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Sample records for mcmurdo sound ross

  1. Integrating terrestrial and marine records of the LGM in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: implications for grounded ice expansion, ice flow, and deglaciation of the Ross Sea Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, A. J.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    During the LGM, grounded glacier ice filled the Ross Embayment and deposited glacial drift on volcanic islands and peninsulas in McMurdo Sound, as well as along coastal regions of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), including the McMurdo Dry Valleys and Royal Society Range. The flow geometry and retreat history of this ice remains debated, with contrasting views yielding divergent implications for both the fundamental cause of Antarctic ice expansion as well as the interaction and behavior of ice derived from East and West Antarctica during late Quaternary time. We present terrestrial geomorphologic evidence that enables the reconstruction of former ice elevations, ice-flow paths, and ice-marginal environments in McMurdo Sound. Radiocarbon dates of fossil algae interbedded with ice-marginal sediments provide a coherent timeline for local ice retreat. These data are integrated with marine-sediment records and multi-beam data to reconstruct late glacial dynamics of grounded ice in McMurdo Sound and the western Ross Sea. The combined dataset suggest a dominance of ice flow toward the TAM in McMurdo Sound during all phases of glaciation, with thick, grounded ice at or near its maximum extent between 19.6 and 12.3 calibrated thousands of years before present (cal. ka). Our data show no significant advance of locally derived ice from the TAM into McMurdo Sound, consistent with the assertion that Late Pleistocene expansion of grounded ice in McMurdo Sound, and throughout the wider Ross Embayment, occurs in response to lower eustatic sea level and the resulting advance of marine-based outlet glaciers and ice streams (and perhaps also reduced oceanic heat flux), rather than local increases in precipitation and ice accumulation. Finally, when combined with allied data across the wider Ross Embayment, which show that widespread deglaciation outside McMurdo Sound did not commence until 13.1 ka, the implication is that retreat of grounded glacier ice in the Ross Embayment did

  2. ASSESSMENT OF SEA ICE FREEBOARD AND THICKNESS IN MCMURDO SOUND, ANTARCTICA, DERIVED BY GROUND VALIDATED SATELLITE ALTIMETER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Price

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation employs the use of ICESat to derive freeboard measurements in McMurdo Sound in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, for the time period 2003-2009. Methods closely follow those previously presented in the literature but are complemented by a good understanding of general sea ice characteristics in the study region from extensive temporal ground investigations but with limited spatial coverage. The aim of remote sensing applications in this area is to expand the good knowledge of sea ice characteristics within these limited areas to the wider McMurdo Sound and western Ross Sea region. The seven year Austral Spring (September, October, and November investigation is presented for sea ice freeboard alone. An interannual comparison of mean freeboard indicates an increase in multiyear sea ice freeboard from 1.08 m in 2003 to 1.15 m in 2009 with positive and negative variation in between. No significant trend was detected for first year sea ice freeboard. Further, an Envisat imagery investigation complements the freeboard assessment. The multiyear sea ice was observed to increase by 254 % of its original 2003 area, as firstyear sea ice persisted through the 2004 melt season into 2005. This maximum coverage then gradually diminished by 2009 to 20 % above the original 2003 value. The mid study period increase is likely attributed to the passage of iceberg B-15A minimising oceanic pressures and preventing sea ice breakout in the region.

  3. Patterns of Macrozooplankton and Fish Occurrence Beneath McMurdo Sound Fast Ice during Spring/Summer 2014/2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, B. T.; Daly, K. L.; Kim, S.; Ainley, D. G.; Ballard, G.

    2016-02-01

    McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, represents a unique environment for study of trophic interactions, where a full complement of marine predators thrive. As part of a greater study of McMurdo Sound food web interactions, including ocean and ice physics, algal characterization, and predator behavior, macrozooplankton and fish were surveyed using bioacoustics and video using a specially-designed under-ice ROV. Acoustic returns from 82 under-ice surveys were divided into classes consisting of krill, silverfish, and weak scatters. Krill were scarce during surveys in late November, but increased in abundance in association with increasing chlorophyll a in December and early January when surveys ended. The greatest concentrations of krill were found near Ross Island in the eastern Sound, where southerly currents move high-productivity waters beneath the fast ice. Conversely, silverfish, especially schools of juveniles, were found in greater abundance toward the west where currents flow northward and platelet ice typically blocked light from surface waters. Silverfish were rare toward the end of the survey in late December/early January, but possibly had moved deeper than the acoustic instrument could detect. Overall, krill were less abundant and occurred deeper in the water column within 2 km of the fast ice edge, which was accessible by air-breathing predators, suggesting that predation pressure helped structure krill abundance or distribution. Acoustic returns from weak scatters, which included observed jellies, pteropods, detached ice algae and potentially other mesoplankton in high abundance such as copepods, also increased during the study period and co-occurred with chlorophyll a. The patterns of macrozooplankton and fish observed in McMurdo Sound raise important questions about source-sink dynamics, overwinter strategies of mid-trophic organisms, prey-predator dynamics, and sea-ice structuring of ecosystems.

  4. Decadal Trends in Abundance, Size and Condition of Antarctic Toothfish in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; Nur, Nadav; Eastman, Joseph T.; Ballard. Grant; Parkinson, Claire L; Evans, Clive W.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    We report analyses of a dataset spanning 38 years of near-annual fishing for Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni, using a vertical setline through the fast ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2010. This constitutes one of the longest biological time series in the Southern Ocean, and certainly the longest for any fish. Fish total length, condition and catch per unit effort (CPUE) were derived from the more than 5500 fish caught. Contrary to expectation, length-frequency was dominated by fish in the upper half of the industrial catch. The discrepancy may be due to biases in the sampling capabilities of vertical (this study) versus benthic (horizontal) fishing gear (industry long lines), related to the fact that only large Antarctic toothfish (more than 100 cm TL) are neutrally buoyant and occur in the water column. Fish length and condition increased from the early 1970s to the early 1990s and then decreased, related to sea ice cover, with lags of 8 months to 5 years, and may ultimately be related to the fishery (which targets large fish) and changes in the Southern Annular Mode through effects on toothfish main prey, Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum. CPUE was constant through 2001 and then decreased dramatically, likely related to the industrial fishery, which began in 1996 and which concentrates effort over the Ross Sea slope, where tagged McMurdo fish have been found. Due to limited prey choices and, therefore, close coupling among mesopredators of the Ross Sea, Antarctic toothfish included, the fishery may be altering the trophic structure of the Ross Sea.

  5. A new carnivorous shallow-water sponge from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (Porifera, Poecilosclerida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Baker, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new shallow-water representative of the carnviorous sponge genus Asbestopluma is described from the southernmost Antarctic region of McMurdo Sound. Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) vaceleti n.sp. is a white, thin, sparingly branched sponge fringed by filaments along its entire length, with a slight

  6. Contamination in sediments, bivalves and sponges of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, Andrew; Burns, Kathryn; Boyle, Steve; Brinkman, Diane; Webster, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg and As) in marine sediments off Scott Base (NZ) and compared them with sediments near the highly polluted McMurdo Station (US) as well as less impacted sites including Turtle Rock and Cape Evans. The Antarctic mollusc, Laternula elliptica and three common sponge species were also analysed for trace metals. The mean THC concentration in sediments from Scott Base was 3 fold higher than the pristine site, Turtle Rock, but 10 fold lower than samples from McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station sediments also contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and the trace metals, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg. Copper was significantly higher in bivalves from McMurdo Station than other sites. Trace metal concentrations in sponges were generally consistent within sites but no spatial patterns were apparent. - Analyses of Antarctic marine sediments, bivalves and sponges revealed strong PAH, PCB and trace metal gradients in McMurdo Sound

  7. Contamination in sediments, bivalves and sponges of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Burns, Kathryn [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Boyle, Steve [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Brinkman, Diane [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Webster, Nicole [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2006-10-15

    This study examined the concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg and As) in marine sediments off Scott Base (NZ) and compared them with sediments near the highly polluted McMurdo Station (US) as well as less impacted sites including Turtle Rock and Cape Evans. The Antarctic mollusc, Laternula elliptica and three common sponge species were also analysed for trace metals. The mean THC concentration in sediments from Scott Base was 3 fold higher than the pristine site, Turtle Rock, but 10 fold lower than samples from McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station sediments also contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and the trace metals, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg. Copper was significantly higher in bivalves from McMurdo Station than other sites. Trace metal concentrations in sponges were generally consistent within sites but no spatial patterns were apparent. - Analyses of Antarctic marine sediments, bivalves and sponges revealed strong PAH, PCB and trace metal gradients in McMurdo Sound.

  8. Profile temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure from CTD casts in McMurdo Sound from 2011-11-26 to 2011-12-03 (NCEI Accession 0131073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Full-depth CTD profiles taken on along-sound and cross-sound transects of McMurdo Sound. Eleven stations with six independent sites were visited.

  9. Dissolved and particulate trace metal micronutrients under the McMurdo Sound seasonal sea ice: basal sea ice communities as a capacitor for iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Abigail E.; Moran, Dawn M.; Allen, Andrew E.; Saito, Mak A.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate metal concentrations are reported from three sites beneath and at the base of the McMurdo Sound seasonal sea ice in the Ross Sea of Antarctica. This dataset provided insight into Co and Mn biogeochemistry, supporting a previous hypothesis for water column mixing occurring faster than scavenging. Three observations support this: first, Mn-containing particles with Mn/Al ratios in excess of the sediment were present in the water column, implying the presence of bacterial Mn-oxidation processes. Second, dissolved and labile Co were uniform with depth beneath the sea ice after the winter season. Third, dissolved Co:PO3−4 ratios were consistent with previously observed Ross Sea stoichiometry, implying that over-winter scavenging was slow relative to mixing. Abundant dissolved Fe and Mn were consistent with a winter reserve concept, and particulate Al, Fe, Mn, and Co covaried, implying that these metals behaved similarly. Elevated particulate metals were observed in proximity to the nearby Islands, with particulate Fe/Al ratios similar to that of nearby sediment, consistent with a sediment resuspension source. Dissolved and particulate metals were elevated at the shallowest depths (particularly Fe) with elevated particulate P/Al and Fe/Al ratios in excess of sediments, demonstrating a sea ice biomass source. The sea ice biomass was extremely dense (chl a >9500 μg/L) and contained high abundances of particulate metals with elevated metal/Al ratios. A hypothesis for seasonal accumulation of bioactive metals at the base of the McMurdo Sound sea ice by the basal algal community is presented, analogous to a capacitor that accumulates iron during the spring and early summer. The release and transport of particulate metals accumulated at the base of the sea ice by sloughing is discussed as a potentially important mechanism in providing iron nutrition during polynya phytoplankton bloom formation and could be examined in future oceanographic

  10. Detrital U-Pb zircon analysis of an Eocene McMurdo Erratic sandstone, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, T.; Encarnacion, J.; Valencia, V.A.; Roti Roti, J.M.; Rasoazanamparany, C.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most important Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in Antarctica are glacial erratics of fossiliferous Palaeogene to Neogene siliclastic rocks known as the McMurdo Erratics. Detrital zircon U-Pb isotopic data reported herein provide new information on the provenance of these siliciclastic rocks. The U-Pb age data from a sandstone glacial erratic that is likely of Eocene age show a dominant age cluster that ranges from 488 to 635 Ma, accompanied by subsidiary Neoproterozoic-Archaean peaks. The dominant Neoproterozoic-Ordovician age cluster, in conjunction with the arkosic lithologies of some erratics and the local presence of granitic and metasedimentary clasts, indicates that the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician basement complex of the Transantarctic Mountains likely served as a major source for the Eocene siliciclastic sediments. This is consistent with derivation of the McMurdo Erratics from locations proximal to the Transantarctic Mountains such as the Discovery Deep and/or major mountain outlet glacier areas. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Observations of turbulence beneath sea ice in southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Stevens

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The first turbulence profiler observations beneath land fast sea ice which is directly adjacent to an Antarctic ice shelf are described. The stratification in the 325 m deep water column consisted of a layer of supercooled water in the upper 40 m lying above a quasi-linearly stratified water column with a sharp step in density at mid-depth. Turbulent energy dissipation rates were on average 3×10−8 m2 s−3 with peak bin-averaged values reaching 4×10−7 m2 s−3. The local dissipation rate per unit area was estimated to be 10 m Wm−2 on average with a peak of 50 m Wm−2. These values are consistent with a moderate baroclinic response to the tides. The small-scale turbulent energetics lie on the boundary between isotropy and buoyancy-affected. This will likely influence the formation and aggregation of frazil ice crystals within the supercooled layer. The data suggest that the large crystals observed in McMurdo Sound will transition from initial growth at scales smaller than the Kolmogorov lengthscale to sizes substantially (1–2 orders of magnitude greater than the Kolmogorov scale. An estimate of the experiment-averaged vertical diffusivity of mass Kρ yields a coefficient of around 2×10−4 m2s−1 although this increased by a factor of 2 near the surface. Combining this estimate of Kρ with available observations of average and maximum currents suggests the layer of supercooled water can persist for a distance of ~250 km from the front of the McMurdo Ice Shelf.

  12. Neogene sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Southern McMurdo Sound and the McMurdo Ice Shelf (ANDRILL Program, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Francesca; Willmott, Veronica; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Florindo, Fabio; Harwood, David; Naish, Tim; Powell, Ross

    2010-05-01

    During the austral summers 2006 and 2007 the ANtarctic DRILLing Program (ANDRILL) drilled two cores, each recovering more than 1000m of sediment from below the McMurdo Ice-Shelf (MIS, AND-1B), and sea-ice in Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS, AND-2A), respectively, revealing new information about Neogene Antarctic cryosphere evolution. Core AND-1B was drilled in a more distal location than core AND-2A. With the aim of obtaining important information for the understanding of the history of Antarctic climate and environment during selected interval of the Neogene, we applied novel organic geochemistry proxies such as TEX86 (Tetra Ether IndeX of lipids with 86 carbon atoms) using a new calibration equation specifically developed for polar areas and based on 116 surface sediment samples collected from polar oceans (Kim et al., subm.), and BIT (Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether), to derive absolute (sea surface) temperature values and to evaluate the relative contribution of soil organic matter versus marine organic matter, respectively. We will present the state-of-the-art of the methodology applied, discussing its advantages and limitations, and the results so far obtained from the analysis of 60 samples from core AND-2A covering the Miocene Climatic Optimum (and the Mid-late Miocene transition) and of 20 pilot samples from core AND-1B covering the late Pliocene.

  13. Polar ecosystem dynamics: recovery of communities from organic enrichment in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stacy; Hammerstom, Kamille K; Conlan, Kathleen E; Thurber, Andrew R

    2010-12-01

    Community structure and diversity are influenced by patterns of disturbance and input of food. In Antarctica, the marine ecosystem undergoes highly seasonal changes in availability of light and in primary production. Near research stations, organic input from human activities can disturb the regular productivity regime with a consistent input of sewage. McMurdo Sound has both high-productivity and low-productivity habitats, thereby providing an ideal test bed for community recovery dynamics under polar conditions. We used experimental manipulations of the subtidal communities to test the hypotheses that (1) benthic communities respond differently to disturbance from organic enrichment versus burial and (2) community response also varies in areas with different natural patterns of food supply. Both in low- and high-food habitats, the strongest community response was to organic enrichment and resulted in dominance of typical organic-enrichment specialists. In habitats with highly seasonal productivity, community response was predictable and recovery was rapid. In habitats with low productivity, community variability was high and caging treatments suggested that inconsistencies were due to patchy impacts by scavengers. In areas normally subject to regular organic enrichment, either from primary production or from further up the food web (defecation by marine mammals), recovery of benthic communities takes only years even in a polar system. However, a low-productivity regime is as common in near shore habitats around the continent; under these conditions, recovery of benthic communities from disturbance is likely to be much slower and follow a variable ecological trajectory.

  14. Rossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Rossing is a uranium mine in the heart of the Namib desert in South West Africa (Namibia). Interms of the material recovered from the huge open pit, it is the largest uranium mine in the world. This article gives a short history of the development of this mine

  15. Western Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound Ice Forecasting Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    areal ice distribution and follow the sane historical proqression of pack disintergration . This technique assumes that environmental conditions...30-day) are based on historical ice data which cxnbine averaae disintergration rates as well as averace wind and current drift. Iong-range wind...original 2 to 3 okta area and its new cnfiguration remains the same, the products of ocnoentrations and widths at the verifying time must equal the

  16. Heat transport in McMurdo Sound first-year fast ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trodahl, H. J.; McGuinness, M. J.; Langhorne, P. J.; Collins, K.; Pantoja, A. E.; Smith, I. J.; Haskell, T. G.

    2000-05-01

    We have monitored the temperature field within first-year sea ice in McMurdo Sound over two winter seasons, with sufficient resolution to determine the thermal conductivity from the thermal waves propagating down through the ice. Data reduction has been accomplished by direct reference to energy conservation, relating the rate of change of the internal energy density to the divergence of the heat current density. Use of this procedure, rather than the wave attenuation predicted by the thermal diffusion equation, avoids difficulties arising from a strongly temperature dependent thermal diffusivity. The thermal conductivity is an input parameter for ice growth and climate models, and the values commonly used in the models are predicted to depend on temperature, salinity, and the volume fraction of air. The present measurements were performed at depths in the ice where the air volume is small and the salinity is nearly constant, and they permit the determination of the absolute magnitude of the thermal conductivity and its temperature dependence. The weak temperature dependence is similar to that predicted by the models in the literature, but the magnitude is smaller by ˜10% than the predicted value most commonly used in climate and sea ice models. In the first season we find an additional scatter in the results at driving temperature gradients larger than ˜10-15 °C/m. We suggest that the scatter arises from a nonlinear contribution to the heat current, possibly associated with the onset of convective motion in brine inclusions. Episodic convective events are also observed. We have further determined the growth rate of the ice and compared it with the rate explained by the heat flux from the ice-water interface. The data show a sudden rise of growth rate, without a rise in heat flux through the ice, which coincides in time and depth with the appearance of platelet ice. Finally, we discuss the observation of radiative solar heating at depth in the ice and

  17. Diatom evidence for the onset of Pliocene cooling from AND-1B, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    The late Pliocene, ~ 3.3–3.0 Ma, is the most recent interval of sustained global warmth in the geologic past. This window is the focus of climate reconstruction efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey's Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Data/Model Cooperative, and may provide a useful climate analog for the coming century. Reconstructions of past surface ocean conditions proximal to the Antarctic continent are essential to understanding the sensitivity of the cryosphere to this key interval in Earth's climate evolution. An exceptional marine sediment core collected from the southwestern Ross Sea (78° S), Antarctica, during ANDRILL's McMurdo Ice Shelf Project preserves evidence of dramatic fluctuations between grounded ice and productive, open ocean conditions during the late Pliocene, reflecting orbitally-paced glacial/interglacial cycling. In this near-shore record, diatom-rich sediments are recovered from interglacial intervals; two of these diatomites, from ~ 3.2 Ma and 3.03 Ma, are within the PRISM chronologic window. The diatom assemblages identified in PRISM-age late Pliocene diatom-rich sediments are distinct from those in mid-Pliocene and later Pliocene/Pleistocene intervals recovered from AND-1B, and comprise both extant taxa with well-constrained ecological preferences and a diverse extinct flora, some members of which are previously undescribed from Antarctic sediments. Both units are dominated by Chaetoceros resting spores, an indicator of high productivity and stratification that is present at much lower abundance in materials both older and younger than the PRISM-age sediments. Newly described species of the genus Fragilariopsis, which first appear in the AND-1B record at 3.2 Ma, are the most abundant extinct members of the PRISM-age assemblages. Other extant species with established environmental affinities, such as Fragilariopsis sublinearis, F. curta, Stellarima microtrias, and Thalassiothrix antarctica, are

  18. Abiotic versus biotic drivers of ocean pH variation under fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Paul G; Washburn, Libe; Martz, Todd R; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to have a major effect on the marine carbonate system over the next century, particularly in high latitude seas. Less appreciated is natural environmental variation within these systems, particularly in terms of pH, and how this natural variation may inform laboratory experiments. In this study, we deployed sensor-equipped moorings at 20 m depths at three locations in McMurdo Sound, comprising deep (bottom depth>200 m: Hut Point Peninsula) and shallow environments (bottom depth ∼25 m: Cape Evans and New Harbor). Our sensors recorded high-frequency variation in pH (Hut Point and Cape Evans only), tide (Cape Evans and New Harbor), and water mass properties (temperature and salinity) during spring and early summer 2011. These collective observations showed that (1) pH differed spatially both in terms of mean pH (Cape Evans: 8.009±0.015; Hut Point: 8.020±0.007) and range of pH (Cape Evans: 0.090; Hut Point: 0.036), and (2) pH was not related to the mixing of two water masses, suggesting that the observed pH variation is likely not driven by this abiotic process. Given the large daily fluctuation in pH at Cape Evans, we developed a simple mechanistic model to explore the potential for biotic processes--in this case algal photosynthesis--to increase pH by fixing carbon from the water column. For this model, we incorporated published photosynthetic parameters for the three dominant algal functional groups found at Cape Evans (benthic fleshy red macroalgae, crustose coralline algae, and sea ice algal communities) to estimate oxygen produced/carbon fixed from the water column underneath fast sea ice and the resulting pH change. These results suggest that biotic processes may be a primary driver of pH variation observed under fast sea ice at Cape Evans and potentially at other shallow sites in McMurdo Sound.

  19. Abiotic versus biotic drivers of ocean pH variation under fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Matson

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is expected to have a major effect on the marine carbonate system over the next century, particularly in high latitude seas. Less appreciated is natural environmental variation within these systems, particularly in terms of pH, and how this natural variation may inform laboratory experiments. In this study, we deployed sensor-equipped moorings at 20 m depths at three locations in McMurdo Sound, comprising deep (bottom depth>200 m: Hut Point Peninsula and shallow environments (bottom depth ∼25 m: Cape Evans and New Harbor. Our sensors recorded high-frequency variation in pH (Hut Point and Cape Evans only, tide (Cape Evans and New Harbor, and water mass properties (temperature and salinity during spring and early summer 2011. These collective observations showed that (1 pH differed spatially both in terms of mean pH (Cape Evans: 8.009±0.015; Hut Point: 8.020±0.007 and range of pH (Cape Evans: 0.090; Hut Point: 0.036, and (2 pH was not related to the mixing of two water masses, suggesting that the observed pH variation is likely not driven by this abiotic process. Given the large daily fluctuation in pH at Cape Evans, we developed a simple mechanistic model to explore the potential for biotic processes--in this case algal photosynthesis--to increase pH by fixing carbon from the water column. For this model, we incorporated published photosynthetic parameters for the three dominant algal functional groups found at Cape Evans (benthic fleshy red macroalgae, crustose coralline algae, and sea ice algal communities to estimate oxygen produced/carbon fixed from the water column underneath fast sea ice and the resulting pH change. These results suggest that biotic processes may be a primary driver of pH variation observed under fast sea ice at Cape Evans and potentially at other shallow sites in McMurdo Sound.

  20. The petrology, geochronology and significance of Granite Harbour Intrusive Complex xenoliths and outcrop sampled in western McMurdo Sound, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.P.; Cooper, A.F.; Price, R.C.; Turnbull, R.E.; Roberts, N.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Granite Harbour Intrusive Complex xenoliths in McMurdo Volcanic Group rocks and in situ outcrops have been studied from Mount Morning, western McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Calc-alkalic samples have whole rock signatures and normative compositions similar to the Dry Valleys 1b suite, and zircon grains in one specimen yield a 545.2 ± 4.4 Ma crystallisation age. This supports subduction-related magmatism initiating in Southern Victoria Land by 545 Ma. A second group of xenoliths is alkalic, with titanite grains in one xenolith from this group dated at 538 ± 8 Ma. Whole rock chemistry, normative compositions and geochronology of the alkalic group are comparable to the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Suite (KGAS). The position of a proposed lower crustal discontinuity that may form a significant basement suture in the McMurdo Sound region is newly constrained to the east of Mount Morning, perhaps along the trace of the Discovery Glacier. The boundary between East and West Antarctica may also pass along the trace of the Discovery Glacier if, as previously hypothesised, its location is controlled by the basement suture. A significant basement suture may also have provided the necessary egress for the (regionally) early and sustained magmatic activity observed at Mount Morning over the last 24 million years. (author).

  1. Assessment of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in Weddell seal tissue (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M. [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Noren, Shawn R. [Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Usenko, Sascha, E-mail: Sascha_Usenko@baylor.edu [Baylor University, One Bear Place 97388, Waco, TX 76798-7388 (United States); Davis, Jay [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Washington Fish and Wildlife Office, Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Kanatous, Shane B. [Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1878 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Muscle samples were collected from pup, juvenile and adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2006. Blubber samples were collected from juvenile and adult seals. Samples were analyzed for emerging and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including current and historic-use organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Of the 41 target analytes, 28 contaminants were recovered from the Weddell seal blubber, in this order of prevalence: p,p Prime -DDE, p,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 153, PCB 138, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, nonachlor III, PCB 187, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, PCB 118, PBDE 47, PCB 156, PCB 149, PCB 180, PCB 101, PCB 170, PCB 105, o,p Prime -DDT, PCB 99, trans-chlordane, PCB 157, PCB 167, PCB 189, and PCB 114. Fewer POPs were found in the muscle samples, but were similar in the order of prevalence to that of the blubber: p,p Prime -DDE, o,p Prime -DDT, trans-nonachlor, nonachlor III, oxychlordane, p,p Prime -DDT, dieldrin, mirex, cis-nonachlor, PCB 138, and PCB 105. Besides differences in toxicant concentrations reported between the muscle and blubber, we found differences in POP levels according to age class and suggest that differences in blubber storage and/or mobilization of lipids result in age class differences in POPs. To our knowledge, such ontogenetic associations are novel. Importantly, data from this study suggest that p,p Prime -DDT is becoming less prevalent temporally, resulting in an increased proportion of its metabolite p,p Prime -DDE in the tissues of this top predator. In addition, this study is among the first to identify a PBDE congener in Weddell seals near the McMurdo Station. This may provide evidence of increased PBDE transport and encroachment in Antarctic wildlife. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE measuring in Weddell seal blubber. Black

  2. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Photoadaptations of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism by phytoplankton from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. I. Species-specific and community responses to reduced irradiances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkin, R.B.; Voytek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiance-dependent rates of photosynthesis and photosynthate labeling patterns were measured for phytoplankton in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Species-specific and traditional whole-water techniques were used to compare the physiological responses of algae collected in a high light environment at the ice edge and from a low light environment under the annual sea ice. There were differences among species within the same sample, for the same species isolated from high and low light environments, and when species-specific responses were compared with that of the natural assemblage. For algae collected beneath the sea ice, photosynthesis generally saturated at a lower irradiance, and the light-limited region of the P vs. I relationship had a steeper slope than for the same species collected at the ice edge. Low-light-adapted algae incorporated significantly less 14 C into proteins and more into low molecular weight compounds and lipids than the same species isolated from a high light environment. Under conditions where reduced rates of protein synthesis were coupled with high rates of carbon uptake, the measurement of photosynthesis may not accurately reflect the physiological condition of the phytoplankton

  4. Rossing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    In this article the geology of the deposits of the Rossing uranium mine in Namibia is discussed. The planning of the open-pit mining, the blasting, drilling, handling and the equipment used for these processes are described

  5. Alf Ross

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    En (overvejende) ny generation af akademikere møder og prøver Ross' tanker om emner som retfærdighed, demokrati, statsforfatningsret, ytringsfrihed, straf, erkendelsesteori, etik, logik, fri vilje og sygdom.......En (overvejende) ny generation af akademikere møder og prøver Ross' tanker om emner som retfærdighed, demokrati, statsforfatningsret, ytringsfrihed, straf, erkendelsesteori, etik, logik, fri vilje og sygdom....

  6. Marc Ross

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marc Ross. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 69 Issue 6 December 2007 pp 1147-1150 Machine Detector Interface. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider · Nicolas Delerue Sudhir Dixit Fred Gannaway David Howell Myriam Qurshi Grahame Blair Stewart Boogert Gary Boorman ...

  7. Rossing update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebel, E.G.

    2000-01-01

    Rossing Uranium, along with the rest of the industry, has been undergoing major changes to adjust to the increasingly competitive uranium market in the 1990's. This paper will outline the developments during the 1990's at the mine, as well as current projects. Rossing has successfully managed the transition through a phase of very low production in the first half of the 1990's, and is now operating at 70% of capacity. During this phase the mine was also able to implement tailings and water management strategies which have reduced fresh water requirements to historical lows, whilst preserving process performance despite cessation of iron oxide supplies. Capital investment in mining equipment, a pre-screening facility in the Fine Crushing plant, and currently an ore sorting pilot plant have been made to enhance Rossing's ability to lower costs further. Rossing is in the middle of a business improvement programme aimed at cutting unit costs in excess of 20%, whilst continuing to improve safety, health and environmental performance. Key focus areas of this programme are maintenance strategy, equipment and plant utilisation and people development. (author)

  8. Oceanographic mechanisms and penguin population increases during the Little Ice Age in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianjiao; Sun, Liguang; Emslie, Steven D.; Xie, Zhouqing; Huang, Tao; Gao, Yuesong; Yang, Wenqing; Chu, Zhuding; Wang, Yuhong

    2018-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is a well-known indicator for climate and environmental changes. Exploring how large-scale climate variability affects penguin ecology in the past is essential for understanding the responses of Southern Ocean ecosystems to future global change. Using ornithogenic sediments at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica, we inferred relative population changes of Adélie penguins in the southern Ross Sea over the past 500 yr, and observed an increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1850 AD). We used cadmium content in ancient penguin guano as a proxy of ocean upwelling and identified a close linkage between penguin dynamics and atmospheric circulation and oceanic conditions. During the cold period of ∼1600-1825 AD, a deepened Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) led to stronger winds, intensified ocean upwelling, enlarged Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound polynyas, and thus higher food abundance and penguin populations. We propose a mechanism linking Antarctic marine ecology and atmospheric/oceanic dynamics which can help explain and predict responses of Antarctic high latitudes ecosystems to climate change.

  9. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993

  10. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 meters of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drillcore, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. Nearly all of LSU 1 consists of volcanic breccia and sandstone that is a mixture of near primary volcanic material dominated by lava and vitric clasts with minor exotic material derived from distal basement sources. Lava clasts and glass are mafic and range from strongly alkaline (basanite, tephrite) to moderately alkaline (alkali basalt, hawaiite) compositions that are similar to nearby land deposits. 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating analyses on groundmass separated from lava clasts yield Pleistocene ages (692±38 and 793±63, ±2σ internal errors). Volcanoes of the Dailey Island group, located ~13 km SW of the drillsite, are a possible source for the volcanic materials based on their close proximity, similar composition and age. A basanite lava flow on Juergens Island yields a comparable Pleistocene age of 775±22 ka. Yet there is evidence to suggest that the volcanic source is much closer to the drillsite and that the sediments were deposited in much shallower water relative to the present-day water depth of 384 mbsl. Evidence for local volcanic activity is based in part on the common occurrence of delicate vitriclasts (e.g. glass shards and Pele’s hair) and a minimally reworked ~2 meter thick monomict breccia that is interpreted to have formed by autobrecciating lava. In addition, conical-shaped seamounts and high frequency magnetic anomalies encompass the drillsite and extend south including the volcanoes of the Dailey Islands. Sedimentary features and structures indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Rippled asymmetric cross-laminated sands and hummocky cross-stratification occur intermittently throughout LSU 1 and indicate water depths shallower than 100 meters. The occurrence of ooliths and layers containing siderite and Fe

  11. Ross og demokratiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2006-01-01

    En kritisk analyse af Alf Ross' teori om demokrati på grundlag af Roberty A. Dahl's begrebsapparat.......En kritisk analyse af Alf Ross' teori om demokrati på grundlag af Roberty A. Dahl's begrebsapparat....

  12. Ross - for altid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    2011-01-01

    Med baggrund i Jens Ewalds bog om Alf Ross omtaler artiklen en række de problemstillinger, som bogen behandler, samt vurderer den betydning, Ross har haft og måske fortsat har. Afslutningsvis betones den juridiske biografis betydning.......Med baggrund i Jens Ewalds bog om Alf Ross omtaler artiklen en række de problemstillinger, som bogen behandler, samt vurderer den betydning, Ross har haft og måske fortsat har. Afslutningsvis betones den juridiske biografis betydning....

  13. DVD Review: "The Silver Fez" Directed by Lloyd Ross (2009 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Producer: Lloyd Ross, Joelle Chesselet. Sound design: Warrick Sony. Cast: Abubakar Davids, Mogamat Zain Benjamin. Approx. 87 min. Distributor: IRIS. ZAR 129.99. Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa, Volume 9 2012, 89–91 ...

  14. Ross og erkendelsesteorien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob von Holderstein

    2006-01-01

    Et argument for at den logiske positivismes notoriske problemer ikke - som almindeligt antaget - har gjort Alf Ross' retsfilosofi forældet. Mere konkret påvises det at Ross i virkeligheden passer bedre sammen med den empiriske erkendelsesteori der har rejst sig på den logiske positivismes ruiner....

  15. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  16. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  17. Electric Vehicle Performance at McMurdo Station (Antarctica) and Comparison with McMurdo Station Conventional Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, T.; Lammert, M.; Colby, K.; Walter, R.

    2014-09-01

    This report examines the performance of two electric vehicles (EVs) at McMurdo, Antarctica (McMurdo). The study examined the performance of two e-ride Industries EVs initially delivered to McMurdo on February 16, 2011, and compared their performance and fuel use with that of conventional vehicles that have a duty cycle similar to that of the EVs used at McMurdo.

  18. Influence of sea ice cover and icebergs on circulation and water mass formation in a numerical circulation model of the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinniman, Michael S.; Klinck, John M.; Smith, Walker O.

    2007-11-01

    Satellite imagery shows that there was substantial variability in the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea during 2001-2003. Much of this variability is thought to be due to several large icebergs that moved through the area during that period. The effects of these changes in sea ice on circulation and water mass distributions are investigated with a numerical general circulation model. It would be difficult to simulate the highly variable sea ice from 2001 to 2003 with a dynamic sea ice model since much of the variability was due to the floating icebergs. Here, sea ice concentration is specified from satellite observations. To examine the effects of changes in sea ice due to iceberg C-19, simulations were performed using either climatological ice concentrations or the observed ice for that period. The heat balance around the Ross Sea Polynya (RSP) shows that the dominant term in the surface heat budget is the net exchange with the atmosphere, but advection of oceanic warm water is also important. The area average annual basal melt rate beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is reduced by 12% in the observed sea ice simulation. The observed sea ice simulation also creates more High-Salinity Shelf Water. Another simulation was performed with observed sea ice and a fixed iceberg representing B-15A. There is reduced advection of warm surface water during summer from the RSP into McMurdo Sound due to B-15A, but a much stronger reduction is due to the late opening of the RSP in early 2003 because of C-19.

  19. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Radionuclides in ornithogenic sediments as evidence for recent warming in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Yaguang [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology of Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Xu, Liqiang [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Liu, Xiaodong, E-mail: ycx@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Emslie, Steven D. [Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601 S. College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclides including {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs were analyzed in eight ornithogenic sediment profiles from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. Equilibration between {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra were reached in all eight profiles, enabling the determination of chronology within the past two centuries through the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model. Calculated fluxes of both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs varied drastically among four of the profiles (MB4, MB6, CC and CL2), probably due to differences in their sedimentary environments. In addition, we found the flux data exhibiting a clear decreasing gradient in accordance with their average deposition rate, which was in turn related to the specific location of the profiles. We believe this phenomenon may correspond to global warming of the last century, since warming-induced surface runoff would bring more inflow water and detritus to the coring sites, thus enhancing the difference among the profiles. To verify this hypothesis, the deposition rate against age of the sediments was calculated based on their determined chronology, which showed ascending trends in all four profiles. The significant increase in deposition rates over the last century is probably attributable to recent warming, implying a potential utilization of radionuclides as environmental indicators in this region. - Highlights: • {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs were measured in ornithogenic sediment profiles. • Chronology within 200 years was determined through Constant Rate of Supply model. • Calculated nuclide fluxes decreased with average deposition rate and locations. • Deposition rate over time indicated warming which caused the flux gradient.

  1. The Rossing file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, A.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the issues; Rio Tinto-Zinc; Namibia; the United Nations Decree No. 1; enter RTZ; signing the contracts; Namibia's response -SWAPO; the Rossing Mine; workers' voice. It is argued that the uranium mining operations are illegal. The wages, working conditions and living standards of the workers are criticized. (U.K.)

