Conversation With James N. Topper, MD, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, James N; Rutherford, John D

    2016-11-15

    Dr James (also known as Jamie) N. Topper, MD, PhD, serves as Managing General Partner at Frazier Healthcare Partners, where he leads the Life Science Venture practice. In 2011, and 2016, he was named to the Midas List of leading venture capitalists, and, in 2013, he was recognized by Forbes as one of the top 10 healthcare investors. He has >25 years of experience working with entrepreneurs to found and build successful therapeutics-focused companies. Dr Topper holds a BS from the University of Michigan. He received an MD and PhD (in biophysics) from Stanford University School of Medicine. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and cardiovascular disease at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston and is board certified in both disciplines. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. MD-CTS: An integrated terminology reference of clinical and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New vocabularies are rapidly evolving in the literature relative to the practice of clinical medicine and translational research. To provide integrated access to new terms, we developed a mobile and desktop online reference—Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS. It is the first public resource that comprehensively integrates Wiktionary (word definition, BioPortal (ontology, Wiki (image reference, and Medline abstract (word usage information. MD-CTS is accessible at http://spellchecker.mfldclin.edu/. The website provides a broadened capacity for the wider clinical and translational science community to keep pace with newly emerging scientific vocabulary. An initial evaluation using 63 randomly selected biomedical words suggests that online references generally provided better coverage (73%-95% than paper-based dictionaries (57–71%.

  8. A virtual observatory for photoionized nebulae: the Mexican Million Models database (3MdB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Flores-Fajardo, N.

    2015-04-01

    Photoionization models obtained with numerical codes are widely used to study the physics of the interstellar medium (planetary nebulae, HII regions, etc). Grids of models are performed to understand the effects of the different parameters used to describe the regions on the observables (mainly emission line intensities). Most of the time, only a small part of the computed results of such grids are published, and they are sometimes hard to obtain in a user-friendly format. We present here the Mexican Million Models dataBase (3MdB), an effort to resolve both of these issues in the form of a database of photoionization models, easily accessible through the MySQL protocol, and containing a lot of useful outputs from the models, such as the intensities of 178 emission lines, the ionic fractions of all the ions, etc. Some examples of the use of the 3MdB are also presented.

  9. LHC MD 652: Coupled-Bunch Instability with Smaller Emittance (all HOMs)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081238; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the MD was to measure the coupled-bunch stability from all HOM impedances, with a reduced longitudinal emittance in order to explore the HL-LHC conditions. The acceleration ramp was performed with the nominal beams of 2016, but a reduced target bunch length and RF voltage. With this reduced emittance, the beam remained close but above the single-bunch stability threshold. No coupled-bunch oscillations were observed, so we can conclude that the stability threshold for coupled-bunch instability is not lower than the single-bunch threshold. An interesting observation in the MD was the long-lasting injection oscillations, whose traces can still be seen at arrival to flat top; in agreement with observations in earlier MDs. The measurements took place between 28th October 20:00 and 29th October 05:10.

  10. Virtual synthesis of crystals using ab initio MD: Case study on LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. B.; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation technique is fairly successful in studying the structural aspects and dynamics of fluids. Here we study the ability of ab initio molecular dynamics (ab initio MD) to carry out virtual experiments to synthesize new crystalline materials and to predict their structures. For this purpose the olivine phosphate LiFePO4 (LFPO) is used as an example. As transition metal oxides in general are stabilized with layered geometry, we carried out ab initio MD simulations over a hypothetical layered configuration consisting of alternate LiPO2 and FeO2 layers. With intermittent steps of electron minimization, the resulted equilibrium lattice consist of PO4 tetrahedra and distorted Fe-O complexes similar to the one observed in the experimental lattice.

  11. Effective As(III) Removal by A Multi-Charged Hydroacid Complex Draw Solute Facilitated Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation (FO-MD) Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun; Han, Gang; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. Effective removal of As(III) from water by an oxalic acid complex with the formula of Na3[Cr(C2O4)3] (Na-Cr-OA) is demonstrated via an forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system in this study. Na-Cr-OA first proved its superiority as a draw solute with high water fluxes and negligible reverse fluxes in FO, then a systematic investigation of the Na-Cr-OA promoted FO process was conducted to ascertain the factors in As(III) removal. Relatively high water fluxes of 28 LMH under the FO mode and 74 LMH under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode were achieved when using a 1000 ppm As(III) solution as the feed and 1.0 M Na-Cr-OA as the draw solution at 60 °C. As(III) removal with a water recovery up to 21.6% (FO mode) and 48.3% (PRO mode) were also achieved in 2 h. An outstanding As(III) rejection with 30-3000 μg/L As(III) in the permeate was accomplished when As(III) feed solutions varied from 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 μg/L, superior to the best FO performance reported for As(III) removal. Incorporating MD into FO not only makes As(III) removal sustainable by reconcentrating the Na-Cr-OA solution simultaneously, but also reduces the As(III) concentration below 10 μg/L in the product water, meeting the WHO standard.