  2. Rossing reaps training benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-17

    A training program for unskilled operators at the Rossing Uranium Mine provides on avenue for a number of Namibians to become skilled workers without doing an apprenticeship and despite a lack of basic education. The Patterson plan has worked well so far for the purpose. A cadet scheme for leadership and trust foundation for scholarship have also been implemented.

  3. Rossing uranium 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the activities and organization of the Rossing uranium mine in South West Africa. The development of the mine during the last six years is described as well as the geology of the uranium deposits and aspects of the mining operations. The manpower structure and training possibilities for personnel are described

  4. Rossing reaps training benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A training program for unskilled operators at the Rossing Uranium Mine provides on avenue for a number of Namibians to become skilled workers without doing an apprenticeship and despite a lack of basic education. The Patterson plan has worked well so far for the purpose. A cadet scheme for leadership and trust foundation for scholarship have also been implemented

  5. Bandura, Ross, and Ross: Observational Learning and the Bobo Doll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Since the publication of their seminal article entitled, "Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models" (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961), the work of Albert Bandura and his co-authors has had an immeasurable impact on the field of psychology, in general, and educational psychology, more specifically. The purpose of this report is…

  6. Uranium extraction at Rossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, S.B.; Fahrbach, D.O.E.

    1982-01-01

    Rossing Uranium Ltd. operates a large open pit uranium mine and extraction plant at a remote site in the Namib desert. Production started at the plant in 1978. A ferric leach process was introduced later, and the new leach plant began commissioning in October 1981. The process has proved to be reliable and easily controlled. Ferric iron is supplied through recovery from the acid plant calcine, and levels can be maintained above the design levels. Leach extractions were increased more than expected when this process was adopted, and the throughput has been considerably reduced, allowing cost savings in mining and milling

  7. Rossing set for great future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Rio Tinto's Rossing open pit operation - the world's largest uranium mine - has had difficult birth pangs. The teething troubles which beset the mine are examined, together with the mining and extraction methods employed. Rossing's enlightened ideas on the labour question are also covered

  8. MR diagnostics after Ross procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, J.C.; Link, J.; Harringer, W.; Haverich, A.; Heller, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the ability of MRI to diagnose morphological and functional changes in patients after Ross procedure. Material and methods: During one year, 5 patients after Ross procedure were studied by MRI. T 1 -weighted spin-echo sequences in different orientations as well as cine sequences and a VENC-sequence were used. Results: In all patients the morphology including the postoperative changes could be visualised by MRI. The cine sequences provided functional information on valvular and ventricular function. VENC-MR yielded an exact quantification of the regurgitant fraction. Conclusion: MRI is capable of providing all important diagnostic information in patients after Ross procedure such as valvular and ventricular function and valvular and outflow tract morphology in a single examination. (orig.) [de

  9. Observations with FG5 and A10 absolute gravimeters on Ross Island and in Terra Nova Bay in November-December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogister, Yves; Hothem, Larry; Nielsen, J. Emil; Bernard, Jean-Daniel; Hinderer, Jacques; Forsberg, René; Wilson, Terry; Capra, Alessandro; Zanutta, Antonio; Winefield, Rachelle; Collett, Dave

    2013-04-01

    A campaign of absolute gravity (AG) measurements was conducted with both FG5 and A10 meters on Ross Island and in Terra Nova Bay in November and December 2011. It resulted from a collaboration between Danish, French, Italian, New Zealand and US agencies and institutes, under the POLENET program. For the second time in 2 years, AG was measured at McMurdo Station and Scott Base. For the fifth time in 21 years, it was measured at Mario Zucchelli Station. Moreover, AG field observations were initiated at various GPS stations of the A-NET network. We will report on the very last campaign, show the gravity trends at McMurdo Station, Scott Base and Mario Zucchelli Station, and describe how they compare to estimates of the gravity variation derived from space measurements by the GRACE twin satellites.

  10. Luminescence dating of paleolake deltas and glacial deposits in Garwood Valley, Antarctica: Implications for climate, Ross ice sheet dynamics, and paleolake duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joseph S.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Fountain, Andrew G.; O'Connor, Jim E.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of perched deltas and other lacustrine deposits in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is widely considered to be evidence of valley-filling lakes dammed by the grounded Ross Sea ice sheet during the local Last Glacial Maximum, with lake drainage interpreted as a record of grounding line retreat. We used luminescence dating to determine the age of paleolake deltas and glacial tills in Garwood Valley, a coastal dry valley that opens to the Ross Sea. Luminescence ages are stratigraphically consistent with radiocarbon results from algal mats within the same delta deposits but suggest radiocarbon dates from lacustrine carbonates may overestimate deposit ages by thousands of years. Results suggest that late Holocene delta deposition into paleolake Howard in Garwood Valley persisted until ca. 3.5 ka. This is significantly younger than the date when grounded ice is thought to have retreated from the Ross Sea. Our evidence suggests that the local, stranded ice-cored till topography in Garwood Valley, rather than regional ice-sheet dynamics, may have controlled lake levels for some McMurdo Dry Valleys paleolakes. Age control from the supraglacial Ross Sea drift suggests grounding and up-valley advance of the Ross Sea ice sheet into Garwood valley during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 4 (71–78 ka) and the local Last Glacial Maximum (9–10 ka). This work demonstrates the power of combining luminescence dating with existing radiocarbon data sets to improve understanding of the relationships among paleolake formation, glacial position, and stream discharge in response to climate change.

  11. Velocity Field of the McMurdo Shear Zone from Annual Three-Dimensional Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging and Crevasse Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L.; Jordan, M.; Arcone, S. A.; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Lever, J.; Walker, B.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ) is a narrow, intensely crevassed strip tens of km long separating the Ross and McMurdo ice shelves (RIS and MIS) and an important pinning feature for the RIS. We derive local velocity fields within the MSZ from two consecutive annual ground penetrating radar (GPR) datasets that reveal complex firn and marine ice crevassing; no englacial features are evident. The datasets were acquired in 2014 and 2015 using robot-towed 400 MHz and 200 MHz GPR over a 5 km x 5.7 km grid. 100 west-to-east transects at 50 m spacing provide three-dimensional maps that reveal the length of many firn crevasses, and their year-to-year structural evolution. Hand labeling of crevasse cross sections near the MSZ western and eastern boundaries reveal matching firn and marine ice crevasses, and more complex and chaotic features between these boundaries. By matching crevasse features from year to year both on the eastern and western boundaries and within the chaotic region, marine ice crevasses along the western and eastern boundaries are shown to align directly with firn crevasses, and the local velocity field is estimated and compared with data from strain rate surveys and remote sensing. While remote sensing provides global velocity fields, crevasse matching indicates greater local complexity attributed to faulting, folding, and rotation.

  12. A Pliocene marine diatom δ18O record of terrestrial-marine feedbacks and orbitally-paced cryogenic brine formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, J. P.; Abbott, T.; Gibbons, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Orbital frequencies are well documented in a number of terrestrial and marine climate records throughout the Cenozoic; however, assessing the feedbacks and timing of terrestrial-marine systems on glacial-interglacial timescales is often challenging. This is particularly the case in high-latitude, near-shore environments where traditional proxy records like benthic foraminifera are absent. Here we present oxygen isotope (δ18O and δ17O) values from marine diatom silica in the mid-Pliocene (3.5 - 4.7Ma) section of the AND-1B core from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Diatom silica δ18O values range between +28.1 and +36.4‰ VSMOW. Over a range of temperatures (0 to 10°C) that reflect both growth and shallow (fall on a mixing line between marine and meteoric waters, which also supports our cryogenic brine hypothesis. The AND-1B δ18O values have an inverse relationship with the stacked benthic foraminifera δ18O record where lower δ18O values in the AND-1B diatom silica correspond with colder intervals, and we interpret variations in the diatom δ18O values as increased brine flux from the MDV to McMurdo Sound. Currently, subsurface brines in the MDV are hydrologically connected with McMurdo Sound. Density-driven transport of these brines from the MDV to the marine costal environments during the warm mid-Pliocene indicate a potentially overlooked terrestrial source of hypersaline waters. Although the lateral extent of these brines is not known, mixing between the terrestrial cryogenic brines and seawater may represent a significant flux of hypersaline water to the marine environment during warmer-than-present global conditions.

  13. Changing Roots : Remodelling after the Ross Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mookhoek (Aart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Ross operation is a surgical intervention in which a diseased aortic valve is replaced by the pulmonary valve of the same patient. A donor valve replaces the pulmonary valve. In this thesis, several key unanswered clinical questions are explored. Early mortality after the Ross

  14. Flow Control and Design Assessment for Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Rosa Affleck, Meredith...Flow Control and Design Assessment for Drainage System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Rosa Affleck, Meredith Carr, and Brendan West Cold Regions...Characterization and Variations at McMurdo Station, Antarctica . ERDC/CRREL TR-14-6. Hanover, NH: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

  15. Noncommutative Blackwell-Ross martingale inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Ali; Moslehian, Mohammad Sal; Sadeghi, Ghadir

    We establish a noncommutative Blackwell-Ross inequality for supermartingales under a suitable condition which generalizes Khan’s work to the noncommutative setting. We then employ it to deduce an Azuma-type inequality.

  16. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  17. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain, Robert E., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    When Yang-Hann Kim received the Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education at the 2015 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, he stressed the importance of offering visual depictions of sound fields when teaching acoustics. Often visualization methods require specialized equipment such as microphone arrays or scanning apparatus. We present a…

  18. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain, Robert E.

    2018-02-01

    When Yang-Hann Kim received the Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education at the 2015 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, he stressed the importance of offering visual depictions of sound fields when teaching acoustics. Often visualization methods require specialized equipment such as microphone arrays or scanning apparatus. We present a simple method for visualizing angular dependence in sound fields, made possible via the confluence of sensors available via a new smartphone app that the authors have developed.

  19. Heat Flow and Hydrologic Characteristics at the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Williams, Trevor; Henry, Stuart; ,; Hansaraj, Dhiresh

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) successfully drilled and cored a borehole, AND-1B, beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf and into a flexural moat basin that surrounds Ross Island. Total drilling depth reached 1285 m below seafloor (mbsf) with 98 percent core recovery for the detailed study of glacier dynamics. With the goal of obtaining complementary information regarding heat flow and permeability, which is vital to understanding the nature of marine hydrogeologic systems, a succession of three temperature logs was recorded over a five-day span to monitor the gradual thermal recovery toward equilibrium conditions. These data were extrapolated to true, undisturbed temperatures, and they define a linear geothermal gradient of 76.7 K/km from the seafloor to 647 mbsf. Bulk thermal conductivities of the sedimentary rocks were derived from empirical mixing models and density measurements performed on core, and an average value of 1.5 W/mK ± 10 percent was determined. The corresponding estimate of heat flow at this site is 115 mW/m2. This value is relatively high but is consistent with other elevated heat-flow data associated with the Erebus Volcanic Province. Information regarding the origin and frequency of pathways for subsurface fluid flow is gleaned from drillers' records, complementary geophysical logs, and core descriptions. Only two prominent permeable zones are identified and these correspond to two markedly different features within the rift basin; one is a distinct lithostratigraphic subunit consisting of a thin lava flow and the other is a heavily fractured interval within a single thick subunit.

  20. STS-110 Crew Interview: Jerry Ross

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Ross outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Ross discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  1. Full production approaching at Rossing Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Rossing uranium mine, in South West Africa's Namib Desert, is an extraordinary operation by any standards. The open pit mining operation; the highly complex metallurgical plant that, unlike those at mines in South Africa extracts the uranium as far as the uranium oxide or yellowcake product; the back-up services; and the team of people who run Rossing were all seen in action on a recent visit by Coal Gold and Base Minerals. This article examines the geology, the initial exploration and the open pit

  2. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ross Lake National Recreation... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... snowmobiles the following locations within the Ross Lake National Recreation Area: (1) State Highway 20, that...

  3. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    simulation. 11 5. References 1. Attenborough K. Sound propagation in the atmosphere. In: Rossing TD, editor. Springer handbook of...ARL-TR-7602 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound ...Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures by Sarah Wagner Science and Engineering Apprentice

  4. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-08-20

    Aug 20, 1997 ... In 1857, a General in the Indian Army, Sir C C G Ross and his wife Matilda .... generally low-caste Indians who required a fee before drinking the water and ... nary demand being made upon their systems, as by fatigue, chill,.

  5. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite - Discovery of its Route - From Man to Mosquito and Back. Shobhona Sharma. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 4-13 ...

  6. Comparison of the Ross/Ross-Konno aortic root in children before and after the age of 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Rito, Mauro; Davies, Ben; Brawn, William J; Jones, Timothy J; Khan, Natasha; Stickley, John; Barron, David J

    2014-09-01

    Evaluation of long-term results after the Ross/Ross-Konno operation in patients Ross/Ross-Konno operation (1991-2011). Data were obtained from hospital records and follow-up was 100% complete. Between January 1991 and December 2011, 140 patients underwent the Ross/Ross-Konno operation and 22 patients were Ross operation and 8 patients a Ross-Konno operation. Presentation at surgery was aortic valve stenosis in 13, regurgitation in 7 and mixed disease in 2. Only 4 patients (18%) had no surgery prior to Ross/Ross-Konno, and among the others the previous most frequent operation was aortic valvotomy (55%). There were 3 early deaths, all in high-risk cases with poor preoperative left ventricular function. At discharge there was no neoaortic regurgitation in 10, trivial in 4 and mild in 5. The median follow-up is 10.8 years (range 0.96-21). There was 1 late death due to progressive ventricular dysfunction 2.4 years after Ross-Konno and mitral valve replacement. Survival for patients 18-months patients (P Ross/Ross-Konno can be invaluable in the younger age group but not without risk in the setting of ventricular dysfunction. Long-term performance of the neoaortic valve is significantly better than in older children, which is related to maintenance of normal root dimensions compared with progressive dilatation in patients undergoing Ross/Ross-Konno at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  8. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-05-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station.

  9. Application of ground-penetrating radar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory initiated a site investigation program at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, to characterize environmental contamination. The performance and usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated under antarctic conditions during the initial site investigation in January 1991. Preliminary surveys were successful in defining the contact between reworked pyroclastic material and in the prefill, undisturbed pyroclastics and basalts at some sites. Interference from radio traffic at McMurdo Station was not observed, but interference was a problem in work with unshielded antennas near buildings. In general, the results of this field test suggest that high-quality, high-resolution, continuous subsurface profiles can be produced with GPR over most of McMurdo Station

  10. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in approximately true color. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly

  11. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Color Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars

  12. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and

  13. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in exaggerated color to enhance color differences among rocks, soils and sand. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama

  14. STS-88 Crew Interview: Jerry Ross

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Jerry Ross discusses the seven-day mission that will be highlighted by the mating of the U.S.-built Node 1 station element to the Functional Energy Block (FGB) which will already be in orbit, and two spacewalks to connect power and data transmission cables between the Node and the FGB. Node 1 will be the first Space Station hardware delivered by the Space Shuttle. He also disscusses the assembly sequence. The crew will conduct a series of rendezvous maneuvers similar to those conducted on other Shuttle missions to reach the orbiting FGB. Once the two elements are docked, Ross and Newman will conduct two scheduled spacewalks to connect power and data cables between the Node, PMAs and the FGB. The day following the spacewalks, Endeavour will undock from the two components, completing the first Space Station assembly mission.

  15. [Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918 (Das Baltikum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 5). Hrsg. von Jaan Ross. Böhlau Verlag. Köln, Weimar und Wien 2012

  16. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  17. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  18. 2010/11 McMurdo Station Snow Road Strength and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    McMurdo Station. Part of this study in- cluded tracking the road maintenance and temperature and testing the road strength at predetermined mile...data provides insight as to the direct effects of various maintenance and environmental factors on the strength of the roads . Un- derstanding the...13 4.2 Maintenance vs. road strength

  19. Ross Versus Non-Ross Aortic Valve Replacement in Children: A 22-Year Single Institution Comparison of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John W; Patel, Parth M; Ivy Lin, Jiuann-Huey; Habib, Asma S; Rodefeld, Mark D; Turrentine, Mark W

    2016-05-01

    The Ross aortic valve replacement (AVR) has been the AVR of choice for children at our center since 1993. Absence or inadequate quality of the pulmonary valve or, less commonly, family or surgeon preference caused us to select an alternative AVR prosthesis for some children. This review compares the outcomes of 42 children who received a non-Ross AVR with 115 children undergoing Ross root replacement at our institution during the most recent 22 years. A retrospective chart review of the 42 pediatric non-Ross AVRs was compared with 115 Ross AVRs. The mean age at AVR was 11.0 ± 6.5 years (range, 1 month to 18 years) for the non-Ross and 11.4 ± 5.5 years (range, 6 weeks to 18 years) for the Ross groups. Follow-up was 7.8 ± 6.2 years for the Ross group and 8.7 ± 6.5 years for the non-Ross group. The Ross AVR technique was modified in 2000; these modifications were applied to 72 patients (63%) of the total Ross AVR group. All-cause early and late mortality of the non-Ross AVR group was 17% compared with 4% for the Ross cohort (p = 0.017). The actuarial survival rate at 20 years for the non-Ross AVR group was 81% compared with 94% for the Ross group (p = 0.018). Reintervention rate was 29% (12/38) in the non-Ross group and 28% (32/115) in the entire Ross group (60% [26/43] before 2000, and 8% [6/72] after 2000). Thromboemboli, bleeding, and endocarditis occurred in 2.4%, 1.4%, and 10% in the non-Ross group compared with 0.9%, 2.6%, and 1.7% in the Ross AVR group (p = 0.46, 0.01, and 0.02), respectively. Patients in the non-Ross group had a significantly higher recurrent or persistent aortic valve gradient (>20 mm Hg) than did patients in the Ross group at most recent follow-up (p Ross AVR than with other types of AVR prostheses. The Ross AVR remains the treatment of choice for children who have an adequate pulmonary valve. Reoperation for Ross root dilatation, regurgitation, or both (only 6% since our modifications in 2000) has markedly reduced the main drawbacks

  20. Calcareous nannofossil evidence for Marine Isotope Stage 31 (1 Ma) in the AND-1B Core, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, G.; Persico, D.; Wise, S. W.; Gadaleta, A.

    2009-04-01

    During the austral summer 2006 the ANDRILL Program recovered a 1285 m-long succession of cyclic glacimarine sediments from the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS). The aim of the MIS Project was to obtain continuous Neogene (c. 0-10 Ma) glacial, glacimarine, volcanic, and biogenic sediments that have accumulated in the region of the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Ross Sea) nourished by ice flowing from East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) outlet glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The MIS AND-1B drill core represents the longest and most complete (98% recovery) geological record from the Antarctic continental margin to date, and will provide a key reference record of climate and ice-sheet variability through the Late Neogene; detailed investigations of this record will contribute for improving our knowledge of Antarctica's influence on global climate. Preliminary on-ice analysis of the smear slides of the Andrill core revealed calcareous microfossils (dinoflagellates, calciosponge spicula and small foraminifera) occurring with variable concentrations. The presence of thoracosphaerid fragments in the smear slides of the first 600 mbsf (Quaternary), probably belong to the species Thoracosphaera saxea (Stradner 1961), and Thoracosphaera heimi (Kamptner, 1941) and other, potentially undescribed species (Villa & Wise 1998), suggests either a peculiar adaptation to this environment, due to their ability to develop cysts or warmer conditions at the time of their deposition, or a combination of both. However, they represent an additional element to use with the other proxies for inferring palaeoenvironmental conditions of the core. Subsequent shore-based analyses of 100 samples from 86-96 mbsf revealed for the first time the presence of Pleistocene coccolithophorids at these high southern latitudes (77° S), including: Coccolithus pelagicus, small Gephyrocapsa, Reticulofenestra asanoi, Pseudoemiliania lacunosa, Dictyoccocites productus, Reticulofenestra sp., Reticulofenestra minutula

  1. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  2. Field Observations and Modeling Results of the McMurdo Shear Zone, Antarctica: Implications on Shear Margin Dynamics and Long- Term Viability of the South Pole Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzienski, L. M.; Koons, P. O.; Enderlin, E. M.; Courville, Z.; Campbell, S. W.; Arcone, S.; Jordan, M.; Ray, L.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the flow of inland ice towards the ocean. Understanding the controls on ice-shelf stability are critical to predicting the future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. For the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), an important region of lateral resistance is the McMurdo Shear Zone (MSZ), a 5-10 km wide strip of heavily crevassed ice. On a yearly basis the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) mitigates crevasse hazards along the South Pole Traverse (SPoT) route that crosses this region. However, as ice advects northward past the lateral buttress of White Island into a region of greater flow divergence, intensified crevassing has been observed which will continue to place a substantial burden on safety mitigation efforts. The route has advected down-glacier towards this complex region since 2002 so the USAP currently has plans to relocate the shear zone crossing upstream in the near future. Our work aims to assess the feasibility of moving the route to several potential locations based on results from an integrated project incorporating detailed field-based observations of crevasse distributions and orientation from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), GPS and remote sensing observations of the flow and stress field within the MSZ, and finite element numerical modeling of local and regional kinematics within the region. In addition, we assess plausible dynamic forcings both upstream and downstream of the MSZ that could influence shear zone stability. These include changes in mass flux across the grounding lines of tributary glaciers such as the observed increase in ice discharge from of Byrd Glacier (Stearns et al., 2008) as well as changes at the MIS front due to recent intensified rift propagation (Banwel et al., 2017). Results from this work will increase our understanding of ice shelf shear margin dynamics and provide a firm basis for predicting the long-term behavior of the MSZ and viability of the SPoT. Stearns, Leigh A., Benjamin E. Smith, and

  3. High summertime aerosol organic functional group concentrations from marine and seabird sources at Ross Island, Antarctica, during AWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to seasonal and spatial patterns of cloud albedo in the region. From November 2015 to December 2016, the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE measured submicron aerosol properties near McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Ross Island. Submicron organic mass (OM, particle number, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were higher in summer than other seasons. The measurements included a range of compositions and concentrations that likely reflected both local anthropogenic emissions and natural background sources. We isolated the natural organic components by separating a natural factor and a local combustion factor. The natural OM was 150 times higher in summer than in winter. The local anthropogenic emissions were not hygroscopic and had little contribution to the CCN concentrations. Natural sources that included marine sea spray and seabird emissions contributed 56 % OM in summer but only 3 % in winter. The natural OM had high hydroxyl group fraction (55 %, 6 % alkane, and 6 % amine group mass, consistent with marine organic composition. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra showed the natural sources of organic aerosol were characterized by amide group absorption, which may be from seabird populations. Carboxylic acid group contributions were high in summer and associated with natural sources, likely forming by secondary reactions.

  4. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross as a Religious Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis; Hutch, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Considers Elisabeth Kubler-Ross as a charismatic religious leader and examines the feminine quality of her message and leadership style. An examination of the prospects for an enduring cultural innovation based on Kubler-Ross's work concludes that her leadership does not conform to conditions necessary for institutionalization of her charismatic…

  5. Success: Richard Dyer on Diana Ross [and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2016-01-01

    In June 1982, film scholar Richard Dyer published a two-page essay on African-American star Diana Ross in the journal Marxism Today. Part of Dyer’s essay focuses on the American conception of success and specifically on how Ross is one of the few black artists who has been "allowed" to be such a

  6. Histomorphometry of the esophagus of adult ross broilers | Mobini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the histomorphometrical variations of esophagus at different regions in Ross broilers. Twenty four apparently healthy adult Ross broilers (12 females and 12 males), aged from 7 to 9 weeks, were used. Tissue samples were taken from middle parts of cervical and thoracic regions of ...

  7. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events after the ross procedure: A report from the german-dutch ross registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Sievers (Hans Hinrich); U. Stierle (Ulrich); E.I. Charitos (Efstratios); T. Hanke; M. Misfeld (Martin); J.F.M. Bechtel (Matthias); A. Gorski (Armin); U.F. Franke (Ulrich); B. Graf (Bernhard); D.R. Robinson (Derek); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); A. Dodge-Khatami (Ali); J.O. Boehm (Juergen); J.G. Rein (Joachim); C.A. Botha (Cornelius); R. Lange (Rüdiger); J. Hoerer (Juergen); A. Moritz (Anton); T. Wahlers (Thorsten); M. Breuer (Martin); K. Ferrari-Kuehne (Katharina); R. Hetzer (Roland); M. Huebler (Michael); G. Ziemer (Gerhard); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke); W. Hemmer

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground-: The purpose of the study is to report major cardiac and cerebrovascular events after the Ross procedure in the large adult and pediatric population of the German-Dutch Ross registry. These data could provide an additional basis for discussions among physicians and a source

  8. Drivers of solar radiation variability in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obryk, Maciej; Fountain, Andrew G.; Doran, Peter; Lyons, Berry; Eastman, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Annually averaged solar radiation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica has varied by over 20 W m−2 during the past three decades; however, the drivers of this variability are unknown. Because small differences in radiation are important to water availability and ecosystem functioning in polar deserts, determining the causes are important to predictions of future desert processes. We examine the potential drivers of solar variability and systematically eliminate all but stratospheric sulfur dioxide. We argue that increases in stratospheric sulfur dioxide increase stratospheric aerosol optical depth and decrease solar intensity. Because of the polar location of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (77–78°S) and relatively long solar ray path through the stratosphere, terrestrial solar intensity is sensitive to small differences in stratospheric transmissivity. Important sources of sulfur dioxide include natural (wildfires and volcanic eruptions) and anthropogenic emission.

  9. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 , and NO x ). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  10. Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 7- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations , Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for...January 2017 Flow-Control Systems Proof of Concept for Snowmelt Runoff at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Rosa Affleck U.S. Army Engineer Research and...runoff can be extreme where the flow can overwhelm both the drainage system and the operations and maintenance (O&M) crew. CRREL has been involved

  11. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  12. Indicators of Physical and Biological Trends around the McMurdo Station, Antarctica: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    from +2.0 ERDC/CRREL SR-15-1 13 m/decade in the Queen Maud region to −19.4 m/decade in the Amundsen region. For the Ross Sea region, the change...precipitation in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica. PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Cook, A. J., and D. G. Vaughan. 2010

  13. The Paediatric Cardiology Hall of Fame – Donald Nixon Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Donald Nixon Ross, FRCS (4 October 1922 to 7 July 2014) was a South African-born British cardiothoracic surgeon, who developed the pulmonary autograft, known as the Ross procedure, for the treatment of aortic valve disease, and also performed the first heart transplant in the United Kingdom in 1968. This paper, written by Jane Somerville, Professor of Cardiology [Retired], Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, provides the personal recollections about Donald Ross from Jane Somerville, and thus provides a unique snapshot of cardiac surgical history.

  14. The Ross Procedure in Pediatric Patients: A 20-Year Experience of Ross Procedure in a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dong Woog; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Park, Pyo Won

    2017-08-01

    The Ross/Ross-Konno procedure is considered a good option for irreparable aortic valve disease in pediatric patients because of its hemodynamic performance and potential for growth of the pulmonary autograft. This study is a review of the long-term results of our 20-year experience with the Ross and Ross-Konno operations in a single institution. Between June 1995 and January 2016, 16 consecutive patients (mean age, 6.0±5.9 years; range, 16 days to 17.4 years) underwent either a Ross operation (n=9) or a Ross-Konno operation (n=7). The study included 12 males and 4 females, with a median follow-up period of 47 months (range, 6 to 256 months). There were no cases of in-hospital or late mortality. Six reoperations were performed in 5 patients. Four patients underwent right ventricular-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit replacement. Two patients underwent concomitant replacement of the pulmonary autograft and RV-PA conduit 10 years and 8 years after the Ross operation, respectively. The rate of freedom from adverse outcomes of the pulmonary autograft was 88% and 70% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The rate of freedom from valve-related reoperations was 79% and 63% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Pulmonary autografts demonstrated good durability with low mortality. The Ross/Ross-Konno procedure is a good option that can be performed safely in pediatric patients with aortic valve disease, even in a small-volume center.

  15. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  16. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, Maureen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gruidl, Jeremiah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  17. Minevikupärandit Häädemeestelt / Eevi Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ross, Eevi, 1938-

    2012-01-01

    Raamatututvustus: Minevikupärandit Häädemeestelt : valimik korrespondentide murdetekste. VIII / Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Emakeele Selts ; kogunud Marta Mäesalu ; koostanud ja toimetanud: Helju Kaal, Eevi Ross. Tallinn : Emakeele Selts, 2012

  18. Ross Ice Drainage System (RIDS) Glaciochemical Analysis, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ross Ice Drainage System (RIDS) project provides a high-resolution record of atmospheric chemical deposition taken from several ice cores and snow pits located...

  19. The Ross II procedure: pulmonary autograft in the mitral position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Cherian, Ashok; Ross, Donald

    2004-10-01

    The surgical management of mitral valve disease in women of childbearing age, young patients, and children with congenital mitral valve defects is made difficult by the prospect of lifelong anticoagulation. We suggest the use of a pulmonary autograft in the mitral position (Ross II procedure) as an alternative surgical technique. We present a review of the literature, historical perspectives, indications, selection criteria, and surgical technique for the Ross II procedure. Our literature search identified 14 studies that reported results from the Ross II operation. Performed in 103 patients, the overall in-hospital mortality was 7 (6.7%), with a late mortality of 10 (9%). Although further research is needed, current evidence suggests the Ross II operation is a valuable alternative in low-risk young patients where valve durability and the complication rate from other procedures is unsatisfactory and anticoagulation not ideal.

  20. STS-74 M.S. Jerry L. Ross suits up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Spaceflight veteran Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist 2 on Shuttle Mission STS-74, is assisted by a suit technician as he finishes getting into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Ross and four fellow astronauts will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits a second liftoff attempt during a seven-minute window scheduled to open at approximately 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  1. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  2. Dynamics of the Ross-Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doige, A G; Walker, G

    1986-01-01

    A computer model has been developed for the simulation of the dynamic loading in a Stirling engine having a Ross linkage as the drive mechanism. The model is based on a complete theoretical formulation of the dynamics of the system. The masses and moments of inertia of all moving components have been included in the model. The computer program can be used for determining the effect of changes in many design parameters on the geometry, velocities, accelerations, dynamic loading and reactions at all pin connections and engine-mount locations. In this paper, emphasis is given to assessing the general characteristics of the reaction forces at the pin connections and to the reduction of overall engine shaking forces by simple balancing methods. The most heavily loaded element in the engine is the pin connecting the crank and the yoke. The force at that location is a combination of a static load produced by gas pressure in the cylinders and a combined inertia load for the whole engine which increases with the square of the rotational speed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Comprehensive characterization report on Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; White, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Winter Quarters Bay is a small embayment located adjacent to the United States largest base in Antarctica, McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station, which is managed by the National Science Foundation`s Office of Polar Programs, was constructed in 1955, has been in constant use since that time, and has a population of about 1,000 persons during the summer and about 250 people for the winter. The bay offers shelter for ships and an ice dock is used during January and February to off load fuel and cargo. During earlier times, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of the bay, doused with several thousand gallons of fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased and the site has been regraded to cover the waste. The bottom of the bay is littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, all sorts of metal objects, cables, etc., especially the southeastern side where dumping took place. The sediments are gravel in some places yet fine and fluid at other sites with coarse particles intermixed. The original benthic community is not well recorded but significant ecological changes have occurred. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. This report summarizes available information on Winter Quarters Bay and was originally intended to be used by workshop participants to become familiar with the bay prior to becoming updated with unpublished data by various Antarctic investigators. The proposed workshop was to assist the National Science Foundation in determining whether and how the bay should be remediated and to develop an integrated research plan if additional data were needed. However, plans changed, the workshop was never conducted, but the briefing report was prepared. Most of this report reviews and summarizes other published data. The only new data are those from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory`s investigation into the distribution of organic contaminants in the bay and sediment toxicity testing.

  4. The McMurdo Dry Valleys Magmatic Laboratory Workshop of 2005 in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.; Simon, A.; Charrier, A. D.; Hersum, T. G.; Eschholz, E.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2005, twenty-five petrologists, volcanologists, geochemists, structural geologists, and magma dynamicists spent two weeks studying and discussing the Magmatic Mush Column represented by the 180 Ma Ferrar Dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. This exceptionally well-exposed system shows a series of massive interconnected sills culminating in a capping of regional flood basalts. The lowermost sill, the Basement Sill, contains a massive ultramafic tongue of large phenocrysts of orthopyroxene (Opx) with subordinate Cpx and much smaller plagioclase. The 3-D distribution of this Opx Tongue serves as a tracer for the filling dynamics and local motion of the magma. Ponding of the Basement Sill has resulted in a small (500 m), but exceedingly diversified and extensively layered ultramafic intrusion, the Dais Intrusion. Because of the relatively rapid cooling time of this body, the Dais textures have been preserved before extensive annealing, which presents the possibility of using these textures to understand those of much larger, slowly cooled bodies. The combination of seeing in detail a wide variety of exceptional field relations depicting layering, sill emplacement mechanics, internal ordering and crystal sorting in the Opx Tongue, dike and fissure distributions, wall rock thermal effects, and many other first order features of central interest to understanding magmatic processes and performing research in real time was a new challenge to all involved. Facilities were set up at McMurdo Station for rock cutting, thin-section making, map making, GIS analysis, petrographic analysis, and computer modeling using existing chemical and physical data on a spectrum of the representative rock types. At any one time half the group was housed in the field in Bull Pass near Wright Valley and the remaining group was shuttled in by helicopter each day. The principal groups were switched about every three days. Areas for daily field-work were decided upon by

  5. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic characterization of PAH contaminants at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo . E-mail moonkoo.kim@wmich.edu; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian Yaorong

    2006-01-01

    The molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of contaminant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica were analyzed in samples collected from land and sub-tidal area. PAHs in the study areas were characterized by high amounts of naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes from petroleum products introduced by human activities in the area. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PAH composition data identified multiple sources of PAH contamination in the study area. Compositional assignments of origins were confirmed using compound specific stable carbon isotopic analysis

  6. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  7. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  8. Radiological Operations Support Specialist (ROSS) Pilot Course Summary and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alai, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Askin, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wogan, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doshi, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tai, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    In support of the Department of Homeland Security / Science and Technology Directorate’s (DHS/S&T) creation of a new position called the Radiological Operations Support Specialist (ROSS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Sub-task 1.1 and 1.2 has assisted in the development of the ROSS skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs); identified potentially relevant training; cross-mapped the training to the SKAs; and identified gaps in the training related to the SKAs, as well as their respective level of training knowledge - current versus desired. In the follow on task, Sub-task 1.3, a 5 day ROSS Pilot Training course was developed to fill the priority gaps identified in Sub-Task 1.2. Additionally, in Sub-Task 1.5, LLNL has performed a gap analysis of electronic tools, handbooks, and job-aides currently available to the ROSS and developed recommendations for additional and next generation tools to ensure the operational effectiveness of the ROSS position. This document summarizes the feedback received from the instructors and pilot course observers on what worked in the course and what could be improved as well as an assessment of the Pre- and Post-Test administered to the students.

  9. Radiological Operations Support Specialist (ROSS) Pilot Course Summary and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alai, M.; Askin, A.; Buddemeier, B.; Wogan, L.; Doshi, P.; Tai, L.

    2016-01-01

    In support of the Department of Homeland Security / Science and Technology Directorate's (DHS/S&T) creation of a new position called the Radiological Operations Support Specialist (ROSS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Sub-task 1.1 and 1.2 has assisted in the development of the ROSS skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs); identified potentially relevant training; cross-mapped the training to the SKAs; and identified gaps in the training related to the SKAs, as well as their respective level of training knowledge - current versus desired. In the follow on task, Sub-task 1.3, a 5 day ROSS Pilot Training course was developed to fill the priority gaps identified in Sub-Task 1.2. Additionally, in Sub-Task 1.5, LLNL has performed a gap analysis of electronic tools, handbooks, and job-aides currently available to the ROSS and developed recommendations for additional and next generation tools to ensure the operational effectiveness of the ROSS position. This document summarizes the feedback received from the instructors and pilot course observers on what worked in the course and what could be improved as well as an assessment of the Pre- and Post-Test administered to the students.

  10. Does the Homograft for RVOT Reconstruction in Ross: Patients Fare Better than for Non-Ross Patients? A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmetov, Mark; Geiss, Dale M; Shah, Jitendra J; Fortuna, Randall S; Welke, Karl F

    2015-07-01

    In patients undergoing the Ross procedure, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit is inserted in an orthotopic position rather than in the more heterotopic position used in the repair of complex congenital RVOT obstruction. The study aim was to compare the authors' institutional mid-term experience of large-sized homografts (>19 mm) in patients with Ross and non-Ross RVOT reconstructions. The outcome was reviewed of all homografts implanted for Ross (n = 72) or non-Ross (n = 64) RVOT reconstruction at a single center between 1993 and 2012. Echocardiographic data were reviewed to evaluate valve performance. Homograft dysfunction was defined as RVOT obstruction with peak echo-Doppler gradient >40 mmHg and/or grade >III/IV conduit valve regurgitation. Homograft failure was defined as the need for conduit replacement or catheter or surgical reintervention. The age, body weight, conduit diameter and previous surgery were significantly higher in patients with Ross compared to the non-Ross group (p = 0.002, 0.003 and Ross, n = 17; non-Ross, n = 18). The data acquired showed actuarial survival, freedom from conduit dysfunction and conduit failure to be similar in both cohorts. Freedom from any type of reoperation was worse for the Ross group (58%) than for the non-Ross group (72%) (p = 0.05). During the first 15 years after Ross or non-Ross pulmonary homograft implantation, the survival rate, freedom from failure and dysfunction, and RVOT gradient were statistically similar. Freedom from any type of reoperation was significantly higher in the non-Ross group, however.

  11. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  12. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  13. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  14. Mapping sediment contamination and toxicity in Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Alan B; White, Gregory J

    2003-07-01

    Winter Quarters Bay (WQB) is a small embayment located adjacent to McMurdo Station, the largest research base in Antarctica. The bay is approximately 250 m wide and long, with a maximum depth of 33 m. Historically, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of WQB, doused with fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased, and the adjacent land area has been regraded to cover the residual waste. The bottom of WQB remains littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, cables, and other objects, especially the southeastern side of the bay where dumping took place. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. The objectives of this study were to map the distribution of organic contaminants in WQB, assess the toxicity of WQB sediments using a simple microbial test, and determine correlations between toxicity and contaminant levels. The study suggests that adverse ecological effects have occurred from one or more of the contaminants found in WQB but the source of the toxic impacts to bay sediments remains unknown. Whole sediment toxicity was only correlated with oil-equivalent while solvent extracts of sediments were correlated with PAHs and oil-equivalent. The authors recommend that an integrated research plan be developed that focuses on determining what additional information is needed to make informed decisions on possible remediation of WQB.

  15. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra...Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Jason C. Weale and Devinder S. Sodhi Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) U.S...Division of Polar Programs operates an over-sea-ice traverse from McMurdo Station to rou- tinely resupply Marble Point Camp. The traverse requires that

  16. Rossing - uranium changes the face of the Namib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Rossing is not only an important source of uranium for industrial countries, but a large revenue-earner. It is injecting money into the economy. For efficiency, personnel and equipment had to be comfortably established. The Rossing orebody is the largest known deposit of uranium occuring in granite. Over one million ton of ore and waste are removed weekly. By the use of scintillometer readings the ore is blended to give a constant feed to the mill. Modern developments are used to optimise the mining operation. Radioactivity will be always present and is therefore regulary measured. The best working environment are always ensured

  17. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  18. 75 FR 32802 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... vessel ROSS CANDIES as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of... the offshore supply vessel ROSS CANDIES, O.N. 1222260. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS [[Page 32803...

  19. 77 FR 56859 - Federal Register Notification of Redesignation of Potential Wilderness as Wilderness, Ross Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Register Notification of Redesignation of Potential Wilderness as Wilderness, Ross Lake National Recreation..., Ross Lake National Recreation Area, and Lake Chelan National Recreation Area as the Stephen Mather... acres of potential wilderness within Ross Lake National Recreation Area, including approximately 1,667...

  20. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  1. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  2. Linking Orbital, Field, and Laboratory Analyses of Dolerites in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica: Terrestrial Studies and Planetary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Wyatt, M. B.; Seeley, J.

    2012-03-01

    Primary igneous and secondary alteration signatures can be resolved using orbital spectroscopy over mafic regions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We assess the nature of these signatures and their link to surface stability and regional microclimates.

  3. Iron-oxide Magnetic, Morphologic, and Compositional Tracers of Sediment Provenance and Ice Sheet Extent in the ANDRILL AND-1B Drill Core, Ross Sea, Antarctica (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Pinzon, J.; Darley, J. S.; Sagnotti, L.; Kuhn, G.; Florindo, F.; Wilson, G. S.; Ohneiser, C.; Monien, D.; Joseph, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The first drilling season of the Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record of paleoclimate change (core AND-1B) within the Ross Sea. The magnetic mineral assemblage records the varying contributions of biological productivity, changing sediment sources, the emergence of volcanic centers, and post-depositional diagenesis. Characterization of bedrock samples from the McMurdo Volcanic Group (MVG) and Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) lithologic units allows us to construct fingerprints for the major source rocks bordering the Ross Sea, and identify their signatures within the AND-1B sediment. Key parameters that can be traced from source rock to sediment for the MVG-derived sediment include a 100-200 C order-disorder transition, titanomaghemite grains with homogenous textures but with substantial Al and Mg content, Fe-spinels with substantial Al, Cr, Mg, and Ti content, and titanomagnetite host grains with 1-3 swarms of ilmenite lamellae (both with variable amounts of oxidation). Distinctive signatures in TAM lithologies include low S-ratios in Koettlitz Group gneisses and Fe-sulfides with magnetite intergrowths in Byrd Glacier basement samples. The Cambrian Granite Harbor Intrusive Complex is characterized by coarse, homogeneous Mn-bearing ilmenite and nearly pure magnetite. The Jurassic dolerites and basalts of the Ferrar Group contain pseudo single domain to stable single domain-sized Fe-oxides with low-Ti content and homogeneous textures. Cu-Fe sulfides are also present in the Ferrar Group. Diamictites in the Pliocene-Pleistocene section of the AND-1B drill core contains Fe-oxide assemblages with MVG-type rock magnetic and textural characteristics, while the Miocene diamictites contain TAM-type signatures. These observations can be explained by increased ice flow from the west during the Miocene and/or the absence of MVG volcanic centers, which had not yet reached a significant size. During the Pliocene and

  4. Ross Ice Shelf airstream driven by polar vortex cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The powerful air and ocean currents that flow in and above the Southern Ocean, circling in the Southern Hemisphere's high latitudes, form a barrier to mixing between Antarctica and the rest of the planet. Particularly during the austral winter, strong westerly winds isolate the Antarctic continent from heat, energy, and mass exchange, bolstering the scale of the annual polar ozone depletion and driving the continent's record-breaking low temperatures. Pushing through this wall of high winds, the Ross Ice Shelf airstream (RAS) is responsible for a sizable amount of mass and energy exchange from the Antarctic inland areas to lower latitudes. Sitting due south of New Zealand, the roughly 470,000-square-kilometer Ross Ice Shelf is the continent's largest ice shelf and a hub of activity for Antarctic research. A highly variable lower atmospheric air current, RAS draws air from the inland Antarctic Plateau over the Ross Ice Shelf and past the Ross Sea. Drawing on modeled wind patterns for 2001-2005, Seefeldt and Cassano identify the primary drivers of RAS.

  5. Setting the scientistic cat among the humanist pigeons Don Ross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications of cognitive science and economics for each other. Ross makes neoclassical economics central to the unification of the behavioural sciences, and defends its fundamental health against its critics. He locates the source of the empirical and conceptual problems besetting neoclassical economics in the mistaken ...

  6. R. E. van der Ross (1921–2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 Mrt. 2018 ... Sedert sy jeug het Richard Ernest van der Ross. (1921–2017) 'n belangrike rol in die breë Kaapse ge- meenskap gespeel. Hy het hom onderskei as 'n anti- apartheidsaktivis, 'n opvoedkundige, 'n geskied- skrywer en openbare intellektueel, 'n vakbondmens,. 'n gemeenskapsbouer, 'n maatskappydirekteur ...

  7. Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Part of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains of Antarctica (55.5N, 178.0W) are in the background of this scene, oriented toward the south. Low stratocumulus clouds are predominant throughout most of the scene.

  8. Multiphase Reactive Transport and Platelet Ice Accretion in the Sea Ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J. J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Huber, C.

    2018-01-01

    Sea ice seasonally to interannually forms a thermal, chemical, and physical boundary between the atmosphere and hydrosphere over tens of millions of square kilometers of ocean. Its presence affects both local and global climate and ocean dynamics, ice shelf processes, and biological communities. Accurate incorporation of sea ice growth and decay, and its associated thermal and physiochemical processes, is underrepresented in large-scale models due to the complex physics that dictate oceanic ice formation and evolution. Two phenomena complicate sea ice simulation, particularly in the Antarctic: the multiphase physics of reactive transport brought about by the inhomogeneous solidification of seawater, and the buoyancy driven accretion of platelet ice formed by supercooled ice shelf water onto the basal surface of the overlying ice. Here a one-dimensional finite difference model capable of simulating both processes is developed and tested against ice core data. Temperature, salinity, liquid fraction, fluid velocity, total salt content, and ice structure are computed during model runs. The model results agree well with empirical observations and simulations highlight the effect platelet ice accretion has on overall ice thickness and characteristics. Results from sensitivity studies emphasize the need to further constrain sea ice microstructure and the associated physics, particularly permeability-porosity relationships, if a complete model of sea ice evolution is to be obtained. Additionally, implications for terrestrial ice shelves and icy moons in the solar system are discussed.

  9. Outcomes of Reintervention on the Autograft After Ross Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ram; Bansal, Neeraj; Wells, Winfield J; Starnes, Vaughn A

    2016-11-01

    After a Ross procedure, a small subset of patients requires reintervention for autograft dilatation or valve insufficiency. We sought to determine the indications, nature, and outcomes of autograft reinterventions in the left ventricular outflow tract after a Ross procedure. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 316 consecutive patients, age 4 days to 70 years, who underwent a Ross procedure at our institution. Of these, 47 patients (15%) required autograft reintervention during a median follow-up of 8.2 years. Forty-seven patients, median age 26 years (interquartile range [IQR], 14.4 to 44.8 years), 32 (68%) men, required autograft reintervention a median 5.5 years (IQR, 1.8 to 9.4 years) after a Ross procedure. In 47% (22 of 47 patients), the autograft valve could be salvaged (15 valve-sparing aortic replacements, 7 valve repairs). The remaining 53% underwent replacement of the root (10 mechanical, 5 homograft) or valve alone (7 mechanical, 3 bioprosthetic). Twenty patients presented without autograft root dilatation 1 year (IQR, 0.5 to 2.9 years) after Ross. Fifteen of them (75%) required valve replacement. The 27 patients who demonstrated root dilatation presented 6.9 years (IQR, 4.5 to 9.7 years; p Ross, and 17 (63%) of these valves could be spared (p = 0.01). There was no surgical mortality and 5 (11%) major morbidity events. Patients were followed up for 4.9 years (IQR, 2.1 to 7 years) after left ventricular outflow tract reintervention. For patients whose autograft valve could be spared, 3-, 5-, and 8-year freedom from valve replacement was 92%, 86%, and 86%, respectively. At last follow-up, only 1 patient had greater than mild aortic insufficiency, and all but 1 had normal ejection fraction. Autograft reintervention after a Ross appears to follow a bimodal distribution. Patients with primary autograft leaflet problems tend to present early without root dilatation and frequently require valve replacement. The autograft valve can be salvaged in the

  10. Climatology and decadal variability of the Ross Sea shelf waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Russo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Ocean Database 2001 data located in the Ross Sea (named WOD01 and containing data in this region since 1928 are merged with recent data collected by the Italian expeditions (CLIMA dataset in the period November 1994-February 2004 in the same area. From this extended dataset, austral summer climatologies of the main Ross Sea subsurface, intermediate and bottom water masses: High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW, Ice Shelf Water (ISW and Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW have been drawn. The comparison between the WOD01_1994 climatologies (a subset of the WOD01 dataset until April 1994 and the CLIMA ones for the period 1994/95-2003/04 showed significant changes occurred during the decade. The freshening of the Ross Sea shelf waters which occurred during the period 1960-2000, was confirmed by our analysis in all the main water masses, even though with a spatially varying intensity. Relevant variations were found for the MCDW masses, which appeared to reduce their presence and to deepen; this can be ascribed to the very limited freshening of the MCDW core, which allowed an increased density with respect to the surrounding waters. Variations in the MCDW properties and extension could have relevant consequences, e.g. a decreased Ross Ice Shelf basal melting or a reduced supply of nutrients, and may also be indicative of a reduced thermohaline circulation within the Ross Sea. Shelf Waters (SW having neutral density γn > 28.7 Kg m-3, which contribute to form the densest Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW, showed a large volumetric decrease in the 1994/95-2003/04 decade, most likely as a consequence of the SW freshening.

  11. Aerosolization of cyanobacterial cells across ecosystem boundaries in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout-Haney, J.; Heindel, R. C.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cyanobacteria play a major ecological role in polar freshwaters, occurring predominately as small single cells in the water column, i.e., picocyanobacteria, or large multicellular colonies and mats that reside on the lake bottom. Cyanobacteria are also present in terrestrial polar habitats, including within soils, soil crusts, rocks, and glacial ice. Despite their predominance in polar ecosystems, the extent to which cyanobacteria move between terrestrial and aquatic landscape units remains poorly understood. In polar deserts such as the McMurdo Dry Valleys, aeolian processes influence terrestrial landscape morphology and drive the transport of sediments and other particles. Water surfaces can also act as a source of aerosolized particles, such as the production of sea spray aerosols through wave breaking in marine environments. However, aerosolization from freshwater bodies has been far less studied, especially in polar regions. We conducted a field-study to examine the transport of aerosolized cyanobacterial cells from ponds and soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We used highly portable aerosol collection devices fitted with GF/F filters combusted at 500°C (0.3 µm) to collect small particles, such as picocyanobacteria (0.2 - 2 µm), from near-shore water and adjacent soil. We used epifluorescence microscopy to quantify aerosolized cells, with excitation filters for chlorophyll a (435 nm) and phycobilin pigments (572 nm), to distinguish cyanobacterial cells. We detected aerosolized picocyanobacterial cells from all ponds and soils sampled, indicating that these cells may be quite mobile and transported across ecosystem boundaries. We observed cyanobacterial cells individually, clustered, and associated with other organic material, suggesting multiple modes of cell transport. Further, we investigated the potential for aerosolization of toxin-producing cyanobacterial taxa (or unbound cyanotoxins), and the ecological and ecosystem-scale implications of

  12. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  13. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  14. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  15. Ground based observations of Pc3-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation power at Antarctic McMurdo station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maclennan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The two horizontal geomagnetic components and, measured by a fluxgate magnetometer at Antarctic McMurdo station (corrected geomagnetic coordinates 80.0° S, 327.5° E, are analyzed for the period May-June 1994; the spectral powers are calculated and integrated over three frequency intervals corresponding to the nominal ranges. The time dependence of those integrated powers and their correlations with northern auroral indices and solar wind speed are considered. The observations are compared with previous results reported from Terra Nova Bay station (located near McMurdo at the same corrected geomagnetic latitude during Antarctic summer intervals. The differences found between the two stations are discussed in terms of the seasonal dependence of geomagnetic field line configurations in the near cusp region.

  16. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  17. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  18. Isad ja tütred, isad ja pojad / Jüri Ross, Kristine Ross, Fjodor Berman ...[jt.] ; üles kirjutanud Jaana Liigand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Büroomaailma juht Jüri Ross ja turundusdirektor Kristine Ross, BLRT Grupi omanik Fjodor Berman ja BLRT Grupi tütarfirma Refonda tegevdirektor Mark Berman, Saaremaa Laevakompanii ja paljude firmade omanik Vjatšeslav Leedo ja Mosaiigi kohviku omanik Katrin Leedo ärist, juhtimisest ja omavahelistest suhetest

  19. Validation of Robotic Surgery Simulator (RoSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Stegemann, Andrew; Sathyaseelan, Gughan; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Seixas-Mikelus, Stéfanie; Chandrasekhar, Rameella; Wilding, Gregory; Guru, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    Recent growth of daVinci Robotic Surgical System as a minimally invasive surgery tool has led to a call for better training of future surgeons. In this paper, a new virtual reality simulator, called RoSS is presented. Initial results from two studies - face and content validity, are very encouraging. 90% of the cohort of expert robotic surgeons felt that the simulator was excellent or somewhat close to the touch and feel of the daVinci console. Content validity of the simulator received 90% approval in some cases. These studies demonstrate that RoSS has the potential of becoming an important training tool for the daVinci surgical robot.

  20. Late Quaternary climatic changes in the Ross Sea area, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambati, A.; Melis, R.; Quaia, T.; Salvi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Ten cores from the Ross Sea continental margin were investigated to detect Late Quaternary climatic changes. Two main climatic cycles over the last 300,000 yr (isotope stages 1-8) were recognised in cores from the continental slope, whereas minor fluctuations over the last 30,000 yr were found in cores from the continental shelf. The occurrence of calcareous taxa within the Last Glacial interval and their subsequent disappearance reveal a general raising of the CCD during the last climatic cycle. In addition, periodical trends of c. 400, c. 700, and c. 1400 yr determined on calcareous foraminifers from sediments of the Joides Basin, indicate fluctuations of the Ross Ice Shelf between 15 and 30 ka BP. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs

  1. The Externally Supported Ross Operation: Early Outcomes and Intermediate Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Roni M; Earing, Michael G; Hill, Garick D; Barnes, Michael; Mitchell, Michael E; Woods, Ronald K; Tweddell, James S

    2015-08-01

    The externally supported Ross (supported Ross), consisting of a Dacron (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) graft to support the neoaortic root, has been used in adolescent and adult patients to prevent neoaortic dilatation. Outcomes after the supported Ross technique were compared with the Ross procedure using the standard aortic root replacement technique (standard Ross). This was a retrospective analysis of 36 adolescent and young adult patients who underwent the Ross procedure between 1992 and 2013. The outcomes of supported Ross procedures in 26 patients were compared with the Ross procedure in 10 patients. End points included survival, neoaortic root dilatation, development of neoaortic regurgitation, and the need for reintervention. The median age at operation was 14 years (range, 11 to 31 years), and indications for the operation were mixed lesions (47%), followed by aortic regurgitation (42%) and stenosis (11%). There were no early deaths. The mean follow-up was 2.2 years (range, 1 to 11 years). At the 1-year (p = 0.01) and 3-year (p Ross cohort had a smaller neoaortic root z-score. Neither cohort had a large number of patients with significant neoaortic regurgitation, with 1 patient in the supported cohort compared with 3 patients in the standard cohort. Overall, 4 patients (40%) in the standard Ross cohort had required reintervention, including 3 directed at the neoaortic root. One patient in the supported Ross cohort required early reintervention for revision of the right coronary artery. At intermediate follow-up, patients who underwent the supported Ross technique were less likely to have neoaortic root dilatation compared with patients who underwent a standard Ross procedure. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term durability of this technique, particularly in regards to the development of significant aortic regurgitation, the rate of reintervention, and application to younger and smaller patients. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

  2. Ross sea ice motion, area flux, and deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    kwok, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The sea ice motion, area export, and deformation of the Ross Sea ice cover are examined with satellite passive microwave and RADARSAT observations. The record of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, from 1998 and 2000, allows the estimation of the variability of ice deformation at the small scale (10 km) and to assess the quality of the longer record of passive microwave ice motion. Daily and subdaily deformation fields and RADARSAT imagery highlight the variability of motion and deformation in the Ross Sea. With the passive microwave ice motion, the area export at a flux gate positioned between Cape Adare and Land Bay is estimated. Between 1992 and 2003, a positive trend can be seen in the winter (March-November) ice area flux that has a mean of 990 x 103 km2 and ranges from a low of 600 x 103 km2 in 1992 to a peak of 1600 x 103 km2 in 2001. In the mean, the southern Ross Sea produces almost twice its own area of sea ice during the winter. Cross-gate sea level pressure (SLP) gradients explain 60% of the variance in the ice area flux. A positive trend in this gradient, from reanalysis products, suggests a 'spinup' of the Ross Sea Gyre over the past 12 yr. In both the NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 surface pressure fields, longer-term trends in this gradient and mean SLP between 1979 and 2002 are explored along with positive anomalies in the monthly cross-gate SLP gradient associated with the positive phase of the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation.

  3. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  4. Note On The Ross Sea Shelf Water Downflow Processes (antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Defendi, V.; Spezie, G.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.

    In the framework of the CLIMA Project of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica, three different experimental data sets were acquired along the continental shelf break; two of them (in 1997 and 2001) close to Cape Adare, the 1998 one in the middle of the Ross Sea (i.e. 75 S, 177 W). The investigations were chosen in order to explore the downslope flow of the bottom waters produced in the Ross Sea, namely the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, the densest water mass of the southern ocean coming from its formation site in the polynya region in Terra Nova bay), and the Ice Shelf Water (ISW, originated below the Ross Ice Shelf and outflowing northward). Both bottom waters spill over the shelf edge and mix with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) contributing to the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW). Interpreting temperature, salinity and density maps in terms of cascading processes, both HSSW and ISW overflows are evidenced during, respectively, 1997 and 1998. During the 2001 acquisition there is no presence of HSSW along the shelf break, nevertheless distribution captures the evidence of a downslope flow process.

  5. Strontium isotopic study of sediment from the Ross Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.; Faure, G.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report summarizing the results of a study of the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and of the rubidium and strontium concentrations of the fine-grained (less than 150 microns) noncarbonate fractions of sediment samples from core E32-25 raised from a depth of 327 fathoms in the Ross Sea at 78 0 31.0'S 164 0 24.7'W was presented. The strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios of the samples analyzed range from 0.7119 to 0.7220. Rubidium and strontium concentrations range, respectively, from 126 to 164 parts per million and from 113 to 174 parts per million. The observed strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and strontium concentrations in sediment samples from core E32-25 fit a hyperbolic curve. These ratios can be used to estimate the concentrations of volcanogenic detritus in the sediment samples. The results of this study provide additional baseline data for anticipated future studies of sediment cores to be recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf by the Ross Ice Shelf Project. 1 figure

  6. Ross-Stirling engines: Variations on a theme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, G; Fauvel, R

    1986-01-01

    A new mechanism called the Ross linkage offers the prospect for compact, lightweight, long-lived, relatively low-cost, Stirling engines with excellent prospects for early commercial developed for various applications. Ross-Stirling engines are unusually compact, with installation envelope about one-third of conventional engines, piston side forces are virtually eliminated facilitating the use of dry lubricated or close tolerance, gas lubricated seals and the linkage geometry automatically favors the large bore/short ratios preferred for Stirling engines. The linkage is simple to make with few moving parts so that cost is relatively low. Various potential or actual embodiments of Ross-Stirling engines are reviewed including Stirling-Stirling gas-fired heat pumps, multicylinder power systems and cryocoolers. The system has sufficient flexibility to readily accommodate widely disparate piston stroke and cylinder diameters. Most work has been done so far with two-piston Stirling engines but the same linkage may be adopted for piston-displacer Stirling engines. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  7. The Ross Sea Dipole - temperature, snow accumulation and sea ice variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, over the past 2700 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Conway, Howard; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Emanuelsson, Daniel B.; Winstrup, Mai; Vallelonga, Paul T.; Lee, James E.; Brook, Ed J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Fudge, Taylor J.; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Neff, Peter D.; Blunier, Thomas; Edwards, Ross; Mayewski, Paul A.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Buizert, Christo; Canessa, Silvia; Dadic, Ruzica; Kjær, Helle A.; Kurbatov, Andrei; Zhang, Dongqi; Waddington, Edwin D.; Baccolo, Giovanni; Beers, Thomas; Brightley, Hannah J.; Carter, Lionel; Clemens-Sewall, David; Ciobanu, Viorela G.; Delmonte, Barbara; Eling, Lukas; Ellis, Aja; Ganesh, Shruthi; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Haines, Skylar; Handley, Michael; Hawley, Robert L.; Hogan, Chad M.; Johnson, Katelyn M.; Korotkikh, Elena; Lowry, Daniel P.; Mandeno, Darcy; McKay, Robert M.; Menking, James A.; Naish, Timothy R.; Noerling, Caroline; Ollive, Agathe; Orsi, Anaïs; Proemse, Bernadette C.; Pyne, Alexander R.; Pyne, Rebecca L.; Renwick, James; Scherer, Reed P.; Semper, Stefanie; Simonsen, Marius; Sneed, Sharon B.; Steig, Eric J.; Tuohy, Andrea; Ulayottil Venugopal, Abhijith; Valero-Delgado, Fernando; Venkatesh, Janani; Wang, Feitang; Wang, Shimeng; Winski, Dominic A.; Winton, V. Holly L.; Whiteford, Arran; Xiao, Cunde; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution, well-dated climate archives provide an opportunity to investigate the dynamic interactions of climate patterns relevant for future projections. Here, we present data from a new, annually dated ice core record from the eastern Ross Sea, named the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core. Comparison of this record with climate reanalysis data for the 1979-2012 interval shows that RICE reliably captures temperature and snow precipitation variability in the region. Trends over the past 2700 years in RICE are shown to be distinct from those in West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea captured by other ice cores. For most of this interval, the eastern Ross Sea was warming (or showing isotopic enrichment for other reasons), with increased snow accumulation and perhaps decreased sea ice concentration. However, West Antarctica cooled and the western Ross Sea showed no significant isotope temperature trend. This pattern here is referred to as the Ross Sea Dipole. Notably, during the Little Ice Age, West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea experienced colder than average temperatures, while the eastern Ross Sea underwent a period of warming or increased isotopic enrichment. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. All three regions show current warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea but increasing in the western Ross Sea. We interpret this pattern as reflecting an increase in sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea with perhaps the establishment of a modern Roosevelt Island polynya as a local moisture source for RICE.

  8. The Ross Sea Dipole – temperature, snow accumulation and sea ice variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, over the past 2700 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. N. Bertler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution, well-dated climate archives provide an opportunity to investigate the dynamic interactions of climate patterns relevant for future projections. Here, we present data from a new, annually dated ice core record from the eastern Ross Sea, named the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE ice core. Comparison of this record with climate reanalysis data for the 1979–2012 interval shows that RICE reliably captures temperature and snow precipitation variability in the region. Trends over the past 2700 years in RICE are shown to be distinct from those in West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea captured by other ice cores. For most of this interval, the eastern Ross Sea was warming (or showing isotopic enrichment for other reasons, with increased snow accumulation and perhaps decreased sea ice concentration. However, West Antarctica cooled and the western Ross Sea showed no significant isotope temperature trend. This pattern here is referred to as the Ross Sea Dipole. Notably, during the Little Ice Age, West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea experienced colder than average temperatures, while the eastern Ross Sea underwent a period of warming or increased isotopic enrichment. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. All three regions show current warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea but increasing in the western Ross Sea. We interpret this pattern as reflecting an increase in sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea with perhaps the establishment of a modern Roosevelt Island polynya as a local moisture source for RICE.

  9. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  10. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  11. Temporal and spatial patterns of anthropogenic disturbance at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, Mahlon C II; Klein, Andrew; Montagna, Paul; Palmer, Terence; Sweet, Stephen; Wade, Terry; Sericano, Jose; Denoux, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human visitations to Antarctica have increased in recent decades, raising concerns about preserving the continent's environmental quality. To understand the spatial and temporal patterns of anthropogenic disturbances at the largest scientific station in Antarctica, McMurdo Station, a long-term monitoring program has been implemented. Results from the first nine years (1999-2007) of monitoring are reported. Most physical disturbance of land surfaces occurred prior to 1970 during initial establishment of the station. Hydrocarbons from fuel and anthropogenic metals occur in patches of tens to hundreds of square meters in areas of fuel usage and storage. Most soil contaminant concentrations are not expected to elicit biological responses. Past disposal practices have contaminated marine sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), petroleum hydrocarbons, and metals in close proximity to the station that often exceed concentrations expected to elicit biological responses. Chemical contamination and organic enrichment reduced marine benthic ecological integrity within a few hundred meters offshore of the station. Contaminants were detected in marine benthic organisms confirming bioavailability and uptake. PCBs in sediments are similar to suspected source materials, indicating minimal microbial degradation decades after release. Anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment is likely to persist for decades. A number of monitoring design elements, indicators and methodologies used in temperate climates were effective and provide guidance for monitoring programs elsewhere in Antarctica.

  12. McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica - A Mars Phoenix Mission Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Anderson, R. M.; Archer, D.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Moore, Q.; Quinn, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix mission (PHX; May 25 - Nov. 2, 2008) studied the north polar region of Mars (68deg N) to understand the history of water and potential for habitability. Phoenix carried with it a wet chemistry lab (WCL) capable of determining the basic solution chemistry of the soil and the pH value, a thermal and evolved-gas analyzer capable of determining the mineralogy of the soil and detecting ice, microscopes capable of seeing soil particle shapes, sizes and colors at very high resolution, and a soil probe (TECP) capable of detecting unfrozen water in the soil. PHX coincided with an international effort to study the Earth s polar regions named the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007-2008). The best known Earth analog to the Martian high-northern plains, where Phoenix landed, are the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica (Fig. 1). Thus, the IPY afforded a unique opportunity to study the MDV with the same foci - history of water and habitability - as PHX. In austral summer 2007, our team took engineering models of WCL and TECP into the MDV and performed analgous measurements. We also collected sterile samples and analyzed them in our home laboratories using state-of-the-art tools. While PHX was not designed to perform biologic analyses, we were able to do so with the MDV analog samples collected.

  13. Flexural-response of the McMurdo Ice Shelf to surface lake filling and drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, A. F.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Willis, I.; Macdonald, G. J.; Goodsell, B.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic ice-shelf instability and break-up, as exhibited by the Larsen B ice shelf in 2002, remains one of the most difficult glaciological processes to observe directly. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have previously been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain. During the austral summer of 2016/2017, we monitored the filling and draining of four surface lakes on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and the effect of these processes on ice-shelf flexure. Water-depth data from pressure sensors reveal that two lakes filled to >2 m in depth and subsequently drained over multiple week timescales, which had a simultaneous effect on vertical ice deflection in the area. Differential GPS data from 12 receivers over three months show that vertical deflection varies as a function of distance from the maximum load change (i.e. at the lake centre). Using remote sensing techniques applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery, we also quantify the meltwater volume in these two lakes through the melt season, which, together with the vertical deflection data, are used to constrain key flexural parameter values in numerical models of ice-shelf flexure.

  14. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    The analysis of some high-resolution hydrological data sets acquired during the 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003 austral summers across the Ross Sea continental shelf break are here presented. The main focus of these cruises carried out in the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Program was the investigation of the downslope flow of the dense waters originated inside the Ross Sea. Such dense waters, flow near the bottom and, reaching the continental shelf break, ventilate the deep ocean. Two Antarctic continental shelf mechanisms can originate dense and deep waters. The former mechanism involves the formation, along the Victoria Land coasts, of a dense and saline water mass, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The HSSW formation is linked to the rejection of salt into the water column as sea ice freezes, especially during winter, in the polynya areas, where the ice is continuously pushed offshore by the strong katabatic winds. The latter one is responsible of the formation of a supercold water mass, the Ice Shelf Water (ISW). The salt supplied by the HSSW recirculated below the Ross Ice Shelf, the latent heat of melting and the heat sink provided by the Ross Ice Shelf give rise to plumes of ISW, characterized by temperatures below the sea-surface freezing point. The dense shelf waters migrate to the continental shelf-break, spill over the shelf edge and descend the continental slope as a shelf-break gravity current, subject to friction and possibly enhanced by topographic channelling. Friction, in particular, breaks the constraint of potential vorticity conservation, counteracting the geostrophic tendency for along slope flow. The density-driven downslope motion or cascading entrains ambient water, namely the lower layer of the CDW, reaches a depth where density is the same and spreads off-slope. In fact, the cascading event is inhibited by friction without entrainment. The downslope processes are important for the ocean and climate system because they play a

  15. Distribution of Ra-226 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettoli, M.G.; Cantelli, L.; Queirazza, G.; Roveri, M.; Tositti, L.; Tubertini, O.; Valcher, S.

    1996-01-01

    An improved procedure for the determination of Rn-222 and Ra-226 in seawater developed for easier on-board operations is presented. Data on the radioactive disequilibrium between the mentioned radionuclides as directly determined in the field can be greatly helpful in the study of the gas-exchange processes at the air-sea interface, especially as far as the Antarctic Ocean is concerned. The method employed has been preliminary tested in laboratory on a set of seawater samples collected in the Ross Sea and Ra-226 data collected are discussed and compared to literature data. (UK)

  16. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  17. Jimmy, Sinclair, and Jim: on the biographical trail of James Sinclair Ross Jimmy, Sinclair, and Jim: on the biographical trail of James Sinclair Ross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. O'Connor

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The deaths of Earle Birney and Robertson Davies late in 1995 reminded readers of Canadian literature that the old order—those writers born before the First World War—was quickly passing. Of the major figures born in the early years of this century (Birney, Davies, Callaghan, MacLennan, Ross, only Ross was still living at the beginning of 1996, albeit in very poor health in a nursing home in Vancouver. The deaths of Earle Birney and Robertson Davies late in 1995 reminded readers of Canadian literature that the old order—those writers born before the First World War—was quickly passing. Of the major figures born in the early years of this century (Birney, Davies, Callaghan, MacLennan, Ross, only Ross was still living at the beginning of 1996, albeit in very poor health in a nursing home in Vancouver.

  18. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  19. Does temperature structure phytoplankton community composition in the Ross Sea, Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ross Sea polynya experiences one of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Energy flow potential within the Ross Sea food web is primarily set by diatoms and prymnesiophytes, the latter dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica. We investigated physical, chemical,...

  20. Giving to Excellence: Generating Philanthropic Support for UK Higher Education. Ross-CASE Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Yashraj

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2016 Ross-CASE Survey of Philanthropic Giving to Universities in UK. The project was conducted by CASE Europe and funded by HEFCE and the Ross-Group. This year's survey comes at a time of great change for the UK charity sector. The historical trend data of previous surveys will be invaluable in helping…

  1. Critiquing Research Methodology: Comments on Broader Concerns about Complex Statistical Studies. A Response to Ross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Steven Ross's (2005) recent paper empirically measuring the efficacy of formative assessment compared to the summative variety found that the former produced positive effects on some aspects of language learning. In this critique, it is contended that Ross's study is flawed because his two groups of learners, one receiving summative assessment and…

  2. High-Resolution Body Wave Tomography of the Ross Sea Embayment, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Stephen, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the least understood continental rift system on the planet. The 1000 km wide WARS includes the Ross Sea Embayment between Marie Byrd Land and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAMS). Active volcanism on Ross Island continues to challenge our understanding of the generally quiescent rift system. Previous regional-scale body wave tomographic investigations have identified areas of low seismic wave speeds to 200 km depth beneath Ross Island. However, the spatial extent of the low velocity structure across the entirety of the WARS remains poorly constrained due to the insufficient resolution of upper mantle structure under the Ross Sea Embayment away from Ross Island. We utilize teleseismic P wave observations recorded on the RIS/DRIS network, which consists of 34 seismometers deployed across the Ross Ice Shelf, along with data from nearby POLENET and TAMSEIS stations to better resolve this region. Relative P wave travel time residuals from 1300 teleseismic events, obtained using a multichannel cross-correlation method, have been inverted for a seismic velocity model of the upper mantle throughout the Ross Sea Embayment. Our results suggest that the low wave speed structure under Ross Island extends roughly halfway across the Embayment and south along the Transantarctic Mountains. This observation is consistent with a two-phase rifting history for the WARS in which broad, late Cretaceous rifting between Marie Byrd Land and the TAMS transitioned to more focused rifting along the TAMS margin in the Cenozoic.

  3. 75 FR 69432 - Ross Bachofer v. Calpine Corporation; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-3-000] Ross Bachofer v. Calpine Corporation; Notice of Complaint November 4, 2010. Take notice that on October 26, 2010, pursuant... Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 2824c, Ross Bachofer (Complainant) filed a complaint against Calpine...

  4. Mortimer Hills pegmatite uranium prospect: a Rossing-type uranium deposit in the Gascoyne Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A uraninite-bearing pegmatite of large dimensions in the Gascoyne Province is described. The pegmatite is compared with the Rossing uranium ore body of South West Africa and the two are shown to have common characteristics. Exploration recommendations for Rossing-type uranium mineralization in the Gascoyne Province are made

  5. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  6. Evolution of Meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica During Two Summer Melt Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, G. J.; Banwell, A. F.; Willis, I.; Mayer, D. P.; Hansen, E. K.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ice shelves surround > 50% of Antarctica's coast and their response to climate change is key to the ice sheet's future and global sea-level rise. Observations of the development and drainage of 2750 lakes prior to the collapse of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, combined with our understanding of ice-shelf flexure/fracture, suggest that surface meltwater plays a key role in ice-shelf stability, although the present state of knowledge remains limited. Here, we report results of an investigation into the seasonal evolution of meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 austral summers using satellite remote sensing, complemented by ground survey. Although the MIS is relatively far south (78° S), it experiences relatively high ablation rates in the west due to adiabatically warmed winds, making it a useful example of how meltwater could evolve on more southerly ice shelves in a warming climate. We calculate the areas and depths of ponded surface meltwater on the ice shelf at different stages of the two melt seasons using a modified NDWI approach and water-depth algorithm applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery. Data from two automatic weather stations on the ice shelf are used to drive a positive degree-day model to compare our observations of surface water volumes with modelled meltwater production. Results suggest that the spatial and temporal variations in surface meltwater coverage on the ice shelf vary not only with climatic conditions but also in response to other important processes. First, a rift that widens and propagates between the two melt seasons intercepts meltwater streams, redirecting flow and facilitating ponding elsewhere. Second, some lakes from previous years remain frozen over and become pedestalled, causing streams to divert around their perimeter. Third, surface debris conditions also cause large-scale spatial variation in melt rates and the flow and storage of water.