  12. Effective As(III) Removal by A Multi-Charged Hydroacid Complex Draw Solute Facilitated Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation (FO-MD) Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qingchun; Han, Gang; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-03-01

    Effective removal of As(III) from water by an oxalic acid complex with the formula of Na3[Cr(C2O4)3] (Na-Cr-OA) is demonstrated via an forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system in this study. Na-Cr-OA first proved its superiority as a draw solute with high water fluxes and negligible reverse fluxes in FO, then a systematic investigation of the Na-Cr-OA promoted FO process was conducted to ascertain the factors in As(III) removal. Relatively high water fluxes of 28 LMH under the FO mode and 74 LMH under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode were achieved when using a 1000 ppm As(III) solution as the feed and 1.0 M Na-Cr-OA as the draw solution at 60 °C. As(III) removal with a water recovery up to 21.6% (FO mode) and 48.3% (PRO mode) were also achieved in 2 h. An outstanding As(III) rejection with 30-3000 μg/L As(III) in the permeate was accomplished when As(III) feed solutions varied from 5 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(6) μg/L, superior to the best FO performance reported for As(III) removal. Incorporating MD into FO not only makes As(III) removal sustainable by reconcentrating the Na-Cr-OA solution simultaneously, but also reduces the As(III) concentration below 10 μg/L in the product water, meeting the WHO standard.

  13. Effective As(III) Removal by A Multi-Charged Hydroacid Complex Draw Solute Facilitated Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation (FO-MD) Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2016-01-29

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. Effective removal of As(III) from water by an oxalic acid complex with the formula of Na3[Cr(C2O4)3] (Na-Cr-OA) is demonstrated via an forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system in this study. Na-Cr-OA first proved its superiority as a draw solute with high water fluxes and negligible reverse fluxes in FO, then a systematic investigation of the Na-Cr-OA promoted FO process was conducted to ascertain the factors in As(III) removal. Relatively high water fluxes of 28 LMH under the FO mode and 74 LMH under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode were achieved when using a 1000 ppm As(III) solution as the feed and 1.0 M Na-Cr-OA as the draw solution at 60 °C. As(III) removal with a water recovery up to 21.6% (FO mode) and 48.3% (PRO mode) were also achieved in 2 h. An outstanding As(III) rejection with 30-3000 μg/L As(III) in the permeate was accomplished when As(III) feed solutions varied from 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 μg/L, superior to the best FO performance reported for As(III) removal. Incorporating MD into FO not only makes As(III) removal sustainable by reconcentrating the Na-Cr-OA solution simultaneously, but also reduces the As(III) concentration below 10 μg/L in the product water, meeting the WHO standard.

  14. β∗ levelling using the LHC Lumi Server (MD 2427)

    CERN Document Server

    Hostettler, Michi; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Gabriel, Mathieu; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Hruska, Marek; Jacquet, Delphine; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    Luminosity levelling by β∗ is the baseline scenario for HL-LHC and will possibly be used in 2018 LHC operation. In this MD, we commissioned a novel controls approach to β∗ levelling using improved LSA trims and automatic orchestration. Compared to the regular squeeze using sequences, this approach is aimed to be minimally invasive to LHC operation in Stable Beams. Using this tool, we demonstrated the feasibility of β∗ levelling between 1 m and 30 cm.

  15. PyContact: Rapid, Customizable, and Visual Analysis of Noncovalent Interactions in MD Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Maximilian; Rodenkirch, Peter; Siggel, Marc; Bernardi, Rafael C; Schulten, Klaus; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Rudack, Till

    2018-02-06

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become ubiquitous in all areas of life sciences. The size and model complexity of MD simulations are rapidly growing along with increasing computing power and improved algorithms. This growth has led to the production of a large amount of simulation data that need to be filtered for relevant information to address specific biomedical and biochemical questions. One of the most relevant molecular properties that can be investigated by all-atom MD simulations is the time-dependent evolution of the complex noncovalent interaction networks governing such fundamental aspects as molecular recognition, binding strength, and mechanical and structural stability. Extracting, evaluating, and visualizing noncovalent interactions is a key task in the daily work of structural biologists. We have developed PyContact, an easy-to-use, highly flexible, and intuitive graphical user interface-based application, designed to provide a toolkit to investigate biomolecular interactions in MD trajectories. PyContact is designed to facilitate this task by enabling identification of relevant noncovalent interactions in a comprehensible manner. The implementation of PyContact as a standalone application enables rapid analysis and data visualization without any additional programming requirements, and also preserves full in-program customization and extension capabilities for advanced users. The statistical analysis representation is interactively combined with full mapping of the results on the molecular system through the synergistic connection between PyContact and VMD. We showcase the capabilities and scientific significance of PyContact by analyzing and visualizing in great detail the noncovalent interactions underlying the ion permeation pathway of the human P2X 3 receptor. As a second application, we examine the protein-protein interaction network of the mechanically ultrastable cohesin-dockering complex. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society