  7. STS-61B Astronaut Ross During ACCESS Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), ACCESS and EASE were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross was working on the ACCESS experiment during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the ACCESS structural assembly concept for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  8. 78 FR 19330 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Ross In-Situ Uranium Recovery Project in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Ross In-Situ Uranium Recovery Project in Crook County, Wyoming AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) for a new source materials license for the proposed Ross In-Situ Uranium Recovery (ISR) Project (Ross Project) proposed to be located in Crook County, Wyoming. The NRC is issuing for public...

  9. 76 FR 41308 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project, Crook County, WY; Notice of Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., Inc., Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project, Crook County, WY; Notice of Materials License Application...-4737, or by e-mail to [email protected] . The Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project License... source and byproduct materials license at its Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project site located in Crook...

  10. 78 FR 12357 - Brockway Mould, Inc., a Division of Ross International Ltd. Including Robert Lerch From BJR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Division of Ross International Ltd. Including Robert Lerch From BJR Trucking, Brockport, PA; Amended..., applicable to workers and former workers of Brockway Mould, Inc., a division of Ross International Ltd... Brockway Mould, Inc., a division of Ross International Ltd., including Robert Lerch from BJR Trucking...

  11. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  12. δ13C and δ15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. . E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic

  13. Delta13C and delta15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Kathleen E; Rau, Greg H; Kvitek, Rikk G

    2006-12-01

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  14. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  15. [A reappraisal of the works of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Selene Beviláqua Chaves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a reappraisal of part of the works of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, one of the most quoted authors addressing the end of life process, mourning and dying. Her work has contributed to a clearer understanding of these issues by health professionals, families, religious and lay people who handle and/or experience mourning. She has also been the subject of controversy related to ethical issues and the scientific rigor of her work. The books analyzed in this article are: On death and dying (1969); Questions and answers on death and dying (1971); Living with death and dying (1981); On children and death(1983); On life after death (1991) and Life lessons (2000).

  16. The Kubler-Ross model, physician distress, and performance reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Marc C; Uzzo, Robert G

    2013-07-01

    Physician performance reporting has been proposed as an essential component of health-care reform, with the aim of improving quality by providing transparency and accountability. Despite strong evidence demonstrating regional variation in practice patterns and lack of evidence-based care, public outcomes reporting has been met with resistance from medical professionals. Application of the Kubler-Ross 'five stages of grief' model--a conceptual framework consisting of a series of emotional stages (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) inspired by work with terminally ill patients--could provide some insight into why physicians are reluctant to accept emerging quality-reporting mechanisms. Physician-led quality-improvement initiatives are vital to contemporary health-care reform efforts and applications in urology, as well as other medical disciplines, are currently being explored.

  17. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas M

    2014-03-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker's origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War's end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy.

  18. Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the 'Guinea Pig Club'. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley's work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada's most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day.

  19. Landscape Change and Microbial Response in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.; Levy, J.; Gooseff, M. N.; Van Horn, D. J.; Obryk, M.; Pettersson, R.; Telling, J. W.; Glennie, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica is ubiquitous with active layer depths ranging from a few cm at the highest elevations to 1 m near sea level. Although many landscapes in this region have been considered stable over millennia, ad-hoc field observations have documented extreme geomorphic changes in the valley bottoms over the past decade. To assess these changes across the region, we compared a lidar dataset surveyed in the austral summers of 2001-2002 against one surveyed in 2014-2015. Results showed that the vertical resolution of the surveys was resolution of the elevation differences and we ignored differences 1m) landscape changes, including stream channel incision into buried ice deposits (implying the advection of heat by stream water locally degrades thermokarst) and slope failures in thermokarst landforms from block failure and insolation-driven retreat. Smaller changes (bank erosion intercepted buried ice, or in thermokarst ponds. The magnitude and rate of change is much larger than observed previously in this otherwise stable and slowly changing environment. Biological surveys and experimental manipulations show that wetted soils host microbial communities different from those hosted by adjacent dry soils, and are hotspots of biodiversity highly susceptible to changing physical conditions. In all cases field-checked, the association of sediment and rock debris blanketing buried ice was noted, indicating these are the most vulnerable landscapes to climate warming. Ground penetrating radar mapping of buried ice showed, however, that not all buried ice is associated with landscape change due to the depth of burial, slope, and proximity to stream water. Similarly, modeling of soil temperatures suggests a spatial heterogeneity in warming rates across the valley bottom, as a consequence of microclimatic influences, topographic shading and moisture content. Collectively, these conditions imply that landscapes in the MDV will become

  20. The surface climatology of the Ross Ice Shelf Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Carol A; Lazzara, Matthew A; Keller, Linda M; Cassano, John J

    2016-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS) project has been making meteorological surface observations on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) for approximately 30 years. This network offers the most continuous set of routine measurements of surface meteorological variables in this region. The Ross Island area is excluded from this study. The surface climate of the RIS is described using the AWS measurements. Temperature, pressure, and wind data are analysed on daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time periods for 13 AWS across the RIS. The AWS are separated into three representative regions - central, coastal, and the area along the Transantarctic Mountains - in order to describe specific characteristics of sections of the RIS. The climatology describes general characteristics of the region and significant changes over time. The central AWS experiences the coldest mean temperature, and the lowest resultant wind speed. These AWSs also experience the coldest potential temperatures with a minimum of 209.3 K at Gill AWS. The AWS along the Transantarctic Mountains experiences the warmest mean temperature, the highest mean sea-level pressure, and the highest mean resultant wind speed. Finally, the coastal AWS experiences the lowest mean pressure. Climate indices (MEI, SAM, and SAO) are compared to temperature and pressure data of four of the AWS with the longest observation periods, and significant correlation is found for most AWS in sea-level pressure and temperature. This climatology study highlights characteristics that influence the climate of the RIS, and the challenges of maintaining a long-term Antarctic AWS network. Results from this effort are essential for the broader Antarctic meteorology community for future research.

  1. Estimating flexural rigidity and load magnitude required for formation of Ross Island flexure moat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S.; Harry, D. L.; Wenman, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Lithospheric flexural subsidence around Ross Island in West Antarctica led to formation of the Ross Island flexure moat. This subsidence was caused by two major volcanic phases on Ross Island. The first phase saw the first surficial expression of Ross Island and volcanism at Mt. Bird to the north of Ross Island, which lasted from 5.2 - 2.9 Ma. The second phase lasted from 1.78 Ma to present and is comprised of eruptions from Mt. Terror to the east, Mt. Erebus to the west and Hut Point Peninsula (HPP) to the south of Ross Island. Flexural subsidence of the lithosphere due to volcanism on Ross Island led to formation of a sedimentary moat around the island, which is preserved in stratigraphy imaged on seismic reflection profiles. We identified 5 unconformities (from deepest upward Ri, RMU1, RMU2, RMU3, RMU4) in the seismic surveys which correspond to flexural subsidence episodes around Ross Island since early Pliocene. Ri (4.4 Ma) lies near the bottom of the flexural moat and RMU4 near the seafloor and top of the moat fill. These unconformities were used to make isopach maps to constrain flexure modeling of the area. Isopach maps show circular or semi-circular flexure basins around Ross Island which is approximated using a continuous plate, point load flexure model. We used Ri - sea floor isopach to constrain flexure models for 5 profiles centered on 4 volcanic centers and trending radially out of Ross Island. Flexure models along two profiles beginning on Mt. Bird and one profile off HPP show a flexural rigidity range of 1.47 - 6.44 x 1018 Nm with load center of mass on Mt. Bird and on HPP, respectively. A similar model along a profile initiating on Mt. Terror, passing through Mt Erebus and extending west of Ross Island across the moat, yielded a higher flexural rigidity estimate of 2.03 x 1019 Nm with load centered at Mt. Erebus. A flexure model to the north east of Ross Island along a profile beginning at Mt Terror and trending north, provide the highest flexural

  2. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  3. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  4. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  5. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  6. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea - 1987, SDLS CD-ROM vol 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during the 1987 field season in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by SEVMORGEOLOGIA, RUSSIA. The...

  7. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  8. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduit Dysfunction After the Ross Procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillespie, Matthew J; McElhinney, Doff B; Kreutzer, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure. METHODS: Retrospective review of databa......BACKGROUND: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure. METHODS: Retrospective review....... Of these, 56 (84%) received a Melody valve; in 5 of the 11 patients who did not, the implant was aborted due to concern for coronary artery compression, and 1 implanted patient required emergent surgery for left coronary compression. The RVOT gradient decreased from a median 38 mm Hg to 13.5 mm Hg (p

  9. 76 FR 81962 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... soundscapes, and scenery through traditional outdoor activities. The NPS would actively manage to reduce... Ross Lake NRA in order to protect and enhance soundscapes and wilderness character, experience, and...

  10. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea - 1980, SDLS, CD-ROM vol 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from seven lines recorded during 1980 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  11. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea - 1980, SDLS CD-ROM vol 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from four lines recorded during 1980 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  12. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR, Ross Sea - 1982-1983, CD-ROM vol 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from fourteen lines recorded during 1982 in the Ross Sea and Wilkes Island, Antarctica, by the...

  13. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea - 1989, SDLS CD-ROM vol 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1989 field season in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the SEVMORGEOLOGIA, RUSSIS. The...

  14. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea 1980, SDLS, CD-ROM vol 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from eleven lines recorded during 1980 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  15. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea 1982, SDLS CD-ROM vol 12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from seven lines recorded during 1982 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Institut Francais du...

  16. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea 1987-1988, SDLS CD-ROM vol 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from six lines recorded during 1988 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  17. Long-term results of the Ross procedure in a population-based follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Merja; Pihkala, Jaana; Sairanen, Heikki; Mattila, Ilkka

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the Ross procedure in a nationwide follow-up. This retrospective study involved all children treated with the Ross procedure in Finland between 1994 and 2009. The clinical records were reviewed for demographic and anatomical characteristics, Ross operation data, surgical history and status at the latest follow-up. The median follow-up time was 11.5 (range 2.4-19.2) years. Fifty-one patients underwent either the Ross (n = 37) or the Ross-Konno (n = 14) procedure at a median age of 4.8 (range 0.02-16.3) years, including 13 infants (Ross procedure was aortic valve stenosis, regurgitation or both, which was observed in 29, 24 and 47% of patients, respectively. The early mortality (before hospital discharge) rate was 10% (31% in infants) and the late mortality rate 6% (15% in infants). Higher mortality was discovered in patients treated with the Ross-Konno procedure (P = 0.001). The most common cause for reintervention was pulmonary homograft stenosis. The rate of freedom from right ventricular outflow tract reintervention was 98% at 5 years, 83% at 10 years and 59% at 15 years. The rate of freedom from autograft reintervention was 98% at 5 and 10 years, and 81% at 15 years. At the latest follow-up visit, mild-to-moderate aortic root dilatation was reported in 52% of patients, and 4 patients had undergone autograft-related reinterventions. Trivial autograft valve regurgitation was commonly seen, but only 1 patient developed severe autograft regurgitation requiring mechanical valve replacement 15.9 years after the Ross operation. The most common reason for reintervention after the Ross procedure in children is homograft stenosis. Aortic root dilatation and autograft valve regurgitation are relatively common but rarely lead to reinterventions before adulthood. Intraoperative complications and complex cardiac anatomy are associated with high mortality in infants undergoing the Ross-Konno procedure. In our

  18. An optimal ross filter system for soft X-ray spectra measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tianxuan; Zheng Zhijian; Sun Kexu; Jiang Shaoen

    2000-01-01

    A broadband Ross filter spectrometer is described for measuring soft X-ray radiation (0.1∼1.5 keV) emitted from laser plasma. It consists of a number of channels, each representing a Ross filter pair in conjunction with Al cathode X-ray diodes. An optimal channel has flat response within the sensitivity band, and minimal response outside it. The effect of some uncertainties on the accuracy of measurements is calculated

  19. Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 6. Observations of BrO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.A.; Solomon, S.; Schmeltekopf, A.L.; Sanders, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the evening twilight BrO abundance over McMurdo Station, Antarctica during austral spring, 1987, are described. The observed variation of the slant column abundance with increasing solar zenith angles suggests that most of the BrO is located near 15 km. The total vertical column abundance observed during 1 week of measurements yielded an average value of 2.5 x 10 13 cm -2 , assuming the room temperature absorption cross sections measured by Cox et al. (1982). These values are consistent with BrO mixing ratios of about 5-15 parts per trillion by volume distributed from 150 to 20 mbar. If the differential absorption cross section of BrO increases by 30% at temperatures characteristic of the Antarctic lower stratosphere, as indicated by Sander and Watson (1981), then the BrO measurements reported in this paper should be decreased by 30%

  20. Improved Survival After the Ross Procedure Compared With Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratto, Edward; Shi, William Y; Wynne, Rochelle; Poh, Chin L; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Goldblatt, John; Tatoulis, James; Skillington, Peter D

    2018-03-27

    It is unclear whether the Ross procedure offers superior survival compared with mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study evaluated experience and compared long-term survival between the Ross procedure and mechanical AVR. Between 1992 and 2016, a total of 392 Ross procedures were performed. These were compared with 1,928 isolated mechanical AVRs performed during the same time period as identified using the University of Melbourne and Australia and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons' Cardiac Surgery Databases. Only patients between 18 and 65 years of age were included. Propensity-score matching was performed for risk adjustment. Ross procedure patients were younger, and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors. The Ross procedure was associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times. Thirty-day mortality was similar (Ross, 0.3%; mechanical, 0.8%; p = 0.5). Ross procedure patients experienced superior unadjusted long-term survival at 20 years (Ross, 95%; mechanical, 68%; p mechanical, 84%; p = 0.018). In this Australian, propensity-score matched study, the Ross procedure was associated with better long-term survival compared with mechanical AVR. In younger patients, with a long life expectancy, the Ross procedure should be considered in centers with sufficient expertise. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying fall migration of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) past Point Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Davis, Shanti E.; Maftei, Mark; Gesmundo, Callie; Suydam, R.S.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is a poorly known seabird of the circumpolar Arctic. The only place in the world where Ross's gulls are known to congregate is in the near-shore waters around Point Barrow, Alaska where they undertake an annual passage in late fall. Ross's gulls seen at Point Barrow are presumed to originate from nesting colonies in Siberia, but neither their origin nor their destination has been confirmed. Current estimates of the global population of Ross's gulls are based largely on expert opinion, and the only reliable population estimate is derived from extrapolations from previous counts conducted at Point Barrow, but these data are now over 25 years old. In order to update and clarify the status of this species in Alaska, our study quantified the timing, number, and flight direction of Ross's gulls passing Point Barrow in 2011. We recorded up to two-thirds of the estimated global population of Ross's gulls (≥ 27,000 individuals) over 39 days with numbers peaking on 16 October when we observed over 7,000 birds during a three-hour period.

  2. Ross, macdonald, and a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L; Battle, Katherine E; Hay, Simon I; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various "Ross-Macdonald" mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955-1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  3. Uma releitura da obra de Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Beviláqua Chaves Afonso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma releitura de parte da obra de Elizabeth Ross, uma das autoras mais citadas sobre a questão da terminalidade da vida, do luto e do morrer. Sua obra tem sido de grande contribuição tanto para os profissionais de saúde como para pais, mães, filhos, parentes, leigos e religiosos que vivenciam o luto. Também tem sido alvo de controvérsias relacionadas a questões éticas e quanto a seu rigor científico. Os livros aqui comentados são: On death and dying (Sobre A morte e o morrer, de 1969; Questions and answers on death and dying (Perguntas e respostas sobre a morte e o morrer, de 1971; Living with death and dying(Vivendo com a morte e os moribundos, de 1981; On children and death (Sobre as crianças e a morte, de 1983; On life after death (Sobre a vida depois da morte, de 1991 e Life lessons (Lições de vida, de 2000.

  4. Crevasse detection with GPR across the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, A.; Arcone, S.

    2005-12-01

    We have used 400-MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) to detect crevasses within a shear zone on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to support traverse operations. The transducer was attached to a 6.5-m boom and pushed ahead of an enclosed tracked vehicle. Profile speeds of 4.8-11.3 km / hr allowed real-time crevasse image display and a quick, safe stop when required. Thirty-two crevasses were located with radar along the 4.8 km crossing. Generally, crevasse radar images were characterized by dipping reflections above the voids, high-amplitude reflections originating from ice layers at the base of the snow-bridges, and slanting, diffracting reflections from near-vertical crevasse walls. New cracks and narrow crevasses (back-filling with bulldozed snow, afforded an opportunity to ground-truth GPR interpretations by comparing void size and snow-bridge geometry with the radar images. While second and third season radar profiles collected along the identical flagged route confirmed stability of the filled crevasses, those profiles also identified several new cracks opened by ice extension. Our experiments demonstrate capability of high-frequency GPR in a cold-snow environment for both defining snow layers and locating voids.

  5. Predictive modelling of Ross River virus notifications in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcher, Z; Williamson, E; Lynch, S E; Rowe, S; Clothier, H J; Firestone, S M

    2017-02-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to Australia. The disease, marked by arthritis, myalgia and rash, has a complex epidemiology involving several mosquito species and wildlife reservoirs. Outbreak years coincide with climatic conditions conducive to mosquito population growth. We developed regression models for human RRV notifications in the Mildura Local Government Area, Victoria, Australia with the objective of increasing understanding of the relationships in this complex system, providing trigger points for intervention and developing a forecast model. Surveillance, climatic, environmental and entomological data for the period July 2000-June 2011 were used for model training then forecasts were validated for July 2011-June 2015. Rainfall and vapour pressure were the key factors for forecasting RRV notifications. Validation of models showed they predicted RRV counts with an accuracy of 81%. Two major RRV mosquito vectors (Culex annulirostris and Aedes camptorhynchus) were important in the final estimation model at proximal lags. The findings of this analysis advance understanding of the drivers of RRV in temperate climatic zones and the models will inform public health agencies of periods of increased risk.

  6. Ghost Stories: Review of Ross Gibson's The Summer Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane Williams

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Back 
in 
1986, 
Ross 
Gibson
 was 
interviewed 
in
 Filmnews 
by
 Adrian
 Martin 
and
Tina
 Kaufman
 about
 his
 experimental
 short
 essay
 film
 Camera
 Natura
 (1984. Accompanying
 that
 interview
 was
 a
 photo
 of
 Gibson
 ‘on
 location’
 for
 his
 film,
 wearing
 a
 hat
 not
 unlike
 the
 one
 that
 features
 on
 the
 cover
 of
 his
 new
 book
 The
 Summer 
Exercises.
 Back 
then
 I
 understood
 the 
hat
 to 
be
 an
explorer’s,
 someone 
like
 Charles
 Sturt,
 someone
 whose
 willingness
 to
 learn
 from
 his
 environment
 had
 impressed
 Gibson
 in
 fashioning
 his
 own
 history
 of
 Australian
 landscape
 imaging.
 Now
 the
 hat
 looks
 like
 a
 detective’s
 or,
 rather,
 Marcel
 Duchamp’s
 rendering
 of
 a
 detective’s
 hat: 
on 
display,
 ready 
for
 our
 re‐consideration.

  7. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  8. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  9. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  10. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  11. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  12. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  13. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  14. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  15. Influence of Meteorological Regimes on Cloud Microphysics Over Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, C.; Wang, S. H.; Scott, R. C.; Bromwich, D. H.; Lubin, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic provides a sharp contrast in cloud microphysics from the high Arctic, due to orographic lifting and resulting strong vertical motions induced by mountain ranges and other varying terrain on several spatial scales. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) deployed advanced cloud remote sensing equipment to Ross Island, Antarctica, from December 2015 until January 2016. This equipment included scanning and zenith radars operating in the Ka and X bands, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL), and a polarized micropulse lidar (MPL). A major AWARE objective is to provide state-of-the-art data for improving cloud microphysical parameterizations in climate models. To further this objective we have organized and classified the local Ross Island meteorology into distinct regimes using k-means clustering on ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We identify synoptic categories producing unique regimes of cloud cover and cloud microphysical properties over Ross Island. Each day of observations can then be associated with a specific meteorological regime, thus assisting modelers with identifying case studies. High-resolution (1 km) weather forecasts from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) are sorted into these categories. AMPS-simulated anomalies of cloud fraction, near-surface air temperature, and vertical velocity at 500-mb are composited and compared with ground-based radar and lidar-derived cloud properties to identify mesoscale meteorological processes driving Antarctic cloud formation. Synoptic lows over the Ross and Amundsen Seas drive anomalously warm conditions at Ross Island by injecting marine air masses inland over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). This results in ice and mixed-phase orographic cloud systems arriving at Ross Island from the south to southeast along the Transantarctic Mountains. In contrast, blocking over the Amundsen Sea region brings classical liquid-dominated mixed-phase and

  16. Clinical Outcomes Following the Ross Procedure in Adults: A 25-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elisabeth; Mohammadi, Siamak; Jacques, Frederic; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Voisine, Pierre; Doyle, Daniel; Perron, Jean

    2017-10-10

    Very few reports of long-term outcomes of patients who underwent the Ross procedure have been published. The authors reviewed their 25-year experience with the Ross procedure with the aim of defining very-long-term survival and factors associated with Ross-related failure. Between January 1990 and December 2014, the Ross procedure was performed in 310 adults (mean age 40.8 years) at a single institution. All patients were prospectively added to a dedicated cardiac surgery registry. Complete post-operative clinical examination and history were obtained, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed according to a standardized protocol. There was no loss to follow-up. Median follow-up was 15.1 years and up to 25 years. Bicuspid aortic valve was diagnosed in 227 patients (73.2%), and the most common indication for surgery was aortic stenosis (n = 225 [72.6%]). Freedom from any Ross-related reintervention was 92.9% and 70.1% at 10 and 20 years, respectively. Independent risk factors for pulmonary autograft degeneration were pre-operative large aortic annulus (hazard ratio: 1.1; p = 0.01), pre-operative aortic insufficiency (hazard ratio: 2.7; p = 0.002), and concomitant replacement of the ascending aorta (hazard ratio: 7.7; p = 0.0003). There were 4 hospital deaths (1.3%), and overall survival at 10 and 20 years was 94.1% and 83.6%, respectively. Long-term survival was not significantly different in patients who required Ross-related reintervention (log-rank p = 0.70). However, compared with the general population, survival was significantly lower in patients following the Ross procedure when matched on age and sex (p Ross procedure was associated with excellent long-term valvular outcomes and survival, regardless of the need for reintervention. Adults presenting with aortic insufficiency or a dilated aortic annulus or ascending aorta were at greater risk for reintervention. Unlike previous reports, long-term survival was lower in Ross

  17. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  18. A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic desert pavements following human-induced disturbances: a case study in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tanya A; Balks, Megan R; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; McWhirter, Judi L

    2012-12-15

    quickly, whereas less active sites, such as the bulldozed tracks at Marble Point, and Williams Field to McMurdo Station pipeline site on Ross Island, showed only intermediate recovery 20-30 years after disturbance. The slabby grano-diorite surface material at the former Vanda Station site, meant that the impacts that had occurred were hard to detect following decommissioning of the station and site remediation. Desert pavements disturbed by randomly dispersed footprints, temporary field campsites at the Loop Moraine and VXE6 Pond in the Wright Valley, recovered to be undetectable (MRI = 100%) within five years, whereas track formation from repeated trampling, particularly the concentration of larger clasts along the margin of a confined track, persisted for over 15 years (MRI = 82%). The recovery assessment method developed in this study has environmental management applications and potential to advance our ability to predict the recovery of desert pavement following human impacts from activities in Antarctica. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrologic connectivity in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica: System function and changes over two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bernzott, E. D.; McKnight, D. M.; Jaros, C.; Lyons, W.

    2013-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is one of the coldest (average annual air temperature of -18°C) and driest (ecological connections in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Intermittent glacial meltwater streams connect glaciers to closed basin lakes and compose the most prominent hydrologic nexus in the valleys. This study uses of 20+ years of stream temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), and discharge data to enhance our quantitative understanding of the temporal dynamics of hydrologic connections along the glacier-stream-lake continuum. Annually, streamflow occurs for a relatively brief 10-12 week period of the austral summer. Longer streams are more prone to intermittent dry periods during the flow season, making for a harsher ecological environment than shorter streams. Diurnal streamflow variation occurs primarily as a result of changing solar postion relative to the source-glacier surfaces. Therfore, different streams predictably experience high flows and low flows at different times of the day. Electrical conductivity also exhibits diel variations, but the nature of EC-discharge relationships differs among streams throughout the valley. Longer streams have higher EC values and lower discharges than shorter streams, suggesting that hyporheic zones act as a significant solute source and hydrologic reservoir along longer streams. Water temperatures are consistently warmer in longer streams, relative to shorter streams, likely due to prolonged exposure to incident radiation with longer surface water residence times. Inter-annually, several shorter streams in the region show significant increases in Q10, Q30, Q50, Q70, Q90, and/or Q100 flows across the 20+ year record, indicating a long-term non-stationarity in hydrologic system dynamics. The tight coupling between surface waters and the glacier surface energy balance bring forth remarkably consistent hydrologic patterns on the daily and annual timescales, providing a model system for understanding fundamental

  20. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  1. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Age Control of Glacimarine Sediments, ANDRILL 1B Drillcore, McMurdo Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R.; Levy, R.; Crampton, J.; Wilson, G.; Naish, T.; Harwood, D.; Winter, D.; Scherer, R.

    2008-12-01

    Interpretation of glacimarine sedimentary records from Antarctic shelf drillholes has been greatly hampered by the ambiguous age of strata where erosional unconformities and coarse diamictite deposits truncate or omit the mangetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic units used for correlation. However, new quantitative biostratigraphic techniques enable the correlation of sparse, incomplete, and reworking-prone Plio- Pleistocene records of Ross Sea fossil diatom flora with the more extensively documented but potentially diachronous offshore history of species' first and last appearances (FAs and LAs). The approach uses a comprehensive regional database of fossil records and computer-automated search algorithms to (a) find the multidimensional line of correlation (LOC) that best fits local observations, and (b) map out confidence intervals based on the full range of equally parsimonious composite FA/LA sequences and local range-end adjustments. An integrated, quantitative chronostratigraphic model for the AND-1B drillcore was constructed iteratively: the initial LOC was based solely on preliminary on-ice observations of fossil diatom highest and lowest occurrences (HOs and LOs) and their correlation with a database of other local event records from 24 DVDP, CIROS, and IODP drillcore sections. The model was subsequently updated as off-ice work yielded additional biostratigraphic marker events and revised event horizons, Ar/Ar ages for volcanic material, better- constrained magnetostratigraphic interpretations, and refinements to computational/analytical methodology. The current quantitative biostratigraphic age model for the AND-1B hole integrates the local ranges of 29 diatom taxa, 5 dated ashes, and independently constrained ages of 5 paleomagnetic reversals. Results corroborate almost all of the on-ice geomagnetic polarity reversal age interpretations, but identify a previously unrecognized major disconformity (~800kyr hiatus) near 440mbsf. It is significant to note

  2. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  3. Polynyas and Ice Production Evolution in the Ross Sea (PIPERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    One focus of the PIPERS cruise into the Ross Sea ice cover during April-June 2017 was the Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya where joint measurements of air-ice-ocean wave interaction were conducted over twelve days. In Terra Nova Bay, measurements were made in three katabatic wind events each with sustained winds over 35 ms-1 and air temperatures below -15C. Near shore, intense wave fields with wave amplitudes of over 2m and 7-9 sec periods built and large amounts of frazil ice crystals grew. The frazil ice gathered initially into short and narrow plumes that eventually were added laterally to create longer and wider streaks or bands. Breaking waves within these wider streaks were dampened which appeared to enhance the development of pancake ice. Eventually, the open water areas between the streaks sealed off, developing a complete ice cover of 100 percent concentration (80-90 percent pancakes, 20-10 percent frazil) over a wide front (30km). The pancakes continued to grow in diameter and thickness as waves alternately contracted and expanded the ice cover, with the thicker larger floes further diminishing the wave field and lateral motion between pancakes until the initial pancake ice growth ceased. The equilibrium thickness of the ice was 20-30cm in the pancake ice. While the waves had died off however, katabatic wind velocities were sustained and resulted in a wide area of concentrated, rafted, pancake ice that was rapidly advected downstream until the end of the katabatic event. High resolution TerraSar-X radar satellite imagery showed the length of the ice area produced in one single event extended over 300km or ten times the length of the open water area during one polynya event. The TNB polynya is therefore an "ice factory" where frazil ice is manufactured into pancake ice floes that are then pushed out of the assembly area and advected, rafted (and occasionally piled up into "dragon skin" ice), until the katabatic wind dies off at the coastal source.

  4. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  5. Hemodynamic outcomes of the Ross procedure versus other aortic valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Kevin J; McCLURE, Graham R; Belley-Cote, Emilie P; Gupta, Saurabh; Bouhout, Ismail; Lortie, Hugo; Alraddadi, Hatim; Alsagheir, Ali; Bossard, Matthias; McINTYRE, William F; Lengyel, Alexandra; Eikelboom, John W; Ouzounian, Maral; Chu, Michael W; Parry, Dominic; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Whitlock, Richard P

    2018-01-09

    Life expectancy in young adults undergoing mechanical or bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) may be reduced by up to 20 years compared to age matched controls. The Ross procedure is a durable, anticoagulation-sparing alternative. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the valve hemodynamics of the Ross procedure versus other AVR. We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to February 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (n≥10 Ross). Independently and in duplicate, we performed title and abstract screening, full-text eligibility assessment, and data collection. We evaluated the risk of bias with the Cochrane and CLARITY tools, and the quality of evidence with the GRADE framework. We identified 2 RCTs and 13 observational studies that met eligibility criteria (n=1,412). In observational studies, the Ross procedure was associated with a lower mean aortic gradient at discharge (MD -9 mmHg, 95% CI [-13, -5], pRoss procedure was associated with a lower mean gradient at latest follow-up (MD -15 mmHg, 95% CI [-32, 2], p=0.08, I2=99%). The mean pulmonic gradient for the Ross procedure was 18.0 mmHg (95% CI [16, 20], pRoss procedure was associated with better aortic valve hemodynamics. Future studies should evaluate the impact of the Ross procedure on exercise capacity and quality of life.

  6. Aortic Valve Replacement and the Ross Operation in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabiani, Mansour T A; Dorobantu, Dan M; Mahani, Alireza S; Turner, Mark; Peter Tometzki, Andrew J; Angelini, Gianni D; Parry, Andrew J; Caputo, Massimo; Stoica, Serban C

    2016-06-21

    There are several options available for aortic valve replacement (AVR), with few comparative reports in the literature. The optimal choice for AVR in each age group is not clear. The study sought to report and compare outcomes after AVR in the young using data from a national database. AVR procedures were compared after advanced matching, both in pairs and in a 3-way manner, using a Bayesian dynamic survival model. A total of 1,501 patients who underwent AVR in the United Kingdom between 2000 and 2012 were included. Of these, 47.8% had a Ross procedure, 37.8% a mechanical AVR, 10.9% a bioprosthesis AVR, and 3.5% a homograft AVR, with Ross patients being significantly younger when compared to the other groups. Overall survival at 12 years was 94.6%. In children, the Ross procedure had a 12.7% higher event-free probability (death or any reintervention) at 10 years when compared to mechanical AVR (p = 0.05). We also compared all procedures except the homograft in a matched population of young adults, where the bioprosthesis had the lowest event-free probability of 78.8%, followed by comparable results in mechanical AVR and Ross, with 86.3% and 89.6%, respectively. Younger age was associated with mortality and pulmonary reintervention in the Ross group and with aortic reintervention in the mechanical AVR. Of all 3 options, only the patients undergoing the Ross procedure approached the survival of the general population. AVR in the young achieves good results, with the Ross being overall better suited for this age group, especially in children. Although freedom from aortic valve reintervention is superior after the Ross procedure, the need for homograft reinterventions is an issue to take into account. All methods have advantages and limitations, with reinterventions being an issue in the long term for all, more crucially in smaller children. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  8. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  9. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  10. Seismic facies and stratigraphy of the Cenozoic succession in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: Implications for tectonic, climatic and glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, C.R.; Whittaker, J.; Henrys, S.A.; Wilson, T.J.; Nash, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    A new stratigraphic model is presented for the evolution of the Cenozoic Victoria Land Basin of the West Antarctic Rift, based on integration of seismic reflection and drilling data. The Early Rift phase (?latest Eocene to Early Oligocene) comprises wedges of strata confined by early extensional faults, and which contain seismic facies consistent with drainage via coarse-grained fans and deltas into discrete, actively subsiding grabens and half-grabens. The Main Rift phase (Early Oligocene to Early Miocene) comprises a lens of strata that thickens symmetrically from the basin margins into a central depocenter, and in which stratal events pass continuously over the top of the Early Rift extensional topography. Internal seismic facies and lithofacies indicate a more organized, cyclical shallow marine succession, influenced increasingly upward by cycles of glacial advance and retreat into the basin. The Passive Thermal Subsidence phase (Early Miocene to ?) comprises an evenly distributed sheet of strata that does not thicken appreciably into the depocentre, with more evidence for clinoform sets and large channels. These patterns are interpreted to record accumulation under similar environmental conditions but in a regime of slower subsidence. The Renewed Rifting phase (? to Recent, largely unsampled by coring thus far) has been further divided into 1, a lower interval, in which the section thickens passively towards a central depocentre, and 2. an upper interval, in which more dramatic thickening patterns are complicated by magmatic activity. The youngest part of the stratigraphy was accumulated under the influence of flexural loading imposed by the construction of large volcanic edifices, and involved minimal sediment supply from the western basin margin, suggesting a change in environmental (glacial) conditions at possibly c. 2 Ma.

  11. Ciliate diversity, community structure, and novel taxa in lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Vick-Majors, Trista; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael; Priscu, John C; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2014-10-01

    We report an in-depth survey of next-generation DNA sequencing of ciliate diversity and community structure in two permanently ice-covered McMurdo Dry Valley lakes during the austral summer and autumn (November 2007 and March 2008). We tested hypotheses on the relationship between species richness and environmental conditions including environmental extremes, nutrient status, and day length. On the basis of the unique environment that exists in these high-latitude lakes, we expected that novel taxa would be present. Alpha diversity analyses showed that extreme conditions-that is, high salinity, low oxygen, and extreme changes in day length-did not impact ciliate richness; however, ciliate richness was 30% higher in samples with higher dissolved organic matter. Beta diversity analyses revealed that ciliate communities clustered by dissolved oxygen, depth, and salinity, but not by season (i.e., day length). The permutational analysis of variance test indicated that depth, dissolved oxygen, and salinity had significant influences on the ciliate community for the abundance matrices of resampled data, while lake and season were not significant. This result suggests that the vertical trends in dissolved oxygen concentration and salinity may play a critical role in structuring ciliate communities. A PCR-based strategy capitalizing on divergent eukaryotic V9 hypervariable region ribosomal RNA gene targets unveiled two new genera in these lakes. A novel taxon belonging to an unknown class most closely related to Cryptocaryon irritans was also inferred from separate gene phylogenies. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  12. Climatic implications of reconstructed early - Mid Pliocene equilibrium-line altitudes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusic, A.G.; Prentice, M.L.; Licciardi, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Early-mid Pliocene moraines in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are more extensive than the present alpine glaciers in this region, indicating substantial climatic differences between the early-mid Pliocene and the present. To quantify this difference in the glacier-climate regime, we estimated the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) change since the early-mid Pliocene by calculating the modern ELA and reconstructing the ELAs of four alpine glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys at their early-mid Pliocene maxima. The area-altitude balance ratio method was used on modern and reconstructed early-mid Pliocene hypsometry. In Wright and Victoria Valleys, mass-balance data identify present-day ELAs of 800-1600 m a.s.l. and an average balance ratio of 1.1. The estimated ELAs of the much larger early-mid Pliocene glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys range from 600 to 950 ?? 170 m a.s.l., and thus are 250-600 ??170 m lower than modern ELAs in these valleys. The depressed ELAs during the early-mid-Pliocene most likely indicate a wetter and therefore warmer climate in the Dry Valleys during this period than previous studies have recognized.

  13. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of the Ross Procedure Versus Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement: Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazine, Amine; David, Tirone E; Rao, Vivek; Hickey, Edward J; Christie, Shakira; Manlhiot, Cedric; Ouzounian, Maral

    2016-08-23

    The ideal aortic valve substitute in young and middle-aged adults remains unknown. We sought to compare the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing the Ross procedure and those receiving a mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR). From 1990 to 2014, 258 patients underwent a Ross procedure and 1444 had a mechanical AVR at a single institution. Patients were matched into 208 pairs through the use of a propensity score. Mean age was 37.2±10.2 years, and 63% were male. Mean follow-up was 14.2±6.5 years. Overall survival was equivalent (Ross versus AVR: hazard ratio, 0.91, 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.16; P=0.83), although freedom from cardiac- and valve-related mortality was improved in the Ross group (Ross versus AVR: hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.034-0.86; P=0.03). Freedom from reintervention was equivalent after both procedures (Ross versus AVR: hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.94; P=0.18). Long-term freedom from stroke or major bleeding was superior after the Ross procedure (Ross versus AVR: hazard ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.31; PRoss procedure and mechanical AVR. However, the Ross procedure was associated with improved freedom from cardiac- and valve-related mortality and a significant reduction in the incidence of stroke and major bleeding. In specialized centers, the Ross procedure represents an excellent option and should be considered for young and middle-aged adults undergoing AVR. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  16. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  17. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  18. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  19. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  20. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  1. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  2. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  3. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  4. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Ross during simulation in JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross 'borrows' the pilots station to rehearse some of his scheduled duties for his upcoming mission. He is on the flight deck of the fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during this unsuited simulation. The SMS is part of JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  5. A Q-Methodological Study of the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Anne M.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the correspondence between stage changes hypothesized by the Kubler-Ross theory and the perception of the course of illness by seriously ill patients and their spouses. Supported the use of Q-methodology as a research procedure for investigations of terminal illness. (Author)

  6. Distribution and ventilation of water masses in the western Ross Sea inferred from CFC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaro, Paola; Ianni, Carmela; Magi, Emanuele; Massolo, Serena; Budillon, Giorgio; Smethie, William M.

    2015-03-01

    During the CLIMA Project (R.V. Italica cruise PNRA XVI, January-February 2001), hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) observations were obtained, particularly in the western Ross Sea. Their distribution demonstrated water mass structure and ventilation processes in the investigated areas. In the surface waters (AASW) the CFC saturation levels varied spatially: CFCs were undersaturated in all the areas (range from 80 to 90%), with the exception of few stations sampled near Ross Island. In particular, the Terra Nova Bay polynya, where high salinity shelf water (HSSW) is produced, was a low-saturated surface area (74%) with respect to CFCs. Throughout most of the shelf area, the presence of modified circumpolar deep water (MCDW) was reflected in a mid-depth CFC concentration minima. Beneath the MCDW, CFC concentrations generally increased in the shelf waters towards the seafloor. We estimated that the corresponding CFCs saturation level in the source water region for HSSW was about 68-70%. Waters with high CFC concentrations were detected in the western Ross Sea on the down slope side of the Drygalski Trough, indicating that AABW was being supplied to the deep Antarctic Basin. Estimates of ventilation ages depend strongly on the saturation levels. We calculated ventilation ages using the saturation level calibrated tracer ratio, CFC11/CFC12. We deduced a mean residence time of the shelf waters of about 6-7 years between the western Ross Sea source and the shelf break.

  7. 76 FR 77684 - Establishment of the Fort Ross-Seaview Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision establishes the 27,500-acre ``Fort Ross-Seaview... may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: January 13, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elisabeth C... may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of...

  8. First stage of INTRAMAP: INtegrated Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea Area Magnetic Anomaly Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRAMAP (INtegrated Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea Area Magnetic Anomaly Project is an international effort to merge the magnetic data acquired throughout the "Ross Sea Antarctic Sector" (south of 60°S between 135°-255°E including the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM, the Ross Sea, Marie Byrd Land, and the Pacific coast, and also to begin the compilation efforts for new data over the Wilkes Basin. This project is a component of the continental scale Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP. The first stage of INTRAMAP addresses the analysis and merging of GITARA (1991-1994 and GANOVEX (1984 aeromagnetic surveys together with ground magnetic data (1984-1989. The combined data sets cover an area of approximately 30 km2 over Victoria Land and adjacent Ross Sea. Map and profile gridding were implemented to integrate the data sets. These approaches are studied for improving existing strategies to adopt for the whole magnetic compilation effort. The final microlevelled grid that we produce is a new tool for regional interpretation of the main tectonic and geologic features of this sector of Antarctica.

  9. Two Case Histories, Ishbel Ross and Emma Bugbee: Women Journalists Ride the Rail with the Suffragettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Beverly G.

    The rise to prominence of the women's suffrage movement in the World War I years brought women reporters into U.S. newsrooms for the first time. In 1911 Emma Bugbee became the first woman hired as a "hard" news reporter for the "New York Tribune" (later the "Herald Tribune"). Ishbel Ross, author of "Ladies of the…

  10. Why can rossing uranium mine keep mining even in low price conditions of uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    Rossing uranium mine is the only operating uranium mine in the world where the uranium occurs in intrusive alaskite. In the past 10 years, uranium market regressed in the world, uranium production weakened, expenditures of capital for uranium exploration were insufficient. Uranium spot market price rapidly decreased from $111.8/kg U in late 1970's to $22.1/kg U in mid-1990's. Why can Rossing uranium mine mined with traditional underground and open pit operation can keep running even in low price conditions of uranium market? Augumenting research on the deposit, mineral and technology, decreasing production cost and improving selling strategy can not only maintain Rossing's uranium production at present, but also ensure sustainable development in the coming 15 years. Exploration of low-costed uranium deposits is very important. However, obvious economic benefits can be obtained, as Rossing uranium mine does, by augumenting geological-economical research on the known uranium deposits of hard-rock type and by using new techniques to improve the conventional techniques in the uranium mine development. (authors)

  11. Assessing Competition with the Panzar-Rosse Model: The Role of Scale, Costs, and Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X; Shaffer, S.; Spierdijk, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Panzar-Rosse test has been widely applied to assess competitive conduct, often in specifcations controlling for firm scale or using a price equation. We show that neither a price equation nor a scaled revenue function yields a valid measure for competitive conduct. Moreover, even an unscaled

  12. A Helping Hand in the Frederick Community—Ross Smith | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By day, Ross Smith is the compliance and security officer for Data Management Services, Inc., assigned to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick. His role is to ensure the secure operation of in-house computer systems, servers, and network connections. But in his spare time, Smith is also a volunteer firefighter and emergency medical technician (EMT).

  13. 76 FR 71082 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-9091; NRC-2011-0148] Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application; Notice of Intent To Prepare a... intent to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: Strata Energy, Inc. (Strata...

  14. Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience Research Biocomputation. To study human disorders of balance and space motion sickness. Shown here is a 3D reconstruction of a nerve ending in inner ear, nature's wiring of balance organs.

  15. Märten Ross sõnastas majanduskriisi õppetunnid / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Ajutiselt peaministri majandus- ja rahandusnõunikuna töötanud endine Eesti Panga asepresident Märten Ross kirjutas loetelu õppetundidest, mida Eesti majanduspoliitika peaks arvestama 2008.-2009. aasta kriisi põhjal. Rossi 10 punkti lühidalt. Rahandusminister Jürgen Ligi ning Eesti Panga rahapoliitika ja majandusuuringute osakonna asejuhataja Martin Lindpere arvamus

  16. Ross In Situ Uranium Recovery Project NESHAP Subpart W Construction Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 5, 2015, EPA issued a Construction Approval under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at 40 CFR Part 61, subpart W, to Strata Energy, Inc., for their Ross In Situ Recovery (ISR) Uranium Project in Crook County, WY.

  17. The place of theology in the modern university | Ross | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The place of theology in the modern university. Kenneth R. Ross. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  18. Sources of iron in the Ross Sea Polynya in early summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L. J. A.; Laan, P.; van Dijken, G. L.; van Haren, H.; De Baar, H. J. W.; Arrigo, K. R.; Alderkamp, A. -C.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved Fe (DFe) was measured in the Ross Sea Polynya (RSP), Antarctica, during a GEOTRACES cruise between 20 December 2013 and 5 January 2014. DFe was measured over the full water column with special emphasis on samples near the seafloor. In the upper mixed layer, DFe was very low everywhere (

  19. Astronauts Ross and Helms at CAPCOM station during STS-61 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Jerry L. Ross and Susan J. Helms are pictured at the Spacecraft Communicators console during joint integrated simulations for the STS-61 mission. Astronauts assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were simultaneously rehearsing in a neutral buoyancy tank at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama.

  20. Transcatheter versus surgical valve replacement for a failed pulmonary homograft in the Ross population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alassas, Khadija; Mohty, Dania; Clavel, Marie Annick; Husain, Aysha; Hijji, Talal; Aljoufan, Mansour; Alhalees, Zohair; Fadel, Bahaa M

    2018-04-01

    Patients who undergo the Ross procedure are at increased risk of pulmonary valve (PV) homograft dysfunction. For those who require reintervention on the homograft, transcatheter PV replacement (tPVR) provides a less invasive therapeutic option than surgical PVR (sPVR). We examined the outcomes following tPVR versus sPVR in a cohort of patients who underwent the Ross procedure. We performed a retrospective analysis of Ross patients age ≥14 years who underwent tPVR (n = 47) or sPVR (n = 41) at our institution. The patients' clinical and echocardiographic data were reviewed. Baseline parameters, including demographic data and left ventricular and right ventricular (RV) systolic function, were similar in the 2 groups. The mean follow-up was 56 ± 24 months for the tPVR group and 89 ± 46 months for the sPVR group (P Ross patients who require reintervention on the PV homograft, both tPVR and sPVR provide low procedural mortality and comparable midterm outcome with no significant difference in mortality or PV reintervention. However, IE is more common following tPVR. A larger randomized study is needed to determine the role of each procedure in patient management. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Report of the Dutch experience with the Ross procedure in 343 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takkenberg, J. J. M.; Dossche, K. M. E.; Hazekamp, M. G.; Nijveld, A.; Jansen, E. W. L.; Waterbolk, T. W.; Bogers, A. J. J. C.

    2002-01-01

    Limited information is available on outcome after autograft aortic valve replacement, in particular with respect to the durability of the autograft and of the allograft used to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract. A retrospective follow-up study of all patients who underwent a Ross

  2. TEST OF THE CHEN-ROLL-ROSS MACROECONOMIC FACTOR MODEL: EVIDENCE FROM CROATIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dolinar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the well-known Chen-Roll-Ross model on the Croatian stock market. Modifications of definitions of the Chen-Roll-Ross model variables showed as necessary because of doubtful availability and quality of input data needed. Namely, some macroeconomic and market variables are not available in the originally defined form or do not exist. In that sense this paper gives some alternative definitions for some model variables. Also, in order to improve statistical analysis, in this paper we have modified Fama-MacBeth technique in the way that second-pass regression was substituted with panel regression analysis. Based on the two-pass regression analysis of returns of 34 Croatian stocks on 4 macroeconomic variables during the seven-and-half-year observation period the following conclusion is made. In contrast to the results of Chen, Roll and Ross (1986 for the U.S. stock market, their model is not successful when describing a risk-return relation of Croatian stocks. Nevertheless, one observed version of the Chen-RollRoss model showed certain statistical significance. Namely, two risk factors in that version of the model were statistically significant: default premium, measured as risk premium for the corporate short-term bank loan financing, and term structure premium, measured on short-run basis.

  3. MR imaging of right ventricular function after the Ross procedure for aortic valve replacement: initial experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, Heynric B.; de Roos, Albert; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Schoof, Paul H.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Kroft, Lucia J. M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively assess right ventricular (RV) function after the Ross procedure by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The local ethics committee approved the study and informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to enrollment in the study. Seventeen

  4. Unusual biogenic calcite structures in two shallow lakes, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Nedbalová, Linda; Vodrážka, R.; Láska, K.; Haloda, J.; Komárek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 535-549 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 945 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : James Ross Island * cyanobacteria * microalgae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.851, year: 2016

  5. 76 FR 22338 - Proposed Fort Ross-Seaview Viticultural Area; Comment Period Reopening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... May 9, 2005, from all interested persons. In response to a request from a local wine industry member... the Fort Ross-Seaview viticultural area. Two local wine industry members supported the petition without qualification; a third industry member supported the viticultural area's establishment while...

  6. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  7. Long-term Evaluation of the Ross Procedure in Acute Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschiller, Thomas; Sames-Dolzer, Eva; Paulus, Patrick; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Müller, Hannes; Zierer, Andreas F; Mair, Rudolf

    2017-10-05

    Optimal valve substitute for young patients with aortic valve endocarditis remains controversial. Given its better resistance to infection, the Ross procedure is an attractive alternative to prosthetic valve replacement or homograft implantation. The objective of this study was to assess long-term outcomes of the Ross procedure in this indication. From January 1991 to April 2017, 190 patients underwent a Ross procedure at our institution. Acute endocarditis was the indication for operation in 19 patients, including 6 patients with a bicuspid aortic valve. The pulmonary autograft was implanted as freestanding root replacement in all patients. The clinical follow-up is 100% complete, with a mean of 12.0 ± 5.7 years. The mean age of the study population was 35.9 ± 11.5 years. Moderate or severe aortic regurgitation was present in 84.2% of the patients. Systemic embolization had occurred in 36.8% of the patients. The mean aortic cross-clamp time was 126 ± 24 minutes. The median length of stay on the intensive care unit was 1 day. Mortality at 30 days was 5.3% (1 patient with gastrointestinal bleeding). Echocardiography at hospital discharge documented no or trivial aortic regurgitation in all patients. No case of recurrent endocarditis affecting the autograft occurred. One patient (0.4% per patient-year) was reoperated 1.8 years after the Ross procedure for homograft endocarditis. Three patients (15.8%) were reoperated for autograft aneurysm. The Ross procedure is a safe and effective alternative to prosthetic valve replacement or homograft implantation in selected young patients with acute endocarditis with a low rate of recurrent infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Valve-sparing root replacement for freestanding pulmonary autograft aneurysm after the Ross procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschiller, Thomas; Eva, Sames-Dolzer; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Paulus, Patrick; Müller, Hannes; Zierer, Andreas; Mair, Rudolf

    2018-02-20

    Autograft dilatation is the main long-term complication following the Ross procedure using the freestanding root replacement technique. We reviewed our 25-year experience with the Ross procedure with a special emphasis on valve-sparing reoperations. From 1991 to 2016, 153 patients (29.6 ± 16.6 years; 29.4% pediatric) underwent a Ross operation at our institution with implantation of the autograft as freestanding root replacement. The follow-up is 98.7% complete with a mean of 12.2 ± 5.5 years. Mortality at 30-days was 2.0%. Echocardiography documented no or trivial aortic regurgitation in 99.3% of the patients at discharge. Survival probability at 20 years was 85.4%. No case of autograft endocarditis occurred. Autograft deterioration rate was 2.01% per patient-year, and freedom from autograft reoperation was 75.3% at 15 years. A reoperation for autograft aneurysm was required in 35 patients (22.9%) at a mean interval of 11.1 ± 4.6 years after the Ross procedure. A valve-sparing root replacement was performed in 77% of patients, including 10 David and 17 Yacoub procedures with no early mortality. Three patients required prosthetic valve replacement within 2 years after a Yacoub operation. At latest follow-up, 92% of all surviving patients still carry the pulmonary autograft valve. Freedom from autograft valve replacement was 92.1% at 15 years. Using the David or Yacoub techniques, the autograft valve can be preserved in the majority of patients with root aneurysms after the Ross procedure. Reoperations can be performed with no early mortality, a good functional midterm result, and an acceptable reintervention rate. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Ross Operation in Children and Young Adults: 12-Year Results and Trends From the UK National Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebele, Carlo; Chivasso, Pierpaolo; Sedmakov, Christo; Angelini, Gianni; Caputo, Massimo; Parry, Andrew; Stoica, Serban

    2014-07-01

    To determine UK national trends and results of the Ross operation in relation to all aortic valve interventions. Examination of the UK Congenital Central Cardiac Audit Database for all aortic valve procedures performed between 2000 and 2011 in children (0-16 years) and young adults (16-30 years). A total of 2,206 aortic valve procedures were performed in children and 1,824 in young adults, the proportions in the two groups being: Ross operation (19% vs 15%, respectively), surgical valvoplasty (9.5% vs 4%), surgical valvotomy (9.5% vs 1%), aortic valve replacement (AVR; 11% vs 55%), aortic root replacement (4% vs 18%), and balloon valvoplasty (47% vs 7%). The 30-day and 1-year survival after Ross is 99.3% and 98.7%, respectively, in the last four years achieving 100%. In children, the proportion of balloon valvoplasty increased from an average of 43% in 2000 to 2006 to 53% in 2007 to 2011, whereas the Ross operation decreased from 22% to 16% (P Ross (P Ross operations performed. The year-on-year changes show a significant decreasing trend locally and nationally. Despite an excellent track record, the Ross operation is performed less frequently in the United Kingdom. This report is a first step in comparing treatment modalities at national level. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The Ross procedure offers excellent survival compared with mechanical aortic valve replacement in a real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Martin; Wiedemann, Dominik; Seebacher, Gernot; Rath, Claus; Aref, Tandis; Rosenhek, Raphael; Heinze, Georg; Eigenbauer, Ernst; Simon, Paul; Ruetzler, Kurt; Hiesmayr, Joerg-Michael; Moritz, Anton; Laufer, Guenther; Kocher, Alfred

    2014-09-01

    The ideal prosthesis for young patients requiring aortic valve replacement has not been defined to date. Although the Ross procedure provides excellent survival, its application is still limited. We compared the long-term survival after the Ross procedure with mechanical aortic valve replacement. All consecutive Ross procedures and mechanical aortic valve replacements performed between 1991 and 2008 at a single centre were analysed. Only adult patients between 18 and 50 years of age were included in the study. Survival and valve-related complications were evaluated. Furthermore, survival was compared with the age- and sex-matched Austrian population. A total of 159 Ross patients and 173 mechanical valve patients were included. The cumulative survival for the Ross procedure was significantly better, with survival rates of 96, 94 and 93% at 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively, in comparison to 90, 84 and 75% (P Ross group but was significantly reduced in the mechanical valve group. In a real-world setting, the Ross procedure is associated with a long-term survival benefit in young adults in comparison to mechanical aortic valve replacement. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Digitizing a sound archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  12. Reactivation of a cryptobiotic stream ecosystem in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A long-term geomorphological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Tate, C.M.; Andrews, E.D.; Niyogi, D.K.; Cozzetto, K.; Welch, K.; Lyons, W.B.; Capone, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica contain many glacial meltwater streams that flow for 6 to 12??weeks during the austral summer and link the glaciers to the lakes on the valley floors. Dry valley streams gain solutes longitudinally through weathering reactions and microbial processes occurring in the hyporheic zone. Some streams have thriving cyanobacterial mats. In streams with regular summer flow, the mats are freeze-dried through the winter and begin photosynthesizing with the onset of flow. To evaluate the longer term persistence of cyanobacterial mats, we diverted flow to an abandoned channel, which had not received substantial flow for approximately two decades. Monitoring of specific conductance showed that for the first 3??years after the diversion, the solute concentrations were greater in the reactivated channel than in most other dry valley streams. We observed that cyanobacterial mats became abundant in the reactivated channel within a week, indicating that the mats had been preserved in a cryptobiotic state in the channel. Over the next several years, these mats had high rates of productivity and nitrogen fixation compared to mats from other streams. Experiments in which mats from the reactivated channel and another stream were incubated in water from both of the streams indicated that the greater solute concentrations in the reactivated channel stimulated net primary productivity of mats from both streams. These stream-scale experimental results indicate that the cryptobiotic preservation of cyanobacterial mats in abandoned channels in the dry valleys allows for rapid response of these stream ecosystems to climatic and geomorphological change, similar to other arid zone stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thin, Conductive Permafrost Surrounding Lake Fryxell Indicates Salts From Past Lakes, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Myers, K. F.; Doran, P. T.; Auken, E.; Dugan, H. A.; Mikucki, J.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), permafrost should be thick and liquid water rare. However, despite the well below zero mean annual temperature in this cryospheric desert, liquid water can be found in lakes, summer melt streams, subglacial outflow, and - recent work has shown - underneath anomalously thin permafrost. In part, this niche hydrosphere is maintained by the presence of salts, which depress the freezing point of water to perhaps as cold as -10° Celsius. We detected widespread salty water across the MDV in lakes and at depth using a helicopter-borne Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) sensor. By using the presence of brines to mark the transition from frozen permafrost (near the surface) to unfrozen ground (at depth), we have created a map of permafrost thickness in Lower Taylor Valley (LTV), a large MDV with a complex history of glaciation and occupation by lakes. Our results show that permafrost is thinner ( 200m) than would be expected based on geothermal gradient measurements (up to 1000m), a result of the freezing point depression caused by salt and potentially enhanced by an unfinished transient freezing process. Near Lake Fryxell, a large, brackish lake in the center of LTV, permafrost is very thin (about 30-40m) and notably more electrically conductive than more distal permafrost. This thin ring of conductive permafrost surrounding the lake basin most likely reflects the high presence of salts in the subsurface, preventing complete freezing. These salts may be a remnant of the salty bottom waters of a historic larger lake (LGM glacially dammed Lake Washburn) or the remnant of salty basal water from a past advance of Taylor Glacier, which now sits many km up-valley but is known to contain brines which currently flow onto the surface and directly into the subsurface aquifer.

  14. Effects of human trampling on populations of soil fauna in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Edward; Nkem, Johnson N; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J; Barrett, J E; Broos, Emma J; Parsons, Andrew N; Powers, Laura E; Simmons, Breana L; Virginia, Ross A

    2008-12-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are often considered nearly pristine because levels of anthropogenic disturbance are extremely low there. Nevertheless, over recent decades there has been a rapid increase in the number of people, researchers and tourists, visiting Antarctica. We evaluated, over 10 years, the direct impact of foot traffic on the abundance of soil animals and soil properties in Taylor Valley within the McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica. We compared soils from minimally disturbed areas with soils from nearby paths that received intermediate and high levels of human foot traffic (i.e., up to approximately 80 passes per year). The nematodes Scottnema lindsayae and Eudorylaimus sp. were the most commonly found animal species, whereas rotifers and tardigrades were found only occasionally. On the highly trampled footpaths, abundance of S. lindsayae and Eudorylaimus sp. was up to 52 and 76% lower, respectively, than in untrampled areas. Moreover, reduction in S. lindsayae abundance was more pronounced after 10 years than 2 years and in the surface soil than in the deeper soil, presumably because of the longer period of disturbance and the greater level of physical disturbance experienced by the surface soil. The ratio of living to dead Eudorylaimus sp. also declined with increased trampling intensity, which is indicative of increased mortality or reduced fecundity. At one site there was evidence that high levels of trampling reduced soil CO(2) fluxes, which is related to total biological activity in the soil. Our results show that even low levels of human traffic can significantly affect soil biota in this ecosystem and may alter ecosystem processes, such as carbon cycling. Consequently, management and conservation plans for Antarctic soils should consider the high sensitivity of soil fauna to physical disturbance as human presence in this ecosystem increases.

  15. Experiencia a largo plazo con la operación de Ross en pacientes pediátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Caffarena Calvar

    2008-07-01

    Conclusions: The Ross and Ross-Konno operations have changed the prognosis of pediatric patients with complex disease of the valve and aortic root. There is growth of the neo-aortic root in young patients. Sinotubular dilatation of the autograft with neoaortic valve insufficiency has been detected in patients with previously dilated aortic root when root replacement technique was performed. The best results are obtained in the younger andlower weight patients with complex left ventricular outflow obstruction without root dilatation. A close follow-up of patients with aortic root dilatation is mandatory to definitely validate the Ross procedure over aortic prosthesis.

  16. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  17. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  18. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  19. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  20. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  1. The Satellite Passive-Microwave Record of Sea Ice in the Ross Sea Since Late 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellites have provided us with a remarkable ability to monitor many aspects of the globe day-in and day-out and sea ice is one of numerous variables that by now have quite substantial satellite records. Passive-microwave data have been particularly valuable in sea ice monitoring, with a record that extends back to August 1987 on daily basis (for most of the period), to November 1970 on a less complete basis (again for most of the period), and to December 1972 on a less complete basis. For the period since November 1970, Ross Sea sea ice imagery is available at spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. This allows good depictions of the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice cover each year, along with its marked interannual variability. The Ross Sea ice extent typically reaches a minimum of approximately 0.7 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in February, rising to a maximum of approximately 4.0 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in September, with much variability among years for both those numbers. The Ross Sea images show clearly the day-by-day activity greatly from year to year. Animations of the data help to highlight the dynamic nature of the Ross Sea ice cover. The satellite data also allow calculation of trends in the ice cover over the period of the satellite record. Using linear least-squares fits, the Ross Sea ice extent increased at an average rate of 12,600 plus or minus 1,800 square kilometers per year between November 1978 and December 2007, with every month exhibiting increased ice extent and the rates of increase ranging from a low of 7,500 plus or minus 5,000 square kilometers per year for the February ice extents to a high of 20,300 plus or minus 6,100 kilometers per year for the October ice extents. On a yearly average basis, for 1979-2007 the Ross Sea ice extent increased at a rate of 4.8 plus or minus 1.6 % per decade. Placing the Ross Sea in the context of the Southern Ocean as a whole, over the November 1978-December 2007 period the Ross Sea had

  2. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected during two research cruises in the Ross Sea, Antarctica from December 2004 to January 2005 and October to November 2005 for Ross Sea Sulfur Dynamics study (NODC Accession 0117322)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains transect data from two research cruises to the Ross Sea, Antarctica, aboard the RV Nathaniel B. Palmer (NBP) in December 2004 to January 2005...

  3. CLOUDS IN THE COLDEST BROWN DWARFS: FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF ROSS 458C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Saumon, Didier; Mamajek, Eric E.; McMurtry, Craig; Pipher, Judith L.; Forrest, William J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Marley, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Condensate clouds are a salient feature of L dwarf atmospheres, but have been assumed to play little role in shaping the spectra of the coldest T-type brown dwarfs. Here we report evidence of condensate opacity in the near-infrared spectrum of the brown dwarf candidate Ross 458C, obtained with the Folded-Port Infrared Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph at the Magellan Telescopes. These data verify the low-temperature nature of this source, indicating a T8 spectral classification, log 10 L bol /L sun = -5.62 ± 0.03, T eff = 650 ± 25 K, and a mass at or below the deuterium burning limit. The data also reveal enhanced emission at the K band associated with youth (low surface gravity) and supersolar metallicity, reflecting the properties of the Ross 458 system (age = 150-800 Myr, [Fe/H] = +0.2 to +0.3). We present fits of FIRE data for Ross 458C, the T9 dwarf ULAS J133553.45+113005.2, and the blue T7.5 dwarf SDSS J141624.08+134826.7B, to cloudless and cloudy spectral models from Saumon and Marley. For Ross 458C, we confirm a low surface gravity and supersolar metallicity, while the temperature differs depending on the presence (635 +25 -35 K) or absence (760 +70 -45 K) of cloud extinction. ULAS J1335+1130 and SDSS J1416+1348B have similar temperatures (595 +25 -45 K), but distinct surface gravities (log g = 4.0-4.5 cgs versus 5.0-5.5 cgs) and metallicities ([M/H] ∼ +0.2 versus -0.2). In all three cases, cloudy models provide better fits to the spectral data, significantly so for Ross 458C. These results indicate that clouds are an important opacity source in the spectra of young cold T dwarfs and should be considered when characterizing planetary-mass objects in young clusters and directly imaged exoplanets. The characteristics of Ross 458C suggest that it could itself be regarded as a planet, albeit one whose cosmogony does not conform with current planet formation theories.

  4. {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. [Canadian Musem of Nature, P.O. Box 3443 Station D, Ottawa, Ont., K1P 6P4 (Canada)]. E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kvitek, Rikk G. [Earth Systems Science and Policy, California State University Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  5. Temperature, salinity and oxygen data collected from the Oden in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, 2010 - 2011 (NCEI Accession 0104260)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data were collected to investigate the physical oceanography of the Amundsen and Ross Seas. Funded under the following projects: Physical Oceanography of the...

  6. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  7. Astrometric studies of the regions BD + 17 degree 4946, BD -5 degree 3071, and Ross 730-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.; Gatewood, G.

    1975-01-01

    Positions, proper motions, and absolute parallaxes were found for 46 stars in the regions of BD +17 degree4946, BD -5 degree3071, and Ross 730-1. BD +17 degree4946 showed some evidence of irregular variations in position and magnitude. The residuals for Ross 730-1 were used in a preliminary study to test for an appropriate weighting system; a weak weighting system was indicated. (auth)

  8. Competition and Concentration in Bangladeshi Banking Sector: An Application of Panzar-Rosse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anwar Hossain Repon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the market structure and degree of concentration of Bangladeshi banking industry. The study measured market concentration by using widely recognized measures like k-bank concentration ratio and Herfindahl-Hirchman Index (HHI. It evaluates market structure by applying Panzar-Rosse Model over 8 years period from 2006 to 2013. The result of concentration measures indicates a decreasing trend and low level of market concentration in Bangladeshi banking industry over the sample period. The panzer-Rosse “H-Statistic” suggests that banks in Bangladesh are operating under monopolistic competition. Present paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on banking competition that has evolved significantly over the past periods on a developing country perspective like Bangladesh.

  9. A Battle of Words: "Dignity" and "Peace" in the Writings of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    This article analyzes the writings of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross through the discursive lens of the phrase "dying with dignity." For her, the phrase meant allowing someone to die comfortably his/her own death. This phrase has to be understood in relationship with the final "stage of acceptance" of her model. Describing this key part of her well-known scientific output, she often used, in the early 1970s, the phrase "dying in peace and dignity." An evaluation of the evidence suggests that because the concept of dignity was co-opted by the pro-euthanasia movement during this decade, the language of dignity was little by little abandoned by her. In later years, only "peace" survived from her favorite expression. Although this concept of peace remains present to the end in all Kübler-Ross writings, the pro-euthanasia movement has also started to speak the language of peace.

  10. Ross Terrill, The New Chinese Empire — and what it means for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Eyraud, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Ross Terrill part du constat que la Chine est restée, jusqu'à maintenant, un empire sans contre-pouvoirs et répressif. Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin et aujourd'hui Hu Jintao, chacun à leur manière et à leur époque, ont adapté, voire modernisé, les formes de pouvoir de l'empire millénaire. Pour l'auteur, la République populaire de Chine (RPC) a conservé une conception impériale d'elle-même et a réinventé l'autocratie millénaire. Ross Terrill est un observateur politique, mais aussi u...

  11. STS-74 Mission Specialists McArther and Ross in OPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 2, STS-74 Mission Specialist William 'Bill' McArthur Jr. (left) and Jerry L. Ross are reviewing the configuration of payload elements in the orbiter Atlantis' payload bay. Ross and McArthur are participating in the Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), an opportunity for flight crew members to become familiar with the payload hardware they will be working with on-orbit. Located in Atlantis' payload bay are the Orbiter Docking System and the Docking Module, two pieces of flight hardware that will play a crucial role in the second docking of the Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-74 is currently targeted for an early November launch

  12. Percutaneous valved stent repair of a failed homograft: implications for the Ross procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Victor; Jones, Alan; Taylor, Dylan; Coe, Yashu; Ross, David B

    2008-08-01

    A case of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation following a failed homograft in the pulmonary position is reported. A 16-year-old boy developed infective endocarditis of his pulmonary homograft, which was implanted four years earlier during a Ross procedure for congenital aortic stenosis. Following successful medical therapy, the boy was symptomatic due to pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation. A 22 mm Melody valve (Medtronic, USA) was successfully implanted percutaneously. His symptoms resolved and he was discharged home one day after the procedure. Echocardiography at the six-month follow-up demonstrated a normally functioning pulmonary valve. Percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement may make the Ross procedure a more attractive option for patients with aortic stenosis, particularly in the pediatric population.

  13. Asynchronous behavior of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and local glaciers during and since Termination 1, Salmon Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margaret S.; Hall, Brenda L.; Denton, George H.

    2018-01-01

    The stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet under future warming remains an open question with broad implications for sea-level prediction and adaptation. In particular, knowledge of whether the ice sheet has the capacity for rapid drawdown or collapse, or whether it can remain stable during periods of warming, is essential for predicting its future behavior. Here we use 55 radiocarbon dates, coupled with geomorphologic mapping, to reconstruct the timing of changes in ice extent and elevation during the last ice-age termination in Salmon Valley, adjacent to McMurdo Sound in the western Ross Sea Embayment. Results indicate that a grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment achieved its maximum elevation and extent along the headlands of Salmon Valley at ∼18,000 yr BP, during a period of increasing temperatures and accumulation over the Antarctic continent. This ice remained at or near its maximum on the headlands near the valley mouth until after ∼14,000 yr BP. Removal of grounded Ross Sea ice from Salmon Valley was complete shortly after ∼7900 yr BP, indicating that the grounding line had retreated through southern McMurdo Sound by that time. We suggest the primary driver of Ross Sea ice removal from McMurdo Sound was marine-based, either through basal melting or calving due to sea-level rise. When combined with regional data, the Salmon Valley record suggests that this sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet did not contribute in a significant way to deglacial meltwater pulses, such as meltwater pulse 1a. In contrast to the Ross Sea ice, our work also shows that local, independent alpine glaciers in Salmon Valley have advanced through the Holocene. Land-terminating glaciers such as these elsewhere in the region show a similar pattern, and may reflect the continued influence of increased accumulation following the termination of the last ice age.

  14. Nitrogen and carbon limitation of planktonic primary production and phytoplankton-bacterioplankton coupling in ponds on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, B.K.; Hawes, I.; Safi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of nutrient limitation and coupling of planktonic primary and secondary production were investigated in meltwater ponds of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using regression tree analysis and multiple regression. Phytoplankton were primaril N-limited but inorganic carbon apparently co...

  15. Ansel Adams's Eucalyptus Tree, Fort Ross: Nature, Photography, and the Search for California

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Arenson

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the image of California evoked in the unusual Ansel Adams photograph Eucalyptus Tree, Fort Ross, California (1969), a Polaroid Land image of the garrison fence and an aged eucalyptus tree. Considering the participation of Russian occupation, Australian cross-pollination, Carleton Watkins's early photographs of redwoods, automotive and tourist images in the creation of this distinctive California place, the article argues that to understand Ansel Adams's work, we must no...

  16. Impact of pregnancy on autograft dilatation and aortic valve function following the Ross procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Horacio G; Lindley, Kathryn J; Shah, Trupti; Brar, Anoop K; Barger, Philip M; Billadello, Joseph J; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2018-03-01

    The effects of pregnancy on autograft dilatation and neoaortic valve function in patients with a Ross procedure have not been studied. We sought to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on autograft dilatation and valve function in these patients with the goal of determining whether pregnancy is safe after the Ross procedure. A retrospective chart review of female patients who underwent a Ross procedure was conducted. Medical records for 51 patients were reviewed. Among the 33 patients who met inclusion criteria, 11 became pregnant after surgery and 22 did not. Echocardiographic reports were used to record aortic root diameter and aortic insufficiency before, during, and after pregnancy. Patient's charts were reviewed for reinterventions and complications. Primary endpoints included reinterventions, aortic root dilation of ≥5 cm, aortic insufficiency degree ≥ moderate, and death. There were 18 pregnancies carried beyond 20 weeks in 11 patients. There was no significant difference in aortic root diameter between nulliparous patients and parous patients prior to their first pregnancy (3.53 ± 0.44 vs 3.57 ± 0.69 cm, P = .74). There was no significant change in aortic root diameter after first pregnancy (3.7 ± 0.4 cm, P = .056) although there was significant dilatation after the second (4.3 ± 0.7 cm, P = .009) and third (4.5 ± 0.7 cm, P = .009) pregnancies. Freedom from combined endpoints was significantly higher for patients in the pregnancy group than those in the nonpregnancy group (P = .002). Pregnancy was not associated with significantly increased adverse events in patients following the Ross procedure. Special care should be taken after the first pregnancy, as multiparity may lead to increased neoaortic dilatation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Problems and Possible Solutions Concerning Radiocarbon Dating of Surface Marine Sediments, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John T.; Domack, Eugene W.; Cunningham, Wendy L.; Leventer, Amy; Licht, Kathy J.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; DeMaster, David J.; Jennings, Anne E.