  16. Prevalence of mood disorders and utility of the PRIME-MD in patients undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopold, Kenneth A.; Ahles, Tim A.; Walch, Susan; Amdur, Robert J.; Mott, Leila A.; Wiegand-Packard, Linda; Oxman, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a short, structured interview procedure that allows practicing oncologists to quickly and reliably identify mood disorders in their patients, and to estimate the prevalence and types of mood disorders in a radiation therapy patient setting, noting relationships between mood disorders and patient characteristics. Methods: Consecutive, eligible adult patients from the practices of two radiation oncologists were administered the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) by the treating physician. A subset of these patients was also evaluated with the SCID, administered by trained mental health care personnel. Agreement between the two instruments was examined using the kappa statistic. Prevalence of mood disorders was determined from the PRIME-MD. The significance of relationships between patient characteristics and mood disorders was examined by chi-square and ANOVA analysis, and subsequently by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: One hundred twenty-two patients were studied. Fifty-three of these were administered the SCID. Agreement between the two instruments was very good (kappa = 0.70). A diagnosis of a depressive or anxiety disorder by the PRIME-MD was made in 59 of the 122 patients (48%, 95% confidence interval = 39%, 58%). Multivariate analysis showed that a diagnosis of a depressive mood disorder was significantly related to pain intensity and prior history of depression. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the PRIME-MD administered by oncologists in making diagnoses of mood disorders. The prevalence of mood disorders in our set of patients undergoing a course of RT was nearly 50%. Future studies should describe the natural history of these disorders, and determine optimal intervention strategies

  17. MD 2408: Study of Schottky Monitors for Q' Measurement at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Tydecks, Tobias; Levens, Tom; Wendt, Manfred; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    The Schottky monitors installed at the LHC enable the detection of Schottky noise of the two circulating proton / ion beams. From Schottky noise, beam parameters like tune, chromaticity, and relative emittance, can be extracted in a non-destructive and purely parasitic method of measurement. The primary goal of this MD was to study the Schottky monitors capability to reliably and accurately determine the beam chromaticities at injection energy. Furthermore, the possibility to track the beam emittance has been investigated.

  18. An Efficient Hybrid DSMC/MD Algorithm for Accurate Modeling of Micro Gas Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Tengfei

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at simulating micro gas flows with accurate boundary conditions, an efficient hybrid algorithmis developed by combining themolecular dynamics (MD) method with the direct simulationMonte Carlo (DSMC)method. The efficiency comes from the fact that theMD method is applied only within the gas-wall interaction layer, characterized by the cut-off distance of the gas-solid interaction potential, to resolve accurately the gas-wall interaction process, while the DSMC method is employed in the remaining portion of the flow field to efficiently simulate rarefied gas transport outside the gas-wall interaction layer. A unique feature about the present scheme is that the coupling between the two methods is realized by matching the molecular velocity distribution function at the DSMC/MD interface, hence there is no need for one-toone mapping between a MD gas molecule and a DSMC simulation particle. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by taking advantage of gas rarefaction inside the gas-wall interaction layer and by employing the "smart-wall model" proposed by Barisik et al. The developed hybrid algorithm is validated on two classical benchmarks namely 1-D Fourier thermal problem and Couette shear flow problem. Both the accuracy and efficiency of the hybrid algorithm are discussed. As an application, the hybrid algorithm is employed to simulate thermal transpiration coefficient in the free-molecule regime for a system with atomically smooth surface. Result is utilized to validate the coefficients calculated from the pure DSMC simulation with Maxwell and Cercignani-Lampis gas-wall interaction models. ©c 2014 Global-Science Press.

  19. Investigation on single carbon atom transporting through the single-walled carbon nanotube by MD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yinfeng; Zhang Zhibin; Ke Xuezhi; Zhu Zhiyuan; Zhu Dezhang; Wang Zhenxia; Xu Hongjie

    2005-01-01

    The single carbon atom transporting through the single-walled carbon nanotube has been studied by molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation. We got different trajectories of the carbon atom by changing the input parameters. The simulation results indicate that the single carbon atom with low energy can transport through the carbon nanotube under some input conditions and result in different trajectories being straight line or 'rosette' or circular. (authors)

  20. A comparative study of Message Digest 5(MD5) and SHA256 algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Tarigan, J. T.; Ginting, A. B. C.

    2018-03-01

    The document is a collection of written or printed data containing information. The more rapid advancement of technology, the integrity of a document should be kept. Because of the nature of an open document means the document contents can be read and modified by many parties so that the integrity of the information as a content of the document is not preserved. To maintain the integrity of the data, it needs to create a mechanism which is called a digital signature. A digital signature is a specific code which is generated from the function of producing a digital signature. One of the algorithms that used to create the digital signature is a hash function. There are many hash functions. Two of them are message digest 5 (MD5) and SHA256. Those both algorithms certainly have its advantages and disadvantages of each. The purpose of this research is to determine the algorithm which is better. The parameters which used to compare that two algorithms are the running time and complexity. The research results obtained from the complexity of the Algorithms MD5 and SHA256 is the same, i.e., ⊖ (N), but regarding the speed is obtained that MD5 is better compared to SHA256.