    1999-09-01

    Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) dates on the acid-insoluble fraction from 38 core tops from the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, are used to address these questions: (1) What are the apparent ages of sediments at or close to the present sediment/water interface? (2) Is there a statistically significant pattern to the spatial distribution of core top ages? and (3) Is there a "correction factor" that can be applied to these age determinations to obtain the best possible Holocene (downcore) chronologies? Ages of core top sediments range from 2000 to 21,000 14C yr B.P. Some "old" core top dates are from piston cores and probably represent the loss of sediment during the coring process, but some core top samples >6000 14C yr B.P. may represent little or no Holocene deposition. Four possible sources of variability in dates ≤6000 14C yr B.P. (n = 28) are associated with (1) different sample preparation methods, (2) different sediment recovery systems, (3) different geographic regions, and (4) within-sample lateral age variability. Statistical analysis on an a posteriori design indicates that geographic area is the major cause of variability; there is a difference in mean surface sediment age of nearly 2000 yr between sites in the western Ross Sea and sites east of Ross Bank in south-central Ross Sea. The systematic variability in surface age between areas may be attributed to: (a) variable sediment accumulation rates (SAR) (surface age is inversely related to SAR), (b) differences in the percentage of reworked (dead) carbon between each area, and/or (c) differences in the CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  18. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P.O.; Afton, A.D.; Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males.

  19. Visioni vittoriane: il paesaggio fiorentino nelle opere di Janet Ross e Vernon Lee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Corsani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fra l’ultimo scorcio dell’Ottocento e i primi decenni del Novecento Firenze e i suoi dintorni sono il soggetto privilegiato di una grande quantità di descrizioni, note di diario, racconti, opera di scrittori stranieri, in particolare inglesi, che si radicano nell’approdo elettivo di quei luoghi. Il testo presenta la traccia letteraria del paesaggio fiorentino nelle opere di Vernon Lee e Janet Ross, due tipiche rappresentanti di questa tendenza che hanno vissuto, attraverso vicende biografiche in qualche modo parallele, un’esperienza di intensa identificazione con il paesaggio fiorentino. Di Janet Ross, viene commentato Old Florence and Modern Tuscany, volume che raccoglie una serie di articoli pubblicati su alcune riviste inglesi e fornisce una efficace panoramica sull’interesse molto concreto di Janet Ross per il mondo rurale che la vede addirittura impegnata nella gestione della fattoria di Castagnolo, a Lastra a Signa. Più sfaccettato è il commento alle opere di Vernon Lee, di cui sono commentati passi da Vanitas. Polite Stories, Genius Loci, Hortus Vitae and Limbo, in virtù della maggiore ampiezza e complessità del suo mondo culturale. Ne sono cifra distintiva la associazione fra storia e realtà attraverso la dimensione del mistero, che risulta una delle chiavi di acccesso alla bellezza e alla vitalità del paesagggio e la capacità di cogliere il ritmo proprio dei luoghi e di entrare in reale sintonia con essi. 

  20. On the dense water spreading off the Ross Sea shelf (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budillon, G.; Gremes Cordero, S.; Salusti, E.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, current meter and hydrological data obtained during the X Italian Expedition in the Ross Sea (CLIMA Project) are analyzed. Our data show a nice agreement with previous data referring to the water masses present in this area and their dynamics. Here, they are used to further analyze the mixing and deepening processes of Deep Ice Shelf Water (DISW) over the northern shelf break of the Ross Sea. In more detail, our work is focused on the elementary mechanisms that are the most efficient in removing dense water from the shelf: either classical mixing effects or density currents that interact with some topographic irregularity in order to drop to deeper levels, or also the variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) which, in its meandering, can push the dense water off the shelf, thus interrupting its geostrophic flow. We also discuss in detail the (partial) evidence of dramatic interactions of the dense water with bottom particulate, of geological or biological origin, thus generating impulsive or quasi-steady density-turbidity currents. This complex interaction allows one to consider bottom particular and dense water as a unique self-interacting system. In synthesis, this is a first tentative analysis of the effect of bottom particulate on the dense water dynamics in the Ross Sea.

  1. On the outflow of dense water from the Weddell and Ross Seas in OCCAM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kerr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the seasonal and interannual variability of volume transports in the Weddell and Ross Seas using the 1/12° 20-yr simulation of the OCCAM global ocean general circulation model. The average simulated full-depth cumulative volume transports were 28.5 ± 2.9 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1 and 13.4 ± 5.2 Sv, across the main export regions of the Weddell and Ross Seas, respectively. The values of mean outflow of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW (defined by neutral density γn ≥ 28.27 kg m−3 from the Weddell and Ross Seas of 10.6 ± 3.1 Sv and 0.5 ± 0.7 Sv, respectively, agree with the range reported in historical observational studies. The export of Weddell Sea dense water in OCCAM is primarily determined by the strength of the Weddell Gyre. Variability in AABW export is predominantly at periods of ~1 yr and 2–4 yr.

  2. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  3. Preliminary results on the petrology and fluid inclusions of the Rossing uraniferous alaskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    1980-01-01

    Petrography, radioactivity distribution and fluid inclusions have been studied in three samples of the Rossing alaskites from the S.H. anomaly outside of the Rossing deposit. After the crystallization of the alaskitic magma which involved oligoclase, biotite, orthoclase and quartz, a deuteric alteration produced a quartz, microcline, albite, muscovite, calcite plus minus chlorite mineral association similar to those observed in several French uraniferous granites. Uranium redistribution occurred during this alteration. From fluid inclusions data, the pressure at the time of the intrusion is estimated to have been at least 6kbar for a temperature of 625 degrees Celsius. Reaction of the magma with the marbles of the Rossing formation led to the boiling of the magma by an increase in the CO 2 partial pressure as well as to its crystallization. Immiscibility between a dense saline (more than 30 per cent NaCl) and CO 2 -rich fluid is proposed to have occurred simultaneously or after the fluid oversaturation of the magma. Part of uraninite is formed at the magmatic stage, another part crystallized from the magmatic fluids in the biotite-rich selvages of the alaskites or in the uraninite-fluorite veins. Uraninite crystallization appears to be mainly controlled by the oxygen fugacity prevailing in the magma and in the surrounding rocks

  4. Estimation of the banking sector competition in the CEE countries: The Panzar-Rosse approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitive conditions in the banking sectors in the light of transition process in the Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEE has been subject of interest for researchers and policy-makers, especially upon entry of foreign banks and concentrated markets. In this paper the Panzar-Rosse approach is used to assess competition of banking sectors in CEE. By using General Method of Moments on the panel data for 300 banks for the period 1999-2009, empirical evidence indicates that banks operating in the CEE exert monopoly behaviour. From the methodological point of view, the findings suggest that using a price equation or controlling for total assets in a Panzar-Rosse approach produces upwards biased and invalid estimates of the H-statistic. Therefore, further support is provided for maintaining a reducedform revenue equation when estimating a Panzar-Rosse model. The findings also suggest that banks operating in the non-EU countries of the CEE region have exerted stronger market power compared to the banks operating in the EU countries of this region. Policy-makers should improve competitive conditions and general ‘enabling’ environment for the banking sectors, especially the non-EU countries of the CEE region, while balancing competition-stability trade-off.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants in soils and sediments from James Ross Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanova, Jana; Matykiewiczova, Nina; Macka, Zdenek; Prosek, Pavel; Laska, Kamil; Klan, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from James Ross Island were analyzed for their PCB, OCP and PAH contents. Soil concentrations ranged between 0.51 and 1.82 ng g -1 for seven indicator PCB congeners, between 0.49 and 1.34 ng g -1 for HCH congeners, between 0.51 and 3.68 ng g -1 for the sum of p,p'-DDT, DDE, and DDD, and between 34.9 and 171 ng g -1 for the sum of 16 EPA PAHs. Sediment levels from 0.32 to 0.83 ng g -1 were found for PCBs, from 0.14 to 0.76 ng g -1 for HCHs, from 0.19 to 1.15 ng g -1 for DDTs, and from 1.4 to 205 ng g -1 for PAHs. A prevalence of low-mass PAHs, less chlorinated PCBs, and more volatile chemicals indicates that the long-range atmospheric transport from populated areas of Africa, South America, and Australia is the most probable contamination source for the solid matrices in James Ross Island. - A survey of soil, sediment and air contamination in James Ross Island, Antarctica serves as a baseline study for evaluation of an anthropogenic impact of the new research facility

  6. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  7. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  8. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  9. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  10. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  11. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  12. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  13. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  14. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  15. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  16. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  17. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  18. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  19. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  20. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  1. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  2. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  3. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  4. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  5. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  6. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  7. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  8. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  9. Life Detection and Characterization of Subsurface Ice and Brine in the McMurdo Dry Valleys Using an Ultrasonic Gopher: A NASA ASTEP Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, P. T.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Fritsen, C.; Kenig, F.; McKay, C. P.; Murray, A.; Sherrit, S.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of ice and fluids near the surface of Mars in both the distant and recent past is growing with each new mission to the Planet. One explanation for fluids forming springlike features on Mars is the discharge of subsurface brines. Brines offer potential refugia for extant Martian life, and near surface ice could preserve a record of past life on the planet. Proven techniques to get underground to sample these environments, and get below the disruptive influence of the surface oxidant and radiation regime, will be critical for future astrobiology missions to Mars. Our Astrobiology for Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) project has the goal to develop and test a novel ultrasonic corer in a Mars analog environment, the McMurdo Dry valleys, Antarctica, and to detect and describe life in a previously unstudied extreme ecosystem; Lake Vida (Fig. 1), an ice-sealed lake.

  10. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  11. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  12. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  13. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  14. Characteristics and processing of seismic data collected on thick, floating ice: Results from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce C.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Stern, Tim A.

    1992-01-01

    Coincident reflection and refraction data, collected in the austral summer of 1988/89 by Stanford University and the Geophysical Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand, imaged the crust beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The Ross Ice Shelf is a unique acquisition environment for seismic reflection profiling because of its thick, floating ice cover. The ice shelf velocity structure is multilayered with a high velocity‐gradient firn layer constituting the upper 50 to 100 m. This near surface firn layer influences the data character by amplifying and frequency modulating the incoming wavefield. In addition, the ice‐water column introduces pervasive, high energy seafloor, intra‐ice, and intra‐water multiples that have moveout velocities similar to the expected subseafloor primary velocities. Successful removal of these high energy multiples relies on predictive deconvolution, inverse velocity stack filtering, and frequency filtering. Removal of the multiples reveals a faulted, sedimentary wedge which is truncated at or near the seafloor. Beneath this wedge the reflection character is diffractive to a two‐way traveltime of ∼7.2 s. At this time, a prominent reflection is evident on the southeast end of the reflection profile. This reflection is interpreted as Moho indicating that the crust is ∼21-km thick beneath the profile. These results provide seismic evidence that the extensional features observed in the Ross Sea region of the Ross Embayment extend beneath the Ross Ice Shelf.

  15. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  16. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  17. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  18. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  19. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  20. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  1. Ross operation in children and young adults: the Alder Hey case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzi Marco

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal prosthesis for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults has not been found yet. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the replacement of aortic valve with the pulmonary autograft owing to its advantages of lack of anticoagulation, potential for growth and excellent haemodynamic performance. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience at Alder Hey hospital with the Ross procedure in children and young adults. Methods From November 1996 to September 2003, 38 patients (mean age, 13.1 ± 5.7 years underwent the Ross procedure for various aortic valve diseases using the root replacement technique. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was performed early (within 30 days, 3 to 6 months, and yearly after surgery. Medical records of all patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results There was 1 perioperative death. The patients were followed-up for a median interval of 36 months and up to 7 years. One patient died 3 years after surgery secondary to ventricular arrhythmia with overall mortality of 5.3%. Actuarial survival at 7 years was 94 ± 2.5% and there was 100% freedom from reoperation for autograft valve dysfunction or any other cause. Balloon dilatation was required in 2 patients for pulmonary homograft stenosis. The haemodynamics at the latest follow-up were also similar to those at the time of discharge after surgery. There was no progression in the degree of aortic regurgitation for 11 patients with trivial and 3 with mild regurgitation. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that Ross operation is an attractive option for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults. Not only can the operation be accomplished with a low operative risk but the valve function stays normal over a long period of time with minimal alteration in lifestyle and no need for repeated operations to replace the valve as a result of somatic growth of the children.

  2. Early Winter Sea Ice Dynamics in the Ross Sea from In Situ and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Ackley, S. F.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Tison, J. L.; Hoeppner, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Ross Sea sea ice cover is one of the few regions of the cryosphere that have been expanding in recent decades. However, 2017 saw a significantly delayed autumn ice advance and record low early winter sea ice extent. Understanding the causes and impacts of this variability has been hampered by a lack of in situ observations. A winter cruise into the Ross Sea in April-June 2017 provided some of the only in situ winter observations of sea ice processes in this region in almost 20 years. We present a first look at data from arrays of drifting buoys deployed in the ice pack and outflow from these polynyas, supplemented by a suite of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Additional observations included high-resolution sonar imagery of ice deformation features from an autonomous underwater vehicle, shipboard visual observations of sea ice properties, and in situ measurements of snow and thickness and structural properties. These data show that the delay in ice advance led to a thin, highly dynamic sea ice pack, with substantial ice production and export from the Ross Ice Shelf and Terra Nova Bay polynyas. Despite these high rates of ice production, the pack ice remained thin due to rapid export and northward drift. Compared to the only prior winter observations made in 1995 and 1998, the ice was thinner, with less ridging and snow cover, reflecting a younger ice cover. Granular ice was less prevalent than in these prior cruises, particularly in the outer pack, likely due to less snow ice formation and less pancake ice formation at the advancing ice edge. Despite rapid basal ice growth, the buoy data suggest that deformation may be the dominant mechanism for sea ice thickening in the pack once an initial ice cover forms.

  3. Moses presages Kubler-Ross: five stages in accepting death, as seen in the midrash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, M C; Knight, L

    2001-11-01

    This paper elucidates and explains an ancient midrash (rabbinic interpretation of a biblical text) through the lens of modern psychological theory. The midrash describes Moses' reactions to his approaching death. The paper points out that these reactions anticipate the five classic stages, described by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, of coming to accept terminal illness: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. The article shows the ancient rabbis' sensitivity to human feeling and the universal nature of human reaction through the dialogue and reactions they attribute to Moses. Finally, it shows how using this midrash offers a constructive model for approaching death, for Jewish and non-Jewish patients alike, as well as their caregivers.

  4. Evaluating indices of lipid and protein content in lesser snow and Ross's geese during spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Elisabeth B.; Fowler, Drew N.; Woodall, Brendan A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing nutrient stores in avian species is important for understanding the extent to which body condition influences success or failure in life‐history events. We evaluated predictive models using morphometric characteristics to estimate total body lipids (TBL) and total body protein (TBP), based on traditional proximate analyses, in spring migrating lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (A. rossii). We also compared performance of our lipid model with a previously derived predictive equation for TBL developed for nesting lesser snow geese. We used external and internal measurements on 612 lesser snow and 125 Ross's geese collected during spring migration in 2015 and 2016 within the Central and Mississippi flyways to derive and evaluate predictive models. Using a validation data set, our best performing lipid model for snow geese better predicted TBL (root mean square error [RMSE] of 23.56) compared with a model derived from nesting individuals (RMSE = 48.60), suggesting the importance of season‐specific models for accurate lipid estimation. Models that included body mass and abdominal fat deposit best predicted TBL determined by proximate analysis in both species (lesser snow goose, R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 23.56: Ross's geese, R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 13.75). Models incorporating a combination of external structural measurements in addition to internal muscle and body mass best predicted protein values (R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 19.39 and R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 7.65, lesser snow and Ross's geese, respectively), but protein models including only body mass and body size were also competitive and provided extended utility to our equations for field applications. Therefore, our models indicated the importance of specimen dissection and measurement of the abdominal fat pad to provide the most accurate lipid estimates and provide alternative dissection‐free methods for estimating protein.

  5. Diet and trophic niche of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, M H; Forman, J; Bury, S J; Brown, J; Horn, P; O'Driscoll, R L

    2013-01-01

    The diet of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum was evaluated by examining stomach contents of specimens collected in the Ross Sea (71°-77° S; 165°-180° E) in January to March 2008. Pleuragramma antarcticum (50-236 mm standard length, L(S)) and prey items were analysed for stable-isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen. According to index of relative importance (I(RI) ), which incorporates frequency of occurrence, mass and number of prey items, the most important prey items were copepods (81%I(RI) over all specimens), predominantly Metridia gerlachei and Paraeuchaeta sp., with krill and fishes having low I(RI) (2·2 and 5·6%I(RI) overall). According to mass of prey (M) in stomachs, however, fishes (P. antarcticum and myctophids) and krill dominated overall diet (48 and 22%M, respectively), with copepods being a relatively minor constituent of overall diet by mass (9·9%M). Piscivory by P. antarcticum occurred mainly in the extreme south-west of the region and near the continental slope. Krill identified to species level in P. antarcticum stomachs were predominantly Euphausia superba (14·1%M) with some Euphausia crystallophorias (4·8%M). Both DistLM modelling (PRIMER-permanova+) on stomach contents (by I(RI)) and stepwise generalized linear modelling on stable isotopes showed that L(S) and location were significant predictors of P. antarcticum diet. Postlarval P. antarcticum (50-89 mm L(S)) consumed exclusively copepods. Juvenile P. antarcticum (90-151 mm L(S)) consumed predominantly krill and copepods by mass (46 and 30%M, respectively). Small adult P. antarcticum (152-178 mm L(S)) consumed krill, fishes and copepods (37, 36 and 15%M, respectively). Large adult P. antarcticum (179-236 mm L(S)) consumed predominantly fishes and krill (55 and 17%M, respectively), especially in the north (near the Ross Sea slope) and in the SW Ross Sea. Amphipods were occasionally important prey items for P. antarcticum (western Ross Sea, 39%M). General

  6. William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse astronomy and the castle in nineteenth-century Ireland

    CERN Document Server

    Mollan, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    This is a revealing account of the family life and achievements of the Third Earl of Rosse, a hereditary peer and resident landlord at Birr Castle, County Offaly, in nineteenth-century Ireland, before, during and after the devastating famine of the 1840s. He was a remarkable engineer, who built enormous telescopes in the cloudy middle of Ireland. The book gives details, in an attractive non-technical style which requires no previous scientific knowledge, of his engineering initiatives and the astronomical results, but also reveals much more about the man and his contributions - locally in the

  7. STS-110 M.S. Ross and Smith in M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- With STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry Ross (far left) and Steven Smith (third from left) on board, Commander Michael Bloomfield scatters dust as he practices driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier. The driving is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  8. STS-110 M.S. Ross in M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross waits his turn at driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. In the background, right, is Mission Specialist Lee Morin. TCDT includes emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown, and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  9. Multi-Decadal Averages of Basal Melt for Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Using Airborne Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Frearson, N.; Kingslake, J.; Padman, L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Fricker, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance are key to the long term stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although the most extensive ice shelf mass loss currently is occurring in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, many other ice shelves experience changes in thickness on time scales from annual to ice age cycles. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Shelf. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows substantial variability in Ross Ice Shelf height on interannual time scales, complicating detection of potential long-term climate-change signals in the mass budget of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf surface snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. We investigate Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophysical data from the ROSETTA-Ice surveys using IcePod. We use two ice-penetrating radars; a 2 GHz unit that images fine-structure in the upper 400 m of the ice surface and a 360 MHz radar to identify the ice shelf base. We have identified internal layers that are continuous along flow from the grounding line to the ice shelf front. Based on layer continuity, we conclude that these layers must be the horizons between the continental ice of the outlet glaciers and snow accumulation once the ice is afloat. We use the Lagrangian change in thickness of these layers, after correcting for strain rates derived using modern day InSAR velocities, to estimate multidecadal averaged basal melt rates. This method provides a novel way to quantify basal melt, avoiding the confounding impacts of spatial and short-timescale variability in surface accumulation and firn densification processes. Our estimates show elevated basal melt rates (> -1m/yr) around Byrd and Mullock glaciers within 100 km from the ice shelf front. We also compare modern InSAR velocity derived strain rates with estimates from the comprehensive ground-based RIGGS observations during 1973-1978 to estimate the potential magnitude of

  10. Vacuum-field solutions of Ross and Sen-Dunn theories of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.; Nandy, D.

    1978-01-01

    Vacuum-field solutions of Ross (Phys. Rev.; D5:284 (1972)) and Sen-Dunn (J. Math. Phys.; 12:578 (1971)) theories of gravitation have been obtained with the aid of a Friedmann-type metric. Non-static solutions are found showing that the Birkhoff theorem holds for neither theory. It has been observed that the two theories have a limited scope for vacuum solution as against the Brans-Dicke theory. Mach's principle, however, holds for both the theories. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  12. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  13. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  14. Distribution of total alkalinity and pH in the Ross Sea (Antarctica waters during austral summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rivaro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of total alkalinity (AT and pH were made in the Ross Sea in January–February 2008 in order to characterize the carbonate system in the Ross Sea and to evaluate the variability associated with different water masses. The main water masses of the Ross Sea, Antarctic Surface Water, High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, Deep Ice Shelf Water, Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW and Antarctic Bottom Water, were identified on the basis of the physical and chemical data. In particular, the AT ranged between 2275 and 2374 µmol kg−1 with the lowest values in the surface waters (2275–2346 µmol kg−1, where the influence of the sea-ice melting and of the variability of the physical properties was significant. In the deep layers of the water column, the AT maxima were measured in correspondence to the preferential pathways of the spreading HSSW. The pH had variable values in the surface layer (7.890–8.033 with the highest values in Terra Nova Bay and Ross Sea polynyas. A low pH (7.969±0.025 traced the intrusion of the CDW in the Ross Sea shelf area. All samples revealed waters that were oversaturated with respect to both calcite and aragonite, but near corrosive levels of aragonite saturation state (Ω ca. 1.1–1.2 were associated with the entrainment of CDW over the slope. Aragonite undersaturation is of particular concern for the zooplankton species comprising to calcifying organisms such as pteropods. The partial pressure of CO2 at the sea surface was undersaturated with respect to the atmospheric value, particularly in Terra Nova Bay and the Ross Sea polynyas, but a large variability in the sea–air CO2 fluxes was observed associated with different responses in the strength of the biological and physical processes.

  15. South Polar Skua breeding populations in the Ross Sea assessed from demonstrated relationship with Adélie Penguin numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah J.; Lyver, Phil O'B.; Greene, Terry C.; Whitehead, Amy L.; Dugger, Catherine; Karl, Brian J.; Barringer, James R. F.; McGarry, Roger; Pollard, Annie M.; Ainley, David G.

    2017-01-01

    In the Ross Sea region, most South Polar Skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki) nest near Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies, preying and scavenging on fish, penguins, and other carrion. To derive a relationship to predict skua numbers from better-quantified penguin numbers, we used distance sampling to estimate breeding skua numbers within 1000 m of 5 penguin nesting locations (Cape Crozier, Cape Royds, and 3 Cape Bird locations) on Ross Island in 3 consecutive years. Estimated numbers of skua breeding pairs were highest at Cape Crozier (270,000 penguin pairs; 1099 and 1347 skua pairs in 2 respective years) and lowest at Cape Royds (3000 penguin pairs; 45 skua pairs). The log–log linear relationship (R2 = 0.98) between pairs of skuas and penguins was highly significant, and most historical estimates of skua and penguin numbers in the Ross Sea were within 95 % prediction intervals of the regression. Applying our regression model to current Adélie Penguin colony sizes at 23 western Ross Sea locations predicted that 4635 pairs of skuas now breed within 1000 m of penguin colonies in the Ross Island metapopulation (including Beaufort Island) and northern Victoria Land. We estimate, using published skua estimates for elsewhere in Antarctica, that the Ross Sea South Polar Skua population comprises ~50 % of the world total, although this may be an overestimate because of incomplete data elsewhere. To improve predictions and enable measurement of future skua population change, we recommend additional South Polar Skua surveys using consistent distance-sampling methods at penguin colonies of a range of sizes.

  16. Evaluation of the Ross fast solution of Richards' equation in unfavourable conditions for standard finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevoisier, D.; Voltz, M.; Chanzy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ross [Ross PJ. Modeling soil water and solute transport - fast, simplified numerical solutions. Agron J 2003;95:1352-61] developed a fast, simplified method for solving Richards' equation. This non-iterative 1D approach, using Brooks and Corey [Brooks RH, Corey AT. Hydraulic properties of porous media. Hydrol. papers, Colorado St. Univ., Fort Collins: 1964] hydraulic functions, allows a significant reduction in computing time while maintaining the accuracy of the results. The first aim of this work is to confirm these results in a more extensive set of problems, including those that would lead to serious numerical difficulties for the standard numerical method. The second aim is to validate a generalisation of the Ross method to other mathematical representations of hydraulic functions. The Ross method is compared with the standard finite element model, Hydrus-1D [Simunek J, Sejna M, Van Genuchten MTh. The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS-2D codes for estimating unsaturated soil hydraulic and solutes transport parameters. Agron Abstr 357; 1999]. Computing time, accuracy of results and robustness of numerical schemes are monitored in 1D simulations involving different types of homogeneous soils, grids and hydrological conditions. The Ross method associated with modified Van Genuchten hydraulic functions [Vogel T, Cislerova M. On the reliability of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from the moisture retention curve. Transport Porous Media 1988:3:1-15] proves in every tested scenario to be more robust numerically, and the compromise of computing time/accuracy is seen to be particularly improved on coarse grids. Ross method run from 1.25 to 14 times faster than Hydrus-1D. (authors)

  17. Influence of a yeast fermented product on the serum levels of the mannan-binding lectin and the antibodies against the Newcastle disease virus in Ross broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortés-Coronado, R F; Gómez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the serum concentrations of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) at different ages in Ross broilers fed increasing amounts of a yeast-fermented product (YFP) and inoculated with a vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Eighty mixed Ross B308 broilers...

  18. The Xanthophyceae and Chlorophyceae of the Western Ross Sea, Victoria Land, Antarctica and Macquarie Island collected under the direction of Prof. Dr. J. S. Zaneveld (1963—1967)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.; Zaneveld, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    During the austral summer seasons of 1963-1964 and 1964-1965, and during the austral winter season of 1967 Prof. Dr. J.S. Zaneveld made collection expeditions to the western Ross Sea. In 1965 collections were also made from the U.S.C.G. icebreaker ‘Glacier’, around the western Ross Sea and around

  19. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  20. Umírání a smrt v pojetí Elisabeth Kübler-Ross

    OpenAIRE

    TOTHOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on dying and exitus in understanding of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. How did this unique woman feel the end of life, what was the sense and the main contens of her life. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross gave most of her life to help incurables people, their families and friends. During her work she described and defined five periods of confirmed illneses´ incidence. She was exemplary hearer, friend, every patient was her master. She felt a possibility to be with deathwards, to listen and ...

  1. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  2. Ross Works on the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS) During

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  3. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  4. STS-61B Astronaut Ross Works on Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo astronaut Ross, located on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) over the cargo bay, erects ACCESS. The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  5. STS-61B Astronauts Ross and Spring Work on Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). This STS-61B onboard photo depicts astronauts Ross and Spring working on EASE. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  6. Panorama Pluton : a composite gabbro-monzodiorite early Ross Orogeny intrusion in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellish, S.D.; Cooper, A.F.; Walker, N.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province of the Walcott Glacier to Radian Glacier area of the Transantarctic Mountains contains a diverse suite of intrusions ranging from gabbro and diorite to granite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatite. Most of the plutons are alkaline (A-type), although the Panorama Pluton is mafic, comprising both hypersthene normative gabbroic and quartz normative monzodioritic lithologies. The pluton has a composite nature, determined by whole-rock geochemical trends and Nd-Sr isotope data that reflect distinctive source regions for the different components. U-Pb geochronology of zircon and titanite indicates the Panorama Pluton was intruded during the early stages of the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic Ross Orogeny at 535 ± 9 Ma, and that it is coeval with the geochemically similar Dromedary Mafic Complex which crops out 10 km to the southeast. The Panorama Pluton is a volumetrically minor mafic component of the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province, which predates, by at least 15 m.y., the dominant calc-alkaline suites that occur along-strike in the Dry Valleys area to the north, and the central Transantarctic Mountains to the south. The Panorama Pluton magmas, and other Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province lithologies, are interpreted to have formed in an extensional or transtensional jog that predates the onset of widespread Ross Orogeny subduction. (author). 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Banking Competition and Efficiency: Empirical Analysis on the Bosnia and Herzegovina Using Panzar-Rosse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memić Deni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Competition in the banking industry has been an important topic in the scientific literature as researchers tried to assess the level of competition in the banking sector. Objectives: This paper has an aim to investigate the market structure and a long term equilibrium of the banking market in Bosnia and Herzegovina nationwide as well as on its constitutional entities as well as to evaluate the monopoly power of banks during the years 2008-2012. Methods/Approach: The paper is examining the market structure using the most frequently applied measures of concentration k-bank concentration ratio (CRk and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI as well as evaluating the monopoly power of banks by employing Panzar-Rosse “H-statistic”. Results: The empirical results using CRk and HHI show that Bosnia and Herzegovina banking market has a moderately concentrated market with a concentration decreasing trend. The Panzar-Rosse “H-statistic” suggests that banks in Bosnia and Herzegovina operate under monopoly or monopolistic competition depending on the market segment. Conclusions: Banks operating on the banking market in Bosnia and Herzegovina seem to be earning their total and interest revenues under monopoly or perfectly collusive oligopoly.

  8. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ghiglione

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500µm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data. Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species, 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species, 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species, 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species, 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species. This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10.

  9. The effect of propolis extract in the diet of chickens Ross 308 on their performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER HACK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study was the performance of Ross 308 chickens after the application of propolis extract in their diet. The nutritional value of feed mixtures for chickens was equal, but the experimental groups were also added propolis extract in the dose of 200 mg.kg-1 (E1, 300 mg.kg-1 (E2 and 400 mg.kg-1 (E3, respectively. The results of the experiments showed that the propolis extract in the examined concentrations can be applied to the diet of chickens, since it managed to raise (P = 0.05 the body weight positively (E1 2354.60 g; E2 2371.40 g; E3 2382.90 g, compared to control group (2272.89 g. Total increase of body weights indicates positive tendency of propolis extract in the diet of chickens Ross 308, because higher values (P = 0.05 were reached in the experimental groups (2311.60 g E1 to 2339.60 g E3 compared to control (2230.80 g. Total feed consumption was higher in the experimental groups, on the contrary, FCR was lower (P = 0.05 in the experimental groups (1.64 to 1.67 compared to control (1.69. The best performance results were reached in the group with the greatest addition of propolis extract, i.e. in the dose 400 mg.kg-1 of feed mixtures (E3.

  10. Changes on the ice plain of Ice Stream B and Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtaie, Sion

    1993-01-01

    During the 1970's and 1980's, nearly 200 stations from which accurate, three dimensional position fixes have been obtained from TRANSIT satellites were occupied throughout the Ross Ice Shelf. We have transformed the elevations obtained by satellite altimetry to the same geodetic datum, and then applied a second transformation to reduce the geodetic heights to elevations above mean sea level using the GEM-10C geoidal height. On the IGY Ross Ice Shelf traverse between Oct. 1957 and Feb. 1958, an accurate method of barometric altimetry was used on a loop around the ice shelf that was directly tied to the sea at both ends of the travel route, thus providing absolute elevations. Comparisons of the two sets of data at 32 station pairs on floating ice show a mean difference of 0 +/- 1 m. The elevation data were also compared with theoretical values of elevations for a hydrostatically floating ice shelf. The mean difference between theoretical and measured values of elevations is -2 +/- 1 m.

  11. Bacterivory by a Summer Assemblage of Nanoplankton in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Mixotrophic Versus Heterotrophic Protists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, R. W.; Gast, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    Many protists traditionally described as phototrophic have recently been shown to have retained the primitive trait of phagotrophy, and thus function as mixotrophs. Mixotrophic nanoflagellates were identified in every sample examined from a summer cruise in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, where they often were more abundant than heterotrophic nanoflagellates that have previously been considered the major bacterivores in marine waters. Mixotrophs, identified by uptake of fluorescent tracers, comprised similar proportions (9-75%) of the total bacterivorous flagellates in summer as were previously determined for an earlier spring cruise in the Ross Sea. Protist diversity also was linked to functional bacterivores using a culture-independent method in which BrdU-labeled DNA of bacterial prey was incorporated into the DNA of eukaryotic grazers. Immunoprecipitation of the BrdU-labeld DNA was followed by high-throughput sequencing to identify a diverse group of bacterivores, including numerous uncultured eukaryotes. However, its utility for identification of mixotrophs was limited by the availability of sequences from known mixotrophs.

  12. The Fontaine Pluton : an early Ross Orogeny calc-alkaline gabbro from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottle, J.M.; Cooper, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    The Fontaine Pluton is a previously undescribed mafic intrusion outcropping at Fontaine Bluff on the south side of the Carlyon Glacier in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. It is the southern-most member of a laterally extensive mafic suite emplaced at mid-crustal depths during the initial stages of the Ross Orogeny. The pluton comprises recrystallised hornblende-biotite gabbro, which in places shows well-defined centimetre to metre scale primary igneous layering. Recrystallised ultramafic enclaves composed of amphibole-chlorite-talc are inferred to be remnants of a chemically and mineralogically distinct cumulate fraction. The intrusion has a 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i) ratio of 0.70679 and a 143 Nd/ 144 Nd (i) ratio of 0.51187 (εNd (i) = -1.2). This, coupled with other geochemical data, implies that the Fontaine Pluton was formed by c. 15% partial melting of a depleted mantle source that was subsequently contaminated by continental crust. Preliminary U-Pb geochronology on zircon suggests an emplacement age for the pluton of 546 ± 10 Ma. These new data indicate that Ross Orogeny magmatism in this area of southern Victoria Land was initiated in the late Neoproterozoic along a subducting plate margin. (author). 55 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Geometric controls of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Long-period ocean waves, formed locally or at distant sources, can reach sub-ice-shelf cavities and excite coupled motion in the cavity and the ice shelf - flexural gravity waves. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf show that propagation of these waves is strongly controlled by the geometry of the system - the cavity shape, its water-column thickness and the ice-shelf thickness. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that propagation of the waves is spatially organized in beams, whose orientation is determined by the direction of the of the open ocean waves incident on the ice-shelf front. As a result, depending on the beams orientation, parts of the Ross Ice Shelf experience significantly larger flexural stresses compared to other parts where the flexural gravity beams do not propagate. Very long-period waves can propagate farther away from the ice-shelf front exciting flexural stresses in the vicinity of the grounding line.

  14. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  15. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  16. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  17. Evaluation of tele-ultrasound as a tool in remote diagnosis and clinical management at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the McMurdo Research Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian; Shemenski, Ron; Scott, Jessica M; Hartshorn, Jeanette; Bishop, Sheryl; Viegas, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Background: A large number of Antarctic stations do not utilize ultrasound for medical care. Regular use of ultrasound imaging at South Pole and McMurdo Stations first began in October 2002. To date, there has been no evaluation of medical events requiring ultrasound examination from this remote environment. Additionally, the importance of tele-ultrasound for clinical management in Antarctica has not yet been assessed. We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis of all ultrasound exams performed at South Pole and McMurdo Stations between October 2002 and October 2003. Radiology reports and patient charts were reviewed for pre- and post-ultrasound diagnosis and treatment. Sixty-six ultrasound exams were conducted on 49 patients. Of the exams, 94.0% were interpreted by the store-and-forward method, whereas 6.0% were interpreted in "real-time" format. Abdominal, genitourinary, and gynecology ultrasound exams accounted for 63.6% of exams. Ultrasound examination prevented an intercontinental aeromedical evacuation in 25.8% of cases, and had a significant effect on the diagnosis and management of illness in patients at South Pole and McMurdo research stations. These findings indicate that diagnostic ultrasound has significant benefits for medical care at Antarctic stations and that tele-ultrasound is a valuable addition to remote medical care for isolated populations with limited access to tertiary-healthcare facilities.

  18. Climate change impacts on southern Ross Sea phytoplankton composition, productivity, and export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Daniel E.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Smith, Walker O.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hemmings, John C. P.

    2017-03-01

    The Ross Sea, a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean, is expected to experience warming during the next century along with reduced summer sea ice concentrations and shallower mixed layers. This study investigates how these climatic changes may alter phytoplankton assemblage composition, primary productivity, and export. Glider measurements are used to force a one-dimensional biogeochemical model, which includes diatoms and both solitary and colonial forms of Phaeocystis antarctica. Model performance is evaluated with glider observations, and experiments are conducted using projections of physical drivers for mid-21st and late-21st century. These scenarios reveal a 5% increase in primary productivity by midcentury and 14% by late-century and a proportional increase in carbon export, which remains approximately 18% of primary production. In addition, scenario results indicate diatom biomass increases while P. antarctica biomass decreases in the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the century, diatom biomass remains relatively constant and P. antarctica biomass increases. Additional scenarios examining the independent contributions of expected future changes (temperature, mixed layer depth, irradiance, and surface iron inputs from melting ice) demonstrate that earlier availability of low light due to reduction of sea ice early in the growing season is the primary driver of productivity increases over the next century; shallower mixed layer depths additionally contribute to changes of assemblage composition and export. This study further demonstrates how glider data can be effectively used to facilitate model development and simulation, and inform interpretation of biogeochemical observations in the context of climate change.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding how the global ocean responds to climate change requires knowing the natural behavior of individual regions and anticipating how future changes will affect each region differently. It

  19. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  20. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  1. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  2. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  3. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  4. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  5. Sounding out the logo shot

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  6. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  7. Coping with Dying: Lessons That We Should and Should Not Learn from the Work of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Appraises work of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross in area of coping with dying. Suggests lessons from that work. Draws broad conclusions about processes involved in coping with dying, argues on behalf of need to develop better theoretical models to explicate what is involved in coping with dying, and suggests requirements for model. (Author/NB)

  8. Death age, seasonality, taphonomy and colonization of seal carcasses from Ulu Peninsula, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nývlt, D.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Barták, M.; Stachoň, Z.; Pavel, V.; Mlčoch, B.; Láska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 3-16 ISSN 0954-1020 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : James Ross Island * preservation state * Prince Gustav Channel * sea ice * seal behaviour Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  9. An examination of the role of colonial Phaeocystis antarctica in the microbial food web of the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extensive buildup of phytoplankton biomass in the Ross Sea conflicts with the view that high rates of herbivory occur in all regions of the Southern Ocean. Nano- and microplanktonic consumers comprise a significant fraction of total plankton biomass; however, the importance o...

  10. Men of Good Will: The Religious Education Association, J. Elliot Ross, and the National Conference of Jews and Christians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Lucinda A.

    2009-01-01

    An impetus of the Religious Education Association (REA) toward becoming an actively intercultural and interreligious agency emerged in the third decade of its existence. This article explores this period through an examination of the involvement of the REA members, Father John Elliot Ross and others (1884-1946) in a series of seminars conducted by…

  11. A Framework for the Evaluation and Reporting of Outcomes after Complex Heart Valve Interventions: Applications to the European Ross Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.I. Charitos (Efstratios)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 is the general introduction of the thesis. Chapter 2 presents a proposal on the nomenclature of the aortic root components. Chapters 3 and 4 present the single center results with the subcoronary Ross procedure in the University of Lübeck. Chapter 5

  12. RESEARCH OF COMPETITION IN DEPOSIT MARKET OF UKRAINE BASED ON THE PANZAR-ROSSE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Didenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem in an adequate assessment of the level of competition in the banking market has prompted researchers to search constantly some new methods. The most famous of them were later successfully adapted to the banking market, are a models of Bresnahan, Panzar-Rosse, Bertrand, Iwat, Monti-Klein-Modesto Barros and others. In Ukraine, the process of assessing the level of competition in the banking sector is very relevant, in line with the recent reforms of particular relevance and distribution. Regarding the domestic deposit market, there is a shortage of qualitative analysis of this issue, unlike foreign practice. Therefore this study we try to solve this problem. The key goal of researchers in this study is in a detailed analysis to identify the important factors which make influence on the allocated markets, in particular on lending and deposit rates. Based on these factors there could be implemented internal adjustment processes taking place in the markets. The purpose of the article is to determine the level of competition in the deposit market of Ukraine in 2006-2015 basing on nonstructural Panzar- Rosse model and identify key factors that affect this level. Methodology. To research the level of competition in the deposit market of Ukraine the Panzar-Rosse model was used, in which separate 11 models were built using the integrated tool “Multiple regression” in the software package of statistics analysis STATISTICA. The input data in the model was presented with the information on financial performance of Ukrainian banks during ten years from 01.01.2005 till 01.01.2015. Results of this research showed that in Ukrainian deposit market there is a monopolistic competition, as proved by the calculated values of H-statistics index. The year of 2008, in the context of the global economic crisis, was marked as an unbalanced period for deposit market of Ukraine. Practical implications. Knowing the current state of competition level in the

  13. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Dynamics Near Ross Island and Over West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong

    The atmospheric boundary layer dynamics near Ross Island and over West Antarctica has been investigated. The study consists of two parts. The first part involved the use of data from ground-based remote sensing equipment (sodar and RASS), radiosondes, pilot balloons, automatic weather stations, and NOAA AVHRR satellite imagery. The second part involved the use of a high resolution boundary layer model coupled with a three-dimensional primitive equation mesoscale model to simulate the observed atmospheric boundary layer winds and temperatures. Turbulence parameters were simulated with an E-epsilon turbulence model driven by observed winds and temperatures. The observational analysis, for the first time, revealed that the airflow passing through the Ross Island area is supplied mainly by enhanced katabatic drainage from Byrd Glacier and secondarily drainage from Mulock and Skelton glaciers. The observed diurnal variation of the blocking effect near Ross Island is dominated by the changes in the upstream katabatic airflow. The synthesized analysis over West Antarctica found that the Siple Coast katabatic wind confluence zone consists of two superimposed katabatic airflows: a relatively warm and more buoyant katabatic flow from West Antarctica overlies a colder and less buoyant katabatic airflow from East Antarctica. The force balance analysis revealed that, inside the West Antarctic katabatic wind zone, the pressure gradient force associated with the blocked airflow against the Transantarctic Mountains dominates; inside the East Antarctic katabatic wind zone, the downslope buoyancy force due to the cold air overlying the sloping terrain is dominant. The analysis also shows that these forces are in geostrophic balance with the Coriolis force. An E-epsilon turbulence closure model is used to simulate the diurnal variation of sodar backscatter. The results show that the model is capable of qualitatively capturing the main features of the observed sodar backscatter. To

  14. WHISPERS Project on the easternmost slope of the Ross Sea (Antarctica): preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, E.; De Santis, L.; Bergamasco, A.; Colleoni, F.; Gales, J. A.; Florindo-Lopez, C.; Kim, S.; Kovacevic, V.; Rebesco, M.

    2017-12-01

    The advance and retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet from the outer continental shelf and the oceanic circulation are the main causes of the depositional processes on the Ross Sea continental slope, at present time and during the most of the Cenozoic. Currently the Antarctic Bottom Water formation is directly linked to the relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water that, encroaching the continental shelf, mixes with the colder Ross Sea Bottom Water. Detailed multibeam and geological surveys useful to locate and characterize peculiar morphological structures on the bottom are essential to study how the glacial and oceanographic processes interact with the seabed sediments. In the framework of the PNRA-WHISPERS project (XXXIIth Italian Antarctic expedition - January/March 2017), new multibeam bathymetric, sub-bottom chirp, were acquired from the easternmost margin of the Ross Sea, on the southeastern side of the Hayes Bank, usually covered by sea ice. We observed on the upper slope erosional features (incised gullies of likely glacial meltwater origin). A broad scar in the upper slope is characterized by an elongated SSW-NNE ridge (10 km long, 850-1200 m water depth, 2 km wide), that may be a remnants of previous glacial or debris flow deposits, eroded by meltwater outwash discharge at the beginning of grounding ice retreat and by RSBW cascading along the slope, as documented by Expandable Bathy-Thermograph and Acoustic Depth Current Profile data. Sub-bottom chirp profiles crossing this ridge show a very low amplitude reflective sea bed, supporting the hypothesis of its soft sediment nature, in good agreement with a very low acoustic velocity obtained by multichannel seismic data reprocessing. The occurrence of internal stratification on 2D multichannel seismic profiles would discount a gas-fluids related mud volcano origin. No sediment cores were collected, due to bad sea conditions and limited ship time, further data collection would be needed to fully understand

  15. Assimilating bio-optical glider data during a phytoplankton bloom in the southern Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Daniel E.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Hemmings, John C. P.; Smith, Walker O., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    The Ross Sea is a region characterized by high primary productivity in comparison to other Antarctic coastal regions, and its productivity is marked by considerable variability both spatially (1-50 km) and temporally (days to weeks). This variability presents a challenge for inferring phytoplankton dynamics from observations that are limited in time or space, which is often the case due to logistical limitations of sampling. To better understand the spatiotemporal variability in Ross Sea phytoplankton dynamics and to determine how restricted sampling may skew dynamical interpretations, high-resolution bio-optical glider measurements were assimilated into a one-dimensional biogeochemical model adapted for the Ross Sea. The assimilation of data from the entire glider track using the micro-genetic and local search algorithms in the Marine Model Optimization Testbed improves the model-data fit by ˜ 50 %, generating rates of integrated primary production of 104 g C m-2 yr-1 and export at 200 m of 27 g C m-2 yr-1. Assimilating glider data from three different latitudinal bands and three different longitudinal bands results in minimal changes to the simulations, improves the model-data fit with respect to unassimilated data by ˜ 35 %, and confirms that analyzing these glider observations as a time series via a one-dimensional model is reasonable on these scales. Whereas assimilating the full glider data set produces well-constrained simulations, assimilating subsampled glider data at a frequency consistent with cruise-based sampling results in a wide range of primary production and export estimates. These estimates depend strongly on the timing of the assimilated observations, due to the presence of high mesoscale variability in this region. Assimilating surface glider data subsampled at a frequency consistent with available satellite-derived data results in 40 % lower carbon export, primarily resulting from optimized rates generating more slowly sinking diatoms. This

  16. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  17. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  18. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  19. The sounds of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  20. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  1. Trends in the breeding population and driving factors of Adélie penguin in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.; Li, X.; Cheng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Ross Sea regions have been characterized by high penguin-chick-rearing habitat suitability in the recent past. Many studies have been done to study the Adélie penguins in the Ross Sea. However, the data they used both had advantages and drawbacks. Besides, little quantitative analysis were carried out to study the impact factors on the penguin population change. In this study, penguin population data from MAPPPD (Mapping application for penguin populations and projected dynamics) and IBA (Important bird areas in Antarctica) were integrated and analyzed to study the distribution and trends in the breeding population of Adélie penguin over time in the Ross Sea. In addition, linear fitting method for spatial data in time series were used to study the driving factors such as 2m-temperature, sea ice cover and chlorophyll-a concentration which can quantify phytoplankton blooms. Results indicated that there were 45 Adélie penguin colonies in the Ross Sea. Cape Adare and Cape Crozier were two biggest colonies on which current Adélie penguin abundance were 428516 and 280787 breeding pairs, respectively. Among these colonies, penguin population on 28 colonies increased, on 5 colonies decreased and on 5 colonies remained no change over time, and there were also 5 new colonies and one colony which were extinct. It was found that Adélie penguin population in most of colonies in the Ross Sea increased, which meant that Adélie penguins in the Ross Sea were "climate change winners". The main reasons for the increase in Adélie penguin population in the Ross Sea might be the rise in 2m-temperature and the increase in sea ice cover and phytoplankton. Higher temperatures have resulted in glacial retreat and snow melting, which leads to an increase in available habitat for penguins. The increased sea ice and phytoplankton might positively affect the abundance of Antarctic krill that was the major prey item for Adélie penguins in Antarctic.

  2. Pulmonary homograft stenosis in the Ross procedure: Incidence, clinical impact and predictors in long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo González, Laura; Ruiz Ortiz, Martin; Delgado, Mónica; Mesa, Dolores; Villalba, Rafael; Rodriguez, Sara; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Alados, Pedro; Casares, Jaime; Suarez de Lezo, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The Ross procedure is used in the treatment of selected patients with aortic valve disease. Pulmonary graft stenosis can appear in the long-term follow-up after the Ross intervention, but the factors involved and its clinical implications are not fully known. To describe the incidence, clinical impact and predictors of homograft stenosis and reintervention after the Ross procedure in a prospective series in a tertiary referral hospital. From 1997 to 2009, 107 patients underwent the Ross procedure (mean age: 30±11 years; 69% men; 21 aged36mmHg) and surgical or percutaneous homograft reintervention. After 15 years of follow-up (median: 11 years), echocardiographic and clinical data were available in 91 (85%) and 104 (98%) patients, respectively: 26/91 (29%) patients developed homograft stenosis; 10/104 (10%) patients underwent 13 homograft reintervention procedures (three patients underwent surgical replacement, three received a percutaneous pulmonary valve and one needed stent implantation). The other three patients underwent two consecutive procedures in follow-up; one died because of a procedure-related myocardial infarction. Rates of survival free from homograft stenosis and reintervention at 1, 5 and 10 years were 96%, 82% and 75% and 99%, 94% and 91%, respectively. Paediatric patients had worse survival free from homograft stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] 3.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-7.90; P=0.002), although there were no significant differences regarding reintervention (HR: 2.01, 95% CI: 0.52-7.78; P=0.31). Younger age of homograft donor was also a stenosis predictor (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99; P=0.046). The probabilities of homograft stenosis and reintervention 10 years after the Ross procedure were 29% and 10%, respectively; only one patient had a reintervention-related death. Younger donor and recipient age were associated with a higher rate of stenosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Dilatation and Dysfunction of the Neo-aortic Root and in 76 Patients After the Ross Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corina A; Weber, Roland; Greutmann, Matthias; Dave, Hitendu; Müller, Christoph; Prêtre, René; Seifert, Burkhardt; Buechel, Emanuela Valsangiacomo; Kretschmar, Oliver; Attenhofer Jost, Christine H

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary autograft replacement (Ross procedure) is used as an alternative to prosthetic aortic valve replacement patients with aortic valve disease. There are limited data on incidence and risk factors for dilatation and dysfunction of the neo-aortic after the Ross procedure. Ross procedure was performed in 100 patients at our institution between 1993 and 2011. In 76 patients, complete follow-up data were available. Their median age at surgery was 16 (0.4-58) years (76 % males; 95 % with congenital aortic valve disease). Median follow-up duration was 5.2 years (0.3-16.0 years). We analyzed their clinical and echocardiographic follow-up to identify possible risk factors for neo-aortic root dilatation and dysfunction. Ross procedure included reduction plasty of the native ascending aorta in 25 % of patients. During follow-up, 21 patients (28 %) developed neo-aortic root dilatation, 38 patients (50 %) dilatation oft the native ascending aorta and 7 patients (9 %) at least moderate neo-aortic regurgitation. Univariate risk factors for neo-aortic root dilatation were preoperative aortic regurgitation (p = 0.04), concomitant reduction plasty of the ascending aorta (p = 0.009) and a longer duration of follow-up (p = 0.005). Younger age at surgery was associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta (p = 0.03). Reoperation on the neo-aortic root because of severe dilatation was necessary in 6 patients (8 %), where 2 patients had at least moderate neo-aortic root regurgitation. Neo-aortic root and aortic dilatation are common after the Ross procedure. This is often combined with neo-aortic valve dysfunction. Close follow-up of these patients is mandatory.

  4. New data on Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii colonies: A genetic analysis of a top predator from the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighor Antunes Zappes

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the genetic variability in Weddell seal from colonies in Terra Nova Bay and Wood Bay, both sites located in the Ross Sea area, Antarctica. Two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene, with different mutation rates, were sequenced to investigate the haplotype diversity of the colonies and to test for a possible recent expansion. Fifteen microsatellites were used to analyze their genetic structure. Sequenced genes and microsatellites were also used to estimate the effective population size of the studied colonies and the Ross Sea seal population. The Ross Sea has a high density population of Weddel seals, with an estimated effective number of 50,000 females, and 1,341 individuals for the sampling area, possibly due to its high primary production. The colonies showed high diversity (Hd > 0.90 and many exclusive haplotypes (> 75%, likely a consequence of the surprisingly high site fidelity of Weddell seals, despite the proximity of the colonies. Nevertheless, there was low microsatellite differentiation between colonies, suggesting that they are part of a single larger population. Their expansion seemed to have started during the last glacial cycle (around 58,000 years ago, indicating that the Ross Sea seal populations have been present in the area for long time, probably due to the lack of hunting by humans and terrestrial predation. As a top predator, the role of Weddell seals in the Ross Sea ecology is crucial, and its demographic dynamics should be monitored to follow the future changes of such an important ecosystem.

  5. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  6. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  7. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  8. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  9. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  10. Epidemiologic patterns of Ross River virus disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001-December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Depositional history of artificial radionuclides in the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, M.; Michel, R.; Goldberg, E.D.; Herron, M.M.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The annual fluxes of artificial radionuclides ( 238 Pu, sup(239 + 240)Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 3 H) from the atmosphere to the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica were determined from measurements in strata dated by 201 Pb. Recognizable sources include the U.S tests (Mike-Ivy and Castle Hill) in the early 1950s, the U.S.S.R. tests of the early 1960s, the SNAP-9A burnup of 1964 and the French and Chinese tests in the late 1960s and 1970s. There are several problems still awaiting resolution: the differences in atmospheric chemistries of fission products and of transuranics produced in weapons tests and the anomalous fluxes of 238 Pu to the ice shelf which do not appear to reflect a one-year stratospheric residence. There is no evidence for a smearing of the fallout record as a consequence of diffusion of these radionuclides in the glacial column. (Auth.)

  12. Heparin binding sites on Ross River virus revealed by electron cryo-microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Heil, Marintha; Kuhn, Richard J.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    Cell surface glycosaminoglycans play important roles in cell adhesion and viral entry. Laboratory strains of two alphaviruses, Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus, have been shown to utilize heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor, whereas Ross River virus (RRV) does not significantly interact with it. However, a single amino acid substitution at residue 218 in the RRV E2 glycoprotein adapts the virus to heparan sulfate binding and expands the host range of the virus into chicken embryo fibroblasts. Structures of the RRV mutant, E2 N218R, and its complex with heparin were determined through the use of electron cryo-microscopy and image reconstruction methods. Heparin was found to bind at the distal end of the RRV spikes, in a region of the E2 glycoprotein that has been previously implicated in cell-receptor recognition and antibody binding

  13. The Dehumanizing American Dream in David Mamet’s Glengarry Glen Ross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sepehrmanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Dream is a recurrent theme in American literature. In this response, this paper is an attempt to expose the destructive effects of the dream on the human spirit. It is also shown, through the analysis of David Mamet’s glengarry Glen Ross, that despite the promise of the dream it contains many contradictions. Beneath the seeming simple surface of the play lies a deep current of meanings that reflect the calamities of modern American life, and in a broader sense, the modern world. This article indicates how capitalism inculcates ideologies in the mind of individuals in order to facilitate the exploiting process and unquestioning subordination. Ragged individualism, for instance, as  the most prominent of these ideologies, disrupts all communal bonds and even exceeds to the disintegration of friendship and family life.

  14. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species.

  15. Measurement of competitiveness degree in Tunisian deposit banks: An application of the Panzar and Rosse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensi Sami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of the Panzar-Rosse statistic as a basis for empirical assessment of competitive conditions among Tunisian deposit banks. The elaborated model has been tested with an interest revenues equation and a total revenues equation. Proceeding by means of an Ordinary Least Square analysis, the H-statistics is respectively estimated at 0.87 and 0.91. The computations undertaken using bank fixed effects and bank random effects General Least Square methods yield similar results. With reference to the reviewed literature, we are inclined to believe that Tunisian banks implement neither a joint monopoly nor a collusive competition context, and that they evolve within an oligopolistic competition context in a contestable market. Thus, it confirms the presence of a competitive environment.

  16. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross monitors Payload Specialist Walter's Anthrorack activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter breathes into Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) device for Pulmonary Perfusion and Ventilation During Rest and Exercise experiment while working inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Seated on the bicycle ergometer, Walter utilizes the respiratory monitoring system, part of a broad battery of experiments designed to investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. In the background, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross monitors Walter's activity. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day SL-D2 mission. Visible on the aft end cone are a fire extinguisher and the Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE) Macintosh portable computer mounted on an adjustable work platform.

  17. Epidemiologic Patterns of Ross River Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; Toloo, Ghasem (Sam); Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001–December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. PMID:24799374

  18. Influence of submarine morphology on bottom water flow across the western Ross Sea continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, F.J.; Jacobs, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Multibeam sonar bathymetry documents a lack of significant channels crossing outer continental shelf and slope of the western Ross Sea. This indicates that movement of bottom water across the shelf break into the deep ocean in this area is mainly by laminar or sheet flow. Subtle, ~20 m deep and up to 1000 m wide channels extend down the continental slope, into tributary drainage patterns on the upper rise, and then major erosional submarine canyons. These down-slope channels may have been formed by episodic pulses of rapid down slope water flow, some recorded on bottom current meters, or by sub-ice melt water erosion from an icesheet grounded at the margin. Narrow, mostly linear furrows on the continental shelf thought to be caused by iceberg scouring are randomly oriented, have widths generally less than 400 m and depths less than 30m, and extend to water depths in excess of 600 m.

  19. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  20. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  1. The Ross Procedure in Patients among the Pediatric Population, Post Ten Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Ivanov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the results of the surgical treatment in pediatric patients who had undergone the Ross procedure.Material and Methods: The study involved 114 patients between 12 days to 18 years in age. The early and late (up to 5 years results of the treatment were studied. The examination included echocardiography, catheterization of the cardiac chambers and angiocardiography. The case distribution of patients based on diagnosis was as follows: isolated aortic valve stenosis (IAVS in 38 (33.3% patients, aortic valve insufficiency (AVI in 33 (28.9%, and combined heart defects in 56 patients (49.1%.Results: The death rate was 6.14% during the early postoperative period and 1.14% in the late postoperative period; the actuarial survival in the long-term was 98.86%. The complication rate was 51.5%. The most frequent complication was pericarditis (25.6%, whereas cardiac and respiratory failure occurred in 7.6% of the cases and cardiac arrhythmias in 6.1% of the cases. The average time spent in the intensive care unit was 3.48 ± 2.90 days; the hospitalization period on average was 24.70±10.87 days. After surgery, there was a tendency of the echocardiographic parameters to move toward normalization. The frequency of reoperation in the late period was 23.7%, the main reason for which being the conduit dysfunction in the position of the pulmonary artery (PA.Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of the Ross procedure in the treatment of aortic valve malformations in the pediatric group was confirmed. However, in some cases, the need to perform repeated operations due to the increase in the ring size and an increase in the neo-aortic insufficiency during the somatic growth process.

  2. Temporal variability of the Circumpolar Deep Water inflow onto the Ross Sea continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagno, Pasquale; Falco, Pierpaolo; Dinniman, Michael S.; Spezie, Giancarlo; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-02-01

    The intrusion of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is the primary source of heat, salt and nutrients onto Antarctica's continental shelves and plays a major role in the shelf physical and biological processes. Different studies have analyzed the processes responsible for the transport of CDW across the Ross Sea shelf break, but until now, there are no continuous observations that investigate the timing of the intrusions. Also, few works have focused on the effect of the tides that control these intrusions. In the Ross Sea, the CDW intrudes onto the shelf in several locations, but mostly along the troughs. We use hydrographic observations and a mooring placed on the outer shelf in the middle of the Drygalski Trough in order to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of CDW inflow onto the shelf. Our data span from 2004 to the beginning of 2014. In the Drygalski Trough, the CDW enters as a 150 m thick layer between 250 and 400 m, and moves upward towards the south. At the mooring location, about 50 km from the shelf break, two main CDW cores can be observed: one on the east side of the trough spreading along the west slope of Mawson Bank from about 200 m to the bottom and the other one in the central-west side from 200 m to about 350 m depth. A signature of this lighter and relatively warm water is detected by the instruments on the mooring at bottom of the Drygalski Trough. High frequency periodic CDW intrusion at the bottom of the trough is related to the diurnal and spring/neap tidal cycles. At lower frequency, a seasonal variability of the CDW intrusion is noticed. A strong inflow of CDW is observed every year at the end of December, while the CDW inflow is at its seasonal minimum during the beginning of the austral fall. In addition an interannual variability is also evident. A change of the CDW intrusion before and after 2010 is observed.

  3. Rapid Holocene thinning of outlet glaciers followed by readvance in the western Ross Embayment, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. S.; Whitmore, R.; Mackintosh, A.; Norton, K. P.; Eaves, S.; Stutz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating Antarctic deglaciation following the LGM provides an opportunity to better understand patterns, mechanisms and drivers of ice sheet retreat. In the Ross Sea sector, geomorphic features preserved on the seafloor indicate that streaming East Antarctic outlet glaciers once extended >100 km offshore of South Victoria Land prior to back-stepping towards their modern configurations. In order to adequately interpret the style and causes of this retreat, the timing and magnitude of corresponding ice thickness change is required. We present new constraints on ice surface lowering from Mawson Glacier, an outlet of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that flows into the western Ross Sea. Surface-exposure (10Be) ages from samples collected in elevation transects above the modern ice surface reveal that rapid thinning occurred at 5-8 ka, broadly coeval with new ages of grounding-line retreat at 6 ka and rapid thinning recorded at nearby Mackay Glacier at 7 ka. Our data also show that a moraine formed near to the modern ice margin of Mawson Glacier at 0.8 ka, which, together with historical observations, indicates that glaciers in this region readvanced during the last thousand years. We argue that 1) the accelerated thinning of outlet glaciers was driven by local grounding-line retreat through overdeepened basins during the early-mid Holocene, and 2) the glaciers subsequently readvanced, possibly linked to late Holocene sea-ice expansion, before retreating to their current positions. Our work demonstrates that these outlet glaciers were closely coupled to environmental and topography-induced perturbations near their termini throughout the Holocene.

  4. Ross Sea Polynyas: Response of Ice Concentration Retrievals to Large Areas of Thin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.; Martin, S.; Drucker, R.

    2007-01-01

    For a 3-month period between May and July of 2005, we examine the response of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Enhanced NASA Team 2 (NT2) and AMSR-E Bootstrap (ABA) ice concentration algorithms to large areas of thin ice of the Ross Sea polynyas. Coincident Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) coverage of the region during this period offers a detailed look at the development of the polynyas within several hundred kilometers of the ice front. The high-resolution imagery and derived ice motion fields show bands of polynya ice, covering up to approximately 105 km(sup 2) of the Ross Sea, that are associated with wind-forced advection. In this study, ice thickness from AMSR-E 36 GHz polarization information serves as the basis for examination of the response. The quality of the thickness of newly formed sea ice (<10 cm) from AMSR-E is first assessed with thickness estimates derived from ice surface temperatures from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The effect of large areas of thin ice in lowering the ice concentration estimates from both NT2/ABA approaches is clearly demonstrated. Results show relatively robust relationships between retrieved ice concentrations and thin ice thickness estimates that differ between the two algorithms. These relationships define the approximate spatial coincidence of ice concentration and thickness isopleths. Using the 83% (ABA) and 91% (NT2) isopleths as polynya boundaries, we show that the computed coverage compares well with that using the estimated 10-cm thickness contour. The thin ice response characterized here suggests that in regions with polynyas, the retrieval results could be used to provide useful geophysical information, namely thickness and coverage.

  5. Argon Kα measurement on DIII endash D by Ross filters technique (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.T.; Bogatu, I.N.; Brooks, N.H.; Wade, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Techniques to reduce the heat flux to the divertor plates in tokamak power plants and the consequent erosion of, and subsequent damage to the divertor target plates include the injection of impurities such as argon, that can dissipate the energy (through radiative or collisional processes) before it reaches the target plates. An important issue with this type of scheme is poisoning of the plasma core by the impurities introduced in the divertor region. Subsequently, there is a desire to measure the profiles of the injected impurities in the core. X-ray Ross filters with an effective narrow band pass centered on the argon Kα line at 3.2 keV, have been installed on two of the existing x-ray arrays on DIII endash D in order to help determine the argon concentration profiles. Emissivity profiles of the Kα lines and the emissivity profiles for the argon enhanced continuum can be inferred from the inverted filtered x-ray brightness signals if T e , n e , and Ar 18+ profiles are known. The MIST code is used to couple the filtered x-ray signals to the time dependent measurements of T e and n e . Further, the Ar 16+ profiles measured by charge transfer spectroscopy, are used as a constraint on the MIST code runs to calculate Ar 18+ profiles and unfold the argon emissivity profiles. A discussion of the Ross filters, the DIII endash D argon data, and the data analysis scheme for inferring argon emissivity profiles will be discussed. Estimates of the total argon concentration in the core determined from this technique in DIII endash D argon puff experiments will be presented. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Evaluación del efecto de microorganismos eficientes en agua de bebida suministrada a pollos Ross X Ross en la granja Tunguavita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suren Angélica García-Vera

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso  de Microorganismos  Eficientes  (ME  en avicultura permite  aumentar  la productividad  y rentabilidad, además de mejorar las condiciones sanitarias de  la producción, convirtiéndolos en una técnica de suplementación sencilla, que permite optimizar  los  recursos para  el mejoramiento de las explotaciones avícolas. Con el fin de evaluar el  efecto de  los ME  sobre  algunos  parámetros productivos, se realizó este trabajo con pollos de engorde de la raza Ross X Ross. Se seleccionaron de  forma  aleatoria  90  aves,  las  cuales  fueron divididas  en  tres  grupos,  con  tres  repeticiones, respectivamente.  Al  tratamiento  uno  se  les administró ME durante  toda  la producción, a razón de 1 mL por cada 2.000 mL de agua (semanas 1, 7, 8 y 1mL por cada 1.000 mL de agua (semanas 2-6. Al  tratamiento  dos  se  les  administró ME durante toda la producción, a razón de 5 mL por cada 2.000 mL de agua (semanas 1, 7, 8 y 5 mL por  cada  1.000 mL  de  agua  (semanas 2-6.  El tratamiento  tres  correspondió  al  tratamiento control. Se realizó pesaje y recolección de heces cada  semana,  durante  las  8  semanas  de  la producción y se comprobó que en los grupos en los  que  se  usó ME  se  produjo  un  aumento significativo de conversión alimenticia y, por  lo tanto, de ganancia de peso en comparación con el  tratamiento control; en cuanto la concentración amoniacal en heces, ésta disminuyó notablemente en los tratamientos 1 ý 2.

  7. Cold adaptive traits revealed by comparative genomic analysis of the eurypsychrophile Rhodococcus sp. JG3 isolated from high elevation McMurdo Dry Valley permafrost, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Zolotarov, Yevgen; de Bethencourt, Luis; Ronholm, Jennifer; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Stromvik, Martina; Greer, Charles W; Bakermans, Corien; Whyte, Lyle

    2016-02-01

    The permafrost soils of the high elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys are the most cold, desiccating and oligotrophic on Earth. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is one of very few bacterial isolates from Antarctic Dry Valley permafrost, and displays subzero growth down to -5°C. To understand how Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is able to survive extreme permafrost conditions and be metabolically active at subzero temperatures, we sequenced its genome and compared it to the genomes of 14 mesophilic rhodococci. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possessed a higher copy number of genes for general stress response, UV protection and protection from cold shock, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. We characterized genome wide molecular adaptations to cold, and identified genes that had amino acid compositions favourable for increased flexibility and functionality at low temperatures. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possesses multiple complimentary strategies which may enable its survival in some of the harshest permafrost on Earth. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Nitrogen and carbon limitation of planktonic primary production and phytoplankton–bacterioplankton coupling in ponds on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Brian K; Safi, Karl; Hawes, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We compared planktonic primary and secondary production across twenty meltwater ponds on the surface of the McMurdo Ice Shelf in January 2007, including some ponds with basal brines created by meromictic stratification. Primary production ranged from 1.07 to 65.72 mgC m −3 h −1 in surface waters. In stratified ponds primary production was always more than ten times higher in basal brines than in the corresponding mixolimnion. Regression tree analysis (r 2 = 0.80) identified inorganic nitrogen (as NH 4 + ) as the main factor limiting planktonic primary production. However, there was also evidence of inorganic carbon co-limitation of photosynthesis in some of the more oligotrophic waters. Neither C nor N limited carbon fixation at [NH 4 –N] > 50 mg m −3 , with photoinhibition the factor most likely limiting photosynthesis under such conditions. Primary production was the only factor significantly correlated to bacterial production and the relationship (r 2 = 0.56) was non-linear. Nitrogen limitation and tight coupling of planktonic primary and bacterial production is surprising in these ponds, as all have large pools of dissolved organic carbon (1.2–260 g m −3 ) and organic nitrogen (all >130 mg m −3 ). The dissolved pools of organic carbon and nitrogen appear to be recalcitrant and bacterial production to be constrained by limited release of labile organics from phytoplankton. (letter)

  9. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  10. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  11. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  12. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  13. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  14. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  15. Duality of Ross Ice Shelf systems: crustal boundary, ice sheet processes and ocean circulation from ROSETTA-Ice surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Das, I.; Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Siegfried, M. R.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Bathymetry beneath Antarctic ice shelves controls sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation and has a major influence on the stability and dynamics of the ice sheets. Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, the sea-floor bathymetry is a product of both tectonics and glacial processes, and is influenced by the processes it controls. New aerogeophysical surveys have revealed a fundamental crustal boundary bisecting the Ross Ice Shelf and imparting a duality to the Ross Ice Shelf systems, encompassing bathymetry, ocean circulation and ice flow history. The ROSETTA-Ice surveys were designed to increase the resolution of Ross Ice Shelf mapping from the 55 km RIGGS survey of the 1970s to a 10 km survey grid, flown over three years from New York Air National Guard LC130s. Radar, LiDAR, gravity and magnetic instruments provide a top to bottom profile of the ice shelf and the underlying seafloor, with 20 km resolution achieved in the first two survey seasons (2015 and 2016). ALAMO ocean-profiling floats deployed in the 2016 season are measuring the temperature and salinity of water entering and exiting the sub-ice water cavity. A significant east-west contrast in the character of the magnetic and gravity fields reveals that the lithospheric boundary between East and West Antarctica exists not at the base of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), as previously thought, but 300 km further east. The newly-identified boundary spatially coincides with the southward extension of the Central High, a rib of shallow basement identified in the Ross Sea. The East Antarctic side is characterized by lower amplitude magnetic anomalies and denser TAM-type lithosphere compared to the West Antarctic side. The crustal structure imparts a fundamental duality on the overlying ice and ocean, with deeper bathymetry and thinner ice on the East Antarctic side creating a larger sub-ice cavity for ocean circulation. The West Antarctic side has a shallower seabed, more restricted ocean access and a more complex history of

  16. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  17. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1996 to 20 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1996 to 20 November...

  18. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1994 to 21 November 1994 (NODC Accession 0000873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1994 to 21 November...

  19. "All this that has happened to me shouldn't happen to nobody else": Loretta Ross and the Women of Color Reproductive Freedom Movement of the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Loretta Ross exemplifies women of color feminist participation in and transformation of the women's health movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Ross helped build a women's health movement that by the late 1980s made the demands of women of color central. This movement was attractive to many women of color who had rejected the collapse of a broader women's health movement into the abortion rights movement as too narrowly focused. Many women of color activists, including Ross, argued that the emphasis on abortion rights and choice failed to address the linked socioeconomic and community health issues confronted by many women of color and poor women. Ross's work spurred coalition building among white women and women of color that focused on expanding reproductive justice and women's health beyond legal abortion. By the 1990s these efforts had produced a vibrant and engaged feminist reproductive justice movement that promoted the socioeconomics of good health for all women.

  20. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  1. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  2. Survival comparison of the Ross procedure and mechanical valve replacement with optimal self-management anticoagulation therapy: propensity-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhles, M Mostafa; Körtke, Heinrich; Stierle, Ulrich; Wagner, Otto; Charitos, Efstratios I; Bogers, Ad J J C; Gummert, Jan; Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Takkenberg, Johanna J M

    2011-01-04

    It is suggested that in young adults the Ross procedure results in better late patient survival compared with mechanical prosthesis implantation. We performed a propensity score-matched study that assessed late survival in young adult patients after a Ross procedure versus that after mechanical aortic valve replacement with optimal self-management anticoagulation therapy. We selected 918 Ross patients and 406 mechanical valve patients 18 to 60 years of age without dissection, aneurysm, or mitral valve replacement who survived an elective procedure (1994 to 2008). With the use of propensity score matching, late survival was compared between the 2 groups. Two hundred fifty-three patients with a mechanical valve (mean follow-up, 6.3 years) could be propensity matched to a Ross patient (mean follow-up, 5.1 years). Mean age of the matched cohort was 47.3 years in the Ross procedure group and 48.0 years in the mechanical valve group (P=0.17); the ratio of male to female patients was 3.2 in the Ross procedure group and 2.7 in the mechanical valve group (P=0.46). Linearized all-cause mortality rate was 0.53% per patient-year in the Ross procedure group compared with 0.30% per patient-year in the mechanical valve group (matched hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 5.91; P=0.32). Late survival was comparable to that of the general German population. In comparable patients, there is no late survival difference in the first postoperative decade between the Ross procedure and mechanical aortic valve implantation with optimal anticoagulation self-management. Survival in these selected young adult patients closely resembles that of the general population, possibly as a result of highly specialized anticoagulation self-management, better timing of surgery, and improved patient selection in recent years.

  3. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  4. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  5. A NEW ANALYSIS OF THE TWO CLASSICAL ZZ CETI WHITE DWARFS GD 165 AND ROSS 548. I. PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first of a two-part seismic analysis of the two bright hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and Ross 548. In this first part, we report the results of frequency extraction exercises based on time-series data sets of exceptional quality. We uncovered up to 13 independent pulsation modes in GD 165, regrouped into six main frequency multiplets. These include 9 secure (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N > 4) detections and 4 possible ones (4 ≥ S/N ≥ 3). Likewise, we isolated 11 independent modes in Ross 548 (9 secure and 2 possible detections), also regrouped into 6 multiplets. The multiplet structure is likely caused by rotational splitting. We also provide updated estimates of the time-averaged atmospheric properties of these two pulsators in the light of recent developments on the front of atmospheric modeling for DA white dwarfs

  6. Colonial Fantasies, Narrative Borders, and the Canadian North in the Works of Germany's Colin Ross(1885-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Pissowotzki

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the Canadian North is a discursive construction, within which German colonial fantasies emerge. In particular, I argue that it is through bordering that colonial fantasies of German Lebensraum ("living space" in the Canadian North are brought into being. I further argue that the German biologist and geographer Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904, with his view of the "organic state," provides the ideological framework for colonial fantasies in the travel writings of Colin Ross. I focus on the writer's colonial imagination and his perception of borders, and on how both relate to the Canadian North. I show that seemingly bare geographical information and demographical data, provided in Ross' travelogues, carry colonial fantasies of German spaces in the Canadian North. Those spaces are bordered by "shared histories" and "narrative boundaries," thus constructing a collective German colonial identity (cf. Eder 2006, 255-257.

  7. Infrared speckle observations of the binary Ross 614 AB - combined shift-and-add and zero-and-add analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, B.L.K.; Bates, R.H.T.; Cocke, W.J.; Mccarthy, D.W. Jr.; Christou, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    One-dimensional infrared speckle scans of Ross 614 AB were recorded at a wavelength of 2.2 microns, and the three bins corresponding to the three best seeing conditions were further processed by applying a shift-and-add algorithm to the set of images contained within each bin, generating three shift-and-add images with differing shift-and-add point-spread functions. A zero-and-add technique was used to deconvolve the three shift-and-add images in order to obtain parameters corresponding to the separation and the brightness ratio of a two-component model of Ross 614 Ab. Least-squares analysis results reveal a separation of 1.04 arcsec and a brightness ratio of 4.3 for the binary system at this wavelength. 31 refs

  8. Mapping Ross Ice Shelf with ROSETTA-Ice airborne laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M. K.; Fricker, H. A.; Padman, L.; Bell, R. E.; Siegfried, M. R.; Dieck, C. C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Ross Ocean and ice Shelf Environment and Tectonic setting Through Aerogeophysical surveys and modeling (ROSETTA-Ice) project combines airborne glaciological, geological, and oceanographic observations to enhance our understanding of the history and dynamics of the large ( 500,000 square km) Ross Ice Shelf (RIS). Here, we focus on the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data collected in 2015 and 2016. This data set represents a significant advance in resolution: Whereas the last attempt to systematically map RIS (the surface-based RIGGS program in the 1970s) was at 55 km grid spacing, the ROSETTA-Ice grid has 10-20 km line spacing and much higher along-track resolution. We discuss two different strategies for processing the raw LiDAR data: one that requires proprietary software (Riegl's RiPROCESS package), and one that employs open-source programs and libraries. With the processed elevation data, we are able to resolve fine-scale ice-shelf features such as the "rampart-moat" ice-front morphology, which has previously been observed on and modeled for icebergs. This feature is also visible in the ROSETTA-Ice shallow-ice radar data; comparing the laser data with radargrams provides insight into the processes leading to their formation. Near-surface firn state and total firn air content can also be investigated through combined analysis of laser altimetry and radar data. By performing similar analyses with data from the radar altimeter aboard CryoSat-2, we demonstrate the utility of the ROSETTA-Ice LiDAR data set in satellite validation efforts. The incorporation of the LiDAR data from the third and final field season (December 2017) will allow us to construct a DEM and an ice thickness map of RIS for the austral summers of 2015-2017. These products will be used to validate and extend observations of height changes from satellite radar and laser altimetry, as well as to update regional models of ocean circulation and ice dynamics.

  9. Is the Ross procedure a riskier operation? Perioperative outcome comparison with mechanical aortic valve replacement in a propensity-matched cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhout, Ismail; Noly, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ghoneim, Aly; Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Cartier, Raymond; Poirier, Nancy; Bouchard, Denis; Demers, Philippe; El-Hamamsy, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes in young adults following isolated Ross procedure versus mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in a high-volume centre. From 2007 to 2015, 337 elective isolated mechanical AVRs and 137 Ross procedures were performed in young adults (Ross cohort versus six (9%) in the mechanical AVR cohort (P = 0.49). A significant increase in serum creatinine (>2-fold increase) was more commonly observed after the Ross procedure (11 vs 1%; P = 0.03), but there was no significant difference in the rate of temporary dialysis. Twenty-seven patients (39%) required ≥1 blood product transfusion in the Ross group, whereas 21 patients (31%) did so in the mechanical AVR group (P = 0.47). Median hospital length of stay was similar in both the groups (6 days). There are no differences in mortality or major perioperative outcomes in adults undergoing an isolated Ross procedure or mechanical AVR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Publishing at "the request of friends": Alexander Ross and James Beattie’s Authorial Networks in Eighteenth-Century Aberdeen

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Knezevich

    2016-01-01

    Authorship in eighteenth-century Aberdeen often functioned differently than in London and Edinburgh. The Aberdeen model of authorship relied heavily on an intricate network of booksellers, patrons, readers, and critics involved in preparing a text to be consumed by the reading public; yet the prevailing narrative of the author as rising to “inspired genius” disallows for this network. The authorial career of poet Alexander Ross and his friend/mentorship with philosopher James Beattie offers a...

  11. A NEW ANALYSIS OF THE TWO CLASSICAL ZZ CETI WHITE DWARFS GD 165 AND ROSS 548. II. SEISMIC MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the second of a two-part seismic analysis of the bright, hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and Ross 548. In this second part, we report the results of detailed searches in parameter space for identifying an optimal model for each star that can account well for the observed periods, while being consistent with the spectroscopic constraints derived in our first paper. We find optimal models for each target that reproduce the six observed periods well within ∼0.3% on the average. We also find that there is a sensitivity on the core composition for Ross 548, while there is practically none for GD 165. Our optimal model of Ross 548, with its thin envelope, indeed shows weight functions for some confined modes that extend relatively deep into the interior, thus explaining the sensitivity of the period spectrum on the core composition in that star. In contrast, our optimal seismic model of its spectroscopic sibling, GD 165 with its thick envelope, does not trap/confine modes very efficiently, and we find weight functions for all six observed modes that do not extend into the deep core, hence accounting for the lack of sensitivity in that case. Furthermore, we exploit after the fact the observed multiplet structure that we ascribe to rotation. We are able to map the rotation profile in GD 165 (Ross 548) over the outermost ∼20% (∼5%) of its radius, and we find that the profile is consistent with solid-body rotation

  12. Breaking Ice 2: A rift system on the Ross Ice Shelf as an analog for tidal tectonics on icy moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, K. M.; Hurford, T., Jr.; Schmerr, N. C.; Sauber, J. M.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Ice shelves are the floating regions of the polar ice sheets. Outside of the influence of the narrow region of their grounding zone, they are fully hydrostatic and strongly influenced by the ocean tides. Recent observational and modeling studies have assessed the effect of tides on ice shelves, including: the tidal influence on the ice-shelf surface height, which changes by as much as 6 to 7 m on the southern extreme of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf; the tidal modulation of the ice-shelf horizontal flow velocities, which changes the mean ice-flow rate by as much as two fold on the Ross Ice Shelf; and the tidal contribution to fracture and rift propagation, which eventually leads to iceberg calving. Here, we present the analysis of 16 days of continuous GPS data from a rift system near the front of the Ross Ice Shelf. While the GPS sites were installed for a different scientific investigation, and not optimized to assess tidal rifting mechanics, they provide a first-order sense of the tidal evolution of the rift system. These analyses can be used as a terrestrial analog for tidal activity on icy satellites, such as Europa and Enceladus, moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Using remote sensing and modeling of the Ross Ice Shelf rift system, we can investigate the geological processes observed on icy satellites and advance modeling efforts of their tidal-tectonic evolution.

  13. Iron Fertilization of the Southern Ocean: Regional Simulation and Analysis of C-Sequestration in the Ross Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Arrigo

    2012-03-13

    A modified version of the dynamic 3-dimensional mesoscale Coupled Ice, Atmosphere, and Ocean model (CIAO) of the Ross Sea ecosystem has been used to simulate the impact of environmental perturbations upon primary production and biogenic CO2 uptake. The Ross Sea supports two taxonomically, and spatially distinct phytoplankton populations; the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica and diatoms. Nutrient utilization ratios predict that P. antarctica and diatoms will be driven to nitrate and phosphate limitation, respectively. Model and field data have confirmed that the Ross Sea is iron limited with only two-thirds of the macronutrients consumed by the phytoplankton by the end of the growing season. In this study, the CIAO model was improved to simulate a third macronutrient (phosphate), dissolved organic carbon, air-sea gas exchange, and the carbonate system. This enabled us to effectively model pCO2 and subsequently oceanic CO2 uptake via gas exchange, allowing investigations into the affect of alleviating iron limitation on both pCO2 and nutrient drawdown.

  14. Pre- and syn-Ross orogenic granitoids at Drake Head and Kartografov Island, Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Roland, N.W.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of the Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land granitoids, typified by those at Drake Head and Kartografov Island (Harald Bay), are monzogranites with lesser granodiorites and minor quartz-monzodiorite and syenogranite. All are plagioclase-K-feldspar-biotite granitoids with additional muscovite, garnet and/or hornblende, and are subalkaline and peraluminous. Berg Granite typifies the early Ordovician, Granite Harbour Instrusive (GHI) suite of the Ross Orogen at the Oates Coast. Granitoids from Kartografov Island have higher amounts of Fe+Mg+Ti and an ambiguous Rb-Sr geochronology: they could be either pre-Ross Orogeny in age, or syn-Ross Orogeny and representing a lower structural level of GHI. The Drake Head granite gneiss has a fractionated leuco-granite composition similar to Berg Granite, and is intruded by granite and granodiorite. Rb-Sr ages indicate that all are Neoproterozoic, although the granite gneiss result is probably an errorchron age, reflecting its less uniform nature (granodiorite:649 ± 30 Ma, initial ratio 0.7065 +/- 6; granite gneiss: 682 ± 140 Ma, initial ratio 0.7107 ± 50). These late Neoproterozoic granitoids provide a source for distinctive detrital zircon age components in extensive early Paleozoic turbidites of Australia-New Zealand-Antarctica. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  16. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  17. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  18. The nepheloid bottom layer and water masses at the shelf break of the western Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Marco; Budillon, Giorgio; Cutroneo, Laura; Tucci, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In the austral summers of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 the Italian CLIMA Project carried out two oceanographic cruises along the northwestern margin of the Ross Sea, where the Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Here there is an interaction between the water masses on the sea floor of the outer shelf and slope with a consequent evolution of benthic nepheloid layers and an increase in total particulate matter. We observed three different situations: (a) the presence of triads (bottom structures characterized by a concomitant jump in turbidity, temperature, and salinity data) and high re-suspension phenomena related to the presence of the Circumpolar Deep Water and its mixing with cold, salty shelf waters associated with gravity currents; (b) the absence of triads with high re-suspension, implying that when the gravity currents are no longer active the benthic nepheloid layer may persist until the suspended particles settle to the sea floor, suggesting that the turbidity data can be used to study recent gravity current events; and (c) the absence of turbidity and sediment re-suspension phenomena supports the theory that a steady situation had been re-established and the current interaction no longer occurred or had finished sometime before.

  19. Freshwater mineral nitrogen and essential elements in autotrophs in James Ross Island, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coufalík Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lakes and watercourses are habitats for various communities of cyanobacteria and algae, which are among the few primary producers in Antarctica. The amount of nutrients in the mineral-poor Antarctic environment is a limiting factor for the growth of freshwater autotrophs in most cases. In this study, the main aim was to assess the availability of mineral nitrogen for microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats in James Ross Island. The nitrate and ammonium ions in water environment were determined as well as the contents of major elements (C, N, P, S, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn in cyanobacterial mats. The molar ratios of C:N, C:P and N:P in mats were in focus. The growth of freshwater autotrophs seems not to be limited by the level of nitrogen, according to the content of available mineral nitrogen in water and the biogeochemical stoichiometry of C:N:P. The source of nutrients in the Ulu Peninsula is not obvious. The nitrogen fixation could enhance the nitrogen content in mats, which was observed in some samples containing the Nostoc sp.

  20. Modelling study of mesoscale cyclogenesis over Ross Sea, Antarctica, on February 18, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stortini, M.; Morelli, S.; Marchesi, S. [Modena e Reggio Emilia Univ., Modena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Ingegneria, Sez. Osservatorio Geofisico

    2000-04-01

    This paper examines the development of a summer event of mesoscale cyclogenesis off the coast of Victoria Land in the presence of katabatic winds, by means of numerical simulations. These refer to the period from 00 UTC 17 February to 00 UTC 19 February 1988 and were performed using the hydrostatic ETA (1993 version) limited area model with resolution 55 km x 55 km x 17 levels. The ETA model reproduces katabatic winds from Terra Nova Bay and a trough on the southwestern Ross Sea. A cyclonic vortex is simulated in the trough, even though it is weaker than the one present in the analysis initialized by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (Reading, United Kingdom). Idealized simulations with varied surface conditions were also performed. In particular, an ice-covered ocean acts to weaken the atmospheric phenomena, while a no-mountain simulation emphasizes the influence of the orography and the cold winds from the coast of Victoria Land on the mesocyclonic activity.

  1. Climate variation and incidence of Ross river virus in Cairns, Australia: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S; Hu, W

    2001-01-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of climate variability on the Ross River virus (RRv) transmission and validated an epidemic-forecasting model in Cairns, Australia. Data on the RRv cases recorded between 1985 and 1996 were obtained from the Queensland Department of Health. Climate and population data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The cross-correlation function (CCF) showed that maximum temperature in the current month and rainfall and relative humidity at a lag of 2 months were positively and significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRv, whereas relative humidity at a lag of 5 months was inversely associated with the RRv transmission. We developed autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models on the data collected between 1985 to 1994, and then validated the models using the data collected between 1995 and 1996. The results show that the relative humidity at a lag of 5 months (p < 0.001) and the rainfall at a lag of 2 months (p < 0.05) appeared to play significant roles in the transmission of RRv disease in Cairns. Furthermore, the regressive forecast curves were consistent with the pattern of actual values. PMID:11748035

  2. The paradox of a long grounding during West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat in Ross Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Philip J; Krogmeier, Benjamin J; Bart, Manon P; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    2017-04-28

    Marine geological data show that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) advanced to the eastern Ross Sea shelf edge during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and eventually retreated ~1000 km to the current grounding-line position on the inner shelf. During the early deglacial, the WAIS deposited a voluminous stack of overlapping grounding zone wedges (GZWs) on the outer shelf of the Whales Deep Basin. The large sediment volume of the GZW cluster suggests that the grounding-line position of the paleo-Bindschadler Ice Stream was relatively stationary for a significant time interval. We used an upper bound estimate of paleo-sediment flux to investigate the lower bound duration over which the ice stream would have deposited sediment to account for the GZW volume. Our calculations show that the cluster represents more than three millennia of ice-stream sedimentation. This long duration grounding was probably facilitated by rapid GZW growth. The subsequent punctuated large-distance (~200 km) grounding-line retreat may have been a highly non-linear ice sheet response to relatively continuous external forcing such as gradual climate warming or sea-level rise. These findings indicate that reliable predictions of future WAIS retreat may require incorporation of realistic calculations of sediment erosion, transport and deposition.

  3. Special design issues related to the G. Ross Lord Dam constructed in Metropolitan Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, V.A. [Jacques Whitford and Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tawil, A.H. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Haley, D.R. [Toronto Region and Conservation Authority, Downsview, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the special considerations required to build a flood control dam in a metropolitan area that holds major city infrastructures such as power transmission towers, pipelines, sanitary sewers and graveyards. The paper refers to the G. Ross Lord Dam, a 20 m high earth fill flood control dam which was constructed in 1973 on the West Branch of the Don River in Toronto. It was built following recommendations after Hurricane Hazel caused widespread flooding and the death of 81 people in 1954. The dam includes a concrete chute spillway and stilling basin. The geotechnical design of the dam was described along with the dam structures and the methods used to flood proof the infrastructure. The dam has a sloping impervious core and an upstream blanket to reduce seepage. Seepage control is provided by a drainage blanket and a chimney drain. A main overflow spillway was constructed on the south abutment, and a low level outlet was constructed at the base of the dam to accommodate normal river flows through the dam. Most of the water level control during a flood event is provided by the main overflow spillway. Spillway slab anchor keys prevent down slope creep of the slabs. The dam, the spillway and the reservoir structure have performed well since construction. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  4. The Effect of Chinese Propolis Supplementation on Ross Broiler Performance and Carcass Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama T. Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Ether Extract of Propolis (EEP on Ross (308 broiler performance and carcass characteristics. This experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (different levels of propolis including 0, 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet for 6 weeks. The mean weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. In addition At 42 days old the total body weight, total body weight gain, carcass and some internal organs relative weights were recorded. The results clarified that, the weight gain was significantly reduced in the 4th and 6th week (P0.05 reduced for propolis fed birds in comparison to those fed control diet, Furthermore, inclusion of 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet Propolis significantly reduced body weight at 42 days old and total body weight gain in comparison to control diet (P < 0.05. Under the condition of this experiment, prolonged use of propolis had adverse effect on performance of broilers. Also, all doses of propolis had non-significant negative effect on liver, heart, gizzard and carcass relative weight. In conclusion, EEP has no beneficial effect on performance and Carcass characteristics of Broilers.

  5. Active and Passive Microwave Determination of the Circulation and Characteristics of Weddell and Ross Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.; Liu, Xiang

    2000-01-01

    A combination of satellite microwave data sets are used in conjunction with ECMWF (Medium Range Weather Forecasts) and NCEP (National Center for Environment Prediction) meteorological analysis fields to investigate seasonal variability in the circulation and sea-ice dynamics of the Weddell and Ross Seas. Results of sea-ice tracking using SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager), Scatterometer and SAR images are combined with in-situ data derived from Argos buoys and GPS drifters to validate observed drift patterns. Seasonal 3-month climatologies of ice motion and drift speed variance illustrate the response of the sea-ice system to seasonal forcing. A melt-detection algorithm is used to track the onset of seasonal melt, and to determine the extent and duration of atmospherically-led surface melting during austral summer. Results show that wind-driven drift regulates the seasonal distribution and characteristics of sea-ice and the intensity of the cyclonic Gyre circulation in these two regions.

  6. Characteristics and geneses of rossing type uranium mineralization in Chenjiazhuang granite, Danfeng, Shanxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhan; Du Letian.

    1988-01-01

    According to the study of field geology and Rb-Sr isotopic system (initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7130, isochron age = 378Ma), oxygen isotope (δ 18 O = 12.772/1000), rare earth elements (ΣREE = 370ppm, δEu = 0.14-0.67) and the structure state of K-feldspar (t 1 = 0.93-0.98, t 10 = 0.90-0.97) of Chenjiazhuang granite, it is recognized that Chenjiazhuang granite is a continental crust-transformation type granite, mainly derived from terrigenous clastic sediment rather than intermediate-basic volcanic rocks in Qinling group. Uranium mineralization occurs as disseminated within the granite. Uraninite is the only ore mineral. U-Pb isotopic system of uraninite gives a mineralization age of 407 Ma ±, this is similar to the whole-rock isochron age of Rb-Sr. These, combined with the observation of thin sections and the study of other aspects, come to the conclusion that this uranium mineralization is a syngenetic one, that is ,Rossing type U-mineralization The study of genesis and mineralization of Chenjiazhuang granite is of significance not only to the exploration of uranium in this area, but also to the regional geology of Qinling area

  7. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis of Socio-Ecologic Drivers of Ross River Virus Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of socio-ecologic factors on the transmission of Ross River virus (RRV) infection and to identify areas prone to social and ecologic-driven epidemics in Queensland, Australia. We used a Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive model to quantify the relationship between monthly variation of RRV incidence and socio-ecologic factors and to determine spatiotemporal patterns. Our results show that the average increase in monthly RRV incidence was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.1–4.5%) and 2.0% (95% CrI: 1.6–2.3%) for a 1°C increase in monthly average maximum temperature and a 10 mm increase in monthly average rainfall, respectively. A significant spatiotemporal variation and interactive effect between temperature and rainfall on RRV incidence were found. No association between Socio-economic Index for Areas (SEIFA) and RRV was observed. The transmission of RRV in Queensland, Australia appeared to be primarily driven by ecologic variables rather than social factors. PMID:20810846

  8. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  9. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  10. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  11. Mobile sound: media art in hybrid spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The thesis explores the relationships between sound and mobility through an examination\\ud of sound art. The research engages with the intersection of sound, mobility and\\ud art through original empirical work and theoretically through a critical engagement with\\ud sound studies. In dialogue with the work of De Certeau, Lefebvre, Huhtamo and Habermas\\ud in terms of the poetics of walking, rhythms, media archeology and questions of\\ud publicness, I understand sound art as an experimental mobil...

  12. Observing the seasonal cycle of the upper ocean in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, with autonomous profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The upper layers of the Southern Ocean where it meets the Antarctic ice sheet undergoes a large seasonal cycle controlled by surface radiation and by freshwater fluxes, both of which are strongly influenced by sea ice. In regions where seasonal sea ice and icebergs limit use of ice-tethered profilers and conventional moorings, autonomous profiling floats can sample the upper ocean. The deployment of seven Apex floats (by sea) and six ALAMO floats (by air) provides unique upper ocean hydrographic data in the Ross Sea close to the Ross Ice Shelf front. A novel choice of mission parameters - setting parking depth deeper than the seabed - limits their drift, allowing us to deploy the floats close to the ice shelf front, while sea ice avoidance algorithms allow the floats to to sample through winter under sea ice. Hydrographic profiles show the detailed development of the seasonal mixed layer close to the Ross front, and interannual variability of the seasonal mixed layer and deeper water masses on the central Ross Sea continental shelf. After the sea ice breakup in spring, a warm and fresh surface mixed layer develops, further warming and deepening throughout the summer. The mixed layer deepens, with maximum temperatures exceeding 0ºC in mid-February. By March, the surface energy budget becomes negative and sea ice begins to form, creating a cold, saline and dense surface layer. Once these processes overcome the stable summer stratification, convection erodes the surface mixed layer, mixing some heat downwards to deeper layers. There is considerable interannual variability in the evolution and strength of the surface mixed layer: summers with shorter ice-free periods result in a cooler and shallower surface mixed layer, which accumulates less heat than the summers with longer ice-free periods. Early ice breakup occurred in all floats in 2016/17 summer, enhancing the absorbed solar flux leading to a warmer surface mixed layer. Together, these unique measurements from

  13. Mid-term Outcome of 100 Consecutive Ross Procedures: Excellent Survival, But Yet to Be a Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corina; Attenhofer Jost, Christine; Prêtre, René; Mueller, Christoph; Greutmann, Matthias; Seifert, Burkhardt; Valsangiacomo Büchel, Emanuela; Kretschmar, Oliver; Dave, Hitendu Hasmukhlal; Weber, Roland

    2018-03-01

    The Ross procedure offers excellent short-term outcome but the long-term durability is under debate. Reinterventions and follow-up of 100 consecutive patients undergoing Ross Procedure at our centre (1993-2011) were analysed. Follow-up was available for 96 patients (97%) with a median duration of 5.3 (0.1-17.1) years. Median age of the patient cohort was 15.2 (0.04-58.4) years with 76 males. 93% had underlying congenital aortic stenosis. Root replacement technique was applied in all. The most common valved conduits used for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract were homografts (66 patients) and bovine jugular vein (Contegra R ) graft (31 patients). Additional procedures included Ross-Konno procedure (14%), resection of subaortic stenosis/myectomy (11%) and reduction plasty of the ascending aorta (25%). One patient died within the first 30 days (1%). Late deaths occurred in 4 patients (4%) 0.5-4.5 years postoperatively: causes included pulmonary hypertension due to endocardial fibroelastosis (2), subarachnoid haemorrhage (1) and sudden cardiac death (1). Five-year survival was 93.6 (95% CI 88.1-99.1)%. Moderate or severe aortic (autograft) regurgitation needing reoperation occurred in 8 patients with a 5-year freedom from autograft reoperation of 98.5 (95.6-100)%. Five-year freedom from reintervention (surgery or catheter based) on the right ventricular outflow tract conduit was 91.5 (85.5-96.5)%. Univariate predictors of this reinterventions were smaller graft size (p = 0.03) and use of a Contegra R graft (p = 0.04). Ross procedure can be performed with low mortality and good survival in the long term. Most of the reinterventions are related to the neo-right ventricular outflow tract and may be partly attributed to the lack of growth. While the Ross Procedure remains an invaluable option for aortic valve disease in children, new solutions for the neo-pulmonary valve as well as for the less often occurring problems on the autograft are

  14. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  15. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  16. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  17. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  18. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  19. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  20. Early and mid-term results of autograft rescue by Ross reversal: A one-valve disease need not become a two-valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed T; Majdalany, David S; Dunn, Aaron; Stewart, Robert D; Najm, Hani K; Svensson, Lars G; Houghtaling, Penny L; Blackstone, Eugene H; Pettersson, Gösta B

    2018-02-01

    Risk of reoperation and loss of a second native valve are major drawbacks of the Ross operation. Rather than discarding the failed autograft, it can be placed back into the native pulmonary position by "Ross reversal." We review our early and mid-term results with this operation. From 2006 to 2017, 39 patients underwent reoperation for autograft dysfunction. The autograft was successfully rescued in 35 patients: by Ross reversal in 30, David procedure in 4, and autograft repair in 1. Medical records were reviewed for patient characteristics (mean age was 46 ± 13 years, range 18-67 years, and 23 were male), previous operations, indications for reoperation, hospital outcomes, and echocardiographic findings for the 30 patients undergoing successful Ross reversal. Follow-up was 4.1 ± 3.5 years (range 7 months-11 years). Median interval between the original Ross procedure and Ross reversal was 12 years (range 5-19 years). Eight patients also had absolute indications for replacement of the pulmonary allograft. There was no operative mortality. One patient required reoperation for bleeding. Another had an abdominal aorta injury from use of an endoballoon clamp. There was no other major postoperative morbidity, and median postoperative hospital stay was 7.2 days (range 4-41 days). No patient required reoperation during follow-up. Twenty-four patients had acceptable pulmonary valve function, and 6 had clinically well-tolerated moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation. Ross reversal can be performed with low morbidity and acceptable pulmonary valve function, reducing patient risk of losing 2 native valves when the autograft fails in the aortic position. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  2. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  3. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  4. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  5. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  7. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dBA and their left ear was exposed 4.6 dB more than the right ear. Percussionists were exposed to high sound peaks >115 dBC but less continuous sound exposure was observed in this group. Musicians were exposed up to LAeq8h of 92 dB and a majority of musicians were exposed to sound levels exceeding......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  8. Radio Echo Sounding (RES investigations at Talos Dome (East Antarctica: bedrock topography and ice thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Tabacco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio echo sounding measurements were collected during two Antarctic expeditions to determine the ice thickness and the sub-glacial morphology of Talos Dome in the region around 72°48'S; 159°06'E (about 6400 km2 on the edge of the East Antarctic plateau adjacent to Victoria Land in the western Ross Sea sector. The increasing interest in this region is due to the fact that in this area the ice accumulation is higher than in other sites in East Antarctica. Because of this, Talos Dome could be a new site for a project of a deep ice core drilling to obtain information on climate changes near the coast of Antarctica. In this frame, the knowledge of the bedrock topography is of great importance to choose the best location for the drilling site. In this paper, airborne radio echo sounding results from two Antarctic expeditions (1997 and 1999 are presented. Bedrock topography in bi- and three-dimensions for the Talos Dome region are discussed.

  9. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  10. [Dr. Elizabeth Ross: heroine and victim of the World War I in Serbia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikić, Želimir; Lešić, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of 1915, several months after the World War I started, Serbia was in an extremely difficult situation.The country was war-ravaged, full of sick and wounded soldiers, there was a desperate shortage of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel, and the epidemic of typhus fever exploded and violently attacked the entire country. At that time, however, a number of both foreign allied medical missions and individual volunteers, from various countries, mostly from Great Britain, came to Serbia to help. Among them mostly were women, and they were of enormous support to Serbia in that grave situation. It is estimated that there were more than 600 foreign women volunteers in Serbia at that time and that 22 of them died there. Dr. Elizabeth Ross was one of those brave volunteers who came to Serbia early in 1915. That noble Scottish lady doctor was born in 1878 and finished her medical studies at the University of Glasgow in 1901. After graduation she worked in various places in Great Britain until 1909, when she went to Persia (Iran), where she worked until the beginning of the so called Great War. When she heard of the urgent need in Serbia she left Persia as soon as she could and volunteered to serve in Serbia. She came to Kragujevac at the beginning of January 1915, where she worked at the First Military Reserve Hospital, which at that time was actually a typhus hospital. Working there intensively and devotedly for several weeks under shocking conditions she contracted typhus herself and died there on her 37th birthday on February 14th, 1915. She was buried in Kragujevac, next to two British ladies who also died in Serbia of typhus. Her grave was restored in 1980 when the town of Kragujevac started holding commemorations at the graveside every February 14th at noon to honor her and all other brave and noble women who lost their lives helping Serbia at that unfortunate time.

  11. Cenozoic Tectonic Characteristics in the Adare Basin, West Ross Sea: Evidence From Seismic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Gao, J.; Ding, W.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the geophysical data obtained from the Adare Basin and its adjacent areas, West Ross Sea, the authors employed the frequency wave-number filtering technique to recover the newly processed dataset with high signal noise ratio and complete seismic event which highly contributes to reveal more detailed deep-seated geological structures than previously thought. The structural features and magmatism of the study area in Cenozoic were classified and analyzed. Combined with glaciation, the associated sedimentary facies were summarized systematically. The authors' analysis revealed that, at 16 Ma, under the influence of the thermal effect caused by residual magmatism and asymmetric spreading of Adare Basin in the initial period, surrounding areas of two flanks of the Adare trough were characterized by uplift folds and tilted uplift zone, respectively. The small-scale uplift fold zone was characterized by nearly upright faults and folds and was located in the southern part of the eastern flank, whereas the tilted uplift zone dominated in the corresponding district of western flank that reached the continental margin. By utilizing the contact relationship between igneous rocks and surrounding rocks, igneous rocks can be divided into two periods: early-stage and late Cenozoic igneous rocks. The early-stage rocks are generally located dispersedly in the tilted uplift zone and the age is poorly known. It is suggested that they were related to the residual magmatism. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of Late Cenozoic igneous rocks, formed not earlier 5.5 Ma, was extensive and scattered, almost covering the whole study area, which indicates that they might be unrelated to the rifting in space and time, instead they were affected by decompression melting of the mantle because of the large-scale deglaciation since Pliocene.

  12. Extended Late-Cretaceous Magnetostratigraphy of the James Ross Basin Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, T. M.; Mitchell, R.; Slotznick, S. P.; Buz, J.; Biasi, J.; O'Rourke, J.; Sousa, F.; Flannery, D.; Fu, R. R.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Sediments in the James Ross Island Basin (JRB) in the West Antarctic Peninsula contain one of the world's highest-resolution records of the late Cretaceous period, including the end-Cretaceous (K-Pg) mass extinction event. However, the geological record of this region has been poorly studied, limited in the past only to the relative dating of local fossils. Recent studies of this region have provided only low-resolution data, with gaps of greater than 0.5 million years between samples where no data was collected. A high-resolution magnetostratigraphic sampling and analysis is necessary in order to accurately determine the age of the JRB sediments and connect them to the global time record. During the 2016 field season in Antarctica, our team collected nearly 1,300 sample cores from JRB sediments using a diamond-tipped, gasoline powered coring drill. Drill sites were densely clustered across bedding in order to obtain a high-resolution record of magnetostratigraphy, permitting the recognition of distinct, high-resolution units of time (group of over 300 of these samples from the Brandy Bay area which constrain the end of the Cretaceous Superchron (C34N) and the C34N/C34R reversal and allow us to investigate the presence of geomagnetic excursions before the end of superchron. These samples span in age from the top of C34N to the mid-Maastrichtian. We also test the Late Cretaceous True Polar Wander (TPW) hypothesis. Current theories on the global extent of TPW are not substantiated by any data sets that confirm the presence and similarity of the effect across multiple continents. Evidence of a rapid TPW oscillation in Antarctica can be correlated with other samples from the North American continent currently under study to provide evidence for the theory of global, short-timescale TPW.

  13. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  14. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  15. Sound Stories for General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2013-01-01

    Language and music literacy share a similar process of understanding that progresses from sensory experience to symbolic representation. The author identifies Bruner’s modes of understanding as they relate to using narrative in the music classroom to enhance music reading at iconic and symbolic levels. Two sound stories are included for…

  16. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  17. Intercepting a sound without vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Visual information is extremely important to generate internal spatial representations. In the auditory modality, the absence of visual cues during early infancy does not preclude the development of some spatial strategies. However, specific spatial abilities might result impaired. In the current study, we investigated the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability to localize static and moving auditory stimuli by comparing sighted and early blind individuals’ performance in different spatial tasks. We also examined perceptual stability in the two groups of participants by matching localization accuracy in a static and a dynamic head condition that involved rotational head movements. Sighted participants accurately localized static and moving sounds. Their localization ability remained unchanged after rotational movements of the head. Conversely, blind participants showed a leftward bias during the localization of static sounds and a little bias for moving sounds. Moreover, head movements induced a significant bias in the direction of head motion during the localization of moving sounds. These results suggest that internal spatial representations might be body-centered in blind individuals and that in sighted people the availability of visual cues during early infancy may affect sensory-motor interactions. PMID:28481939

  18. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  19. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  20. Characterizing Microbial Mat Morphology with Structure from Motion Techniques in Ice-Covered Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, T. J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Allen, B.; Hawes, I.; Lawrence, J.; Jungblut, A. D.; Krusor, M.; Coleman, L.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Structure from Motion (SFM) techniques can provide quantitative morphological documentation of otherwise inaccessible benthic ecosystems such as microbial mats in Lake Joyce, a perennially ice-covered lake of the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). Microbial mats are a key ecosystem of MDV lakes, and diverse mat morphologies like pinnacles emerge from interactions among microbial behavior, mineralization, and environmental conditions. Environmental gradients can be isolated to test mat growth models, but assessment of mat morphology along these gradients is complicated by their inaccessibility: the Lake Joyce ice cover is 4-5 m thick, water depths containing diverse pinnacle morphologies are 9-14 m, and relevant mat features are cm-scale. In order to map mat pinnacle morphology in different sedimentary settings, we deployed drop cameras (SeaViewer and GoPro) through 29 GPS referenced drill holes clustered into six stations along a transect spanning 880 m. Once under the ice cover, a boom containing a second GoPro camera was unfurled and rotated to collect oblique images of the benthic mats within dm of the mat-water interface. This setup allowed imaging from all sides over a ~1.5 m diameter area of the lake bottom. Underwater lens parameters were determined for each camera in Agisoft Lens; images were reconstructed and oriented in space with the SFM software Agisoft Photoscan, using the drop camera axis of rotation as up. The reconstructions were compared to downward facing images to assess accuracy, and similar images of an object with known geometry provided a test for expected error in reconstructions. Downward facing images identify decreasing pinnacle abundance in higher sedimentation settings, and quantitative measurements of 3D reconstructions in KeckCAVES LidarViewer supplement these mat morphological facies with measurements of pinnacle height and orientation. Reconstructions also help isolate confounding variables for mat facies trends with measurements